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Sample records for surface emg recordings

  1. The reliability of surface EMG recorded from the pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Cindy C; McLean, Linda

    2009-08-30

    The neuromuscular function of the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) is frequently evaluated using surface electrodes embedded on vaginal probes. The purpose of this study was to determine the between-trial and between-day reliability of EMG data recorded from the PFM using two different vaginal probes while subjects performed PFM maximum voluntary contractions and a coughing task. The Femiscan and the Periform vaginal probes were used to acquire EMG data while the subjects performed the tasks. Peak RMS amplitudes were computed for each instrument, task, and side of the pelvic floor using a sliding window technique. The between-trial reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CV). Between-trial reliability was determined using ICCs, Pearson's correlation coefficients, computing the mean absolute difference between days, and calculating the standard error the measurement (SEM) for each instrument and task. EMG amplitude differences were detected between the left and right PFM (pperformed separately for each side. Overall, between-trial reliability was fair to high for the Femiscan (ICC((3,1))=0.58-0.98, CV=8.5-20.7%) and good to high for the Periform (ICC((3,1))=0.80-0.98, CV=9.6-19.5%), however between-day reliability was generally poor for both vaginal probes (ICC((3,1))=0.08-0.84). The results suggest that although it is acceptable to use PFM surface EMG as a biofeedback tool for training purposes, it is not recommended for use to make between-subject comparisons or to use as an outcome measure between-days when evaluating PFM function.

  2. Surface EMG electrodes do not accurately record from lumbar multifidus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Ian A F; Henry, Sharon M; Single, Richard M

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether electromyographic signals recorded from the skin surface overlying the multifidus muscles could be used to quantify their activity. Comparison of electromyography signals recorded from electrodes on the back surface and from wire electrodes within four different slips of multifidus muscles of three human subjects performing isometric tasks that loaded the trunk from three different directions. It has been suggested that suitably placed surface electrodes can be used to record activity in the deep multifidus muscles. We tested whether there was a stronger correlation and more consistent regression relationship between signals from electrodes overlying multifidus and longissimus muscles respectively than between signals from within multifidus and from the skin surface electrodes over multifidus. The findings provided consistent evidence that the surface electrodes placed over multifidus muscles were more sensitive to the adjacent longissimus muscles than to the underlying multifidus muscles. The R(2) for surface versus intra-muscular comparisons was 0.64, while the average R(2) for surface-multifidus versus surface-longissimus comparisons was 0.80. Also, the magnitude of the regression coefficients was less variable between different tasks for the longissimus versus surface multifidus comparisons. Accurate measurement of multifidus muscle activity requires intra-muscular electrodes. Electromyography is the accepted technique to document the level of muscular activation, but its specificity to particular muscles depends on correct electrode placement. For multifidus, intra-muscular electrodes are required.

  3. [Detection of surface EMG signal using active electrode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Peng, Chenglin; Wu, Baoming; Wang, He

    2003-09-01

    Research of surface electromyogram(EMG) signal is important in rehabilitation medicine, sport medicine and clinical diagnosis, accurate detection of signal is the base of quantitative analysis of surface EMG signal. In this article were discussed how to reduce possible noise in the detection of surface EMG. Considerations on the design of electrode unit were presented. Instrumentation amplifier AD620 was employed to design a bipolar active electrode for use in surface EMG detection. The experiments showed that active electrode could be used to improve signal/noise ratio, reduce noise and detect surface EMG signal effectively.

  4. FastICA peel-off for ECG interference removal from surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maoqi; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Xiang; Zhu, Mingxing; Li, Guanglin; Zhou, Ping

    2016-06-13

    Multi-channel recording of surface electromyographyic (EMG) signals is very likely to be contaminated by electrocardiographic (ECG) interference, specifically when the surface electrode is placed on muscles close to the heart. A novel fast independent component analysis (FastICA) based peel-off method is presented to remove ECG interference contaminating multi-channel surface EMG signals. Although demonstrating spatial variability in waveform shape, the ECG interference in different channels shares the same firing instants. Utilizing the firing information estimated from FastICA, ECG interference can be separated from surface EMG by a "peel off" processing. The performance of the method was quantified with synthetic signals by combining a series of experimentally recorded "clean" surface EMG and "pure" ECG interference. It was demonstrated that the new method can remove ECG interference efficiently with little distortion to surface EMG amplitude and frequency. The proposed method was also validated using experimental surface EMG signals contaminated by ECG interference. The proposed FastICA peel-off method can be used as a new and practical solution to eliminating ECG interference from multichannel EMG recordings.

  5. Long-term surface EMG monitoring using K-means clustering and compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we present an advanced K-means clustering algorithm based on Compressed Sensing theory (CS) in combination with the K-Singular Value Decomposition (K-SVD) method for Clustering of long-term recording of surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The long-term monitoring of sEMG signals aims at recording of the electrical activity produced by muscles which are very useful procedure for treatment and diagnostic purposes as well as for detection of various pathologies. The proposed algorithm is examined for three scenarios of sEMG signals including healthy person (sEMG-Healthy), a patient with myopathy (sEMG-Myopathy), and a patient with neuropathy (sEMG-Neuropathr), respectively. The proposed algorithm can easily scan large sEMG datasets of long-term sEMG recording. We test the proposed algorithm with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Correlation Coefficient (LCC) dimensionality reduction methods. Then, the output of the proposed algorithm is fed to K-Nearest Neighbours (K-NN) and Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifiers in order to calclute the clustering performance. The proposed algorithm achieves a classification accuracy of 99.22%. This ability allows reducing 17% of Average Classification Error (ACE), 9% of Training Error (TE), and 18% of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The proposed algorithm also reduces 14% clustering energy consumption compared to the existing K-Means clustering algorithm.

  6. Associations between motor unit action potential parameters and surface EMG features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Negro, Francesco; Felici, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2017-10-01

    The surface interference EMG signal provides some information on the neural drive to muscles. However, the association between neural drive to muscle and muscle activation has long been debated with controversial indications due to the unavailability of motor unit population data. In this study, we clarify the potential and limitations of interference EMG analysis to infer motor unit recruitment strategies with an experimental investigation of several concurrently active motor units and of the associated features of the surface EMG. For this purpose, we recorded high-density surface EMG signals during linearly increasing force contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, up to 70% of maximal force. The recruitment threshold (RT), conduction velocity (MUCV), median frequency (MDF MU ), and amplitude (RMS MU ) of action potentials of 587 motor units from 13 individuals were assessed and associated with features of the interference EMG. MUCV was positively associated with RT ( R 2 = 0.64 ± 0.14), whereas MDF MU and RMS MU showed a weaker relation with RT ( R 2 = 0.11 ± 0.11 and 0.39 ± 0.24, respectively). Moreover, the changes in average conduction velocity estimated from the interference EMG predicted well the changes in MUCV ( R 2 = 0.71), with a strong association to ankle dorsiflexion force ( R 2 = 0.81 ± 0.12). Conversely, both the average EMG MDF and RMS were poorly associated with motor unit recruitment. These results clarify the limitations of EMG spectral and amplitude analysis in inferring the neural strategies of muscle control and indicate that, conversely, the average conduction velocity could provide relevant information on these strategies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The surface EMG provides information on the neural drive to muscles. However, the associations between EMG features and neural drive have been long debated due to unavailability of motor unit population data. Here, by using novel highly accurate decomposition of the EMG, we related motor unit

  7. Reliability of surface EMG measurements from the suprahyoid muscle complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2017-01-01

    of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...... reliable for ≈50% of participants. Although using sEMG to assess swallowing musculature function is easier to perform clinically and more comfortable to patients than invasive measures, as the measurement of muscle activity using TMS is unreliable, the use of sEMG for this muscle group is not recommended...

  8. Intermuscular Coherence Between Surface EMG Signals Is Higher for Monopolar Compared to Bipolar Electrode Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mohr

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vasti muscles have to work in concert to control knee joint motion during movements like walking, running, or squatting. Coherence analysis between surface electromyography (EMG signals is a common technique to study muscle synchronization during such movements and gain insight into strategies of the central nervous system to optimize neuromuscular performance. However, different assessment methods related to EMG data acquisition, e.g., different electrode configurations or amplifier technologies, have produced inconsistent observations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of different EMG acquisition techniques (monopolar vs. bipolar electrode configuration, potential vs. current amplifier on the magnitude, reliability, and sensitivity of intermuscular coherence between two vasti muscles during stable and unstable squatting exercises.Methods: Surface EMG signals from vastus lateralis (VL and medialis (VM were obtained from eighteen adults while performing series of stable und unstable bipedal squats. The EMG signals were acquired using three different recording techniques: (1 Bipolar with a potential amplifier, (2 monopolar with a potential amplifier, and (3 monopolar electrodes with a current amplifier. VL-VM coherence between the respective raw EMG signals was determined during two trials of stable squatting and one trial of unstable squatting to compare the coherence magnitude, reliability, and sensitivity between EMG recording techniques.Results: VL-VM coherence was about twice as high for monopolar recordings compared to bipolar recordings for all squatting exercises while coherence was similar between monopolar potential and current recordings. Reliability measures were comparable between recording systems while the sensitivity to an increase in intermuscular coherence during unstable vs. stable squatting was lowest for the monopolar potential system.Discussion and Conclusion: The choice of

  9. A method for discrimination of noise and EMG signal regions recorded during rhythmic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Rex; Wall, Christine E

    2016-12-08

    Analyses of muscular activity during rhythmic behaviors provide critical data for biomechanical studies. Electrical potentials measured from muscles using electromyography (EMG) require discrimination of noise regions as the first step in analysis. An experienced analyst can accurately identify the onset and offset of EMG but this process takes hours to analyze a short (10-15s) record of rhythmic EMG bursts. Existing computational techniques reduce this time but have limitations. These include a universal threshold for delimiting noise regions (i.e., a single signal value for identifying the EMG signal onset and offset), pre-processing using wide time intervals that dampen sensitivity for EMG signal characteristics, poor performance when a low frequency component (e.g., DC offset) is present, and high computational complexity leading to lack of time efficiency. We present a new statistical method and MATLAB script (EMG-Extractor) that includes an adaptive algorithm to discriminate noise regions from EMG that avoids these limitations and allows for multi-channel datasets to be processed. We evaluate the EMG-Extractor with EMG data on mammalian jaw-adductor muscles during mastication, a rhythmic behavior typified by low amplitude onsets/offsets and complex signal pattern. The EMG-Extractor consistently and accurately distinguishes noise from EMG in a manner similar to that of an experienced analyst. It outputs the raw EMG signal region in a form ready for further analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of hypnosis on masseter EMG recorded during the 'resting' and a slightly open jaw posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enaizan, N; Davey, K J; Lyons, M F; Cadden, S W

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to determine whether minimal levels of electromyographic activity in the masseter muscle are altered when individuals are in a verified hypnotic state. Experiments were performed on 17 volunteer subjects (8 male, 9 female) all of whom gave informed consent. The subjects were dentate and had no symptoms of pain or masticatory dysfunction. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were made from the masseter muscles and quantified by integration following full-wave rectification and averaging. The EMGs were obtained (i) with the mandible in 'resting' posture; (ii) with the mandible voluntarily lowered (but with the lips closed); (iii) during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC). The first two recordings were made before, during and after the subjects were in a hypnotic state. Susceptibility to hypnosis was assessed with Spiegel's eye-roll test, and the existence of the hypnotic state was verified by changes in ventilatory pattern. On average, EMG levels expressed as percentages of MVC were less: (i) when the jaw was deliberately lowered as opposed to being in the postural position: (ii) during hypnosis compared with during the pre- and post-hypnotic periods. However, analysis of variance followed by post hoc tests with multiple comparison corrections (Bonferroni) revealed that only the differences between the level during hypnosis and those before and after hypnosis were statistically significant (P hypnosis, it appears that part of that EMG is of biological origin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Preferred sensor sites for surface EMG signal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, Farah; Roy, Serge H; De Luca, Carlo J

    2012-01-01

    Technologies for decomposing the electromyographic (EMG) signal into its constituent motor unit action potential trains have become more practical by the advent of a non-invasive methodology using surface EMG (sEMG) sensors placed on the skin above the muscle of interest (De Luca et al 2006 J. Neurophysiol. 96 1646–57 and Nawab et al 2010 Clin. Neurophysiol. 121 1602–15). This advancement has widespread appeal among researchers and clinicians because of the ease of use, reduced risk of infection, and the greater number of motor unit action potential trains obtained compared to needle sensor techniques. In this study we investigated the influence of the sensor site on the number of identified motor unit action potential trains in six lower limb muscles and one upper limb muscle with the intent of locating preferred sensor sites that provided the greatest number of decomposed motor unit action potential trains, or motor unit yield. Sensor sites rendered varying motor unit yields throughout the surface of a muscle. The preferred sites were located between the center and the tendinous areas of the muscle. The motor unit yield was positively correlated with the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected sEMG. The signal-to-noise ratio was inversely related to the thickness of the tissue between the sensor and the muscle fibers. A signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was found to be the minimum required to obtain a reliable motor unit yield. (paper)

  12. Subspace based adaptive denoising of surface EMG from neurological injury patients

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    Liu, Jie; Ying, Dongwen; Zev Rymer, William; Zhou, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Objective: After neurological injuries such as spinal cord injury, voluntary surface electromyogram (EMG) signals recorded from affected muscles are often corrupted by interferences, such as spurious involuntary spikes and background noises produced by physiological and extrinsic/accidental origins, imposing difficulties for signal processing. Conventional methods did not well address the problem caused by interferences. It is difficult to mitigate such interferences using conventional methods. The aim of this study was to develop a subspace-based denoising method to suppress involuntary background spikes contaminating voluntary surface EMG recordings. Approach: The Karhunen-Loeve transform was utilized to decompose a noisy signal into a signal subspace and a noise subspace. An optimal estimate of EMG signal is derived from the signal subspace and the noise power. Specifically, this estimator is capable of making a tradeoff between interference reduction and signal distortion. Since the estimator partially relies on the estimate of noise power, an adaptive method was presented to sequentially track the variation of interference power. The proposed method was evaluated using both semi-synthetic and real surface EMG signals. Main results: The experiments confirmed that the proposed method can effectively suppress interferences while keep the distortion of voluntary EMG signal in a low level. The proposed method can greatly facilitate further signal processing, such as onset detection of voluntary muscle activity. Significance: The proposed method can provide a powerful tool for suppressing background spikes and noise contaminating voluntary surface EMG signals of paretic muscles after neurological injuries, which is of great importance for their multi-purpose applications.

  13. Surface EMG in advanced hand prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Claudio; van der Smagt, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    One of the major problems when dealing with highly dexterous, active hand prostheses is their control by the patient wearing them. With the advances in mechatronics, building prosthetic hands with multiple active degrees of freedom is realisable, but actively controlling the position and especially the exerted force of each finger cannot yet be done naturally. This paper deals with advanced robotic hand control via surface electromyography. Building upon recent results, we show that machine learning, together with a simple downsampling algorithm, can be effectively used to control on-line, in real time, finger position as well as finger force of a highly dexterous robotic hand. The system determines the type of grasp a human subject is willing to use, and the required amount of force involved, with a high degree of accuracy. This represents a remarkable improvement with respect to the state-of-the-art of feed-forward control of dexterous mechanical hands, and opens up a scenario in which amputees will be able to control hand prostheses in a much finer way than it has so far been possible.

  14. A model for generating Surface EMG signal of m. Tibialis Anterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Kumar, Dinesh; Arjunan, Sridhar P

    2014-01-01

    A model that simulates surface electromyogram (sEMG) signal of m. Tibialis Anterior has been developed and tested. This has a firing rate equation that is based on experimental findings. It also has a recruitment threshold that is based on observed statistical distribution. Importantly, it has considered both, slow and fast type which has been distinguished based on their conduction velocity. This model has assumed that the deeper unipennate half of the muscle does not contribute significantly to the potential induced on the surface of the muscle and has approximated the muscle to have parallel structure. The model was validated by comparing the simulated and the experimental sEMG signal recordings. Experiments were conducted on eight subjects who performed isometric dorsiflexion at 10, 20, 30, 50, 75, and 100% maximal voluntary contraction. Normalized root mean square and median frequency of the experimental and simulated EMG signal were computed and the slopes of the linearity with the force were statistically analyzed. The gradients were found to be similar (p>0.05) for both experimental and simulated sEMG signal, validating the proposed model.

  15. Linear correlation between fractal dimension of surface EMG signal from Rectus Femoris and height of vertical jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancillao, Andrea; Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Albertini, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Fractal dimension was demonstrated to be able to characterize the complexity of biological signals. The EMG time series are well known to have a complex behavior and some other studies already tried to characterize these signals by their fractal dimension. This paper is aimed at studying the correlation between the fractal dimension of surface EMG signal recorded over Rectus Femoris muscles during a vertical jump and the height reached in that jump. Healthy subjects performed vertical jumps at different heights. Surface EMG from Rectus Femoris was recorded and the height of each jump was measured by an optoelectronic motion capture system. Fractal dimension of sEMG was computed and the correlation between fractal dimension and eight of the jump was studied. Linear regression analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient between the fractal dimension and the height of the jump for all the subjects. The results of this study show that the fractal dimension is able to characterize the EMG signal and it can be related to the performance of the jump. Fractal dimension is therefore an useful tool for EMG interpretation

  16. A Variance Distribution Model of Surface EMG Signals Based on Inverse Gamma Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hideaki; Furui, Akira; Kurita, Yuichi; Tsuji, Toshio

    2017-11-01

    Objective: This paper describes the formulation of a surface electromyogram (EMG) model capable of representing the variance distribution of EMG signals. Methods: In the model, EMG signals are handled based on a Gaussian white noise process with a mean of zero for each variance value. EMG signal variance is taken as a random variable that follows inverse gamma distribution, allowing the representation of noise superimposed onto this variance. Variance distribution estimation based on marginal likelihood maximization is also outlined in this paper. The procedure can be approximated using rectified and smoothed EMG signals, thereby allowing the determination of distribution parameters in real time at low computational cost. Results: A simulation experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of distribution estimation using artificially generated EMG signals, with results demonstrating that the proposed model's accuracy is higher than that of maximum-likelihood-based estimation. Analysis of variance distribution using real EMG data also suggested a relationship between variance distribution and signal-dependent noise. Conclusion: The study reported here was conducted to examine the performance of a proposed surface EMG model capable of representing variance distribution and a related distribution parameter estimation method. Experiments using artificial and real EMG data demonstrated the validity of the model. Significance: Variance distribution estimated using the proposed model exhibits potential in the estimation of muscle force. Objective: This paper describes the formulation of a surface electromyogram (EMG) model capable of representing the variance distribution of EMG signals. Methods: In the model, EMG signals are handled based on a Gaussian white noise process with a mean of zero for each variance value. EMG signal variance is taken as a random variable that follows inverse gamma distribution, allowing the representation of noise superimposed onto this

  17. Assessment of Diaphragm and External Intercostals Fatigue from Surface EMG using Cervical Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ju Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed: (1 to test the reliability of surface electromyography (sEMG recording of the diaphragm and external intercostals contractions response to cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS, (2 to examine the amount and the types of inspiratory muscle fatigue that developed after maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV maneuvers.Ten male college students without physical disability (22.1±2.0 years old participated in the study and each completed a control (quiet breathing trial and a fatigue (MVV maneuvers trial sequentially. In the quiet breathing trial, the subjects maintained quiet breathing for five minutes. The subjects performed five maximal static inspiratory efforts and received five CMS before and after the quiet breathing. In the MVV trial, subjects performed five maximal inspiratory efforts and received five CMS before, immediately after, and ten minutes after two sets of MVV maneuvers performed five minutes apart. Maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, sEMG of diaphragm and external intercostals during maximal static inspiratory efforts and during CMS were recorded. In the quiet breathing trial, high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC=0.95-0.99 were observed in all the variables. In the MVV trial, the PImax, the EMG amplitude and the median power frequency during maximal static inspiratory efforts significantly decreased in both the diaphragm and the external intercostals immediately after the MVV maneuvers Sensors 2008, 8 2175 (P 0.05. It is concluded that the sEMG recordings of the diaphragm during maximal static inspiratory efforts and in response to CMS allow reproducible sequential assessment of diaphragm contractility. MVV maneuvers resulted in inspiratory muscles fatigue, possibly central fatigue.

  18. Surface EMG characteristics of people with multiple sclerosis during static contractions of the knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sasha M; Hughes, Adrienne R; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hunter, Angus M

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether any alterations existed in surface electromyography (sEMG) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) during isometric contractions of the knee extensors. Fifteen people with MS and 14 matched controls (mean ± SD age and body mass index 53·7 ± 10·5 versus 54·6 ± 9·6 years and 27·7 ± 6·1 versus 26·5 ± 4, respectively) completed 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors. sEMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis where muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) and sEMG amplitude (RMS) were assessed. Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and physical activity with the use of accelerometry. People with MS showed significantly (P<0·05) faster MFCV during MVC (6·6 ± 2·7 versus 4·7 ± 1·4 m s(-1) ) and all submaximal contractions, while RMS was significantly (P<0·05) less (0·11 ± 0·03 versus 0·24 ± 0·06 mV) in comparison with the controls. MVC along with specific thigh lean mass to torque, rate of force development and mean physical activity were significantly (P<0·01) less in PwMS. People with MS have elevated MFCV alongside reduced RMS during isometric contraction. This elevation in MFCV should be accounted for when interpreting sEMG from people with MS. © 2010 University of Stirling. Clinical physiology and Functional Imaging © 2010 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  19. A Wireless sEMG Recording System and Its Application to Muscle Fatigue Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kang-Ming; Liu, Shin-Hong; Wu, Xuan-Han

    2012-01-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is an important measurement for monitoring exercise and fitness. Because if its high sampling frequency requirement, wireless transmission of sEMG data is a challenge. In this article a wireless sEMG measurement system with a sampling frequency of 2 KHz is developed based upon a MSP 430 microcontroller and Bluetooth transmission. Standard isotonic and isometric muscle contraction are clearly represented in the receiving user interface. Muscle fatigue detection is an important application of sEMG. Traditional muscle fatigue is detected from the median frequency of the sEMG power spectrum. The regression slope of the linear regression of median frequency is an important muscle fatigue index. A more negative slope value represents a higher muscle fatigue condition. To test the system performance, muscle fatigue detection was examined by having subjects run on a pedaled-multifunctional elliptical trainer for approximately 30 minutes at three loading levels. Ten subjects underwent a total of 60 exercise sessions to provide the experimental data. Results showed that the regression slope gradually decreases as expected, and there is a significant gender difference. PMID:22368481

  20. A Wireless sEMG Recording System and Its Application to Muscle Fatigue Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Han Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography (sEMG is an important measurement for monitoring exercise and fitness. Because if its high sampling frequency requirement, wireless transmission of sEMG data is a challenge. In this article a wireless sEMG measurement system with a sampling frequency of 2 KHz is developed based upon a MSP 430 microcontroller and Bluetooth transmission. Standard isotonic and isometric muscle contraction are clearly represented in the receiving user interface. Muscle fatigue detection is an important application of sEMG. Traditional muscle fatigue is detected from the median frequency of the sEMG power spectrum. The regression slope of the linear regression of median frequency is an important muscle fatigue index. A more negative slope value represents a higher muscle fatigue condition. To test the system performance, muscle fatigue detection was examined by having subjects run on a pedaled-multifunctional elliptical trainer for approximately 30 minutes at three loading levels. Ten subjects underwent a total of 60 exercise sessions to provide the experimental data. Results showed that the regression slope gradually decreases as expected, and there is a significant gender difference.

  1. Reliability of MUAP properties in multi-channel array EMG recordings of trapezius and SCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Preece, S.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2007-01-01

    Muscle activity can be assessed non-invasively by means of surface electrodes places at the skin overlyin a muscle. When multiy-channel array electrodes are used, it is possible to extract motor unit action potentials (MUAP's) from the EMG signals with a segmentation approach based on the Continuous

  2. Simultaneous Force Regression and Movement Classification of Fingers via Surface EMG within a Unified Bayesian Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Tara; Jacobs, William R; Anderson, Sean R; Worden, Keith; Rowson, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    This contribution presents a novel methodology for myolectric-based control using surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals recorded during finger movements. A multivariate Bayesian mixture of experts (MoE) model is introduced which provides a powerful method for modeling force regression at the fingertips, while also performing finger movement classification as a by-product of the modeling algorithm. Bayesian inference of the model allows uncertainties to be naturally incorporated into the model structure. This method is tested using data from the publicly released NinaPro database which consists of sEMG recordings for 6 degree-of-freedom force activations for 40 intact subjects. The results demonstrate that the MoE model achieves similar performance compared to the benchmark set by the authors of NinaPro for finger force regression. Additionally, inherent to the Bayesian framework is the inclusion of uncertainty in the model parameters, naturally providing confidence bounds on the force regression predictions. Furthermore, the integrated clustering step allows a detailed investigation into classification of the finger movements, without incurring any extra computational effort. Subsequently, a systematic approach to assessing the importance of the number of electrodes needed for accurate control is performed via sensitivity analysis techniques. A slight degradation in regression performance is observed for a reduced number of electrodes, while classification performance is unaffected.

  3. Patterns of motor recruitment can be determined using surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, James M

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies have reported how different populations of motor units (MUs) can be recruited during dynamic and locomotor tasks. It was hypothesised that the higher-threshold units would contribute higher-frequency components to the sEMG spectra due to their faster conduction velocities, and thus recruitment patterns that increase the proportion of high-threshold units active would lead to higher-frequency elements in the sEMG spectra. This idea was tested by using a model of varying recruitment coupled to a three-layer volume conductor model to generate a series of sEMG signals. The recruitment varied from (A) orderly recruitment where the lowest-threshold MUs were initially activated and higher-threshold MUs were sequentially recruited as the contraction progressed, (B) a recurrent inhibition model that started with orderly recruitment, but as the higher-threshold units were activated they inhibited the lower-threshold MUs (C) nine models with intermediate properties that were graded between these two extremes. The sEMG was processed using wavelet analysis and the spectral properties quantified by their mean frequency, and an angle theta that was determined from the principal components of the spectra. Recruitment strategies that resulted in a greater proportion of faster MUs being active had a significantly lower theta and higher mean frequency.

  4. Surface EMG decomposition based on K-means clustering and convolution kernel compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yong; Zhu, Xiangjun; Zhu, Shanan; Zhang, Yingchun

    2015-03-01

    A new approach has been developed by combining the K-mean clustering (KMC) method and a modified convolution kernel compensation (CKC) method for multichannel surface electromyogram (EMG) decomposition. The KMC method was first utilized to cluster vectors of observations at different time instants and then estimate the initial innervation pulse train (IPT). The CKC method, modified with a novel multistep iterative process, was conducted to update the estimated IPT. The performance of the proposed K-means clustering-Modified CKC (KmCKC) approach was evaluated by reconstructing IPTs from both simulated and experimental surface EMG signals. The KmCKC approach successfully reconstructed all 10 IPTs from the simulated surface EMG signals with true positive rates (TPR) of over 90% with a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -10 dB. More than 10 motor units were also successfully extracted from the 64-channel experimental surface EMG signals of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles when a contraction force was held at 8 N by using the KmCKC approach. A "two-source" test was further conducted with 64-channel surface EMG signals. The high percentage of common MUs and common pulses (over 92% at all force levels) between the IPTs reconstructed from the two independent groups of surface EMG signals demonstrates the reliability and capability of the proposed KmCKC approach in multichannel surface EMG decomposition. Results from both simulated and experimental data are consistent and confirm that the proposed KmCKC approach can successfully reconstruct IPTs with high accuracy at different levels of contraction.

  5. Innervation zone of the vastus medialis muscle: position and effect on surface EMG variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallina, A; Merletti, R; Gazzoni, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the position of the innervation zone (IZ) of the vastus medialis (VM) and its effect on the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and mean frequency estimates. Eighteen healthy subjects performed maximal isometric knee extensions at three knee angles. Surface EMG signals were collected by using a 16 × 8 electrode grid placed on the VM muscle. The position of the IZ was estimated through visual analysis, and traditional bipolar signals were obtained from channels over and away from it; amplitude and mean frequency values were extracted and compared using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. The IZ is shaped as a line running from the proximal–lateral to the distal–medial aspect of the VM muscle. The presence of an IZ under the electrodes lowered the EMG amplitude (P < 0.001, F = 58.11) and increased the EMG mean frequency (P < 0.001, F = 26.47); variations of these parameters due to the knee flexion angle were less frequently observed in EMG signals collected over than away from the IZ. Electrodes placed ‘over the belly of the VM muscle’ are likely to collect EMG signals influenced by the presence of the IZ, thus hindering the detection of changes in muscle activity. (paper)

  6. High-density surface EMG maps from upper-arm and forearm muscles

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    Rojas-Martínez Monica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background sEMG signal has been widely used in different applications in kinesiology and rehabilitation as well as in the control of human-machine interfaces. In general, the signals are recorded with bipolar electrodes located in different muscles. However, such configuration may disregard some aspects of the spatial distribution of the potentials like location of innervation zones and the manifestation of inhomogineties in the control of the muscular fibers. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of motor unit action potentials has recently been assessed with activation maps obtained from High Density EMG signals (HD-EMG, these lasts recorded with arrays of closely spaced electrodes. The main objective of this work is to analyze patterns in the activation maps, associating them with four movement directions at the elbow joint and with different strengths of those tasks. Although the activation pattern can be assessed with bipolar electrodes, HD-EMG maps could enable the extraction of features that depend on the spatial distribution of the potentials and on the load-sharing between muscles, in order to have a better differentiation between tasks and effort levels. Methods An experimental protocol consisting of isometric contractions at three levels of effort during flexion, extension, supination and pronation at the elbow joint was designed and HD-EMG signals were recorded with 2D electrode arrays on different upper-limb muscles. Techniques for the identification and interpolation of artifacts are explained, as well as a method for the segmentation of the activation areas. In addition, variables related to the intensity and spatial distribution of the maps were obtained, as well as variables associated to signal power of traditional single bipolar recordings. Finally, statistical tests were applied in order to assess differences between information extracted from single bipolar signals or from HD-EMG maps and to analyze

  7. Duration of observation required in detecting fasciculation potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using high-density surface EMG

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    Zhou Ping

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density surface electromyography (HD-SEMG has recently emerged as a potentially useful tool in the evaluation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. This study addresses a practical constraint that arises when applying HD-SEMG for supporting the diagnosis of ALS; specifically, how long the surface EMG should be recorded before one can be confident that fasciculation potentials (FPs are absent in a muscle being tested. Methods HD-SEMG recordings of 29 muscles from 11 ALS patients were analyzed. We used the distribution of intervals between FPs, and estimated the observation duration needed to record from one to five FPs with a probability approaching unity. Such an approach was previously tested by Mills with a concentric needle electrode. Results We found that the duration of recording was up to 70 s in order to record a single FP with a probability approaching unity. Increasing recording time to 2 minutes, the probability of recording five FPs approached approximately 0.95. Conclusions HD-SEMG appears to be a suitable method for capturing FPs comparable to intramuscular needle EMG.

  8. Real-time intelligent pattern recognition algorithm for surface EMG signals

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    Jahed Mehran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyography (EMG is the study of muscle function through the inquiry of electrical signals that the muscles emanate. EMG signals collected from the surface of the skin (Surface Electromyogram: sEMG can be used in different applications such as recognizing musculoskeletal neural based patterns intercepted for hand prosthesis movements. Current systems designed for controlling the prosthetic hands either have limited functions or can only be used to perform simple movements or use excessive amount of electrodes in order to achieve acceptable results. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have proposed an intelligent system to recognize hand movements and have provided a user assessment routine to evaluate the correctness of executed movements. Methods We propose to use an intelligent approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS integrated with a real-time learning scheme to identify hand motion commands. For this purpose and to consider the effect of user evaluation on recognizing hand movements, vision feedback is applied to increase the capability of our system. By using this scheme the user may assess the correctness of the performed hand movement. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP and least mean square (LMS is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. To design an effective system, we consider a conventional scheme of EMG pattern recognition system. To design this system we propose to use two different sets of EMG features, namely time domain (TD and time-frequency representation (TFR. Also in order to decrease the undesirable effects of the dimension of these feature sets, principle component analysis (PCA is utilized. Results In this study, the myoelectric signals considered for classification consists of six unique hand movements. Features chosen for EMG signal

  9. Changes in force, surface and motor unit EMG during post-exercise development of low frequency fatigue in vastus lateralis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, P.W.L.; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of low frequency fatigue (LFF) on post-exercise changes in rectified surface EMG (rsEMG) and single motor unit EMG (smuEMG) in vastus lateralis muscle (n=9). On two experimental days the knee extensors were fatigued with a 60-s-isometric contraction (exercise) at 50%

  10. Cortico-muscular coherence on artifact corrected EEG-EMG data recorded with a MRI scanner.

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    Muthuraman, M; Galka, A; Hong, V N; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides great potential for studying human brain activity with high temporal and spatial resolution. But, due to the MRI, the recorded signals are contaminated with artifacts. The correction of these artifacts is important to use these signals for further spectral analysis. The coherence can reveal the cortical representation of peripheral muscle signal in particular motor tasks, e.g. finger movements. The artifact correction of these signals was done by two different algorithms the Brain vision analyzer (BVA) and the Matlab FMRIB plug-in for EEGLAB. The Welch periodogram method was used for estimating the cortico-muscular coherence. Our analysis revealed coherence with a frequency of 5Hz in the contralateral side of the brain. The entropy is estimated for the calculated coherence to get the distribution of coherence in the scalp. The significance of the paper is to identify the optimal algorithm to rectify the MR artifacts and as a first step to use both these signals EEG and EMG in conjunction with MRI for further studies.

  11. Surface EMG signals based motion intent recognition using multi-layer ELM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Qi, Lin; Wang, Xiao

    2017-11-01

    The upper-limb rehabilitation robot is regard as a useful tool to help patients with hemiplegic to do repetitive exercise. The surface electromyography (sEMG) contains motion information as the electric signals are generated and related to nerve-muscle motion. These sEMG signals, representing human's intentions of active motions, are introduced into the rehabilitation robot system to recognize upper-limb movements. Traditionally, the feature extraction is an indispensable part of drawing significant information from original signals, which is a tedious task requiring rich and related experience. This paper employs a deep learning scheme to extract the internal features of the sEMG signals using an advanced Extreme Learning Machine based auto-encoder (ELMAE). The mathematical information contained in the multi-layer structure of the ELM-AE is used as the high-level representation of the internal features of the sEMG signals, and thus a simple ELM can post-process the extracted features, formulating the entire multi-layer ELM (ML-ELM) algorithm. The method is employed for the sEMG based neural intentions recognition afterwards. The case studies show the adopted deep learning algorithm (ELM-AE) is capable of yielding higher classification accuracy compared to the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) scheme in 5 different types of upper-limb motions. This indicates the effectiveness and the learning capability of the ML-ELM in such motion intent recognition applications.

  12. Effectiveness of the Wavelet Transform on the Surface EMG to Understand the Muscle Fatigue During Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. S.; Mamun, Md.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to create force. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. During a sustained muscle contraction, the power spectrum of the EMG shifts towards lower frequencies. These effects are due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is often a result of unhealthy work practice. In this research, the effectiveness of the wavelet transform applied to the surface EMG (SEMG) signal as a means of understanding muscle fatigue during walk is presented. Power spectrum and bispectrum analysis on the EMG signal getting from right rectus femoris muscle is executed utilizing various wavelet functions (WFs). It is possible to recognize muscle fatigue appreciably with the proper choice of the WF. The outcome proves that the most momentous changes in the EMG power spectrum are symbolized by WF Daubechies45. Moreover, this research has compared bispectrum properties to the other WFs. To determine muscle fatigue during gait, Daubechies45 is used in this research to analyze the SEMG signal.

  13. Analyzing surface EMG signals to determine relationship between jaw imbalance and arm strength loss

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    Truong Quang Dang Khoa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the relationship between dental occlusion and arm strength; in particular, the imbalance in the jaw can cause loss in arm strength phenomenon. One of the goals of this study was to record the maximum forces that the subjects can resist against the pull-down force on their hands while biting a spacer of adjustable height on the right or left side of the jaw. Then EMG measurement was used to determine the EMG-Force relationship of the jaw, neck and arms muscles. This gave us useful insights on the arms strength loss due to the biomechanical effects of the imbalance in the jaw mechanism. Methods In this study to determine the effects of the imbalance in the jaw to the strength of the arms, we conducted experiments with a pool of 20 healthy subjects of both genders. The subjects were asked to resist a pull down force applied on the contralateral arm while biting on a firm spacer using one side of the jaw. Four different muscles – masseter muscles, deltoid muscles, bicep muscles and trapezoid muscles – were involved. Integrated EMG (iEMG and Higuchi fractal dimension (HFD were used to analyze the EMG signals. Results The results showed that (1 Imbalance in the jaw causes loss of arm strength contra-laterally; (2 The loss is approximately a linear function of the height of the spacers. Moreover, the iEMG showed the intensity of muscle activities decreased when the degrees of jaw imbalance increased (spacer thickness increased. In addition, the tendency of Higuchi fractal dimension decreased for all muscles. Conclusions This finding indicates that muscle fatigue and the decrease in muscle contraction level leads to the loss of arm strength.

  14. Surface EMG system for use in long-term vigorous activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, G.; Bergman, P.; de Luca, C.

    The purpose of the project was to develop an advanced surface electromyographic (EMG) system that is portable, un-tethered, and able to detect high-fidelity EMG signals from multiple channels. The innovation was specifically designed to extend NASA's capability to perform neurological status monitoring for long-term, vigorous activities. These features are a necessary requirement of ground-based and in-flight studies planned for the International Space Station and human expeditions to Mars. The project consisted of developing 1) a portable EMG digital data logger using a handheld PC for acquiring the signal and storing the data from as many as 8 channels, and 2) an EMG electrode/skin interface to improve signal fidelity and skin adhesion in the presence of sweat and mechanical disturbances encountered during vigorous activities. The system, referred to as a MyoMonitor, was configured with a communication port for downloading the data from the data logger to the PC computer workstation. Software specifications were developed and implemented for programming of acquisition protocols, power management, and transferring data to the PC for processing and graphical display. The prototype MyoMonitor was implemented using a handheld PC that features a color LCD screen, enhanced keyboard, extended Lithium Ion battery and recharger, and 128 Mbytes of F ash Memory. The system was designed to be belt-worn,l thereby allowing its use under vigorous activities. The Monitor utilizes up to 8 differential surface EMG sensors. The prototype allowed greater than 2 hours of continuous 8-channel EMG data to be collected, or 17.2 hours of continuous single channel EMG data. Standardized tests in human subjects were conducted to develop the mechanical and electrical properties of the prototype electrode/interface system. Tests conducted during treadmill running and repetitive lifting demonstrated that the prototype interface significantly reduced the detrimental effects of sweat

  15. The reliability of a maximal isometric hip strength and simultaneous surface EMG screening protocol in elite, junior rugby league athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paula C; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Grimaldi, Alison; Pua, Yong-Hao; Clark, Ross A

    2017-02-01

    Firstly to describe the reliability of assessing maximal isometric strength of the hip abductor and adductor musculature using a hand held dynamometry (HHD) protocol with simultaneous wireless surface electromyographic (sEMG) evaluation of the gluteus medius (GM) and adductor longus (AL). Secondly, to describe the correlation between isometric strength recorded with the HHD protocol and a laboratory standard isokinetic device. Reliability and correlational study. A sample of 24 elite, male, junior, rugby league athletes, age 16-20 years participated in repeated HHD and isometric Kin-Com (KC) strength testing with simultaneous sEMG assessment, on average (range) 6 (5-7) days apart by a single assessor. Strength tests included; unilateral hip abduction (ABD) and adduction (ADD) and bilateral ADD assessed with squeeze (SQ) tests in 0 and 45° of hip flexion. HHD demonstrated good to excellent inter-session reliability for all outcome measures (ICC (2,1) =0.76-0.91) and good to excellent association with the laboratory reference KC (ICC (2,1) =0.80-0.88). Whilst intra-session, inter-trial reliability of EMG activation and co-activation outcome measures ranged from moderate to excellent (ICC (2,1) =0.70-0.94), inter-session reliability was poor (all ICC (2,1) Isometric strength testing of the hip ABD and ADD musculature using HHD may be measured reliably in elite, junior rugby league athletes. Due to the poor inter-session reliability of sEMG measures, it is not recommended for athlete screening purposes if using the techniques implemented in this study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Recalibrating Surface EMG Pattern Recognition for Neuroprosthesis Control Based on Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaolong; Jelfs, Beth; Chan, Rosa H M; Tin, Chung

    2017-01-01

    Hand movement classification based on surface electromyography (sEMG) pattern recognition is a promising approach for upper limb neuroprosthetic control. However, maintaining day-to-day performance is challenged by the non-stationary nature of sEMG in real-life operation. In this study, we propose a self-recalibrating classifier that can be automatically updated to maintain a stable performance over time without the need for user retraining. Our classifier is based on convolutional neural network (CNN) using short latency dimension-reduced sEMG spectrograms as inputs. The pretrained classifier is recalibrated routinely using a corrected version of the prediction results from recent testing sessions. Our proposed system was evaluated with the NinaPro database comprising of hand movement data of 40 intact and 11 amputee subjects. Our system was able to achieve ~10.18% (intact, 50 movement types) and ~2.99% (amputee, 10 movement types) increase in classification accuracy averaged over five testing sessions with respect to the unrecalibrated classifier. When compared with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, our CNN-based system consistently showed higher absolute performance and larger improvement as well as more efficient training. These results suggest that the proposed system can be a useful tool to facilitate long-term adoption of prosthetics for amputees in real-life applications.

  17. Simultaneous and Continuous Estimation of Shoulder and Elbow Kinematics from Surface EMG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a simultaneous and continuous kinematics estimation method for multiple DoFs across shoulder and elbow joint. Although simultaneous and continuous kinematics estimation from surface electromyography (EMG is a feasible way to achieve natural and intuitive human-machine interaction, few works investigated multi-DoF estimation across the significant joints of upper limb, shoulder and elbow joints. This paper evaluates the feasibility to estimate 4-DoF kinematics at shoulder and elbow during coordinated arm movements. Considering the potential applications of this method in exoskeleton, prosthetics and other arm rehabilitation techniques, the estimation performance is presented with different muscle activity decomposition and learning strategies. Principle component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA are respectively employed for EMG mode decomposition with artificial neural network (ANN for learning the electromechanical association. Four joint angles across shoulder and elbow are simultaneously and continuously estimated from EMG in four coordinated arm movements. By using ICA (PCA and single ANN, the average estimation accuracy 91.12% (90.23% is obtained in 70-s intra-cross validation and 87.00% (86.30% is obtained in 2-min inter-cross validation. This result suggests it is feasible and effective to use ICA (PCA with single ANN for multi-joint kinematics estimation in variant application conditions.

  18. Motor Function Evaluation of Hemiplegic Upper-Extremities Using Data Fusion from Wearable Inertial and Surface EMG Sensors

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    Yanran Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of motor function is of great demand for monitoring clinical outcome of applied interventions and further guiding the establishment of therapeutic protocol. This study proposes a novel framework for evaluating upper limb motor function based on data fusion from inertial measurement units (IMUs and surface electromyography (EMG sensors. With wearable sensors worn on the tested upper limbs, subjects were asked to perform eleven straightforward, specifically designed canonical upper-limb functional tasks. A series of machine learning algorithms were applied to the recorded motion data to produce evaluation indicators, which is able to reflect the level of upper-limb motor function abnormality. Sixteen healthy subjects and eighteen stroke subjects with substantial hemiparesis were recruited in the experiment. The combined IMU and EMG data yielded superior performance over the IMU data alone and the EMG data alone, in terms of decreased normal data variation rate (NDVR and improved determination coefficient (DC from a regression analysis between the derived indicator and routine clinical assessment score. Three common unsupervised learning algorithms achieved comparable performance with NDVR around 10% and strong DC around 0.85. By contrast, the use of a supervised algorithm was able to dramatically decrease the NDVR to 6.55%. With the proposed framework, all the produced indicators demonstrated high agreement with the routine clinical assessment scale, indicating their capability of assessing upper-limb motor functions. This study offers a feasible solution to motor function assessment in an objective and quantitative manner, especially suitable for home and community use.

  19. Real time estimation of generation, extinction and flow of muscle fibre action potentials in high density surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Developing a real time method to estimate generation, extinction and propagation of muscle fibre action potentials from bi-dimensional and high density surface electromyogram (EMG). A multi-frame generalization of an optical flow technique including a source term is considered. A model describing generation, extinction and propagation of action potentials is fit to epochs of surface EMG. The algorithm is tested on simulations of high density surface EMG (inter-electrode distance equal to 5mm) from finite length fibres generated using a multi-layer volume conductor model. The flow and source term estimated from interference EMG reflect the anatomy of the muscle, i.e. the direction of the fibres (2° of average estimation error) and the positions of innervation zone and tendons under the electrode grid (mean errors of about 1 and 2mm, respectively). The global conduction velocity of the action potentials from motor units under the detection system is also obtained from the estimated flow. The processing time is about 1 ms per channel for an epoch of EMG of duration 150 ms. A new real time image processing algorithm is proposed to investigate muscle anatomy and activity. Potential applications are proposed in prosthesis control, automatic detection of optimal channels for EMG index extraction and biofeedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  1. Effective Low-Power Wearable Wireless Surface EMG Sensor Design Based on Analog-Compressed Sensing

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    Mohammadreza Balouchestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface Electromyography (sEMG is a non-invasive measurement process that does not involve tools and instruments to break the skin or physically enter the body to investigate and evaluate the muscular activities produced by skeletal muscles. The main drawbacks of existing sEMG systems are: (1 they are not able to provide real-time monitoring; (2 they suffer from long processing time and low speed; (3 they are not effective for wireless healthcare systems because they consume huge power. In this work, we present an analog-based Compressed Sensing (CS architecture, which consists of three novel algorithms for design and implementation of wearable wireless sEMG bio-sensor. At the transmitter side, two new algorithms are presented in order to apply the analog-CS theory before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC. At the receiver side, a robust reconstruction algorithm based on a combination of ℓ1-ℓ1-optimization and Block Sparse Bayesian Learning (BSBL framework is presented to reconstruct the original bio-signals from the compressed bio-signals. The proposed architecture allows reducing the sampling rate to 25% of Nyquist Rate (NR. In addition, the proposed architecture reduces the power consumption to 40%, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD to 24%, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE to 2%, and the computation time from 22 s to 9.01 s, which provide good background for establishing wearable wireless healthcare systems. The proposed architecture achieves robust performance in low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR for the reconstruction process.

  2. A new algorithm for ECG interference removal from single channel EMG recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shayan; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Sedaaghi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a new method to remove electrocardiogram (ECG) interference from electromyogram (EMG). This interference occurs during the EMG acquisition from trunk muscles. The proposed algorithm employs progressive image denoising (PID) algorithm and ensembles empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to remove this type of interference. PID is a very recent method that is being used for denoising digital images mixed with white Gaussian noise. It detects white Gaussian noise by deterministic annealing. To the best of our knowledge, PID has never been used before, in the case of EMG and ECG separation or in other 1D signal denoising applications. We have used it according to this fact that amplitude of the EMG signal can be modeled as white Gaussian noise using a filter with time-variant properties. The proposed algorithm has been compared to the other well-known methods such as HPF, EEMD-ICA, Wavelet-ICA and PID. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the others, on the basis of three evaluation criteria used in this paper: Normalized mean square error, Signal to noise ratio and Pearson correlation.

  3. EMG-Torque Relation in Chronic Stroke: A Novel EMG Complexity Representation With a Linear Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dongqing; Yu, Zaiyang; Chen, Xiang; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the electromyogram (EMG)-torque relation for chronic stroke survivors using a novel EMG complexity representation. Ten stroke subjects performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks using their affected and contralateral arms, respectively, while a 20-channel linear electrode array was used to record surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscles. The sample entropy (SampEn) of surface EMG signals was calculated with both global and local tolerance schemes. A regression analysis was performed between SampEn of each channel's surface EMG and elbow flexion torque. It was found that a linear regression can be used to well describe the relation between surface EMG SampEn and the torque. Each channel's root mean square (RMS) amplitude of surface EMG signal in the different torque level was computed to determine the channel with the highest EMG amplitude. The slope of the regression (observed from the channel with the highest EMG amplitude) was smaller on the impaired side than on the nonimpaired side in 8 of the 10 subjects, regardless of the tolerance scheme (global or local) and the range of torques (full or matched range) used for comparison. The surface EMG signals from the channels above the estimated muscle innervation zones demonstrated significantly lower levels of complexity compared with other channels between innervation zones and muscle tendons. The study provides a novel point of view of the EMG-torque relation in the complexity domain, and reveals its alterations post stroke, which are associated with complex neural and muscular changes post stroke. The slope difference between channels with regard to innervation zones also confirms the relevance of electrode position in surface EMG analysis.

  4. Fasciculations and their F-response revisited: High-density surface EMG in ALS and benign fasciculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, B.U.; Boekestein, W.A.; Arts, I.M.; Zwarts, M.J.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Stegeman, D.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prevalence of fasciculation potentials (FPs) with F-responses between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and patients with benign fasciculations. Methods: In seven patients with ALS and seven patients with benign fasciculations, high-density surface EMG was

  5. Motor unit properties of biceps brachii in chronic stroke patients assessed with high-density surface EMG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate motor unit (MU) characteristics of the biceps brachii in post-stroke patients, using high-density surface electromyography (sEMG). Eighteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients took part. The Fugl-Meyer score for the upper extremity was assessed. Subjects

  6. Postictal apnea as an important mechanism for SUDEP: A near-SUDEP with continuous EEG-ECG-EMG recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Liu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the most frequent causes of death among patients with epilepsy. Most SUDEP or near-SUDEP are unwitnessed and not observed or recorded during video-EEG recording in epilepsy monitoring units. This report describes a young woman with post ictal apnea and generalized EEG suppression (PGES) after a secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizure (sGTCS). This was accompanied by bradycardia and then ventricular tachycardia (VT). But at the end of VT, the patient's breath recovered without any intervention, such as cardio-respiratory resuscitation. This case report with continuous EEG, EKG, EMG during near SUDEP may provide insights into the mechanism of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural network committees for finger joint angle estimation from surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Narender P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In virtual reality (VR systems, the user's finger and hand positions are sensed and used to control the virtual environments. Direct biocontrol of VR environments using surface electromyography (SEMG signals may be more synergistic and unconstraining to the user. The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a technique to predict the finger joint angle from the surface EMG measurements of the extensor muscle using neural network models. Methodology SEMG together with the actual joint angle measurements were obtained while the subject was performing flexion-extension rotation of the index finger at three speeds. Several neural networks were trained to predict the joint angle from the parameters extracted from the SEMG signals. The best networks were selected to form six committees. The neural network committees were evaluated using data from new subjects. Results There was hysteresis in the measured SMEG signals during the flexion-extension cycle. However, neural network committees were able to predict the joint angle with reasonable accuracy. RMS errors ranged from 0.085 ± 0.036 for fast speed finger-extension to 0.147 ± 0.026 for slow speed finger extension, and from 0.098 ± 0.023 for the fast speed finger flexion to 0.163 ± 0.054 for slow speed finger flexion. Conclusion Although hysteresis was observed in the measured SEMG signals, the committees of neural networks were able to predict the finger joint angle from SEMG signals.

  8. Relationship between oxygen uptake slow component and surface EMG during heavy exercise in humans: influence of pedal rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Missenard, Olivier; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extreme pedal rates contributed to the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO(2) SC) in association with changes in surface electromyographic (sEMG) during heavy-cycle exercise. Eight male trained cyclists performed two square-wave transitions at 50 and 110 rpm at a work rate that would elicit a VO(2) corresponding to 50% of the difference between peak VO(2) and the ventilatory threshold. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and sEMG was obtained from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Integrated EMG flow (QiEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) were computed. The relative amplitude of the VO(2) SC was significantly higher during the 110-rpm bout (556+/-186 ml min(-1), Pexercise only during the 110-rpm bout and were associated with the greater amplitude of the VO(2) SC observed for this condition (Pmotor units recruitment pattern, muscle energy turnover and muscle temperature have been suggested to explain the different VO(2) SC to heavy pedal rate bouts.

  9. Analysis of High-Density Surface EMG and Finger Pressure in the Left Forearm of Violin Players: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarello, Paolo; Merletti, Roberto; Petracca, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Wrist and finger flexor muscles of the left hand were evaluated using high-density surface EMG (HDsEMG) in 17 violin players. Pressure sensors also were mounted below the second string of the violin to evaluate, simultaneously, finger pressure. Electrode grid size was 110x70 mm (12x8 electrodes with interelectrode distance=10 mm and Ø=3 mm). The study objective was to observe the activation patterns of these muscles while the violinists sequentially played four notes--SI (B), DO# (C#), RE (D), MI (E)--at 2 bows/s (one bow up in 0.5 s and one down in 0.5 s) and 4 bows/s on the second string, while producing a constant (CONST) or ramp (RAMP) sound volume. HDsEMG images obtained while playing the notes were compared with those obtained during isometric radial or ulnar flexion of the wrist or fingers. Two image descriptors provided information on image differences. Results showed that the technique was reliable and provided reliable signals, and that recognizably different sEMG images could be associated with the four notes tested, despite the variability within and between subjects playing the same note. sEMG activity of the left hand muscles and pressure on the string in the RAMP task were strongly affected in some individuals by the sound volume (controlled by the right hand) and much less in other individuals. These findings question whether there is an individual or generally optimal way of pressing violin strings with the left hand. The answer to this question might substantially modify the teaching of string instruments.

  10. sEMG Signal Acquisition Strategy towards Hand FES Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Lourdes Toledo-Peral

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to damage of the nervous system, patients experience impediments in their daily life: severe fatigue, tremor or impaired hand dexterity, hemiparesis, or hemiplegia. Surface electromyography (sEMG signal analysis is used to identify motion; however, standardization of electrode placement and classification of sEMG patterns are major challenges. This paper describes a technique used to acquire sEMG signals for five hand motion patterns from six able-bodied subjects using an array of recording and stimulation electrodes placed on the forearm and its effects over functional electrical stimulation (FES and volitional sEMG combinations, in order to eventually control a sEMG-driven FES neuroprosthesis for upper limb rehabilitation. A two-part protocol was performed. First, personalized templates to place eight sEMG bipolar channels were designed; with these data, a universal template, called forearm electrode set (FELT, was built. Second, volitional and evoked movements were recorded during FES application. 95% classification accuracy was achieved using two sessions per movement. With the FELT, it was possible to perform FES and sEMG recordings simultaneously. Also, it was possible to extract the volitional and evoked sEMG from the raw signal, which is highly important for closed-loop FES control.

  11. Estimation of continuous multi-DOF finger joint kinematics from surface EMG using a multi-output Gaussian Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeo, Jimson; Tamei, Tomoya; Shibata, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals have often been used in estimating upper and lower limb dynamics and kinematics for the purpose of controlling robotic devices such as robot prosthesis and finger exoskeletons. However, in estimating multiple and a high number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF) kinematics from EMG, output DOFs are usually estimated independently. In this study, we estimate finger joint kinematics from EMG signals using a multi-output convolved Gaussian Process (Multi-output Full GP) that considers dependencies between outputs. We show that estimation of finger joints from muscle activation inputs can be improved by using a regression model that considers inherent coupling or correlation within the hand and finger joints. We also provide a comparison of estimation performance between different regression methods, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) which is used by many of the related studies. We show that using a multi-output GP gives improved estimation compared to multi-output ANN and even dedicated or independent regression models.

  12. Detection of surface electromyography recording time interval without muscle fatigue effect for biceps brachii muscle during maximum voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Abdullah Ruhi; Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar

    2010-08-01

    The effects of fatigue on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) parameters were examined by using force and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the biceps brachii muscles (BBM) of 12 subjects. The purpose of the study was to find the sEMG time interval of the MVC recordings which is not affected by the muscle fatigue. At least 10s of force and sEMG signals of BBM were recorded simultaneously during MVC. The subjects reached the maximum force level within 2s by slightly increasing the force, and then contracted the BBM maximally. The time index of each sEMG and force signal were labeled with respect to the time index of the maximum force (i.e. after the time normalization, each sEMG or force signal's 0s time index corresponds to maximum force point). Then, the first 8s of sEMG and force signals were divided into 0.5s intervals. Mean force, median frequency (MF) and integrated EMG (iEMG) values were calculated for each interval. Amplitude normalization was performed by dividing the force signals to their mean values of 0s time intervals (i.e. -0.25 to 0.25s). A similar amplitude normalization procedure was repeated for the iEMG and MF signals. Statistical analysis (Friedman test with Dunn's post hoc test) was performed on the time and amplitude normalized signals (MF, iEMG). Although the ANOVA results did not give statistically significant information about the onset of the muscle fatigue, linear regression (mean force vs. time) showed a decreasing slope (Pearson-r=0.9462, pfatigue starts after the 0s time interval as the muscles cannot attain their peak force levels. This implies that the most reliable interval for MVC calculation which is not affected by the muscle fatigue is from the onset of the EMG activity to the peak force time. Mean, SD, and range of this interval (excluding 2s gradual increase time) for 12 subjects were 2353, 1258ms and 536-4186ms, respectively. Exceeding this interval introduces estimation errors in the maximum amplitude calculations

  13. ECG artifact cancellation in surface EMG signals by fractional order calculus application.

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    Miljković, Nadica; Popović, Nenad; Djordjević, Olivera; Konstantinović, Ljubica; Šekara, Tomislav B

    2017-03-01

    New aspects for automatic electrocardiography artifact removal from surface electromyography signals by application of fractional order calculus in combination with linear and nonlinear moving window filters are explored. Surface electromyography recordings of skeletal trunk muscles are commonly contaminated with spike shaped artifacts. This artifact originates from electrical heart activity, recorded by electrocardiography, commonly present in the surface electromyography signals recorded in heart proximity. For appropriate assessment of neuromuscular changes by means of surface electromyography, application of a proper filtering technique of electrocardiography artifact is crucial. A novel method for automatic artifact cancellation in surface electromyography signals by applying fractional order calculus and nonlinear median filter is introduced. The proposed method is compared with the linear moving average filter, with and without prior application of fractional order calculus. 3D graphs for assessment of window lengths of the filters, crest factors, root mean square differences, and fractional calculus orders (called WFC and WRC graphs) have been introduced. For an appropriate quantitative filtering evaluation, the synthetic electrocardiography signal and analogous semi-synthetic dataset have been generated. The examples of noise removal in 10 able-bodied subjects and in one patient with muscle dystrophy are presented for qualitative analysis. The crest factors, correlation coefficients, and root mean square differences of the recorded and semi-synthetic electromyography datasets showed that the most successful method was the median filter in combination with fractional order calculus of the order 0.9. Statistically more significant (p ECG peak reduction was obtained by the median filter application compared to the moving average filter in the cases of low level amplitude of muscle contraction compared to ECG spikes. The presented results suggest that the

  14. Changes in force, surface and motor unit EMG during post-exercise development of low frequency fatigue in vastus lateralis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, C J; Elzinga, M J H; Verdijk, P W L; van Mechelen, W; de Haan, A

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effects of low frequency fatigue (LFF) on post-exercise changes in rectified surface EMG (rsEMG) and single motor unit EMG (smuEMG) in vastus lateralis muscle (n = 9). On two experimental days the knee extensors were fatigued with a 60-s-isometric contraction (exercise) at 50% maximal force capacity (MFC). On the first day post-exercise (15 s, 3, 9, 15, 21 and 27 min) rsEMG and electrically-induced (surface stimulation) forces were investigated. SmuEMG was obtained on day two. During short ramp and hold (5 s) contractions at 50% MFC, motor unit discharges of the same units were followed over time. Post-exercise MFC and tetanic force (100 Hz stimulation) recovered to about 90% of the pre-exercise values, but recovery with 20 Hz stimulation was less complete: the 20-100 Hz force ratio (mean +/- SD) decreased from 0.65+/-0.06 (pre-exercise) to 0.56+/-0.04 at 27 min post-exercise (Pexercise rsEMG (% pre-exercise maximum) and motor unit discharge rate were 51.1 +/- 12.7% and 14.1 +/- 3.7 (pulses per second; pps) respectively, 15 s post-exercise the respective values were 61.4 +/- 15.4% (P0.05). Thereafter, rsEMG (at 50% MFC) remained stable but motor unit discharge rate significantly increased to 17.7 +/- 3.9 pps 27 min post-exercise. The recruitment threshold decreased (Pexercise to 25.2 +/- 6.7% 27 min post-exercise. The increase in discharge rate was significantly greater than could be expected from the decrease in recruitment threshold. Thus, post-exercise LFF was compensated by increased motor unit discharge rates which could only partly be accounted for by the small decrease in motor unit recruitment threshold.

  15. Pathological tremor prediction using surface EMG and acceleration: potential use in “ON-OFF” demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Essential tremor (ET). Approach The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (fourier and wavelet) and non-linear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle as well as the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage. PMID:23658233

  16. EMG of the hip adductor muscles in six clinical examination tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Gregory A; Blanch, Peter D; Barnes, Christopher J

    2012-08-01

    To assess activation of muscles of hip adduction using EMG and force analysis during standard clinical tests, and compare athletes with and without a prior history of groin pain. Controlled laboratory study. 21 male athletes from an elite junior soccer program. Bilateral surface EMG recordings of the adductor magnus, adductor longus, gracilis and pectineus as well as a unilateral fine-wire EMG of the pectineus were made during isometric holds in six clinical examination tests. A load cell was used to measure force data. Test type was a significant factor in the EMG output for all four muscles (all muscles p stronger than Hips 45, Hips 90 and Side lay. BMI (body mass index) was a significant factor (p Muscle EMG varied significantly with clinical test position. Athletes with previous groin injury had a significant fall in some EMG outputs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An isometric muscle force estimation framework based on a high-density surface EMG array and an NMF algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengjun; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To realize accurate muscle force estimation, a novel framework is proposed in this paper which can extract the input of the prediction model from the appropriate activation area of the skeletal muscle. Approach. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals from the biceps brachii muscle during isometric elbow flexion were collected with a high-density (HD) electrode grid (128 channels) and the external force at three contraction levels was measured at the wrist synchronously. The sEMG envelope matrix was factorized into a matrix of basis vectors with each column representing an activation pattern and a matrix of time-varying coefficients by a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm. The activation pattern with the highest activation intensity, which was defined as the sum of the absolute values of the time-varying coefficient curve, was considered as the major activation pattern, and its channels with high weighting factors were selected to extract the input activation signal of a force estimation model based on the polynomial fitting technique. Main results. Compared with conventional methods using the whole channels of the grid, the proposed method could significantly improve the quality of force estimation and reduce the electrode number. Significance. The proposed method provides a way to find proper electrode placement for force estimation, which can be further employed in muscle heterogeneity analysis, myoelectric prostheses and the control of exoskeleton devices.

  18. Spatial distribution of surface EMG on trapezius and lumbar muscles of violin and cello players in single note playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharipour, Babak; Petracca, Francesco; Gasparini, Mauro; Merletti, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Musicians activate their muscles in different patterns, depending on their posture, the instrument being played, and their experience level. Bipolar surface electrodes have been used in the past to monitor such activity, but this method is highly sensitive to the location of the electrode pair. In this work, the spatial distribution of surface EMG (sEMG) of the right trapezius and right and left erector spinae muscles were studied in 16 violin players and 11 cello players. Musicians played their instrument one string at a time in sitting position with/without backrest support. A 64 sEMG electrode (16×4) grid, 10mm inter-electrode distance (IED), was placed over the middle and lower trapezius (MT and LT) of the bowing arm. Two 16×2 electrode grids (IED=10mm) were placed on the left and right erector spinae muscles. Subjects played each of the four strings of the instrument either in large (1bow/s) or detaché tip/tail (8bows/s) bowing in two sessions (two days). In each of two days, measurements were repeated after half an hour of exercise to see the effect of exercise on the muscle activity and signal stability. A "muscle activity index" (MAI) was defined as the spatial average of the segmented active region of the RMS map. Spatial maps were automatically segmented using the watershed algorithm and thresholding. Results showed that, for violin players, sliding the bow upward from the tip toward the tail results in a higher MAI for the trapezius muscle than a downward bow. On the contrary, in cello players, higher MAI is produced in the tail to tip movement. For both instruments, an increasing MAI in the trapezius was observed as the string position became increasingly lateral, from string 1 (most medial) toward string 4 (most lateral). Half an hour of performance did not cause significant differences between the signal quality and the MAI values measured before and after the exercise. The MAI of the left and right erector spinae was smaller in the case of

  19. Differential effects of type of keyboard playing task and tempo on surface EMG amplitudes of forearm muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ju eChong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing interest in keyboard playing as a strategy for repetitive finger exercises in fine motor skill development and hand rehabilitation, comparative analysis of task-specific finger movements relevant to keyboard playing has been less extensive. This study examined whether there were differences in surface EMG activity levels of forearm muscles associated with different keyboard playing tasks. Results demonstrated higher muscle activity with sequential keyboard playing in a random pattern compared to individuated playing or sequential playing in a successive pattern. Also, the speed of finger movements was found as a factor that affect muscle activity levels, demonstrating that faster tempo elicited significantly greater muscle activity than self-paced tempo. The results inform our understanding of the type of finger movements involved in different types of keyboard playing at different tempi so as to consider the efficacy and fatigue level of keyboard playing as an intervention for amateur pianists or individuals with impaired fine motor skills.

  20. EMG (elektromyografie jako metoda pro sledování účinnosti sportovního tréninku Surface EMG as a method for following-up sports training efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Miklavčič

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Účel této studie byl zhodnotit vhodnost a použitelnost povrchové elektromyografie pro vyhodnocení změn kontrakčních vlastností svalů spojených s tréninkem. Skupina osmi národních juniorských tenistů se zúčastnila šestitýdenního výcvikového programu, který byl zaměřen na zvýšení rychlosti a výbušnosti. Jejich fyzické charakteristiky byly zhodnoceny před a po období programu, a to specifickými tenisovými testy, které měří izometrickou kontrakci trhnutí středního gastroknemického svalu, a zaznamenáváním spektra frekvence EMG při 50% maximální volní kontrakci. Ve specifických tenisových testech se prokázalo, že většina hráčů zlepšila své výkony po výcvikovém období, pouze u 3 hráčů byla zjištěna zvýšená rychlost kontrakce středního gastroknemického svalu, která byla vyjádřena kratší dobou kontrakčního trhnutí po období výcviku. Stejní hráči předvedli vyšší charakteristickou frekvenci (definována jako střední frekvence ležící mezi 6. a 9. decilem spektrální distribuční funkce a širší EMG spektrum rozkmitu po výcvikovém období. Vysoká korelace byla zjištěna mezi počtem parametrů izometrické kontrakce trhnutí, která byla zlepšena o více než 2 % po období výcviku (Np, poměr mezi charakteristickou frekvencí po období výcviku (fA a před výcvikovým obdobím (fB (fA/fB (p = 0,0065, a také mezi Np a stoupáním lineárního přiblížení závislosti mezi decilovými frekvencemi signálů EMG po období výcviku (dAf a před výcvikovým obdobím (dBf (dAf = f(dBf (p = 0,0035. Korelace mezi počtem parametrů izometrické kontrakce trhnutí, které byly zlepšeny po období výcviku, a změny v charakteristických parametrech EMG evokují použitelnost EMG pro sledování účinnosti sportovního výcviku. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of surface electromyography (EMG for evaluation of

  1. Effect of a combined inversion and plantarflexion surface on ankle kinematics and EMG activities in landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhaskaran

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that compared to the inversion surface, the combined plantarflexion and inversion surface seems to provide a more unstable surface condition for lateral ankle sprains during landing.

  2. Differential effects of type of keyboard playing task and tempo on surface EMG amplitudes of forearm muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Yoo, Ga Eul

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in keyboard playing as a strategy for repetitive finger exercises in fine motor skill development and hand rehabilitation, comparative analysis of task-specific finger movements relevant to keyboard playing has been less extensive. This study examined, whether there were differences in surface EMG activity levels of forearm muscles associated with different keyboard playing tasks. Results demonstrated higher muscle activity with sequential keyboard playing in a random pattern compared to individuated playing or sequential playing in a successive pattern. Also, the speed of finger movements was found as a factor that affect muscle activity levels, demonstrating that faster tempo elicited significantly greater muscle activity than self-paced tempo. The results inform our understanding of the type of finger movements involved in different types of keyboard playing at different tempi. This helps to consider the efficacy and fatigue level of keyboard playing tasks when being used as an intervention for amateur pianists or individuals with impaired fine motor skills. PMID:26388798

  3. Muscular Activities Measurements of Forward Lean and Upright Sitting Motorcycling Postures via Surface Electromyography (sEMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’arof Muhammad Izzat Nor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycling postures are generically speculated to be physical and physiologically demanding – which in-turn may lead to motorcycling fatigue, and then becoming a possible factor to road accident. The objective of this study was to measure the muscular activities of various motorcycling postures. High muscular activity reading will signifies that motorcycling is indeed physically and physiologically demanding to the motorcyclist. For this particular study, the following postures were tested: i forward lean, ii upright sitting, and iii neutral sitting (as control. Surface electromyography (sEMG measurement was conducted on the following muscles: i extensor carpi radialis, ii upper trapezius iii latissimus dorsi, and iv erector spinae. The results showed that for all test subjects, the muscular activities readings for the forward lean posture was actually close to neutral sitting’s. Whilst, the upright sitting had showed much higher muscular activities measurement instead. Conclusively, this study had proven that any types of discomforts associated with the forward lean posture is not originated from muscular activities. Whereas, confirming that any discomforts in regards to the upright sitting is indeed related to muscular activities. Further studies are warranted to discover the actual risk factors that causes physical and physiological discomforts for the forward lean motorcycling posture.

  4. Removing ECG Artifact from the Surface EMG Signal Using Adaptive Subtraction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, S; Fallah, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The electrocardiogram artifact is a major contamination in the electromyogram signals when electromyogram signal is recorded from upper trunk muscles and because of that the contaminated electromyogram is not useful. Objective: Removing electrocardiogram contamination from electromyogram signals. Methods: In this paper, the clean electromyogram signal, electrocardiogram artifact and electrocardiogram signal were recorded from leg muscles, the pectoralis major muscle of the left side and V4, respectively. After the pre-processing, contaminated electromyogram signal is simulated with a combination of clean electromyogram and electrocardiogram artifact. Then, contaminated electromyogram is cleaned using adaptive subtraction method. This method contains some steps; (1) QRS detection, (2) formation of electrocardiogram template by averaging the electrocardiogram complexes, (3) using low pass filter to remove undesirable artifacts, (4) subtraction. Results: Performance of our method is evaluated using qualitative criteria, power spectrum density and coherence and quantitative criteria signal to noise ratio, relative error and cross correlation. The result of signal to noise ratio, relative error and cross correlation is equal to 10.493, 0.04 and %97 respectively. Finally, there is a comparison between proposed method and some existing methods. Conclusion: The result indicates that adaptive subtraction method is somewhat effective to remove electrocardiogram artifact from contaminated electromyogram signal and has an acceptable result. PMID:25505766

  5. EMG-Torque Dynamics Change With Contraction Bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Mahsa A; Jalaleddini, Kian; Kearney, Robert E

    2018-04-01

    An accurate model for ElectroMyoGram (EMG)-torque dynamics has many uses. One of its applications which has gained high attention among researchers is its use, in estimating the muscle contraction level for the efficient control of prosthesis. In this paper, the dynamic relationship between the surface EMG and torque during isometric contractions at the human ankle was studied using system identification techniques. Subjects voluntarily modulated their ankle torque in dorsiflexion direction, by activating their tibialis anterior muscle, while tracking a pseudo-random binary sequence in a torque matching task. The effects of contraction bandwidth, described by torque spectrum, on EMG-torque dynamics were evaluated by varying the visual command switching time. Nonparametric impulse response functions (IRF) were estimated between the processed surface EMG and torque. It was demonstrated that: 1) at low contraction bandwidths, the identified IRFs had unphysiological anticipatory (i.e., non-causal) components, whose amplitude decreased as the contraction bandwidth increased. We hypothesized that this non-causal behavior arose, because the EMG input contained a component due to feedback from the output torque, i.e., it was recorded from within a closed-loop. Vision was not the feedback source since the non-causal behavior persisted when visual feedback was removed. Repeating the identification using a nonparametric closed-loop identification algorithm yielded causal IRFs at all bandwidths, supporting this hypothesis. 2) EMG-torque dynamics became faster and the bandwidth of system increased as contraction modulation rate increased. Thus, accurate prediction of torque from EMG signals must take into account the contraction bandwidth sensitivity of this system.

  6. A Simple Network to Remove Interference in Surface EMG Signal from Single Gene Affected Phenylketonuria Patients for Proper Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhusmita; Basu, Mousumi; Pattanayak, Deba Narayan; Mohapatra, Sumant Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Recently Autosomal Recessive Single Gene (ARSG) diseases are highly effective to the children within the age of 5-10 years. One of the most ARSG disease is a Phenylketonuria (PKU). This single gene disease is associated with mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, Gene 612349). Through this mutation process, PAH of the gene affected patient can not properly manufacture PAH as a result the patients suffer from decreased muscle tone which shows abnormality in EMG signal. Here the extraction of the quality of the PKU affected EMG (PKU-EMG) signal is a keen interest, so it is highly necessary to remove the added ECG signal as well as the biological and instrumental noises. In the Present paper we proposed a method for detection and classification of the PKU affected EMG signal. Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is implemented for extraction of the features of the PKU affected EMG signal. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) network is used for the classification of the signal. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) and Modified Genetic Algorithm (MGA) are used to train the ANFIS network. Simulation result shows that the proposed method gives better performance as compared to existing approaches. Also it gives better accuracy of 98.02% for the detection of PKU-EMG signal. The advantages of the proposed model is to use MGA and MPSO to train the parameters of ANFIS network for classification of ECG and EMG signal of PKU affected patients. The proposed method obtained the high SNR (18.13 ± 0.36 dB), SNR (0.52 ± 1.62 dB), RE (0.02 ± 0.32), MSE (0.64 ± 2.01), CC (0.99 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02), RMSE (0.75 ± 0.35) and MFRE (0.01 ± 0.02). From authors knowledge, this is the first time a composite method is used for diagnosis of PKU affected patients. The accuracy (98.02%), sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.59%) helps for proper clinical treatment. It can help for readers

  7. Latent Factors Limiting the Performance of sEMG-Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lobov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in recording and real-time analysis of surface electromyographic signals (sEMG have fostered the use of sEMG human–machine interfaces for controlling personal computers, prostheses of upper limbs, and exoskeletons among others. Despite a relatively high mean performance, sEMG-interfaces still exhibit strong variance in the fidelity of gesture recognition among different users. Here, we systematically study the latent factors determining the performance of sEMG-interfaces in synthetic tests and in an arcade game. We show that the degree of muscle cooperation and the amount of the body fatty tissue are the decisive factors in synthetic tests. Our data suggest that these factors can only be adjusted by long-term training, which promotes fine-tuning of low-level neural circuits driving the muscles. Short-term training has no effect on synthetic tests, but significantly increases the game scoring. This implies that it works at a higher decision-making level, not relevant for synthetic gestures. We propose a procedure that enables quantification of the gestures’ fidelity in a dynamic gaming environment. For each individual subject, the approach allows identifying “problematic” gestures that decrease gaming performance. This information can be used for optimizing the training strategy and for adapting the signal processing algorithms to individual users, which could be a way for a qualitative leap in the development of future sEMG-interfaces.

  8. Surface modification of recording electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaci Miranda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1 the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2 the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.

  9. Assessment of work-related muscle strain by using surface EMG during test contractions interposed between work periods of simulateted mushroom picking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohashi, Jun-Ya; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed

    2010-01-01

    Surface electromyograms(EMG) during test contractions (TCs) were studied to assess the muscle strain in simulated mushroom picking. Additionally, the duration of the TC for the effective assessment was investigated. Nine female subjects performed standardized shoulder abduction and a stooped...... posture for one minute as TCs. Each experiment consisted of a 60-min rest, three work periods (W1-W3), a 30-min rest, and two work periods (W4 and W5) separated by a 30-min rest period. The duration of each work period was about 20 min. A total of 18 TCs was performed between the work periods and every 10...

  10. Age related neuromuscular changes in sEMG of m. Tibialis Anterior using higher order statistics (Gaussianity & linearity test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2016-08-01

    Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment. The maximal power of the spectrum, Gaussianity and Linearity Test Statistics were computed from the simulated and experimental sEMG. A correlation analysis at α=0.05 was performed between the simulated and experimental age-related change in the sEMG features. The results show the loss in motor units was distinguished by the Gaussianity and Linearity test statistics; while the maximal power of the PSD distinguished between the muscular factors. The simulated condition of 40% loss of motor units with halved the number of fast fibers best correlated with the age-related change observed in the experimental sEMG higher order statistical features. The simulated aging condition found by this study corresponds with the moderate motor unit remodelling and negligible strength loss reported in literature for the cohorts aged 60-70 years.

  11. Natural mediotrusive contact: does it affect the masticatory and neck EMG activity during tooth grinding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Aler D; Martin, Conchita; Bull, Ricardo; Santander, Hugo; Gutiérrez, Mario F; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2016-07-01

    There is scarce knowledge regarding the influence of a natural mediotrusive contact on mandibular and cervical muscular activity. The purpose of this study was to analyze the EMG activity of the anterior temporalis (AT) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles during awake grinding in healthy subjects with or without a natural mediotrusive occlusal contact. Fifteen subjects with natural mediotrusive occlusal contact (Group 1) and 15 subjects without natural mediotrusive occlusal contact (Group 2) participated. Bilateral surface EMG activity of AT and SCM muscles was recorded during unilateral eccentric or concentric tooth grinding tasks. EMG activity was normalized against the activity recorded during maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position (IP) for AT muscles and during maximal intentional isometric head-neck rotation to each side, for SCM muscles. EMG activity of AT and SCM muscles showed no statistical difference between groups. EMG activity of AT muscle was higher in the working side (WS) than in the non-WS (NWS) in Group 1 during concentric grinding (0.492 vs 0.331, p = 0.047), whereas no difference was observed in Group 2. EMG activity of SCM was similar between working and NWSs in both groups and tasks. Asymmetry indexes (AIs) were not significantly different between groups. These findings in healthy subjects support the assumption that during awake tooth grinding, central nerve control predominates over peripheral inputs, and reinforce the idea of a functional link between the motor-neuron pools that control jaw and neck muscles.

  12. Evaluation of novel algorithm embedded in a wearable sEMG device for seizure detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Wolf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We implemented a modified version of a previously published algorithm for detection of generalized tonic-clonic seizures into a prototype wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) recording device. The method was modified to require minimum computational load, and two parameters were trained...... on prior sEMG data recorded with the device. Along with the normal sEMG recording, the device is able to set an alarm whenever the implemented algorithm detects a seizure. These alarms are annotated in the data file along with the signal. The device was tested at the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU......) at the Danish Epilepsy Center. Five patients were included in the study and two of them had generalized tonic-clonic seizures. All patients were monitored for 2–5 days. A double-blind study was made on the five patients. The overall result showed that the device detected four of seven seizures and had a false...

  13. EOG-sEMG Human Interface for Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroki; Yan, Mingmin; Sakurai, Keiko; Tanno, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present electrooculogram (EOG) and surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals that can be used as a human-computer interface. Establishing an efficient alternative channel for communication without overt speech and hand movements is important for increasing the quality of life for patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, or other illnesses. In this paper, we propose an EOG-sEMG human-computer interface system for communication using both cross-channels and parallel lines channels on the face with the same electrodes. This system could record EOG and sEMG signals as "dual-modality" for pattern recognition simultaneously. Although as much as 4 patterns could be recognized, dealing with the state of the patients, we only choose two classes (left and right motion) of EOG and two classes (left blink and right blink) of sEMG which are easily to be realized for simulation and monitoring task. From the simulation results, our system achieved four-pattern classification with an accuracy of 95.1%.

  14. Automated real-time detection of tonic-clonic seizures using a wearable EMG device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Henning, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of automated detection of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) using a wearable surface EMG device. METHODS: We prospectively tested the technical performance and diagnostic accuracy of real-time seizure detection using a wearable surface EMG device....... The seizure detection algorithm and the cutoff values were prespecified. A total of 71 patients, referred to long-term video-EEG monitoring, on suspicion of GTCS, were recruited in 3 centers. Seizure detection was real-time and fully automated. The reference standard was the evaluation of video-EEG recordings...

  15. Comparison of sEMG processing methods during whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhard, Karin; Cabasson, Aline; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the influence of surface electromyography (sEMG) processing methods on the quantification of muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises. sEMG activity was recorded while the participants performed squats on the platform with and without WBV. The spikes observed in the sEMG spectrum at the vibration frequency and its harmonics were deleted using state-of-the-art methods, i.e. (1) a band-stop filter, (2) a band-pass filter, and (3) spectral linear interpolation. The same filtering methods were applied on the sEMG during the no-vibration trial. The linear interpolation method showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficients (no vibration: 0.999, WBV: 0.757-0.979) with the comparison measure (unfiltered sEMG during the no-vibration trial), followed by the band-stop filter (no vibration: 0.929-0.975, WBV: 0.661-0.938). While both methods introduced a systematic bias (P interpolation method and the band-stop filter was comparable. The band-pass filter was in poor agreement with the other methods (ICC: 0.207-0.697), unless the sEMG(RMS) was corrected for the bias (ICC ⩾ 0.931, %LOA ⩽ 32.3). In conclusion, spectral linear interpolation or a band-stop filter centered at the vibration frequency and its multiple harmonics should be applied to delete the artifacts in the sEMG signals during WBV. With the use of a band-stop filter it is recommended to correct the sEMG(RMS) for the bias as this procedure improved its performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of sEMG assembly to detect external anal sphincter activity: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraz, Arsam; Leaker, Brian; Mosse, Charles Alexander; Solomon, Eskinder; Craggs, Michael; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2017-10-31

    Conditional trans-rectal stimulation of the pudendal nerve could provide a viable solution to treat hyperreflexive bladder in spinal cord injury. A set threshold of the amplitude estimate of the external anal sphincter surface electromyography (sEMG) may be used as the trigger signal. The efficacy of such a device should be tested in a large scale clinical trial. As such, a probe should remain in situ for several hours while patients attend to their daily routine; the recording electrodes should be designed to be large enough to maintain good contact while observing design constraints. The objective of this study was to arrive at a design for intra-anal sEMG recording electrodes for the subsequent clinical trials while deriving the possible recording and processing parameters. Having in mind existing solutions and based on theoretical and anatomical considerations, a set of four multi-electrode probes were designed and developed. These were tested in a healthy subject and the measured sEMG traces were recorded and appropriately processed. It was shown that while comparatively large electrodes record sEMG traces that are not sufficiently correlated with the external anal sphincter contractions, smaller electrodes may not maintain a stable electrode tissue contact. It was shown that 3 mm wide and 1 cm long electrodes with 5 mm inter-electrode spacing, in agreement with Nyquist sampling, placed 1 cm from the orifice may intra-anally record a sEMG trace sufficiently correlated with external anal sphincter activity. The outcome of this study can be used in any biofeedback, treatment or diagnostic application where the activity of the external anal sphincter sEMG should be detected for an extended period of time.

  17. Evaluation of muscle fatigue of wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury using recurrence quantification analysis of surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, S; Pourmoghaddam, A; Hieronymus, M; Thrasher, T A

    2012-11-01

    Wheelchair basketball is the most popular exercise activity among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular endurance and fatigue in wheelchair basketball athletes with SCI using surface electromyography (SEMG) and maximal torque values. SEMG characteristics of 10 wheelchair basketball players (WBP) were compared to 13 able-bodied basketball players and 12 sedentary able-bodied subjects. Participants performed sustained isometric elbow flexion at 50% maximal voluntary contraction until exhaustion. Elbow flexion torque and SEMG signals were recorded from three elbow flexor muscles: biceps brachii longus, biceps brachii brevis and brachioradialis. SEMG signals were clustered into 0.5-s epochs with 50% overlap. Root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) of SEMG signals were calculated for each muscle and epoch as traditional fatigue monitoring. Recurrence quantification analysis was used to extract the percentage of determinism (%DET) of SEMG signals. The slope of the %DET for basketball players and WBP showed slower increase with time than the sedentary able-bodied control group for three different elbow flexor muscles, while no difference was observed for the slope of the %DET between basketball and WBP. This result indicated that the athletes are less fatigable during the task effort than the nonathletes. Normalized MDF slope decay exhibited similar results between the groups as %DET, while the slope of the normalized RMS failed to show any significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). MDF and %DET could be useful for the evaluation of muscle fatigue in wheelchair basketball training. No conclusions about special training for WBP could be determined.

  18. EMG-Based Continuous and Simultaneous Estimation of Arm Kinematics in Able-Bodied Individuals and Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the potential biological signals for human-machine interactions (brain, nerve, and muscle signals, electromyography (EMG widely used in clinical setting can be obtained non-invasively as motor commands to control movements. The aim of this study was to develop a model for continuous and simultaneous decoding of multi-joint dynamic arm movements based on multi-channel surface EMG signals crossing the joints, leading to application of myoelectrically controlled exoskeleton robots for upper-limb rehabilitation. Twenty subjects were recruited for this study including 10 stroke subjects and 10 able-bodied subjects. The subjects performed free arm reaching movements in the horizontal plane with an exoskeleton robot. The shoulder, elbow and wrist movements and surface EMG signals from six muscles crossing the three joints were recorded. A non-linear autoregressive exogenous (NARX model was developed to continuously decode the shoulder, elbow and wrist movements based solely on the EMG signals. The shoulder, elbow and wrist movements were decoded accurately based only on the EMG inputs in all the subjects, with the variance accounted for (VAF > 98% for all three joints. The proposed approach is capable of simultaneously and continuously decoding multi-joint movements of the human arm by taking into account the non-linear mappings between the muscle EMGs and joint movements, which may provide less effortful control of robotic exoskeletons for rehabilitation training of individuals with neurological disorders and arm impairment.

  19. Fractal based modelling and analysis of electromyography (EMG) to identify subtle actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports the use of fractal theory and fractal dimension to study the non-linear properties of surface electromyogram (sEMG) and to use these properties to classify subtle hand actions. The paper reports identifying a new feature of the fractal dimension, the bias that has been found to be useful in modelling the muscle activity and of sEMG. Experimental results demonstrate that the feature set consisting of bias values and fractal dimension of the recordings is suitable for classification of sEMG against the different hand gestures. The scatter plots demonstrate the presence of simple relationships of these features against the four hand gestures. The results indicate that there is small inter-experimental variation but large inter-subject variation. This may be due to differences in the size and shape of muscles for different subjects. The possible applications of this research include use in developing prosthetic hands, controlling machines and computers.

  20. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at

  1. A sEMG model with experimentally based simulation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Katherine A; Shimada, Hiroshima; Kumar, Dinesh K; Arjunan, Sridhar P

    2010-01-01

    A differential, time-invariant, surface electromyogram (sEMG) model has been implemented. While it is based on existing EMG models, the novelty of this implementation is that it assigns more accurate distributions of variables to create realistic motor unit (MU) characteristics. Variables such as muscle fibre conduction velocity, jitter (the change in the interpulse interval between subsequent action potential firings) and motor unit size have been considered to follow normal distributions about an experimentally obtained mean. In addition, motor unit firing frequencies have been considered to have non-linear and type based distributions that are in accordance with experimental results. Motor unit recruitment thresholds have been considered to be related to the MU type. The model has been used to simulate single channel differential sEMG signals from voluntary, isometric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle. The model has been experimentally verified by conducting experiments on three subjects. Comparison between simulated signals and experimental recordings shows that the Root Mean Square (RMS) increases linearly with force in both cases. The simulated signals also show similar values and rates of change of RMS to the experimental signals.

  2. sEMG during Whole-Body Vibration Contains Motion Artifacts and Reflex Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lienhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excessive spikes observed in the surface electromyography (sEMG spectrum recorded during whole-body vibration (WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and/or reflex activity. The occurrence of motion artifacts was tested by electrical recordings of the patella. The involvement of reflex activity was investigated by analyzing the magnitude of the isolated spikes during changes in voluntary background muscle activity. Eighteen physically active volunteers performed static squats while the sEMG was measured of five lower limb muscles during vertical WBV using no load and an additional load of 33 kg. In order to record motion artifacts during WBV, a pair of electrodes was positioned on the patella with several layers of tape between skin and electrodes. Spectral analysis of the patella signal revealed recordings of motion artifacts as high peaks at the vibration frequency (fundamental and marginal peaks at the multiple harmonics were observed. For the sEMG recordings, the root mean square of the spikes increased with increasing additional loads (p < 0.05, and was significantly correlated to the sEMG signal without the spikes of the respective muscle (r range: 0.54 - 0.92, p < 0.05. This finding indicates that reflex activity might be contained in the isolated spikes, as identical behavior has been found for stretch reflex responses evoked during direct vibration. In conclusion, the spikes visible in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity.

  3. An evaluation of the utility and limitations of counting motor unit action potentials in the surface electromyogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Zev Rymer, William

    2004-12-01

    The number of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) appearing in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signal is directly related to motor unit recruitment and firing rates and therefore offers potentially valuable information about the level of activation of the motoneuron pool. In this paper, based on morphological features of the surface MUAPs, we try to estimate the number of MUAPs present in the surface EMG by counting the negative peaks in the signal. Several signal processing procedures are applied to the surface EMG to facilitate this peak counting process. The MUAP number estimation performance by this approach is first illustrated using the surface EMG simulations. Then, by evaluating the peak counting results from the EMG records detected by a very selective surface electrode, at different contraction levels of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles, the utility and limitations of such direct peak counts for MUAP number estimation in surface EMG are further explored.

  4. NCDC Surface Weather Records Inventory - 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alphabetic listing by state of all the aviation, synoptic, supplementary airways, and similar observations on file at NCDC from the beginning of the record through...

  5. Textile Electrodes Embedded in Clothing: A Practical Alternative to Traditional Surface Electromyography when Assessing Muscle Excitation during Functional Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi L. Colyer, Polly M. McGuigan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile electromyography (EMG electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. EMG signals were identically processed to provide average rectified EMG (normalized to walking and excitation length. Results were compared across measurement systems and demonstrated good agreement between the magnitude of muscle excitation when EMG activity was lower, but agreement was poorer when excitation was higher. The length of excitation bursts was consistently longer when measured using textile vs. surface EMG electrodes. Comparable between-session (day-to-day repeatability was found for average rectified EMG (mean coefficient of variation, CV: 42.6 and 41.2% and excitation length (CV: 12.9 and 9.8% when using textile and surface EMG, respectively. Additionally, similar within-session repeatability (CV was recorded for average rectified EMG (13.8 and 14.1% and excitation length (13.0 and 12.7% for textile and surface electrodes, respectively. Generally, textile EMG electrodes appear to be capable of providing comparable muscle excitation information and reproducibility to surface EMG during dynamic tasks. Textile EMG shorts could therefore be a practical alternative to traditional laboratory-based methods allowing muscle excitation information to be collected in more externally-valid training environments.

  6. Advanced biofeedback from surface electromyography signals using fuzzy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a fuzzy inference-based biofeedback system and investigate its effects when inducing active (shoulder elevation) and passive (relax) pauses on the trapezius muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work. Surface EMG signals were recorded from...

  7. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF ELECTROMYOGRAMS OF THE MASSETER, TEMPORALIS, AND ANTERIOR DIGASTRIC MUSCLES OBTAINED BY SURFACE AND INTRAMUSCULAR ELECTRODES - RAW-EMG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOLE, P; DEJONGH, HJ; BOERING, G

    Electromyographic activity was synchronously recorded by surface and intramuscular electrodes in the same muscle. The activity of the left masseter, left temporalis, and both bellies of the anterior digastric muscle was studied by this double registration technique. In rest position no

  8. Are chronic neck pain, scapular dyskinesis and altered scapulothoracic muscle activity interrelated?: A case-control study with surface and fine-wire EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Parlevliet, Thierry; Cagnie, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The function of the scapula is important in normal neck function and might be disturbed in patients with neck pain. The surrounding muscular system is important for the function of the scapula. To date, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of these scapulothoracic muscles. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate differences in deeper and superficial lying scapulothoracic muscle activity between patients with idiopathic neck pain and healthy controls during arm elevation, and to identify the influence of scapular dyskinesis on muscle activity. Scapular dyskinesis was rated with the yes/no method. The deeper lying (Levator Scapulae, Pectoralis Minor (Pm) and Rhomboid major) and superficial lying (Trapezius and Serratus Anterior) scapulothoracic muscles' activity was investigated with fine-wire and surface EMG, respectively, in 19 female subjects with idiopathic neck pain (age 28.3±10.1years, average duration of neck pain 45.6±36.3months) and 19 female healthy control subjects (age 29.3±11.7years) while performing scaption and towel wall slide. Possible interactions or differences between subject groups, scapular dyskinesis groups or phases of the task were studied with a linear mixed model. Higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide (p=0.024, mean difference 8.8±3.3% MVIC) was shown in patients with idiopathic neck pain in comparison with healthy controls. For the MT, a significant group∗dyskinesis interaction effect was found during scaption which revealed that patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower Middle Trapezius (MT) activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis (p=0.029, mean difference 5.1±2.2% MVIC). In the presence of idiopathic neck pain, higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide was found. Patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower MT activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis during scaption

  9. Design of microcontroller-based EMG and the analysis of EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Nihal Fatma; Hardalaç, Firat

    2002-04-01

    In this work, a microcontroller-based EMG designed and tested on 40 patients. When the patients are in rest, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis was applied to EMG signals recorded from right leg peroneal region. The histograms are constructed from the results of the FFT analysis. The analysis results shows that the amplitude of fibrillation potential of the muscle fiber of 30 patients measured from peroneal region is low and the duration is short. This is the reason why the motor nerves degenerated and 10 patients were found to be healthy.

  10. Muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb based on sEMG and subjective assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun

    2012-07-01

    All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.

  11. Knee joint angle affects EMG-force relationship in the vastus intermedius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Akima, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    It is not understood how the knee joint angle affects the relationship between electromyography (EMG) and force of four individual quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the knee joint angle on the EMG-force relationship of the four individual QF muscles, particularly the vastus intermedius (VI), during isometric knee extensions. Eleven healthy men performed 20-100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at knee joint angles of 90°, 120° and 150°. Surface EMG of the four QF synergists was recorded and normalized by the root mean square during MVC. The normalized EMG of the four QF synergists at a knee joint angle of 150° was significantly lower than that at 90° and 120° (P knee joint angle of 150°. Furthermore, the neuromuscular activation of the VI was the most sensitive to change in muscle length among the four QF synergistic muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  13. Power frequency spectrum analysis of surface EMG signals of upper limb muscles during elbow flexion - A comparison between healthy subjects and stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Silvija; Ribagin, Simeon; Raikova, Rositsa; Veneva, Ivanka

    2018-02-01

    After a stroke, motor units stop working properly and large, fast-twitch units are more frequently affected. Their impaired functions can be investigated during dynamic tasks using electromyographic (EMG) signal analysis. The aim of this paper is to investigate changes in the parameters of the power/frequency function during elbow flexion between affected, non-affected, and healthy muscles. Fifteen healthy subjects and ten stroke survivors participated in the experiments. Electromyographic data from 6 muscles of the upper limbs during elbow flexion were filtered and normalized to the amplitudes of EMG signals during maximal isometric tasks. The moments when motion started and when the flexion angle reached its maximal value were found. Equal intervals of 0.3407 s were defined between these two moments and one additional interval before the start of the flexion (first one) was supplemented. For each of these intervals the power/frequency function of EMG signals was calculated. The mean (MNF) and median frequencies (MDF), the maximal power (MPw) and the area under the power function (APw) were calculated. MNF was always higher than MDF. A significant decrease in these frequencies was found in only three post-stroke survivors. The frequencies in the first time interval were nearly always the highest among all intervals. The maximal power was nearly zero during first time interval and increased during the next ones. The largest values of MPw and APw were found for the flexor muscles and they increased for the muscles of the affected arm compared to the non-affected one of stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. To What Extent Is Mean EMG Frequency during Gait a Reflection of Functional Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, L.; Wambacq, H.; Aertbelien, E.; Meyns, P.; Bruyninckx, H.; Bar-On, L.; Molenaers, G.; De Cock, P.; Desloovere, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to analyze the potential of the mean EMG frequency, recorded during 3D gait analysis (3DGA), for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). As walking velocity is known to also influence EMG frequency, it was investigated to which extent the mean EMG frequency is a reflection…

  15. Review: Painless EMG in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammadi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to new techniques in Pediatric Neurology , nowadays we are more able to detect and differentiate different diseases of the nerves and muscles in children . Although these techniques are sometimes more sensitive and specific than EMG in children, but EMG and NCV study has its specific role in pediatric neurology and this is because of more availability and feasibility of these tests in children . One of the main Limitations of EMG techniques especially in pediatric age group is the pain induced by the insertion of needle electrodes into muscle as well as electrical stimulations needed to do NCV and other studies. So, all the experts in the field are trying to find some methods to reduce the pain induced by this technique . I have tried to introduce some of these methods after a brief explanation about pediatric EMG technique.

  16. Optimal Elbow Angle for Extracting sEMG Signals During Fatiguing Dynamic Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Al-Mulla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyographic (sEMG activity of the biceps muscle was recorded from 13 subjects. Data was recorded while subjects performed dynamic contraction until fatigue and the signals were segmented into two parts (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue. An evolutionary algorithm was used to determine the elbow angles that best separate (using Davies-Bouldin Index, DBI both Non-Fatigue and Fatigue segments of the sEMG signal. Establishing the optimal elbow angle for feature extraction used in the evolutionary process was based on 70% of the conducted sEMG trials. After completing 26 independent evolution runs, the best run containing the optimal elbow angles for separation (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue was selected and then tested on the remaining 30% of the data to measure the classification performance. Testing the performance of the optimal angle was undertaken on nine features extracted from each of the two classes (Non-Fatigue and Fatigue to quantify the performance. Results showed that the optimal elbow angles can be used for fatigue classification, showing 87.90% highest correct classification for one of the features and on average of all eight features (including worst performing features giving 78.45%.

  17. EMG changes in thigh and calf muscles in fin swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Y; Delliaux, S; Coulange, M; Jammes, C; Kipson, N; Brerro-Saby, C; Bregeon, F

    2010-08-01

    Because previous researchers have reported a reduced lactic acid production that accompanies a delayed or an absent ventilatory threshold (VTh) in water-based exercise, we hypothesized that the metaboreflex, activated by muscle acidosis, might be absent in fin swimming. This motor response, delaying the occurrence of fatigue, is characterized by a decreased median frequency (MF) of electromyographic (EMG) power spectrum. Seven healthy subjects performed a maximal fin swimming exercise protocol with simultaneous recordings of surface EMGs in VASTUS MEDIALIS (VM), TIBIALIS ANTERIOR (TA) and GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS (GM). We computed the root mean square (RMS) and MF and recorded the compound evoked muscle potential (M-wave) in VM. We also measured the propulsive force and oxygen uptake (VO (2)), and determined VTh. VTh was absent in 4/7 subjects and measured at 70-90% of VO (2max) in the other three. In the three studied muscles, the global EMG activity (RMS) increased while the MF decreased in proportion of VO (2), the MF changes being significantly higher in VM (-29%) and GM (-39%) than in TA (-19%). Because no M-wave changes were noted, the MF decline was attributed to the recruitment of low-frequency, fatigue-resistant motor units. Our most important finding is the persistence of the metaboreflex even in a situation of reduced muscle acidosis. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  18. A frequency and pulse-width co-modulation strategy for transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation based on sEMG time-domain features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Wang, Hai-Peng; Bao, Xue-Liang; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Gong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is often used as a control signal in neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) systems to enhance the voluntary control and proprioceptive sensory feedback of paralyzed patients. Most sEMG-controlled NMES systems use the envelope of the sEMG signal to modulate the stimulation intensity (current amplitude or pulse width) with a constant frequency. The aims of this study were to develop a strategy that co-modulates frequency and pulse width based on features of the sEMG signal and to investigate the torque-reproduction performance and the level of fatigue resistance achieved with our strategy. Approach. We examined the relationships between wrist torque and two stimulation parameters (frequency and pulse width) and between wrist torque and two sEMG time-domain features (mean absolute value (MAV) and number of slope sign changes (NSS)) in eight healthy volunteers. By using wrist torque as an intermediate variable, customized and generalized transfer functions were constructed to convert the two features of the sEMG signal into the two stimulation parameters, thereby establishing a MAV/NSS dual-coding (MNDC) algorithm. Wrist torque reproduction performance was assessed by comparing the torque generated by the algorithms with that originally recorded during voluntary contractions. Muscle fatigue was assessed by measuring the decline percentage of the peak torque and by comparing the torque time integral of the response to test stimulation trains before and after fatigue sessions. Main Results. The MNDC approach could produce a wrist torque that closely matched the voluntary wrist torque. In addition, a smaller decay in the wrist torque was observed after the MNDC-coded fatigue stimulation was applied than after stimulation using pulse-width modulation alone. Significance. Compared with pulse-width modulation stimulation strategies that are based on sEMG detection, the MNDC strategy is more effective for both voluntary muscle

  19. Mandibular kinematics and masticatory muscles EMG in patients with short lasting TMD of mild-moderate severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felício, Cláudia Maria; Mapelli, Andrea; Sidequersky, Fernanda Vincia; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Sforza, Chiarella

    2013-06-01

    Mandibular kinematic and standardized surface electromyography (sEMG) characteristics of masticatory muscles of subjects with short lasting TMD of mild-moderate severity were examined. Volunteers were submitted to clinical examination and questionnaire of severity. Ten subjects with TMD (age 27.3years, SD 7.8) and 10 control subjects without TMD, matched by age, were selected. Mandibular movements were recorded during free maximum mouth opening and closing (O-C) and unilateral, left and right, gum chewing. sEMG of the masseter and temporal muscles was performed during maximum teeth clenching either on cotton rolls or in intercuspal position, and during gum chewing. sEMG indices were obtained. Subjects with TMD, relative to control subjects, had lower relative mandibular rotation at the end of mouth opening, larger mean number of intersection between interincisal O-C paths during mastication and smaller asymmetry between working and balancing side, with participation beyond the expected of the contralateral muscles (Pkinematic parameters and the EMG indices of the static test, although some changes in the mastication were observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Masticatory Muscle Sleep Background EMG Activity is Elevated in Myofascial TMD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Karen G.; Janal, Malvin N.; Sirois, David A.; Dubrovsky, Boris; Wigren, Pia E.; Klausner, Jack J.; Krieger, Ana C.; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical speculation and strong clinical belief, recent research using laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording has provided new evidence that frequency of sleep bruxism (SB) masseter muscle events, including grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep, is not increased for women with chronic myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The current case-control study compares a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n=124) with a demographically matched control group without TMD (n=46) on sleep background electromyography (EMG) during a laboratory PSG study. Background EMG activity was measured as EMG root mean square (RMS) from the right masseter muscle after lights out. Sleep background EMG activity was defined as EMG RMS remaining after activity attributable to SB, other orofacial activity, other oromotor activity and movement artifacts were removed. Results indicated that median background EMG during these non SB-event periods was significantly higher (pcases exceeding control activity. Moreover, for TMD cases, background EMG was positively associated and SB event-related EMG was negatively associated with pain intensity ratings (0–10 numerical scale) on post sleep waking. These data provide the foundation for a new focus on small, but persistent, elevations in sleep EMG activity over the course of the night as a mechanism of pain induction or maintenance. PMID:24237356

  1. Differences in the EMG pattern of lea muscle activation during locomotion in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albani, G; Sandrini, G; Kunig, G; Martin-Soelch, C; Mauro, A; Pignatti, R; Pacchetti, C; Dietz, [No Value; Leenders, KL

    2003-01-01

    In this pilot study, EMG patterns of leg muscle activation were studied in five parkinsonian patients with (B1) and five without (B2) freezing. Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and tibialis anterior (TA) activity was analysed, by means of surface electromyography (EMG), during treadmill walking at two

  2. Boundary element analysis of the directional sensitivity of the concentric EMG electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, K A; Plonsey, R

    1993-07-01

    Assessment of the motor unit architecture based on concentric electrode motor unit potentials requires a thorough understanding of the recording characteristics of the concentric EMG electrode. Previous simulation studies have attempted to include the effect of EMG electrodes on the recorded waveforms by uniformly averaging the tissue potential at the coordinates of one- or two-dimensional electrode models. By employing the boundary element method, this paper improves earlier models of the concentric EMG electrode by including an accurate geometric representation of the electrode, as well as the mutual electrical influence between the electrode surfaces. A three-dimensional sensitivity function is defined from which information about the preferential direction of sensitivity, blind spots, phase changes, rate of attenuation, and range of pick-up radius can be derived. The study focuses on the intrinsic features linked to the geometry of the electrode. The results show that the cannula perturbs the potential distribution significantly. The core and the cannula electrodes measure potentials of the same order of magnitude in all of the pick-up range, except adjacent to the central wire, where the latter dominates the sensitivity function. The preferential directions of sensitivity are determined by the amount of geometric offset between the individual sensitivity functions of the core and the cannula. The sensitivity function also reveals a complicated pattern of phase changes in the pick-up range. Potentials from fibers located behind the tip or along the cannula are recorded with reversed polarity compared to those located in front of the tip. Rotation of the electrode about its axis was found to alter the duration, the peak-to-peak amplitude, and the rise time of waveforms recorded from a moving dipole.

  3. Simultaneous EEG and EMG biofeedback for peak performance in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Georgiev, Dejan

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alpha neurofeedback and EMG biofeedback protocols for improvement of musical performance in violinists. The sample consisted of 12 music students (10 violinists and 2 viola players) from the Faculty of Music, Skopje (3 males, mean age of 20 +/- 0 and 9 females, mean age = 20.89 +/- 2.98). Six of them had a low alpha peak frequency (APF) ( 10 Hz). The sample was randomized in two groups. The students from the experimental group participated in 20 sessions of biofeedback (alpha/EMG), combined with music practice, while the students from the control group did only music practice. Average absolute power, interhemispheric coherence in the alpha band, alpha peak frequency (APF), individual alpha band width (IABW), amount of alpha suppression (AAS) and surface forehead integrated EMG power (IEMG), as well as a score on musical performance and inventories measuring anxiety, were assessed. Alpha-EEG/EMG-biofeedback was associated with a significant increase in average alpha power, APF and IABW in all the participants and with decreases in IEMG only in high-APF musicians. The biofeedback training success was positively correlated with the alpha power, IcoH, APF, IABW and baseline level of APF and IABW. Alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback is capable of increasing voluntary self-regulation and the quality of musical performance. The efficiency of biofeedback training depends on the baseline EEG alpha activity status, in particular the APF.

  4. Emg Signal Analysis of Healthy and Neuropathic Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Sayed, Tabassum; Garg, Ridhi; Shreyam, Richa

    2017-08-01

    Electromyography is a method to evaluate levels of muscle activity. When a muscle contracts, an action potential is generated and this circulates along the muscular fibers. In electromyography, electrodes are connected to the skin and the electrical activity of muscles is measured and graph is plotted. The surface EMG signals picked up during the muscular activity are interfaced with a system. The EMG signals from individual suffering from Neuropathy and healthy individual, so obtained, are processed and analyzed using signal processing techniques. This project includes the investigation and interpretation of EMG signals of healthy and Neuropathic individuals using MATLAB. The prospective use of this study is in developing the prosthetic device for the people with Neuropathic disability.

  5. Stretchable human-machine interface based on skin-conformal sEMG electrodes with self-similar geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wentao; Zhu, Chen; Hu, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Huang, Yong'an

    2018-01-01

    Current stretchable surface electrodes have attracted increasing attention owing to their potential applications in biological signal monitoring, wearable human-machine interfaces (HMIs) and the Internet of Things. The paper proposed a stretchable HMI based on a surface electromyography (sEMG) electrode with a self-similar serpentine configuration. The sEMG electrode was transfer-printed onto the skin surface conformally to monitor biological signals, followed by signal classification and controlling of a mobile robot. Such electrodes can bear rather large deformation (such as >30%) under an appropriate areal coverage. The sEMG electrodes have been used to record electrophysiological signals from different parts of the body with sharp curvature, such as the index finger, back of the neck and face, and they exhibit great potential for HMI in the fields of robotics and healthcare. The electrodes placed onto the two wrists would generate two different signals with the fist clenched and loosened. It is classified to four kinds of signals with a combination of the gestures from the two wrists, that is, four control modes. Experiments demonstrated that the electrodes were successfully used as an HMI to control the motion of a mobile robot remotely. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51635007, 91323303).

  6. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  7. Effect of a jig on EMG activity in different orofacial pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodere, Celine; Woda, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The bite stop (jig) is commonly used in clinical practice. It has been recommended as a simple means to routinely record or provide centric relation closure and, more recently, to reduce migraines and tension-type headaches. However, the reason for the jig effect has yet to be explained. This study tested the hypothesis that it works through a decrease in masticatory muscle activity. The effect of a jig placed on the maxillary anterior teeth was investigated by recording the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the superficial masseter and anterior temporal muscles at postural position and when swallowing on the jig. EMG recordings were obtained from 2 groups of pain patients (myofascial and neuropathic) and from 2 groups of pain-free patients (disc derangement and controls) unaware of the role of dental occlusion treatments. EMG activity in postural position was higher in pain groups than in pain-free groups. The jig strongly but temporarily decreased the postural EMG activity for masseter muscles in all groups except for the neuropathic group and for temporal muscles in the myofascial group. The EMG activity when swallowing with the jig was reduced in control, disc derangement, and myofascial groups; however, EMG "hyperactivity" in the neuropathic pain group seemed to be locked. The decrease of postural EMG activity, especially in the myofascial group, was short lasting and cannot be considered as evidence to support the hypothesis of a long-term muscle relaxation jig effect. However, the results may uphold certain short-term clinical approaches.

  8. Behaviour of a surface EMG based measure for motor control: Motor unit action potential rate in relation to force and muscle fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2008-01-01

    Surface electromyography parameters such as root-mean-square value (RMS) and median power frequency (FMED) are commonly used to assess the input of the central nervous system (CNS) to a muscle. However, RMS and FMED are influenced not only by CNS input, but also by peripheral muscle properties. The

  9. Simultaneous recording of EEG and electromyographic polygraphy increases the diagnostic yield of video-EEG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aron T; Briggs, Belinda A; Seneviratne, Udaya

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of adjunctive electromyographic (EMG) polygraphy in the diagnosis of clinical events captured during long-term video-EEG monitoring. A total of 40 patients (21 women, 19 men) aged between 19 and 72 years (mean 43) investigated using video-EEG monitoring were studied. Electromyographic activity was simultaneously recorded with EEG in four patients selected on clinical grounds. In these patients, surface EMG electrodes were placed over muscles suspected to be activated during a typical clinical event. Of the 40 patients investigated, 24 (60%) were given a diagnosis, whereas 16 (40%) remained undiagnosed. All four patients receiving adjunctive EMG polygraphy obtained a diagnosis, with three of these diagnoses being exclusively reliant on the EMG recordings. Specifically, one patient was diagnosed with propriospinal myoclonus, another patient was diagnosed with facio-mandibular myoclonus, and a third patient was found to have bruxism and periodic leg movements of sleep. The information obtained from surface EMG recordings aided the diagnosis of clinical events captured during video-EEG monitoring in 7.5% of the total cohort. This study suggests that EEG-EMG polygraphy may be used as a technique of improving the diagnostic yield of video-EEG monitoring in selected cases.

  10. Recognition of grasp types through principal components of DWT based EMG features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoty, Nayan M; Hazarika, Shyamanta M

    2011-01-01

    With the advancement in machine learning and signal processing techniques, electromyogram (EMG) signals have increasingly gained importance in man-machine interaction. Multifingered hand prostheses using surface EMG for control has appeared in the market. However, EMG based control is still rudimentary, being limited to a few hand postures based on higher number of EMG channels. Moreover, control is non-intuitive, in the sense that the user is required to learn to associate muscle remnants actions to unrelated posture of the prosthesis. Herein lies the promise of a low channel EMG based grasp classification architecture for development of an embedded intelligent prosthetic controller. This paper reports classification of six grasp types used during 70% of daily living activities based on two channel forearm EMG. A feature vector through principal component analysis of discrete wavelet transform coefficients based features of the EMG signal is derived. Classification is through radial basis function kernel based support vector machine following preprocessing and maximum voluntary contraction normalization of EMG signals. 10-fold cross validation is done. We have achieved an average recognition rate of 97.5%. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system (RSSAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barren, E.; Bracco, A.; Dorn, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose is to develop a rapid surface (concrete, steel) contamination measurement system that will provide a ''quick-look'' indication of contamination areas, an archival record, and an automated analysis. A bulk sampling oven is also being developed. The sampling device consists of a sampling head, a quick look detector, and an archiving system (sorbent tube). The head thermally desorbs semi-volatiles, such as PCBs, oils, etc., from concrete and steel surfaces; the volatilized materials are passed through a quick-look detector. Sensitivity of the detector can be attenuated for various contaminant levels. Volatilized materials are trapped in a tube filled with adsorbent. The tubes are housed in a magazine which also archives information about sampling conditions. Analysis of the tubes can be done at a later date. The concrete sampling head is fitted with a tungsten-halogen lamp; in laboratory experiments it has extracted model contaminants by heating the top 4mm of the surface to 250 C within 100-200 s. The steel sampling head has been tested on different types of steels and has extracted model contaminants within 30 s. A mathematical model of heat and mass transport in concrete has been developed. Rate of contaminant removal is at maximum when the moisture content is about 100 kg/m 3 . The system will be useful during decontamination and decommissioning operations

  12. EMG BioanalyzerBR para a análise de sinais eletromiográficos na deglutição EMG BioanalyzerBR for analyzing electromyographic signals when swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Feodrippe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever as etapas de construção do EMG BioanalyzerBR (versão 1.0 e demonstrar a sua aplicabilidade na análise de parâmetros fornecidos pela eletromiografia de superfície (EMGs. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo descritivo do software de análise desenvolvido para analisar parâmetros obtidos na eletromiografia de superfície de músculos envolvidos na deglutição. Este software foi escrito em um ambiente de desenvolvimento utilizado por pesquisadores do mundo todo, de fácil acessibilidade e programação: o SCILAB. RESULTADOS: esta ferramenta se mostrou eficaz para a análise e transferência de dados nos registros curtos, contendo em média 10s de duração, porém para registros mais longos com duração maior que 20s apresentou falhas que não prejudicaram o cálculo após algumas tentativas. CONCLUSÃO: apesar das dificuldades, O EMG BioanalyzerBR possibilitou a realização das marcações canal por canal e quantas marcações fossem necessárias de forma simultânea,e desta forma a tabulação dos dados ficou mais rápida e com margem de falhas humanas reduzidas, porém com necessidade de aprimoramentos para a versão 2.0.PURPOSE: to describe the construction phases of EMG BioanalyzerBR (version 1.0 and demonstrate its applicability in analyzing parameters provided by surface electromyography (EMG. METHOD: it is a descriptive analysis software developed in order to analyze the parameters obtained in surface electromyography of muscles involved in swallowing. This software was written in a development environment used by worldwide researchers, with easy accessibility and programming: Scilab. RESULTS: this tool has proved effective for analyzing transferring short data records, having on average 10 seconds duration, but for with longest periods above 20s there were some failures that did not harm the calculation after a few tries. CONCLUSION: despite the difficulties, EMG BioanalyzerBR fostered the development of channel

  13. A Study on EMG-based Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Su Kim; Sung Bum Pan

    2017-01-01

    Biometrics is a technology that recognizes user's information by using unique physical features of his or her body such as face, fingerprint, and iris. It also uses behavioral features such as signature, electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalogram (EEG). Among them, the EMG signal is a sign generated when the muscles move, which can be used in various fields such as motion recognition, personal identification, and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we analyze EMG-ba...

  14. EMG patterns during assisted walking in the exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eSylos-Labini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic technology and robotic exoskeletons are being developed to facilitate stepping, reduce muscle efforts and promote motor recovery. Nevertheless, the guidance forces of an exoskeleton may influence the sensory inputs, sensorimotor interactions and resulting muscle activity patterns during stepping. The aim of this study was to report the muscle activation patterns in a sample of intact and injured subjects while walking with a robotic exoskeleton and, in particular, to quantify the level of muscle activity during assisted gait. We recorded electromyographic (EMG activity of different leg and arm muscles during overground walking in an exoskeleton in six healthy individuals and four spinal cord injury (SCI participants. In SCI patients, EMG activity of the upper limb muscles was augmented while activation of leg muscles was typically small. Contrary to our expectations, however, in neurologically intact subjects, EMG activity of leg muscles was similar or even larger during exoskeleton-assisted walking compared to normal overground walking. In addition, significant variations in the EMG waveforms were found across different walking conditions. The most variable pattern was observed in the hamstring muscles. Overall, the results are consistent with a non-linear reorganization of the locomotor output when using the robotic stepping devices. The findings may contribute to our understanding of human-machine interactions and adaptation of locomotor activity patterns.

  15. EMG patterns during assisted walking in the exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; La Scaleia, Valentina; d'Avella, Andrea; Pisotta, Iolanda; Tamburella, Federica; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Molinari, Marco; Wang, Shiqian; Wang, Letian; van Asseldonk, Edwin; van der Kooij, Herman; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cheron, Guy; Thorsteinsson, Freygardur; Ilzkovitz, Michel; Gancet, Jeremi; Hauffe, Ralf; Zanov, Frank; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic technology and robotic exoskeletons are being developed to facilitate stepping, reduce muscle efforts, and promote motor recovery. Nevertheless, the guidance forces of an exoskeleton may influence the sensory inputs, sensorimotor interactions and resulting muscle activity patterns during stepping. The aim of this study was to report the muscle activation patterns in a sample of intact and injured subjects while walking with a robotic exoskeleton and, in particular, to quantify the level of muscle activity during assisted gait. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity of different leg and arm muscles during overground walking in an exoskeleton in six healthy individuals and four spinal cord injury (SCI) participants. In SCI patients, EMG activity of the upper limb muscles was augmented while activation of leg muscles was typically small. Contrary to our expectations, however, in neurologically intact subjects, EMG activity of leg muscles was similar or even larger during exoskeleton-assisted walking compared to normal overground walking. In addition, significant variations in the EMG waveforms were found across different walking conditions. The most variable pattern was observed in the hamstring muscles. Overall, the results are consistent with a non-linear reorganization of the locomotor output when using the robotic stepping devices. The findings may contribute to our understanding of human-machine interactions and adaptation of locomotor activity patterns. PMID:24982628

  16. The effect of experimental stress and experimental occlusal interference on masseteric EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, F D; Bichajian, C; Tira, D E; Lundeen, H C; Mahan, P E; Nicholas, B V

    1989-01-01

    This experiment attempted to study the separate and combined effects of occlusal interference and transient stress on masseteric activity among eight nonclinical human subjects. Before each of two sessions, subjects were fitted with an occlusal interference or an occlusally inert (control) molar clasp. During each session they viewed horrific and idyllic videotapes while masseter EMG was recorded bilaterally. Electrodermal measures validated that the horrific videotapes were stressful. Studies showed that the occlusal variable worked less well. The EMG was elevated contralateral to both clasps and during videotape viewing. The EMG effects from videotape viewing were relatively pronounced without the occlusal interference. Research implications are discussed.

  17. An implementation of movement classification for prosthesis control using custom-made EMG system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejić Luka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromyography (EMG is a well known technique used for recording electrical activity produced by human muscles. In the last few decades, EMG signals are used as a control input for prosthetic hands. There are several multifunctional myoelectric prosthetic hands for amputees on the market, but so forth, none of these devices permits the natural control of more than two degrees of freedom. In this paper we present our implementation of the pattern classification using custom made components (electrodes and an embedded EMG amplifier. The components were evaluated in offline and online tests, in able bodied as well as amputee subjects. This type of control is based on computing the time domain features of the EMG signals recorded from the forearm and using these features as input for a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA classifier estimating the intention of the prosthetic user. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III - 41007

  18. Comparative study of PCA in classification of multichannel EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, P

    2015-06-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) signals are abundantly used in the field of rehabilitation engineering in controlling the prosthetic device and significantly essential to find fast and accurate EMG pattern recognition system, to avoid intrusive delay. The main objective of this paper is to study the influence of Principal component analysis (PCA), a transformation technique, in pattern recognition of six hand movements using four channel surface EMG signals from ten healthy subjects. For this reason, time domain (TD) statistical as well as auto regression (AR) coefficients are extracted from the four channel EMG signals. The extracted statistical features as well as AR coefficients are transformed using PCA to 25, 50 and 75 % of corresponding original feature vector space. The classification accuracy of PCA transformed and non-PCA transformed TD statistical features as well as AR coefficients are studied with simple logistic regression (SLR), decision tree (DT) with J48 algorithm, logistic model tree (LMT), k nearest neighbor (kNN) and neural network (NN) classifiers in the identification of six different movements. The Kruskal-Wallis (KW) statistical test shows that there is a significant reduction (P PCA transformed features compared to non-PCA transformed features. SLR with non-PCA transformed time domain (TD) statistical features performs better in accuracy and computational power compared to other features considered in this study. In addition, the motion control of three drives for six movements of the hand is implemented with SLR using TD statistical features in off-line with TMSLF2407 digital signal controller (DSC).

  19. An ICA-EBM-Based sEMG Classifier for Recognizing Lower Limb Movements in Individuals With and Without Knee Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Selvan, S Easter; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Acharyya, Amit; Kumar, Dinesh K; Ramanujam, Arvind; Nguyen, Hung T

    2018-03-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) data acquired during lower limb movements has the potential for investigating knee pathology. Nevertheless, a major challenge encountered with sEMG signals generated by lower limb movements is the intersubject variability, because the signals recorded from the leg or thigh muscles are contingent on the characteristics of a subject such as gait activity and muscle structure. In order to cope with this difficulty, we have designed a three-step classification scheme. First, the multichannel sEMG is decomposed into activities of the underlying sources by means of independent component analysis via entropy bound minimization. Next, a set of time-domain features, which would best discriminate various movements, are extracted from the source estimates. Finally, the feature selection is performed with the help of the Fisher score and a scree-plot-based statistical technique, prior to feeding the dimension-reduced features to the linear discriminant analysis. The investigation involves 11 healthy subjects and 11 individuals with knee pathology performing three different lower limb movements, namely, walking, sitting, and standing, which yielded an average classification accuracy of 96.1% and 86.2%, respectively. While the outcome of this study per se is very encouraging, with suitable improvement, the clinical application of such an sEMG-based pattern recognition system that distinguishes healthy and knee pathological subjects would be an attractive consequence.

  20. Evaluation of jaw and neck muscle activities while chewing using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG-EMG

  1. Processing of Natural Signals like EMG for Person Identification using NUFB-GMM

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh M; P G Krishnamohan; Mallikarjun S Holi

    2014-01-01

    Physiological signals like Electrocardiogram(ECG) and Electroencephalogram(EEG), including deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) are person specific and distinct for different persons. The motor unit firing pattern, motor unit recruitment order and characteristics of muscle changing from person to person, and therefore Electromyogram (EMG) can be used for person identification. EMG records obtained from a single channel data acquisition system are used to develop person identification system. Non-unifor...

  2. Effect of vibrotactile feedback on an EMG-based proportional cursor control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunchong; Chen, Xingyu; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) has been introduced into the bio-mechatronics systems, however, most of them are lack of the sensory feedback. In this paper, the effect of vibrotactile feedback for a myoelectric cursor control system is investigated quantitatively. Simultaneous and proportional control signals are extracted from EMG using a muscle synergy model. Different types of feedback including vibrotactile feedback and visual feedback are added, assessed and compared with each other. The results show that vibrotactile feedback is capable of improving the performance of EMG-based human machine interface.

  3. EMG biofeedback training in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: An active (control) training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Beatrix; Mayer, Kerstin; Strehl, Ute; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2017-06-30

    The present study aimed at revealing neurophysiological effects induced by electromyography (EMG) based biofeedback, considered as a semi-active control condition in neurofeedback studies, in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. 20 adult ADHD patients trained their muscle activity in the left and right supraspinatus muscle over the course of 30 EMG biofeedback sessions. Changes induced by the EMG feedback were evaluated at a clinical and neurophysiological level; additionally, the relation between changes in EEG activity recorded at the vertex over the training course and changes of symptom severity over the treatment course were assessed in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback. Participants showed significant behavioral improvements on a self-rating scale. There was a significant increase in alpha power, but no significant changes in the delta frequency range; changes in the theta and beta frequency range were not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. No statistically significant correlation was found between changes in EEG frequency bands and changes in ADHD symptoms. The current results assessed by means of a single-electrode EEG constitute a starting point regarding a clearer understanding of mechanisms underlying clinical effects of EMG biofeedback. Although we did not reveal systematic effects induced by EMG feedback on brain activity it remains an open question whether EMG biofeedback induces changes in brain regions or parameters we did not gather in the present study (e.g. motor cortex). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A computational model to investigate the effect of pennation angle on surface electromyogram of Tibialis Anterior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diptasree Maitra Ghosh

    Full Text Available This study has described and experimentally validated the differential electrodes surface electromyography (sEMG model for tibialis anterior muscles during isometric contraction. This model has investigated the effect of pennation angle on the simulated sEMG signal. The results show that there is no significant effect of pennation angle in the range 0° to 20° to the single fibre action potential shape recorded on the skin surface. However, the changes with respect to pennation angle are observed in sEMG amplitude, frequency and fractal dimension. It is also observed that at different levels of muscle contractions there is similarity in the relationships with Root Mean Square, Median Frequency, and Fractal Dimension of the recorded and simulated sEMG signals.

  5. EMG analysis tuned for determining the timing and level of activation in different motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sabrina S M; Miara, Maria de Boef; Arnold, Allison S; Biewener, Andrew A; Wakeling, James M

    2011-08-01

    Recruitment patterns and activation dynamics of different motor units greatly influence the temporal pattern and magnitude of muscle force development, yet these features are not often considered in muscle models. The purpose of this study was to characterize the recruitment and activation dynamics of slow and fast motor units from electromyographic (EMG) recordings and twitch force profiles recorded directly from animal muscles. EMG and force data from the gastrocnemius muscles of seven goats were recorded during in vivo tendon-tap reflex and in situ nerve stimulation experiments. These experiments elicited EMG signals with significant differences in frequency content (p<0.001). The frequency content was characterized using wavelet and principal components analysis, and optimized wavelets with centre frequencies, 149.94 Hz and 323.13 Hz, were obtained. The optimized wavelets were used to calculate the EMG intensities and, with the reconstructed twitch force profiles, to derive transfer functions for slow and fast motor units that estimate the activation state of the muscle from the EMG signal. The resulting activation-deactivation time constants gave r values of 0.98-0.99 between the activation state and the force profiles. This work establishes a framework for developing improved muscle models that consider the intrinsic properties of slow and fast fibres within a mixed muscle, and that can more accurately predict muscle force output from EMG. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface electromyographic amplitude does not identify differences in neural drive to synergistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Negro, Francesco; Falla, Deborah; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Farina, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Surface electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude is typically used to compare the neural drive to muscles. We experimentally investigated this association by studying the motor unit (MU) behavior and action potentials in the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. Eighteen participants performed isometric knee extensions at four target torques [10, 30, 50, and 70% of the maximum torque (MVC)] while high-density EMG signals were recorded from the VM and VL. The absolute EMG amplitude was greater for VM than VL ( P differences in EMG amplitude can be due to both differences in the neural drive and in the size of the MU action potentials, we indirectly inferred the neural drives received by the two muscles by estimating the synaptic inputs received by the corresponding motor neuron pools. For this purpose, we analyzed the increase in discharge rate from recruitment to target torque for motor units matched by recruitment threshold in the two muscles. This analysis indicated that the two muscles received similar levels of neural drive. Nonetheless, the size of the MU action potentials was greater for VM than VL ( P difference explained most of the differences in EMG amplitude between the two muscles (~63% of explained variance). These results indicate that EMG amplitude, even following normalization, does not reflect the neural drive to synergistic muscles. Moreover, absolute EMG amplitude is mainly explained by the size of MU action potentials. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude is widely used to compare indirectly the strength of neural drive received by synergistic muscles. However, there are no studies validating this approach with motor unit data. Here, we compared between-muscles differences in surface EMG amplitude and motor unit behavior. The results clarify the limitations of surface EMG to interpret differences in neural drive between muscles.

  7. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Ocean Near Surface Atmospheric Properties, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Ocean Surface Bundle (OSB) Climate Data Record (CDR) consist of three parts: sea surface temperature; near-surface wind speed, air temperature, and specific...

  8. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature - WHOI, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Ocean Surface Bundle (OSB) Climate Data Record (CDR) consist of three parts: sea surface temperature, near-surface atmospheric properties, and heat fluxes....

  9. Comparison of sEMG-Based Feature Extraction and Motion Classification Methods for Upper-Limb Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface electromyography (sEMG technique is proposed for muscle activation detection and intuitive control of prostheses or robot arms. Motion recognition is widely used to map sEMG signals to the target motions. One of the main factors preventing the implementation of this kind of method for real-time applications is the unsatisfactory motion recognition rate and time consumption. The purpose of this paper is to compare eight combinations of four feature extraction methods (Root Mean Square (RMS, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, Weight Peaks (WP, and Muscular Model (MM and two classifiers (Neural Networks (NN and Support Vector Machine (SVM, for the task of mapping sEMG signals to eight upper-limb motions, to find out the relation between these methods and propose a proper combination to solve this issue. Seven subjects participated in the experiment and six muscles of the upper-limb were selected to record sEMG signals. The experimental results showed that NN classifier obtained the highest recognition accuracy rate (88.7% during the training process while SVM performed better in real-time experiments (85.9%. For time consumption, SVM took less time than NN during the training process but needed more time for real-time computation. Among the four feature extraction methods, WP had the highest recognition rate for the training process (97.7% while MM performed the best during real-time tests (94.3%. The combination of MM and NN is recommended for strict real-time applications while a combination of MM and SVM will be more suitable when time consumption is not a key requirement.

  10. Generating Control Commands From Gestures Sensed by EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    An effort is under way to develop noninvasive neuro-electric interfaces through which human operators could control systems as diverse as simple mechanical devices, computers, aircraft, and even spacecraft. The basic idea is to use electrodes on the surface of the skin to acquire electromyographic (EMG) signals associated with gestures, digitize and process the EMG signals to recognize the gestures, and generate digital commands to perform the actions signified by the gestures. In an experimental prototype of such an interface, the EMG signals associated with hand gestures are acquired by use of several pairs of electrodes mounted in sleeves on a subject s forearm (see figure). The EMG signals are sampled and digitized. The resulting time-series data are fed as input to pattern-recognition software that has been trained to distinguish gestures from a given gesture set. The software implements, among other things, hidden Markov models, which are used to recognize the gestures as they are being performed in real time. Thus far, two experiments have been performed on the prototype interface to demonstrate feasibility: an experiment in synthesizing the output of a joystick and an experiment in synthesizing the output of a computer or typewriter keyboard. In the joystick experiment, the EMG signals were processed into joystick commands for a realistic flight simulator for an airplane. The acting pilot reached out into the air, grabbed an imaginary joystick, and pretended to manipulate the joystick to achieve left and right banks and up and down pitches of the simulated airplane. In the keyboard experiment, the subject pretended to type on a numerical keypad, and the EMG signals were processed into keystrokes. The results of the experiments demonstrate the basic feasibility of this method while indicating the need for further research to reduce the incidence of errors (including confusion among gestures). Topics that must be addressed include the numbers and arrangements

  11. Acute Warm-up Effects in Submaximal Athletes: An EMG Study of Skilled Violinists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, J Matt; Halaki, Mark; Sorkin, Evgeny; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-02-01

    Warm-up is commonly recommended for injury prevention and performance enhancement across all activities, yet this recommendation is not supported by evidence for repetitive submaximal activities such as instrumental music performance. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of cardiovascular, core muscle, and musical warm-ups on muscle activity levels, musical performance, and subjective experience in skilled violinists. Fifty-five undergraduate, postgraduate, or professional violinists performed five randomly ordered 45-s musical excerpts of varying physical demands both before and after a randomly assigned 15-min, moderate-intensity cardiovascular, core muscle, musical (technical violin exercises), or inactive control warm-up protocol. Surface EMG data were obtained for 16 muscles of the trunk, shoulders, and right arm during each musical performance. Sound recording and perceived exertion (RPE) data were also obtained. Sound recordings were randomly ordered and rated for performance quality by blinded adjudicators. Questionnaire data regarding participant pain sites and fitness levels were used to stratify participants according to pain and fitness levels. Data were analyzed using two- and three-factor ANCOVA (surface EMG and sound recording) and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests (RPE). None of the three warm-up protocols had significant effects on muscle activity levels (P ≥ 0.10). Performance quality did not significantly increase (P ≥ 0.21). RPE significantly decreased (P warm-up for each of the three experimental warm-ups; control condition RPE did not significantly decrease (P > 0.23). Acute physiological and musical benefits from cardiovascular, core muscle, and musical warm-ups in skilled violinists are limited to decreases in RPE. This investigation provides data from the performing arts in support of sports medical evidence suggesting that warm-up only effectively enhances maximal strength and power performance.

  12. Grip Force and 3D Push-Pull Force Estimation Based on sEMG and GRNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changcheng Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the grip force and the 3D push-pull force (push and pull force in the three dimension space from the electromyogram (EMG signal is of great importance in the dexterous control of the EMG prosthetic hand. In this paper, an action force estimation method which is based on the eight channels of the surface EMG (sEMG and the Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN is proposed to meet the requirements of the force control of the intelligent EMG prosthetic hand. Firstly, the experimental platform, the acquisition of the sEMG, the feature extraction of the sEMG and the construction of GRNN are described. Then, the multi-channels of the sEMG when the hand is moving are captured by the EMG sensors attached on eight different positions of the arm skin surface. Meanwhile, a grip force sensor and a three dimension force sensor are adopted to measure the output force of the human's hand. The characteristic matrix of the sEMG and the force signals are used to construct the GRNN. The mean absolute value and the root mean square of the estimation errors, the correlation coefficients between the actual force and the estimated force are employed to assess the accuracy of the estimation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is also employed to test the difference of the force estimation. The experiments are implemented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed estimation method and the results show that the output force of the human's hand can be correctly estimated by using sEMG and GRNN method.

  13. Non-stationarity and power spectral shifts in EMG activity reflect motor unit recruitment in rat diaphragm muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Yasin B; Mantilla, Carlos B; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C

    2013-01-15

    We hypothesized that a shift in diaphragm muscle (DIAm) EMG power spectral density (PSD) to higher frequencies reflects recruitment of more fatigable fast-twitch motor units and motor unit recruitment is reflected by EMG non-stationarity. DIAm EMG was recorded in anesthetized rats during eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O(2)-5% CO(2)), airway occlusion, and sneezing (maximal DIAm force). Although power in all frequency bands increased progressively across motor behaviors, PSD centroid frequency increased only during sneezing (pmotor units were recruited during different motor behaviors. Motor units augmented their discharge frequencies progressively beyond the non-stationary period; yet, EMG signal became stationary. In conclusion, non-stationarity of DIAm EMG reflects the period of motor unit recruitment, while a shift in the PSD towards higher frequencies reflects recruitment of more fatigable fast-twitch motor units. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EMG finger movement classification based on ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesarendra, W.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Nico, Y.; Wahyudati, S.; Nurhasanah, L.

    2018-04-01

    An increase number of people suffering from stroke has impact to the rapid development of finger hand exoskeleton to enable an automatic physical therapy. Prior to the development of finger exoskeleton, a research topic yet important i.e. machine learning of finger gestures classification is conducted. This paper presents a study on EMG signal classification of 5 finger gestures as a preliminary study toward the finger exoskeleton design and development in Indonesia. The EMG signals of 5 finger gestures were acquired using Myo EMG sensor. The EMG signal features were extracted and reduced using PCA. The ANFIS based learning is used to classify reduced features of 5 finger gestures. The result shows that the classification of finger gestures is less than the classification of 7 hand gestures.

  15. Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SSEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SSEP Ajay Jawahar MD ... spinal cord is the thick, whitish bundle of nerve tissue that extends from the lowest part of ...

  16. [The effect of EMG level by EMG biofeedback with progressive muscle relaxation training on tension headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, U J; Kim, N C; Kim, H S

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess if EMG biofeedback training with progressive muscle relaxation training is effective in reducing the EMG level in patients with tension headaches. This study which lasted from 23 October to 30 December 1989, was conducted on 10 females who were diagnosed as patients with tension headaches and selected from among volunteers at C. University in Seoul. The process of the study was as follows: First, before the treatment, the baseline was measured for two weeks and the level of EMG was measured five times in five minutes. And then EMG biofeedback training was used for six weeks, 12 sessions in all, and progressive muscle relaxation was done at home by audio tape over eight weeks. Each session was composed of a 5-minute baseline, two 5-minute EMG biofeedback training periods and a 5-minute self-control stage. Each stage was followed by a five minute rest period. So each session took a total of 40 minutes. The EMG level was measured by EMG biofeedback (Autogenic-Cyborg: M 130 EMG module). The results were as follows: 1. The average age of the subjects was 44.1 years and the average history of headache was 10.6 years (range: 6 months-20 years). 2. The level of EMG was lowest between the third and the fourth week of the training except in Cases I and IV. 3. The patients began to show a nonconciliatory attitude at the first session of the fifth week of the training.

  17. Multi-step EMG Classification Algorithm for Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peng; Barreto, Armando; Adjouadi, Malek

    A three-electrode human-computer interaction system, based on digital processing of the Electromyogram (EMG) signal, is presented. This system can effectively help disabled individuals paralyzed from the neck down to interact with computers or communicate with people through computers using point-and-click graphic interfaces. The three electrodes are placed on the right frontalis, the left temporalis and the right temporalis muscles in the head, respectively. The signal processing algorithm used translates the EMG signals during five kinds of facial movements (left jaw clenching, right jaw clenching, eyebrows up, eyebrows down, simultaneous left & right jaw clenching) into five corresponding types of cursor movements (left, right, up, down and left-click), to provide basic mouse control. The classification strategy is based on three principles: the EMG energy of one channel is typically larger than the others during one specific muscle contraction; the spectral characteristics of the EMG signals produced by the frontalis and temporalis muscles during different movements are different; the EMG signals from adjacent channels typically have correlated energy profiles. The algorithm is evaluated on 20 pre-recorded EMG signal sets, using Matlab simulations. The results show that this method provides improvements and is more robust than other previous approaches.

  18. FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR EMG BASED PROSTHESES CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aishwarya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of prosthetic limb would be more effective if it is based on Surface Electromyogram (SEMG signals from remnant muscles. The analysis of SEMG signals depend on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time- and frequency-domain properties. Time series analysis using Auto Regressive (AR model and Mean frequency which is tolerant to white Gaussian noise are used as feature extraction techniques. EMG Histogram is used as another feature vector that was seen to give more distinct classification. The work was done with SEMG dataset obtained from the NINAPRO DATABASE, a resource for bio robotics community. Eight classes of hand movements hand open, hand close, Wrist extension, Wrist flexion, Pointing index, Ulnar deviation, Thumbs up, Thumb opposite to little finger are taken into consideration and feature vectors are extracted. The feature vectors can be given to an artificial neural network for further classification in controlling the prosthetic arm which is not dealt in this paper.

  19. Radiotelemetry recording of electroencephalogram in piglets during rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Yasuko; Nemoto, Tetsu; Kasuya, Etsuko; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2005-04-13

    A wireless recording system was developed to study the electroencephalogram (EEG) in unrestrained, male Landrace piglets. Under general anesthesia, ball-tipped silver/silver chloride electrodes for EEG recording were implanted onto the dura matter of the parietal and frontal cortex of the piglets. A pair of miniature preamplifiers and transmitters was then mounted on the surface of the skull. To examine whether other bioelectrical activities interfere with the EEG measurements, an electrocardiogram (ECG) or electromyogram (EMG) of the neck was simultaneously recorded with the EEG. Next, wire electrodes for recording movement of the eyelid were implanted with EEG electrodes, and EEG and eyelid movements were simultaneously measured. Power spectral analysis using a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithm indicates that EEG was successfully recorded in unrestrained piglets, at rest, during the daytime in the absence of interference from ECG, EMG or eyelid movements. These data indicate the feasibility of using our radiotelemetry system for measurement of EEG under these conditions.

  20. Influence of Joint Angle on EMG-Torque Model During Constant-Posture, Torque-Varying Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Liu, Lukai; Clancy, Edward A

    2015-11-01

    Relating the electromyogram (EMG) to joint torque is useful in various application areas, including prosthesis control, ergonomics and clinical biomechanics. Limited study has related EMG to torque across varied joint angles, particularly when subjects performed force-varying contractions or when optimized modeling methods were utilized. We related the biceps-triceps surface EMG of 22 subjects to elbow torque at six joint angles (spanning 60° to 135°) during constant-posture, torque-varying contractions. Three nonlinear EMG σ -torque models, advanced EMG amplitude (EMG σ ) estimation processors (i.e., whitened, multiple-channel) and the duration of data used to train models were investigated. When EMG-torque models were formed separately for each of the six distinct joint angles, a minimum "gold standard" error of 4.01±1.2% MVC(F90) resulted (i.e., error relative to maximum voluntary contraction at 90° flexion). This model structure, however, did not directly facilitate interpolation across angles. The best model which did so achieved a statistically equivalent error of 4.06±1.2% MVC(F90). Results demonstrated that advanced EMG σ processors lead to improved joint torque estimation as do longer model training durations.

  1. Hand and finger dexterity as a function of skin temperature, EMG, and ambient condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Lin; Shih, Yuh-Chuan; Chi, Chia-Fen

    2010-06-01

    This article examines the changes in skin temperature (finger, hand, forearm), manual performance (hand dexterity and strength), and forearm surface electromyograph (EMG) through 40-min, 11 degrees C water cooling followed by 15-min, 34 degrees C water rewarming; additionally, it explores the relationship between dexterity and the factors of skin temperature, EMG, and ambient condition. Hand exposure in cold conditions is unavoidable and significantly affects manual performance. Two tasks requiring gross and fine dexterity were designed, namely, nut loosening and pin insertion, respectively. The nested-factorial design includes factors of gender, participant (nested within gender), immersion duration, muscle type (for EMG), and location (for skin temperature). The responses are changes in dexterity, skin temperature, normalized amplitude of EMG, and grip strength. Finally, factor analysis and stepwise regression are used to explore factors affecting hand and finger dexterity. Dexterity, EMG, and skin temperature fell with prolonged cooling, but the EMG of the flexor digitorum superficialis remained almost unchanged during the nut loosening task. All responses but the forearm skin temperature recovered to the baseline level at the end of rewarming. The three factors extracted by factor analysis are termed skin temperature, ambient condition, and EMG. They explain approximately two thirds of the variation of the linear models for both dexterities, and the factor of skin temperature is the most influential. Sustained cooling and warming significantly decreases and increases finger, hand, and forearm skin temperature. Dexterity, strength, and EMG are positively correlated to skin temperature. Therefore, keeping the finger, hand, and forearm warm is important to maintaining hand performance. The findings could be helpful to building safety guidelines for working in cold environments.

  2. From supercontinents to surface environment: Geological records from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaji, E.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Yang, Qiong-Yan

    2018-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Asian Earth Sciences stems from the 2016 Annual Convention of the International Association for Gondwana Research (IAGR) and 13th international conference presentations on Gondwana to Asia held at Trivandrum, India during 18-22 November 2016, covering a wide range of topics from supercontinents to life and surface environment with the Asian region in focus.

  3. Record of Decision for Amchitka Surface Closure, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-08-01

    This Record of Decision has been prepared to document the remedial actions taken on Amchitka Island to stabilize contaminants associated with drilling mud pits generated as a result of nuclear testing operations conducted on the island. This document has been prepared in accordance with the recommended outline in the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation guidance on decision documentation under the Site Cleanup Rules (18 AAC 75.325-18 AAC 75.390) (ADEC 1999). It also describes the decision-making process used to establish the remedial action plans and defines the associated human health and ecological risks for the remediation.

  4. A Study on EMG-based Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a technology that recognizes user's information by using unique physical features of his or her body such as face, fingerprint, and iris. It also uses behavioral features such as signature, electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyogram (EMG, and electroencephalogram (EEG. Among them, the EMG signal is a sign generated when the muscles move, which can be used in various fields such as motion recognition, personal identification, and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we analyze EMG-based biometrics and implement a motion recognition and personal identification system. The system extracted features using non-uniform filter bank and Waveform Length (WL, and reduces the dimension using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. Afterward, it classified the features using Euclidean Distance (ED, Support Vector Machine (SVM and K Nearest Neighbors (KNN. As a result of the motion recognition experiment, 95% of acquired EMG data and 84.66% of UCI data were obtained and as a result of the personal recognition experiment, 85% of acquired EMG data and 88.66% of UCI data were obtained.

  5. Surface age of venus: use of the terrestrial cratering record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaber, G.G.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Kozak, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The average crater age of Venus' northern hemisphere may be less than 250 m.y. assuming equivalence between the recent terrestrial cratering rate and that on Venus for craters ≥ 20 km in diameter. For craters larger than this threshold size, below which crater production is significantly affected by the Venusian atmosphere, there are fairly strong observational grounds for concluding that such an equivalence in cratering rates on Venus and Earth may exist. However, given the uncertainties in the role of both active and inactive comet nuclei in the cratering history of Earth, we conclude that the age of the observed surface in the northern hemisphere of Venus could be as great as the 450-m.y. mean age of the Earth's crust. The observed surface of Venus might be even older, but no evidence from the crater observations supports an age as great as 1 b.y. If the age of the observed Venusian surface were 1 b.y., it probably should bear the impact scars of a half dozen or more large comet nuclei that penetrated the atmosphere and formed craters well over 100 km in diameter. Venera 15/16 mapped only about 25% of Venus; the remaining 75% may tell us a completely different story

  6. Comparison of conventional filtering and independent component analysis for artifact reduction in simultaneous gastric EMG and magnetogastrography from porcines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Andrei; Richards, William O; Bradshaw, L Alan

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we perform a comparative study of independent component analysis (ICA) and conventional filtering (CF) for the purpose of artifact reduction from simultaneous gastric EMG and magnetogastrography (MGG). EMG/MGG data were acquired from ten anesthetized pigs by obtaining simultaneous recordings using serosal electrodes (EMG) as well as with a superconducting quantum interference device biomagnetometer (MGG). The analysis of MGG waveforms using ICA and CF indicates that ICA is superior to the CF method in its ability to extract respiration and cardiac artifacts from MGG recordings. A signal frequency analysis of ICA- and CF-processed data was also undertaken using waterfall plots, and it was determined that the two methods produce qualitatively comparable results. Through the use of simultaneous EMG/MGG, we were able to demonstrate the accuracy and trustworthiness of our results by comparison and cross-validation within the framework of a porcine model.

  7. An Embedded, Eight Channel, Noise Canceling, Wireless, Wearable sEMG Data Acquisition System With Adaptive Muscle Contraction Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeneci, Mert; Gokcesu, Kaan; Ertan, Erhan; Kosmas, Panagiotis

    2018-02-01

    Wearable technology has gained increasing popularity in the applications of healthcare, sports science, and biomedical engineering in recent years. Because of its convenient nature, the wearable technology is particularly useful in the acquisition of the physiological signals. Specifically, the (surface electromyography) sEMG systems, which measure the muscle activation potentials, greatly benefit from this technology in both clinical and industrial applications. However, the current wearable sEMG systems have several drawbacks including inefficient noise cancellation, insufficient measurement quality, and difficult integration to customized applications. Additionally, none of these sEMG data acquisition systems can detect sEMG signals (i.e., contractions), which provides a valuable environment for further studies such as human machine interaction, gesture recognition, and fatigue tracking. To this end, we introduce an embedded, eight channel, noise canceling, wireless, wearable sEMG data acquisition system with adaptive muscle contraction detection. Our design consists of two stages, which are the sEMG sensors and the multichannel data acquisition unit. For the first stage, we propose a low cost, dry, and active sEMG sensor that captures the muscle activation potentials, a data acquisition unit that evaluates these captured multichannel sEMG signals and transmits them to a user interface. In the data acquisition unit, the sEMG signals are processed through embedded, adaptive methods in order to reject the power line noise and detect the muscle contractions. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our sEMG sensor outperforms a widely used commercially available product and our data acquisition system achieves 4.583 dB SNR gain with accuracy in the detection of the contractions.

  8. A stretchable electrode array for non-invasive, skin-mounted measurement of electrocardiography (ECG), electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography (EEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; McCormick, Martin; Coleman, Todd; Rogers, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of stretchable electrode array capable of intimate, conformal integration onto the curvilinear surfaces of skin on the human body. The designs employ conventional metallic conductors but in optimized mechanical layouts, on soft, thin elastomeric substrates. These devices exhibit an ability to record spontaneous EEG activity even without conductive electrolyte gels, with recorded alpha rhythm responses that are 40% stronger than those collected using conventional tin electrodes and gels under otherwise similar conditions. The same type of device can also measure high quality ECG and EMG signals. The results suggest broad utility for skin-mounted measurements of electrical activity in the body, with advantages in signal levels, wearability and modes of integration compared to alternatives.

  9. EMG evaluation of hip adduction exercises for soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise programmes are used in the prevention and treatment of adductor-related groin injuries in soccer; however, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the intensity of frequently used exercises. OBJECTIVE: Primarily to investigate muscle activity of adductor longus during six...... traditional and two new hip adduction exercises. Additionally, to analyse muscle activation of gluteals and abdominals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy male elite soccer players, training >5 h a week, participated in the study. Muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured bilaterally...

  10. Estimation of muscle fatigue using surface electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, Joachim; Vanderhaegen, Joke; Robijns, Mieke; Naulaers, Gunnar; Spaepen, Arthur; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    This study looks at various parameters, derived from surface electromyography (sEMG) and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and their relationship in muscle fatigue during a static elbow flexion until exhaustion as well as during a semidynamic exercise.We found a linear increasing trend for a corrected amplitude parameter and a linear decreasing slope for the frequency content of the sEMG signal. The tissue oxygenation index (TOI) extracted from NIRS recordings showed a four-phase response for all the subjects. A strong correlation between frequency content of the sEMG signal and TOI was established. We can conclude that both sEMG and NIRS give complementary information concerning muscle fatigue.

  11. Integrated optical isolators using magnetic surface plasmon (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiromasa; Kaihara, Terunori; Umetsu, Saori; Hosoda, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Optical isolators are one of the essential components to protect semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) from backward reflected light in integrated optics. In order to realize optical isolators, nonreciprocal propagation of light is necessary, which can be realized by magnetic materials. Semiconductor optical isolators have been strongly desired on Si and III/V waveguides. We have developed semiconductor optical isolators based on nonreciprocal loss owing to transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect, where the ferromagnetic metals are deposited on semiconductor optical waveguides1). Use of surface plasmon polariton at the interface of ferromagnetic metal and insulator leads to stronger optical confinement and magneto-optic effect. It is possible to modulate the optical confinement by changing the magnetic field direction, thus optical isolator operation is proposed2, 3). We have investigated surface plasmons at the interfaces between ferrimagnetic garnet/gold film, and applications to waveguide optical isolators. We assumed waveguides composed of Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG(1700nm)/Si(220nm)/Si , and calculated the coupling lengths between Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG plasmonic waveguide and Ce:YIG/Si(220nm)/Si waveguide for transversely magnetized Ce:YIG with forward and backward directions. The coupling length was calculated to 232.1um for backward propagating light. On the other hand, the coupling was not complete, and the length was calculated to 175.5um. The optical isolation by using the nonreciprocal coupling and propagation loss was calculated to be 43.7dB when the length of plasmonic waveguide is 700um. 1) H. Shimizu et al., J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 38 (2006). 2) V. Zayets et al., Materials, 5, 857-871 (2012). 3) J. Montoya, et al, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023108, (2009).

  12. Electrocardiogram: his bundle potentials can be recorded noninvasively beat by beat on surface electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaopin; Liu, Renguang; Chang, Qinghua; Xu, Zhaolong; Zhang, Yingjie; Pan, Dianzhu

    2017-03-15

    The micro waveform of His bundle potential can't be recorded beat-to-beat on surface electrocardiogram yet. We have found that the micro-wavelets before QRS complex may be related to atrioventricular conduction system potentials. This study is to explore the possibility of His bundle potential can be noninvasively recorded on surface electrocardiogram. We randomized 65 patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation of paroxysmal superventricular tachycardia (exclude overt Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) to receive "conventional electrocardiogram" and "new electrocardiogram" before the procedure. His bundle electrogram was collected during the procedure. Comparative analysis of PA s (PA interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram), AH s (AH interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) and HV s (HV interval recorded on surface electrocardiogram) interval recorded on surface "new electrocardiogram" and PA, AH, HV interval recorded on His bundle electrogram was investigated. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between groups in HV s interval (49.63 ± 6.19 ms) and HV interval (49.35 ± 6.49 ms). Results of correlational analysis found that HV S interval was significantly positively associated with HV interval (r = 0.929; P electrocardiogram. Noninvasive His bundle potential tracing might represent a new method for locating the site of atrioventricular block and identifying the origin of a wide QRS complex.

  13. Oxygenation and EMG in the proximal and distal vastus lateralis during submaximal isometric knee extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crenshaw, Albert G.; Bronee, Lars; Krag, Ida

    2010-01-01

    /or (2) fatigue development. Nine males performed 2-min sustained isometric knee extensions at 15% and 30% maximum voluntary contraction during which oxygenation and EMG were recorded simultaneously from proximal and distal locations of the vastus lateralis muscle. Near infrared spectroscopy variables...

  14. The Response of Hyperkinesis to EMG Biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Maryellen J.; And Others

    A study was conducted involving eight hyperkinetic males (11-15 years old) to determine if Ss receiving electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training would show a reduction in frontalis muscle tension, hyperactivity, and lability, and increases in self-esteem and visual and auditory attention span. Individual 45- and 30-minute relaxation exercises…

  15. Suppression of EMG activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    1. The involvement of the motor cortex during human walking was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex at a variety of intensities. Recordings of EMG activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during walking were rectified and averaged. 2. TMS of low...... intensity (below threshold for a motor-evoked potential, MEP) produced a suppression of ongoing EMG activity during walking. The average latency for this suppression was 40.0 +/- 1.0 ms. At slightly higher intensities of stimulation there was a facilitation of the EMG activity with an average latency of 29.......5 +/- 1.0 ms. As the intensity of the stimulation was increased the facilitation increased in size and eventually a MEP was clear in individual sweeps. 3. In three subjects TMS was replaced by electrical stimulation over the motor cortex. Just below MEP threshold there was a clear facilitation at short...

  16. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Using gastrocnemius sEMG and plasma α-synuclein for the prediction of freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Freezing of gait (FOG is a complicated gait disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD and a relevant subclinical predictor algorithm is lacking. The main purpose of this study is to explore the potential value of surface electromyograph (sEMG and plasma α-synuclein levels as predictors of the FOG seen in PD. 21 PD patients and 15 normal controls were recruited. Motor function was evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS and Freezing of gait questionnaire (FOG-Q. Simultaneously, gait analysis was also performed using VICON capture system in PD patients and sEMG data was recorded as well. Total plasma α-synuclein was quantitatively assessed by Luminex assay in all participants. Recruited PD patients were classified into two groups: PD patients with FOG (PD+FOG and without FOG (PD-FOG, based on clinical manifestation, the results of the FOG-Q and VICON capture system. PD+FOG patients displayed higher FOG-Q scores, decreased walking speed, smaller step length, smaller stride length and prolonged double support time compared to the PD-FOG in the gait trial. sEMG data indicated that gastrocnemius activity in PD+FOG patients was significantly reduced compared to PD-FOG patients. In addition, plasma α-synuclein levels were significantly decreased in the PD+FOG group compared to control group; however, no significant difference was found between the PD+FOG and PD-FOG groups. Our study revealed that gastrocnemius sEMG could be used to evaluate freezing gait in PD patients, while plasma α-synuclein might discriminate freezing of gait in PD patients from normal control, though no difference was found between the PD+FOG and PD-FOG groups.

  18. TIME-OF-DAY EFFECTS ON EMG PARAMETERS DURING THE WINGATE TEST IN BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Souissi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In boys, muscle power and strength fluctuate with time-of-day with morning nadirs and afternoon maximum values. However, the exact underlying mechanisms of this daily variation are not studied yet. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the time-of-day effects on electromyographic (EMG parameters changes during a Wingate test in boys. Twenty-two boys performed a 30-s Wingate test (measurement of muscle power and fatigue at 07:00 and 17:00-h on separate days. Surface EMG activity was recorded in the Vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles throughout the test and analyzed over a 5-s span. The root-mean-square (RMS and mean-power-frequency (MPF were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME was estimated from the ratio of power to RMS. Muscle power (8.22 ± 0.92 vs. 8.75 ± 0.99 W·kg-1 for peak power and 6.96 ± 0. 72 vs. 7.31 ± 0.77 W·kg-1 for mean power, p < 0.001 and fatigue (30.27 ± 7.98 vs. 34.5 ± 10. 15 %, p < 0.05 during the Wingate test increased significantly from morning to evening. Likewise, MPF (102.14 ± 18.15 vs. 92.38 ± 12.39 Hz during the first 5-s, p < 0.001 and NME (4.78 ± 1.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.79 W·mV-1 during the first 5-s, p < 0.001 were higher in the evening than the morning; but no significant time-of-day effect was noticed for RMS. Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral mechanisms are more likely the cause of the child's diurnal variations of muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test

  19. Electrograms (ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Richard B; Lee, T Clive

    2010-01-01

    There is a constant need in medicine to obtain objective measurements of physical and cognitive function as the basis for diagnosis and monitoring of health. The body can be considered as a chemical and electrical system supported by a mechanical structure. Measuring and quantifying such electrical activity provides a means for objective examination of heath status. The term electrogram, from the Greek electro meaning electricity and gram meaning write or record, is the broad definition given to the recording of electrical signal from the body. In order that comparisons of electrical activity can be made against normative data, certain methods and procedures have been defined for different electrograms. This paper reviews these methods and procedures for the more typical electrograms associated with some of the major organs in the body, providing a first point of reference for the reader.

  20. An Analysis of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscle EMG for Improved Pattern Recognition Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A

    2016-04-01

    Pattern recognition control combined with surface electromyography (EMG) from the extrinsic hand muscles has shown great promise for control of multiple prosthetic functions for transradial amputees. There is, however, a need to adapt this control method when implemented for partial-hand amputees, who possess both a functional wrist and information-rich residual intrinsic hand muscles. We demonstrate that combining EMG data from both intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles to classify hand grasps and finger motions allows up to 19 classes of hand grasps and individual finger motions to be decoded, with an accuracy of 96% for non-amputees and 85% for partial-hand amputees. We evaluated real-time pattern recognition control of three hand motions in seven different wrist positions. We found that a system trained with both intrinsic and extrinsic muscle EMG data, collected while statically and dynamically varying wrist position increased completion rates from 73% to 96% for partial-hand amputees and from 88% to 100% for non-amputees when compared to a system trained with only extrinsic muscle EMG data collected in a neutral wrist position. Our study shows that incorporating intrinsic muscle EMG data and wrist motion can significantly improve the robustness of pattern recognition control for application to partial-hand prosthetic control.

  1. Novel Feature Modelling the Prediction and Detection of sEMG Muscle Fatigue towards an Automated Wearable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Al-Mulla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface Electromyography (sEMG activity of the biceps muscle was recorded from ten subjects performing isometric contraction until fatigue. A novel feature (1D spectro_std was used to extract the feature that modeled three classes of fatigue, which enabled the prediction and detection of fatigue. Initial results of class separation were encouraging, discriminating between the three classes of fatigue, a longitudinal classification on Non-Fatigue and Transition-to-Fatigue shows 81.58% correct classification with accuracy 0.74 of correct predictions while the longitudinal classification on Transition-to-Fatigue and Fatigue showed lower average correct classification of 66.51% with a positive classification accuracy 0.73 of correct prediction. Comparison of the 1D spectro_std with other sEMG fatigue features on the same dataset show a significant improvement in classification, where results show a significant 20.58% (p < 0.01 improvement when using the 1D spectro_std to classify Non-Fatigue and Transition-to-Fatigue. In classifying Transition-to-Fatigue and Fatigue results also show a significant improvement over the other features giving 8.14% (p < 0.05 on average of all compared features.

  2. SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY IN BIOMECHANICS: APPLICATIONS AND SIGNAL ANALYSIS ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEAK GRAłIELA-FLAVIA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography (SEMG is a technique for detecting and recording the electrical activity of the muscles using surface electrodes. The EMG signal is used in biomechanics mainly as an indicator of the initiation of muscle activation, as an indicator of the force produced by a contracting muscle, and as an index ofthe fatigue occurring within a muscle. EMG, used as a method of investigation, can tell us if the muscle is active or not, if the muscle is more or less active, when it is on or off, how much active is it, and finally, if it fatigues.The purpose of this article is to discuss some specific EMG signal analysis aspects with emphasis on comparison type analysis and frequency fatigue analysis.

  3. Evaluation of higher order statistics parameters for multi channel sEMG using different force levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    The electromyograpy (EMG) signal provides information about the performance of muscles and nerves. The shape of the muscle signal and motor unit action potential (MUAP) varies due to the movement of the position of the electrode or due to changes in contraction level. This research deals with evaluating the non-Gaussianity in Surface Electromyogram signal (sEMG) using higher order statistics (HOS) parameters. To achieve this, experiments were conducted for four different finger and wrist actions at different levels of Maximum Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). Our experimental analysis shows that at constant force and for non-fatiguing contractions, probability density functions (PDF) of sEMG signals were non-Gaussian. For lesser MVCs (below 30% of MVC) PDF measures tends to be Gaussian process. The above measures were verified by computing the Kurtosis values for different MVCs.

  4. A canonical correlation analysis based EMG classification algorithm for eliminating electrode shift effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Fan; Zhong Wang; Guanglin Li; Ruomei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Motion classification system based on surface Electromyography (sEMG) pattern recognition has achieved good results in experimental condition. But it is still a challenge for clinical implement and practical application. Many factors contribute to the difficulty of clinical use of the EMG based dexterous control. The most obvious and important is the noise in the EMG signal caused by electrode shift, muscle fatigue, motion artifact, inherent instability of signal and biological signals such as Electrocardiogram. In this paper, a novel method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was developed to eliminate the reduction of classification accuracy caused by electrode shift. The average classification accuracy of our method were above 95% for the healthy subjects. In the process, we validated the influence of electrode shift on motion classification accuracy and discovered the strong correlation with correlation coefficient of >0.9 between shift position data and normal position data.

  5. EMG monitoring during functional non-surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, Tobias; Wohifarth, Kai; Fink, Matthias; Thermann, H; Rollnik, Jens D

    2002-07-01

    After surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture, neuromuscular changes may persist, even one year after surgery. We were interested whether these changes are also evident following a non-surgical functional therapy (Variostabil therapy boot/Adidas). Twenty-one patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture were enrolled in the study (mean age 38.5 years, range 24 to 60; 18 men, three women) and followed-up clinically and with surface EMG of the gastrocnemius muscles after four, eight, 12 weeks, and one year after rupture. EMG differences between the affected and non-affected side could only be observed at baseline and after four weeks following Achilles tendon rupture. The results from our study show that EMG changes are not found following non-surgical functional therapy.

  6. Selective depletion of spinal monoamines changes the rat soleus EMG from a tonic to a more phasic pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Erdal, Jesper; Eken, Torsten

    1996-01-01

    subarachnoid space and gross-EMG recording electrodes in the soleus muscle. EMG recordings were performed in control conditions and at different times after intrathecal administration of either 40-55 μg 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT) and 40-55 μg 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or 80 μg 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine...... (5,7-DHT) alone. The depletions were evaluated biochemically in brains and spinal cords after recordings. 3. In agreement with previous studies the intrathecal administration of neurotoxins caused a reduction of the noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) content of the lumbar spinal cord to about 2...

  7. Modulation of EMG-EMG Coherence in a Choice Stepping Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippei Nojima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The voluntary step execution task is a popular measure for identifying fall risks among elderly individuals in the community setting because most falls have been reported to occur during movement. However, the neurophysiological functions during this movement are not entirely understood. Here, we used electromyography (EMG to explore the relationship between EMG-EMG coherence, which reflects common oscillatory drive to motoneurons, and motor performance associated with stepping tasks: simple reaction time (SRT and choice reaction time (CRT tasks. Ten healthy elderly adults participated in the study. Participants took a single step forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus. EMG-EMG coherence was analyzed for 1000 ms before the presentation of the stimulus (stationary standing position from proximal and distal tibialis anterior (TA and soleus (SOL muscles. The main result showed that all paired EMG-EMG coherences in the alpha and beta frequency bands were greater in the SRT than the CRT task. This finding suggests that the common oscillatory drive to the motoneurons during the SRT task occurred prior to taking a step, whereas the lower value of corticospinal activity during the CRT task prior to taking a step may indicate an involvement of inhibitory activity, which is consistent with observations from our previous study (Watanabe et al., 2016. Furthermore, the beta band coherence in intramuscular TA tended to positively correlate with the number of performance errors that are associated with fall risks in the CRT task, suggesting that a reduction in the inhibitory activity may result in a decrease of stepping performance. These findings could advance the understanding of the neurophysiological features of postural adjustments in elderly individuals.

  8. Seizure detection algorithms based on EMG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective...... on the amplitude of the signal. The other algorithm was based on information of the signal in the frequency domain, and it focused on synchronisation of the electrical activity in a single muscle during the seizure. Results: The amplitude-based algorithm reliably detected seizures in 2 of the patients, while...... the frequency-based algorithm was efficient for detecting the seizures in the third patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EMG signals could be used to develop an automatic seizuredetection system. However, different patients might require different types of algorithms /approaches....

  9. Repeatability of grasp recognition for robotic hand prosthesis control based on sEMG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesca; Cognolato, Matteo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Muller, Henning; Caputo, Barbara; Atzori, Manfredo

    2017-07-01

    Control methods based on sEMG obtained promising results for hand prosthetics. Control system robustness is still often inadequate and does not allow the amputees to perform a large number of movements useful for everyday life. Only few studies analyzed the repeatability of sEMG classification of hand grasps. The main goals of this paper are to explore repeatability in sEMG data and to release a repeatability database with the recorded experiments. The data are recorded from 10 intact subjects repeating 7 grasps 12 times, twice a day for 5 days. The data are publicly available on the Ninapro web page. The analysis for the repeatability is based on the comparison of movement classification accuracy in several data acquisitions and for different subjects. The analysis is performed using mean absolute value and waveform length features and a Random Forest classifier. The accuracy obtained by training and testing on acquisitions at different times is on average 27.03% lower than training and testing on the same acquisition. The results obtained by training and testing on different acquisitions suggest that previous acquisitions can be used to train the classification algorithms. The inter-subject variability is remarkable, suggesting that specific characteristics of the subjects can affect repeatibility and sEMG classification accuracy. In conclusion, the results of this paper can contribute to develop more robust control systems for hand prostheses, while the presented data allows researchers to test repeatability in further analyses.

  10. Seismic signal in Olkiluoto. Preliminary comparison of underground and surface recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.; Malm, M.

    2015-02-01

    Seismic hazard studies in Finland relate to nuclear power plant sites on the Earth's surface. The impact of seismic waves is different on structures on the surface than underground. The purpose of this study is to approximate how ground motions recorded in the ONKALO compare with those on the surface above the ONKALO. Broadband seismometers were installed on the surface and at the depth of 400 m inside the ONKALO in November 2013. The operation time of the seismometers was about nine months. The analysed signals included background noise, teleseismic earthquakes, regional earthquake, local explosions and explosions from the ONKALO site. The studies in Olkiluoto demonstrated that, in general, there is a de-amplification of ground motions in the ONKALO relative to those on the surface, or there is no significant difference between the recordings. The result is likely associated with the type of the seismic source and the relatively shallow depth (400 m) of the underground station. Observed relative amplification related only to nearfield events: the recorded velocity amplitudes on the surface were 2 - 10 times larger than underground. One opposite relation was found in the study: the vertical component of the velocity amplitude of a regional earthquake seems to be about three times larger in ONKALO than on the surface between frequencies 50 Hz and 80 Hz. Definite conclusions concerning amplification or de-amplification cannot be based on the result of this study. In practice, any set of recordings cannot give a comprehensive description of the possible variations, like how the wavefield reflected from the surface interacts with the wavefield coming towards the surface. Numerical modeling is suggested for further studies of this subject. (orig.)

  11. Simultaneous surface and depth neural activity recording with graphene transistor-based dual-modality probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingde; Xu, Xianchen; Yang, Long; Guo, Yichuan; Guan, Shouliang; Shi, Jidong; Wang, Jinfen; Fang, Ying

    2018-05-15

    Subdural surface and penetrating depth probes are widely applied to record neural activities from the cortical surface and intracortical locations of the brain, respectively. Simultaneous surface and depth neural activity recording is essential to understand the linkage between the two modalities. Here, we develop flexible dual-modality neural probes based on graphene transistors. The neural probes exhibit stable electrical performance even under 90° bending because of the excellent mechanical properties of graphene, and thus allow multi-site recording from the subdural surface of rat cortex. In addition, finite element analysis was carried out to investigate the mechanical interactions between probe and cortex tissue during intracortical implantation. Based on the simulation results, a sharp tip angle of π/6 was chosen to facilitate tissue penetration of the neural probes. Accordingly, the graphene transistor-based dual-modality neural probes have been successfully applied for simultaneous surface and depth recording of epileptiform activity of rat brain in vivo. Our results show that graphene transistor-based dual-modality neural probes can serve as a facile and versatile tool to study tempo-spatial patterns of neural activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The impact of accelerometer mounting methods on the level of vibrations recorded at ground surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Czech

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of field research based on the measurements of accelerations recorded at ground surface. The source of the vibration characterized by high repetition rate of pulse parameters was light falling weight deflectometer ZFG-01. Measurements of vibrations have been carried out using top quality high-precision measuring system produced by Brüel&Kiær. Accelerometers were mounted on a sandy soil surface at the measuring points located radially at 5-m and 10-m distances from the source of vibration. The paper analyses the impact that the method of mounting accelerometers on the ground has on the level of the recorded values of accelerations of vibrations. It has been shown that the method of attaching the sensor to the surface of the ground is crucial for the credibility of the performed measurements.[b]Keywords[/b]: geotechnics, surface vibrations, ground, vibration measurement

  13. The impact of shoulder abduction loading on EMG-based intention detection of hand opening and closing after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yiyun; Yao, Jun; Dewald, Julius P A

    2011-01-01

    Many stroke patients are subject to limited hand functions in the paretic arm due to a significant loss of Corticospinal Tract (CST) fibers. A possible solution for this problem is to classify surface Electromyography (EMG) signals generated by hand movements and uses that to implement Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). However, EMG usually presents an abnormal muscle coactivation pattern shown as increased coupling between muscles within and/or across joints after stroke. The resulting Abnormal Muscle Synergies (AMS) could make the classification more difficult in individuals with stroke, especially when attempting to use the hand together with other joints in the paretic arm. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying the impact of AMS following stroke on EMG pattern recognition between two hand movements. In an effort to achieve this goal, 7 chronic hemiparetic chronic stroke subjects were recruited and asked to perform hand opening and closing movements at their paretic arm while being either fully supported by a virtual table or loaded with 25% of subject's maximum shoulder abduction force. During the execution of motor tasks EMG signals from the wrist flexors and extensors were simultaneously acquired. Our results showed that increased synergy-induced activity at elbow flexors, induced by increasing shoulder abduction loading, deteriorated the performance of EMG pattern recognition for hand opening for those with a weak grasp strength and EMG activity. However, no such impact on hand closing has yet been observed possibly because finger/wrist flexion is facilitated by the shoulder abduction-induced flexion synergy.

  14. The effect of time on EMG classification of hand motions in able-bodied and transradial amputees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waris, Asim; Niazi, Imran Khan; Jamil, Mohsin

    2018-01-01

    While several studies have demonstrated the short-term performance of pattern recognition systems, long-term investigations are very limited. In this study, we investigated changes in classification performance over time. Ten able-bodied individuals and six amputees took part in this study. EMG s...... difference between training and testing day increases. Furthermore, for iEMG, performance in amputees was directly proportional to the size of the residual limb.......While several studies have demonstrated the short-term performance of pattern recognition systems, long-term investigations are very limited. In this study, we investigated changes in classification performance over time. Ten able-bodied individuals and six amputees took part in this study. EMG...... was computed for all possible combinations between the days. For all subjects, surface sEMG (7.2 ± 7.6%), iEMG (11.9 ± 9.1%) and cEMG (4.6 ± 4.8%) were significantly different (P 

  15. Satellite-based climate data records of surface solar radiation from the CM SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Cremer, Roswitha; Kothe, Steffen; Müller, Richard; Pfeifroth, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The incoming surface solar radiation has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. Long term monitoring of this part of the earth's energy budget is required to gain insights on the state and variability of the climate system. In addition, climate data sets of surface solar radiation have received increased attention over the recent years as an important source of information for solar energy assessments, for crop modeling, and for the validation of climate and weather models. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) is deriving climate data records (CDRs) from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite instruments. Within the CM SAF these CDRs are accompanied by operational data at a short time latency to be used for climate monitoring. All data from the CM SAF is freely available via www.cmsaf.eu. Here we present the regional and the global climate data records of surface solar radiation from the CM SAF. The regional climate data record SARAH (Surface Solar Radiation Dataset - Heliosat, doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/SARAH/V002) is based on observations from the series of Meteosat satellites. SARAH provides 30-min, daily- and monthly-averaged data of the effective cloud albedo, the solar irradiance (incl. spectral information), the direct solar radiation (horizontal and normal), and the sunshine duration from 1983 to 2015 for the full view of the Meteosat satellite (i.e, Europe, Africa, parts of South America, and the Atlantic ocean). The data sets are generated with a high spatial resolution of 0.05° allowing for detailed regional studies. The global climate data record CLARA (CM SAF Clouds, Albedo and Radiation dataset from AVHRR data, doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLARA_AVHRR/V002) is based on observations from the series of AVHRR satellite instruments. CLARA provides daily- and monthly-averaged global data of the solar irradiance (SIS) from 1982 to 2015 with a spatial resolution of 0.25°. In addition to the solar surface

  16. Control of leg movements driven by EMG activity of shoulder muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eLa Scaleia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During human walking there exists a functional neural coupling between arms and legs, and between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Here we present a novel approach for associating the electromyographic (EMG activity from upper limb muscles with leg kinematics. Our methodology takes advantage of the high involvement of shoulder muscles in most locomotor-related movements and of the natural coordination between arms and legs. Nine healthy subjects were asked to walk at different constant and variable speeds (3-5 km/h, while EMG activity of shoulder (deltoid muscles and the kinematics of walking were recorded. To ensure a high level of EMG activity in deltoid, the subjects performed slightly larger arm swinging than they usually do. The temporal structure of the burst-like EMG activity was used to predict the spatiotemporal kinematic pattern of the forthcoming step. A comparison of actual and predicted stride leg kinematics showed a high degree of correspondence (r>0.9. This algorithm has been also implemented in pilot experiments for controlling avatar walking in a virtual reality setup and an exoskeleton during overground stepping. The proposed approach may have important implications for the design of human-machine interfaces and neuroprosthetic technologies such as those of assistive lower limb exoskeletons.

  17. Classification of EMG signals using PSO optimized SVM for diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Abdulhamit

    2013-06-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) is an extensively used machine learning method with many biomedical signal classification applications. In this study, a novel PSO-SVM model has been proposed that hybridized the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and SVM to improve the EMG signal classification accuracy. This optimization mechanism involves kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the classification accuracy. The experiments were conducted on the basis of EMG signal to classify into normal, neurogenic or myopathic. In the proposed method the EMG signals were decomposed into the frequency sub-bands using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and a set of statistical features were extracted from these sub-bands to represent the distribution of wavelet coefficients. The obtained results obviously validate the superiority of the SVM method compared to conventional machine learning methods, and suggest that further significant enhancements in terms of classification accuracy can be achieved by the proposed PSO-SVM classification system. The PSO-SVM yielded an overall accuracy of 97.41% on 1200 EMG signals selected from 27 subject records against 96.75%, 95.17% and 94.08% for the SVM, the k-NN and the RBF classifiers, respectively. PSO-SVM is developed as an efficient tool so that various SVMs can be used conveniently as the core of PSO-SVM for diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptive EMG noise reduction in ECG signals using noise level approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, Mohamed; Saranovac, Lazar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper the usage of noise level approximation for adaptive Electromyogram (EMG) noise reduction in the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is introduced. To achieve the adequate adaptiveness, a translation-invariant noise level approximation is employed. The approximation is done in the form of a guiding signal extracted as an estimation of the signal quality vs. EMG noise. The noise reduction framework is based on a bank of low pass filters. So, the adaptive noise reduction is achieved by selecting the appropriate filter with respect to the guiding signal aiming to obtain the best trade-off between the signal distortion caused by filtering and the signal readability. For the evaluation purposes; both real EMG and artificial noises are used. The tested ECG signals are from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database Directory, while both real and artificial records of EMG noise are added and used in the evaluation process. Firstly, comparison with state of the art methods is conducted to verify the performance of the proposed approach in terms of noise cancellation while preserving the QRS complex waves. Additionally, the signal to noise ratio improvement after the adaptive noise reduction is computed and presented for the proposed method. Finally, the impact of adaptive noise reduction method on QRS complexes detection was studied. The tested signals are delineated using a state of the art method, and the QRS detection improvement for different SNR is presented.

  19. Effect of toe extension on EMG of triceps surae muscles during isometric dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    The protocol for estimating force of contraction by triceps surae (TS) muscles requires the immobilization of the ankle during dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. However, large variability in the results has been observed. To identify the cause of this variability, experiments were conducted where ankle dorsiflexion force and electromyogram (EMG) of the TS were recorded under two conditions: (i) toes were strapped and (ii) toes were unstrapped, with all other conditions such as immobilization of the ankle remaining unchanged. The root mean square (RMS) of the EMG and the force were analyzed and one-tail Student's t-test was performed for significance between the two conditions. The RMS of the EMG from TS muscles was found to be significantly higher (~55%) during dorsiflexion with toes unstrapped compared with when the toes were strapped. The torque corresponding to dorsiflexion was also higher with toes unstrapped. Our study has shown that it is important to strap the toes when measuring the torque at the ankle and EMG of the TS muscles.

  20. Muscle networks: Connectivity analysis of EMG activity during postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Tjeerd W.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Xie, Hong-Bo; Roerdink, Melvyn; Stins, John F.; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that reduce the many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal system remains an outstanding challenge. Muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality and hence simplify the control problem. How this is achieved is not yet known. Here we use network theory to assess the coordination between multiple muscles and to elucidate the neural implementation of muscle synergies. We performed connectivity analysis of surface EMG from ten leg muscles to extract the muscle networks while human participants were standing upright in four different conditions. We observed widespread connectivity between muscles at multiple distinct frequency bands. The network topology differed significantly between frequencies and between conditions. These findings demonstrate how muscle networks can be used to investigate the neural circuitry of motor coordination. The presence of disparate muscle networks across frequencies suggests that the neuromuscular system is organized into a multiplex network allowing for parallel and hierarchical control structures.

  1. Holographic recording of surface relief gratings in stilbene azobenzene derivatives at 633 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A; Saharov, D; Kokars, V; Kampars, V; Maleckis, A; Mezinskis, G; Pludons, A

    2010-01-01

    Holographic recording in stilbene azobenzene derivatives by He-Ne 633 nm laser light has been experimentally studied. It was found that surface relief gratings (SRG) can be recorded by red light. Usually shorter wavelengths are used to induce the trans-cis photo-isomerization in organic materials. SRG with 2 μm period and an amplitude of 130 nm have been recorded with 0.88 W/cm 2 light in about 20 minutes in amorphous films of 3-(4-(bis(2-(trityloxy)ethyl)amino)phenyl)-2-(4-(2-bromo-4-nitrophenyl) diazenyl)phenyl)acrylonitrile spin-coated on glass substrates. Self-diffraction efficiency up to 17.4% and specific recording energy down to 114 J/(cm 2 %) were measured. The recorded SRG were stable as proved by subsequent AFM measurements. The photo-induced changes in absorption spectra did not reveal noticeable signs of trans-cis transformations. Rather, spectrally uniform bleaching of the films took place. We conclude that a photothermally stimulated photo-destruction of chromophores is responsible for the SRG recording. The recording of stable SRG in the stilbene azobenzene derivatives we studied is accompanied by the recording of relaxing volume-phase gratings due to the photo-orientation of chromophores by the linearly polarized recording light. It should also be noted that holographic recording efficiency in stilbene azobenzene derivatives exhibit an unusual non-monotonic sample storage-time dependence presumably caused by the peculiarities of structural relaxation of the films.

  2. Preterm labor--modeling the uterine electrical activity from cellular level to surface recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihana, S; Marque, C

    2008-01-01

    Uterine electrical activity is correlated to the appearance of uterine contractions. forceful contractions appear at the end of term. Therefore, understanding the genesis and the propagation of uterine electrical activity may provide an efficient tool to diagnose preterm labor. Moreover, the control of uterine excitability seems to have important consequences in the control of preterm labor. Modeling the electrical activity in uterine tissue is thus an important step in understanding physiological uterine contractile mechanisms and to permit uterine EMG simulation. Our model presented in this paper, incorporates ion channel models at the cell level, the reaction diffusion equations at the tissue level and the spatiotemporal integration at the uterine EMG reconstructed level. This model validates some key physiological observation hypotheses concerning uterine excitability and propagation.

  3. EMG signals characterization in three states of contraction by fuzzy network and feature extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhlesabadifarahani, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Neuro-muscular and musculoskeletal disorders and injuries highly affect the life style and the motion abilities of an individual. This brief highlights a systematic method for detection of the level of muscle power declining in musculoskeletal and Neuro-muscular disorders. The neuro-fuzzy system is trained with 70 percent of the recorded Electromyography (EMG) cut off window and then used for classification and modeling purposes. The neuro-fuzzy classifier is validated in comparison to some other well-known classifiers in classification of the recorded EMG signals with the three states of contractions corresponding to the extracted features. Different structures of the neuro-fuzzy classifier are also comparatively analyzed to find the optimum structure of the classifier used.

  4. Muscle Performance Investigated With a Novel Smart Compression Garment Based on Pressure Sensor Force Myography and Its Validation Against EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbasis, Aaron; Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    Muscle activity and fatigue performance parameters were obtained and compared between both a smart compression garment and the gold-standard, a surface electromyography (EMG) system during high-speed cycling in seven participants. The smart compression garment, based on force myography (FMG), comprised of integrated pressure sensors that were sandwiched between skin and garment, located on five thigh muscles. The muscle activity was assessed by means of crank cycle diagrams (polar plots) that displayed the muscle activity relative to the crank cycle. The fatigue was assessed by means of the median frequency of the power spectrum of the EMG signal; the fractal dimension (FD) of the EMG signal; and the FD of the pressure signal. The smart compression garment returned performance parameters (muscle activity and fatigue) comparable to the surface EMG. The major differences were that the EMG measured the electrical activity, whereas the pressure sensor measured the mechanical activity. As such, there was a phase shift between electrical and mechanical signals, with the electrical signals preceding the mechanical counterparts in most cases. This is specifically pronounced in high-speed cycling. The fatigue trend over the duration of the cycling exercise was clearly reflected in the fatigue parameters (FDs and median frequency) obtained from pressure and EMG signals. The fatigue parameter of the pressure signal (FD) showed a higher time dependency ( R 2 = 0.84) compared to the EMG signal. This reflects that the pressure signal puts more emphasis on the fatigue as a function of time rather than on the origin of fatigue (e.g., peripheral or central fatigue). In light of the high-speed activity results, caution should be exerted when using data obtained from EMG for biomechanical models. In contrast to EMG data, activity data obtained from FMG are considered more appropriate and accurate as an input for biomechanical modeling as they truly reflect the mechanical muscle

  5. Muscle Performance Investigated With a Novel Smart Compression Garment Based on Pressure Sensor Force Myography and Its Validation Against EMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Belbasis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscle activity and fatigue performance parameters were obtained and compared between both a smart compression garment and the gold-standard, a surface electromyography (EMG system during high-speed cycling in seven participants. The smart compression garment, based on force myography (FMG, comprised of integrated pressure sensors that were sandwiched between skin and garment, located on five thigh muscles. The muscle activity was assessed by means of crank cycle diagrams (polar plots that displayed the muscle activity relative to the crank cycle. The fatigue was assessed by means of the median frequency of the power spectrum of the EMG signal; the fractal dimension (FD of the EMG signal; and the FD of the pressure signal. The smart compression garment returned performance parameters (muscle activity and fatigue comparable to the surface EMG. The major differences were that the EMG measured the electrical activity, whereas the pressure sensor measured the mechanical activity. As such, there was a phase shift between electrical and mechanical signals, with the electrical signals preceding the mechanical counterparts in most cases. This is specifically pronounced in high-speed cycling. The fatigue trend over the duration of the cycling exercise was clearly reflected in the fatigue parameters (FDs and median frequency obtained from pressure and EMG signals. The fatigue parameter of the pressure signal (FD showed a higher time dependency (R2 = 0.84 compared to the EMG signal. This reflects that the pressure signal puts more emphasis on the fatigue as a function of time rather than on the origin of fatigue (e.g., peripheral or central fatigue. In light of the high-speed activity results, caution should be exerted when using data obtained from EMG for biomechanical models. In contrast to EMG data, activity data obtained from FMG are considered more appropriate and accurate as an input for biomechanical modeling as they truly reflect the mechanical

  6. A novel biometric authentication approach using ECG and EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Noureddine; Fournier, Régis; Nait-Ali, Amine; Bereksi-Reguig, Fethi

    2015-05-01

    Security biometrics is a secure alternative to traditional methods of identity verification of individuals, such as authentication systems based on user name and password. Recently, it has been found that the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal formed by five successive waves (P, Q, R, S and T) is unique to each individual. In fact, better than any other biometrics' measures, it delivers proof of subject's being alive as extra information which other biometrics cannot deliver. The main purpose of this work is to present a low-cost method for online acquisition and processing of ECG signals for person authentication and to study the possibility of providing additional information and retrieve personal data from an electrocardiogram signal to yield a reliable decision. This study explores the effectiveness of a novel biometric system resulting from the fusion of information and knowledge provided by ECG and EMG (Electromyogram) physiological recordings. It is shown that biometrics based on these ECG/EMG signals offers a novel way to robustly authenticate subjects. Five ECG databases (MIT-BIH, ST-T, NSR, PTB and ECG-ID) and several ECG signals collected in-house from volunteers were exploited. A palm-based ECG biometric system was developed where the signals are collected from the palm of the subject through a minimally intrusive one-lead ECG set-up. A total of 3750 ECG beats were used in this work. Feature extraction was performed on ECG signals using Fourier descriptors (spectral coefficients). Optimum-Path Forest classifier was used to calculate the degree of similarity between individuals. The obtained results from the proposed approach look promising for individuals' authentication.

  7. Robust functional statistics applied to Probability Density Function shape screening of sEMG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudaoud, S; Rix, H; Al Harrach, M; Marin, F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies pointed out possible shape modifications of the Probability Density Function (PDF) of surface electromyographical (sEMG) data according to several contexts like fatigue and muscle force increase. Following this idea, criteria have been proposed to monitor these shape modifications mainly using High Order Statistics (HOS) parameters like skewness and kurtosis. In experimental conditions, these parameters are confronted with small sample size in the estimation process. This small sample size induces errors in the estimated HOS parameters restraining real-time and precise sEMG PDF shape monitoring. Recently, a functional formalism, the Core Shape Model (CSM), has been used to analyse shape modifications of PDF curves. In this work, taking inspiration from CSM method, robust functional statistics are proposed to emulate both skewness and kurtosis behaviors. These functional statistics combine both kernel density estimation and PDF shape distances to evaluate shape modifications even in presence of small sample size. Then, the proposed statistics are tested, using Monte Carlo simulations, on both normal and Log-normal PDFs that mimic observed sEMG PDF shape behavior during muscle contraction. According to the obtained results, the functional statistics seem to be more robust than HOS parameters to small sample size effect and more accurate in sEMG PDF shape screening applications.

  8. sEMG feature evaluation for identification of elbow angle resolution in graded arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Claudia F; Colombini, Esther L; Aquino, Plinio T; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2014-11-25

    Automatic and accurate identification of elbow angle from surface electromyogram (sEMG) is essential for myoelectric controlled upper limb exoskeleton systems. This requires appropriate selection of sEMG features, and identifying the limitations of such a system.This study has demonstrated that it is possible to identify three discrete positions of the elbow; full extension, right angle, and mid-way point, with window size of only 200 milliseconds. It was seen that while most features were suitable for this purpose, Power Spectral Density Averages (PSD-Av) performed best. The system correctly classified the sEMG against the elbow angle for 100% cases when only two discrete positions (full extension and elbow at right angle) were considered, while correct classification was 89% when there were three discrete positions. However, sEMG was unable to accurately determine the elbow position when five discrete angles were considered. It was also observed that there was no difference for extension or flexion phases.

  9. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System. Topical report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 1 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large tacks of concern to both government and industry. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean materials can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmatory process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible. Aware of the shortcomings of traditional surface characterization technology, GE, with DOE support has undertaken a 12-month effort to complete Phase 1 of a proposed four-phase program to develop the RSSAR system. The objectives of this work are to provide instrumentation to cost-effectively sample concrete and steel surfaces, provide a quick-look indication for the presence or absence of contaminants, and collect samples for later, more detailed analysis in a readily accessible and addressable form. The Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System will be a modular instrument made up of several components: (1) sampling heads for concrete surfaces, steel surfaces, and bulk samples; (2) quick-look detectors for photoionization and ultraviolet; (3) multisample trapping module to trap and store vaporized contaminants in a manner suitable for subsequent detailed lab-based analyses

  10. Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.

  11. Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Alam, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.

  12. Real-time simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric prostheses use electromyographic (EMG) signals to control movement of prosthetic joints. Clinically available myoelectric control strategies do not allow simultaneous movement of multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs); however, the use of implantable devices that record intramuscular EMG signals could overcome this constraint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the real-time simultaneous control of three DOFs (wrist rotation, wrist flexion/extension, and hand open/close) using intramuscular EMG. Approach. We evaluated task performance of five able-bodied subjects in a virtual environment using two control strategies with fine-wire EMG: (i) parallel dual-site differential control, which enabled simultaneous control of three DOFs and (ii) pattern recognition control, which required sequential control of DOFs. Main results. Over the course of the experiment, subjects using parallel dual-site control demonstrated increased use of simultaneous control and improved performance in a Fitts’ Law test. By the end of the experiment, performance using parallel dual-site control was significantly better (up to a 25% increase in throughput) than when using sequential pattern recognition control for tasks requiring multiple DOFs. The learning trends with parallel dual-site control suggested that further improvements in performance metrics were possible. Subjects occasionally experienced difficulty in performing isolated single-DOF movements with parallel dual-site control but were able to accomplish related Fitts’ Law tasks with high levels of path efficiency. Significance. These results suggest that intramuscular EMG, used in a parallel dual-site configuration, can provide simultaneous control of a multi-DOF prosthetic wrist and hand and may outperform current methods that enforce sequential control.

  13. Reconstructing surface ocean circulation with 129I time series records from corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Burr, George S; Jull, A J Timothy; Russell, Joellen L; Biddulph, Dana; White, Lara; Prouty, Nancy G; Chen, Yue-Gau; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Zhou, Weijian; Lam, Doan Dinh

    2016-12-01

    The long-lived radionuclide 129 I (half-life: 15.7 × 10 6  yr) is well-known as a useful environmental tracer. At present, the global 129 I in surface water is about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than pre-1960 levels. Since the 1990s, anthropogenic 129 I produced from industrial nuclear fuels reprocessing plants has been the primary source of 129 I in marine surface waters of the Atlantic and around the globe. Here we present four coral 129 I time series records from: 1) Con Dao and 2) Xisha Islands, the South China Sea, 3) Rabaul, Papua New Guinea and 4) Guam. The Con Dao coral 129 I record features a sudden increase in 129 I in 1959. The Xisha coral shows similar peak values for 129 I as the Con Dao coral, punctuated by distinct low values, likely due to the upwelling in the central South China Sea. The Rabaul coral features much more gradual 129 I increases in the 1970s, similar to a published record from the Solomon Islands. The Guam coral 129 I record contains the largest measured values for any site, with two large peaks, in 1955 and 1959. Nuclear weapons testing was the primary 129 I source in the Western Pacific in the latter part of the 20th Century, notably from testing in the Marshall Islands. The Guam 1955 peak and Con Dao 1959 increases are likely from the 1954 Castle Bravo test, and the Operation Hardtack I test is the most likely source of the 1959 peak observed at Guam. Radiogenic iodine found in coral was carried primarily through surface ocean currents. The coral 129 I time series data provide a broad picture of the surface distribution and depth penetration of 129 I in the Pacific Ocean over the past 60 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise muscle fatigue detection system implementation via wireless surface electromyography and empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kang-Ming; Liu, Shing-Hong; Wang, Jia-Jung; Cheng, Da-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is an important measurement for monitoring exercise and fitness. A wireless Bluetooth transmission sEMG measurement system with a sampling frequency of 2 KHz is developed. Traditional muscle fatigue is detected from the median frequency of the sEMG power spectrum. The regression slope of the linear regression of median frequency is an important muscle fatigue index. As fatigue increases, the power spectrum of the sEMG shifts toward lower frequencies. The goal of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) quantifying the electrical manifestations of the local muscle fatigue during exercising in health people. We also compared this method with the raw data and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Five male and five female volunteers participated. Each subject was asked to run on a multifunctional pedaled elliptical trainer for about 30 minutes, twice a week, and there were a total of six recording times for each subject with a wireless EMG recording system. The results show that sensitivity of the highest frequency component of EMD is better than the highest frequency component of DWT, and raw data.

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFICACY OF EMG BIO-FEEDBACK AND PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION IN TENSION HEADACHE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gada, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy, deep muscular relaxation therapy and compare the efficacy of both in cases of tension headache. During two week basal-data recording period all patients were taught deep muscular relaxation by Jacobson′s technique. Simultaneously patients were instructed to keep headache diary. Headache diary yielded three different parameters a) number of headache-free days per week, b) peak headache intensity (or each week and c) average daily headache activity score per week. These parameters were used to find out therapeutic efficacy of each treatment. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. EMG Biofeedback group was given frontalis EMG feedback through EMG J 33 muscle trainer of Cyborg Corporation (U.S.A.). Patients in each group were given 20 sessions (two sessions per week); each session lasting 30 minutes. Patients were instructed to practice at least one 30 minute session of relaxation at home. The data were subjected to statistical calculation. The results indicate that frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy and deep muscle relaxation therapy are significantly effective in cases of tension headache. Both treatments are equally effective. The findings are discussed in relation to Indian situation. PMID:21965970

  16. A comparative study of efficacy of emg bio-feedback and progressive muscular relaxation in tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gada, M T

    1984-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy, deep muscular relaxation therapy and compare the efficacy of both in cases of tension headache. During two week basal-data recording period all patients were taught deep muscular relaxation by Jacobson's technique. Simultaneously patients were instructed to keep headache diary. Headache diary yielded three different parameters a) number of headache-free days per week, b) peak headache intensity (or each week and c) average daily headache activity score per week. These parameters were used to find out therapeutic efficacy of each treatment. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. EMG Biofeedback group was given frontalis EMG feedback through EMG J 33 muscle trainer of Cyborg Corporation (U.S.A.). Patients in each group were given 20 sessions (two sessions per week); each session lasting 30 minutes. Patients were instructed to practice at least one 30 minute session of relaxation at home. The data were subjected to statistical calculation. The results indicate that frontalis EMG Biofeedback therapy and deep muscle relaxation therapy are significantly effective in cases of tension headache. Both treatments are equally effective. The findings are discussed in relation to Indian situation.

  17. Free-surface velocity measurements using an optically recording velocity interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianxin; Wang Zhao; Liang Jing; Shan Yusheng; Zhou Chuangzhi; Xiang Yihuai; Lu Ze; Tang Xiuzhang

    2006-01-01

    An optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) was developed for the free-surface velocity measurements in the equation of state experiments. The time history of free-surface velocity could be recorded by the electronic streak camera. In the experiments, ORVIS got a 179 ps time resolution, and a higher time resolution could be got by minimizing the delay time. The equation of state experiments were carried out on the high power excimer laser system called 'Heaven I' with laser wavelength of 248.4 nm, pulse duration of 25 ns and maximum energy 158 J. Free-surface velocity of 20 μm thick iron got 3.86 km/s with laser intensity of 6.24 x 10 11 W·cm -2 , and free-surface velocity of 100 μm thick aluminum with 100 μm CH foil at the front got 2.87 km/s with laser intensity 7.28 x 10 11 W·cm -2 . (authors)

  18. A Novel Hybrid Model for Drawing Trace Reconstruction from Multichannel Surface Electromyographic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumiao; Yang, Zhongliang

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several researchers have considered the problem of reconstruction of handwriting and other meaningful arm and hand movements from surface electromyography (sEMG). Although much progress has been made, several practical limitations may still affect the clinical applicability of sEMG-based techniques. In this paper, a novel three-step hybrid model of coordinate state transition, sEMG feature extraction and gene expression programming (GEP) prediction is proposed for reconstructing drawing traces of 12 basic one-stroke shapes from multichannel surface electromyography. Using a specially designed coordinate data acquisition system, we recorded the coordinate data of drawing traces collected in accordance with the time series while 7-channel EMG signals were recorded. As a widely-used time domain feature, Root Mean Square (RMS) was extracted with the analysis window. The preliminary reconstruction models can be established by GEP. Then, the original drawing traces can be approximated by a constructed prediction model. Applying the three-step hybrid model, we were able to convert seven channels of EMG activity recorded from the arm muscles into smooth reconstructions of drawing traces. The hybrid model can yield a mean accuracy of 74% in within-group design (one set of prediction models for all shapes) and 86% in between-group design (one separate set of prediction models for each shape), averaged for the reconstructed x and y coordinates. It can be concluded that it is feasible for the proposed three-step hybrid model to improve the reconstruction ability of drawing traces from sEMG.

  19. Simulation of facial expressions using person-specific sEMG signals controlling a biomechanical face model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Merijn; Balm, Alfons J M; van Alphen, Maarten J A; Smeele, Ludi E; Stavness, Ian; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    2018-01-01

    Functional inoperability in advanced oral cancer is difficult to assess preoperatively. To assess functions of lips and tongue, biomechanical models are required. Apart from adjusting generic models to individual anatomy, muscle activation patterns (MAPs) driving patient-specific functional movements are necessary to predict remaining functional outcome. We aim to evaluate how volunteer-specific MAPs derived from surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals control a biomechanical face model. Muscle activity of seven facial muscles in six volunteers was measured bilaterally with sEMG. A triple camera set-up recorded 3D lip movement. The generic face model in ArtiSynth was adapted to our needs. We controlled the model using the volunteer-specific MAPs. Three activation strategies were tested: activating all muscles [Formula: see text], selecting the three muscles showing highest muscle activity bilaterally [Formula: see text]-this was calculated by taking the mean of left and right muscles and then selecting the three with highest variance-and activating the muscles considered most relevant per instruction [Formula: see text], bilaterally. The model's lip movement was compared to the actual lip movement performed by the volunteers, using 3D correlation coefficients [Formula: see text]. The correlation coefficient between simulations and measurements with [Formula: see text] resulted in a median [Formula: see text] of 0.77. [Formula: see text] had a median [Formula: see text] of 0.78, whereas with [Formula: see text] the median [Formula: see text] decreased to 0.45. We demonstrated that MAPs derived from noninvasive sEMG measurements can control movement of the lips in a generic finite element face model with a median [Formula: see text] of 0.78. Ultimately, this is important to show the patient-specific residual movement using the patient's own MAPs. When the required treatment tools and personalisation techniques for geometry and anatomy become available, this may

  20. Comparison of jaw muscle EMG activity in awake and sleep bruxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo; Dreyer Nielsen, Patricia; Haugland, Morten

    2015-01-01

    , Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience (SCON), Aarhus, DENMARK; M. Haugland, DELTA, Copenhagen, DENMARK; W. Yachida, T. Arima, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, JAPAN; Group Author Abstracts: ABSTRACT: Objectives: Background: Bruxism has two different circadian manifestations (awake and sleep) that have...... been proposed to have different underlying pathophysiology. Objectives: To compare the characteristics of multiple days EMG assessment of the anterior temporalis muscles between patients with self-reported awake bruxism, sleep bruxism and healthy individuals. Methods: Methods: Participants...... with possible sleep bruxism (n=9) or awake bruxism (n=9) bruxism were included in an open study and compared with healthy individuals during awake (n=9) and sleep (n=7) states. All participants were assessed for a minimum of 4 days (awake or sleep) with a portable single-channel EMG recorder. The outcome...

  1. EEG and EMG responses to emotion-evoking stimuli processed without conscious awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, B E; Warrenburg, S; Schwartz, G E; Janer, L D

    1992-12-01

    Dichotic stimulus pairs were constructed with one word that was emotionally neutral and another that evoked either negative or positive feelings. Temporal and spectral overlap between the members of each pair was so great that the two words fused into a single auditory percept. Subjects were consciously aware of hearing only one word from most pairs; sometimes the emotion-evoking word was heard consciously, other times the neutral word was heard consciously. Subjects were instructed to let their thoughts wander in response to the word they heard, during which time EEG alpha activity over left and right frontal regions, and muscle activity (EMG) in the corrugator ("frowning") and zygomatic ("smiling") regions were recorded. Both EEG and EMG provided evidence of emotion-specific responses to stimuli that were processed without conscious awareness. Moreover both suggested relatively greater right hemisphere activity with unconscious rather than conscious processing.

  2. Influence of post-stroke spasticity on EMG-force coupling and force steadiness in biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, Jennilee K; Mochizuki, George

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with spasticity after stroke experience a decrease in force steadiness which can impact function. Alterations in the strength of EMG-force coupling may contribute to the reduction in force steadiness observed in spasticity. The aim was to determine the extent to which force steadiness and EMG-force coupling is affected by post-stroke spasticity. This cross-sectional study involved individuals with upper limb spasticity after stroke. Participants were required to generate and maintain isometric contractions of the elbow flexors at varying force levels. Coefficient of variation of force, absolute force, EMG-force cross-correlation function peak and peak latency was measured from both limbs with surface electromyography and isometric dynamometry. Statistically significant differences were observed between the affected and less affected limbs for all outcome measures. Significant main effects of force level were also observed. Force steadiness was not statistically significantly correlated with EMG-force coupling; however, both force steadiness and absolute force were associated with the level of impairment as measured by the Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment Scale. Spasticity after stroke uncouples the relationship between EMG and force and is associated with reduced force steadiness during isometric contractions; however, these features of control are not associated in individuals with spasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Generating Human-Like Velocity-Adapted Jumping Gait from sEMG Signals for Bionic Leg’s Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of dynamic motion such as jumping, an important fact in sEMG (surface Electromyogram signal based control on exoskeletons, myoelectric prostheses, and rehabilitation gait is that multichannel sEMG signals contain mass data and vary greatly with time, which makes it difficult to generate compliant gait. Inspired by the fact that muscle synergies leading to dimensionality reduction may simplify motor control and learning, this paper proposes a new approach to generate flexible gait based on muscle synergies extracted from sEMG signal. Two questions were discussed and solved, the first one concerning whether the same set of muscle synergies can explain the different phases of hopping movement with various velocities. The second one is about how to generate self-adapted gait with muscle synergies while alleviating model sensitivity to sEMG transient changes. From the experimental results, the proposed method shows good performance both in accuracy and in robustness for producing velocity-adapted vertical jumping gait. The method discussed in this paper provides a valuable reference for the sEMG-based control of bionic robot leg to generate human-like dynamic gait.

  4. Use of sEMG in identification of low level muscle activities: features based on ICA and fractal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2009-01-01

    This paper has experimentally verified and compared features of sEMG (Surface Electromyogram) such as ICA (Independent Component Analysis) and Fractal Dimension (FD) for identification of low level forearm muscle activities. The fractal dimension was used as a feature as reported in the literature. The normalized feature values were used as training and testing vectors for an Artificial neural network (ANN), in order to reduce inter-experimental variations. The identification accuracy using FD of four channels sEMG was 58%, and increased to 96% when the signals are separated to their independent components using ICA.

  5. A mechatronics platform to study prosthetic hand control using EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, P

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a low-cost mechatronics platform for the design and development of robotic hands as well as a surface electromyogram (EMG) pattern recognition system is proposed. This paper also explores various EMG classification techniques using a low-cost electronics system in prosthetic hand applications. The proposed platform involves the development of a four channel EMG signal acquisition system; pattern recognition of acquired EMG signals; and development of a digital controller for a robotic hand. Four-channel surface EMG signals, acquired from ten healthy subjects for six different movements of the hand, were used to analyse pattern recognition in prosthetic hand control. Various time domain features were extracted and grouped into five ensembles to compare the influence of features in feature-selective classifiers (SLR) with widely considered non-feature-selective classifiers, such as neural networks (NN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM) applied with different kernels. The results divulged that the average classification accuracy of the SVM, with a linear kernel function, outperforms other classifiers with feature ensembles, Hudgin's feature set and auto regression (AR) coefficients. However, the slight improvement in classification accuracy of SVM incurs more processing time and memory space in the low-level controller. The Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test also shows that there is no significant difference in the classification performance of SLR with Hudgin's feature set to that of SVM with Hudgin's features along with AR coefficients. In addition, the KW test shows that SLR was found to be better in respect to computation time and memory space, which is vital in a low-level controller. Similar to SVM, with a linear kernel function, other non-feature selective LDA and NN classifiers also show a slight improvement in performance using twice the features but with the drawback of increased memory space requirement and time

  6. Modeling Surface Water Transport in the Central Pacific Ocean With 129I Records From Coral Skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W.; Biddulph, D. L.; Russell, J. L.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, T. J.; Correge, T.; Roeder, B.

    2008-12-01

    129I occurs naturally in extremely low abundance via cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere as well as by spontaneous fission of uranium. Oceanic concentrations of 129I have risen by several orders of magnitude during the last half century largely from environmental pollution coming from several point-source nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the Pacific basin, much of the increase has apparently come from the Hanford Nuclear reprocessing plant in the United States, with iodine primarily arriving via the Columbia River. Coral skeletons preserve records of 129I concentration of the surface waters from which they were deposited, yielding records with annual resolution or better. We will present three such records from different locations in the Pacific Ocean: the Solomon Islands, Easter Island and Clipperton Atoll. For this study, drill cores from living massive coral skeletons of the species Porites Lobata were collected from these sites. 129I/127I values were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Arizona with an NEC 3 MV Pelletron accelerator. Results from the analysis of the corals will be compared to the distribution of other mixed-layer tracers (chloro-fluorocarbons and tritium) collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises conducted between 1990 and 2002. The 129I/127I records observed in these corals will also be compared to tracer transit time calculations determined from a 20th century simulation of the GFDL coupled-climate passive-tracer model.

  7. EEG Signal Quality of a Subcutaneous Recording System Compared to Standard Surface Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Duun-Henriksen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We provide a comprehensive verification of a new subcutaneous EEG recording device which promises robust and unobtrusive measurements over ultra-long time periods. The approach is evaluated against a state-of-the-art surface EEG electrode technology. Materials and Methods. An electrode powered by an inductive link was subcutaneously implanted on five subjects. Surface electrodes were placed at sites corresponding to the subcutaneous electrodes, and the EEG signals were evaluated with both quantitative (power spectral density and coherence analysis and qualitative (blinded subjective scoring by neurophysiologists analysis. Results. The power spectral density and coherence analysis were very similar during measurements of resting EEG. The scoring by neurophysiologists showed a higher EEG quality for the implanted system for different subject states (eyes open and eyes closed. This was most likely due to higher amplitude of the subcutaneous signals. During periods with artifacts, such as chewing, blinking, and eye movement, the two systems performed equally well. Conclusions. Subcutaneous measurements of EEG with the test device showed high quality as measured by both quantitative and more subjective qualitative methods. The signal might be superior to surface EEG in some aspects and provides a method of ultra-long term EEG recording in situations where this is required and where a small number of EEG electrodes are sufficient.

  8. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible.

  9. Early Evaluation of the VIIRS Calibration, Cloud Mask and Surface Reflectance Earth Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, Eric; Justice, Chris; Csiszar, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Surface reflectance is one of the key products fromVIIRS and as withMODIS, is used in developing several higherorder land products. The VIIRS Surface Reflectance (SR) Intermediate Product (IP) is based on the heritageMODIS Collection 5 product (Vermote, El Saleous, & Justice, 2002). The quality and character of surface reflectance depend on the accuracy of the VIIRS Cloud Mask (VCM), the aerosol algorithms and the adequate calibration of the sensor. The focus of this paper is the early evaluation of the VIIRS SR product in the context of the maturity of the operational processing system, the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS). After a brief introduction, the paper presents the calibration performance and the role of the surface reflectance in calibration monitoring. The analysis of the performance of the cloud mask with a focus on vegetation monitoring (no snow conditions) shows typical problems over bright surfaces and high elevation sites. Also discussed is the performance of the aerosol input used in the atmospheric correction and in particular the artifacts generated by the use of the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System. Early quantitative results of the performance of the SR product over the AERONET sites showthatwith the fewadjustments recommended, the accuracy iswithin the threshold specifications. The analysis of the adequacy of the SR product (Land PEATE adjusted version) in applications of societal benefits is then presented. We conclude with a set of recommendations to ensure consistency and continuity of the JPSS mission with the MODIS Land Climate Data Record.

  10. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) system. Final report, October 1995 - May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 2 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large task of concern to both government and industry. Because of the high cost of hazardous waste disposal, old, contaminated buildings cannot simply be demolished and scrapped. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean material can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. DOE has a number of sites requiring surface characterization. These sites are large, contain very heterogeneous patterns of contamination (requiring high sampling density), and will thus necessitate an enormous number of samples to be taken and analyzed. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmation process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible

  11. EMG normalization method based on grade 3 of manual muscle testing: Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks and application to gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabard-Fougère, Anne; Rose-Dulcina, Kevin; Pittet, Vincent; Dayer, Romain; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Armand, Stéphane

    2018-02-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important parameter in Clinical Gait Analysis (CGA), and is generally interpreted with timing of activation. EMG amplitude comparisons between individuals, muscles or days need normalization. There is no consensus on existing methods. The gold standard, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), is not adapted to pathological populations because patients are often unable to perform an MVIC. The normalization method inspired by the isometric grade 3 of manual muscle testing (isoMMT3), which is the ability of a muscle to maintain a position against gravity, could be an interesting alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within- and between-day reliability of the isoMMT3 EMG normalizing method during gait compared with the conventional MVIC method. Lower limb muscles EMG (gluteus medius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus) were recorded bilaterally in nine healthy participants (five males, aged 29.7±6.2years, BMI 22.7±3.3kgm -2 ) giving a total of 18 independent legs. Three repeated measurements of the isoMMT3 and MVIC exercises were performed with an EMG recording. EMG amplitude of the muscles during gait was normalized by these two methods. This protocol was repeated one week later. Within- and between-day reliability of normalization tasks were similar for isoMMT3 and MVIC methods. Within- and between-day reliability of gait EMG normalized by isoMMT3 was higher than with MVIC normalization. These results indicate that EMG normalization using isoMMT3 is a reliable method with no special equipment needed and will support CGA interpretation. The next step will be to evaluate this method in pathological populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EMG biofeedback of the abductor pollicis brevis in piano performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, R; Bedmar, M; Sol Martin, M

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply EMG biofeedback as an auxiliary to piano teaching techniques. We studied the changes in integrated electromyographic activity, using the abductor pollicis brevis functioning as an agonist during the teaching of identical selective movements of piano playing in two groups, one with EMG biofeedback and the other following traditional method of instruction. The analysis of variance revealed an increase in the peak amplitude and the relaxation rate values for the biofeedback group. These results have implications for the application of piano playing techniques and reveal EMG biofeedback as an aid in the teaching of thumb attack with the abductor pollicis brevis as agonist.

  13. Effect of age and gender on the surface electromyogram during various levels of isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kalra, Chandan; Burne, John; Bastos, Teodiano

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the effects of age and gender on the surface electromyogram while performing isometric contraction. Experiments were conducted with two age groups--Young (Age: 20-29) and Old (Age: 60-69) where they performed sustained isometric contractions at various force levels (50%, 75%, 100% of maximum voluntary contraction). Traditional features such as root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) were computed from the recorded sEMG. The result indicates that the MDF of sEMG was not significantly affected by age, but was impacted by gender in both age groups. Also there was a significant change in the RMS of sEMG with age and gender at all levels of contraction. The results also indicate a large inter-subject variation. This study will provide an understanding of the underlying physiological effects of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue in different cohorts.

  14. One-Channel Surface Electromyography Decomposition for Muscle Force Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimating muscle force by surface electromyography (sEMG is a non-invasive and flexible way to diagnose biomechanical diseases and control assistive devices such as prosthetic hands. To estimate muscle force using sEMG, a supervised method is commonly adopted. This requires simultaneous recording of sEMG signals and muscle force measured by additional devices to tune the variables involved. However, recording the muscle force of the lost limb of an amputee is challenging, and the supervised method has limitations in this regard. Although the unsupervised method does not require muscle force recording, it suffers from low accuracy due to a lack of reference data. To achieve accurate and easy estimation of muscle force by the unsupervised method, we propose a decomposition of one-channel sEMG signals into constituent motor unit action potentials (MUAPs in two steps: (1 learning an orthogonal basis of sEMG signals through reconstruction independent component analysis; (2 extracting spike-like MUAPs from the basis vectors. Nine healthy subjects were recruited to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach in estimating muscle force of the biceps brachii. The results demonstrated that the proposed approach based on decomposed MUAPs explains more than 80% of the muscle force variability recorded at an arbitrary force level, while the conventional amplitude-based approach explains only 62.3% of this variability. With the proposed approach, we were also able to achieve grip force control of a prosthetic hand, which is one of the most important clinical applications of the unsupervised method. Experiments on two trans-radial amputees indicated that the proposed approach improves the performance of the prosthetic hand in grasping everyday objects.

  15. siGnum: graphical user interface for EMG signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manvinder; Mathur, Shilpi; Bhatia, Dinesh; Verma, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) signals that represent the electrical activity of muscles can be used for various clinical and biomedical applications. These are complicated and highly varying signals that are dependent on anatomical location and physiological properties of the muscles. EMG signals acquired from the muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition and processing. This paper proposes a novel Graphical User Interface (GUI) siGnum developed in MATLAB that will apply efficient and effective techniques on processing of the raw EMG signals and decompose it in a simpler manner. It could be used independent of MATLAB software by employing a deploy tool. This would enable researcher's to gain good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures that can be utilized for more powerful, flexible and efficient applications in near future.

  16. Specific Diurnal EMG Activity Pattern Observed in Occlusal Collapse Patients: Relationship between Diurnal Bruxism and Tooth Loss Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kumazaki, Yohei; Manda, Yosuke; Oki, Kazuhiro; Minagi, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Aim The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. Materials and Methods Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group), six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group), and six young control subjects (YC group) were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG) of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. Results Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (pbruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. Practical implications The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for the prognostic evaluation of stomatognathic system stability. PMID:25010348

  17. Specific diurnal EMG activity pattern observed in occlusal collapse patients: relationship between diurnal bruxism and tooth loss progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kumazaki, Yohei; Manda, Yosuke; Oki, Kazuhiro; Minagi, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group), six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group), and six young control subjects (YC group) were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG) of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (pstability.

  18. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in healthy cats recorded with surface electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Musteata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the brainstem auditory evoked potentials of seven healthy cats, using surface electrodes. Latencies of waves I, III and V, and intervals I–III, I–V and III–V were recorded. Monaural and binaural stimulation of the cats were done with sounds ranging between 40 and 90 decibel Sound Pressure Level. All latencies were lower than those described in previous studies, where needle electrodes were used. In the case of binaural stimulation, latencies of waves III and V were greater compared to those obtained for monaural stimulation (P P > 0.05. Regardless of the sound intensity, the interwave latency was constant (P > 0.05. Interestingly, no differences were noticed for latencies of waves III and V when sound intensity was higher than 80dB SPL. This study completes the knowledge in the field of electrophysiology and shows that the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in cats using surface electrodes is a viable method to record the transmission of auditory information. That can be faithfully used in clinical practice, when small changes of latency values may be an objective factor in health status evaluation.

  19. Improved Overpressure Recording and Modeling for Near-Surface Explosion Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Schnurr, J.; Garces, M. A.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate recording and analysis of air-blast acoustic waveforms is a key component of the forensic analysis of explosive events. Smartphone apps can enhance traditional technologies by providing scalable, cost-effective ubiquitous sensor solutions for monitoring blasts, undeclared activities, and inaccessible facilities. During a series of near-surface chemical high explosive tests, iPhone 6's running the RedVox infrasound recorder app were co-located with high-fidelity Hyperion overpressure sensors, allowing for direct comparison of the resolution and frequency content of the devices. Data from the traditional sensors is used to characterize blast signatures and to determine relative iPhone microphone amplitude and phase responses. A Wiener filter based source deconvolution method is applied, using a parameterized source function estimated from traditional overpressure sensor data, to estimate system responses. In addition, progress on a new parameterized air-blast model is presented. The model is based on the analysis of a large set of overpressure waveforms from several surface explosion test series. An appropriate functional form with parameters determined empirically from modern air-blast and acoustic data will allow for better parameterization of signals and the improved characterization of explosive sources.

  20. Sea Surface Temperature Climate Data Record for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    A 30-yr climate data record (CDR) of sea surface temperature (SST) has been produced with daily gap-free analysis fields for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea region from 1982 to 2012 by combining the Pathfinder AVHRR satellite data record with the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) Reprocessing...... for Climate (ARC) dataset and with in situ observations. A dynamical bias correction scheme adjusts the Pathfinder observations toward the ARC and in situ observations. Largest Pathfinder-ARC differences are found in the summer months, when the Pathfinder observations are up to 0.4 °C colder than the ARC...... observations on average. Validation against independent in situ observations shows a very stable performance of the data record, with a mean difference of -0.06 °C compared to moored buoys and a 0.46 °C standard deviation of the differences. The mean annual biases of the SST CDR are small for all years...

  1. Contemporary linkages between EMG, kinetics and stroke rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Steven L.; Butler, Andrew J.; Alberts, Jay L.; Kim, Min Wook

    2005-01-01

    EMG and kinetic measures have been primary tools in the study of movement and have provided the foundation for much of the work presented in this journal. Recently, novel ways of combining these tools have provided opportunities to examine elements of motor learning and brain plasticity. This presentation reviews the quantification of EMG within the context of transcranial magnetic stimulation. This vehicle permits acquisition of measures that are fundamental to examining prospects for cortic...

  2. Specific diurnal EMG activity pattern observed in occlusal collapse patients: relationship between diurnal bruxism and tooth loss progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehisa Kawakami

    Full Text Available AIM: The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group, six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group, and six young control subjects (YC group were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. RESULTS: Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (p<0.01. ROC curve analysis suggested that the number of diurnal phasic episodes might be used to predict bite collapsing tooth loss. CONCLUSION: Extensive bite loss might be related to diurnal masticatory muscle parafunction but not to parafunction during sleep. CLINICAL RELEVANCE SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR STUDY: Although mandibular parafunction has been implicated in stomatognathic system breakdown, a causal relationship has not been established because scientific modalities to evaluate parafunctional activity have been lacking. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used a newly developed EMG recording system that evaluates masseter muscle activity throughout the day. Our results challenge the stereotypical idea of nocturnal bruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for

  3. A prototype for automation of land-cover products from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Steinwand, D.; Nelson, K.; Coan, M.; Wylie, B. K.; Dahal, D.; Wika, S.; Quenzer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat data records of surface reflectance provide a three-decade history of land surface processes. Due to the vast number of these archived records, development of innovative approaches for automated data mining and information retrieval were necessary. Recently, we created a prototype utilizing open source software libraries for automatically generating annual Anderson Level 1 land cover maps and information products from data acquired by the Landsat Mission for the years 1984 to 2013. The automated prototype was applied to two target areas in northwestern and east-central North Dakota, USA. The approach required the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and two user-input target acquisition year-days. The Landsat archive was mined for scenes acquired within a 100-day window surrounding these target dates, and then cloud-free pixels where chosen closest to the specified target acquisition dates. The selected pixels were then composited before completing an unsupervised classification using the NLCD. Pixels unchanged in pairs of the NLCD were used for training decision tree models in an iterative process refined with model confidence measures. The decision tree models were applied to the Landsat composites to generate a yearly land cover map and related information products. Results for the target areas captured changes associated with the recent expansion of oil shale production and agriculture driven by economics and policy, such as the increase in biofuel production and reduction in Conservation Reserve Program. Changes in agriculture, grasslands, and surface water reflect the local hydrological conditions that occurred during the 29-year span. Future enhancements considered for this prototype include a web-based client, ancillary spatial datasets, trends and clustering algorithms, and the forecasting of future land cover.

  4. Validation of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of the surface temperature is critical to understanding and forecasting Arctic climate change; as surface temperature integrates changes in the surface energy budget. The sea-ice surface temperature (IST has been measured with optical and thermal infrared sensors for many years. With the IST Environmental Data Record (EDR available from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites; we can continue to monitor and investigate Arctic climate change. This work examines the quality of the VIIRS IST EDR. Validation is performed through comparisons with multiple datasets; including NASA IceBridge measurements; air temperature from Arctic drifting ice buoys; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS IST; MODIS IST simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO; and surface air temperature from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Results show biases of −0.34; −0.12; 0.16; −3.20; and −3.41 K compared to an aircraft-mounted downward-looking pyrometer; MODIS; MODIS SNO; drifting buoy; and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis; respectively; root-mean-square errors of 0.98; 1.02; 0.95; 4.89; and 6.94 K; and root-mean-square errors with the bias removed of 0.92; 1.01; 0.94; 3.70; and 6.04 K. Based on the IceBridge and MODIS results; the VIIRS IST uncertainty (RMSE meets or exceeds the JPSS system requirement of 1.0 K. The product can therefore be considered useful for meteorological and climatological applications.

  5. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land Surface Temperature (LST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Land Surface Temperature (LST) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  6. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Concentration and Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) and Ice Surface Temperature (IST) from the Visible...

  7. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing, hip extension from a sitting position (sitting and gait (walking are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV, Root-Mean-Square (RMS, integrated EMG (iEMG, Zero Crossing (ZC and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF and Median Frequency (MDF are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0

  8. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and Marine Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Wake, C. P.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analyses of precipitation preserved in glacial ice cores provide a unique opportunity to study changes in atmospheric circulation patterns and ocean surface conditions through time. In this study, we aim to investigate changes in both the physical and biological parameters of the north-central Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea over the twentieth century using the deuterium excess (d-excess) and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from the Mt. Hunter ice cores drilled in Denali National Park, Alaska. These parallel, 208 m-long ice cores were drilled to bedrock during the 2013 field season on the Mt. Hunter plateau (63° N, 151° W, 3,900 m above sea level) by a collaborative research team consisting of members from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores were sampled on a continuous melter system at Dartmouth College and analyzed for the concentrations major ions (Dionex IC) and trace metals (Element2 ICPMS), and for stable water isotope ratios (Picarro). The depth-age scale has been accurately dated to 400 AD using annual layer counting of several chemical species and further validated using known historical volcanic eruptions and the Cesium-137 spike associated with nuclear weapons testing in 1963. We use HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling to identify likely source areas of moisture and aerosol MSA being transported to the core site. Satellite imagery allows for a direct comparison between chlorophyll a concentrations in these source areas and MSA concentrations in the core record. Preliminary analysis of chlorophyll a and MSA concentrations, both derived almost exclusively from marine biota, suggest that the Mt. Hunter ice cores reflect changes in North Pacific and Bering Sea marine primary productivity. Analysis of the water isotope and MSA data in conjunction with climate reanalysis products shows significant correlations (psea surface temperatures in the Bering Sea and North Central Pacific. These findings, coupled with

  9. Computational Intelligence Based Data Fusion Algorithm for Dynamic sEMG and Skeletal Muscle Force Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu

    2013-08-01

    In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.

  10. EMG-Torque correction on Human Upper extremity using Evolutionary Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    JL, Veronica; Parasuraman, S.; Khan, M. K. A. Ahamed; Jeba DSingh, Kingsly

    2016-09-01

    There have been many studies indicating that control system of rehabilitative robot plays an important role in determining the outcome of the therapy process. Existing works have done the prediction of feedback signal in the controller based on the kinematics parameters and EMG readings of upper limb's skeletal system. Kinematics and kinetics based control signal system is developed by reading the output of the sensors such as position sensor, orientation sensor and F/T (Force/Torque) sensor and there readings are to be compared with the preceding measurement to decide on the amount of assistive force. There are also other works that incorporated the kinematics parameters to calculate the kinetics parameters via formulation and pre-defined assumptions. Nevertheless, these types of control signals analyze the movement of the upper limb only based on the movement of the upper joints. They do not anticipate the possibility of muscle plasticity. The focus of the paper is to make use of the kinematics parameters and EMG readings of skeletal system to predict the individual torque of upper extremity's joints. The surface EMG signals are fed into different mathematical models so that these data can be trained through Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find the best correlation between EMG signals and torques acting on the upper limb's joints. The estimated torque attained from the mathematical models is called simulated output. The simulated output will then be compared with the actual individual joint which is calculated based on the real time kinematics parameters of the upper movement of the skeleton when the muscle cells are activated. The findings from this contribution are extended into the development of the active control signal based controller for rehabilitation robot.

  11. Seemingly divergent sea surface temperature proxy records in the central Mediterranean during the last deglaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-A. Sicre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperatures (SSTs were reconstructed over the last 25 000 yr using alkenone paleothermometry and planktonic foraminifera assemblages from two cores of the central Mediterranean Sea: the MD04-2797 core (Siculo–Tunisian channel and the MD90-917 core (South Adriatic Sea. Comparison of the centennial scale structure of the two temperature signals during the last deglaciation period reveals significant differences in timing and amplitude. We suggest that seasonal changes likely account for seemingly proxy record divergences during abrupt transitions from glacial to interglacial climates and for the apparent short duration of the Younger Dryas (YD depicted by the alkenone time series, a feature that has already been stressed in earlier studies on the Mediterranean deglaciation.

  12. Statistical methods for change-point detection in surface temperature records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, A. L.; Possolo, A.; Zhang, N. F.

    2013-09-01

    We describe several statistical methods to detect possible change-points in a time series of values of surface temperature measured at a meteorological station, and to assess the statistical significance of such changes, taking into account the natural variability of the measured values, and the autocorrelations between them. These methods serve to determine whether the record may suffer from biases unrelated to the climate signal, hence whether there may be a need for adjustments as considered by M. J. Menne and C. N. Williams (2009) "Homogenization of Temperature Series via Pairwise Comparisons", Journal of Climate 22 (7), 1700-1717. We also review methods to characterize patterns of seasonality (seasonal decomposition using monthly medians or robust local regression), and explain the role they play in the imputation of missing values, and in enabling robust decompositions of the measured values into a seasonal component, a possible climate signal, and a station-specific remainder. The methods for change-point detection that we describe include statistical process control, wavelet multi-resolution analysis, adaptive weights smoothing, and a Bayesian procedure, all of which are applicable to single station records.

  13. Independence Between Two Channels of Surface Electromyogram Signal to Measure the Loss of Motor Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjunan Sridhar P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has investigated the relationship in the connectivity of motor units in surface electromyogram (sEMG of biceps brachii muscle. It is hypothesized that with ageing, there is reduction/loss in number of motor units, leading to reduction in the independence between the channels of the recorded muscle activity. Two channels of sEMG were recorded during three levels of isometric muscle contraction: 50 %, 75 % and 100 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. 73 subjects (age range 20-70 participated in the experiments. The independence in channel index (ICI between the two sEMG recording locations was computed using the independent components and Frobenius norm. ANOVA Statistical analysis was performed to test the effect of age (loss of motor units and level of contraction on ICI. The results show that the ICI among the older cohort was significantly lower compared with the younger adults. This research study has shown that the reduction in number of motor units is reflected by the reduction in the ICI of the sEMG signal.

  14. High-density EMG e-textile systems for the control of active prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farina, Dario; Lorrain, Thomas; Negro, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Myoelectric control of active prostheses requires electrode systems that are easy to apply for daily repositioning of the electrodes by the user. In this study we propose the use of Smart Fabric and Interactive Textile (SFIT) systems as an alternative solution for recording high-density EMG signa...... classified with linear discriminant analysis. The average classification accuracy for the nine tasks was 89.1 1.9 %. These results show that SFIT systems can be used as an effective way for muscle-machine interfacing....

  15. Fasciculation potentials in high-density surface EMG.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, G.; Kleine, B.U.; Stegeman, D.F.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Fasciculation potentials (FPs) are observed in healthy individuals, but also in patients with neurogenic disorders. The exact site of origin and the clinical relevance in distinguishing, for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from other neurogenic diseases based on specific characteristics

  16. Continuous and simultaneous estimation of finger kinematics using inputs from an EMG-to-muscle activation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeo, Jimson G; Tamei, Tomoya; Shibata, Tomohiro

    2014-08-14

    Surface electromyography (EMG) signals are often used in many robot and rehabilitation applications because these reflect motor intentions of users very well. However, very few studies have focused on the accurate and proportional control of the human hand using EMG signals. Many have focused on discrete gesture classification and some have encountered inherent problems such as electro-mechanical delays (EMD). Here, we present a new method for estimating simultaneous and multiple finger kinematics from multi-channel surface EMG signals. In this study, surface EMG signals from the forearm and finger kinematic data were extracted from ten able-bodied subjects while they were tasked to do individual and simultaneous multiple finger flexion and extension movements in free space. Instead of using traditional time-domain features of EMG, an EMG-to-Muscle Activation model that parameterizes EMD was used and shown to give better estimation performance. A fast feed forward artificial neural network (ANN) and a nonparametric Gaussian Process (GP) regressor were both used and evaluated to estimate complex finger kinematics, with the latter rarely used in the other related literature. The estimation accuracies, in terms of mean correlation coefficient, were 0.85 ± 0.07, 0.78 ± 0.06 and 0.73 ± 0.04 for the metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and the distal interphalangeal (DIP) finger joint DOFs, respectively. The mean root-mean-square error in each individual DOF ranged from 5 to 15%. We show that estimation improved using the proposed muscle activation inputs compared to other features, and that using GP regression gave better estimation results when using fewer training samples. The proposed method provides a viable means of capturing the general trend of finger movements and shows a good way of estimating finger joint kinematics using a muscle activation model that parameterizes EMD. The results from this study demonstrates a potential control

  17. Electrotactile EMG feedback improves the control of prosthesis grasping force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Meike A.; Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Teich, Florian; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2016-10-01

    Objective. A drawback of active prostheses is that they detach the subject from the produced forces, thereby preventing direct mechanical feedback. This can be compensated by providing somatosensory feedback to the user through mechanical or electrical stimulation, which in turn may improve the utility, sense of embodiment, and thereby increase the acceptance rate. Approach. In this study, we compared a novel approach to closing the loop, namely EMG feedback (emgFB), to classic force feedback (forceFB), using electrotactile interface in a realistic task setup. Eleven intact-bodied subjects and one transradial amputee performed a routine grasping task while receiving emgFB or forceFB. The two feedback types were delivered through the same electrotactile interface, using a mixed spatial/frequency coding to transmit 8 discrete levels of the feedback variable. In emgFB, the stimulation transmitted the amplitude of the processed myoelectric signal generated by the subject (prosthesis input), and in forceFB the generated grasping force (prosthesis output). The task comprised 150 trials of routine grasping at six forces, randomly presented in blocks of five trials (same force). Interquartile range and changes in the absolute error (AE) distribution (magnitude and dispersion) with respect to the target level were used to assess precision and overall performance, respectively. Main results. Relative to forceFB, emgFB significantly improved the precision of myoelectric commands (min/max of the significant levels) for 23%/36% as well as the precision of force control for 12%/32%, in intact-bodied subjects. Also, the magnitude and dispersion of the AE distribution were reduced. The results were similar in the amputee, showing considerable improvements. Significance. Using emgFB, the subjects therefore decreased the uncertainty of the forward pathway. Since there is a correspondence between the EMG and force, where the former anticipates the latter, the emgFB allowed for

  18. Using coral Ba/Ca records to investigate seasonal to decadal scale biogeochemical cycling in the surface and intermediate ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Cobb, K. M.; DeLong, K. L.; Freiberger, M. M.; Grottoli, A. G.; Hill, T. M.; Miller, H. R.; Nurhati, I. S.; Richey, J. N.; Serrato Marks, G.; Sherrell, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved barium (BaSW), a bio-intermediate element, is linked to several biogeochemical processes such as the cycling and export of nutrients, organic carbon (Corg), and barite in surface and intermediate oceans. Dynamic BaSW cycling has been demonstrated in the water column on short timescales (days-weeks) while sedimentary records have documented geologic-scale changes in barite preservation driven by export production. Our understanding of how seasonal-decadal scale climate variability impacts these biogeochemical processes currently lacks robust records. Ba/Ca calibrations in surface and deep sea corals suggest barium is incorporated via cationic substitution in both aragonite and calcite. Here we demonstrate the utility of Ba/Ca for reconstructing biogeochemical variability using examples of surface and deep sea coral records. Century-long deep sea coral records from the California Current System (bamboo corals: 900-1500m) record interannual variations in Ba/Ca, likely reflecting changes in barite formation via bacterial Corg respiration or barite saturation state. A surface Porites coral Ba/Ca record from Christmas Island (central equatorial Pacific: 1978-1995) shows maxima during low productivity El Niño warm periods, suggesting that variations in BaSW are driven by biological removal via direct cellular uptake or indirectly via barite precipitation with the decomposition of large phytoplankton blooms at this location. Similarly, a sixteen-year long Siderastera siderea surface coral record from Dry Tortugas, FL (Gulf of Mexico: 1991-2007) shows seasonal Ba/Ca cycles that align with annual chlorophyll and δ13C. Taken together, these records demonstrate the linkages among Corg, nutrient cycling and BaSW in the surface and intermediate ocean on seasonal to decadal timescales. Multi-proxy paleoceanographic reconstructions including Ba/Ca have the potential to elucidate the mechanisms linking past climate, productivity, nutrients, and BaSW cycling in the past.

  19. Heart rate variability (HRV) and muscular system activity (EMG) in cases of crash threat during simulated driving of a passenger car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zużewicz, Krystyna; Roman-Liu, Danuta; Konarska, Maria; Bartuzi, Paweł; Matusiak, Krzysztof; Korczak, Dariusz; Lozia, Zbigniew; Guzek, Marek

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether simultaneous responses from the muscular and circulatory system occur in the driver's body under simulated conditions of a crash threat. The study was carried out in a passenger car driving simulator. The crash was included in the driving test scenario developed in an urban setting. In the group of 22 young male subjects, two physiological signals - ECG and EMG were continuously recorded. The length of the RR interval in the ECG signal was assessed. A HRV analysis was performed in the time and frequency domains for 1-minute record segments at rest (seated position), during undisturbed driving as well as during and several minutes after the crash. For the left and right side muscles: m. trapezius (TR) and m. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), the EMG signal amplitude was determined. The percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was compared during driving and during the crash. As for the ECG signal, it was found that in most of the drivers changes occurred in the parameter values reflecting HRV in the time domain. Significant changes were noted in the mean length of RR intervals (mRR). As for the EMG signal, the changes in the amplitude concerned the signal recorded from the FDS muscle. The changes in ECG and EMG were simultaneous in half of the cases. Such parameters as mRR (ECG signal) and FDS-L amplitude (EMG signal) were the responses to accident risk. Under simulated conditions, responses from the circulatory and musculoskeletal systems are not always simultaneous. The results indicate that a more complete driver's response to a crash in road traffic is obtained based on parallel recording of two physiological signals (ECG and EMG).

  20. Intramuscular pressure and EMG relate during static contractions but dissociate with movement and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Jensen, Bente R.; Hargens, Allan R.

    2004-01-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) mirror muscle force in the nonfatigued muscle during static contractions. The present study explores whether the constant IMP-EMG relationship with increased force may be extended to dynamic contractions and to fatigued muscle. IMP and EMG...... with speed of abduction. In the nonfatigued supraspinatus muscle, a linear relationship was found between IMP and EMG; in contrast, during fatigue and recovery, significant timewise changes of the IMP-to-EMG ratio occurred. The results indicate that IMP should be included along with EMG when mechanical load...... sharing between muscles is evaluated during dynamic and fatiguing contractions....

  1. A Discrete-Time Algorithm for Stiffness Extraction from sEMG and Its Application in Antidisturbance Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peidong Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new discrete-time algorithm of stiffness extraction from muscle surface electromyography (sEMG collected from human operator’s arms and have applied it for antidisturbance control in robot teleoperation. The variation of arm stiffness is estimated from sEMG signals and transferred to a telerobot under variable impedance control to imitate human motor control behaviours, particularly for disturbance attenuation. In comparison to the estimation of stiffness from sEMG, the proposed algorithm is able to reduce the nonlinear residual error effect and to enhance robustness and to simplify stiffness calibration. In order to extract a smoothing stiffness enveloping from sEMG signals, two enveloping methods are employed in this paper, namely, fast linear enveloping based on low pass filtering and moving average and amplitude monocomponent and frequency modulating (AM-FM method. Both methods have been incorporated into the proposed stiffness variance estimation algorithm and are extensively tested. The test results show that stiffness variation extraction based on the two methods is sensitive and robust to attenuation disturbance. It could potentially be applied for teleoperation in the presence of hazardous surroundings or human robot physical cooperation scenarios.

  2. Wireless sEMG System with a Microneedle-Based High-Density Electrode Array on a Flexible Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjae; Gu, Gangyong; Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2017-12-30

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals reflect muscle contraction and hence, can provide information regarding a user's movement intention. High-density sEMG systems have been proposed to measure muscle activity in small areas and to estimate complex motion using spatial patterns. However, conventional systems based on wet electrodes have several limitations. For example, the electrolyte enclosed in wet electrodes restricts spatial resolution, and these conventional bulky systems limit natural movements. In this paper, a microneedle-based high-density electrode array on a circuit integrated flexible substrate for sEMG is proposed. Microneedles allow for high spatial resolution without requiring conductive substances, and flexible substrates guarantee stable skin-electrode contact. Moreover, a compact signal processing system is integrated with the electrode array. Therefore, sEMG measurements are comfortable to the user and do not interfere with the movement. The system performance was demonstrated by testing its operation and estimating motion using a Gaussian mixture model-based, simplified 2D spatial pattern.

  3. Protocol for Validation of the Land Surface Reflectance Fundamental Climate Data Record using AERONET: Application to the Global MODIS and VIIRS Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, J. C.; Vermote, E.; Holben, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    The land surface reflectance is a fundamental climate data record at the basis of the derivation of other climate data records (Albedo, LAI/Fpar, Vegetation indices) and a key parameter in the understanding of the land-surface-climate processes. It is essential that a careful validation of its uncertainties is performed on a global and continuous basis. One approach is the direct comparison of this product with ground measurements but that approach presents several issues related to scale, the episodic nature of ground measurements and the global representativeness. An alternative is to compare the surface reflectance product to reference reflectance determined from Top of atmosphere reflectance corrected using accurate radiative transfer code and very detailed measurements of the atmosphere obtained over the AERONET sites (Vermote and al, 2014, RSE) which allows to test for a large range of aerosol characteristics; formers being important inputs for atmospheric corrections. However, the application of this method necessitates the definition of a very detailed protocol for the use of AERONET data especially as far as size distribution and absorption are concerned, so that alternative validation methods or protocols could be compared. This paper describes the protocol we have been working on based on our experience with the AERONET data and its application to the MODIS and VIIRS record.

  4. An EMG Interface for the Control of Motion and Compliance of a Supernumerary Robotic Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Irfan; Spagnoletti, Giovanni; Salvietti, Gionata; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel electromyographic (EMG) control interface to control motion and joints compliance of a supernumerary robotic finger. The supernumerary robotic fingers are a recently introduced class of wearable robotics that provides users additional robotic limbs in order to compensate or augment the existing abilities of natural limbs without substituting them. Since supernumerary robotic fingers are supposed to closely interact and perform actions in synergy with the human limbs, the control principles of extra finger should have similar behavior as human’s ones including the ability of regulating the compliance. So that, it is important to propose a control interface and to consider the actuators and sensing capabilities of the robotic extra finger compatible to implement stiffness regulation control techniques. We propose EMG interface and a control approach to regulate the compliance of the device through servo actuators. In particular, we use a commercial EMG armband for gesture recognition to be associated with the motion control of the robotic device and surface one channel EMG electrodes interface to regulate the compliance of the robotic device. We also present an updated version of a robotic extra finger where the adduction/abduction motion is realized through ball bearing and spur gears mechanism. We have validated the proposed interface with two sets of experiments related to compensation and augmentation. In the first set of experiments, different bimanual tasks have been performed with the help of the robotic device and simulating a paretic hand since this novel wearable system can be used to compensate the missing grasping abilities in chronic stroke patients. In the second set, the robotic extra finger is used to enlarge the workspace and manipulation capability of healthy hands. In both sets, the same EMG control interface has been used. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed control interface is intuitive and can

  5. Blind source identification from the multichannel surface electromyogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holobar, A; Farina, D

    2014-01-01

    The spinal circuitries combine the information flow from the supraspinal centers with the afferent input to generate the neural codes that drive the human skeletal muscles. The muscles transform the neural drive they receive from alpha motor neurons into motor unit action potentials (electrical activity) and force. Thus, the output of the spinal cord circuitries can be examined noninvasively by measuring the electrical activity of skeletal muscles at the surface of the skin i.e. the surface electromyogram (EMG). The recorded multi-muscle EMG activity pattern is generated by mixing processes of neural sources that need to be identified from the recorded signals themselves, with minimal or no a priori information available. Recently, multichannel source separation techniques that rely minimally on a priori knowledge of the mixing process have been developed and successfully applied to surface EMG. They act at different scales of information extraction to identify: (a) the activation signals shared by synergistic skeletal muscles, (b) the specific neural activation of individual muscles, separating it from that of nearby muscles i.e. from crosstalk, and (c) the spike trains of the active motor neurons. This review discusses the assumptions made by these methods, the challenges and limitations, as well as examples of their current applications. (topical review)

  6. XML-BSPM: an XML format for storing Body Surface Potential Map recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Raymond R; Finlay, Dewar D; Nugent, Chris D; Moore, George

    2010-05-14

    The Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM) is an electrocardiographic method, for recording and displaying the electrical activity of the heart, from a spatial perspective. The BSPM has been deemed more accurate for assessing certain cardiac pathologies when compared to the 12-lead ECG. Nevertheless, the 12-lead ECG remains the most popular ECG acquisition method for non-invasively assessing the electrical activity of the heart. Although data from the 12-lead ECG can be stored and shared using open formats such as SCP-ECG, no open formats currently exist for storing and sharing the BSPM. As a result, an innovative format for storing BSPM datasets has been developed within this study. The XML vocabulary was chosen for implementation, as opposed to binary for the purpose of human readability. There are currently no standards to dictate the number of electrodes and electrode positions for recording a BSPM. In fact, there are at least 11 different BSPM electrode configurations in use today. Therefore, in order to support these BSPM variants, the XML-BSPM format was made versatile. Hence, the format supports the storage of custom torso diagrams using SVG graphics. This diagram can then be used in a 2D coordinate system for retaining electrode positions. This XML-BSPM format has been successfully used to store the Kornreich-117 BSPM dataset and the Lux-192 BSPM dataset. The resulting file sizes were in the region of 277 kilobytes for each BSPM recording and can be deemed suitable for example, for use with any telemonitoring application. Moreover, there is potential for file sizes to be further reduced using basic compression algorithms, i.e. the deflate algorithm. Finally, these BSPM files have been parsed and visualised within a convenient time period using a web based BSPM viewer. This format, if widely adopted could promote BSPM interoperability, knowledge sharing and data mining. This work could also be used to provide conceptual solutions and inspire existing formats

  7. Detecting Nasal Vowels in Speech Interfaces Based on Surface Electromyography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Freitas

    Full Text Available Nasality is a very important characteristic of several languages, European Portuguese being one of them. This paper addresses the challenge of nasality detection in surface electromyography (EMG based speech interfaces. We explore the existence of useful information about the velum movement and also assess if muscles deeper down in the face and neck region can be measured using surface electrodes, and the best electrode location to do so. The procedure we adopted uses Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RT-MRI, collected from a set of speakers, providing a method to interpret EMG data. By ensuring compatible data recording conditions, and proper time alignment between the EMG and the RT-MRI data, we are able to accurately estimate the time when the velum moves and the type of movement when a nasal vowel occurs. The combination of these two sources revealed interesting and distinct characteristics in the EMG signal when a nasal vowel is uttered, which motivated a classification experiment. Overall results of this experiment provide evidence that it is possible to detect velum movement using sensors positioned below the ear, between mastoid process and the mandible, in the upper neck region. In a frame-based classification scenario, error rates as low as 32.5% for all speakers and 23.4% for the best speaker have been achieved, for nasal vowel detection. This outcome stands as an encouraging result, fostering the grounds for deeper exploration of the proposed approach as a promising route to the development of an EMG-based speech interface for languages with strong nasal characteristics.

  8. Estimation of real-time runway surface contamination using flight data recorder parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Donovan

    Within this research effort, the development of an analytic process for friction coefficient estimation is presented. Under static equilibrium, the sum of forces and moments acting on the aircraft, in the aircraft body coordinate system, while on the ground at any instant is equal to zero. Under this premise the longitudinal, lateral and normal forces due to landing are calculated along with the individual deceleration components existent when an aircraft comes to a rest during ground roll. In order to validate this hypothesis a six degree of freedom aircraft model had to be created and landing tests had to be simulated on different surfaces. The simulated aircraft model includes a high fidelity aerodynamic model, thrust model, landing gear model, friction model and antiskid model. Three main surfaces were defined in the friction model; dry, wet and snow/ice. Only the parameters recorded by an FDR are used directly from the aircraft model all others are estimated or known a priori. The estimation of unknown parameters is also presented in the research effort. With all needed parameters a comparison and validation with simulated and estimated data, under different runway conditions, is performed. Finally, this report presents results of a sensitivity analysis in order to provide a measure of reliability of the analytic estimation process. Linear and non-linear sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to quantify the level of uncertainty implicit in modeling estimated parameters and how they can affect the calculation of the instantaneous coefficient of friction. Using the approach of force and moment equilibrium about the CG at landing to reconstruct the instantaneous coefficient of friction appears to be a reasonably accurate estimate when compared to the simulated friction coefficient. This is also true when the FDR and estimated parameters are introduced to white noise and when crosswind is introduced to the simulation. After the linear analysis the

  9. The historic surface ozone record, 1896-1975, and its relation to modern measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, I. E.; Tarasick, D. W.; Stähelin, J.; Wallington, T. J.; Steinbacher, M.; Schultz, M.; Cooper, O. R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas, a key component of atmospheric chemistry, and is detrimental to human health and plant productivity. The historic surface ozone record 1896-1975 has been constructed from measurements selected for (a) instrumentation whose ozone response can be traced to modern tropospheric ozone measurement standards, (b) samples taken when there is low probability of chemical interference and (c) sampling locations, heights and times when atmospheric mixing will minimise vertical gradients of ozone in the planetary boundary layer above and around the measurement location. Early measurements with the Schönbein filter paper technique cannot be related to modern methods with any degree of confidence. The potassium iodide-arsenite technique used at Montsouris for 1876-1910 is valid for measuring ozone; however, due to the presence of the interfering gases sulfur dioxide, ammonia and nitrogen oxides, the measured ozone concentrations are not representative of the regional atmosphere. The use of these data sets for trend analyses is not recommended. In total, 58 acceptable sets of measurements are currently identified, commencing in Europe in 1896, Greenland in 1932 and globally by the late 1950's. Between 1896 and 1944 there were 21 studies (median duration 5 days) with a median mole fraction of 23 nmol mol-1 (range of study averages 15-62 nmol mol-1). Between 1950 and 1975 there were 37 studies (median duration approx. 21 months) with a median mole fraction of 22 nmol mol-1 (range of study averages 13-49 nmol mol-1), all measured under conditions likely to give ozone mole fractions similar to those in the planetary boundary layer. These time series are matched with modern measurements from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) Ozone Database and used to examine changes between the historic and modern observations. These historic ozone levels are higher than previously accepted for surface ozone in the late 19th early 20th Century

  10. Deriving a sea surface temperature record suitable for climate change research from the along-track scanning radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Saunders, R. W.; Rayner, N. A.; Kent, E. C.; Old, C. P.; Berry, D.; Birks, A. R.; Blackmore, T.; Corlett, G. K.; Embury, O.; Jay, V. L.; Kennedy, J.; Mutlow, C. T.; Nightingale, T. J.; O'Carroll, A. G.; Pritchard, M. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Tett, S.

    We describe the approach to be adopted for a major new initiative to derive a homogeneous record of sea surface temperature for 1991 2007 from the observations of the series of three along-track scanning radiometers (ATSRs). This initiative is called (A)RC: (Advanced) ATSR Re-analysis for Climate. The main objectives are to reduce regional biases in retrieved sea surface temperature (SST) to less than 0.1 K for all global oceans, while creating a very homogenous record that is stable in time to within 0.05 K decade-1, with maximum independence of the record from existing analyses of SST used in climate change research. If these stringent targets are achieved, this record will enable significantly improved estimates of surface temperature trends and variability of sufficient quality to advance questions of climate change attribution, climate sensitivity and historical reconstruction of surface temperature changes. The approach includes development of new, consistent estimators for SST for each of the ATSRs, and detailed analysis of overlap periods. Novel aspects of the approach include generation of multiple versions of the record using alternative channel sets and cloud detection techniques, to assess for the first time the effect of such choices. There will be extensive effort in quality control, validation and analysis of the impact on climate SST data sets. Evidence for the plausibility of the 0.1 K target for systematic error is reviewed, as is the need for alternative cloud screening methods in this context.

  11. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Künecke

    Full Text Available Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110 in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  12. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  13. Schedule-induced masseter EMG in facial pain subjects vs. no-pain controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramling, S E; Grayson, R L; Sullivan, T N; Schwartz, S

    1997-02-01

    Empirical reports suggest that oral habits (e.g., teeth clenching) may be behavioral mediators linking stress to muscle hyperreactivity and the development of facial pain. Another report suggests that excessive behavioral adjuncts develop in conjunction with fixed-time stimulus presentation. The present study assessed the extent to which the oral habits exhibited by facial pain patients are schedule-induced. Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) symptomatology (n = 15) and pain-free controls (n = 15) participated in a 4-phase experiment (adaptation, baseline, task, recovery) designed to elicit schedule-induced behaviors. Self-report of oral habits and negative affect were recorded after each phase. Objective measures of oral habits were obtained via behavioral observation and masseter EMG recordings. Results revealed that negative arousal significantly increased during the fixed-time (FT) task and was also associated with increased oral habits among the TMD subjects. Moreover, 40% of the TMD subjects and none of the controls exhibited a pattern of EMG elevations in the early part of the inter-stimulus interval that met a strict criteria for scheduled-induced behavior per se. Taken together, these results suggest that the TMD subjects were engaging in schedule-induced oral habits. The adjunctive behavior literature seems to provide a plausible explanation as to how oral habits develop and are maintained in TMD patients, despite their painful consequences.

  14. Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Sezgin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions.

  15. Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Necmettin

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG) signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions. PMID:23193379

  16. Decoding subtle forearm flexions using fractal features of surface electromyogram from single and multiple sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar Poosapadi; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2010-10-21

    Identifying finger and wrist flexion based actions using a single channel surface electromyogram (sEMG) can lead to a number of applications such as sEMG based controllers for near elbow amputees, human computer interface (HCI) devices for elderly and for defence personnel. These are currently infeasible because classification of sEMG is unreliable when the level of muscle contraction is low and there are multiple active muscles. The presence of noise and cross-talk from closely located and simultaneously active muscles is exaggerated when muscles are weakly active such as during sustained wrist and finger flexion. This paper reports the use of fractal properties of sEMG to reliably identify individual wrist and finger flexion, overcoming the earlier shortcomings. SEMG signal was recorded when the participant maintained pre-specified wrist and finger flexion movements for a period of time. Various established sEMG signal parameters such as root mean square (RMS), Mean absolute value (MAV), Variance (VAR) and Waveform length (WL) and the proposed fractal features: fractal dimension (FD) and maximum fractal length (MFL) were computed. Multi-variant analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine the p value, indicative of the significance of the relationships between each of these parameters with the wrist and finger flexions. Classification accuracy was also computed using the trained artificial neural network (ANN) classifier to decode the desired subtle movements. The results indicate that the p value for the proposed feature set consisting of FD and MFL of single channel sEMG was 0.0001 while that of various combinations of the five established features ranged between 0.009 - 0.0172. From the accuracy of classification by the ANN, the average accuracy in identifying the wrist and finger flexions using the proposed feature set of single channel sEMG was 90%, while the average accuracy when using a combination of other features ranged between 58% and 73

  17. Decoding subtle forearm flexions using fractal features of surface electromyogram from single and multiple sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Dinesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying finger and wrist flexion based actions using a single channel surface electromyogram (sEMG can lead to a number of applications such as sEMG based controllers for near elbow amputees, human computer interface (HCI devices for elderly and for defence personnel. These are currently infeasible because classification of sEMG is unreliable when the level of muscle contraction is low and there are multiple active muscles. The presence of noise and cross-talk from closely located and simultaneously active muscles is exaggerated when muscles are weakly active such as during sustained wrist and finger flexion. This paper reports the use of fractal properties of sEMG to reliably identify individual wrist and finger flexion, overcoming the earlier shortcomings. Methods SEMG signal was recorded when the participant maintained pre-specified wrist and finger flexion movements for a period of time. Various established sEMG signal parameters such as root mean square (RMS, Mean absolute value (MAV, Variance (VAR and Waveform length (WL and the proposed fractal features: fractal dimension (FD and maximum fractal length (MFL were computed. Multi-variant analysis of variance (MANOVA was conducted to determine the p value, indicative of the significance of the relationships between each of these parameters with the wrist and finger flexions. Classification accuracy was also computed using the trained artificial neural network (ANN classifier to decode the desired subtle movements. Results The results indicate that the p value for the proposed feature set consisting of FD and MFL of single channel sEMG was 0.0001 while that of various combinations of the five established features ranged between 0.009 - 0.0172. From the accuracy of classification by the ANN, the average accuracy in identifying the wrist and finger flexions using the proposed feature set of single channel sEMG was 90%, while the average accuracy when using a combination

  18. EMG based FES for post-stroke rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyus, Ceethal K.; Anjaly Cherian, V.; Nageswaran, Sharmila

    2017-11-01

    Annually, 15 million in world population experiences stroke. Nearly 9 million stroke survivors every year experience mild to severe disability. The loss of upper extremity function in stroke survivors still remains a major rehabilitation challenge. The proposed EMG Abstract—Annually, 15 million in world population experiences stroke. Nearly 9 million stroke survivors every year experience mild to severe disability. The loss of upper extremity function in stroke survivors still remains a major rehabilitation challenge. The proposed EMG based FES system can be used for effective upper limb motor re-education in post stroke upper limb rehabilitation. The governing feature of the designed system is its synchronous activation, in which the FES stimulation is dependent on the amplitude of the EMG signal acquired from the unaffected upper limb muscle of the hemiplegic patient. This proportionate operation eliminates the undesirable damage to the patient’s skin by generating stimulus in proportion to voluntary EMG signals. This feature overcomes the disadvantages of currently available manual motor re-education systems. This model can be used in home-based post stroke rehabilitation, to effectively improve the upper limb functions.

  19. Trapezius muscle EMG as predictor of mental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.L.P; Grundlehner, B.; Penders, J.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Stress is a growing problem in society and can cause musculoskeletal complaints. It would be useful to measure stress for prevention of stress-related health problems. An experiment is described in which EMG signals of the upper trapezius muscle were measured with a wireless system during three

  20. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew David Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  1. 3D-printing soft sEMG sensing structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, Gerjan; Sanders, Remco; Muijzer, Frodo; van Beijnum, Bert-Jan; Krijnen, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of soft and flexible 3D-printed sEMG electrodes. The electrodes are printed in one go on a low cost consumer multi-material FDM printer. The printed structures do not need any further production steps to give them conductive properties.

  2. EMG Processing Based Measures of Fatigue Assessment during Manual Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Shair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual lifting is one of the common practices used in the industries to transport or move objects to a desired place. Nowadays, even though mechanized equipment is widely available, manual lifting is still considered as an essential way to perform material handling task. Improper lifting strategies may contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs, where overexertion contributes as the highest factor. To overcome this problem, electromyography (EMG signal is used to monitor the workers’ muscle condition and to find maximum lifting load, lifting height and number of repetitions that the workers are able to handle before experiencing fatigue to avoid overexertion. Past researchers have introduced several EMG processing techniques and different EMG features that represent fatigue indices in time, frequency, and time-frequency domain. The impact of EMG processing based measures in fatigue assessment during manual lifting are reviewed in this paper. It is believed that this paper will greatly benefit researchers who need a bird’s eye view of the biosignal processing which are currently available, thus determining the best possible techniques for lifting applications.

  3. EMG Processing Based Measures of Fatigue Assessment during Manual Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaban, M. H.; Abdullah, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Manual lifting is one of the common practices used in the industries to transport or move objects to a desired place. Nowadays, even though mechanized equipment is widely available, manual lifting is still considered as an essential way to perform material handling task. Improper lifting strategies may contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), where overexertion contributes as the highest factor. To overcome this problem, electromyography (EMG) signal is used to monitor the workers' muscle condition and to find maximum lifting load, lifting height and number of repetitions that the workers are able to handle before experiencing fatigue to avoid overexertion. Past researchers have introduced several EMG processing techniques and different EMG features that represent fatigue indices in time, frequency, and time-frequency domain. The impact of EMG processing based measures in fatigue assessment during manual lifting are reviewed in this paper. It is believed that this paper will greatly benefit researchers who need a bird's eye view of the biosignal processing which are currently available, thus determining the best possible techniques for lifting applications. PMID:28303251

  4. EMG Biofeedback Training Versus Systematic Desensitization for Test Anxiety Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Cabianca, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Biofeedback training to reduce test anxiety among university students was investigated. Biofeedback training with systematic desensitization was compared to an automated systematic desensitization program not using EMG feedback. Biofeedback training is a useful technique for reducing test anxiety, but not necessarily more effective than systematic…

  5. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars. Recording Aqueous and Surface-atmosphere Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Kenneth M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mustard, John F. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Salvatore, Mark R. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-05

    The rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. Moreover, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water–rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water–rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. These results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  6. Linear methods for reducing EMG contamination in peripheral nerve motor decodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Zachary B; Wendelken, Suzanne; Page, David M; Davis, Tyler; Hutchinson, Douglas T; Clark, Gregory A; Warren, David J

    2016-08-01

    Signals recorded from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with high channel count penetrating microelectrode arrays, such as the Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA), often have electromyographic (EMG) signals contaminating the neural signal. This common-mode signal source may prevent single neural units from successfully being detected, thus hindering motor decode algorithms. Reducing this EMG contamination may lead to more accurate motor decode performance. A virtual reference (VR), created by a weighted linear combination of signals from a subset of all available channels, can be used to reduce this EMG contamination. Four methods of determining individual channel weights and six different methods of selecting subsets of channels were investigated (24 different VR types in total). The methods of determining individual channel weights were equal weighting, regression-based weighting, and two different proximity-based weightings. The subsets of channels were selected by a radius-based criteria, such that a channel was included if it was within a particular radius of inclusion from the target channel. These six radii of inclusion were 1.5, 2.9, 3.2, 5, 8.4, and 12.8 electrode-distances; the 12.8 electrode radius includes all USEA electrodes. We found that application of a VR improves the detectability of neural events via increasing the SNR, but we found no statistically meaningful difference amongst the VR types we examined. The computational complexity of implementation varies with respect to the method of determining channel weights and the number of channels in a subset, but does not correlate with VR performance. Hence, we examined the computational costs of calculating and applying the VR and based on these criteria, we recommend an equal weighting method of assigning weights with a 3.2 electrode-distance radius of inclusion. Further, we found empirically that application of the recommended VR will require less than 1 ms for 33.3 ms of data from one USEA.

  7. A novel method for EMG decomposition based on matched filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Luiz Dias Siqueira Júnior

    Full Text Available Introduction Decomposition of electromyography (EMG signals into the constituent motor unit action potentials (MUAPs can allow for deeper insights into the underlying processes associated with the neuromuscular system. The vast majority of the methods for EMG decomposition found in the literature depend on complex algorithms and specific instrumentation. As an attempt to contribute to solving these issues, we propose a method based on a bank of matched filters for the decomposition of EMG signals. Methods Four main units comprise our method: a bank of matched filters, a peak detector, a motor unit classifier and an overlapping resolution module. The system’s performance was evaluated with simulated and real EMG data. Classification accuracy was measured by comparing the responses of the system with known data from the simulator and with the annotations of a human expert. Results The results show that decomposition of non-overlapping MUAPs can be achieved with up to 99% accuracy for signals with up to 10 active motor units and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 10 dB. For overlapping MUAPs with up to 10 motor units per signal and a SNR of 20 dB, the technique allows for correct classification of approximately 71% of the MUAPs. The method is capable of processing, decomposing and classifying a 50 ms window of data in less than 5 ms using a standard desktop computer. Conclusion This article contributes to the ongoing research on EMG decomposition by describing a novel technique capable of delivering high rates of success by means of a fast algorithm, suggesting its possible use in future real-time embedded applications, such as myoelectric prostheses control and biofeedback systems.

  8. A Versatile Embedded Platform for EMG Acquisition and Gesture Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Simone; Casamassima, Filippo; Milosevic, Bojan; Farella, Elisabetta; Schönle, Philipp; Fateh, Schekeb; Burger, Thomas; Huang, Qiuting; Benini, Luca

    2015-10-01

    Wearable devices offer interesting features, such as low cost and user friendliness, but their use for medical applications is an open research topic, given the limited hardware resources they provide. In this paper, we present an embedded solution for real-time EMG-based hand gesture recognition. The work focuses on the multi-level design of the system, integrating the hardware and software components to develop a wearable device capable of acquiring and processing EMG signals for real-time gesture recognition. The system combines the accuracy of a custom analog front end with the flexibility of a low power and high performance microcontroller for on-board processing. Our system achieves the same accuracy of high-end and more expensive active EMG sensors used in applications with strict requirements on signal quality. At the same time, due to its flexible configuration, it can be compared to the few wearable platforms designed for EMG gesture recognition available on market. We demonstrate that we reach similar or better performance while embedding the gesture recognition on board, with the benefit of cost reduction. To validate this approach, we collected a dataset of 7 gestures from 4 users, which were used to evaluate the impact of the number of EMG channels, the number of recognized gestures and the data rate on the recognition accuracy and on the computational demand of the classifier. As a result, we implemented a SVM recognition algorithm capable of real-time performance on the proposed wearable platform, achieving a classification rate of 90%, which is aligned with the state-of-the-art off-line results and a 29.7 mW power consumption, guaranteeing 44 hours of continuous operation with a 400 mAh battery.

  9. Sea Surface Temperature Records from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlow, C. T.; Smith, D. L.; Delderfield, J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.

    2006-12-01

    's Envisat platform. AATSR has been largely funded by the UK Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) in recognition of the need to provide continuity of the ATSR sea surface temperature (SST) data record for climate studies. Overlaps of the ATSR-1 and ATSR-2 missions, and subsequently ATSR-2 and AATSR have allowed cross- calibration between the sensors. A continuous archive of over 15 years of SST data from the ATSR instruments is being prepared and due for release in 2007. Further sensors based on the ATSR concept are being planned to continue this high quality dataset. Data will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of these novel sensors and the high quality of the data sets that are produced.

  10. II.3. Electrograms (ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Richard B; Lee, T Clive

    2010-01-01

    There is a constant need in medicine to obtain objective measurements of physical and cognitive function as the basis for diagnosis and monitoring of health. The body can be considered as a chemical and electrical system supported by a mechanical structure. Measuring and quantifying such electrical activity provides a means for objective examination of heath status. The term electrogram, from the Greek electro meaning electricity and gram meaning write or record, is the broad definition given to the recording of electrical signal from the body. In order that comparisons of electrical activity can be made against normative data, certain methods and procedures have been defined for different electrograms. This paper reviews these methods and procedures for the more typical electrograms associated with some of the major organs in the body, providing a first point of reference for the reader.

  11. Water resources data, Idaho, 2004; Volume 1. Surface water records for Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; O'Dell, I.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 209 stream-gaging stations and 8 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 39 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 395 groundwater wells; and water levels for 425 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  12. Water resources data, Idaho, 2003; Volume 1. Surface water records for Great Basin and Snake River basin above King Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, T.S.; Lehmann, A.K.; O'Dell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Idaho consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; discharge of irrigation diversions; and water levels and water quality of groundwater. The three volumes of this report contain discharge records for 208 stream-gaging stations and 14 irrigation diversions; stage only records for 6 stream-gaging stations; stage only for 6 lakes and reservoirs; contents only for 13 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality for 50 stream-gaging stations and partial record sites, 3 lakes sites, and 398 groundwater wells; and water levels for 427 observation network wells and 900 special project wells. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. Volumes 1 & 2 contain the surface-water and surface-water-quality records. Volume 3 contains the ground-water and ground-water-quality records. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Idaho, adjacent States, and Canada.

  13. An electrocorticographic electrode array for simultaneous recording from medial, lateral, and intrasulcal surface of the cortex in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Mullarkey, Matthew; Doyle, Alexandra M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Fujii, Naotaka

    2014-08-15

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) permits recording electrical field potentials with high spatiotemporal resolution over a large part of the cerebral cortex. Application of chronically implanted ECoG arrays in animal models provides an opportunity to investigate global spatiotemporal neural patterns and functional connectivity systematically under various experimental conditions. Although ECoG is conventionally used to cover the gyral cortical surface, recent studies have shown the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG recordings in macaque monkeys. Here we developed a new ECoG array to record neural activity simultaneously from much of the medial and lateral cortical surface of a single hemisphere, together with the supratemporal plane (STP) of the lateral sulcus in macaque monkeys. The ECoG array consisted of 256 electrodes for bipolar recording at 128 sites. We successfully implanted the ECoG array in the left hemisphere of three rhesus monkeys. The electrodes in the auditory and visual cortex detected robust event related potentials to auditory and visual stimuli, respectively. Bipolar recording from adjacent electrode pairs effectively eliminated chewing artifacts evident in monopolar recording, demonstrating the advantage of using the ECoG array under conditions that generate significant movement artifacts. Compared with bipolar ECoG arrays previously developed for macaque monkeys, this array significantly expands the number of cortical target areas in gyral and intralsulcal cortex. This new ECoG array provides an opportunity to investigate global network interactions among gyral and intrasulcal cortical areas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A critical period of corticomuscular and EMG-EMG coherence detection in healthy infants aged 9-25weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Herskind, Anna; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    The early postnatal development of functional corticospinal connections in human infants is not fully clarified. We used EEG and EMG to investigate the development of corticomuscular and intramuscular coherence as indicators of functional corticospinal connectivity in healthy infants aged 1-66 we...

  15. Wireless sEMG-Based Body-Machine Interface for Assistive Technology Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Cheikh Latyr; Gagnon-Turcotte, Gabriel; Dube, Jean-Francois; Gagne, Jean Simon; Delisle, Yanick; Campeau-Lecours, Alexandre; Gosselin, Clement; Gosselin, Benoit

    2017-07-01

    Assistive technology (AT) tools and appliances are being more and more widely used and developed worldwide to improve the autonomy of people living with disabilities and ease the interaction with their environment. This paper describes an intuitive and wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) based body-machine interface for AT tools. Spinal cord injuries at C5-C8 levels affect patients' arms, forearms, hands, and fingers control. Thus, using classical AT control interfaces (keypads, joysticks, etc.) is often difficult or impossible. The proposed system reads the AT users' residual functional capacities through their sEMG activity, and converts them into appropriate commands using a threshold-based control algorithm. It has proven to be suitable as a control alternative for assistive devices and has been tested with the JACO arm, an articulated assistive device of which the vocation is to help people living with upper-body disabilities in their daily life activities. The wireless prototype, the architecture of which is based on a 3-channel sEMG measurement system and a 915-MHz wireless transceiver built around a low-power microcontroller, uses low-cost off-the-shelf commercial components. The embedded controller is compared with JACO's regular joystick-based interface, using combinations of forearm, pectoral, masseter, and trapeze muscles. The measured index of performance values is 0.88, 0.51, and 0.41 bits/s, respectively, for correlation coefficients with the Fitt's model of 0.75, 0.85, and 0.67. These results demonstrate that the proposed controller offers an attractive alternative to conventional interfaces, such as joystick devices, for upper-body disabled people using ATs such as JACO.

  16. Capacitively coupled EMG detection via ultra-low-power microcontroller STFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Theresa; Baumgartner, Werner; Amsuess, Sebastian; Russold, Michael F

    2017-07-01

    As motion artefacts are a major problem with electromyography sensors, a new algorithm is developed to differentiate artefacts to contraction EMG. The performance of myoelectric prosthesis is increased with this algorithm. The implementation is done for an ultra-low-power microcontroller with limited calculation resources and memory. Short Time Fourier Transformation is used to enable real-time application. The sum of the differences (SOD) of the currently measured EMG to a reference contraction EMG is calculated. The SOD is a new parameter introduced for EMG classification. The satisfactory error rates are determined by measurements done with the capacitively coupling EMG prototype, recently developed by the research group.

  17. Analysis of EMG temporal parameters from the tibialis anterior during hemiparetic gait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonell, Claudia E; Cherniz, AnalIa S; Tabernig, Carolina B

    2007-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technique used to restore the motor muscular function by means of electrical stimulus commanded by a trigger signal under volitional control. In order to enhance the motor rehabilitation, a more convenient control signal may be provided by the same muscle that is being stimulated. For example, the tibialis anterior (TA) in the applications of foot drop correction could be used. This work presents the statistical analysis of the root mean square (RMS) and the absolute mean value (VMA) of the TA electromyogram (EMG) signal computed from different phases of the gait cycle related with increases/decreases stages of muscle activity. The EMG records of 40 strides of 2 subjects with hemiparesia were processed. The RMS and VMA parameters allow distinguishing the oscillation phase from the other analyzed intervals, but they present significant spreading of mean values. This led to conclude that it is possible to use these parameters to identify the start of TA muscle activity, but altogether with other parameter or sensor that would reduce the number of false positives

  18. A battery-free multichannel digital neural/EMG telemetry system for flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stewart J; Harrison, Reid R; Leonardo, Anthony; Reynolds, Matthew S

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a digital neural/EMG telemetry system small enough and lightweight enough to permit recording from insects in flight. It has a measured flight package mass of only 38 mg. This system includes a single-chip telemetry integrated circuit (IC) employing RF power harvesting for battery-free operation, with communication via modulated backscatter in the UHF (902-928 MHz) band. An on-chip 11-bit ADC digitizes 10 neural channels with a sampling rate of 26.1 kSps and 4 EMG channels at 1.63 kSps, and telemeters this data wirelessly to a base station. The companion base station transceiver includes an RF transmitter of +36 dBm (4 W) output power to wirelessly power the telemetry IC, and a digital receiver with a sensitivity of -70 dBm for 10⁻⁵ BER at 5.0 Mbps to receive the data stream from the telemetry IC. The telemetry chip was fabricated in a commercial 0.35 μ m 4M1P (4 metal, 1 poly) CMOS process. The die measures 2.36 × 1.88 mm, is 250 μm thick, and is wire bonded into a flex circuit assembly measuring 4.6 × 6.8 mm.

  19. Analysis of EMG temporal parameters from the tibialis anterior during hemiparetic gait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonell, Claudia E; Cherniz, AnalIa S; Tabernig, Carolina B [Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Rehabilitacion e Investigaciones Neuromusculares y Sensoriales, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNER, Oro Verde (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technique used to restore the motor muscular function by means of electrical stimulus commanded by a trigger signal under volitional control. In order to enhance the motor rehabilitation, a more convenient control signal may be provided by the same muscle that is being stimulated. For example, the tibialis anterior (TA) in the applications of foot drop correction could be used. This work presents the statistical analysis of the root mean square (RMS) and the absolute mean value (VMA) of the TA electromyogram (EMG) signal computed from different phases of the gait cycle related with increases/decreases stages of muscle activity. The EMG records of 40 strides of 2 subjects with hemiparesia were processed. The RMS and VMA parameters allow distinguishing the oscillation phase from the other analyzed intervals, but they present significant spreading of mean values. This led to conclude that it is possible to use these parameters to identify the start of TA muscle activity, but altogether with other parameter or sensor that would reduce the number of false positives.

  20. Changes in surface electromyography signals and kinetics associated with progression of fatigue at two speeds during wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Liping; Wakeling, James; Grange, Simon; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle balance is influenced by fatigue in a recordable way, toward creating novel defensive activity strategies for manual wheelchair users (MWUs). Wheelchair propulsion to a point of mild fatigue, level 15 on the Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, was investigated at two different speeds. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of 7 muscles was recorded on 14 nondisabled participants. Kinetic variables were measured using a SmartWheel. No significant effect was found of percentage endurance time on kinetic variables for the two propulsion speeds. Fatigue-related changes in the EMG spectra were identified as an increase of EMG intensity and a decrease of mean power frequency as a function of percent endurance time for the tested muscles under both fast and slow speed conditions. The greater increases in activity for propulsive muscles compared with recovery muscles during fast speed wheelchair propulsion indicated muscle imbalance associated with fatiguing wheelchair propulsion. This study shows how kinetic and EMG information might be used as feedback to MWUs to ensure that they conduct activity in ways that do not precipitate injury.

  1. Estimating the progression of muscle fatigue based on dependence between motor units using high density surface electromyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Adrian; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2016-08-01

    In this study we have tested the hypothesis regarding the increase in synchronization with the onset of muscle fatigue. For this aim, we have investigated the difference in the synchronicity between high density surface electromyogram (sEMG) channels of the rested muscles and when at the limit of endurance. Synchronization was measured by computing and normalizing the mutual information between the sEMG signals recorded from the high-density array electrode locations. Ten volunteers (Age range: 21 and 35 years; Mean age = 26 years; Male = 6, Female = 4) participated in our experiment. The participants performed isometric dorsiflexion of their dominate foot at two levels of contraction; 40% and 80% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until task failure. During the experiment an array of 64 electrodes (16 by 4) placed over the TA parallel to the muscle fiber was used to record the HD-sEMG. Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) between electrodes was calculated using the HD-sEMG data and then analyzed. The results show that that the average NMI of the TA significantly increased during fatigue at both levels of contraction. There was a statistically significant difference between NMI of the rested muscle compared with it being at the point of task failure.

  2. Effects of Surface Roughness and Mechanical Properties of Cover-Layer on Near-Field Optical Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jun-Seok; Lim, Jungshik; Seo, Jung-Kyo

    2009-03-01

    Narrow gap distance in cover-layer incident near-field recording (NFR) configuration causes a collision problem in the interface between a solid immersion lens and a disk surface. A polymer cover-layer with smooth surface results in a stable gap servo while a nanocomposite cover-layer with high refractive index shows a collision problem during the gap servo test. Even though a dielectric cover-layer, in which the surface is rougher than the polymer, supplements the mechanical properties, an unclear eye pattern due to an unstable gap servo can be obtained after a chemical mechanical polishing. Not only smooth surface but also good mechanical properties of cover-layer are required for the stable gap servo in the NFR.

  3. EMG analysis in 78 cases with motor neuron disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiubin

    2000-01-01

    This paper analysed the FMGs of 78 cases with the motor neuron disease(MND). The EMG of all patients showed following characteristics that the average duration of wave prolonged, the average voltage increased and it was found that fibrillation and fasciculatton potentials appeared spontaneously. The fibrillation potential of ENG waa related to course of disease. In the patients whose course of disease was short, the fibri llation potential increased obviously, while in the cases of chronic MND, It usually decreased. The motor nerve conduction velocity of most pa tients (41%) reduced, however, the sensory nerve conduction velocity was normal but two. We reviewed some references about EMG of the motor neuron disease and discussed their characteristics and mechanism

  4. Generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradetsky Valery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton systems. In this paper we consider a semi-automatic mechatronic system that is controlled via human muscle activity (EMG level. The problem is to understand how the movement of the exoskeleton effects on the control. The considered system can be described in terms of bilateral control. This means the existence of force feedback from the object via the exoskeleton links and drives to operator. The simulation of the considered model was held on the MATLAB Simulink. The mathematical model of the bilateral system with exoskeleton and operator was developed. Transient functions for different dynamic parameters were obtained. It was shown that force feedback is essential for the R&D of such systems.

  5. Normalised Mutual Information of High-Density Surface Electromyography during Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Bingham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has developed a technique for identifying the presence of muscle fatigue based on the spatial changes of the normalised mutual information (NMI between multiple high density surface electromyography (HD-sEMG channels. Muscle fatigue in the tibialis anterior (TA during isometric contractions at 40% and 80% maximum voluntary contraction levels was investigated in ten healthy participants (Age range: 21 to 35 years; Mean age = 26 years; Male = 4, Female = 6. HD-sEMG was used to record 64 channels of sEMG using a 16 by 4 electrode array placed over the TA. The NMI of each electrode with every other electrode was calculated to form an NMI distribution for each electrode. The total NMI for each electrode (the summation of the electrode’s NMI distribution highlighted regions of high dependence in the electrode array and was observed to increase as the muscle fatigued. To summarise this increase, a function, M(k, was defined and was found to be significantly affected by fatigue and not by contraction force. The technique discussed in this study has overcome issues regarding electrode placement and was used to investigate how the dependences between sEMG signals within the same muscle change spatially during fatigue.

  6. Detection of driving fatigue by using noncontact EMG and ECG signals measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Hong

    2014-05-01

    Driver fatigue can be detected by constructing a discriminant mode using some features obtained from physiological signals. There exist two major challenges of this kind of methods. One is how to collect physiological signals from subjects while they are driving without any interruption. The other is to find features of physiological signals that are of corresponding change with the loss of attention caused by driver fatigue. Driving fatigue is detected based on the study of surface electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiograph (ECG) during the driving period. The noncontact data acquisition system was used to collect physiological signals from the biceps femoris of each subject to tackle the first challenge. Fast independent component analysis (FastICA) and digital filter were utilized to process the original signals. Based on the statistical analysis results given by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z test, the peak factor of EMG (p fatigue of drivers. The discriminant criterion of fatigue was obtained from the training samples by using Mahalanobis distance, and then the average classification accuracy was given by 10-fold cross-validation. The results showed that the method proposed in this paper can give well performance in distinguishing the normal state and fatigue state. The noncontact, onboard vehicle drivers' fatigue detection system was developed to reduce fatigue-related risks.

  7. A comparison of two gluteus maximus EMG maximum voluntary isometric contraction positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret Contreras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to compare the peak electromyography (EMG of the most commonly-used position in the literature, the prone bent-leg (90° hip extension against manual resistance applied to the distal thigh (PRONE, to a novel position, the standing glute squeeze (SQUEEZE.Methods. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the upper and lower gluteus maximus of thirteen recreationally active females (age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg, before three maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC trials for each position were obtained in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion.Results. No statistically significant (p < 0.05 differences were observed between PRONE (upper: 91.94%; lower: 94.52% and SQUEEZE (upper: 92.04%; lower: 85.12% for both the upper and lower gluteus maximus. Neither the PRONE nor SQUEEZE was more effective between all subjects.Conclusions. In agreement with other studies, no single testing position is ideal for every participant. Therefore, it is recommended that investigators employ multiple MVIC positions, when possible, to ensure accuracy. Future research should investigate a variety of gluteus maximus MVIC positions in heterogeneous samples.

  8. EMG and tibial shock upon the first attempt at barefoot running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Evan D; Gutierrez, Gregory M

    2013-04-01

    As a potential means to decrease their risk of injury, many runners are transitioning into barefoot running. Habitually shod runners tend to heel-strike (SHS), landing on their heel first, while barefoot runners tend to mid-foot or toe-strike (BTS), landing flat-footed or on the ball of their foot before bringing down the rest of the foot including the heel. This study compared muscle activity, tibial shock, and knee flexion angle in subjects between shod and barefoot conditions. Eighteen habitually SHS recreational runners ran for 3 separate 7-minute trials, including SHS, barefoot heel-strike (BHS), and BTS conditions. EMG, tibial shock, and knee flexion angle were monitored using bipolar surface electrodes, an accelerometer, and an electrogoniometer, respectively. A one-way MANOVA for repeated measures was conducted and several significant changes were noted between SHS and BTS, including significant increases in average EMG of the medial gastrocnemius (p=.05), average and peak tibial shock (pknee flexion angle (pinjurious, these data indicate that habitually SHS runners who choose to transition into a BTS technique must undertake the process cautiously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EMG BIOFEEDBACK ON HAND FUNCTION IN SUBJECTS WITH STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sethana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is an event caused by the interruption of the blood supply to the brain, usually because a blood vessel bursts or blocked by a clot. Biofeedback can be defined as the technique of using equipment usually electronic to reveal to human beings about some of their internal physiological events normal and abnormal in form of auditory and visual signals. Method: The stroke patients diagnosed by neurologist were recruited from physiotherapy department and inpatients from neurology and general wards of SVIMS hospital, Tirupathi Andhra Pradesh. In the present study 30 subjects were randomly assigned to 15 experimental and 15 control groups. The subject was made to sit comfortably and the Surfaces electrodes were placed on Extensor carpi radialis, Extensor digitorum communis muscle belly and for 30minutes patient voluntarily contracts until signals displayed on screen for which visually and auditory cues are given. In control group placebo EMG where machine is turned away & has no cues. Both groups received CONVENTIONAL PHYSIOTHERAPY; for 30 minutes at a Frequency: 1 hour per day for 5days in a week, for 6weeks. Results: There was statistically significant (p<0.05 improvement in both variables from baseline to 6thweek in experimental group compared to control group. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the potential benefits of EMG BF in improving hand function in subjects with stroke.

  10. An EMG-Controlled Robotic Hand Exoskeleton for Bilateral Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardis, Daniele; Barsotti, Michele; Loconsole, Claudio; Solazzi, Massimiliano; Troncossi, Marco; Mazzotti, Claudio; Castelli, Vincenzo Parenti; Procopio, Caterina; Lamola, Giuseppe; Chisari, Carmelo; Bergamasco, Massimo; Frisoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel electromyography (EMG)-driven hand exoskeleton for bilateral rehabilitation of grasping in stroke. The developed hand exoskeleton was designed with two distinctive features: (a) kinematics with intrinsic adaptability to patient's hand size, and (b) free-palm and free-fingertip design, preserving the residual sensory perceptual capability of touch during assistance in grasping of real objects. In the envisaged bilateral training strategy, the patient's non paretic hand acted as guidance for the paretic hand in grasping tasks. Grasping force exerted by the non paretic hand was estimated in real-time from EMG signals, and then replicated as robotic assistance for the paretic hand by means of the hand-exoskeleton. Estimation of the grasping force through EMG allowed to perform rehabilitation exercises with any, non sensorized, graspable objects. This paper presents the system design, development, and experimental evaluation. Experiments were performed within a group of six healthy subjects and two chronic stroke patients, executing robotic-assisted grasping tasks. Results related to performance in estimation and modulation of the robotic assistance, and to the outcomes of the pilot rehabilitation sessions with stroke patients, positively support validity of the proposed approach for application in stroke rehabilitation.

  11. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Fernando D; Politti, Julio C; Felice, Carmelo J

    2010-11-12

    Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV), RMS values, variance values (VAR) and difference absolute mean value (DAMV). EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation), abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively) the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology.

  12. Evaluation of EMG processing techniques using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Carmelo J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyographic signals can be used in biomedical engineering and/or rehabilitation field, as potential sources of control for prosthetics and orthotics. In such applications, digital processing techniques are necessary to follow efficient and effectively the changes in the physiological characteristics produced by a muscular contraction. In this paper, two methods based on information theory are proposed to evaluate the processing techniques. Methods These methods determine the amount of information that a processing technique is able to extract from EMG signals. The processing techniques evaluated with these methods were: absolute mean value (AMV, RMS values, variance values (VAR and difference absolute mean value (DAMV. EMG signals from the middle deltoid during abduction and adduction movement of the arm in the scapular plane was registered, for static and dynamic contractions. The optimal window length (segmentation, abduction and adduction movements and inter-electrode distance were also analyzed. Results Using the optimal segmentation (200 ms and 300 ms in static and dynamic contractions, respectively the best processing techniques were: RMS, AMV and VAR in static contractions, and only the RMS in dynamic contractions. Using the RMS of EMG signal, variations in the amount of information between the abduction and adduction movements were observed. Conclusions Although the evaluation methods proposed here were applied to standard processing techniques, these methods can also be considered as alternatives tools to evaluate new processing techniques in different areas of electrophysiology.

  13. sEMG-Based Gesture Recognition with Convolution Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Ding

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional classification methods for limb motion recognition based on sEMG have been deeply researched and shown promising results. However, information loss during feature extraction reduces the recognition accuracy. To obtain higher accuracy, the deep learning method was introduced. In this paper, we propose a parallel multiple-scale convolution architecture. Compared with the state-of-art methods, the proposed architecture fully considers the characteristics of the sEMG signal. Larger sizes of kernel filter than commonly used in other CNN-based hand recognition methods are adopted. Meanwhile, the characteristics of the sEMG signal, that is, muscle independence, is considered when designing the architecture. All the classification methods were evaluated on the NinaPro database. The results show that the proposed architecture has the highest recognition accuracy. Furthermore, the results indicate that parallel multiple-scale convolution architecture with larger size of kernel filter and considering muscle independence can significantly increase the classification accuracy.

  14. Insight into the Pacific Sea Surface Temperature- North American Hydroclimate Connection from an Eastern Tropical North Pacific Coral Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, S. C.; Charles, C. D.; Carriquiry, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The last few years of record-breaking climate anomalies across North America--a resilient atmospheric ridge and extreme drought over the West Coast, and severe winters across the Midwest and East Coast regions--have been linked to anomalous Pacific sea surface temperatures (Seager et al. 2014, Wang et al. 2014, Hartmann 2015). The synoptic associations prompt important questions on the relation between these unusual phenomena and extreme expressions of known Pacific decadal modes, such as the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). These questions motivate our pursuit to document multiple realizations of decadal variability in the Pacific-North American region through periods of varied radiative forcing. Here we introduce a 178 year, seasonally resolved Porites coral record from Clarion Island (18N, 115W), the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, a region both highly influenced by NPGO SST and SSS variability and critical for NPGO tropical-extratropical communication via the Seasonal Footprinting Mechanism (Vimont et al. 2003). When coupled with tree ring records from the western United States (Griffin and Anchukaitis 2014, MacDonald and Case 2005) and coral records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al. 2001), the δ18O signal from the Clarion coral offers an extended framework of coherent continental hydroclimate and oceanic variability across the Pacific basin beyond the instrumental record. Over the last 200 years, we find clear commonality in the timing, magnitude and spatial expression of variability (illustrated through the NADA Atlas, Cook et al. 2004) amongst the proxy records. The strong relationship between Northeastern Pacific Clarion and the Central Pacific Palmyra record with the North American hydroclimate records can be viewed within the mechanistic framework of the NPGO; this framework is then explored over the last millennium across intervals of varied radiative forcing.

  15. Surface-modified microelectrode array with flake nanostructure for neural recording and stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Hyun; Choi, Yang-Kyu [Nano-Oriented Bio-Electronics Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Information Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Gyumin; Nam, Yoonkey, E-mail: ynam@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: ykchoi@ee.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, KAIST, KAIST Institute for Nano-Century, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-26

    A novel microelectrode modification method is reported for neural electrode engineering with a flake nanostructure (nanoflake). The nanoflake-modified electrodes are fabricated by combining conventional lithography and electrochemical deposition to implement a microelectrode array (MEA) on a glass substrate. The unique geometrical properties of nanoflake sharp tips and valleys are studied by optical, electrochemical and electrical methods in order to verify the advantages of using nanoflakes for neural recording devices. The in vitro recording and stimulation of cultured hippocampal neurons are demonstrated on the nanoflake-modified MEA and the clear action potentials are observed due to the nanoflake impedance reduction effect.

  16. Big Jump of Record Warm Global Mean Surface Temperature in 2014-2016 Related to Unusually Large Oceanic Heat Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianjun; Overpeck, Jonathan; Peyser, Cheryl; Stouffer, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    A 0.24°C jump of record warm global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the past three consecutive record-breaking years (2014-2016) was highly unusual and largely a consequence of an El Niño that released unusually large amounts of ocean heat from the subsurface layer of the northwestern tropical Pacific. This heat had built up since the 1990s mainly due to greenhouse-gas (GHG) forcing and possible remote oceanic effects. Model simulations and projections suggest that the fundamental cause, and robust predictor of large record-breaking events of GMST in the 21st century, is GHG forcing rather than internal climate variability alone. Such events will increase in frequency, magnitude, and duration, as well as impact, in the future unless GHG forcing is reduced.

  17. Record Charge Carrier Diffusion Length in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids via Mutual Dot-To-Dot Surface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Graham H; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-06-03

    Through a combination of chemical and mutual dot-to-dot surface passivation, high-quality colloidal quantum dot solids are fabricated. The joint passivation techniques lead to a record diffusion length for colloidal quantum dots of 230 ± 20 nm. The technique is applied to create thick photovoltaic devices that exhibit high current density without losing fill factor. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Prediction of Above-elbow Motions in Amputees, based on Electromyographic(EMG Signals, Using Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Akbari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to improve the quality of life of amputees, biomechatronic researchers and biomedical engineers have been trying to use a combination of various techniques to provide suitable rehabilitation systems. Diverse biomedical signals, acquired from a specialized organ or cell system, e.g., the nervous system, are the driving force for the whole system. Electromyography(EMG, as an experimental technique,is concerned with the development, recording, and analysis of myoelectric signals. EMG-based research is making progress in the development of simple, robust, user-friendly, and efficient interface devices for the amputees. Materials and Methods Prediction of muscular activity and motion patterns is a common, practical problem in prosthetic organs. Recurrent neural network (RNN models are not only applicable for the prediction of time series, but are also commonly used for the control of dynamical systems. The prediction can be assimilated to identification of a dynamic process. An architectural approach of RNN with embedded memory is Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX model, which seems to be suitable for dynamic system applications. Results Performance of NARX model is verified for several chaotic time series, which are applied as input for the neural network. The results showed that NARX has the potential to capture the model of nonlinear dynamic systems. The R-value and MSE are  and  , respectively. Conclusion  EMG signals of deltoid and pectoralis major muscles are the inputs of the NARX  network. It is possible to obtain EMG signals of muscles in other arm motions to predict the lost functions of the absent arm in above-elbow amputees, using NARX model.

  19. Comparison between sEMG and force as control interfaces to support planar arm movements in adults with Duchenne: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo-Prat, Joan; Nizamis, Kostas; Janssen, Mariska M H P; Keemink, Arvid Q L; Veltink, Peter H; Koopman, Bart F J M; Stienen, Arno H A

    2017-07-12

    Adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can benefit from devices that actively support their arm function. A critical component of such devices is the control interface as it is responsible for the human-machine interaction. Our previous work indicated that surface electromyography (sEMG) and force-based control with active gravity and joint-stiffness compensation were feasible solutions for the support of elbow movements (one degree of freedom). In this paper, we extend the evaluation of sEMG- and force-based control interfaces to simultaneous and proportional control of planar arm movements (two degrees of freedom). Three men with DMD (18-23 years-old) with different levels of arm function (i.e. Brooke scores of 4, 5 and 6) performed a series of line-tracing tasks over a tabletop surface using an experimental active arm support. The arm movements were controlled using three control methods: sEMG-based control, force-based control with stiffness compensation (FSC), and force-based control with no compensation (FNC). The movement performance was evaluated in terms of percentage of task completion, tracing error, smoothness and speed. For subject S1 (Brooke 4) FNC was the preferred method and performed better than FSC and sEMG. FNC was not usable for subject S2 (Brooke 5) and S3 (Brooke 6). Subject S2 presented significantly lower movement speed with sEMG than with FSC, yet he preferred sEMG since FSC was perceived to be too fatiguing. Subject S3 could not successfully use neither of the two force-based control methods, while with sEMG he could reach almost his entire workspace. Movement performance and subjective preference of the three control methods differed with the level of arm function of the participants. Our results indicate that all three control methods have to be considered in real applications, as they present complementary advantages and disadvantages. The fact that the two weaker subjects (S2 and S3) experienced the force-based control

  20. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Surface Reflectance, Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily surface reflectance and brightness temperatures derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors onboard...

  1. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes

  2. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, B.A. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Walck, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes.

  3. A 30-year record of surface mass balance (1966-95) and motion and surface altitude (1975-95) at Wolverine Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Lawrence R.; Trabant, Dennis C.; March, Rod S.

    2004-01-01

    Scientific measurements at Wolverine Glacier, on the Kenai Peninsula in south-central Alaska, began in April 1966. At three long-term sites in the research basin, the measurements included snow depth, snow density, heights of the glacier surface and stratigraphic summer surfaces on stakes, and identification of the surface materials. Calculations of the mass balance of the surface strata-snow, new firn, superimposed ice, and old firn and ice mass at each site were based on these measurements. Calculations of fixed-date annual mass balances for each hydrologic year (October 1 to September 30), as well as net balances and the dates of minimum net balance measured between time-transgressive summer surfaces on the glacier, were made on the basis of the strata balances augmented by air temperature and precipitation recorded in the basin. From 1966 through 1995, the average annual balance at site A (590 meters altitude) was -4.06 meters water equivalent; at site B (1,070 meters altitude), was -0.90 meters water equivalent; and at site C (1,290 meters altitude), was +1.45 meters water equivalent. Geodetic determination of displacements of the mass balance stake, and glacier surface altitudes was added to the data set in 1975 to detect the glacier motion responses to variable climate and mass balance conditions. The average surface speed from 1975 to 1996 was 50.0 meters per year at site A, 83.7 meters per year at site B, and 37.2 meters per year at site C. The average surface altitudes were 594 meters at site A, 1,069 meters at site B, and 1,293 meters at site C; the glacier surface altitudes rose and fell over a range of 19.4 meters at site A, 14.1 meters at site B, and 13.2 meters at site C.

  4. Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhadze, I; Kamani, H; Kubin, L

    2011-12-01

    In the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of sleep and motor control, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and then phasic twitches gradually increase after the onset of REM sleep. To better characterize the central neural processes underlying this pattern, we quantified EMG of muscles innervated by distinct subpopulations of hypoglossal motoneurons and nuchal (N) EMG during transitions from non-REM sleep to REM sleep. In 8 chronically instrumented rats, we recorded cortical EEG, EMG at sites near the base of the tongue where genioglossal and intrinsic muscle fibers predominate (GG-I), EMG of the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, and N EMG. Sleep-wake states were identified and EMGs quantified relative to their mean levels in wakefulness in successive 10 s epochs. During non-REM sleep, the average EMG levels differed among the three muscles, with the order being N>GH>GG-I. During REM sleep, due to different magnitudes of phasic twitches, the order was reversed to GG-I>GH>N. GG-I and GH exhibited a gradual increase of twitching that peaked at 70-120 s after the onset of REM sleep and then declined if the REM sleep episode lasted longer. We propose that a common phasic excitatory generator impinges on motoneuron pools that innervate different muscles, but twitching magnitudes are different due to different levels of tonic motoneuronal hyperpolarization. We also propose that REM sleep episodes of average durations are terminated by intense activity of the central generator of phasic events, whereas long REM sleep episodes end as a result of a gradual waning of the tonic disfacilitatory and inhibitory processes.

  5. EMG and force production of the flexor hallucis longus muscle in isometric plantarflexion and the push-off phase of walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péter, Annamária; Hegyi, András; Stenroth, Lauri; Finni, Taija; Cronin, Neil J

    2015-09-18

    Large forces are generated under the big toe in the push-off phase of walking. The largest flexor muscle of the big toe is the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), which likely contributes substantially to these forces. This study examined FHL function at different levels of isometric plantarflexion torque and in the push-off phase at different speeds of walking. FHL and calf muscle activity were measured with surface EMG and plantar pressure was recorded with pressure insoles. FHL activity was compared to the activity of the calf muscles. Force and impulse values were calculated under the big toe, and were compared to the entire pressed area of the insole to determine the relative contribution of big toe flexion forces to the ground reaction force. FHL activity increased with increasing plantarflexion torque level (F=2.8, P=0.024) and with increasing walking speed (F=11.608, Ppush-off phase of walking, peak force under the big toe increased at a higher rate than force under the other areas of the plantar surface (F=3.801, P=0.018), implying a greater relative contribution to total force at faster speeds. Moreover, substantial differences were found between isometric plantarflexion and walking concerning FHL activity relative to that of the calf muscles, highlighting the task-dependant behaviour of FHL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multichannel noninvasive human-machine interface via stretchable µm thick sEMG patches for robot manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Runfeng; Xiao, Lin; Zhang, Qin; Huang, YongAn

    2018-01-01

    Epidermal electronics (e-skin) emerging in recent years offer the opportunity to noninvasively and wearably extract biosignals from human bodies. The conventional processes of e-skin based on standard microelectronic fabrication processes and a variety of transfer printing methods, nevertheless, unquestionably constrains the size of the devices, posing a serious challenge to collecting signals via skin, the largest organ in the human body. Herein we propose a multichannel noninvasive human-machine interface (HMI) using stretchable surface electromyography (sEMG) patches to realize a robot hand mimicking human gestures. Time-efficient processes are first developed to manufacture µm thick large-scale stretchable devices. With micron thickness, the stretchable µm thick sEMG patches show excellent conformability with human skin and consequently comparable electrical performance with conventional gel electrodes. Combined with the large-scale size, the multichannel noninvasive HMI via stretchable µm thick sEMG patches successfully manipulates the robot hand with eight different gestures, whose precision is as high as conventional gel electrodes array.

  7. Real time monitoring of superparamagnetic nanoparticle self-assembly on surfaces of magnetic recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Crawford, T. M.; Qi, B.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle self-assembly dynamics are monitored in real-time by detecting optical diffraction from an all-nanoparticle grating as it self-assembles on a grating pattern recorded on a magnetic medium. The diffraction efficiency strongly depends on concentration, pH, and colloidal stability of nanoparticle suspensions, demonstrating the nanoparticle self-assembly process is highly tunable. This metrology could provide an alternative for detecting nanoparticle properties such as colloidal stability

  8. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group. Results Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03 subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. Conclusions This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases

  9. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Ian G; Herrington, Lee C; Rolf, Christer

    2010-02-25

    The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later verified on arthroscopy. The reference group consisted of 15 uninjured and full time professional rugby players from within the same playing squad. Controlled tackles were performed against a tackle dummy. Onset of EMG activity was assessed from surface EMG of Pectorialis Major, Biceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Serratus Anterior and Infraspinatus muscles relative to time of impact. Analysis of differences in activation timing between muscles and limbs (injured versus non-injured side and non injured side versus matched reference group). Serratus Anterior was activated prior to all other muscles in all (P = 0.001-0.03) subjects. In the SLAP injured shoulder Biceps was activated later than in the non-injured side. Onset times of all muscles of the non-injured shoulder in the injured player were consistently earlier compared with the reference group. Whereas, within the injured shoulder, all muscle activation timings were later than in the reference group. This study shows that in shoulders with a SLAP lesion there is a trend towards delay in activation time of Biceps and other muscles with the exception of an associated earlier onset of activation of Serratus anterior, possibly due to a coping strategy to protect glenohumeral stability and thoraco-scapular stability. This trend was not statistically significant in all cases.

  10. EMG Analysis and Sagittal Plane Kinematics of the Two-Handed and Single-Handed Kettlebell Swing: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gelder, Leonard H; Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Alonzo, Bryan; Briggs, Dayna; Hatzel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Kettlebell (KB) swing exercises have been proposed as a possible method to improve hip and spinal motor control as well as improve power, strength, and endurance. To describe electromyographic (EMG) and sagittal plane kinematics during two KB exercises: the two-handed KB swing (THKS) and the single-handed KB swing (SHKS). In addition, the authors sought to investigate whether or not hip flexor length related to the muscular activity or the kinematics of the exercise. Twenty-three healthy college age subjects participated in this study. Demographic information and passive hip flexor length were recorded for each subject. A maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of bilateral gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles was recorded. EMG activity and sagittal plane video was recorded during both the THKS and SHKS in a randomized order. Normalized muscular activation of the three studied muscles was calculated from EMG data. During both SHKS and THKS, the average percent of peak MVIC for GMAX was 75.02% ± 55.38, GMED 55.47% ± 26.33, and BF 78.95% ± 53.29. Comparisons of the mean time to peak activation (TTP) for each muscle showed that the biceps femoris was the first muscle to activate during the swings. Statistically significant (p < .05), moderately positive correlations (r = .483 and .417) were found between passive hip flexor length and % MVIC for the GMax during the SHKS and THKS, respectively. The THKS and SHKS provide sufficient muscular recruitment for strengthening of all of the muscles explored. This is the first study to show significant correlations between passive hip flexor length and muscular activation of hip extensors, particularly the GMax. Finally, the BF consistently reached peak activity before the GMax and GMed during the SHKS. Level 3.

  11. Surface water processes in the Indonesian throughflow as documented by a high-resolution coral Δ14C record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Stewart J.; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2008-09-01

    To explore the seasonal to decadal variability in surface water masses that contribute to the Indonesian throughflow, we have generated a 115-year bimonthly coral-based radiocarbon time series from a coral in the Makassar Straits. In the pre-bomb (pre-1955) era from 1890 to 1954, the radiocarbon time series occasionally displays a small seasonal signal (10-15‰). After 1954 the radiocarbon record increases rapidly, in response to the increased atmospheric 14C content caused by nuclear weapons testing. From 1957 to 1986 the record displays clear seasonal variability from 15 to 60‰ and the post-bomb peak (163 per mil) occurred in 1974. The seasonal cycle of radiocarbon can be attributed to variations of surface waters passing through the South Makassar Strait. Southern Makassar is under the influence of the Northwest Monsoon, which is responsible for the high austral summer radiocarbon (North Pacific waters) and the Southeast Monsoon that flushes back a mixture of low (South Pacific and upwelling altered) radiocarbon water from the Banda Sea. The coral record also shows a significant 14C peak in 1955 due to the bomb-14C water advected into this region from nuclear weapons tests in the Marshall Islands in 1954.

  12. Preliminary analysis of surface radiation measurements recorded at the Nansen ice sheet (Antarctica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonafe', U.; Dalpane, E.; Georgiadis, T.; Pitacco, A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment on radiation and surface energy balance was conducted during the 9. Italian expedition in Antarctica at the Nancen ice sheet, a glacier situated close to the Italian base at Terra Nova Bay, to correlate surface balances to the formation and development of katabatic winds. Measurements were taken by radiometers covering the whole spectra of solar and terrestrial emissions and by fast sensors of atmospheric wind velocity and humidity for the application of the eddy correlation technique. A preliminary analysis of the radiometric data collected in order to quantify the major components of radiative energy balance during the Antarctic summer in clear sky conditions is reported and discussed. The findings show the very low available energy (mean about 1 W/m 2 ), in terms of net radiation, for the physical processes such as sensible- and latent-heat fluxes. Long-wave radiation balance was applied to estimate the reliability of the Swinbank's parametrization, relative to general conditions of the atmosphere

  13. Validation of a Climate-Data Record of the "Clear-Kky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Box, Jason E.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperatures on the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied on the ground, using automatic weather station (AWS) data from the Greenland-Climate Network (GC-Net), and from analysis of satellite sensor data. Using Advanced Very High Frequency Radiometer (AVHRR) weekly surface temperature maps, warming of the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented since 1981. We extended and refined this record using higher-resolution Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from March 2000 to the present. We developed a daily and monthly climate-data record (CDR) of the "clear-sky" surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using an ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm developed for use with MODIS data. Validation of this CDR is ongoing. MODIS Terra swath data are projected onto a polar stereographic grid at 6.25-km resolution to develop binary, gridded daily and mean-monthly 1ST maps. Each monthly map also has a color-coded image map that is available to download. Also included with the monthly maps is an accompanying map showing number of days in the month that were used to calculate the mean-monthly 1ST. This is important because no 1ST decision is made by the algorithm for cells that are considered cloudy by the internal cloud mask, so a sufficient number of days must be available to produce a mean 1ST for each grid cell. Validation of the CDR consists of several facets: 1) comparisons between ISTs and in-situ measurements; 2) comparisons between ISTs and AWS data; and 3) comparisons of ISTs with surface temperatures derived from other satellite instruments such as the Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Previous work shows that Terra MODIS ISTs are about 3 C lower than in-situ temperatures measured at Summit Camp, during the winter of 2008-09 under clear skies. In this work we begin to compare surface temperatures derived from AWS data with ISTs from the MODIS CDR. The

  14. Evaluation of Linear Regression Simultaneous Myoelectric Control Using Intramuscular EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of linear regression models to decode patterns of muscle coactivation from intramuscular electromyogram (EMG) and provide simultaneous myoelectric control of a virtual 3-DOF wrist/hand system. Performance was compared to the simultaneous control of conventional myoelectric prosthesis methods using intramuscular EMG (parallel dual-site control)-an approach that requires users to independently modulate individual muscles in the residual limb, which can be challenging for amputees. Linear regression control was evaluated in eight able-bodied subjects during a virtual Fitts' law task and was compared to performance of eight subjects using parallel dual-site control. An offline analysis also evaluated how different types of training data affected prediction accuracy of linear regression control. The two control systems demonstrated similar overall performance; however, the linear regression method demonstrated improved performance for targets requiring use of all three DOFs, whereas parallel dual-site control demonstrated improved performance for targets that required use of only one DOF. Subjects using linear regression control could more easily activate multiple DOFs simultaneously, but often experienced unintended movements when trying to isolate individual DOFs. Offline analyses also suggested that the method used to train linear regression systems may influence controllability. Linear regression myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG provided an alternative to parallel dual-site control for 3-DOF simultaneous control at the wrist and hand. The two methods demonstrated different strengths in controllability, highlighting the tradeoff between providing simultaneous control and the ability to isolate individual DOFs when desired.

  15. Numerical simulation of explosive magnetic cumulative generator EMG-720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deryugin, Yu N; Zelenskij, D K; Kazakova, I F; Kargin, V I; Mironychev, P V; Pikar, A S; Popkov, N F; Ryaslov, E A; Ryzhatskova, E G [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the methods and results of numerical simulations used in the development of a helical-coaxial explosive magnetic cumulative generator (EMG) with the stator up to 720 mm in diameter. In the process of designing, separate units were numerically modeled, as was the generator operation with a constant inductive-ohmic load. The 2-D processes of the armature acceleration by the explosion products were modeled as well as those of the formation of the sliding high-current contact between the armature and stator`s insulated turns. The problem of the armature integrity in the region of the detonation waves collision was numerically analyzed. 8 figs., 2 refs.

  16. Test of EMG-720 explosive magneto-cumulative generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Pikar, A S; Ryaslov, E A [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation); and others

    1997-12-31

    The results of testing of the 30 MJ explosive magnetocumulative generator EMG-720 are reported. This comparatively simple and inexpensive generator is destined for energizing a stationary electro-physical facility placed in a special explosion-protected bunker. The current increase coefficient and the energy increase factor of the generator are as high as 500 and 120, respectively. The generator operating time is 225 s, and its internal operating voltage is higher than 100 kV. (J.U.). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  17. A Satellite-Based Surface Radiation Climatology Derived by Combining Climate Data Records and Near-Real-Time Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for adjusting long-term climate data records (CDRs for the integrated use with near-real-time data using the example of surface incoming solar irradiance (SIS. Recently, a 23-year long (1983–2005 continuous SIS CDR has been generated based on the visible channel (0.45–1 μm of the MVIRI radiometers onboard the geostationary Meteosat First Generation Platform. The CDR is available from the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF. Here, it is assessed whether a homogeneous extension of the SIS CDR to the present is possible with operationally generated surface radiation data provided by CM SAF using the SEVIRI and GERB instruments onboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellites. Three extended CM SAF SIS CDR versions consisting of MVIRI-derived SIS (1983–2005 and three different SIS products derived from the SEVIRI and GERB instruments onboard the MSG satellites (2006 onwards were tested. A procedure to detect shift inhomogeneities in the extended data record (1983–present was applied that combines the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT and a penalized maximal T-test with visual inspection. Shift detection was done by comparing the SIS time series with the ground stations mean, in accordance with statistical significance. Several stations of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN and about 50 stations of the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA over Europe were used as the ground-based reference. The analysis indicates several breaks in the data record between 1987 and 1994 probably due to artefacts in the raw data and instrument failures. After 2005 the MVIRI radiometer was replaced by the narrow-band SEVIRI and the broadband GERB radiometers and a new retrieval algorithm was applied. This induces significant challenges for the homogenisation across the satellite generations. Homogenisation is performed by applying a mean-shift correction depending on the shift size of

  18. Validation of a Climate-Data Record of the "Clear-Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Box, Jason E.; Koenig, Lora S.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperatures on the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied on the ground, using automatic weather station (AWS) data from the Greenland-Climate Network (GC-Net), and from analysis of satellite sensor data. Using Advanced Very High Frequency Radiometer (AVHRR) weekly surface temperature maps, warming of the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented since 1981. We extended and refined this record using higher-resolution Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from March 2000 to the present. We developed a daily and monthly climate-data record (CDR) of the "clear-sky" surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using an ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm developed for use with MODIS data. Validation of this CDR is ongoing. MODIS Terra swath data are projected onto a polar stereographic grid at 6.25-km resolution to develop binary, gridded daily and mean-monthly 1ST maps. Each monthly map also has a color-coded image map that is available to download. Also included with the monthly maps is an accompanying map showing number of days in the month that were used to calculate the mean-monthly 1ST. This is important because no 1ST decision is made by the algorithm for cells that are considered cloudy by the internal cloud mask, so a sufficient number of days must be available to produce a mean 1ST for each grid cell. Validation of the CDR consists of several facets: 1) comparisons between ISTs and in-situ measurements; 2) comparisons between ISTs and AWS data; and 3) comparisons of ISTs with surface temperatures derived from other satellite instruments such as the Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Previous work shows that Terra MODIS ISTs are about 3 C lower than in-situ temperatures measured at Summit Camp, during the winter of 2008-09 under clear skies. In this work we begin to compare surface temperatures derived from AWS data with ISTs from the MODIS CDR.

  19. Validity and Reliability of Surface Electromyography in the Assessment of Primary Muscle Tension Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Seyyedeh Maryam; Talebian, Saeed; Izadi, Farzad; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin

    2017-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the reliability and the discriminative validity of surface electromyography (sEMG) in the assessment of patients with primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD). The study design is cross-sectional. Fifteen patients with primary MTD (mean age: 34.07 ± 10.99 years) and 15 healthy volunteers (mean age: 34.53 ± 10.63 years) were included. All participants underwent evaluation of sEMG to record the electrical activity of the thyrohyoid and cricothyroid muscles. The outcome measures were the root mean square (RMS), activity peak, duration, and time to the peak activity, which were obtained during /a/ and /i/ prolongation for test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was good to excellent for the RMS and peak activity measures (intraclass correlation coefficient [agreement] [ICC agreement ] = 0.49-0.98). The reliability for the activity duration was poor to excellent (ICC agreement  = 0.19-0.9). Poor test-retest reliability was found for the time to peak measure (ICC agreement  = 0.15-0.37). The standard error of measurement for all sEMG measures was between 0.41 and 2.05. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was calculated between 1.13 and 5.66. The highest SDC values were obtained for the peak and the lowest SDCs were documented for the duration (5.66 and 1.13, respectively). All sEMG measures were not able to discriminate between the MTD patients and healthy subjects (P > 0.05). The sEMG is a reliable tool to measure the RMS, the peak activity, and the activity duration in primary MTD. However, it is not able to discriminate the patients with primary MTD from healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Chewing in Children From 12 to 48 Months: Longitudinal Study of EMG Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREEN, JORDAN R.; MOORE, CHRISTOPHER A.; RUARK, JACKI L.; RODDA, PAULA R.; MORVÉE, WENDY T.; VanWITZENBURG, MARCUS J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental changes in the coordinative organization of masticatory muscles were examined longitudinally in four children over 49 experimental sessions spanning the age range of 12–48 mo. Electromyographic (EMG) records were obtained for right and left masseter muscles, right and left temporalis muscles, and the anterior belly of the digastric. Two independent analytic processes were employed, one that relied on identification of onset and offset of muscle activation and a second that used pairwise cross-correlational techniques. The results of these two analyses, which were found to be consistent with each other, demonstrated that the basic chewing pattern of reciprocally activated antagonistic muscle groups is established by 12 mo of age. Nevertheless, chewing efficiency appears to be improved through a variety of changes in the chewing pattern throughout early development. Coupling of activity among the jaw elevator muscles was shown to strengthen with maturation, and the synchrony of onset and offset of these muscles also increased. Coactivation of antagonistic muscles decreased significantly with development. This decrease in antagonistic coactivation and increase in synchrony among jaw elevators, and a parallel decrease in EMG burst duration, were taken as evidence of increased chewing efficiency. No significant differences in the frequency of chewing were found across the ages studied. Additional considerations include the appropriateness of this coordinative infrastructure for other developing oromotor skills, such as speech production. It is suggested that the relatively fixed coordinative framework for chewing exhibited by these children would not be suitable for adaptation to speech movements, which have been shown to rely on a much more variable and adjustable coordinative organization. PMID:9163386

  1. Discrimination of Parkinsonian Tremor From Essential Tremor by Voting Between Different EMG Signal Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hossen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD and essential tremor (ET are the two most common disorders that cause involuntary muscle shaking movements, or what is called "tremor”. PD is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopamine receptors which control and adjust the movement of the body. On the other hand, ET is a neurological movement disorder which also causes tremors and shaking, but it is not related to dopamine receptor loss; it is simply a tremor. The differential diagnosis between these two disorders is sometimes difficult to make clinically because of the similarities of their symptoms; additionally, the available tests are complex and expensive. Thus, the objective of this paper is to discriminate between these two disorders with simpler, cheaper and easier ways by using electromyography (EMG signal processing techniques. EMG and accelerometer records of 39 patients with PD and 41 with ET were acquired from the Hospital of Kiel University in Germany and divided into a trial group and a test group. Three main techniques were applied: the wavelet-based soft-decision technique, statistical signal characterization (SSC of the spectrum of the signal, and SSC of the amplitude variation of the Hilbert transform. The first technique resulted in a discrimination efficiency of 80% on the trial set and 85% on the test set. The second technique resulted in an efficiency of 90% on the trial set and 82.5% on the test set. The third technique resulted in an 87.5% efficiency on the trial set and 65.5% efficiency on the test set. Lastly, a final vote was done to finalize the discrimination using these three techniques, and as a result of the vote, accuracies of 92.5%, 85.0% and 88.75% were obtained on the trial data, test data and total data, respectively.

  2. Locomotor adaptation to a soleus EMG-controlled antagonistic exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaird, Catherine R.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Locomotor adaptation in humans is not well understood. To provide insight into the neural reorganization that occurs following a significant disruption to one's learned neuromuscular map relating a given motor command to its resulting muscular action, we tied the mechanical action of a robotic exoskeleton to the electromyography (EMG) profile of the soleus muscle during walking. The powered exoskeleton produced an ankle dorsiflexion torque proportional to soleus muscle recruitment thus limiting the soleus' plantar flexion torque capability. We hypothesized that neurologically intact subjects would alter muscle activation patterns in response to the antagonistic exoskeleton by decreasing soleus recruitment. Subjects practiced walking with the exoskeleton for two 30-min sessions. The initial response to the perturbation was to “fight” the resistive exoskeleton by increasing soleus activation. By the end of training, subjects had significantly reduced soleus recruitment resulting in a gait pattern with almost no ankle push-off. In addition, there was a trend for subjects to reduce gastrocnemius recruitment in proportion to the soleus even though only the soleus EMG was used to control the exoskeleton. The results from this study demonstrate the ability of the nervous system to recalibrate locomotor output in response to substantial changes in the mechanical output of the soleus muscle and associated sensory feedback. This study provides further evidence that the human locomotor system of intact individuals is highly flexible and able to adapt to achieve effective locomotion in response to a broad range of neuromuscular perturbations. PMID:23307949

  3. Locomotor adaptation to a soleus EMG-controlled antagonistic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith E; Kinnaird, Catherine R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2013-04-01

    Locomotor adaptation in humans is not well understood. To provide insight into the neural reorganization that occurs following a significant disruption to one's learned neuromuscular map relating a given motor command to its resulting muscular action, we tied the mechanical action of a robotic exoskeleton to the electromyography (EMG) profile of the soleus muscle during walking. The powered exoskeleton produced an ankle dorsiflexion torque proportional to soleus muscle recruitment thus limiting the soleus' plantar flexion torque capability. We hypothesized that neurologically intact subjects would alter muscle activation patterns in response to the antagonistic exoskeleton by decreasing soleus recruitment. Subjects practiced walking with the exoskeleton for two 30-min sessions. The initial response to the perturbation was to "fight" the resistive exoskeleton by increasing soleus activation. By the end of training, subjects had significantly reduced soleus recruitment resulting in a gait pattern with almost no ankle push-off. In addition, there was a trend for subjects to reduce gastrocnemius recruitment in proportion to the soleus even though only the soleus EMG was used to control the exoskeleton. The results from this study demonstrate the ability of the nervous system to recalibrate locomotor output in response to substantial changes in the mechanical output of the soleus muscle and associated sensory feedback. This study provides further evidence that the human locomotor system of intact individuals is highly flexible and able to adapt to achieve effective locomotion in response to a broad range of neuromuscular perturbations.

  4. Grid investments in a Nordic perspective. Report to EMG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-15

    In a letter of 20 November 2008, the Electricity Market Group (EMG) under the Nordic Council of Ministers requested NordREG to carry out an assignment related to transmission network investments in the Nordic countries. The assignment to NordREG was divided into two tasks; to map the differences in the legislation and licensing processes in the Nordic countries and to analyse these differences and possible ways of financing common network investment projects. In the second half of 2009 the consultant Econ Poeyry was engaged to support in the finalisation of this project, mainly concerning possibilities for Nordic financing. The final text is however the sole responsibility of the task force. A draft version of the final report was delivered to EMG in December 2009. At the same time the report was sent to the Nordic TSOs together with an invitation to a workshop at Gardermoen on 26 January 2010. The comments from the TSOs are included in appendix 2 of the report

  5. Intention detection of gait initiation using EMG and kinematic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, E C; Beijen, S I; Hermens, H J; Rietman, J S; Veltink, P H

    2013-02-01

    Gait initiation in transfemoral amputees (TFA) is different from non-amputees. This is mainly caused by the lack of stability and push-off from the prosthetic leg. Adding control and artificial push-off to the prosthesis may therefore be beneficial to TFA. In this study the feasibility of real-time intention detection of gait initiation was determined by mimicking the TFA situation in non-amputees. EMG and inertial sensor data was measured in 10 non-amputees. Only data available in TFA was used to determine if gait initiation can be predicted in time to control a transfemoral prosthesis to generate push-off and stability. Toe-off and heel-strike of the leading limb are important parameters to be detected, to control a prosthesis and to time push-off. The results show that toe-off and heel-strike of the leading limb can be detected using EMG and kinematic data in non-amputees 130-260 ms in advance. This leaves enough time to control a prosthesis. Based on these results we hypothesize that similar results can be found in TFA, allowing for adequate control of a prosthesis during gait initiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ventilatory threshold during incremental running can be estimated using EMG shorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikkanen, Olli; Vilavuo, Toivo; Finni, Taija; Hu, Min; Cheng, Sulin; Tolvanen, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether shorts with textile electromyographic (EMG) electrodes can be used to detect second ventilatory threshold (V T2 ) during incremental treadmill running. Thirteen recreationally active (REC) and eight endurance athletes were measured for EMG, heart rate, blood lactate and respiratory gases during VO 2max test (3 min ramps, 1 km ⋅ h −1 increments). V T2 , onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and EMG threshold (EMG T ) were determined. In athletes, OBLA occurred at 56 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , V T2 occurred at 59 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , and EMG T at 62 ± 6 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 without significant differences between methods (analysis of variance: ANOVA). In REC participants, OBLA occurred at 40 ± 10 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , V T2 occurred at 43 ± 7 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 , and EMG T at 41 ± 9 mL ⋅ kg −1  ⋅ min −1 without significant differences between methods (ANOVA). For the entire group, correlation between EMG T and V T2 was 0.86 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.001) between EMG T and OBLA. Limits of agreement between EMG T and V T2 were narrower in athletes than in REC participants. Thus, it is concluded that estimation of V T2 using EMG T in athletes is more valid than in REC participants. In practice, experienced runners could use online feedback from EMG garments to monitor whether their running intensity is near V T2 . (paper)

  7. Ventilatory threshold during incremental running can be estimated using EMG shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Olli; Hu, Min; Vilavuo, Toivo; Tolvanen, Pekka; Cheng, Sulin; Finni, Taija

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined whether shorts with textile electromyographic (EMG) electrodes can be used to detect second ventilatory threshold (V(T2)) during incremental treadmill running. Thirteen recreationally active (REC) and eight endurance athletes were measured for EMG, heart rate, blood lactate and respiratory gases during VO(2max) test (3 min ramps, 1 km·h(-1) increments). V(T)(2), onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and EMG threshold (EMG(T)) were determined. In athletes, OBLA occurred at 56 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), V(T2) occurred at 59 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and EMG(T) at 62 ± 6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) without significant differences between methods (analysis of variance: ANOVA). In REC participants, OBLA occurred at 40 ± 10 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), V(T2) occurred at 43 ± 7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and EMG(T) at 41 ± 9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) without significant differences between methods (ANOVA). For the entire group, correlation between EMG(T) and V(T2) was 0.86 (P < 0.001) and 0.84 (P < 0.001) between EMG(T) and OBLA. Limits of agreement between EMG(T) and V(T2) were narrower in athletes than in REC participants. Thus, it is concluded that estimation of V(T2) using EMG(T) in athletes is more valid than in REC participants. In practice, experienced runners could use online feedback from EMG garments to monitor whether their running intensity is near V(T2). © 2012 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine

  8. Potential Long-Term Records of Surface Albedo at Fine Spatiotemporal Resolution from Landsat/Sentinle-2A Surface Reflectance and MODIS/VIIRS BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Shuai, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Q.; Erb, A.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The land surface albedo products at fine spatial resolutions are generated by coupling surface reflectance (SR) from Landsat (30 m) or Sentinel-2A (20 m) with concurrent surface anisotropy information (the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function - BRDF) at coarser spatial resolutions from sequential multi-angular observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) or its successor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). We assess the comparability of four types of fine-resolution albedo products (black-sky and white-sky albedos over the shortwave broad band) generated by coupling, (1) Landsat-8 Optical Land Imager (OLI) SR with MODIS BRDF; (2) OLI SR with VIIRS BRDF; (3) Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) SR with MODIS BRDF; and (4) MSI SR with VIIRS BRDF. We evaluate the accuracy of these four types of fine-resolution albedo products using ground tower measurements of surface albedo over six SURFace RADiation Network (SURFRAD) sites in the United States. For comparison with the ground measurements, we estimate the actual (blue-sky) albedo values at the six sites by using the satellite-based retrievals of black-sky and white-sky albedos and taking into account the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation from the ground measurements at the sites. The coupling of the OLI and MSI SR with MODIS BRDF has already been shown to provide accurate fine-resolution albedo values. With demonstration of a high agreement in BRDF products from MODIS and VIIRS, we expect to see consistency between all four types of fine-resolution albedo products. This assurance of consistency between the couplings of both OLI and MSI with both MODIS and VIIRS guarantees the production of long-term records of surface albedo at fine spatial resolutions and an increased temporal resolution. Such products will be critical in studying land surface changes and associated surface energy balance over the dynamic and heterogeneous landscapes

  9. Evaluation of upper limb muscle fatigue based on surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianxiang; Chen, Yuhong; Ma, Chao; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2011-10-01

    Fatigue is believed to be a major contributory factor to occupational injuries in machine operators. The development of accurate and usable techniques to measure operator fatigue is therefore important. In this study, we used a novel method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) of the biceps brachii and the Borg scale to evaluate local muscle fatigue in the upper limb after isometric muscle action. Thirteen young males performed isometric actions with the upper limb at different force levels. sEMG activities of the biceps brachii were recorded during the actions. Borg scales were used to evaluate the subjective sensation of local fatigue of the biceps brachii after the actions. sEMG activities were analyzed using the one-third band octave method, and an equation to determine the degree of fatigue was derived based on the relationship between the variable and the Borg scale. The results showed that the relationship could be expressed by a conic curve, and could be used to evaluate muscle fatigue during machine operation.

  10. A Model for Interpreting High-Tower CO2 Concentration Records for the Surface Carbon Balance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.

    2002-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements have been made by scientists of Meteorological Service of Canada on a 40 m tower for the last 10 years at 15 minute intervals over a mostly intact boreal forest near Fraserdale (50N, 81W), Ontario, Canada. The long time records of CO2 as well as basic meteorological variables provide a unique opportunity to investigate any potential changes in the ecosystem in terms of carbon balance. A model is needed to decipher the carbon cycle signals from the diurnal and seasonal variation patterns in the CO2 record. For this purpose, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is expanded to include a one-dimensional CO2 vertical transfer model involving the interaction between plant canopies and the atmosphere in the surface layer and the diurnal dynamics of the mixed layer. An analytical solution of the scalar transfer equation within the surface layer is found using an assumption that the diurnal oscillation of CO2 concentration at a given height is sinusoidal, which is suitable for the investigation of the changes in diurnal variation pattern over the 10 year period. The complex interactions between the daily cycle of the atmosphere and vegetation CO2 exchange and the daily evolution of mixed layer entrainment of CO2 determines the CO2 variation pattern at a given height. The expanded BEPS can simulate within ñ2 ppm the hourly CO2 records at the 40 m measurement height. The annual totals of gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP), summed up from the hourly results, agree within 5% of previous estimates of BEPS at daily steps, indicating the internal consistency of the hourly model. The model is therefore ready for exploring changes in the CO2 record as affected by changes in the forest ecosystems upwind of the tower. Preliminary results indicate that the diurnal variation amplitude of CO2 has increased by 10-20% over the 10 years period, and this change can

  11. Imaging seizure activity: a combined EEG/EMG-fMRI study in reading epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Mayer, Thomas; Hamandi, Khalid; Symms, Mark; Josephs, Oliver; Fluegel, Dominique; Woermann, Friedrich; Richardson, Mark P; Noppeney, Uta; Wolf, Peter; Koepp, Matthias J

    2009-02-01

    To characterize the spatial relationship between activations related to language-induced seizure activity, language processing, and motor control in patients with reading epilepsy. We recorded and simultaneously monitored several physiological parameters [voice-recording, electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG)] during blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nine patients with reading epilepsy. Individually tailored language paradigms were used to induce and record habitual seizures inside the MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used for structural brain analysis. Reading-induced seizures occurred in six out of nine patients. One patient experienced abundant orofacial reflex myocloni during silent reading in association with bilateral frontal or generalized epileptiform discharges. In a further five patients, symptoms were only elicited while reading aloud with self-indicated events. Consistent activation patterns in response to reading-induced myoclonic seizures were observed within left motor and premotor areas in five of these six patients, in the left striatum (n = 4), in mesiotemporal/limbic areas (n = 4), in Brodmann area 47 (n = 3), and thalamus (n = 2). These BOLD activations were overlapping or adjacent to areas physiologically activated during language and facial motor tasks. No subtle structural abnormalities common to all patients were identified using VBM, but one patient had a left temporal ischemic lesion. Based on the findings, we hypothesize that reflex seizures occur in reading epilepsy when a critical mass of neurons are activated through a provoking stimulus within corticoreticular and corticocortical circuitry subserving normal functions.

  12. A comparative study of surface waves inversion techniques at strong motion recording sites in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis C. Pelekis,; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Kayen, Robert E.; Vlachakis, Vasileios S.; Athanasopoulos, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface wave method was used for the estimation of Vs vs depth profile at 10 strong motion stations in Greece. The dispersion data were obtained by SASW method, utilizing a pair of electromechanical harmonic-wave source (shakers) or a random source (drop weight). In this study, three inversion techniques were used a) a recently proposed Simplified Inversion Method (SIM), b) an inversion technique based on a neighborhood algorithm (NA) which allows the incorporation of a priori information regarding the subsurface structure parameters, and c) Occam's inversion algorithm. For each site constant value of Poisson's ratio was assumed (ν=0.4) since the objective of the current study is the comparison of the three inversion schemes regardless the uncertainties resulting due to the lack of geotechnical data. A penalty function was introduced to quantify the deviations of the derived Vs profiles. The Vs models are compared as of Vs(z), Vs30 and EC8 soil category, in order to show the insignificance of the existing variations. The comparison results showed that the average variation of SIM profiles is 9% and 4.9% comparing with NA and Occam's profiles respectively whilst the average difference of Vs30 values obtained from SIM is 7.4% and 5.0% compared with NA and Occam's.

  13. Effect of a Quaternary Meteoroid Impact in Indo-China on the Surface Sedimentary Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Paul; Songtham, Wickanet; Tada, Riuji; Tada, Toshihiro; Duangkrayon, Jaa

    2017-04-01

    Effects of meteoroid impacts on terrestrial geology primarily have been considered with respect of proximal effects near the impact location; such as cratering, fracturing and melt. However, other than the use of rare elements (iridium) as event markers and tektite chemistry for dating control, distal effects of impacts are less-well documented. Distal effects might include: fireball, air blast, heat, water vaporization, catastrophic flooding, earthquakes, ejecta fallout (tektites & dust), large quantities of N2O from shock heating of the atmosphere, release of CO2 and sulphur aerosols causing heating or cooling of atmosphere, IR radiation causing vegetation fires, smoke and pyrotoxins, and altered native rock geochemistry. Such processes may affect the distal surface geology, degrade vegetation cover and cause extirpation of flora and fauna. Quaternary sedimentary sections have been examined in northern and central Cambodia, in southern China and in north-east Thailand. These locality lie within the Australian strewn tektite field ̶ reliably dated to 0.77-0.78Ma BP ̶ just before the 0.80Ma BP Brunhes/Matayama reversal. The location of the primary impact crater (if any) is uncertain but a local major crater probably lies within central Laos or just offshore to the east. The described sections are considered distal from the main impact. Stratigraphic evidence indicates a temporal sequence of catastrophic stripping of alluvial-gravel surfaces followed by catastrophic redistribution of gravel (incorporating tektites), followed by deposition of atmospheric dust. Grain-size and grain-density trends, XRD, spherule distributions, luminescence profiles, tektite, and microtektite and shock quartz assay, are used to with the stratigraphic evidence to examine an hypothesis that the sections represent the distal effects of a meteorite. Additional insight is gained with respect to prior claims that large accumulations of woody debris in Thai Quaternary river terraces were due

  14. Hourly changes in sea surface salinity in coastal waters recorded by Geostationary Ocean Color Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongjie; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Haiyan; Cui, Tingwei; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Lingjuan; An, Jubai

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we monitored hourly changes in sea surface salinity (SSS) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary satellite ocean color images for the first time, using the Bohai Sea as a case study. We developed a simple multi-linear statistical regression model to retrieve SSS data from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) based on an in situ satellite matched-up dataset (R2 = 0.795; N = 41; Range: 26.4 to 31.9 psμ). The model was then validated using independent continuous SSS measurements from buoys, with the average percentage difference of 0.65%. The model was applied to GOCI images from the dry season during an astronomical tide to characterize hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea. We found that the model provided reasonable estimates of the hourly changes in SSS and that trends in the modeled and measured data were similar in magnitude and direction (0.43 vs 0.33 psμ, R2 = 0.51). There were clear diurnal variations in the SSS of the Bohai Sea, with a regional average of 0.455 ± 0.079 psμ (0.02-3.77 psμ). The magnitude of the diurnal variations in SSS varied spatially, with large diurnal variability in the nearshore, particularly in the estuary, and small variability in the offshore area. The model for the riverine area was based on the inverse correlation between SSS and CDOM absorption. In the offshore area, the water mass of the North Yellow Sea, characterized by high SSS and low CDOM concentrations, dominated. Analysis of the driving mechanisms showed that the tidal current was the main control on hourly changes in SSS in the Bohai Sea.

  15. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear-Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nocolo E.; Shuman, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a climate-data record (CDR) of "clear-sky" ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The CDR provides daily and monthly-mean IST from March 2000 through December 2010 on a polar stereographic projection at a resolution of 6.25 km. The CDR is amenable to extension into the future using Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data. Regional "clear-sky" surface temperature increases since the early 1980s in the Arctic, measured using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared data, range from 0.57 +/- 0.02 to 0.72 +/- 0.1 c per decade. Arctic warming has important implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet is already near O C during the melt season, and is thus vulnerable to rapid melting if temperatures continue to increase. An increase in melting of the ice sheet would accelerate sea-level rise, an issue affecting potentially billions of people worldwide. The IST CDR will provide a convenient data set for modelers and for climatologists to track changes of the surface temperature of the ice sheet as a whole and of the individual drainage basins on the ice sheet. The daily and monthly maps will provide information on surface melt as well as "clear-sky" temperature. The CDR will be further validated by comparing results with automatic-weather station data and with satellite-derived surface-temperature products.

  16. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: component analysis of EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana Maria; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy; McIntyre, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A central question in Neuroscience is that of how the nervous system generates the spatiotemporal commands needed to realize complex gestures, such as handwriting. A key postulate is that the central nervous system (CNS) builds up complex movements from a set of simpler motor primitives or control modules. In this study we examined the control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when performing different types of movement: discrete, point-to-point movements in eight different directions and continuous figure-eight movements in both the normal, upright orientation and rotated 90°. To test for the effects of biomechanical constraints, movements were performed in the frontal-parallel or sagittal planes, corresponding to two different nominal flexion/abduction postures of the shoulder. In all cases we measured limb kinematics and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) signals for seven different muscles acting around the shoulder. We first performed principal component analysis (PCA) of the EMG signals on a movement-by-movement basis. We found a surprisingly consistent pattern of muscle groupings across movement types and movement planes, although we could detect systematic differences between the PCs derived from movements performed in each shoulder posture and between the principal components associated with the different orientations of the figure. Unexpectedly we found no systematic differences between the figure eights and the point-to-point movements. The first three principal components could be associated with a general co-contraction of all seven muscles plus two patterns of reciprocal activation. From these results, we surmise that both "discrete-rhythmic movements" such as the figure eight, and discrete point-to-point movement may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the impedance of the limb over the time span of the movement and two others operating to generate movement, one aligned with the

  17. EMG and oxygen uptake responses during slow and fast ramp exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Barry W; Tripse McConnell, Joyce H; Barstow, Thomas J

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between muscle recruitment patterns using surface electromyography (EMG) and the excess O(2) uptake (Ex.V(O(2))) that accompanies slow (SR, 8 W min(-1)) but not fast (FR, 64 W min(-1)) ramp increases in work rate (WR) during exercise on a cycle ergometer. Nine subjects (2 females) participated in this study (25 +/- 2 years, +/- S.E.M.). EMG was obtained from the vastus lateralis and medialis and analysed in the time (root mean square, RMS) and frequency (median power frequency, MDPF) domain. Results for each muscle were averaged to provide an overall response and expressed relative to a maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). Delta.V(O(2))/DeltaWR was calculated for exercise below (S(1)) and above (S(2)) the lactate threshold (LT) using linear regression. The increase in RMS relative to the increase in WR for exercise below the LT (DeltaRMS/DeltaWR-S(1)) was determined using linear regression. Due to non-linearities in RMS above the LT, DeltaRMS/DeltaWR-S(2) is reported as the difference in RMS (DeltaRMS) and the difference in WR (DeltaWR) at end-exercise and the LT. SR was associated with a higher (P exercise is not associated with the recruitment of additional motor units since Ex.V(O(2)) was observed during SR only. Compared to the progressive decrease in MDPF observed during FR, the MDPF remained relatively constant during SR suggesting that either (i) there was no appreciable recruitment of the less efficient type II muscle fibres, at least in addition to those recruited initially at the onset of exercise, or (ii) the decrease in MDPF associated with fatigue was offset by the addition of a higher frequency of type II fibres recruited to replace the fatigued motor units.

  18. An open and configurable embedded system for EMG pattern recognition implementation for artificial arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Liu; Fan Zhang; Huang, He Helen

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition (PR) based on electromyographic (EMG) signals has been developed for multifunctional artificial arms for decades. However, assessment of EMG PR control for daily prosthesis use is still limited. One of the major barriers is the lack of a portable and configurable embedded system to implement the EMG PR control. This paper aimed to design an open and configurable embedded system for EMG PR implementation so that researchers can easily modify and optimize the control algorithms upon our designed platform and test the EMG PR control outside of the lab environments. The open platform was built on an open source embedded Linux Operating System running a high-performance Gumstix board. Both the hardware and software system framework were openly designed. The system was highly flexible in terms of number of inputs/outputs and calibration interfaces used. Such flexibility enabled easy integration of our embedded system with different types of commercialized or prototypic artificial arms. Thus far, our system was portable for take-home use. Additionally, compared with previously reported embedded systems for EMG PR implementation, our system demonstrated improved processing efficiency and high system precision. Our long-term goals are (1) to develop a wearable and practical EMG PR-based control for multifunctional artificial arms, and (2) to quantify the benefits of EMG PR-based control over conventional myoelectric prosthesis control in a home setting.

  19. Intelligent Noise Removal from EMG Signal Using Focused Time-Lagged Recurrent Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromyography (EMG signals can be used for clinical/biomedical application and modern human computer interaction. EMG signals acquire noise while traveling through tissue, inherent noise in electronics equipment, ambient noise, and so forth. ANN approach is studied for reduction of noise in EMG signal. In this paper, it is shown that Focused Time-Lagged Recurrent Neural Network (FTLRNN can elegantly solve to reduce the noise from EMG signal. After rigorous computer simulations, authors developed an optimal FTLRNN model, which removes the noise from the EMG signal. Results show that the proposed optimal FTLRNN model has an MSE (Mean Square Error as low as 0.000067 and 0.000048, correlation coefficient as high as 0.99950 and 0.99939 for noise signal and EMG signal, respectively, when validated on the test dataset. It is also noticed that the output of the estimated FTLRNN model closely follows the real one. This network is indeed robust as EMG signal tolerates the noise variance from 0.1 to 0.4 for uniform noise and 0.30 for Gaussian noise. It is clear that the training of the network is independent of specific partitioning of dataset. It is seen that the performance of the proposed FTLRNN model clearly outperforms the best Multilayer perceptron (MLP and Radial Basis Function NN (RBF models. The simple NN model such as the FTLRNN with single-hidden layer can be employed to remove noise from EMG signal.

  20. Origin of the low-level EMG during the silent period following transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Jane E; Petersen, Nicolas C; Herbert, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The cortical silent period refers to a period of near silence in the electromyogram (EMG) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex during contraction. However, low-level EMG of unknown origin is often present. We hypothesised that it arises through spinal...

  1. Effect of a pelvic belt on EMG activity during manual load lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pinto Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual lifting (ML capacity is still a matter of concern for industry administrators and electromyography (EMG seems to be a good alternative for the evaluation of muscles involved in this task. However, the reliability of these measures is very important. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of a pelvic belt on EMG activity of the erector spinus (ES and rectus femoralis (RF muscles during ML and during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC of trunk extension performed before (baseline and after ML. In addition, the variabilityin the EMG signal normalized by the following three different methods was evaluated: peak EMG activity, mean EMG activity, and EMG activity obtained during MVC. Eight volunteers performed ML of 15% and 25% of their body weight for 1 minute in the presence or absence of a pelvic belt. The coefficient of variation (CV of the EMG signal obtained for the ES and RF muscles was calculated during ML. Load cell traction values and the electromyographic variables RMS, median frequency, mean power frequency and total power of the ES muscle were obtained during MVC. The results showed lower CV (smaller variability when the EMG signal was normalized by peak activity, with this method thus being preferable. During MVC, only the load cell traction value differed from baseline after ML of 25% body weight without the pelvic belt (p=0.035, a finding suggesting rapid recovery of ES muscle after ML for 1 minute.

  2. Altered motor unit discharge patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors assessed using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Hemispheric stroke survivors often show impairments in voluntary muscle activation. One potential source of these impairments could come from altered control of muscle, via disrupted motor unit (MU) firing patterns. In this study, we sought to determine whether MU firing patterns are modified on the affected side of stroke survivors, as compared with the analogous contralateral muscle. Approach. Using a novel surface electromyogram (EMG) sensor array, coupled with advanced template recognition software (dEMG) we recorded surface EMG signals over the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle on both paretic and contralateral sides. Recordings were made as stroke survivors produced isometric index finger abductions over a large force range (20%-60% of maximum). Utilizing the dEMG algorithm, MU firing rates, recruitment thresholds, and action potential amplitudes were estimated for concurrently active MUs in each trial. Main results. Our results reveal significant changes in the firing rate patterns in paretic FDI muscle, in that the discharge rates, characterized in relation to recruitment force threshold and to MU size, were less clearly correlated with recruitment force than in contralateral FDI muscles. Firing rates in the affected muscle also did not modulate systematically with the level of voluntary muscle contraction, as would be expected in intact muscles. These disturbances in firing properties also correlated closely with the impairment of muscle force generation. Significance. Our results provide strong evidence of disruptions in MU firing behavior in paretic muscles after a hemispheric stroke, suggesting that modified control of the spinal motoneuron pool could be a contributing factor to muscular weakness in stroke survivors.

  3. Assessing altered motor unit recruitment patterns in paretic muscles of stroke survivors using surface electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Aneesha K.; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The advancement of surface electromyogram (sEMG) recording and signal processing techniques has allowed us to characterize the recruitment properties of a substantial population of motor units (MUs) non-invasively. Here we seek to determine whether MU recruitment properties are modified in paretic muscles of hemispheric stroke survivors. Approach. Using an advanced EMG sensor array, we recorded sEMG during isometric contractions of the first dorsal interosseous muscle over a range of contraction levels, from 20% to 60% of maximum, in both paretic and contralateral muscles of stroke survivors. Using MU decomposition techniques, MU action potential amplitudes and recruitment thresholds were derived for simultaneously activated MUs in each isometric contraction. Main results. Our results show a significant disruption of recruitment organization in paretic muscles, in that the size principle describing recruitment rank order was materially distorted. MUs were recruited over a very narrow force range with increasing force output, generating a strong clustering effect, when referenced to recruitment force magnitude. Such disturbances in MU properties also correlated well with the impairment of voluntary force generation. Significance. Our findings provide direct evidence regarding MU recruitment modifications in paretic muscles of stroke survivors, and suggest that these modifications may contribute to weakness for voluntary contractions.

  4. Temporal formation of optical anisotropy and surface relief during polarization holographic recording in polymethylmethacrylate with azobenzene side groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Izawa, Masahiro; Noda, Kohei; Nishioka, Emi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The formation of polarization holographic gratings with both optical anisotropy and surface relief (SR) deformation was studied for polymethylmethacrylate with azobenzene side groups. Temporal contributions of isotropic and anisotropic phase gratings were simultaneously determined by observing transitional intensity and polarization states of the diffraction beams and characterizing by means of Jones calculus. To clarify the mechanism of SR deformation, cross sections of SR were characterized based on the optical gradient force model; experimental observations were in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. We clarified that the anisotropic phase change originating in the reorientation of the azobenzene side groups was induced immediately at the beginning of the holographic recording, while the response time of the isotropic phase change originating in the molecular migration due to the optical gradient force was relatively slow.

  5. Positive fEMG Patterns with Ambiguity in Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakesch, Martina; Goller, Juergen; Leder, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Whereas ambiguity in everyday life is often negatively evaluated, it is considered key in art appreciation. In a facial EMG study, we tested whether the positive role of visual ambiguity in paintings is reflected in a continuous affective evaluation on a subtle level. We presented ambiguous (disfluent) and non-ambiguous (fluent) versions of Magritte paintings and found that M. Zygomaticus major activation was higher and M. corrugator supercilii activation was lower for ambiguous than for non-ambiguous versions. Our findings reflect a positive continuous affective evaluation to visual ambiguity in paintings over the 5 s presentation time. We claim that this finding is indirect evidence for the hypothesis that visual stimuli classified as art, evoke a safe state for indulging into experiencing ambiguity, challenging the notion that processing fluency is generally related to positive affect.

  6. A 20 year independent record of sea surface temperature for climate from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Christopher J.; Embury, Owen; Rayner, Nick A.; Berry, David I.; Corlett, Gary K.; Lean, Katie; Veal, Karen L.; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Llewellyn-Jones, David T.; Remedios, John J.; Saunders, Roger

    2012-12-01

    A new record of sea surface temperature (SST) for climate applications is described. This record provides independent corroboration of global variations estimated from SST measurements made in situ. Infrared imagery from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs) is used to create a 20 year time series of SST at 0.1° latitude-longitude resolution, in the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate (ARC) project. A very high degree of independence of in situ measurements is achieved via physics-based techniques. Skin SST and SST estimated for 20 cm depth are provided, with grid cell uncertainty estimates. Comparison with in situ data sets establishes that ARC SSTs generally have bias of order 0.1 K or smaller. The precision of the ARC SSTs is 0.14 K during 2003 to 2009, from three-way error analysis. Over the period 1994 to 2010, ARC SSTs are stable, with better than 95% confidence, to within 0.005 K yr-1(demonstrated for tropical regions). The data set appears useful for cleanly quantifying interannual variability in SST and major SST anomalies. The ARC SST global anomaly time series is compared to the in situ-based Hadley Centre SST data set version 3 (HadSST3). Within known uncertainties in bias adjustments applied to in situ measurements, the independent ARC record and HadSST3 present the same variations in global marine temperature since 1996. Since the in situ observing system evolved significantly in its mix of measurement platforms and techniques over this period, ARC SSTs provide an important corroboration that HadSST3 accurately represents recent variability and change in this essential climate variable.

  7. Bomb-test 90Sr in Pacific and Indian Ocean surface water as recorded by banded corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toggweiler, J.R.; Trumbore, S.

    1985-01-01

    We report here measurements of bomb-test 90 Sr activity in the CaCO 3 skeletons of banded head forming corals collected from nine locations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Density variations in skeletal carbonate demarcate annual growth bands and allow one to section individual years. Measurements of 90 Sr activity in the annual bands reconstruct the activity of the water in which the coral grew. Our oldest records date to the early years of the nuclear era and record not only fallout deposition from the major U.S. and Soviet tests of 1958-1962, but also the huge, and largely unappreciated, localized inputs from the U.S. tests at Eniwetok and Bikini atolls during 1952-1958. In the 1960's the 90 Sr activity in Indian Ocean surface water was twice as high as activity levels in the South Pacific at comparable latitudes. We suggest that substantial amounts of northern hemisphere fallout moved west and south into the Indian Ocean via passages through the Indonesian archipelago. Equatorial Pacific 90 Sr levels have remained relatively constant from the mid 1960's through the end of 1970's in spite of 90 Sr decay, reflecting a large-scale transfer of water between the temperate and tropical North Pacific. Activity levels at Fanning Is. (4 0 N, 160 0 W) appear to vary in conjunction with the 3-4 year El Nino cycle. (orig.)

  8. Sea Surface Temperature Records Using Sr/Ca Ratios in a Siderastrea siderea Coral from SE Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargher, H. A.; Hughen, K. A.; Ossolinski, J. E.; Bretos, F.; Siciliano, D.; Gonzalez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) variability from Cuba remains relatively unknown compared to the rest of the Caribbean. Cuba sits near an inflection point in the spatial pattern of SST from the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and long SST records from the region could reveal changes in the influence of this climate system through time. A Siderastrea siderea coral from the Jardínes de la Reina in southern Cuba was drilled to obtain a 220 year long archive of environmental change. The genus Siderastrea has not been extensively studied as an SST archive, yet Sr/Ca ratios in the Cuban core show a clear seasonal signal and strong correlation to instrumental SST data (r2 = 0.86 and 0.36 for monthly and interannual (winter season) timescales, respectively). Annual growth rates (linear extension) of the coral are observed to have a minor influence on Sr/Ca variability, but do not show a direct correlation to SST on timescales from annual to multidecadal. Sr/Ca measurements from the Cuban coral are used to reconstruct monthly and seasonal (winter, summer) SST extending back more than two centuries. Wintertime SST in southern Cuba is compared to other coral Sr/Ca records of winter-season SST from locations sensitive to the NAO in order to investigate the stationarity of the NAO SST 'fingerprint' through time.

  9. Neural Correlates of Facial Mimicry: Simultaneous Measurements of EMG and BOLD Responses during Perception of Dynamic Compared to Static Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2018-01-01

    Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals. Subjects reacted spontaneously to happy facial expressions with increased EMG activity in ZM and OO muscles and decreased CS activity, which was interpreted as FM. Facial muscle responses correlated with BOLD activity in regions associated with motor simulation of facial expressions [i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, a classical Mirror Neuron System (MNS)]. Further, we also found correlations for regions associated with emotional processing (i.e., insula, part of the extended MNS). It is concluded that FM involves both motor and emotional brain structures, especially during perception of natural emotional expressions. PMID:29467691

  10. Wavelet-based unsupervised learning method for electrocardiogram suppression in surface electromyograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niegowski, Maciej; Zivanovic, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel approach aimed at removing electrocardiogram (ECG) perturbation from single-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings by means of unsupervised learning of wavelet-based intensity images. The general idea is to combine the suitability of certain wavelet decomposition bases which provide sparse electrocardiogram time-frequency representations, with the capacity of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for extracting patterns from images. In order to overcome convergence problems which often arise in NMF-related applications, we design a novel robust initialization strategy which ensures proper signal decomposition in a wide range of ECG contamination levels. Moreover, the method can be readily used because no a priori knowledge or parameter adjustment is needed. The proposed method was evaluated on real surface EMG signals against two state-of-the-art unsupervised learning algorithms and a singular spectrum analysis based method. The results, expressed in terms of high-to-low energy ratio, normalized median frequency, spectral power difference and normalized average rectified value, suggest that the proposed method enables better ECG-EMG separation quality than the reference methods. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crustal surface wave velocity structure of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, from ambient noise recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.; Gessner, K.; Spaggiari, C. V.

    2017-09-01

    Group and phase velocity maps in the period range 2-20 s for the Proterozoic east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, are extracted from ambient seismic noise recorded with the 70-station ALFREX array. This 2 yr temporary installation provided detailed coverage across the orogen and the edge of the Neoarchean Yilgarn Craton, a region where no passive seismic studies of this scale have occurred to date. The surface wave velocities are rather high overall (>3 km s-1 nearly everywhere), as expected for exposed Proterozoic basement rocks. No clear signature of the transition between Yilgarn Craton and Albany-Fraser Orogen is observed, but several strong anomalies corresponding to more local geological features were obtained. A prominent, NE-elongated high-velocity anomaly in the northern part of the array is coincident with a Bouguer gravity high caused by the upper crustal metamorphic rocks of the Fraser Zone. This feature disappears towards longer periods, which hints at an exclusively upper crustal origin for this anomaly. Further east, the limestones of the Cenozoic Eucla Basin are clearly imaged as a pronounced low-velocity zone at short periods, but the prevalence of low velocities to periods of ≥5 s implies that the uppermost basement in this area is likewise slow. At longer periods, slightly above-average surface wave velocities are imaged below the Eucla Basin.

  12. Record high efficiency of screen-printed silicon aluminum back surface field solar cell: 20.29%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Park, Chang Sub; Doo Lee, Jae; Youb Lim, Jong; Yeon, Je Min; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Cho, Young Hyun

    2017-08-01

    We have achieved a record high cell efficiency of 20.29% for an industrial 6-in. p-type monocrystalline silicon solar cell with a full-area aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) by simply modifying the cell structure and optimizing the process with the existing cell production line. The cell efficiency was independently confirmed by the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS). To increase the cell efficiency, for example, in four busbars, double printing, a lightly doped emitter with a sheet resistance of 90 to 100 Ω/□, and front surface passivation by using silicon oxynitride (SiON) on top of a silicon nitride (SiN x ) antireflection layer were adopted. To optimize front side processing, PC1D simulation was carried out prior to cell fabrication. The resulting efficiency gain is 0.64% compared with that in the reference cells with three busbars, a single antireflection coating layer, and a low-sheet-resistance emitter.

  13. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the ice-surface temperature (IST) we are developing a climate-data record (CDR) of monthly IST of the Greenland ice sheet, from 1982 to the present using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at 5-km resolution. "Clear-sky" surface temperature increases have been measured from the early 1980s to the early 2000s in the Arctic using AVHRR data, showing increases ranging from 0.57-0.02 (Wang and Key, 2005) to 0.72 0.10 deg C per decade (Comiso, 2006). Arctic warming has implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the ice sheet is near 0 deg C in the melt season and is thus vulnerable to more extensive melting (Hanna et al., 2008). The algorithm used for this work has a long history of measuring IST in the Arctic with AVHRR (Key and Haefliger, 1992). The data are currently available from 1981 to 2004 in the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset (Fowler et al., 2000). J. Key1NOAA modified the AVHRR algorithm for use with MODIS (Hall et al., 2004). The MODIS algorithm is now being processed over Greenland. Issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: time-series bias caused by cloud cover, and cross-calibration between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, time series of satellite ISTs do not necessarily correspond with actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with in-situ (see Koenig and Hall, in press) and automatic-weather station data (e.g., Shuman et al., 2001).

  14. Analysis of progression of fatigue conditions in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography signals and complexity based features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P A; Makaram, Navaneethakrishna; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a neuromuscular condition where muscle performance decreases due to sustained or intense contraction. It is experienced by both normal and abnormal subjects. In this work, an attempt has been made to analyze the progression of muscle fatigue in biceps brachii muscles using surface electromyography (sEMG) signals. The sEMG signals are recorded from fifty healthy volunteers during dynamic contractions under well defined protocol. The acquired signals are preprocessed and segmented in to six equal parts for further analysis. The features, such as activity, mobility, complexity, sample entropy and spectral entropy are extracted from all six zones. The results are found showing that the extracted features except complexity feature have significant variations in differentiating non-fatigue and fatigue zone respectively. Thus, it appears that, these features are useful in automated analysis of various neuromuscular activities in normal and pathological conditions.

  15. On the Efficiency of Individualized Theta/Beta Ratio Neurofeedback Combined with Forehead EMG Training in ADHD Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Bazanova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurofeedback training (NFT to decrease the theta/beta ratio (TBR has been used for treating hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; however, often with low efficiency. Individual variance in EEG profile can confound NFT, because it may lead to influencing non-relevant activity, if ignored. More importantly, it may lead to influencing ADHD-related activities adversely, which may even result in worsening ADHD symptoms. Electromyogenic (EMG signal resulted from forehead muscles can also explain the low efficiency of the NFT in ADHD from both practical and psychological point-of-view. The first aim of this study was to determine EEG and EMG biomarkers most related to the main ADHD characteristics, such as impulsivity and hyperactivity. The second aim was to confirm our hypothesis that the efficiency of the TBR NFT can be increased by individual adjustment of the frequency bands and simultaneous training on forehead muscle tension.Methods: We recruited 94 children diagnosed with ADHD (ADHD and 23 healthy controls (HC. All participants were male and aged between six and nine. Impulsivity and attention were assessed with Go/no-Go task and delayed gratification task, respectively; and 19-channel EEG and forehead EMG were recorded. Then, the ADHD group was randomly subdivided into (1 standard, (2 individualized, (3 individualized+EMG, and (4 sham NFT (control groups. The groups were compared based on TBR and EEG alpha activity, as well as hyperactivity and impulsivity three times: pre-NFT, post-NFT and 6 months after the NFT (follow-up.Results: ADHD children were characterized with decreased individual alpha peak frequency, alpha bandwidth and alpha amplitude suppression magnitude, as well as with increased alpha1/alpha2 (a1/a2 ratio and scalp muscle tension when c (η2 ≥ 0.212. All contingent TBR NFT groups exhibited significant NFT-related decrease in TBR not evident in the control group. Moreover

  16. On the Efficiency of Individualized Theta/Beta Ratio Neurofeedback Combined with Forehead EMG Training in ADHD Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, Olga M; Auer, Tibor; Sapina, Elena A

    2018-01-01

    Background: Neurofeedback training (NFT) to decrease the theta/beta ratio (TBR) has been used for treating hyperactivity and impulsivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, often with low efficiency. Individual variance in EEG profile can confound NFT, because it may lead to influencing non-relevant activity, if ignored. More importantly, it may lead to influencing ADHD-related activities adversely, which may even result in worsening ADHD symptoms. Electromyogenic (EMG) signal resulted from forehead muscles can also explain the low efficiency of the NFT in ADHD from both practical and psychological point-of-view. The first aim of this study was to determine EEG and EMG biomarkers most related to the main ADHD characteristics, such as impulsivity and hyperactivity. The second aim was to confirm our hypothesis that the efficiency of the TBR NFT can be increased by individual adjustment of the frequency bands and simultaneous training on forehead muscle tension. Methods: We recruited 94 children diagnosed with ADHD (ADHD) and 23 healthy controls (HC). All participants were male and aged between six and nine. Impulsivity and attention were assessed with Go/no-Go task and delayed gratification task, respectively; and 19-channel EEG and forehead EMG were recorded. Then, the ADHD group was randomly subdivided into (1) standard, (2) individualized, (3) individualized+EMG, and (4) sham NFT (control) groups. The groups were compared based on TBR and EEG alpha activity, as well as hyperactivity and impulsivity three times: pre-NFT, post-NFT and 6 months after the NFT (follow-up). Results: ADHD children were characterized with decreased individual alpha peak frequency, alpha bandwidth and alpha amplitude suppression magnitude, as well as with increased alpha1/alpha2 (a1/a2) ratio and scalp muscle tension when c (η 2 ≥ 0.212). All contingent TBR NFT groups exhibited significant NFT-related decrease in TBR not evident in the control group. Moreover

  17. Fabrication of Micro-Needle Electrodes for Bio-Signal Recording by a Magnetization-Induced Self-Assembly Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyun Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro-needle electrodes (MEs have attracted more and more attention for monitoring physiological electrical signals, including electrode-skin interface impedance (EII, electromyography (EMG and electrocardiography (ECG recording. A magnetization-induced self-assembling method (MSM was developed to fabricate a microneedle array (MA. A MA coated with Ti/Au film was assembled as a ME. The fracture and insertion properties of ME were tested by experiments. The bio-signal recording performance of the ME was measured and compared with a typical commercial wet electrode (Ag/AgCl electrode. The results show that the MA self-assembled from the magnetic droplet array under the sum of gravitational surface tension and magnetic potential energies. The ME had good toughness and could easily pierce rabbit skin without being broken or buckling. When the compression force applied on the ME was larger than 2 N, ME could stably record EII, which was a lower value than that measured by Ag/AgCl electrodes. EMG signals collected by ME varied along with the contraction of biceps brachii muscle. ME could record static ECG signals with a larger amplitude and dynamic ECG signals with more distinguishable features in comparison with a Ag/AgCl electrode, therefore, ME is an alternative electrode for bio-signal monitoring in some specific situations.

  18. Differential Diagnosis of Parkinson Disease, Essential Tremor, and Enhanced Physiological Tremor with the Tremor Analysis of EMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the differential diagnostic value of tremor analysis of EMG on Parkinson’s disease (PD, essential tremor (ET, and enhanced physiological tremor (EPT. Clinical data from 25 patients with PD, 20 patients with ET, and 20 patients with EPT were collected. The tremor frequency and muscle contraction pattern of the resting, posture, and 500 g and 1000 g overload were recorded. The frequency of PD tremor was 4–6 Hz, and the frequency of ET was also in this range; the frequency of EPT is 6–12 hz having some overlap with PD. The muscle contraction patterns of the ET and EPT group were mainly synchronous contraction, and the muscle contraction mode of the PD group was mainly alternating contraction. Having tremor latency from rest to postural position and having changes in tremor amplitude after mental concentration in PD might distinguish ET. Tremor analysis of EMG was able to distinguish PD from ET and EPT by varying the tremor frequency and muscle contraction pattern. It can also differentiate between PD and ET by the latency and concentration effect and ET and EPT by weight load effect.

  19. Myopathic EMG findings and type II muscle fiber atrophy in patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John

    2013-01-01

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare condition, which may mimic myopathy. A few reports have described that EMG in LEMS may show changes compatible with myopathy, and muscle biopsies have been described with type II as well as type I atrophy. The EMG results were, however, based on ...... on qualitative EMG examination and the histopathological methods were not always clear. The objective of this study was to investigate if the previous EMG findings could be confirmed with quantitative EMG (QEMG) and to describe muscle histology in LEMS.......Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare condition, which may mimic myopathy. A few reports have described that EMG in LEMS may show changes compatible with myopathy, and muscle biopsies have been described with type II as well as type I atrophy. The EMG results were, however, based...

  20. Classification of Anticipatory Signals for Grasp and Release from Surface Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Ho Chit; Shah, Julie A.; Stirling, Leia A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a technique for recording natural muscle activation signals, which can serve as control inputs for exoskeletons and prosthetic devices. Previous experiments have incorporated these signals using both classical and pattern-recognition control methods in order to actuate such devices. We used the results of an experiment incorporating grasp and release actions with object contact to develop an intent-recognition system based on Gaussian mixture models (GMM) and continuous-emission hidden Markov models (HMM) of sEMG data. We tested this system with data collected from 16 individuals using a forearm band with distributed sEMG sensors. The data contain trials with shifted band alignments to assess robustness to sensor placement. This study evaluated and found that pattern-recognition-based methods could classify transient anticipatory sEMG signals in the presence of shifted sensor placement and object contact. With the best-performing classifier, the effect of label lengths in the training data was also examined. A mean classification accuracy of 75.96% was achieved through a unigram HMM method with five mixture components. Classification accuracy on different sub-movements was found to be limited by the length of the shortest sub-movement, which means that shorter sub-movements within dynamic sequences require larger training sets to be classified correctly. This classification of user intent is a potential control mechanism for a dynamic grasping task involving user contact with external objects and noise. Further work is required to test its performance as part of an exoskeleton controller, which involves contact with actuated external surfaces. PMID:27792155

  1. Adductor magnus: An EMG investigation into proximal and distal portions and direction specific action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Matthew L; Pizzari, Tania; Rath, Leanne; Tucker, Kylie; Semciw, Adam I

    2018-05-01

    Cadaveric studies indicate that adductor magnus is structurally partitioned into at least two regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the direction-specific actions of proximal and distal portions of adductor magnus, and in doing so determine if these segments have distinct functional roles. Fine-wire EMG electrodes were inserted into two portions of adductor magnus of 12 healthy young adults. Muscle activity was recorded during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) across eight tests (hip flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, abduction, and adduction at 0°, 45°, and 90° hip flexion). Median activity within each action (normalized to peak) was compared between segments using repeated measures nonparametric tests (α = 0.05). An effect size (ES = z-score/√sample size) was calculated to determine the magnitude of difference between muscle segments. The relative contribution of each muscle segment differed significantly during internal rotation (P magnus has at least two functionally unique regions. Differences were most evident during rotation. The different direction-specific actions may imply that each segment performs separate roles in hip stability and movement. These findings may have implications on injury prevention and rehabilitation for adductor-related groin injuries, hamstring strain injury, and hip pathology. Clin. Anat. 31:535-543, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A New Alignment Method Based on The Wavelet Multi-Scale Cross-Correlation for Noisy High Resolution ECG Records

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laciar, E

    2001-01-01

    ... between the wavelet transforms of the template and the detected beat, respectively. The wavelet and temporal methods were tested for several simulated records corrupted with white noise and electromyographic (EMG...

  3. Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrillon, Eduardo

    Portable EMG devices, Biofeedback and Contingent Electrical Stimulation applications in Bruxism Eduardo Enrique, Castrillon Watanabe, DDS, MSc, PhD Section of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neuroscience...... Summary: Bruxism is a parafunctional activity, which involves the masticatory muscles and probably it is as old as human mankind. Different methods such as portable EMG devices have been proposed to diagnose and understand the pathophysiology of bruxism. Biofeedback / contingent electrical stimulation...... characteristics make it complicated to assess bruxism using portable EMG devices. The possibility to assess bruxism like EMG activity on a portable device made it possible to use biofeedback and CES approaches in order to treat / manage bruxism. The available scientific information about CES effects on bruxism...

  4. Sequential decoding of intramuscular EMG signals via estimation of a Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsifrot, Jonathan; Le Carpentier, Eric; Aoustin, Yannick; Farina, Dario

    2014-09-01

    This paper addresses the sequential decoding of intramuscular single-channel electromyographic (EMG) signals to extract the activity of individual motor neurons. A hidden Markov model is derived from the physiological generation of the EMG signal. The EMG signal is described as a sum of several action potentials (wavelet) trains, embedded in noise. For each train, the time interval between wavelets is modeled by a process that parameters are linked to the muscular activity. The parameters of this process are estimated sequentially by a Bayes filter, along with the firing instants. The method was tested on some simulated signals and an experimental one, from which the rates of detection and classification of action potentials were above 95% with respect to the reference decomposition. The method works sequentially in time, and is the first to address the problem of intramuscular EMG decomposition online. It has potential applications for man-machine interfacing based on motor neuron activities.

  5. EMG System for Production of Methane From Carbon Dioxide, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sustainable Innovations, LLC, is developing an Electrochemical Methane Generator (EMG), which comprises a novel method of converting CO2 and H2O to hydrocarbon fuels...

  6. sEMG-based joint force control for an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Wang, Baocheng; Sun, Fuchun; Yang, Chenguang; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates two surface electromyogram (sEMG)-based control strategies developed for a power-assist exoskeleton arm. Different from most of the existing position control approaches, this paper develops force control methods to make the exoskeleton robot behave like humans in order to provide better assistance. The exoskeleton robot is directly attached to a user's body and activated by the sEMG signals of the user's muscles, which reflect the user's motion intention. In the first proposed control method, the forces of agonist and antagonist muscles pair are estimated, and their difference is used to produce the torque of the corresponding joints. In the second method, linear discriminant analysis-based classifiers are introduced as the indicator of the motion type of the joints. Then, the classifier's outputs together with the estimated force of corresponding active muscle determine the torque control signals. Different from the conventional approaches, one classifier is assigned to each joint, which decreases the training time and largely simplifies the recognition process. Finally, the extensive experiments are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  7. The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakaki Juliano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO, vastus lateralis longus (VLL and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9. The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity in relation to the VMO, however, this study included only healthy subjects performing maximum voluntary isometric contraction contractions, therefore much remains to be discovered by

  8. The recovery of repeated-sprint exercise is associated with PCr resynthesis, while muscle pH and EMG amplitude remain depressed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mendez-Villanueva

    Full Text Available The physiological equivalents of power output maintenance and recovery during repeated-sprint exercise (RSE remain to be fully elucidated. In an attempt to improve our understanding of the determinants of RSE performance we therefore aimed to determine its recovery following exhaustive exercise (which affected intramuscular and neural factors concomitantly with those of intramuscular concentrations of adenosine triphosphate [ATP], phosphocreatine [PCr] and pH values and electromyography (EMG activity (a proxy for net motor unit activity changes. Eight young men performed 10, 6-s all-out sprints on a cycle ergometer, interspersed with 30 s of recovery, followed, after 6 min of passive recovery, by five 6-s sprints, again interspersed by 30 s of passive recovery. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained at rest, immediately after the first 10 sprints and after 6 min of recovery. EMG activity of the vastus lateralis was obtained from surface electrodes throughout exercise. Total work (TW, [ATP], [PCr], pH and EMG amplitude decreased significantly throughout the first ten sprints (P<0.05. After 6 min of recovery, TW during sprint 11 recovered to 86.3±7.7% of sprint 1. ATP and PCr were resynthesized to 92.6±6.0% and 85.3±10.3% of the resting value, respectively, but muscle pH and EMG amplitude remained depressed. PCr resynthesis was correlated with TW done in sprint 11 (r = 0.79, P<0.05 and TW done during sprints 11 to 15 (r = 0.67, P<0.05. There was a ∼2-fold greater decrease in the TW/EMG ratio in the last five sprints (sprint 11 to 15 than in the first five sprints (sprint 1 to 5 resulting in a disproportionate decrease in mechanical power (i.e., TW in relation to EMG. Thus, we conclude that the inability to produce power output during repeated sprints is mostly mediated by intramuscular fatigue signals probably related with the control of PCr metabolism.

  9. Helical EMG module with explosive current opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Vakhrushev, V.V.; Volkov, G.I.; Ivanov, V.A.; Fetisov, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    To carry out the experimental work to study plasma properties, electromagnetic sources with 10 6 to 10 8 J of stored energy delivered to the load in microsecond time, are required. Among the current electromagnetic storage devices, the explosive magnetic generators (EMG) are of the largest energy capacity. The disadvantages of this type of generators is relatively long time (ten of microseconds) of electromagnetic energy cumulation in the deformable circuit. To reduce the time of energy transfer to the load to a microsecond range the switching scheme is generally used, where the cumulation circuit and that of the load are separated and connected in parallel via a switching element (opening switch) providing generation of desired power. In this paper, some ways and means of designing opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches which operation is based on mechanic destruction of the conductor using high explosive, have the highest and most reliable performance. The authors have explored the mechanic disruption of a thin conductor (foil), the technique based on throwing the foil at the ribbed barrier of electric insulator material. The report presents the data obtained in studying the operation of this type of opening switch having cylindrical shape, 200 mm in diameter and 200 mm long, designed for generation of 5.5 MA current pulse in the load

  10. Development of a concept-based EMG-based speller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damasevicius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La computación fisiológica es un p aradigma de la computación qu e usa los datos de los usuarios como entradas durante las tarea s computacionales en un Ambiente de vidacotidianasoportado po rco mputadores (AAL. Monitoreando, an alizando y respondiendo a dic has entradas, los Sistemas de Computación Fisiológica pueden respon der al estado cognitivo, emocional y físico de los usuarios. Un caso particular es el de la interface de Computación Neuronal (NCI, que usa señales eléctricas para manejar la actividad muscular del usuario establecioendo una comunicación d irecta entre el usuario y el c omputador. Se present una taxonomía de parametros de aplicación de deletreo, proponiendo un modelo de PCS y describiendo el desarr ollo de un deletreador basado en EMG. Se analiza y desarrolla unaaplicación con un sistema basa do en letras tradicionales y u na interfaz visual. Finalmente, se evalua el desempeño y usabil idad del sistemadesarrollado.

  11. Changes in head and cervical-spine postures and EMG activities of masticatory muscles following treatment with complete upper and partial lower denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Huggare, J A

    1994-10-01

    A clinical stomatognathic, cephalometric and electromyographic (EMG) study was performed in relation to 14 subjects (10 women, 4 men), each with an edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular dentition before and six months after treatment with complete upper and partial lower dentures. The mean age of the subjects was 54.4 years (range 43-64 years). The mean period of edentulousness and age of dentures were 22.5 years (range 15-33 years) and 14.1 (range 1.5-30 years), respectively. Natural head position was recorded (using a fluid-level method) and measured from cephalograms. EMG activity was measured in relation to masseter and temporal muscles. A decrease in clinical dysfunction index was noted in 12 of 14 subjects (86%). There was no change in cervical inclination, but a slight extension of the head was noted after treatment. Rapid recovery of the masticatory muscles was reflected in increased EMG activity, especially when biting in the maximal intercuspal position. In cases of edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular anterior dentition, treatment with a complete upper and lower partial denture had a favorable effect on craniomandibular disorders and masticatory-muscle function.

  12. Estimation of distal arm joint angles from EMG and shoulder orientation for transhumeral prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Aadeel; Aghasadeghi, Navid; Hargrove, Levi; Bretl, Timothy

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we quantify the extent to which shoulder orientation, upper-arm electromyography (EMG), and forearm EMG are predictors of distal arm joint angles during reaching in eight subjects without disability as well as three subjects with a unilateral transhumeral amputation and targeted reinnervation. Prior studies have shown that shoulder orientation and upper-arm EMG, taken separately, are predictors of both elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination. We show that, for eight subjects without disability, shoulder orientation and upper-arm EMG together are a significantly better predictor of both elbow flexion/extension during unilateral (R 2 =0.72) and mirrored bilateral (R 2 =0.72) reaches and of forearm pronation/supination during unilateral (R 2 =0.77) and mirrored bilateral (R 2 =0.70) reaches. We also show that adding forearm EMG further improves the prediction of forearm pronation/supination during unilateral (R 2 =0.82) and mirrored bilateral (R 2 =0.75) reaches. In principle, these results provide the basis for choosing inputs for control of transhumeral prostheses, both by subjects with targeted motor reinnervation (when forearm EMG is available) and by subjects without target motor reinnervation (when forearm EMG is not available). In particular, we confirm that shoulder orientation and upper-arm EMG together best predict elbow flexion/extension (R 2 =0.72) for three subjects with unilateral transhumeral amputations and targeted motor reinnervation. However, shoulder orientation alone best predicts forearm pronation/supination (R 2 =0.88) for these subjects, a contradictory result that merits further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Steering a Tractor by Means of an EMG-Based Human-Machine Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alonso-Garcia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An electromiographic (EMG-based human-machine interface (HMI is a communication pathway between a human and a machine that operates by means of the acquisition and processing of EMG signals. This article explores the use of EMG-based HMIs in the steering of farm tractors. An EPOC, a low-cost human-computer interface (HCI from the Emotiv Company, was employed. This device, by means of 14 saline sensors, measures and processes EMG and electroencephalographic (EEG signals from the scalp of the driver. In our tests, the HMI took into account only the detection of four trained muscular events on the driver’s scalp: eyes looking to the right and jaw opened, eyes looking to the right and jaw closed, eyes looking to the left and jaw opened, and eyes looking to the left and jaw closed. The EMG-based HMI guidance was compared with manual guidance and with autonomous GPS guidance. A driver tested these three guidance systems along three different trajectories: a straight line, a step, and a circumference. The accuracy of the EMG-based HMI guidance was lower than the accuracy obtained by manual guidance, which was lower in turn than the accuracy obtained by the autonomous GPS guidance; the computed standard deviations of error to the desired trajectory in the straight line were 16 cm, 9 cm, and 4 cm, respectively. Since the standard deviation between the manual guidance and the EMG-based HMI guidance differed only 7 cm, and this difference is not relevant in agricultural steering, it can be concluded that it is possible to steer a tractor by an EMG-based HMI with almost the same accuracy as with manual steering.

  14. Movement Performance of Human-Robot Cooperation Control Based on EMG-Driven Hill-Type and Proportional Models for an Ankle Power-Assist Exoskeleton Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Gao, JinWu

    2017-08-01

    Although the merits of electromyography (EMG)-based control of powered assistive systems have been certified, the factors that affect the performance of EMG-based human-robot cooperation, which are very important, have received little attention. This study investigates whether a more physiologically appropriate model could improve the performance of human-robot cooperation control for an ankle power-assist exoskeleton robot. To achieve the goal, an EMG-driven Hill-type neuromusculoskeletal model (HNM) and a linear proportional model (LPM) were developed and calibrated through maximum isometric voluntary dorsiflexion (MIVD). The two control models could estimate the real-time ankle joint torque, and HNM is more accurate and can account for the change of the joint angle and muscle dynamics. Then, eight healthy volunteers were recruited to wear the ankle exoskeleton robot and complete a series of sinusoidal tracking tasks in the vertical plane. With the various levels of assist based on the two calibrated models, the subjects were instructed to track the target displayed on the screen as accurately as possible by performing ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Two measurements, the root mean square error (RMSE) and root mean square jerk (RMSJ), were derived from the assistant torque and kinematic signals to characterize the movement performances, whereas the amplitudes of the recorded EMG signals from the tibialis anterior (TA) and the gastrocnemius (GAS) were obtained to reflect the muscular efforts. The results demonstrated that the muscular effort and smoothness of tracking movements decreased with an increase in the assistant ratio. Compared with LPM, subjects made lower physical efforts and generated smoother movements when using HNM, which implied that a more physiologically appropriate model could enable more natural and human-like human-robot cooperation and has potential value for improvement of human-exoskeleton interaction in future applications.

  15. Inferring Muscle-Tendon Unit Power from Ankle Joint Power during the Push-Off Phase of Human Walking: Insights from a Multiarticular EMG-Driven Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honert, Eric C; Zelik, Karl E

    2016-01-01

    Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs). However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint) musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which ankle joint power overestimates net plantarflexor MTU power during the Push-off phase of walking, due to the behavior of the flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FDHL)-multiarticular MTUs crossing the ankle and metatarsophalangeal (toe) joints. We performed a gait analysis study on six healthy participants, recording ground reaction forces, kinematics, and electromyography (EMG). Empirical data were input into an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model to estimate ankle power. This model enabled us to parse contributions from mono- and multi-articular MTUs, and required only one scaling and one time delay factor for each subject and speed, which were solved for based on empirical data. Net plantarflexing MTU power was computed by the model and quantitatively compared to inverse dynamics ankle power. The EMG-driven model was able to reproduce inverse dynamics ankle power across a range of gait speeds (R2 ≥ 0.97), while also providing MTU-specific power estimates. We found that FDHL dynamics caused ankle power to slightly overestimate net plantarflexor MTU power, but only by ~2-7%. During Push-off, FDHL MTU dynamics do not substantially confound the inference of net plantarflexor MTU power from inverse dynamics ankle power. However, other methodological limitations may cause inverse dynamics to overestimate net MTU power; for instance, due to rigid-body foot assumptions. Moving forward, the EMG-driven modeling approach presented

  16. Inferring Muscle-Tendon Unit Power from Ankle Joint Power during the Push-Off Phase of Human Walking: Insights from a Multiarticular EMG-Driven Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Honert

    Full Text Available Inverse dynamics joint kinetics are often used to infer contributions from underlying groups of muscle-tendon units (MTUs. However, such interpretations are confounded by multiarticular (multi-joint musculature, which can cause inverse dynamics to over- or under-estimate net MTU power. Misestimation of MTU power could lead to incorrect scientific conclusions, or to empirical estimates that misguide musculoskeletal simulations, assistive device designs, or clinical interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree to which ankle joint power overestimates net plantarflexor MTU power during the Push-off phase of walking, due to the behavior of the flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FDHL-multiarticular MTUs crossing the ankle and metatarsophalangeal (toe joints.We performed a gait analysis study on six healthy participants, recording ground reaction forces, kinematics, and electromyography (EMG. Empirical data were input into an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model to estimate ankle power. This model enabled us to parse contributions from mono- and multi-articular MTUs, and required only one scaling and one time delay factor for each subject and speed, which were solved for based on empirical data. Net plantarflexing MTU power was computed by the model and quantitatively compared to inverse dynamics ankle power.The EMG-driven model was able to reproduce inverse dynamics ankle power across a range of gait speeds (R2 ≥ 0.97, while also providing MTU-specific power estimates. We found that FDHL dynamics caused ankle power to slightly overestimate net plantarflexor MTU power, but only by ~2-7%.During Push-off, FDHL MTU dynamics do not substantially confound the inference of net plantarflexor MTU power from inverse dynamics ankle power. However, other methodological limitations may cause inverse dynamics to overestimate net MTU power; for instance, due to rigid-body foot assumptions. Moving forward, the EMG-driven modeling

  17. Bilinear modeling of EMG signals to extract user-independent features for multiuser myoelectric interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takamitsu; Morimoto, Jun

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we propose a multiuser myoelectric interface that can easily adapt to novel users. When a user performs different motions (e.g., grasping and pinching), different electromyography (EMG) signals are measured. When different users perform the same motion (e.g., grasping), different EMG signals are also measured. Therefore, designing a myoelectric interface that can be used by multiple users to perform multiple motions is difficult. To cope with this problem, we propose for EMG signals a bilinear model that is composed of two linear factors: 1) user dependent and 2) motion dependent. By decomposing the EMG signals into these two factors, the extracted motion-dependent factors can be used as user-independent features. We can construct a motion classifier on the extracted feature space to develop the multiuser interface. For novel users, the proposed adaptation method estimates the user-dependent factor through only a few interactions. The bilinear EMG model with the estimated user-dependent factor can extract the user-independent features from the novel user data. We applied our proposed method to a recognition task of five hand gestures for robotic hand control using four-channel EMG signals measured from subject forearms. Our method resulted in 73% accuracy, which was statistically significantly different from the accuracy of standard nonmultiuser interfaces, as the result of a two-sample t -test at a significance level of 1%.

  18. Influence on muscle oxygenation to EMG parameters at different skeletal muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Song, Gaoqing

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of muscle oxygenation on EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises and to observe the relationship between EMG parameters and muscle oxygenation. Twelve rowers took part in the tests. Near infrared spectrometer was utilized for measurements of muscle oxygenation on lateral quadriceps. sEMG measurement is performed for EMG parameters during isometric and incremental exercises. Results indicated that Oxy-Hb decrease significantly correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal during 1/3 MVC and 2/3 MVC isometric exercise, and it is also correlated with IEMG, E/T ratio and frequency of impulse signal. Increase of IEMG occurred at the time after Oxy-Hb decrease during incremental exercise and highly correlated with BLa. It is concluded that no matter how heavy the intensity is, Oxy-Hb dissociation may play an important role in affecting EMG parameters of muscle fatigue during isometric exercise. 2) EMG parameters may be influenced by Oxy-Hb dissociation and blood lactate concentration during dynamic exercise.

  19. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Dijk, Hylke W; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs.

  20. Fallout isotope chronology of the near-surface sediment record of Lake Bolătău.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Árpád; Karlik, Máté; Mîndrescu, Marcel; Szalai, Zoltán; Grădinaru, Ionela; Kern, Zoltán

    2018-01-01

    Fallout isotope ( 210 Pb ex, 137 Cs and 241 Am) based dating has been carried out on the near-surface sediment core collected from Lake Bolătău-Feredeu (Bukovina, Romania). The motivation was to improve the chronology of this recent section in connection with significant fluctuations observed in sediment accumulation rates, particle size distribution and primordial radioisotope (i.e. 40 K and 232 Th) composition. Previously only an extrapolation of a broad-range OxCal age-depth model, which was based on 8 AMS radiocarbon dates from the deeper part of a parallel sediment sequence and tentatively validated for the upper part using the double peaks of the 137 Cs activity concentration distribution, was available for the studied section (1-24 cm). Parallel to the previous 137 Cs measurement, 210 Pb and 226 Ra (for a more detailed, 210 Pb ex -based chronology), 241 Am (for an additional time-marker), as well as 40 K and 232 Th concentrations have also been determined by gamma-spectrometry. In case of the 210 Pb ex -based chronology, due to a large deviation from a pure exponential distribution, the Constant Flux (CF) model has been used for the calculation of sediment ages and accumulation rates. Although the broad-range OxCal and the CF model were broadly similar down to 22 cm, the 210 Pb ex -based ages are clearly superior in terms of uncertainty in the uppermost 12 cm, while the broad-range model has smaller uncertainty below 20 cm (>150 years). The CF model gave an average mass accumulation rate of (0.08 ± 0.03) g cm -2 yr -1 for sections 0-11 cm, and (0.03 ± 0.01) g cm -2 yr -1 for sections 12-22 cm, respectively. Significant changes have been observed in the depth distribution of both the particle size distribution and the elemental/isotopic composition of the sediment record, most likely related to the variation observable in the intensity and volume of precipitation in the catchment. The obtained high-resolution records of Lake Bolătău, including

  1. Optimal spatio-temporal filter for the reduction of crosstalk in surface electromyogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Crosstalk can pose limitations to the applications of surface electromyogram (EMG). Its reduction can help in the identification of the activity of specific muscles. The selectivity of different spatial filters was tested in the literature both in simulations and experiments: their performances are affected by many factors (e.g. anatomy, conduction properties of the tissues and dimension/location of the electrodes); moreover, they reduce crosstalk by decreasing the detection volume, recording data that represent only the activity of a small portion of the muscle of interest. In this study, an alternative idea is proposed, based on a spatio-temporal filter. Approach. An adaptive method is applied, which filters both in time and among different channels, providing a signal that maximally preserves the energy of the EMG of interest and discards that of nearby muscles (increasing the signal to crosstalk ratio, SCR). Main results. Tests with simulations and experimental data show an average increase of the SCR of about 2 dB with respect to the single or double differential data processed by the filter. This allows to reduce the bias induced by crosstalk in conduction velocity and force estimation. Significance. The method can be applied to few channels, so that it is useful in applicative studies (e.g. clinics, gate analysis, rehabilitation protocols with EMG biofeedback and prosthesis control) where limited and not selective information is usually available.

  2. EMG and Kinematic Responses to Unexpected Slips After Slip Training in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to design a virtual reality (VR) training to induce perturbation in older adults similar to a slip and examine the effect of the training on kinematic and muscular responses in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were involved in a laboratory study and randomly assigned to two groups (virtual reality training and control). Both groups went through three sessions including baseline slip, training, and transfer of training on slippery surface. The training group experienced twelve simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a virtual reality scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group completed normal walking during the training session. Kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected during all the sessions. Results demonstrated the proactive adjustments such as increased trunk flexion at heel contact after training. Reactive adjustments included reduced time to peak activations of knee flexors, reduced knee coactivation, reduced time to trunk flexion, and reduced trunk angular velocity after training. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that the VR training was able to generate a perturbation in older adults that evoked recovery reactions and such motor skill can be transferred to the actual slip trials. PMID:25296401

  3. A soft robotic exomusculature glove with integrated sEMG sensing for hand rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, Michael A; Fischer, Sarah A; Gauthier, Phillip W; Luna, Carlos H Martinez; Clancy, Edward A; Fischer, Gregory S

    2013-06-01

    Stroke affects 750,000 people annually, and 80% of stroke survivors are left with weakened limbs and hands. Repetitive hand movement is often used as a rehabilitation technique in order to regain hand movement and strength. In order to facilitate this rehabilitation, a robotic glove was designed to aid in the movement and coordination of gripping exercises. This glove utilizes a cable system to open and close a patients hand. The cables are actuated by servomotors, mounted in a backpack weighing 13.2 lbs including battery power sources. The glove can be controlled in terms of finger position and grip force through switch interface, software program, or surface myoelectric (sEMG) signal. The primary control modes of the system provide: active assistance, active resistance and a preprogrammed mode. This project developed a working prototype of the rehabilitative robotic glove which actuates the fingers over a full range of motion across one degree-of-freedom, and is capable of generating a maximum 15N grip force.

  4. The use of EMG biofeedback for learning of selective activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Mork, P J; Andersen, L L

    2010-01-01

    the serratus anterior with visual EMG biofeedback, while the activity of four parts of the serratus anterior and four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. One subject was able to selectively activate both the upper and the lower serratus anterior respectively. Moreover, three subjects managed...... to selectively activate the lower serratus anterior, and two subjects learned to selectively activate the upper serratus anterior. During selective activation of the lower serratus anterior, the activity of this muscle part was 14.4+/-10.3 times higher than the upper serratus anterior activity (P....05). The corresponding ratio for selective upper serratus vs. lower serratus anterior activity was 6.4+/-1.7 (Ptimes higher synergistic activity of the lower trapezius compared with the upper trapezius (P

  5. Surface electromyography based muscle fatigue detection using high-resolution time-frequency methods and machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P A; Ghosh, Diptasree Maitra; Ramakrishnan, S

    2018-02-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) based muscle fatigue research is widely preferred in sports science and occupational/rehabilitation studies due to its noninvasiveness. However, these signals are complex, multicomponent and highly nonstationary with large inter-subject variations, particularly during dynamic contractions. Hence, time-frequency based machine learning methodologies can improve the design of automated system for these signals. In this work, the analysis based on high-resolution time-frequency methods, namely, Stockwell transform (S-transform), B-distribution (BD) and extended modified B-distribution (EMBD) are proposed to differentiate the dynamic muscle nonfatigue and fatigue conditions. The nonfatigue and fatigue segments of sEMG signals recorded from the biceps brachii of 52 healthy volunteers are preprocessed and subjected to S-transform, BD and EMBD. Twelve features are extracted from each method and prominent features are selected using genetic algorithm (GA) and binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO). Five machine learning algorithms, namely, naïve Bayes, support vector machine (SVM) of polynomial and radial basis kernel, random forest and rotation forests are used for the classification. The results show that all the proposed time-frequency distributions (TFDs) are able to show the nonstationary variations of sEMG signals. Most of the features exhibit statistically significant difference in the muscle fatigue and nonfatigue conditions. The maximum number of features (66%) is reduced by GA and BPSO for EMBD and BD-TFD respectively. The combination of EMBD- polynomial kernel based SVM is found to be most accurate (91% accuracy) in classifying the conditions with the features selected using GA. The proposed methods are found to be capable of handling the nonstationary and multicomponent variations of sEMG signals recorded in dynamic fatiguing contractions. Particularly, the combination of EMBD- polynomial kernel based SVM could be used to

  6. Identificación de Tareas Isométricas y Dinámicas del Miembro Superior Basada en EMG de Alta Densidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rojas- Martínez

    2017-10-01

    robots used in active rehabilitation processes. The emerging technology of high-density electromyography (HD-EMG opens up new possibilities to extract neural information, and it has already been reported that the spatial distribution of HD-EMG intensity maps is a valuable feature in the identification of isometric tasks.This study explores the use of the spatial distribution of myoelectric activity and carries out a task identification during dynamic exercises at different velocities which are much closer to the ones commonly used during therapy. To this end, HD-EMG signals were recorded in a group of healthy subjects while performing a set of isometric and dynamic upper limb tasks. The results show that spatial distribution is a very useful feature in the identification not only of isometric contractions but also of dynamic contractions, so it can be very useful to improve the control of rehabilitation devices, making it more natural and permitting to adapt better to the user. Palabras clave: Bioingeniería, electromiografía, neuromuscular, rehabilitación, Keywords: Bioengineering, electromiography, neuromuscular, rehabilitation

  7. Design and use of climatological data banks, with emphasis on the preparation and homogenization of surface monthly records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palutikof, J P; Goodess, C M

    1986-01-01

    The procedures involved in constructing data banks for use in climatological research are described. Such data banks will normally have two component parts: the meteorological records themselves, and the accompanying documentary and information systems. As a first step, meteorological records appropriate for the intended application of the data bank must be collected and stored, commonly in a computer. Individual records must then be merged into a form convenient for the user. Procedures for quality control of the data are discussed. The authors emphasize the need to ensure that records are homogeneous, i.e., that they do not contain spurious jumps or trends caused by non-climatic factor such as site change or urbanization. Some techniques to correct inhomogeneities in meteorological records are described. The documentation accompanying the meteorological records has three components: first, information on the individual records, second, a list of data sources, third, station histories. The station histories will be added to as work progresses on the data bank, to describe any attempts to homogenize records, and ultimately to give the compiler's assessment of the reliability of each record. User needs must be considered at all stages of data bank design and construction.

  8. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from AVHRR Pathfinder, Version 5.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 Sea Surface Temperature data set (PFV52) is a collection of global, twice-daily 4km sea surface temperature data produced in a...

  9. Evaluation of surgeon's muscle fatigue during thoracoscopic pulmonary lobectomy using interoperative surface electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Myung-Chul; Park, Seong Yong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the physical stress experienced by a surgeon during thoracoscopic pulmonary lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection for lung cancer by measuring the intraoperative electromyography (EMG). Surface EMG was recorded during 12 cases of thoracoscopic lobectomy. During the operation, 16 channels of a wireless EMG were used to measure muscle activity and fatigue from the bilateral muscles of the splenius capitis (SC), upper trapezius (UT), middle deltoid (MD), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), lumbar erector spinae (LES), rectus femoralis (RF), and tibialis anterior (TA). The EMG signals were processed to collect the values of the root mean square for muscle activity and median frequency (MF) for muscle fatigue. All operations were completed without adverse events. The mean operating time was 99.16±35.15 minutes. During the operation, the mean muscle activity of all muscles was 21.91±12.85 mV. High muscle activity was observed in the bilateral FCR and ECR, whereas low muscle activity was observed in the bilateral SC and LES. The final MFs in the bilateral SC and LES were found to be decreased from the initial status, which implied increased muscle fatigue. The muscles of the right and left LES were significantly fatigued by up to 29% and 37% compared to their initial status (P=0.021 and P=0.007, respectively). The MFs of the bilateral LES decreased with time (an average decreases of 0.008/5 minutes, P=0.002 in right LES and 0.004/5 minutes, P=0.018 in left LES). During thoracoscopic lobectomy, muscle fatigue was observed in muscles related to a static posture, such as the bilateral SC, UT, and ES. Further studies are required to investigate the ergonomic adjustments needed to reduce muscle fatigue in these static muscles.

  10. EEG?EMG polygraphic study of dystonia and myoclonus in a case of Creutzfeldt?Jakob disease ?

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Takao; Iwahashi, Teruaki; Ishii, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kanji; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We report on a patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) who showed dystonia, periodic myoclonus, and periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWCs) on EEG. The EEG–EMG polygraphic study revealed that dystonia appeared without relation to periodic myoclonus and PSWCs and that dystonia EMGs were strongly suppressed after periodic myoclonus EMGs. These findings suggest that dystonia has a pathogenesis different from that of periodic myoclonus and PSWCs, but dystonia and periodic myoclonus ma...

  11. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjae Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  12. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound from an edison cylinder using three dimensional non-contact optical surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Maul, C.; McBride, J.W.; Golden, M.

    2004-04-20

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph disc record or cylinder may be reconstructed, without contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision optical metrology methods and digital image processing. The viability of this approach was recently demonstrated on a 78 rpm shellac disc using two dimensional image acquisition and analysis methods. The present work reports the first three dimensional reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound. The source material, a celluloid cylinder, was scanned using color coded confocal microscopy techniques and resulted in a faithful playback of the recorded information.

  13. Valid measures of periodic leg movements (PLMs) during a suggested immobilization test using the PAM-RL leg activity monitors require adjusting detection parameters for noise and signal in each recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Myung Sung; Montplaisir, Jacques; Desautels, Alex; Winkelman, John W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG. Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12 months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT. The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an

  14. A Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, Josefino C.; DiGirolamo, Nikolo E.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Key, Jeffrey R.; Koenig, Lora S.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a climate-quality data record of the clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice-surface temperature (1ST) algorithm. A climate-data record (CDR) is a time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to determine climate variability and change. We present daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. This record will be elevated in status to a CDR when at least nine more years of data become available either from MODIS Terra or Aqua, or from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) to be launched in October 2011. Our ultimate goal is to develop a CDR that starts in 1981 with the Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset and continues with MODIS data from 2000 to the present, and into the VIIRS era. Differences in the APP and MODIS cloud masks have so far precluded the current 1ST records from spanning both the APP and MODIS time series in a seamless manner though this will be revisited when the APP dataset has been reprocessed. The complete MODIS 1ST daily and monthly data record is available online.

  15. Analysis of scapular muscle EMG activity in patients with idiopathic neck pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Bostyn, Emma; Delemarre, Jolien; Lemahieu, Trees; Cagnie, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    It is proposed that altered scapular muscle function can contribute to abnormal loading of the cervical spine. However, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of the scapular muscles. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature regarding the differences or similarities in scapular muscle activity, measured by electromyography ( = EMG), between patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain compared to pain-free controls. Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies investigating scapular muscle EMG activity (amplitude, timing and fatigue parameters) were searched in Pubmed and Web of Science. 25 articles were included in the systematic review. During rest and activities below shoulder height, no clear differences in mean Upper Trapezius ( = UT) EMG activity exist between patients with idiopathic neck pain and a healthy control group. During overhead activities, no conclusion for scapular EMG amplitude can be drawn as a large variation of results were reported. Adaptation strategies during overhead tasks are not the same between studies. Only one study investigated timing of the scapular muscles and found a delayed onset and shorter duration of the SA during elevation in patients with idiopathic neck pain. For scapular muscle fatigue, no definite conclusions can be made as a wide variation and conflicting results are reported. Further high quality EMG research on scapular muscles (broader than the UT) is necessary to understand/draw conclusions on how scapular muscles react in the presence of idiopathic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Embodied simulation as part of affective evaluation processes: task dependence of valence concordant EMG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, André; Funcke, Jakob Maria

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent findings, this study examines whether valence concordant electromyography (EMG) responses can be explained as an unconditional effect of mere stimulus processing or as somatosensory simulation driven by task-dependent processing strategies. While facial EMG over the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major was measured, each participant performed two tasks with pictures of album covers. One task was an affective evaluation task and the other was to attribute the album covers to one of five decades. The Embodied Emotion Account predicts that valence concordant EMG is more likely to occur if the task necessitates a somatosensory simulation of the evaluative meaning of stimuli. Results support this prediction with regard to Corrugator supercilii in that valence concordant EMG activity was only present in the affective evaluation task but not in the non-evaluative task. Results for the Zygomaticus major were ambiguous. Our findings are in line with the view that EMG activity is an embodied part of the evaluation process and not a mere physical outcome.

  17. A Control Strategy with Tactile Perception Feedback for EMG Prosthetic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changcheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the control effectiveness and make the prosthetic hand not only controllable but also perceivable, an EMG prosthetic hand control strategy was proposed in this paper. The control strategy consists of EMG self-learning motion recognition, backstepping controller with stiffness fuzzy observation, and force tactile representation. EMG self-learning motion recognition is used to reduce the influence on EMG signals caused by the uncertainty of the contacting position of the EMG sensors. Backstepping controller with stiffness fuzzy observation is used to realize the position control and grasp force control. Velocity proportional control in free space and grasp force tracking control in restricted space can be realized by the same controller. The force tactile representation helps the user perceive the states of the prosthetic hand. Several experiments were implemented to verify the effect of the proposed control strategy. The results indicate that the proposed strategy has effectiveness. During the experiments, the comments of the participants show that the proposed strategy is a better choice for amputees because of the improved controllability and perceptibility.

  18. Measuring leg movements during sleep using accelerometry: comparison with EMG and piezo-electric scored events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Leong, Matthew; Barton, Katrina; Freakley, Craig; Downey, Carl; Vanniekerk, Mark; Jorgensen, Greg; Douglas, James

    2013-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep (PLMS) can cause significant disturbance to sleep, resulting in daytime sleepiness and reduced quality of life. In conventional clinical practice, PLMS are measured using overnight electromyogram (EMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, although historically they have also been measured using piezo-electric gauges placed over the muscle. However, PLMS counts (PLM index) do not correlate well with clinical symptomology. In this study, we propose that because EMG and piezo derived signals measure muscle activation rather than actual movement, they may count events with no appreciable movement of the limb and therefore no contribution to sleep disturbance. The aim of this study is thus to determine the percentage of clinically scored limb movements which are not associated with movement of the great toe measured using accelerometry. 9 participants were studied simultaneously with an overnight diagnostic polysomnogram (including EMG and piezo instrumentation of the right leg) and high temporal resolution accelerometry of the right great toe. Limb movements were scored, and peak acceleration during each scored movement was quantified. Across the participant population, 54.9% (range: 26.7-76.3) and 39.0% (range: 4.8-69.6) of limb movements scored using piezo and EMG instrumentation respectively, were not associated with toe movement measured with accelerometry. If sleep disturbance is the consequence of the limb movements, these results may explain why conventional piezo or EMG derived PLMI is poorly correlated with clinical symptomology.

  19. Evaluation of methods for extraction of the volitional EMG in dynamic hybrid muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizrahi Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybrid muscle activation is a modality used for muscle force enhancement, in which muscle contraction is generated from two different excitation sources: volitional and external, by means of electrical stimulation (ES. Under hybrid activation, the overall EMG signal is the combination of the volitional and ES-induced components. In this study, we developed a computational scheme to extract the volitional EMG envelope from the overall dynamic EMG signal, to serve as an input signal for control purposes, and for evaluation of muscle forces. Methods A "synthetic" database was created from in-vivo experiments on the Tibialis Anterior of the right foot to emulate hybrid EMG signals, including the volitional and induced components. The database was used to evaluate the results obtained from six signal processing schemes, including seven different modules for filtration, rectification and ES component removal. The schemes differed from each other by their module combinations, as follows: blocking window only, comb filter only, blocking window and comb filter, blocking window and peak envelope, comb filter and peak envelope and, finally, blocking window, comb filter and peak envelope. Results and conclusion The results showed that the scheme including all the modules led to an excellent approximation of the volitional EMG envelope, as extracted from the hybrid signal, and underlined the importance of the artifact blocking window module in the process. The results of this work have direct implications on the development of hybrid muscle activation rehabilitation systems for the enhancement of weakened muscles.

  20. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Surface Temperature (IST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the...

  1. EOG and EMG: two important switches in automatic sleep stage classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, E; Nazeran, H; Barragan, J; Burk, J R; Lucas, E A; Behbehani, K

    2006-01-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic state of rest for the body, in which the eyes are usually closed and consciousness is completely or partially lost. In this investigation we used the EOG and EMG signals acquired from 10 patients undergoing overnight polysomnography with their sleep stages determined by expert sleep specialists based on RK rules. Differentiation between Stage 1, Awake and REM stages challenged a well trained neural network classifier to distinguish between classes when only EEG-derived signal features were used. To meet this challenge and improve the classification rate, extra features extracted from EOG and EMG signals were fed to the classifier. In this study, two simple feature extraction algorithms were applied to EOG and EMG signals. The statistics of the results were calculated and displayed in an easy to visualize fashion to observe tendencies for each sleep stage. Inclusion of these features show a great promise to improve the classification rate towards the target rate of 100%

  2. Evoked EMG-based torque prediction under muscle fatigue in implanted neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles

    2011-10-01

    In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future.

  3. Microcontroller-based wireless recorder for biomedical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, C-N; Hsu, H-W; Jang, J-K; Rau, C-L; Jaw, F-S

    2005-01-01

    A portable multichannel system is described for the recording of biomedical signals wirelessly. Instead of using the conversional time-division analog-modulation method, the technique of digital multiplexing was applied to increase the number of signal channels to 4. Detailed design considerations and functional allocation of the system is discussed. The frontend unit was modularly designed to condition the input signal in an optimal manner. Then, the microcontroller handled the tasks of data conversion, wireless transmission, as well as providing the ability of simple preprocessing such as waveform averaging or rectification. The low-power nature of this microcontroller affords the benefit of battery operation and hence, patient isolation of the system. Finally, a single-chip receiver, which compatible with the RF transmitter of the microcontroller, was used to implement a compact interface with the host computer. An application of this portable recorder for low-back pain studies is shown. This device can simultaneously record one ECG and two surface EMG wirelessly, thus, is helpful in relieving patients' anxiety devising clinical measurement. Such an approach, microcontroller-based wireless measurement, could be an important trend for biomedical instrumentation and we help that this paper could be useful for other colleagues.

  4. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records

  5. Engagement and EMG in serious gaming : Experimenting with sound and dynamics in the levee patroller training game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, E.L.; Houtkamp, J.; Toet, A.

    2008-01-01

    We measured the effects of sound and visual dynamic elements on user experience of a serious game, with special interest in engagement and arousal. Engagement was measured through questionnaires and arousal through the SAM and electromyography (EMG). We adopted the EMG of the corrugator (frown

  6. The utility of EMG interference pattern analysis in botulinum toxin treatment of torticollis: A randomised, controlled and blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werdelin, L; Dalager, T; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The significance of electromyography (EMG) guidance in botulinum toxin (BT) treatment has been much debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate if EMG guidance in the treatment of torticollis in BT-naive patients had a better outcome than treatment after clinical evaluation alone...

  7. A high-resolution record of Holocene millennial-scale oscillations of surface water, foraminiferal paleoecology and sediment redox chemistry in the SE Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Piotrowski, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene millennial-scale oscillations and Bond Events (Bond et al. 1997) are well reported in the North Atlantic as consequence of fresh water input and weaking of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It has been hypothesized that the effect of weaking of AMOC would lead to warming in the South Atlantic due to "heat piracy", causing surface waters to warm and a reorganization of surface circulation. There are few reconstructions of AMOC strength in the South Atlantic, and none with a high resolution Holocene record of changes of productivity and the biological pump. We reconstruct past changes in the surface water mass hydrography, productivity, and sediment redox changes in high-resolution in the core KCF10-01B, located 128 mbsl water depth off Cabo Frio, Brazil, a location where upwelling is strongly linked to surface ocean hydrography. We use Benthic Foraminiferal Accumulation Rate (BFAR) to reconstruct productivity, which reveals a 1.3kyr cyclicity during the mid- and late-Holocene. The geochemistry of trace and rare earth elements on foraminiferal Fe-Mn oxide coatings show changes in redox-sensitive elements indicating that during periods of high productivity there were more reducing conditions in sediment porewaters, producing a Ce anomaly and reduction and re-precipitation of Mn oxides. Bond events 1-7 were identified by a productivity increase along with reducing sediment conditions which was likely caused by Brazil Current displacement offshore allowing upwelling of the nutritive bottom water South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) to the euphotic zone and a stronger local biological pump. In a global context, correlation with other records show that this occurred during weakened AMOC and southward displacement of the ITCZ. We conclude that Bond climatic events and millennial-scale variability of AMOC caused sea surface hydrographic changes off the Brazilian Margin leading to biological and geochemical changes recorded in coastal records

  8. Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nikki J.

    The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power spectrum testing of bilateral leg press (BLP) movement was performed on the OMNI. Days 2 and 3 consisted of WBV testing with either average (5.8 mm) or high (9.8 mm) amplitude combined with either 0 (sham control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz frequency. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), bicep femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles for EMG analysis. MP and PP output and EMG activity of the lower extremity were assessed pre-, post-WBV treatments and after sham-controls on the OMNI while participants performed one set of five repetitions of BLP at the optimal resistance determined on Day 1. Results. No significant differences were found between pre- and sham-control on MP and PP output and on EMG activity in RF, VL, BF and GA. Completely randomized one-way ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated no significant interaction of WBV amplitude and frequency on MP and PP output and peak and mean EMGrms amplitude and EMG rms area under the curve. RF and VL EMGrms area under the curve significantly decreased (p plyometric exercise does not induce alterations in subsequent MP and PP output and EMGrms activity of the lower extremity. Future studies need to address the time of WBV exposure and magnitude of external loads that will maximize strength and/or power output.

  9. Effect of instruction, surface stability, and load intensity on trunk muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Eadric; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Thompson, Brennan; Fontana, Fabio E

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of verbal instruction, surface stability, and load intensity on trunk muscle activity levels during the free weight squat exercise. Twelve trained males performed a free weight squat under four conditions: (1) standing on stable ground lifting 50% of their 1-repetition maximum (RM), (2) standing on a BOSU balance trainer lifting 50% of their 1-RM, (3) standing on stable ground lifting 75% of their 1-RM, and (4) receiving verbal instructions to activate the trunk muscles followed by lifting 50% of their 1-RM. Surface EMG activity from muscles rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TA/IO), and erector spinae (ES) were recorded for each condition and normalized for comparisons. Muscles RA, EO, and TA/IO displayed greater peak activity (39-167%) during squats with instructions compared to the other squat conditions (P=0.04-0.007). Peak EMG activity of muscle ES was greater for the 75% 1-RM condition than squats with instructions or lifting 50% of 1-RM (P=0.04-0.02). The results indicate that if the goal is to enhance EMG activity of the abdominal muscles during a multi-joint squat exercise then verbal instructions may be more effective than increasing load intensity or lifting on an unstable surface. However, in light of other research, conscious co-activation of the trunk muscles during the squat exercise may lead to spinal instability and hazardous compression forces in the lumbar spine.

  10. Evolution of subpolar North Atlantic surface circulation since the early Holocene inferred from planktic foraminifera faunal and stable isotope records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staines-Urias, Francisca; Kuijpers, Antoon; Korte, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    of the Faroe Islands, are located in the transitional area where surface waters of subpolar and subtropical origin mix before entering the Arctic Mediterranean. In these areas, large-amplitude millennial variability in the characteristics of the upper-water column appears modulated by changes in the intensity...

  11. EMG activities and plantar pressures during ski jumping take-off on three different sized hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Perttunen, J; Komi, P V

    2001-04-01

    Different profiles of ski jumping hills have been assumed to make the initiation of take-off difficult especially when moving from one hill to another. Neuromuscular adaptation of ski jumpers to the different jumping hills was examined by measuring muscle activation and plantar pressure of the primary take-off muscles on three different sized hills. Two young ski jumpers volunteered as subjects and they performed several trials from each hill (K-35 m, K-65 m and K-90 m) with the same electromyographic (EMG) electrode and insole pressure transducer set-up. The results showed that the differences in plantar pressure and EMGs between the jumping hills were smaller than expected for both jumpers. The small changes in EMG amplitudes between the hills support the assumption that the take-off was performed with the same intensity on different jumping hills and the timing of the gluteus EMG demonstrates well the similarity of the muscle activation on different hills. On the basis of the results obtained it seems that ski jumping training on small hills does not disturb the movement patterns for bigger hills and can also be helpful for special take-off training with low speed.

  12. Automatic apparatus for measuring thermophysical quantities controlled by calculator EMG 666

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicar, L.; Illekova, E.

    1984-01-01

    Automatic system for measuring thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity of samples is described. Measurements are performed by the pulse method in the temperature range from -150 to 1500 deg C. The measuring CAMAC equipment connected with the EMG 666 computer. Data processing is carried out by 100-400 measurement points (measuring cycle) for the whole temperature range

  13. Vastus lateralis single motor unit EMG at the same absolute torque production at different knee angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, T.M.; de Haan, A.; Verdijk, P.W.; van Mechelen, W.; de Ruiter, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Single motor unit electromyographic (EMG) activity of the knee extensors was investigated at different knee angles with subjects (n = 10) exerting the same absolute submaximal isometric torque at each angle. Measurements were made over a 20° range around the optimum angle for torque production

  14. A Review of Classification Techniques of EMG Signals during Isotonic and Isometric Contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhazimah Nazmi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been major interest in the exposure to physical therapy during rehabilitation. Several publications have demonstrated its usefulness in clinical/medical and human machine interface (HMI applications. An automated system will guide the user to perform the training during rehabilitation independently. Advances in engineering have extended electromyography (EMG beyond the traditional diagnostic applications to also include applications in diverse areas such as movement analysis. This paper gives an overview of the numerous methods available to recognize motion patterns of EMG signals for both isotonic and isometric contractions. Various signal analysis methods are compared by illustrating their applicability in real-time settings. This paper will be of interest to researchers who would like to select the most appropriate methodology in classifying motion patterns, especially during different types of contractions. For feature extraction, the probability density function (PDF of EMG signals will be the main interest of this study. Following that, a brief explanation of the different methods for pre-processing, feature extraction and classifying EMG signals will be compared in terms of their performance. The crux of this paper is to review the most recent developments and research studies related to the issues mentioned above.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of muscle relaxation induced by Kundalini yoga with the help of EMG integrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, R; Kamat, A; Khanolkar, M; Kamat, S; Desai, S R; Dhume, R A

    1990-10-01

    The present work is aimed to quantify the degree of relaxation of muscle under the effects of Kundalini Yoga with the help of EMG integrator. The data collected from 8 individuals (4 males 4 females) on the degree of muscle relaxation at the end of meditation revealed a significantly decreased muscle activity amounting to 58% of the basal level in both the sexes.

  16. EMG-Based Estimation of Limb Movement Using Deep Learning With Recurrent Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Hu, Jie; Peng, Yinghong

    2017-10-25

    A novel model based on deep learning is proposed to estimate kinematic information for myoelectric control from multi-channel electromyogram (EMG) signals. The neural information of limb movement is embedded in EMG signals that are influenced by all kinds of factors. In order to overcome the negative effects of variability in signals, the proposed model employs the deep architecture combining convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). The EMG signals are transformed to time-frequency frames as the input to the model. The limb movement is estimated by the model that is trained with the gradient descent and backpropagation procedure. We tested the model for simultaneous and proportional estimation of limb movement in eight healthy subjects and compared it with support vector regression (SVR) and CNNs on the same data set. The experimental studies show that the proposed model has higher estimation accuracy and better robustness with respect to time. The combination of CNNs and RNNs can improve the model performance compared with using CNNs alone. The model of deep architecture is promising in EMG decoding and optimization of network structures can increase the accuracy and robustness. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography--Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yoon, Wai Lam; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of two dysphagia interventions, the Chin Tuck against Resistance (CTAR) and Shaker exercises, were evaluated based on two principles in exercise science-muscle-specificity and training intensity. Both exercises were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer. Thirty-nine healthy adults performed two trials of both exercises in counter-balanced order. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings were simultaneously collected from suprahyoid muscle group and sternocleidomastoid muscle during the exercises. Converging results using sEMG amplitude analyses suggested that the CTAR was more specific in targeting the suprahyoid muscles than the Shaker exercise. Fatigue analyses on sEMG signals further indicated that the suprahyoid muscle group were equally or significantly fatigued (depending on metric), when participants carried out CTAR compared to the Shaker exercise. Importantly, unlike during Shaker exercise, the sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly less activated and fatigued during CTAR. Lowering the chin against resistance is therefore sufficiently specific and intense to fatigue the suprahyoid muscles.

  18. Comparison between remotely-sensed sea-surface temperature (AVHRR and in situ records in San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N Williams

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ records of sea surface temperature collected between 2005 and 2009 were used to compare, for the first time, the temperature estimated by the Multichannel algorithms (MCSST of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sensors in San Matías Gulf, in the north of the Argentinean Patagonian Continental Shelf (between 40°47'-42°13'S. Match-ups between in situ records and satellite sea surface temperature (SST were analyzed. In situ records came from fixed stations and oceanographic cruises, while satellite data came from different NOAA satellites. The fitting of temperature data to a Standard Major Axis (SMA type II regression model indicated that a high proportion of the total variance (0.53< r² <0.99 was explained by this model showing a high correlation between in situ data and satellite estimations. The mean differences between satellite and in situ data for the full data set were 1.64 ± 1.49°C. Looking separately into in situ data from different sources and day and night estimates from different NOAA satellites, the differences were between 0.30 ± 0.60°C and 2.60 ± 1.50°C. In this paper we discuss possible reasons for the above-mentioned performance of the MCSST algorithms in the study area.

  19. Planation surfaces as a record of medium to large wavelength deformation: the example of the Lake Albert Rift (Uganda) on the East African Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Jean, Braun; Olivier, Dauteuil; Massimo, Dall'Asta

    2016-04-01

    African relief is characterized by planation surfaces, some of them of continental scale. These surfaces are slightly deformed according to different wavelengths (x10 km; x100 km, x1000 km) which record both mantle dynamics (very long wavelength, x 1000 km) and lithosphere deformation (long wavelength deformation, x 100 km). Different types of these planation surfaces are recognized: - Etchplains capped by iron-duricrust which correspond to erosional nearly flat weathered surfaces resulting from the growth of laterites under warm and humid conditions. - Pediments which define mechanical erosional surfaces with concave or rectilinear profiles delimited by upslope scarps connected upstream with the upper landforms. We here focused on the Lake Albert Rift at the northern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System of which the two branches are surimposed on the East-African Dome. Different wavelengths of deformation were characterized based on the 3D mapping of stepped planation surfaces: (1) very long wavelength deformations resulting from the uplift of the East African Dome; (2) long wavelength deformations resulting from the opening of the eastern branch and (3) medium wavelength deformations represented by the uplift of rift shoulders like the Rwenzori Mountains. The paleo-landscape reconstruction of Uganda shows the existence of four generations of landforms dated according to their geometrical relationships with volcanic rocks. A four stepped evolution of the Ugandan landforms is proposed: • 70 - 22 Ma: generation of two weathered planation surfaces (etchplain Uw and Iw). The upper one (Uw) records a very humid period culminating at time of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (70-45 Ma). It corresponds to the African Surface. A first uplift of the East African Dome generates a second lower planation surface (Iw) connected to the Atlantic Ocean base level; • 17-2.7 Ma: planation of large pediplains connected to the local base level induced

  20. Contributions to muscle force and EMG by combined neural excitation and electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Patrick E.; Makowski, Nathaniel S.; Cole, Natalie M.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Stimulation of muscle for research or clinical interventions is often superimposed on ongoing physiological activity without a quantitative understanding of the impact of the stimulation on the net muscle activity and the physiological response. Experimental studies show that total force during stimulation is less than the sum of the isolated voluntary and stimulated forces, but the occlusion mechanism is not understood. Approach. We develop a model of efferent motor activity elicited by superimposing stimulation during a physiologically activated contraction. The model combines action potential interactions due to collision block, source resetting, and refractory periods with previously published models of physiological motor unit recruitment, rate modulation, force production, and EMG generation in human first dorsal interosseous muscle to investigate the mechanisms and effectiveness of stimulation on the net muscle force and EMG. Main results. Stimulation during a physiological contraction demonstrates partial occlusion of force and the neural component of the EMG, due to action potential interactions in motor units activated by both sources. Depending on neural and stimulation firing rates as well as on force-frequency properties, individual motor unit forces can be greater, smaller, or unchanged by the stimulation. In contrast, voluntary motor unit EMG potentials in simultaneously stimulated motor units show progressive occlusion with increasing stimulus rate. The simulations predict that occlusion would be decreased by a reverse stimulation recruitment order. Significance. The results are consistent with and provide a mechanistic interpretation of previously published experimental evidence of force occlusion. The models also predict two effects that have not been reported previously—voluntary EMG occlusion and the advantages of a proximal stimulation site. This study provides a basis for the rational design of both future experiments and clinical

  1. Seasonal changes in peatland surface elevation recorded at GPS stations in the Red Lake Peatlands, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, A.S.; Glaser, P.H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2013-01-01

    Northern peatlands appear to hold large volumes of free-phase gas (e.g., CH4 and CO2), which has been detected by surface deformations, pore pressure profiles, and electromagnetic surveys. Determining the gas content and its impact in peat is challenging because gas storage depends on both the elastic properties of the peat matrix and the buoyant forces exerted by pore fluids. We therefore used a viscoelastic deformation model to estimate these variables by adjusting model runs to reproduce observed changes in peat surface elevation within a 1300 km2 peatland. A local GPS network documented significant changes in surface elevations throughout the year with the greatest vertical displacements associated with rapid changes in peat water content and unloadings due to melting of the winter snowpack. These changes were coherent with changes in water table elevation and also abnormal pore pressure changes measured by nests of instrumented piezometers. The deformation model reproduced these changes when the gas content was adjusted to 10% of peat volume, and Young's modulus was varied between 5 and 100 kPa as the peat profile shifted from tension to compression. In contrast, the model predicted little peat deformation when the gas content was 3% or lower. These model simulations are consistent with previous estimates of gas volume in northern peatlands and suggest an upper limit of gas storage controlled by the elastic moduli of the peat fabric.

  2. Age and evolution of diachronous erosion surfaces in the Amazon: Combining (U-Th)/He and cosmogenic 3He records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, H. S.; Vasconcelos, P. M. P.; Farley, K. A.; Lopes, C. A. M.

    2018-05-01

    (U-Th)/He geochronology of two weathered plateaus in the Carajás Mountains, Pará, Brazil, reveals a history of weathering spanning from ca. 80 Ma to the present for this high elevation (∼720 m) land surface. Cosmogenic 3He measurements of hematite pebbles and blocks cemented onto the plateaus at two sites, N1 and S11D, yield erosion rates as low as 0.09 and 0.08 m Ma-1, respectively. Thus, these results confirm that the plateau surfaces are nearly immune to physical erosion for tens of millions of years. (U-Th)/He geochronology of ferruginous duricrusts blanketing the low elevation (250-100 m) plains surrounding the Carajás Mountains yield results consistently younger than ∼10 Ma. The geochronology results also reveal that the low elevation plain is diachronous, becoming progressively younger towards the receding plateaus. The spatial distribution of (U-Th)/He ages permits reconstruction of the history of scarp retreat for the Carajás landscape, showing that scarp retreat along major river valleys may have been as fast as 20 km Ma-1 during tectonically active and humid periods in the Cenozoic. The cessation of scarp retreat at some sites suggests that metamorphosed banded iron-formations and quartzites provide effective barriers to retreating escarpments, helping to preserve some of the oldest continuously exposed land surfaces on Earth.

  3. Seismic wave attenuation from borehole and surface records in the top 2.5 km beneath the city of Basel, Switzerland

    KAUST Repository

    Bethmann, Falko

    2012-08-01

    We investigate attenuation (Q−1) of sediments of 2.5–3.5km thickness underneath the city of Basel, Switzerland. We use recordings of 195 induced events that were obtained during and after the stimulation of a reservoir for a Deep Heat Mining Project in 2006 and 2007. The data set is ideally suited to estimate Q as all events are confined to a small source volume and were recorded by a dense surface network as well as six borehole sensors at various depths. The deepest borehole sensor is positioned at a depth of 2.7km inside the crystalline basement at a mean hypocentral distance of 1.8km. This allows us to measure Q for frequencies between 10 and 130 Hz. We apply two different methods to estimate Q. First, we use a standard spectral ratio technique to obtain Q, and as a second measure we estimate Q in the time domain, by convolving signals recorded by the deepest sensor with a Q operator and then comparing the convolved signals to recordings at the shallower stations. Both methods deliver comparable values for Q. We also observe similar attenuation for P- and S- waves (QP∼QS). As expected, Q increases with depth, but with values around 30–50, it is low even for the consolidated Permian and Mesozoic sediments between 500 and 2700 m.

  4. EMG Versus Torque Control of Human-Machine Systems: Equalizing Control Signal Variability Does not Equalize Error or Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reva E; Kording, Konrad P; Hargrove, Levi J; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we asked the question: if we artificially raise the variability of torque control signals to match that of EMG, do subjects make similar errors and have similar uncertainty about their movements? We answered this question using two experiments in which subjects used three different control signals: torque, torque+noise, and EMG. First, we measured error on a simple target-hitting task in which subjects received visual feedback only at the end of their movements. We found that even when the signal-to-noise ratio was equal across EMG and torque+noise control signals, EMG resulted in larger errors. Second, we quantified uncertainty by measuring the just-noticeable difference of a visual perturbation. We found that for equal errors, EMG resulted in higher movement uncertainty than both torque and torque+noise. The differences suggest that performance and confidence are influenced by more than just the noisiness of the control signal, and suggest that other factors, such as the user's ability to incorporate feedback and develop accurate internal models, also have significant impacts on the performance and confidence of a person's actions. We theorize that users have difficulty distinguishing between random and systematic errors for EMG control, and future work should examine in more detail the types of errors made with EMG control.

  5. The effect of isolating the paretic limb on weight-bearing distribution and EMG activity during squats in hemiplegic and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; An, Duk-Hyun; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Hwang, Byong-Yong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-05-01

    Neural reorganization for movement therapy after a stroke is thought to be an important mechanism that facilitates motor recovery. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of exercise programs in improving the lower limbs. We investigated the immediate effect of isolating the paretic limb using different foot positions ((i) foot parallel; both feet parallel, (ii) foot asymmetry; paretic foot backward by 10 cm, and (iii) foot lifting; nonparetic foot lifting by normalization to 25% of knee height) on weight-bearing distribution and electromyography (EMG) of the thigh muscle during squats. In total, 20 patients with hemiplegia and 16 healthy subjects randomly performed three squat conditions in which the knee joint was flexed to 30°. Weight distribution was measured using the BioRescue system. Muscle activity was measured using a surface EMG system. Patients with hemiplegia exhibited significantly decreased weight bearing on the paretic foot at 0° and 30° knee flexion compared with the nondominant foot of a healthy subject. The muscle activity of the quadriceps was significantly lower in patients with hemiplegia compared to healthy subjects. Weight bearing and EMG activity of the quadriceps femoris on the paretic or nondominant side significantly increased during a knee flexion of 30° with under the foot asymmetry and foot lifting positions compared with the parallel foot position. Isolating the paretic limb using the asymmetric foot positions and lifting of the foot during squats might help patients with hemiplegia to improve weight-bearing and achieve greater activation of the quadriceps muscle in the paretic limb.

  6. Seasonal variability in the surface sediments of Mobile Bay, Alabama, recorded by geochemistry and foraminifera, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D.K.; Osterman, L.E.; Smith, C.G.; Frazier, J.; Richwine, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to document and quantify recent environmental change in Mobile Bay, Alabama. The study was part of the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project, a regional project funded by the Coastal and Marine Geology Program to understand how natural forcings and anthropogenic modifications influence coastal ecosystems and their susceptibility to coastal hazards. Mobile Bay is a large drowned-river estuary that has been modified significantly by humans to accommodate the Port of Mobile. Examples include repeated dredging of a large shipping channel down the central axis of the bay and construction of a causeway across the head of the bay and at the foot of the bayhead delta. In addition to modifications, the bay is also known to have episodic periods of low oxygen (hypoxia) that result in significant mortality to fish and benthic organisms (May, 1973). For this study a series of surface sediment samples were collected. Surface benthic foraminiferal and bulk geochemical data provide the modern baseline conditions of the bay and can be used as a reference to changing environmental parameters in the past (Osterman and Smith, in press) and into the future. This report archives data collected as part of the Mobile Bay Study that may be used in future environmental change studies.

  7. Neural mechanisms of intermuscular coherence: Implications for the rectification of surface electromyography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, T.W.; Breakspear, M.

    2012-01-01

    Oscillatory activity plays a crucial role in corticospinal control of muscle synergies and is widely investigated using corticospinal and intermuscular synchronization. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms that translate these rhythmic patterns into surface electromyography (EMG) are not well

  8. EEG–EMG polygraphic study of dystonia and myoclonus in a case of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Hashimoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD who showed dystonia, periodic myoclonus, and periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWCs on EEG. The EEG–EMG polygraphic study revealed that dystonia appeared without relation to periodic myoclonus and PSWCs and that dystonia EMGs were strongly suppressed after periodic myoclonus EMGs. These findings suggest that dystonia has a pathogenesis different from that of periodic myoclonus and PSWCs, but dystonia and periodic myoclonus may be generated through the sensorimotor cortex in CJD.

  9. The influence of electromyographic recording methods and the innervation zone on the mean power frequency-torque relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Trent J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Ryan, Eric D; Camic, Clayton L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Smith, Doug B; Weir, Joseph P; Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of electromyographic (EMG) recording methods and innervation zone (IZ) on the mean power frequency (MPF)-torque relationships. Nine subjects performed isometric ramp muscle actions of the leg extensors from 5% to 100% of maximal voluntary contraction with an eight channel linear electrode array over the IZ of the vastus lateralis. The slopes were calculated from the log-transformed monopolar and bipolar EMG MPF-torque relationships for each channel and subject and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were constructed around the slopes for each relationship and the composite of the slopes. Twenty-two to 55% of the subjects exhibited 95% CIs that did not include a slope of zero for the monopolar EMG MPF-torque relationships while 25-75% of the subjects exhibited 95% CIs that did not include a slope of zero for the bipolar EMG MPF-torque relationships. The composite of the slopes from the EMG MPF-torque relationships were not significantly different from zero for any method or channel, however, the method and IZ location slightly influenced the number of significant slopes on a subject-by-subject basis. The log-transform model indicated that EMG MPF-torque patterns were nonlinear regardless of recording method or distance from the IZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.

    2017-10-19

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  11. Emotional facial expressions evoke faster orienting responses, but weaker emotional responses at neural and behavioural levels compared to scenes: A simultaneous EEG and facial EMG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavratzakis, Aimee; Herbert, Cornelia; Walla, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with facial electromyography (fEMG) to determine whether emotional faces and emotional scenes are processed differently at the neural level. In addition, it was investigated whether these differences can be observed at the behavioural level via spontaneous facial muscle activity. Emotional content of the stimuli did not affect early P1 activity. Emotional faces elicited enhanced amplitudes of the face-sensitive N170 component, while its counterpart, the scene-related N100, was not sensitive to emotional content of scenes. At 220-280ms, the early posterior negativity (EPN) was enhanced only slightly for fearful as compared to neutral or happy faces. However, its amplitudes were significantly enhanced during processing of scenes with positive content, particularly over the right hemisphere. Scenes of positive content also elicited enhanced spontaneous zygomatic activity from 500-750ms onwards, while happy faces elicited no such changes. Contrastingly, both fearful faces and negative scenes elicited enhanced spontaneous corrugator activity at 500-750ms after stimulus onset. However, relative to baseline EMG changes occurred earlier for faces (250ms) than for scenes (500ms) whereas for scenes activity changes were more pronounced over the whole viewing period. Taking into account all effects, the data suggests that emotional facial expressions evoke faster attentional orienting, but weaker affective neural activity and emotional behavioural responses compared to emotional scenes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Empathy, Einfühlung, and aesthetic experience: the effect of emotion contagion on appreciation of representational and abstract art using fEMG and SCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernot, Gerger; Pelowski, Matthew; Leder, Helmut

    2017-03-17

    Since the advent of the concept of empathy in the scientific literature, it has been hypothesized, although not necessarily empirically verified, that empathic processes are essential to aesthetic experiences of visual art. We tested how the ability to "feel into" ("Einfühlung") emotional content-a central aspect of art empathy theories-affects the bodily responses to and the subjective judgments of representational and abstract paintings. The ability to feel into was measured by a standardized pre-survey on "emotional contagion"-the ability to pick up and mirror, or in short to "feel into", emotions, which often overlaps with higher general or interpersonal empathetic abilities. Participants evaluated the artworks on several aesthetic dimensions (liking, valence, moving, and interest), while their bodily reactions indicative of empathetic engagement (facial electromyography-EMG, and skin conductance responses-SCR) were recorded. High compared to low emotion contagion participants showed both more congruent and more intense bodily reactions (EMG and SCR) and aesthetic evaluations (higher being moved, valence, and interest) and also liked the art more. This was largely the case for both representational and abstract art, although stronger with the representational category. Our findings provide tentative evidence for recent arguments by art theorists for a close "empathic" mirroring of emotional content. We discuss this interpretation, as well as a potential tie between emotion contagion and a general increase in emotion intensity, both of which may impact, in tandem, the experience and evaluation of art.

  13. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  exoskeleton, successfully carried a ball to a goal in all 10 trials. A BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of daily actions.

  14. A hybrid BMI-based exoskeleton for paresis: EMG control for assisting arm movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Toshihiro; Sakurada, Takeshi; Koike, Yasuharu; Kansaku, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Brain-machine interface (BMI) technologies have succeeded in controlling robotic exoskeletons, enabling some paralyzed people to control their own arms and hands. We have developed an exoskeleton asynchronously controlled by EEG signals. In this study, to enable real-time control of the exoskeleton for paresis, we developed a hybrid system with EEG and EMG signals, and the EMG signals were used to estimate its joint angles. Approach. Eleven able-bodied subjects and two patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs) performed hand and arm movements, and the angles of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the index finger, wrist, and elbow were estimated from EMG signals using a formula that we derived to calculate joint angles from EMG signals, based on a musculoskeletal model. The formula was exploited to control the elbow of the exoskeleton after automatic adjustments. Four able-bodied subjects and a patient with upper cervical SCI wore an exoskeleton controlled using EMG signals and were required to perform hand and arm movements to carry and release a ball. Main results. Estimated angles of the MP joints of index fingers, wrists, and elbows were correlated well with the measured angles in 11 able-bodied subjects (correlation coefficients were 0.81  ±  0.09, 0.85  ±  0.09, and 0.76  ±  0.13, respectively) and the patients (e.g. 0.91  ±  0.01 in the elbow of a patient). Four able-bodied subjects successfully positioned their arms to adequate angles by extending their elbows and a joint of the exoskeleton, with root-mean-square errors  exoskeleton, successfully carried a ball to a goal in all 10 trials. Significance. A BMI-based exoskeleton for paralyzed arms and hands using real-time control was realized by designing a new method to estimate joint angles based on EMG signals, and these may be useful for practical rehabilitation and the support of daily actions.

  15. The slow component of O(2) uptake is not accompanied by changes in muscle EMG during repeated bouts of heavy exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, B W; Hoelting, B D; Noble, M L; Barstow, T J

    2001-02-15

    1. We hypothesized that either the recruitment of additional muscle motor units and/or the progressive recruitment of less efficient fast-twitch muscle fibres was the predominant contributor to the additional oxygen uptake (VO2) observed during heavy exercise. Using surface electromyographic (EMG) techniques, we compared the VO2 response with the integrated EMG (iEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) response of the vastus lateralis with the VO2 response during repeated bouts of moderate (below the lactate threshold, LT) intensity cycle ergometer exercise. 2. Seven male subjects (age 29 +/- 7 years, mean +/- S.D.) performed three transitions to a work rate (WR) corresponding to 90 % LT and two transitions to a work rate that would elicit a VO2 corresponding to 50 % of the difference between peak VO2 and the LT (i.e. Delta50 %, > LT1 and > LT2). 3. The VO2 slow component was significantly reduced by prior heavy intensity exercise (> LT1, 410 +/- 196 ml min(-1); > LT2, 230 +/- 191 ml min-1). The time constant (tau), amplitude (A) and gain (DeltaVO2/DeltaWR) of the primary VO2 response (phase II) were not affected by prior heavy exercise when a three-component, exponential model was used to describe the V2 response. 4. Integrated EMG and MPF remained relatively constant and at the same level throughout both > LT1 and > LT2 exercise and therefore were not associated with the VO2 slow component. 5. These data are consistent with the view that the increased O2 cost (i.e. VO2 slow component) associated with performing heavy exercise is coupled with a progressive increase in ATP requirements of the already recruited motor units rather than to changes in the recruitment pattern of slow versus fast-twitch motor units. Further, the lack of speeding of the kinetics of the primary VO2 component with prior heavy exercise, thought to represent the initial muscle VO2 response, are inconsistent with O2 delivery being the limiting factor in V > O2 kinetics during heavy exercise.

  16. Vastus lateralis surface and single motor unit EMG following submaximal shortening and lengthening contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, T.M.; de Ruiter, C.J.; Verdijk, P.W.L.; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2008-01-01

    A single shortening contraction reduces the force capacity of muscle fibers, whereas force capacity is enhanced following lengthening. However, how motor unit recruitment and discharge rate (muscle activation) are adapted to such changes in force capacity during submaximal contractions remains

  17. Interpreting Changes in Surface EMG Amplitude During High-Level Fatiguing Contractions of the Brachioradialis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowery, M

    2001-01-01

    .... It is proposed that using these relationships, under conditions where motor unit recruitment and synchronization can be assumed to be negligible, such as at high force levels or in smaller muscles...

  18. Surface EMG signals in very late-stage of Duchenne muscular dystrophy : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobo Prat, J.; Janssen, Mariska M.H.P.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.; Stienen, Arno H.A.; De Groot, Imelda J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Robotic arm supports aim at improving the quality of life for adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by augmenting their residual functional abilities. A critical component of robotic arm supports is the control interface, as is it responsible for the human-machine interaction.

  19. Maximal bite force and surface EMG in patients with myasthenia gravis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijnen, FG; Wokke, JHJ; Kuks, JBM; van der Glas, HW; Bosman, F

    2000-01-01

    Masticatory muscle strength was quantified in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis and compared with that of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients in clinical remission (whether or not pharmacological) who previously suffered from bulbar myasthenia gravis, and healthy subjects. Maximal

  20. Impact of Functional Appliances on Muscle Activity: A Surface Electromyography Study in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Krzysztof; Piątkowska, Dagmara; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Background Electromyography (EMG) is the most objective tool for assessing changes in the electrical activity of the masticatory muscles. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the tone of the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in growing children before and after 6 months of treatment with functional removable orthodontic appliances. Material/Methods The sample conisted of 51 patients with a mean age 10.7 years with Class II malocclusion. EMG recordings were performed by using a DAB-Bluetooth instrument (Zebris Medical GmbH, Germany). Recordings were performed in mandibular rest position, during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and during maximum effort. Results The results of the study indicated that the electrical activity of the muscles in each of the clinical situations was the same in the group of girls and boys. The factor that determined the activity of the muscles was their type. In mandibular rest position and in MVC, the activity of the temporalis muscles was significantly higher that that of the masseter muscels. The maximum effort test indicated a higher fatigue in masseter than in temporalis muscles. Conclusions Surface electromyography is a useful tool for monitoring muscle activity. A 6-month period of functional therapy resulted in changes in the activity of the masticatory muscles. PMID:25600247

  1. Broadband Prosthetic Interfaces: Combining Nerve Transfers and Implantable Multichannel EMG Technology to Decode Spinal Motor Neuron Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin D. Bergmeister

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern robotic hands/upper limbs may replace multiple degrees of freedom of extremity function. However, their intuitive use requires a high number of control signals, which current man-machine interfaces do not provide. Here, we discuss a broadband control interface that combines targeted muscle reinnervation, implantable multichannel electromyographic sensors, and advanced decoding to address the increasing capabilities of modern robotic limbs. With targeted muscle reinnervation, nerves that have lost their targets due to an amputation are surgically transferred to residual stump muscles to increase the number of intuitive prosthetic control signals. This surgery re-establishes a nerve-muscle connection that is used for sensing nerve activity with myoelectric interfaces. Moreover, the nerve transfer determines neurophysiological effects, such as muscular hyper-reinnervation and cortical reafferentation that can be exploited by the myoelectric interface. Modern implantable multichannel EMG sensors provide signals from which it is possible to disentangle the behavior of single motor neurons. Recent studies have shown that the neural drive to muscles can be decoded from these signals and thereby the user's intention can be reliably estimated. By combining these concepts in chronic implants and embedded electronics, we believe that it is in principle possible to establish a broadband man-machine interface, with specific applications in prosthesis control. This perspective illustrates this concept, based on combining advanced surgical techniques with recording hardware and processing algorithms. Here we describe the scientific evidence for this concept, current state of investigations, challenges, and alternative approaches to improve current prosthetic interfaces.

  2. Locomotor training with body weight support in SCI : EMG improvement is more optimally expressed at a low testing speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyns, P.; Van de Crommert, H. W. A. A.; Rijken, H.; van Kuppevelt, D. H. J. M.; Duysens, J.

    2014-01-01

    Study design: Case series. Objectives: To determine the optimal testing speed at which the recovery of the EMG (electromyographic) activity should be assessed during and after body weight supported (BWS) locomotor training. Setting: Tertiary hospital, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

  3. Adaptive Admittance Control for an Ankle Exoskeleton Using an EMG-Driven Musculoskeletal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Yao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Various rehabilitation robots have been employed to recover the motor function of stroke patients. To improve the effect of rehabilitation, robots should promote patient participation and provide compliant assistance. This paper proposes an adaptive admittance control scheme (AACS consisting of an admittance filter, inner position controller, and electromyography (EMG-driven musculoskeletal model (EDMM. The admittance filter generates the subject's intended motion according to the joint torque estimated by the EDMM. The inner position controller tracks the intended motion, and its parameters are adjusted according to the estimated joint stiffness. Eight healthy subjects were instructed to wear the ankle exoskeleton robot, and they completed a series of sinusoidal tracking tasks involving ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. The robot was controlled by the AACS and a non-adaptive admittance control scheme (NAACS at four fixed parameter levels. The tracking performance was evaluated using the jerk value, position error, interaction torque, and EMG levels of the tibialis anterior (TA and gastrocnemius (GAS. For the NAACS, the jerk value and position error increased with the parameter levels, and the interaction torque and EMG levels of the TA tended to decrease. In contrast, the AACS could maintain a moderate jerk value, position error, interaction torque, and TA EMG level. These results demonstrate that the AACS achieves a good tradeoff between accurate tracking and compliant assistance because it can produce a real-time response to stiffness changes in the ankle joint. The AACS can alleviate the conflict between accurate tracking and compliant assistance and has potential for application in robot-assisted rehabilitation.

  4. Kinematic and EMG data during underwater dolphin kick change while synchronizing with or without synchronization of kick frequency with the beat of a metronome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Keisuke Kobayashi; Shimojo, Hirofumi; Takagi, Hideki; Tsubakimoto, Shozo; Sengoku, Yasuo

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the effects of synchronizing kick frequency with the beat of a metronome on kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) parameters during the underwater dolphin kick as a pilot study related to the research that entitled " Effect of increased kick frequency on propelling efficiency and muscular co-activation during underwater dolphin kick" (Yamakawa et al., 2017) [1]. Seven collegiate female swimmers participated in this experiment. The participants conducted two underwater dolphin kick trials: swimming freely at maximum effort, and swimming while synchronizing the kick frequency of maximum effort with the beat of a metronome. The kinematic parameters during the underwater dolphin kick were calculated by 2-D motion analysis, and surface electromyographic measurements were taken from six muscles (rectus abdominis, erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius). The results revealed no significant differences in the kinematic and EMG parameters between trials of the two swimming techniques. Therefore, the action of synchronizing the kick frequency with the beat of a metronome did not affect movement or muscle activity during the underwater dolphin kick in this experiment.

  5. Kinematic and EMG data during underwater dolphin kick change while synchronizing with or without synchronization of kick frequency with the beat of a metronome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Kobayashi Yamakawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of synchronizing kick frequency with the beat of a metronome on kinematic and electromyographic (EMG parameters during the underwater dolphin kick as a pilot study related to the research that entitled “Effect of increased kick frequency on propelling efficiency and muscular co-activation during underwater dolphin kick” (Yamakawa et al., 2017 [1]. Seven collegiate female swimmers participated in this experiment. The participants conducted two underwater dolphin kick trials: swimming freely at maximum effort, and swimming while synchronizing the kick frequency of maximum effort with the beat of a metronome. The kinematic parameters during the underwater dolphin kick were calculated by 2-D motion analysis, and surface electromyographic measurements were taken from six muscles (rectus abdominis, erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius. The results revealed no significant differences in the kinematic and EMG parameters between trials of the two swimming techniques. Therefore, the action of synchronizing the kick frequency with the beat of a metronome did not affect movement or muscle activity during the underwater dolphin kick in this experiment.

  6. Neuromuscular interfacing: establishing an EMG-driven model for the human elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, James W L; Xie, Shane S Q; Pullan, Andrew J

    2012-09-01

    Assistive devices aim to mitigate the effects of physical disability by aiding users to move their limbs or by rehabilitating through therapy. These devices are commonly embodied by robotic or exoskeletal systems that are still in development and use the electromyographic (EMG) signal to determine user intent. Not much focus has been placed on developing a neuromuscular interface (NI) that solely relies on the EMG signal, and does not require modifications to the end user's state to enhance the signal (such as adding weights). This paper presents the development of a flexible, physiological model for the elbow joint that is leading toward the implementation of an NI, which predicts joint motion from EMG signals for both able-bodied and less-abled users. The approach uses musculotendon models to determine muscle contraction forces, a proposed musculoskeletal model to determine total joint torque, and a kinematic model to determine joint rotational kinematics. After a sensitivity analysis and tuning using genetic algorithms, subject trials yielded an average root-mean-square error of 6.53° and 22.4° for a single cycle and random cycles of movement of the elbow joint, respectively. This helps us to validate the elbow model and paves the way toward the development of an NI.

  7. Development of Hand Grip Assistive Device Control System for Old People through Electromyography (EMG Signal Acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Herman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hand grip assistive device is a glove to assist old people who suffer from hand weakness in their daily life activities. The device earlier control system only use simple on and off switch. This required old people to use both hand to activate the device. The new control system of the hand grip assistive device was developed to allow single hand operation for old people. New control system take advantages of electromyography (EMG and flex sensor which was implemented to the device. It was programmed into active and semi-active mode operation. EMG sensors were placed on the forearm to capture EMG signal of Flexor Digitorum Profundus muscle to activate the device. Flex sensor was used to indicate the finger position and placed on top of the finger. The signal from both sensors then used to control the device. The new control system allowed single hand operation and designed to prevent user from over depended on the device by activating it through moving their fingers.

  8. Relationship among the myelography, MRI and EMG in young patients with low back pain or radiating pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ji Youn; Kim, Dong Hun; Park, Young Jae

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the relationship among the myelography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electromyography (EMG) findings in young patients with low back pain, and we wanted to assess the significance of the spinal geometric measurements as well as type of disc herniation seen on MRI. Forty-four young men with lower back pain were included, and they were all clinically suspected of suffering with lumbar disc herniation. All of them underwent myelography, MRI and EMG. We measured spinal geometry including the anteroposterior diameters of the central canal and thecal sac, the interlaminar distance, the width of the lateral recess and the thickness of the ligamentum flavum, and we evaluated for root deviation as well as disc herniation on the MRIs. We compared the types of disc herniation on MRI with the myelography and EMG findings. Also, we investigated the correlation of the spinal geometric measurements on MRI with the EMG and myelography findings. The types of disc herniation on MRI were not significantly related to the myelography (ρ = 0.298) and EMG findings (ρ = 0.372). The EMG findings were not related to either the myelography findings (ρ = 0.435) or the spinal geometric measurements (ρ > 0.05) on MRI. Nerve root compression that was noted on myelography was related to the thecal sac AP diameter (ρ = 0.016) and the width of the lateral recess (ρ = 0.011). There were no correlations between myelography and the findings of root deviation on MRI (ρ = 0.052). MRI can play an excellent diagnostic role for young patients with radiculopathy or lower back pain. It could increase the diagnostic accuracy if it is used in conjunction with myelography and EMG. The narrowing of thecal sac AP diameter and the width of lateral recess rather than the type of disc herniation on MRI were well correlated with the myelography and EMG findings

  9. Power optimization in body sensor networks: the case of an autonomous wireless EMG sensor powered by PV-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, J; Pop, V; Caballero, L; van de Molengraft, J; van Schaijk, R; Vullers, R; Van Hoof, C

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in ultra-low-power circuits and energy harvesters are making self-powered body sensor nodes a reality. Power optimization at the system and application level is crucial in achieving ultra-low-power consumption for the entire system. This paper reviews system-level power optimization techniques, and illustrates their impact on the case of autonomous wireless EMG monitoring. The resulting prototype, an Autonomous wireless EMG sensor power by PV-cells, is presented.

  10. Does a SLAP lesion affect shoulder muscle recruitment as measured by EMG activity during a rugby tackle?

    OpenAIRE

    Herrington Lee C; Horsley Ian G; Rolf Christer

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The study objective was to assess the influence of a SLAP lesion on onset of EMG activity in shoulder muscles during a front on rugby football tackle within professional rugby players. Methods Mixed cross-sectional study evaluating between and within group differences in EMG onset times. Testing was carried out within the physiotherapy department of a university sports medicine clinic. The test group consisted of 7 players with clinically diagnosed SLAP lesions, later veri...

  11. Emociones en padres y madres con hijos diagnosticados de EMG que han cometido un acto delictivo violento

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Fenoll, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: El diagnóstico de enfermedad mental grave (EMG) conlleva en los familiares la aparición de diversas emociones, especialmente negativas, que se relacionan directamente con un deterioro de su calidad de vida. Cuando la EMG se relaciona con un acto delictivo violento aumenta tanto la estigmatización de las personas que la padecen, como los cuidados requeridos por sus familiares, por lo que, en estos últimos, las emociones reportadas pueden ser diferentes y particulares. Objetivos: ...

  12. Influence of different attentional focus on EMG amplitude and contraction duration during the bench press at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using different focus affects electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and contraction duration during bench press performed at explosive and controlled speeds. Eighteen young male individuals were familiarized with the procedure and performed the one-maximum repetition (1RM) test in the first session. In the second session, participants performed the bench press exercise at 50% of the 1RM with 3 different attentional focuses (regular focus on moving the load vs contracting the pectoralis vs contracting the triceps) at 2 speed conditions (controlled vs maximal speed). During the controlled speed condition, focusing on using either the pectoralis or the triceps muscles increased pectoralis normalized EMG (nEMG) by 6% (95% CI 3-8%; p = 0.0001) and 4% nEMG (95% CI 1-7%; p = 0.0096), respectively, compared with the regular focus condition. Triceps activity was increased by 4% nEMG (95% CI 0-7%; p = 0.0308) at the controlled speed condition during the triceps focus. During the explosive speed condition, the use of different focuses had no effect. The different attentional focus resulted in comparable contraction duration for the measured muscles when the exercise was performed explosively. Using internal focus to increase EMG amplitude seems to function only during conditions of controlled speed.

  13. Locomotor training with body weight support in SCI: EMG improvement is more optimally expressed at a low testing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, P; Van de Crommert, H W A A; Rijken, H; van Kuppevelt, D H J M; Duysens, J

    2014-12-01

    Case series. To determine the optimal testing speed at which the recovery of the EMG (electromyographic) activity should be assessed during and after body weight supported (BWS) locomotor training. Tertiary hospital, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Four participants with incomplete chronic SCI were included for BWS locomotor training; one AIS-C and three AIS-D (according to the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) Impairment Scale or AIS). All were at least 5 years after injury. The SCI participants were trained three times a week for a period of 6 weeks. They improved their locomotor function in terms of higher walking speed, less BWS and less assistance needed. To investigate which treadmill speed for EMG assessment reflects the functional improvement most adequately, all participants were assessed weekly using the same two speeds (0.5 and 1.5 km h(-1), referred to as low and high speed, respectively) for 6 weeks. The change in root mean square EMG (RMS EMG) was assessed in four leg muscles; biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius medialis and tibialis anterior. The changes in RMS EMG occurred at similar phases of the step cycle for both walking conditions, but these changes were larger when the treadmill was set at a low speed (0.5 km h(-1)). Improvement in gait is feasible with BWS treadmill training even long after injury. The EMG changes after treadmill training are more optimally expressed using a low rather than a high testing treadmill speed.

  14. Reliability of surface electromyography in the assessment of paraspinal muscle fatigue: an updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad A; Rahmani, Nahid; Majdoleslam, Basir; Abdollahi, Iraj; Ali, Shabnam Shah; Ahmad, Ashfaq

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the literature to determine whether surface electromyography (EMG) is a reliable tool to assess paraspinal muscle fatigue in healthy subjects and in patients with low back pain (LBP). A literature search for the period of 2000 to 2012 was performed, using PubMed, ProQuest, Science Direct, EMBASE, OVID, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases. Electromyography, reliability, median frequency, paraspinal muscle, endurance, low back pain, and muscle fatigue were used as keywords. The literature search yielded 178 studies using the above keywords. Twelve articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria of the study. In 7 of the 12 studies, the surface EMG was only applied in healthy subjects, and in 5 studies, the reliability of surface EMG was investigated in patients with LBP or a comparison with a control group. In all of these studies, median frequency was shown to be a reliable EMG parameter to assess paraspinal muscles fatigue. There was a wide variation among studies in terms of methodology, surface EMG parameters, electrode location, procedure, and homogeneity of the study population. The results suggest that there seems to be a convincing body of evidence to support the merit of surface EMG in the assessment of paraspinal muscle fatigue in healthy subject and in patients with LBP. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying the tundra-forest border in the stomate record: an analysis of lake surface samples from the Yellowknife area, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B.C.S. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Limnological Research Center; MacDonald, G.M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Botanical Sciences; Moser, K.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    The relationship between conifer stomata and existing vegetation across tundra, forest-tundra, and closed zones in the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories was studied. Conifer stomata were identified in surface samples from lakes in the treeline zone, but were absent in samples from tundra lakes. Stomate analysis was recorded and the results were presented in a concentration diagram plotting stomate concentrations according to vegetation zone. Conifer stomate analysis was not able to resolve differences between forest-tundra and closed forest. Nevertheless, it was suggested that stomate analysis will become an important technique supplementing pollen analysis for reconstructing past tree-line changes since the presence of stomata in lakes make it possible to separate the tundra from forest-tundra and closed forest. The limited dispersal of conifer stomata permitted a better resolution of tree-line boundaries than did pollen. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  16. An EMG-driven exoskeleton hand robotic training device on chronic stroke subjects: task training system for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N S K; Tong, K Y; Hu, X L; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A

    2011-01-01

    An exoskeleton hand robotic training device is specially designed for persons after stroke to provide training on their impaired hand by using an exoskeleton robotic hand which is actively driven by their own muscle signals. It detects the stroke person's intention using his/her surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the hemiplegic side and assists in hand opening or hand closing functional tasks. The robotic system is made up of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module which can be adjusted to fit for different finger length. Eight chronic stroke subjects had been recruited to evaluate the effects of this device. The preliminary results showed significant improvement in hand functions (ARAT) and upper limb functions (FMA) after 20 sessions of robot-assisted hand functions task training. With the use of this light and portable robotic device, stroke patients can now practice more easily for the opening and closing of their hands at their own will, and handle functional daily living tasks at ease. A video is included together with this paper to give a demonstration of the hand robotic system on chronic stroke subjects and it will be presented in the conference. © 2011 IEEE

  17. Comparison of algorithms to quantify muscle fatigue in upper limb muscles based on sEMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Lorenz; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2016-11-01

    This work compared the performance of six different fatigue detection algorithms quantifying muscle fatigue based on electromyographic signals. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was obtained by an experiment from upper arm contractions at three different load levels from twelve volunteers. Fatigue detection algorithms mean frequency (MNF), spectral moments ratio (SMR), the wavelet method WIRM1551, sample entropy (SampEn), fuzzy approximate entropy (fApEn) and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA%DET) were calculated. The resulting fatigue signals were compared considering the disturbances incorporated in fatiguing situations as well as according to the possibility to differentiate the load levels based on the fatigue signals. Furthermore we investigated the influence of the electrode locations on the fatigue detection quality and whether an optimized channel set is reasonable. The results of the MNF, SMR, WIRM1551 and fApEn algorithms fell close together. Due to the small amount of subjects in this study significant differences could not be found. In terms of disturbances the SMR algorithm showed a slight tendency to out-perform the others. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of visibility and types of the ground surface on the muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-ki; Lee, Dong-yeop; Kim, Jin-Seop; Hong, Ji-Heon; You, Jae-Ho; Park, In-mo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of visibility and types of ground surface (stable and unstable) during the performance of squats on the muscle activities of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 25 healthy adults in their 20s. They performed squats under four conditions: stable ground surface (SGS) with vision-allowed; unstable ground surface (UGS) with vision-allowed; SGS with vision-blocked; and UGS with vision-blocked. The different conditions were performed on different days. Surface electromyogram (EMG) values were recorded. [Results] The most significant difference in the activity of the VMO and VL was observed when the subjects performed squats on the UGS, with their vision blocked. [Conclusion] For the selective activation of the VMO, performing squats on an UGS was effective, and it was more effective when subjects’ vision was blocked. PMID:26356407

  19. By All Means Necessary – 2.5D and 3D Recording of Surfaces in the Study of Southern Scandinavian Rock Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn Christian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern Scandinavia is Europe’s richest region in terms of figurative rock art. It is imperative to document this cultural heritage for future generations. To achieve this, researchers need to use the most objective recording methods available in order to eliminate human error and bias in the documentation. The ability to collect more data is better, not only for documentation, but also for research purposes. Recent years have seen the wider introduction of image based 2.5D and 3D modelling of rock art surfaces. These methods are Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI, Structure from Motion (SfM, and Optical Laser Scanning (OLS. Importantly, these approaches record depth difference and the structure of engraved lines. Therefore, they have clear advantages over older methods such as frottage (rubbings and tracing. Based on a number of short case studies, this paper argues that 2.5D and 3D methods should be used as a standard documentation techniques, but not in an exclusionary manner. The best documentation, enabling preservation and high-quality research, should employ all methods. Approaching rock art with all the research tools available we can re-appraise older documentation as well as investigate individual action and the transformation of rock art.

  20. Analysis of Muscle Fatigue Progression using Cyclostationary Property of Surface Electromyography Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, P A; Venugopal, G; Ramakrishnan, S

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of neuromuscular fatigue finds various applications ranging from clinical studies to biomechanics. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals are widely used for these studies due to its non-invasiveness. During cyclic dynamic contractions, these signals are nonstationary and cyclostationary. In recent years, several nonstationary methods have been employed for the muscle fatigue analysis. However, cyclostationary based approach is not well established for the assessment of muscle fatigue. In this work, cyclostationarity associated with the biceps brachii muscle fatigue progression is analyzed using sEMG signals and Spectral Correlation Density (SCD) functions. Signals are recorded from fifty healthy adult volunteers during dynamic contractions under a prescribed protocol. These signals are preprocessed and are divided into three segments, namely, non-fatigue, first muscle discomfort and fatigue zones. Then SCD is estimated using fast Fourier transform accumulation method. Further, Cyclic Frequency Spectral Density (CFSD) is calculated from the SCD spectrum. Two features, namely, cyclic frequency spectral area (CFSA) and cyclic frequency spectral entropy (CFSE) are proposed to study the progression of muscle fatigue. Additionally, degree of cyclostationarity (DCS) is computed to quantify the amount of cyclostationarity present in the signals. Results show that there is a progressive increase in cyclostationary during the progression of muscle fatigue. CFSA shows an increasing trend in muscle fatiguing contraction. However, CFSE shows a decreasing trend. It is observed that when the muscle progresses from non-fatigue to fatigue condition, the mean DCS of fifty subjects increases from 0.016 to 0.99. All the extracted features found to be distinct and statistically significant in the three zones of muscle contraction (p < 0.05). It appears that these SCD features could be useful in the automated analysis of sEMG signals for different neuromuscular conditions.

  1. Surface electromyography physiology, engineering and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    The book presents a quantitative approach to the study and use of noninvasively detected electromyographic (EMG) signals, as well as their numerous applications in various aspects of the life sciences. Surface Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Applications is an update of Electromyography: Physiology, Engineering, and Noninvasive Applications (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2004) and focuses on the developments that have taken place over the last decade. The first nine chapters deal with the generation, detection, understanding, interpretation, and modeling of EMG signals. Detection technology, with particular focus on EMG imaging techniques that are based on two-dimensional electrode arrays are also included in the first half of the book. The latter 11 chapters deal with applications, which range fro monitoring muscle fatigue, electrically elicited contractions, posture analysis, prevention of work-related and child-delivery-related neuromuscular disorders, ergonomics, movement analysis, physical therapy, ex...

  2. Reconstructing turbidity in a glacially influenced lake using the Landsat TM and ETM+ surface reflectance climate data record archive, Lake Clark, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Carson; Jones, Benjamin M.; Bartz, Krista K.; Young, Daniel B.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Clark is an important nursery lake for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the headwaters of Bristol Bay, Alaska, the most productive wild salmon fishery in the world. Reductions in water clarity within Alaska lake systems as a result of increased glacial runoff have been shown to reduce salmon production via reduced abundance of zooplankton and macroinvertebrates. In this study, we reconstruct long-term, lake-wide water clarity for Lake Clark using the Landsat TM and ETM+ surface reflectance products (1985–2014) and in situwater clarity data collected between 2009 and 2013. Analysis of a Landsat scene acquired in 2009, coincident with in situ measurements in the lake, and uncertainty analysis with four scenes acquired within two weeks of field data collection showed that Band 3 surface reflectance was the best indicator of turbidity (r2 = 0.55,RMSE turbidity for Lake Clark between 1991 and 2014. We did, however, detect interannual variation that exhibited a non-significant (r2 = 0.20) but positive correlation (r = 0.20) with regional mean summer air temperature and found the month of May exhibited a significant positive trend (r2 = 0.68, p = 0.02) in turbidity between 2000 and 2014. This study demonstrates the utility of hindcasting turbidity in a glacially influenced lake using the Landsat surface reflectance products. It may also help land and resource managers reconstruct turbidity records for lakes that lack in situ monitoring, and may be useful in predicting future water clarity conditions based on projected climate scenarios.

  3. The effectiveness of FES-evoked EMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue in individuals with spinal cord injury.

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    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Estigoni, Eduardo H; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul; Davis, Glen M

    2014-07-14

    The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG) potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI) population.

  4. The Effectiveness of FES-Evoked EMG Potentials to Assess Muscle Force and Fatigue in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

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    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p < 0.05 between the decline in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI population.

  5. Variations in Atlantic surface ocean paleoceanography, 50°-80° N: A time-slice record of the last 30,000 years

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    Sarnthein, Michael; Jansen, Eystein; Weinelt, Mara; Arnold, Maurice; Duplessy, Jean Claude; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; FlatøY, Astrid; Johannessen, Gro; Johannessen, Truls; Jung, Simon; Koc, Nalan; Labeyrie, Laurent; Maslin, Mark; Pflaumann, Uwe; Schulz, Hartmut

    1995-12-01

    Eight time slices of surface-water paleoceanography were reconstructed from stable isotope and paleotemperature data to evaluate late Quaternary changes in density, current directions, and sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and NE Atlantic. We used isotopic records from 110 deep-sea cores, 20 of which are accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)-14C dated and 30 of which have high (>8 cm /kyr) sedimentation rates, enabling a resolution of about 120 years. Paleotemperature estimates are based on species counts of planktonic foraminifera in 18 cores. The δ18O and δ13C distributions depict three main modes of surface circulation: (1) The Holocene-style interglacial mode which largely persisted over the last 12.8 14C ka, and probably during large parts of stage 3. (2) The peak glacial mode showing a cyclonic gyre in the, at least, seasonally ice-free Nordic Seas and a meltwater lens west of Ireland. Based on geostrophic forcing, it possibly turned clockwise, blocked the S-N flow across the eastern Iceland-Shetland ridge, and enhanced the Irminger current around west Iceland. It remains unclear whether surface-water density was sufficient for deepwater formation west of Norway. (3) A meltwater regime culminating during early glacial Termination I, when a great meltwater lens off northern Norway probably induced a clockwise circulation reaching south up to Faeroe, the northward inflow of Irminger Current water dominated the Icelandic Sea, and deepwater convection was stopped. In contrast to circulation modes two and three, the Holocene-style circulation mode appears most stable, even unaffected by major meltwater pools originating from the Scandinavian ice sheet, such as during δ18O event 3.1 and the Bölling. Meltwater phases markedly influenced the European continental climate by suppressing the "heat pump" of the Atlantic salinity conveyor belt. During the peak glacial, melting icebergs blocked the eastward advection of warm surface water toward Great Britain, thus

  6. The Assessment of Muscular Effort, Fatigue, and Physiological Adaptation Using EMG and Wavelet Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ryan B; Wachowiak, Mark P; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a transcription factor co-activator that helps coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis within skeletal muscle following exercise. While evidence gleaned from submaximal exercise suggests that intracellular pathways associated with the activation of PGC-1α, as well as the expression of PGC-1α itself are activated to a greater extent following higher intensities of exercise, we have recently shown that this effect does not extend to supramaximal exercise, despite corresponding increases in muscle activation amplitude measured with electromyography (EMG). Spectral analyses of EMG data may provide a more in-depth assessment of changes in muscle electrophysiology occurring across different exercise intensities, and therefore the goal of the present study was to apply continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs) to our previous data to comprehensively evaluate: 1) differences in muscle electrophysiological properties at different exercise intensities (i.e. 73%, 100%, and 133% of peak aerobic power), and 2) muscular effort and fatigue across a single interval of exercise at each intensity, in an attempt to shed mechanistic insight into our previous observations that the increase in PGC-1α is dissociated from exercise intensity following supramaximal exercise. In general, the CWTs revealed that localized muscle fatigue was only greater than the 73% condition in the 133% exercise intensity condition, which directly matched the work rate results. Specifically, there were greater drop-offs in frequency, larger changes in burst power, as well as greater changes in burst area under this intensity, which were already observable during the first interval. As a whole, the results from the present study suggest that supramaximal exercise causes extreme localized muscular fatigue, and it is possible that the blunted PGC-1α effects observed in our previous study are the result of fatigue-associated increases in

  7. The Assessment of Muscular Effort, Fatigue, and Physiological Adaptation Using EMG and Wavelet Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan B Graham

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α is a transcription factor co-activator that helps coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis within skeletal muscle following exercise. While evidence gleaned from submaximal exercise suggests that intracellular pathways associated with the activation of PGC-1α, as well as the expression of PGC-1α itself are activated to a greater extent following higher intensities of exercise, we have recently shown that this effect does not extend to supramaximal exercise, despite corresponding increases in muscle activation amplitude measured with electromyography (EMG. Spectral analyses of EMG data may provide a more in-depth assessment of changes in muscle electrophysiology occurring across different exercise intensities, and therefore the goal of the present study was to apply continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs to our previous data to comprehensively evaluate: 1 differences in muscle electrophysiological properties at different exercise intensities (i.e. 73%, 100%, and 133% of peak aerobic power, and 2 muscular effort and fatigue across a single interval of exercise at each intensity, in an attempt to shed mechanistic insight into our previous observations that the increase in PGC-1α is dissociated from exercise intensity following supramaximal exercise. In general, the CWTs revealed that localized muscle fatigue was only greater than the 73% condition in the 133% exercise intensity condition, which directly matched the work rate results. Specifically, there were greater drop-offs in frequency, larger changes in burst power, as well as greater changes in burst area under this intensity, which were already observable during the first interval. As a whole, the results from the present study suggest that supramaximal exercise causes extreme localized muscular fatigue, and it is possible that the blunted PGC-1α effects observed in our previous study are the result of fatigue

  8. Two cases of childhood narcolepsy mimicking epileptic seizures in video-EEG/EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagishita, Tomoe; Ito, Susumu; Ohtani, Yui; Eto, Kaoru; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Oguni, Hirokazu; Nagata, Satoru

    2018-06-06

    Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis, and can occur with or without cataplexy. Here, we report two children with narcolepsy presenting with cataplexy mimicking epileptic seizures as determined by long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) monitoring. Case 1 was a 15-year-old girl presenting with recurrent episodes of "convulsions" and loss of consciousness, who was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of epilepsy showing "convulsions" and "complex partial seizures". The long-term video-polygraph showed a clonic attack lasting for 15 s, which corresponded to 1-2 Hz with interruption of mentalis EMG discharges lasting for 70-300 ms without any EEG changes. Narcolepsy was suspected due to the attack induced by hearty laughs and the presence of sleep attacks, and confirmed by low orexin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Case 2 was an 11-year-old girl presenting with recurrent episodes of myoclonic attacks simultaneously with dropping objects immediately after hearty laughs, in addition to sleep attacks, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. The long-term video-polygraph showed a subtle attack, characterized by dropping chopsticks from her hand, which corresponded to an interruption of ongoing deltoid EMG discharges lasting 140 ms without any EEG changes. A diagnosis of narcolepsy was confirmed by the low orexin levels in CSF. These cases demonstrate that children with narcolepsy may have attacks of cataplexy that resemble clonic or myoclonic seizures. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human-machine interfaces based on EMG and EEG applied to robotic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarcinelli-Filho Mario

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two different Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs were developed, both based on electro-biological signals. One is based on the EMG signal and the other is based on the EEG signal. Two major features of such interfaces are their relatively simple data acquisition and processing systems, which need just a few hardware and software resources, so that they are, computationally and financially speaking, low cost solutions. Both interfaces were applied to robotic systems, and their performances are analyzed here. The EMG-based HMI was tested in a mobile robot, while the EEG-based HMI was tested in a mobile robot and a robotic manipulator as well. Results Experiments using the EMG-based HMI were carried out by eight individuals, who were asked to accomplish ten eye blinks with each eye, in order to test the eye blink detection algorithm. An average rightness rate of about 95% reached by individuals with the ability to blink both eyes allowed to conclude that the system could be used to command devices. Experiments with EEG consisted of inviting 25 people (some of them had suffered cases of meningitis and epilepsy to test the system. All of them managed to deal with the HMI in only one training session. Most of them learnt how to use such HMI in less than 15 minutes. The minimum and maximum training times observed were 3 and 50 minutes, respectively. Conclusion Such works are the initial parts of a system to help people with neuromotor diseases, including those with severe dysfunctions. The next steps are to convert a commercial wheelchair in an autonomous mobile vehicle; to implement the HMI onboard the autonomous wheelchair thus obtained to assist people with motor diseases, and to explore the potentiality of EEG signals, making the EEG-based HMI more robust and faster, aiming at using it to help individuals with severe motor dysfunctions.

  10. Real-time muscle state estimation from EMG signals during isometric contractions using Kalman filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaldo, Luciano L

    2017-12-01

    State-space control of myoelectric devices and real-time visualization of muscle forces in virtual rehabilitation require measuring or estimating muscle dynamic states: neuromuscular activation, tendon force and muscle length. This paper investigates whether regular (KF) and extended Kalman filters (eKF), derived directly from Hill-type muscle mechanics equations, can be used as real-time muscle state estimators for isometric contractions using raw electromyography signals (EMG) as the only available measurement. The estimators' amplitude error, computational cost, filtering lags and smoothness are compared with usual EMG-driven analysis, performed offline, by integrating the nonlinear Hill-type muscle model differential equations (offline simulations-OS). EMG activity of the three triceps surae components (soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis), in three torque levels, was collected for ten subjects. The actualization interval (AI) between two updates of the KF and eKF was also varied. The results show that computational costs are significantly reduced (70x for KF and 17[Formula: see text] for eKF). The filtering lags presented sharp linear relationships with the AI (0-300 ms), depending on the state and activation level. Under maximum excitation, amplitude errors varied in the range 10-24% for activation, 5-8% for tendon force and 1.4-1.8% for muscle length, reducing linearly with the excitation level. Smoothness, measured by the ratio between the average standard variations of KF/eKF and OS estimations, was greatly reduced for activation but converged exponentially to 1 for the other states by increasing AI. Compared to regular KF, extended KF does not seem to improve estimation accuracy significantly. Depending on the particular application requirements, the most appropriate KF actualization interval can be selected.

  11. A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Dorothee; Landa, Camilla S.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Metzl, Nicolas; O’Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Smith, Karl; Cosca, Cathy; Harasawa, Sumiko; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Jones, Stephen; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sweeney, Colm; Schuster, Ute; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Wanninkhof, Rik; Alin, Simone R.; Balestrini, Carlos F.; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicholas; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Bonou, Frédéric; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Burger, Eugene F.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Castle, Robert D.; Chen, Liqi; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim; Evans, Wiley; Featherstone, Charles; Feely, Richard; Fransson, Agneta; Goyet, Catherine; Greenwood, Naomi; Gregor, Luke; Hankin, Steven C.; Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Harlay, Jérôme; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Hunt, Christopher W.; Huss, Betty; Ibánhez, J. Severino P.; Johannessen, Truls; Keeling, Ralph F.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Körtzinger, Arne; Kozyr, Alex; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Kuwata, Akira; Landschützer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lo Monaco, Claire; Manke, Ansley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Merlivat, Liliane; Millero, Frank J.; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Timothy; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Paterson, Kristina; Pearce, David; Pierrot, Denis; Robbins, Lisa L.; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joe; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schweitzer, Roland; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Tadokoro, Kazuaki; Telszewski, Maciej; Tuma, Matthias; van Heuven, Steven M. A. C.; Vandemark, Douglas; Ward, Brian; Watson, Andrew J.; Xu, Suqing

    2016-01-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis of quality-controlled f CO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) values for the global surface oceans and coastal seas with regular updates. Version 3 of SOCAT has 14.7 million f CO2 values from 3646 data sets covering the years 1957 to 2014. This latest version has an additional 4.6 million f CO2 values relative to version 2 and extends the record from 2011 to 2014. Version 3 also significantly increases the data availability for 2005 to 2013. SOCAT has an average of approximately 1.2 million surface water f CO2 values per year for the years 2006 to 2012. Quality and documentation of the data has improved. A new feature is the data set quality control (QC) flag of E for data from alternative sensors and platforms. The accuracy of surface water f CO2 has been defined for all data set QC flags. Automated range checking has been carried out for all data sets during their upload into SOCAT. The upgrade of the interactive Data Set Viewer (previously known as the Cruise Data Viewer) allows better interrogation of the SOCAT data collection and rapid creation of high-quality figures for scientific presentations. Automated data upload has been launched for version 4 and will enable more frequent SOCAT releases in the future. High-profile scientific applications of SOCAT include quantification of the ocean sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and its long-term variation, detection of ocean acidification, as well as evaluation of coupled-climate and ocean-only biogeochemical models. Users of SOCAT data products are urged to acknowledge the contribution of data providers, as stated in the SOCAT Fair Data Use Statement. This ESSD (Earth System Science Data) “living data” publication documents the methods and data sets used for the assembly of this new version of the SOCAT data collection and compares these with those used for earlier versions of the data collection (Pfe