WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface emf measurement

  1. Comparison of a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and Toftness sensometer for body surface EMF measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John; Toftness, Dave; Snyder, Brian; Nosco, Dennis; Balcavage, Walter; Nindl, Gabi

    2004-12-01

    The use of magnetic fields to treat disease has intrigued mankind since the time of the ancient Greeks. More recently it has been shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) treatment aids bone healing, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be beneficial in treating schizophrenia and depression. Since external EMFs influence internal body processes, we hypothesized that measurement of body surface EMFs might be used to detect disease states and direct the course of subsequent therapy. However, measurement of minute body surface EMFs requires use of a sensitive and well documented magnetometer. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and frequency response of a fluxgate magnetometer with a triaxial probe for use in detecting body surface EMF and we compared the magnetometer readings with a signal from a Toftness Sensometer, operated by an experienced clinician, in the laboratory and in a clinical setting. A Peavy Audio Amplifier and variable power output Telulex signal generator were used to develop 50 microT EMFs in a three coil Merritt coil system. A calibrated magnetometer was used to set a 60 Hz 50 microT field in the coil and an ammeter was used to measure the current required to develop the 50 microT field. At frequencies other than 60 Hz, the field strength was maintained at 50 microT by adjusting the Telulex signal output to keep the current constant. The field generated was monitored using a 10 turn coil connected to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope reading indicated that the field strength was the same at all frequencies tested. To determine if there was a correspondence between the signals detected by a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM1) and the Toftness Sensometer both devices were placed in the Merritt coil and readings were recorded from the FGM1 and compared with the ability of a highly experienced Toftness operator to detect the 50 microT field. Subsequently, in a clinical setting, FGM1 readings made by an FGM1 technician and

  2. Characterization of thermoelectric devices by laser induced Seebeck electromotive force (LIS-EMF) measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Luis-David Patino [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Dilhaire, Stefan [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Grauby, Stephane [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Salhi, M Amine [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Ezzahri, Younes [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Claeys, Wilfrid [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Batsale, Jean-Christophe [Laboratoire TREFLE, Esplanade des Arts et Metiers, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2005-05-21

    An in-depth study related to a new method of characterizing properties in thermoelectrics is proposed in this paper. This technique is appropriate for single or multi-layered thermoelectric devices. A modulated laser beam is used as a heater in order to generate a Seebeck electromotive force (EMF). The laser beam, line shaped, can be focused at any location along the sample surface, allowing spatially resolved measurements. Seebeck EMF measurements, associated with a versatile model based on the thermal quadrupoles method, allow determination of the sample Seebeck EMF profile and identifying of the sample thermal contact resistances, and should be useful for identification of devices and material thermoelectric properties.

  3. Characterization of thermoelectric devices by laser induced Seebeck electromotive force (LIS-EMF) measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luis-David Patino; Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Salhi, M Amine; Ezzahri, Younes; Claeys, Wilfrid; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth study related to a new method of characterizing properties in thermoelectrics is proposed in this paper. This technique is appropriate for single or multi-layered thermoelectric devices. A modulated laser beam is used as a heater in order to generate a Seebeck electromotive force (EMF). The laser beam, line shaped, can be focused at any location along the sample surface, allowing spatially resolved measurements. Seebeck EMF measurements, associated with a versatile model based on the thermal quadrupoles method, allow determination of the sample Seebeck EMF profile and identifying of the sample thermal contact resistances, and should be useful for identification of devices and material thermoelectric properties

  4. Rate of rotation measurement using back-EMFS associated with windings of a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for measuring rate of rotation. A brushless DC motor is rotated and produces a back electromagnetic force (emf) on each winding thereof. Each winding's back-emf is integrated and multiplied by the back-emf associated with an adjacent winding. The multiplied outputs associated with each winding are combined to produce a directionally sensitive DC output proportional only to the rate of rotation of the motor's shaft.

  5. Electric fields in accelerating conductors: measurement of the EMF in rotationally accelerating coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.

    1996-06-06

    The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where `m`is the free mass and `q` the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Electric fields in accelerating conductors: measurement of the EMF in rotationally accelerating coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where 'm'is the free mass and 'q' the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. Measuring electromagnetic fields (EMF) around wind turbines in Canada: is there a human health concern?

    OpenAIRE

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Ferguson, Glenn M; Ollson, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Background The past five years has seen considerable expansion of wind power generation in Ontario, Canada. Most recently worries about exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from wind turbines, and associated electrical transmission, has been raised at public meetings and legal proceedings. These fears have not been based on any actual measurements of EMF exposure surrounding existing projects but appear to follow from worries from internet sources and misunderstanding of the science. Meth...

  8. Recommendations for Guidelines for EMF Personal Exposure Measurements, Rapid Project #4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of developing guidelines for electric and magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure measurements (lF'EM) is to ensure reliable and comparable data across I?EM studies. Study techniques may vary due to different populations or objectives, but the resulting data should be consistently reported and comparable, to the extent possible. Any guideline must allow creativity by the research-oriented investigator and provide specific guidance to industrial hygienists or other results-oriented investigators, requiring a standard protocol. Recognizing measurement studies with different purposes is an important aspect of these recommendations. The guidelines presented here intend to produce comparable data across studies while remaining flexible. The recommendations for designing and implementing an EMF PEM program describe a three-stage process. The first step is to clearly state the purpose of the PEM program. The next stage addresses the fundamental elements of an EMF PEM study, including an assessment of the scientific and organizational resources that will be required. This process is codified in a written study plan. These stages are described in 1 Section 5 of this report. The third stage of a PEM study involves the design, implementation and documentation of specific procedures and protocols fo~ sampling strategies, selection of measurement parameters; instrumentation, measurement and data collection, data management, data analysis, quality assurance, uncertainty evaluation, and archiving the study methods and results. The methods for designing these elements of an EMF PEM study are described in Section 6: Specific Guidelines for EMF I?EM Study Design.

  9. EMF measurements on mixed protonic/electronic conductors for hydrogen membrane applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Henrik Karnøe; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Phair, John

    2010-01-01

    Electromotive force (EMF) measurements are often used to estimate the transport number of conducting species in ionic and mixed conductors. In this work, the applicability of the method to systems, where both protonic, oxide-ionic and electronic conduction is significant, was examined. The effect...

  10. Thermodynamic properties of calcium–bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hojong; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Chung, Brice; Jiang Kai; Tomaszowska, Alina A.; Wang Kangli; Wei Weifeng; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of Ca–Bi alloys were determined by electromotive force (emf) measurements to assess the suitability of Ca–Bi electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications. Emf was measured at ambient pressure as a function of temperature between 723 K and 1173 K using a Ca(s)|CaF 2 (s)|Ca(in Bi) cell for twenty different Ca–Bi alloys spanning the entire range of composition from x Ca = 0 to 1. Reported are the temperature-independent partial molar entropy and enthalpy of calcium for each Ca–Bi alloy. Also given are the measured activities of calcium, the excess partial molar Gibbs energy of bismuth estimated from the Gibbs–Duhem equation, and the integral change in Gibbs energy for each Ca–Bi alloy at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K. Calcium activities at 973 K were found to be nearly constant at a value of a Ca = 1 × 10 −8 over the composition range x Ca = 0.32–0.56, yielding an emf of ∼0.77 V. Above x Ca = 0.62 and coincident with Ca 5 Bi 3 formation, the calcium activity approached unity. The Ca–Bi system was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry over the entire range of composition. Based upon these data along with the emf measurements, a revised Ca–Bi binary phase diagram is proposed.

  11. Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Bieńkowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS as an electromagnetic field (EMF source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. Material and Methods: The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. Results: The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Conclusions: Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method are also presented. Med Pr 2015;66(5:701–712

  12. [Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Cała, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS) as an electromagnetic field (EMF) source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method) or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method) are also presented). This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Analysis of influence on back-EMF based sensorless control of PMSM due to parameter variations and measurement errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve better performance of sensorless control of PMSM, a precise and stable estimation of rotor position and speed is required. Several parameter uncertainties and variable measurement errors may lead to estimation error, such as resistance and inductance variations due to temperature...... and flux saturation, current and voltage errors due to measurement uncertainties, and signal delay caused by hardwares. This paper reveals some inherent principles for the performance of the back-EMF based sensorless algorithm embedded in a surface mounted PMSM system adapting vector control strategy...

  14. Two-frequency method for measuring Hall emf in high-resistive materials with charge-carrier low mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.L.; Vedeneev, A.S.; Gulyaev, I.B.; Zhdan, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A facility for measuring Hall emf in high-resistive materials with low mobility of charge carriers by the two-frequency method using digital synchronous integration is described. The facility permits to detect the minimum Hall emf approxamatety equat to 5 μV at approximatety equal to 1 T Ohm of the investigated.sample resistance during the measuring time of approximately equal to 2000 s. Sensitivity by Hall mobility makes up >= 0.01 cm 2 /Vxs at the same measuring time. Measuring results of the Hall emf on GaAs monocrystals, CdSe films and island film of gold are presented

  15. Emf measurements on nanocrystalline copper-doped ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, P.; Villain, S.

    1998-01-01

    Mixed oxide samples of nanostructured Cu x Ce 1-x O 2-y of various composition were generated by (i) chemical precipitation and ball milling and (ii) inert gas condensation. X-ray diffraction measurements suggested that copper oxide was dissolved in nanostructured cerium oxide up to concentrations of x = 0.15. Solid electrolyte cells of the type A, Cu 2 O/CuBr/Cu x Ce 1-x O 2-y (A = Cu or CuO) showed reversible cell voltages. The ratio of the formal chemical activities of CuO and Cu 2 O dissolved in nanostructured cerium oxide were calculated from the cell voltages. The results are discussed in terms of an apparent macroscopic solubility, due to interfacial segregation of copper oxide on nanostructured cerium oxide

  16. Measuring electromagnetic fields (EMF) around wind turbines in Canada: is there a human health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Ferguson, Glenn M; Ollson, Christopher A

    2014-02-15

    The past five years has seen considerable expansion of wind power generation in Ontario, Canada. Most recently worries about exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from wind turbines, and associated electrical transmission, has been raised at public meetings and legal proceedings. These fears have not been based on any actual measurements of EMF exposure surrounding existing projects but appear to follow from worries from internet sources and misunderstanding of the science. The study was carried out at the Kingsbridge 1 Wind Farm located near Goderich, Ontario, Canada. Magnetic field measurements were collected in the proximity of 15 Vestas 1.8 MW wind turbines, two substations, various buried and overhead collector and transmission lines, and nearby homes. Data were collected during three operational scenarios to characterize potential EMF exposure: 'high wind' (generating power), 'low wind' (drawing power from the grid, but not generating power) and 'shut off' (neither drawing, nor generating power). Background levels of EMF (0.2 to 0.3 mG) were established by measuring magnetic fields around the wind turbines under the 'shut off' scenario. Magnetic field levels detected at the base of the turbines under both the 'high wind' and 'low wind' conditions were low (mean = 0.9 mG; n = 11) and rapidly diminished with distance, becoming indistinguishable from background within 2 m of the base. Magnetic fields measured 1 m above buried collector lines were also within background (≤ 0.3 mG). Beneath overhead 27.5 kV and 500 kV transmission lines, magnetic field levels of up to 16.5 and 46 mG, respectively, were recorded. These levels also diminished rapidly with distance. None of these sources appeared to influence magnetic field levels at nearby homes located as close as just over 500 m from turbines, where measurements immediately outside of the homes were ≤ 0.4 mG. The results suggest that there is nothing unique to wind farms with respect to EMF exposure; in

  17. Determination of Measurement Points in Urban Environments for Assessment of Maximum Exposure to EMF Associated with a Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A base station (BS antenna operates in accordance with the established exposure limits if the values of electromagnetic fields (EMF measured in points of maximum exposure are below these limits. In the case of BS in open areas, the maximum exposure to EMF probably occurs in the antenna’s boresight direction, from a few tens to a few hundred meters away. This is not a typical scenery for urban environments. However, in the line of sight (LOS situation, the region of maximum exposure can still be analytically estimated with good results. This paper presents a methodology for the choice of measurement points in urban areas in order to assess compliance with the limits for exposure to EMF.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of liquid silver-antimony alloys determined from emf measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyzak, Agnieszka; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid Ag-Sb alloys were determined using solid oxide galvanic cells with zirconia electrolyte. The emfs of the cells:Ag x Sb (1-x), Sb 2 O 3 /O 2- /airwere measured in the temperatures range 950-1100K in the whole range of the alloy compositions.First, the Gibbs free energy of formation of liquid Sb 2 O 3 from pure elements was derived:ΔG o f(Sb2O3) (J/mol)=-687100+243.23T.Next, the activities of antimony were measured as a function of the alloy compositions, x. Redlich-Kister polynomial expansion was used to describe the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase. From the model equations the limiting value of the logarithm of activity coefficient of antimony in silver was obtained as a function of temperature:lnγ Sb 0 =-3812.5/T+0.4112.The obtained results were compared with the experimental values reported in the literature

  19. Thermodynamic behavior of high-Tc oxide systems via EMF and related measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetenbaum, M.; Tumidajaski, P.; Bloom, I.D.; Brown, D.L.; Blander, M.

    1991-01-01

    EMF measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x , and NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x , and Nd 1.81 Ce 0.19 CuO x superconducting systems in the temperature range 400--750 degree C by means of an oxygen titration technique with an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. The object of our current measurements is to investigate the effect of ionic size of Y, Gd and Nd on the thermodynamic behavior and structural transition in the LnBa 2 Cu 3 O x system. The shape of the 400 degree C isotherm for NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x suggests the presence of a miscibility gap at lower temperatures, at values of x that are higher than those in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system. The locations of the miscibility gaps are consistent with the effects of ionic radii on the composition dependence of T c for these systems. Our results explain the two plateaus in measured value of T c as a function of composition for the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system and appear to be consistent with the less pronounced T c plateaus found for the NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x system higher stoichiometry values. For a given oxygen stoichiometry, partial pressures of oxygen above NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x are higher than for the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system in accord with calculated partial molar thermodynamic quantities. The results of limited measurements on the n-type (electron-doped) superconducting Nd 1.81 Ce 0.19 CuO x system will be presented. A thermodynamic assessment and intercomparison of our oxygen partial pressure measurements with the results of other measurements will be presented. 34 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. Thermodynamic properties of liquid silver-gallium alloys determined from e.m.f. and calorimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid Ag-Ga alloys were determined using e.m.f. and calorimetric methods. In the e.m.f. method, solid oxide galvanic cells were used with zirconia electrolyte. The cells of the type W,Ag x Ga (1-x) ,Ga 2 O 3 //ZrO 2 +(Y 2 O 3 )//FeO,Fe,W were used in the temperature range from 1098 K to 1273 K, and in the range of mole fraction from x Ga = 0.1 to x Ga = 1.0. At first, the Gibbs free energy of formation of pure solid gallium oxide, Ga 2 O 3 , from pure elements was derived. Using values of the measured e.m.f. for the cell with x Ga = 1.0, the following temperature dependence was obtained: Δ f G m,Ga 2 O 3 0 (±4kJ·mol -1 J)=-1061.7235+0.2899T/K. Next, the activity of the gallium was derived as a function of the alloy composition from the values of the measured e.m.f. Activities of silver were calculated using the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The drop calorimetric measurements were carried out at two temperatures, viz. 923 K and 1123 K, using a Setaram MHTC calorimeter. Integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid binary alloys were determined at those temperatures. Finally, thermodynamic properties of the liquid alloys were described with the Redlich-Kister equation using ThermoCalc software.

  1. Newly developed EMF cell with zirconia solid electrolyte for measurement of low oxygen potentials in liquid Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the very low oxygen potential by use of stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte emf method, a new cell construction was devised. The idea was based on Janke but a zirconia rod was used instead of the zirconia crucible which contacts liquid alloy electrode. The cell was used for determination of the oxygen potentials in liquid dilute Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys. The reference electrode was Cr,Cr2O3. Emf measurements were performed in the temperature range of 1400-1580K and composition range of 0.198-3.10at%Cr-Cu alloys, and 1380-1465K, 0.085-0.761at%Zr-Cu alloys. The composition of liquid alloys were determined by picking up from the liquid alloys and ICP analysis. By use of the newly devised cell construction in this study, stable emf values were obtained at each temperature and alloy composition. Emf values were corrected by using the parameter for electronic contribution of the YSZ. Activity of Cr obeys Henry’s law and activity coefficient at infinitely dilute alloys of Cr in Cu-Cr alloys are: lng0 Cr =(3.80 at 1423K, (3.57 at 1473K, (3.38 at 1523K and (3.20 at 1573K. At 1423 K activity coefficient of Zr at infinitely diluted alloy is lnγo Zr = -4.0.

  2. Thermodynamic and nonstoichiometric behavior of promising Hi-Tc cuprate systems via EMF measurements: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetenbaum, M.

    1999-01-01

    Electromotive force (EMF) measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made on the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x , GdBa 2 Cu 3 O x , NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x and bismuth cuprate systems in the temperature range ∼400-750 C by means of an oxygen titration technique with an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. The shapes of the 400 C isotherms as a function of oxygen stoichiometry for the Gd and Nd cuprate systems suggest the presence of miscibility gaps at values of x that are higher than those in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system. For a given oxygen stoichiometry, oxygen partial pressures above GdBa 2 Cu 3 O x and NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x are higher (above x=6.5) than that for the promising YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system. A thermodynamic assessment and intercomparison of our partial pressure measurements with the results of related measurements will be presented

  3. Artificial neural networks to estimate the EMF ELF on car travelling near power transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sayegh, O.A.; Qabazard, A.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). advanced Systems Division of Environment and Urban

    2007-07-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to determine the electromagnetic field (EMF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) intensity on a vehicle body at different distances from a high tension power line and at varying power loads. EMF radiated emissions from ELF source power transmission lines can produce interference in the electric components in vehicles traveling at variable speed near the power lines. The passengers in the vehicle may also experience EMF-related health problems. Although EMF has been recently categorized as a new form of pollution, the situation has been largely ignored by the industry. Typically, electromagnetic fields at different frequencies show the fastest growing environmental influences. All populations are now exposed to varying degrees of EMF and the levels will continue to increase as technology advances. The purpose of this work was to promote discussion and help find design solutions to manufacture a new device for measuring the EMF at variable speed. In this study, a set of near field measurements outside the vehicle were used to train ANN. Estimations of the EMF ELF for various distances from the high tension power line were presented. It was determined that the most important factors affecting the electric field model include exposure conditions; size, shape and position of the exposed body in the field; and, surface charge density. The EMF ELF was found to increase near sagging areas of the overhead power transmission line. The EMF ELF was found to be proportional to the total amps flowing through the line at the time of measurement. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  4. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  5. Molten salt e.m.f. cell measurements on U-Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Kandan, R.; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Gibbs free energy of formation of intermetallic compounds, UGa 3 , UGa 2 and U 2 Ga 3 were determined by using high temperature molten salt galvanic cell measurements in the temperature range of 644-988 K, 751-947 K and 800-950 K, respectively. (author)

  6. EMF and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widemann, P.M.; Schuetz, H.

    1995-01-01

    There has lately been a greater responsivement in the media as well as the general public to the risk potential of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). If the discussion continues to gain momentum, this could have grave consequences for companies offering the products or services under attack. The working group Man, Environment, Technology (MUT) at Juelich Research Centre has examined the question of how EMF risks are valuated by the public. The study centered on the following questions: How are EMF risk potentials perceived by the public and what factors influence the public discussion? What future course might the discussion on risks take and what critical events and conditions deserve particular attention? The authors present and discuss the results of this first German study on product-inherent risks. (orig.) [de

  7. EMFs run aground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    Presently no one knows whether electromagnetic fields (EMFs) play a role in human cancer or other ailments, though epidemiological studies over the years have suggested that possibility. A study by the Electric Power Research Institute attempted to quantify everything it could about the magnetic environment of a home, identifying not only major sources of magnetic fields, but also their frequencies, strengths, and how they fall off with distance. Sources of a homes magnetic environment include appliances, overhead powerlines, and grounding connections to metallic water pipes. Fields will vary over time, depending on how much current is passing through the electrically conductive sources. Additional contributors to a home's magnetic background may include unusual wiring in the walls, underground power lines, and near-by high voltage transmission lines. This paper summarizes the study results, indicating weak, persistant EMFs may dominate, but small magnetic field associated with ground currents can end up contributing more to the overall EMF background than appliances producing far larger fields which fall off more quickly with distance. 2 figs

  8. The design of measuring tubes and their influence on long term stability of EMF in filling machines; Einfluss der Messrohrkonstruktion auf die Langzeitstabilitaet von Abfuell-MID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, B. [Krohne Messtechnik Gmbh und Co KG, Duisburg (Germany); Hofmann, F.

    2008-07-01

    Electro Magnetic Flow Meters (EMF) have been used for many decades measuring the volumetric flow rate of electric conductive liquids. Changes of the inner diameter because of temperature influences are creating measuring errors. In particular applications, where a high accuracy and repeatability is needed, this can cause trouble. This effect can be recognized after a long use of these meters and the corresponding cleaning procedures with liquid or steam, which is typical for the food and beverage industry. This effect is of a huge importance on electro magnetic flow meters, which are used on rotating filling machines for filling PET (plastic) bottles. Meters with ceramic tubes had a better long term stability than the ones with PFA liner. (orig.)

  9. ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE, EMF (CELLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, M.D.; Feldberg, S.W.

    1998-09-16

    The voltage or electric potential difference across the terminals of a cell when no current is drawn from it. The emf of a cell is the sum of the electric potential differences (PDs) produced by a separation of charges (electrons or ions) that can occur at each phase boundary (or interface) in the cell. The magnitude of each PD depends on the chemical nature of the two contacting phases. Thus, at the interface between two different metals, some electrons will have moved from the metal with a higher free energy of electrons to the metal with a lower free energy of electrons. The resultant charge separation will produce a PD (just as charge separation produces a voltage across a capacitor) that, at equilibrium, exactly opposes further electron flow. Similarly, PDs can be produced when electrons partition across a metal/solution interface or metal/solid interface, and when ions partition across a solution/membrane/solution interface.

  10. radio frequency emf radio frequency emf exposure due to gsm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    about electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation from base. Nigerian Journal of ... oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other as shown in ... and magnetic) is produced by a change in the other part and the ... limit). 4. MATERIALS AND METHOD.

  11. Measurement of Vertical Oil-in-water Two-phase Flow Using Dual-modality ERT-EMF System

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj, Yousef; Wang, Mi; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-gang; Oddie, Gary; Primrose , Ken; Qiu, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    Oil-in-water two-phase flows are often encountered in the upstream petroleum industry. The measurement of phase flow rates is of particular importance for managing oil production and water disposal and/or water reinjection. The complexity of oil-in-water flow structures creates a challenge to flow measurement. This paper proposes a new method of two-phase flow metering, which is based on the use of dual-modality system and multidimensional data fusion. The Electrical Resistance Tomography sys...

  12. Comparison of TGA and EMF measurement of the oxygen potential of U075Pu025O/sub 2+-x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    To resolve uncertainies in various low temperature oxygen potential data for mixed-oxide nuclear fuels, additional measurements have been performed employing a combined thermogravimetric and galvanic cell technique. Oxygen potentials obtained in this manner exhibit good agreement with the results of prior thermogravimetric determinations

  13. Thermodynamic studies on corrosion inhibition of aqueous solutions of amino/carboxylic acids toward copper by EMF measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spah, Manjula; Spah, Dal Chand; Deshwal, Balraj; Lee, Seungmoon; Chae, Yoon-Keun; Park, Jin Won

    2009-01-01

    Electromotive force (E) measurements were made on an electrochemical cell [Cu x Hg|CuCl 2 (m) in a solvent S|AgCl-Ag] (where S is a dilute aqueous solution (0.01 m) of amino acid (glycine, alanine, methionine and glutamic acid) or aliphatic carboxylic acid (formic acid, acetic acid, n-butyric acid and glutaric acid)) at 30 deg. C. These measured E values were used to compute the dissociation constants (K 1 and K 2 ) and the degree of dissociation (α 1 and α 2 ) by iterative procedures. The standard cell potential (E o ) and the mean activity coefficient (γ ± ) of CuCl 2 were also determined. The E o data were next used to evaluate the Gibbs energy of transfer (ΔG tr 0 ) of CuCl 2 from water to dilute aqueous solutions of the amino/carboxylic acids. The negative ΔG tr 0 values suggested that these acids act as potential corrosion inhibitors. The magnitudes of ΔG tr 0 values show that the amino acids act as better corrosion inhibitors towards copper than the aliphatic carboxylic acids.

  14. WHO's International EMF Project (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project assesses health and environmental effects of exposure to static and time varying electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range 0-300 GHz. The Project facilitates a coordinated international response to the concerns about possible health effects of exposure to EMF, assesses the scientific literature, identifies gaps in knowledge needing further research to improve health risk assessments and encourages focused research to fill gaps in knowledge. When the results of this research are published, they will be incorporated into WHO's Environmental Health Criteria monographs where formal health risk assessments are made on exposure to EMF. These monographs provide a database that facilitates the development of internationally acceptable standards for EMF exposure. This paper reviews the International EMF Project activities related to WHO's EMF research requirements and focuses on specific questions raised during the scientific reviews that need to be considered in future epidemiological studies. (author)

  15. monIT: A Portuguese Risk Communication Project on EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carla; Sebastiao, Daniel; Carpinteiro, Goncalo; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Correia, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    The monIT project is a risk communication programme, aiming at providing information on exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile communication systems in Portugal. monIT's website, www.lxlit.pt/monit, is the main interface for dissemination of information. Besides including relevant information about EMF for both the general public and the technical community, this website provides results from extensive measurement campaigns performed all over Portugal during the last three years. This paper presents the project's structure and activities, practical results achieved and ends with some conclusions and action lines for future work. (author)

  16. EMF 9 scenario design (EMF WP 9.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the specifications of the scenarios selected by the EMF 9 Working Group, which is focusing on North American natural gas markets. The four first-round scenarios include: (1) an upper oil price path, (2) a lower oil price path, (3) a lower resource base, and (4) a higher gas demand due to policies and technologies affecting the electric utility sector. Each scenario represents a combination of market and regulatory environments. For example, the upper oil price scenario combines an upper oil price trend with a reference set of resource and demand conditions and with a pro-competitive regulatory environment. This scenario also serves as a control case for comparing the other scenarios, which specify a change in one of the environments for oil prices, resources, or demand. The regulatory environment has been maintained constant across these first-round scenarios but may be changed depending upon the later recommendations of the regulatory policy and market structure study group. The next section describes the detailed specifications for modelers in simulating the upper oil price scenario. Guidance is offered for energy prices, economic activity, and resource base estimates. The next three sections describe the other three scenarios that involve changes in these inputs from their values in the upper oil price scenario. Special wellhead price assumptions for stand-alone supply models and plans for developing inputs for Canadian models are then discussed. The final section describes the output variables to be reported to the EMF staff for comparing model results

  17. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor; Dean, Amy; Eger, Horst; Hubmann, Gerhard; Jandrisovits, Reinhold; Kern, Markus; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Lercher, Piero; Müller, Kurt; Oberfeld, Gerd; Ohnsorge, Peter; Pelzmann, Peter; Scheingraber, Claus; Thill, Roby

    2016-09-01

    , the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleep problems, depression, a lack of energy, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to making the diagnosis. The EMF exposure is usually assessed by EMF measurements at home and at work. Certain types of EMF exposure can be assessed by asking about common EMF sources. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of high EMF exposure at home and at the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a

  18. EVALUATION OF EMF EXPOSURE OF MOBILE PHONES ON HUMAN HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Vtornikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mobile phones are worldwide spread nowadays. Smartphones penetration is growing year after year. Numerous studies indicate the negative effect of EMF exposure of these devices on humans. Therefore, it is important to study the peculiarities of their influence on the target organ-the brain. It is important for solving this problem to find out the real situation of the distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure near the front panel of the apparatus.The aim of the study is to determine and compare EMF exposure from smartphones and classic mobile phones on human head.Material and methods. The original method patented in the Russian Federation was used in this study. The used original measuring setup is also patented, developed and assembled by the authors of the study. The object of the study was classical mobile phones and smartphones widespread at the time of work.Results. We got the graphic of matrices of distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel of 10 apparatus corresponding to the topography of a human head. The study revealed peculiarities of this distribution in smartphones and the classic mobile phones and got the values of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the investigated devices acting primarily on the brain.Conclusions. The design of smartphones and mobile phones determines the overall picture of distribution of EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel for devices of a particular type. This picture must be taken into account when planning epidemiological and experimental studies to obtain comparable results. Progress in the development of mobile communication technologies has led to an increase in the electromagnetic load on users of modern devices.

  19. Two-way portable radios: monitoring exposure to EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Campos, Maria C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Hand-held two-way portable radios, also known as push-to-talk radios (PTT), radiate intense electromagnetic fields (EMF). Increasingly used for communications inside buildings, these devices should not be neglected as EMF sources in workplace environments. In contrast to mobile-phones, push-to-talk radios usually operate in a lower frequency range (450 < f < 470 MHz), where the reference levels, established by ICNIRP for human exposure, are more restrictive. The intrinsic hazard potential associated to these devices has motivated this assessment of occupational exposure to EMF. In spite of relatively low power levels, usually no more than a few watts, and the intermittency of transmissions, push-to-talk radios are operated close to the body, therefore exposure takes place in the near-field region. Measurements of electromagnetic field intensities were carried out for two push-to-talk models, operating at power levels of 2 W and 5 W, with a broad-band field monitor, EMR-300 (W and G), coupled to an E-field triaxial probe (type 8.0). Intensities were measured at various points surrounding the transmitter, to assess exposure levels of other workers sitting nearby during communications. Results show significant electric field intensities at points less than 10 cm away from the source. A personal monitor with triaxial E and H-field shaped probes, RadMan XT (Narda), was used as a dosimeter by workers operating both radio models, during 8 hours. This device measures E and H-field intensities and stores these values as a percentage of ICNIRP occupational limits, in a data logger. Results of both kind of measurements show that intense EMF are emitted during transmissions. Therefore, workers should be informed about possible EMF hazards and trained to properly operate these transmitters, in order to minimize exposure risks. (author)

  20. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2015 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor; Dean, Amy; Eger, Horst; Hubmann, Gerhard; Jandrisovits, Reinhold; Johansson, Olle; Kern, Markus; Kundi, Michael; Lercher, Piero; Mosgöller, Wilhelm; Moshammer, Hanns; Müller, Kurt; Oberfeld, Gerd; Ohnsorge, Peter; Pelzmann, Peter; Scheingraber, Claus; Thill, Roby

    2015-01-01

    environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms often occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleeping problems, depression, lack of energy, fatigue and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to the diagnosis. The EMF exposure can be assessed by asking for typical sources like Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones and measurements at home and at work. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of EMF at home and in the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. Also the survival rate of children with leukemia depends on ELF magnetic field exposure at home. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports a balanced homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the number of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is

  1. Measurement of complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  2. Determination of standard Ghibbs free energy of formation of NiW sub 2 B sub 2 and activity of Ni-W binary system by EMF measurement. Kidenryokuho ni yoru NiW sub 2 B sub 2 no hyojun seisei Gibbs jiyu energy to Ni-W 2 seibunkei no katsuryo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayama, Koichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Matsuo, Hideki (Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan) Fukushin Electric Co., Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    NiW {sub 2} B {sub 2} (M phase), existing in trinary Ni-W-B system, was measured in standard Gibbs free energy (GF) of formation in the temperature range from 1273K to 1423K by an electromotive force method (EMF) with use of solid oxide electrolyte. First, oxide phase in equilibrium with three-phase M-W-Ni solid solution region was confirmed to be B {sub 2} O {sub 3}. Binary Ni-W system solid solution in equilibrium with M phase and W phase is constant in composition with Ni-16.4mo1%W in the above temperature range. WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72} were actually measured in GF. As Ni-W solid solution is in equilibrium with WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}, binary Ni-W system was measured in activity by the EMF, and Ni-16.4mo1%W solid solution was calculated in GF of mixing by use of the above measured GF of WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}. Finally with use of sample in M-W-Ni solid solution region, M phase was calculated in GF by the EMF. The result of those calculations were expressed with experimental formulas. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  4. Novel Sensorless Six-Step Communication Strategy for a Surface Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with DC Link Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, A.; Agarlita, S. C.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The present paper introduces a novel six-step commutation strategy for sensorless control applied for a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor that implies only dc link measurement (battery current and battery voltage). The control strategy makes use of a modified I-f starting procedure and t......-crossing of the back-emf are obtained from an observer that uses both current and battery voltage. The case study is represented by a surface permanent magnet synchronous motor prototype (6 /8 configuration), designed for the automotive air conditioning compressor drive....

  5. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  6. Artefacts for optical surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stuart; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Brownhill, Andrew; MacDonald, Lindsay

    2011-07-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies are supporting the routine production of components with freeform surfaces in a wide variety of materials and surface finishes. Such surfaces may be exploited for both aesthetic and performance criteria for a wide range of industries, for example automotive, aircraft, small consumer goods and medial components. In order to ensure conformance between manufactured part and digital design it is necessary to understand, validate and promote best practice of the available measurement technologies. Similar, but currently less quantifiable, measurement requirements also exist in heritage, museum and fine art recording where objects can be individually hand crafted to extremely fine levels of detail. Optical 3D measurement systems designed for close range applications are typified by one or more illumination sources projecting a spot, line or structured light pattern onto a surface or surfaces of interest. Reflections from the projected light are detected in one or more imaging devices and measurements made concerning the location, intensity and optionally colour of the image. Coordinates of locations on the surface may be computed either directly from an understanding of the illumination and imaging geometry or indirectly through analysis of the spatial frequencies of the projected pattern. Regardless of sensing configuration some independent means is necessary to ensure that measurement capability will meet the requirements of a given level of object recording and is consistent for variations in surface properties and structure. As technologies mature, guidelines for best practice are emerging, most prominent at the current time being the German VDI/VDE 2634 and ISO/DIS 10360-8 guidelines. This considers state of the art capabilities for independent validation of optical non-contact measurement systems suited to the close range measurement of table top sized manufactured or crafted objects.

  7. Electron thermal EMF for NaxCu2-xS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuterbekov Kairat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the temperature dependences of the thermoelectromotive force (thermo–emf in copper selenide, substituted in a small concentration, were studied. The results of the measurements showed that the thermo–emf coefficient of the samples increases, and the conductivity decreases with increasing silver concentration in its composition. These results allow – with optimal selection of the doping regime and protective coatings – to develop on the basis of nanostructured copper selenide an effective thermoelectric for use at temperatures of 20–500°C as p–type semiconductors suitable for increasing the efficiency of thermoelectric generators.

  8. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) reduces oxidative stress and improves functional and psychological status in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Saluk, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    As a result of ischaemia/reperfusion, massive generation of reactive oxygen species occurs, followed by decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can modulate oxidative stress, but there are no clinical antioxidant studies in brain stroke patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ELF-EMF on clinical and antioxidant status in post-stroke patients. Fifty-seven patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF. Both groups underwent the same 4-week rehabilitation program. Additionally, the ELF-EMF group was exposed to an ELF-EMF field of 40 Hz, 7 mT for 15 min/day for 4 weeks (5 days a week). The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was measured in hemolysates, and total antioxidant status (TAS) determined in plasma. Functional status was assessed before and after the series of treatments using Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Applied ELF-EMF significantly increased enzymatic antioxidant activity; however, TAS levels did not change in either group. Results show that ELF-EMF induced a significant improvement in functional (ADL) and mental (MMSE, GDS) status. Clinical parameters had positive correlation with the level of enzymatic antioxidant protection. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:386-396, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Surface flow measurements from drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Drones are transforming the way we sense and interact with the environment. However, despite their increased capabilities, the use of drones in geophysical sciences usually focuses on image acquisition for generating high-resolution maps. Motivated by the increasing demand for innovative and high performance geophysical observational methodologies, we posit the integration of drone technology and optical sensing toward a quantitative characterization of surface flow phenomena. We demonstrate that a recreational drone can be used to yield accurate surface flow maps of sub-meter water bodies. Specifically, drone's vibrations do not hinder surface flow observations, and velocity measurements are in agreement with traditional techniques. This first instance of quantitative water flow sensing from a flying drone paves the way to novel observations of the environment.

  10. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari

    2006-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  11. Method of measuring surface density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of measuring surface density or thickness, preferably of coating layers, using radiation emitted by a suitable radionuclide, e.g., 241 Am. The radiation impinges on the measured material, e.g., a copper foil and in dependence on its surface density or thickness part of the flux of impinging radiation is reflected and part penetrates through the material. The radiation which has penetrated through the material excites in a replaceable adjustable backing characteristic radiation of an energy close to that of the impinging radiation (within +-30 keV). Part of the flux of the characteristic radiation spreads back to the detector, penetrates through the material in which in dependence on surface density or thickness of the coating layer it is partly absorbed. The flux of the penetrated characteristic radiation impinging on the face of the detector is a function of surface density or thickness. Only that part of the energy is evaluated of the energy spectrum which corresponds to the energy of characteristic radiation. (B.S.)

  12. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  13. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  14. Effects of EMF Emissions from Cables and Junction Boxes on Marine Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanak, Manhar [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Spieler, Richard [Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, Kirk [Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States); Jermain, Robert F. [Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States); Frankenfield, John [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Ravenna, Shirley [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Dibiasio, Christopher [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Coulson, Robert [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Henderson, Ed [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Venezia, William [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Carderock Division (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Studies have shown that diverse aquatic species are electrosensitive. Many fishes, and marine mammals, can either detect, navigate by, or are affected by electromagnetic fields (EMF) with various sensitivities, and their behavior may be impacted by unnatural EMF emissions in the water column. Sharks, rays and skates are known to have the highest sensitivity to electric fields. Electric field emissions in the range 0.5–100 micro volt/m appear to attract them, and emissions over 100 micro volt/m to repulse them. A marine hydrokinetic MHK device will have multiple components and associated multiple submarine cables on the seafloor and running through the water column and would potentially increase the level of EMF emissions to which the marine species at the site may be exposed to. There are therefore concerns amongst stakeholders that EMF emissions associated with MHK devices and their components may act as barriers to species migration, cause disorientation, change community compositions and ecosystems, and that they may attract sharks, leading to a local increase in the risk of shark attacks. However, field data to validate and model potential relationships between observed responses and the EMF emissions in situ are sparse. A program of experimental field surveys were conducted off the coast of South Florida, USA to characterize the electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions in the water column from a submarine cable, and to monitor for responses of local aquatic species. The field surveys were conducted at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Facility (SFOMF) off Fort Lauderdale, which is a cabled offshore in-water navy range. It consists of multiple active submarine power cables and a number of junction boxes, with the capability to transmit AC/DC power at a range of strength and frequencies. The site includes significant marine life activities and community structure, including highly mobile species, such as sharks, stingrays, mammals and turtles. SFOMF therefore

  15. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pinton, Jean-Francois; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier, E-mail: kian.rahbarnia@ipp.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, CNRS and Universite de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France)

    2012-11-10

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  16. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B.; Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  17. EMF Monitoring—Concepts, Activities, Gaps and Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Dürrenberger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF is a cause of concern for many people. The topic will likely remain for the foreseeable future on the scientific and political agenda, since emissions continue to change in characteristics and levels due to new infrastructure deployments, smart environments and novel wireless devices. Until now, systematic and coordinated efforts to monitor EMF exposure are rare. Furthermore, virtually nothing is known about personal exposure levels. This lack of knowledge is detrimental for any evidence-based risk, exposure and health policy, management and communication. The main objective of the paper is to review the current state of EMF exposure monitoring activities in Europe, to comment on the scientific challenges and deficiencies, and to describe appropriate strategies and tools for EMF exposure assessment and monitoring to be used to support epidemiological health research and to help policy makers, administrators, industry and consumer representatives to base their decisions and communication activities on facts and data.

  18. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features – except distance – do influence people’s general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries. PMID:25629026

  19. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik eFreudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks, which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF electro-magnetic fields (EMF exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk perceptions of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF risk perception is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people’s general RF EMF risk perceptions. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF risk perception of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher risk perception, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and risk perception. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  20. Determination of transference numbers in ionic conductors by the EMF method with active load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Method for determining transference numbers in ionic conductors by means of measuring EMF of concentration cell with accout of polarization resistance of electrodes is suggested. The method enables to determine easily very small transference numbers of electron component against the background of predominating ionic conductivity. To illustrate the method there were determined transference numbers for the sample of industrial solid electrolyte in the cell; O 2 Pt|0.91ZrO 2 +0.09Y 2 O 3 |Pt, air

  1. The measurement of surface gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10(-8) m s(-2)), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1-5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post

  2. The precautionary principle and EMF: from the theory to the practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1992 the United Nations Declaration on the Environment stated that where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty will not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. Since this interpretation has been reaffirmed within numerous framework conventions and national environment law in a number of countries has begun to incorporate it. The contents of the precautionary principle: There are in fact two completely different ideas about the principle: the absolute: the precautionary principle would aim to guarantee complete harmless. The aim is zero risk and even a minimal suspicion of risk should result in a moratorium or a definitive ban, the moderate: its implementation is subject to a scientifically credible statement of hypothetical risk. It also gives priority to positive measures particularly research to provide a better assessment of the risk. In every case, before any decision a statement of cost and of advantages should be drawn up. The concept of prudent avoidance introduced in 1989 by G. Morgan and adopted by some states (Sweden, Australia) seems to be a specific application of the precautionary principle to EMF, taking into account the cost of the policy. The EMF research: After more than 20 years of research (epidemiological residential and professional studies, in vitro studies and laboratory animal studies) the scientific uncertainty has been considerably reduced but the possibility of some adverse effects remains. This fact and the public concern about EMF (partly explained by the ubiquity of exposure) explain the temptations in applying the precautionary principle to the EMF issue

  3. Residential exposure from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Shamesh Raj; Tukimin, Roha

    2018-01-01

    ELF EMF radiation have received considerable attention as a potential threat to the safety and health of people living in the vicinity of high voltage transmission lines, electric distribution substations, power stations and even in close proximity to electronics and electrical household appliances. The paper highlights the study on the ELF EMF safety assessment performed at residences comprising of an owner-occupied house, a completed vacant house and an under construction condominium. The objectives of this study were to determine the ELF EMF radiation exposure level from the high voltage transmission line, electric distribution substation, power station and electrical household appliances in the residences, and to assess the potential exposure received by the occupants at the assessed locations. The results were logged in the electric and magnetic field strength with the units of volt per meter (V/m) and miliGauss (mG) respectively. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines.

  4. [Polish guidelines of 2001 for maximum admissible intensities in high frequency EMF versus European Union recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, a draft of amendments to maximum admissible intensities (MAI) of electromagnetic fields (0 Hz-300 GHz) was prepared by Professor H. Korniewicz of the Central Institute for Labour Protection, Warsaw, in cooperation with the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź (radio- and microwaves) and the Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw (pulse radiation). Before 2000, the development of the national MAI guidelines for the frequency range of 0.1 MHz-300 GHz was based on the knowledge of biological and health effects of EMF exposure available on the turn of the 1960s. A current basis for establishing the MAI international standards is a well-documented thermal effect measured by the value of a specific absorption rate (SAR), whereas the effects of resonant absorption imposes the nature of the functional dependency on EMF frequency. The Russian standards, already thoroughly analyzed, still take so-called non-thermal effects and the conception of energetic load for a work-shift with its progressive averaging (see hazardous zone in Polish guidelines) as a basis for setting maximum admissible intensities. The World Health Organization recommends a harmonization of the EMF protection guidelines, existing in different countries, with the guidelines of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and its position is supported by the European Union.

  5. Thermophysical Properties Measurement of High-Temperature Liquids Under Microgravity Conditions in Controlled Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akotoshi; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroya; Murai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are preparing the experiments of thermophysical properties measurements using the Materials-Science Laboratories ElectroMagnetic-Levitator (MSL-EML) facilities in the international Space station (ISS). Recently, it has been identified that dependence of surface tension on oxygen partial pressure (Po2) must be considered for industrial application of surface tension values. Effect of Po2 on surface tension would apparently change viscosity from the damping oscillation model. Therefore, surface tension and viscosity must be measured simultaneously in the same atmospheric conditions. Moreover, effect of the electromagnetic force (EMF) on the surface oscillations must be clarified to obtain the ideal surface oscillation because the EMF works as the external force on the oscillating liquid droplets, so extensive EMF makes apparently the viscosity values large. In our group, using the parabolic flight levitation experimental facilities (PFLEX) the effect of Po2 and external EMF on surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets was systematically investigated for the precise measurements of surface tension and viscosity of high temperature liquids for future ISS experiments. We performed the observation of surface oscillations of levitated liquid alloys using PFLEX on board flight experiments by Gulfstream II (G-II) airplane operated by DAS. These observations were performed under the controlled Po2 and also under the suitable EMF conditions. In these experiments, we obtained the density, the viscosity and the surface tension values of liquid Cu. From these results, we discuss about as same as reported data, and also obtained the difference of surface oscillations with the change of the EMF conditions.

  6. Ge/Si(001) heterostructures with dense arrays of Ge quantum dots: morphology, defects, photo-emf spectra and terahertz conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuryev, Vladimir A; Arapkina, Larisa V; Storozhevykh, Mikhail S; Chapnin, Valery A; Chizh, Kirill V; Uvarov, Oleg V; Kalinushkin, Victor P; Zhukova, Elena S; Prokhorov, Anatoly S; Spektor, Igor E; Gorshunov, Boris P

    2012-07-23

    : Issues of Ge hut cluster array formation and growth at low temperatures on the Ge/Si(001) wetting layer are discussed on the basis of explorations performed by high resolution STM and in-situ RHEED. Dynamics of the RHEED patterns in the process of Ge hut array formation is investigated at low and high temperatures of Ge deposition. Different dynamics of RHEED patterns during the deposition of Ge atoms in different growth modes is observed, which reflects the difference in adatom mobility and their 'condensation' fluxes from Ge 2D gas on the surface for different modes, which in turn control the nucleation rates and densities of Ge clusters. Data of HRTEM studies of multilayer Ge/Si heterostructures are presented with the focus on low-temperature formation of perfect films.Heteroepitaxial Si p-i-n-diodes with multilayer stacks of Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense arrays built in intrinsic domains have been investigated and found to exhibit the photo-emf in a wide spectral range from 0.8 to 5 μm. An effect of wide-band irradiation by infrared light on the photo-emf spectra has been observed. Photo-emf in different spectral ranges has been found to be differently affected by the wide-band irradiation. A significant increase in photo-emf is observed in the fundamental absorption range under the wide-band irradiation. The observed phenomena are explained in terms of positive and neutral charge states of the quantum dot layers and the Coulomb potential of the quantum dot ensemble. A new design of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed.By using a coherent source spectrometer, first measurements of terahertz dynamical conductivity (absorptivity) spectra of Ge/Si(001) heterostructures were performed at frequencies ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 THz in the temperature interval from 300 to 5 K. The effective dynamical conductivity of the heterostructures with Ge quantum dots has been discovered to be significantly higher than that of the structure with the same amount of bulk

  7. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.

  8. New bimetallic EMF cell shows promise in direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1968-01-01

    Concentration cell, based upon a thermally regenerative cell principle, produces electrical energy from any large heat source. This experimental bimetallic EMF cell uses a sodium-bismuth alloy cathode and a pure liquid sodium anode. The cell exhibits reliability, corrosion resistance, and high current density performance.

  9. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  10. Health effect from EMF exposure of Korea population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. S.; Cho, Y. S.; Lee, J. T.; Yup, M. J.; Hong, J. H. [Institute of Environmental and Industrrial Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study on health effect from EMF exposure was performed from June 2001 to April 2002 to compare changes in melatonin levels in urine of 40 subjects during their normal sleeping hours, to evaluate heart rate, ST segment in ventricular, and ventricular premature beat for cardiac function, to evaluate microwave exposure from cellular phones which may have a potential influence on the electro physiologic function of human brain, and each 20 subjects in occupational and non-occupational group measured personal 24-h continual exposure, using EMDEX(for 40-800Hz, Enertech Consultant, Inc.). An urine samples for analysis of melatonin excretion level were collected 1 times a day(immediately after wake-up) for five days from each subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay, HRV-test for relationship between heart rate and EMF exposure was performed heart rate beat using Holter for subjects, and double EEG-test were performed in 10 long-term users of the cellularphones when using and not using them, and a single EEG-test in 10 short-term users of the cellular phones. Each EEG-recording took 40 min consisting of 30 min filed exposure and 10 min measurement. And We estimated the economic value of the potential damage of electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone, and the willingness to pay of people for the study of the radiation damage led by the government, by applying contingent variation method. The results of this study were followed; 1. Personal exposure assessment 2. We showed not significant difference for the subjective average melatonin levels between occupational and non- occupational groups exposed to electromagnetic fields. 3. We showed no difference in the awake EEGs in terms of spectral power density measures between long-term users and short-term users of cellular phones. 4. We found that the economic value of the potential damage by the radiation for a typical cellular phone user is about 20,000 won per year and he would be willing to pay about 1,800 won

  11. Aspheric surface measurement using capacitive probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Yuan, Daocheng; Li, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    With the application of aspheres in optical fields, high precision and high efficiency aspheric surface metrology becomes a hot research topic. We describe a novel method of non-contact measurement of aspheric surface with capacitive probe. Taking an eccentric spherical surface as the object of study, the averaging effect of capacitive probe measurement and the influence of tilting the capacitive probe on the measurement results are investigated. By comparing measurement results from simultaneous measurement of the capacitive probe and contact probe of roundness instrument, this paper indicates the feasibility of using capacitive probes to test aspheric surface and proposes the compensation method of measurement error caused by averaging effect and the tilting of the capacitive probe.

  12. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  13. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Macaulay, Gavin D.; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K.; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A.

    2015-06-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting.

  14. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  15. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecek, Martin; Moses, William W.

    2008-10-01

    A scintillating crystal's surface reflectance has to be well understood in order to accurately predict and optimize the crystal's light collection through Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we measure the inner surface reflectance properties for BGO. The measurements include BGO crystals with a mechanically polished surface, rough-cut surface, and chemically etched surface, and with various reflectors attached, both air-coupled and with coupling compound. The measurements are performed with a laser aimed at the center of a hemispherical shaped BGO crystal. The hemispherical shape eliminates any non-perpendicular angles for light entering and exiting the crystal. The reflected light is collected with an array of photodiodes. The laser can be set at an arbitrary angle, and the photodiode array is rotated to fully cover 2pi of solid angle. The current produced in the photodiodes is readout with a digital multimeter connected through a multiplexer. The two rows of photodiodes achieve 5-degree by 4-degree resolution, and the current measurement has a dynamic range of 105:1. The acquired data was not described by the commonly assumed linear combination of specular and diffuse (Lambertian) distributions, except for a very few surfaces. Surface roughness proved to be the most important parameter when choosing crystal setup. The reflector choice was of less importance and of almost no consequence for rough-cut surfaces. Pure specular reflection distribution for all incidence angles was measured for polished surfaces with VM2000 film, while the most Lambertian distribution for any surface finish was measured for titanium dioxide paint. The distributions acquired in this paper will be used to create more accurate Monte Carlo models for light reflection distribution within BGO crystals.

  16. Geometric Measure Theory and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bombieri, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    W.K. ALLARD: On the first variation of area and generalized mean curvature.- F.J. ALMGREN Jr.: Geometric measure theory and elliptic variational problems.- E. GIUSTI: Minimal surfaces with obstacles.- J. GUCKENHEIMER: Singularities in soap-bubble-like and soap-film-like surfaces.- D. KINDERLEHRER: The analyticity of the coincidence set in variational inequalities.- M. MIRANDA: Boundaries of Caciopoli sets in the calculus of variations.- L. PICCININI: De Giorgi's measure and thin obstacles.

  17. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF and childhood leukemia near transmission lines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kokate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systematic review of most cited studies from developed countries those shed light on the potential relation between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF. All the findings of articles critically segregated as per some neglected parameters like number of samples, exposure duration, frequency range, distance from the radiation sources, and location during measurement of magnetic field density near power lines. Literature of major 50 studies are divided according to pooled analysis / meta-analysis, residential zone assessment and case-control studies.

  18. Photo-EMF Sensitivity of Porous Silicon Thin Layer–Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction to Ammonia Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Dal Kwack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light.

  19. Photo-EMF sensitivity of porous silicon thin layer-crystalline silicon heterojunction to ammonia adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light.

  20. Photo-EMF Sensitivity of Porous Silicon Thin Layer–Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction to Ammonia Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light. PMID:22319353

  1. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pbased on the mean exposure values to RF-EMF in these sections. The displayed map would permit the execution of more accurate epidemiological studies, since it would be possible to compare the exposure measurements with the incidence data of a disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electric shock and elevated EMF levels due to triplen harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, T.Q.; Conrad, L.E.; Stallman, B.K.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of single phase rectifiers for electric power conversion in residential applications increases harmonic load on utility systems. Many papers have analyzed the effect of these loads on power quality and equipment loadability. However, there are two more critical concerns for harmonic loads served phase to neutral on multi-grounded wye systems. Triplen harmonics, particularly the third, add in the neutral and have little diversity between loads. The higher neutral currents may cause significant problems. Neutral to earth voltages will increase near the substations which could increase stray voltage complaints. The additional neutral current on three phase lines will elevate EMF levels especially in the fringe areas. This paper provides fundamental understanding of triplen harmonic influence on stray voltage and EMF related to multi-grounded wye electric distribution systems

  3. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  4. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  5. Determination of standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca2P2O7 and Ca(PO3)2 from solid-state EMF measurements using yttria stabilised zirconia as solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Malin Hannah; Bostroem, Dan; Rosen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The equilibrium reactions: 3Ca 2 P 2 O 7 (s)+6Ni(s)-bar 2Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s)+2Ni 3 P(s)+52O 2 (g) and 2Ca(PO 3 ) 2 (s)+6Ni(s)-bar Ca 2 P 2 O 7 (s)+2Ni 3 P(s)+52O 2 (g) were studied in the temperature range 890K to 1140K. The oxygen equilibrium pressures were determined using galvanic cells incorporating yttria stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte. From the measured data and using the literature values of standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and Ni 3 P, the following relationship of the standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca 2 P 2 O 7 and Ca(PO 3 ) 2 were calculated:Δ f G o (Ca 2 P 2 O 7 )+/-11/(kJ.mol -1 )=-3475.9+1.5441(T/K)-0.1051(T/K).ln(T/K)andΔ f G o (Ca(PO 3 ) 2 )+/-12/(kJ.mol -1 )=-3334.8+6.1561(T/K)-0.6950(T/K).ln(T/K)

  6. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Bürgi, Alfred; Röösli, Martin

    2015-05-22

    Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1%) and from DECT phone calls (4.8%). Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%), use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2%) and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%). The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people's mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources.

  7. Surface resistivity measurement of plasma treated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D.; Pigram, P.J.; Liesegang, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Resistivity of insulators is an important property of materials used within the integrated circuit and packaging industries. The measurement of electrical resistivity of insulator materials in the surface region in this work is interpreted through observations of surface charge decay. A self-field driven and diffusion charge transport theory is used to model the process and resistivity values obtained computationally. Data for the charge decay of surface charged samples are collected by suspending them inside a coaxial cylinder connected to an electrometer. Samples used have been low density polyethylene LDPE sheet, both pristine and surface treated. Some samples have been treated by air plasma at low vacuum pressures for different periods of time; others have been washed in ethyl acetate and then plasma treated before the resistivity measurement. The sets of resistivity measurements form the various treatments are compared below. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has also been used to investigate and account for the observed variations in surface resistivity

  8. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gajšek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range, some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure.

  9. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Bakos, József; Thuróczy, György

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure. PMID:27598182

  10. Surface Tension Measurements with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Nicolas-Alexandre; Denis, Zakari; Lavaud, Maxime; Grolleau, Adrian; Dufour, Nicolas; Deblais, Antoine; Delabre, Ulysse

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly used in higher education and at university in mechanics, acoustics, and even thermodynamics as they offer a unique way to do simple science experiments. In this article, we show how smartphones can be used in fluid mechanics to measure surface tension of various liquids, which could help students understand the concept…

  11. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  12. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.

    1984-11-01

    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  13. Surface dose extrapolation measurements with radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Currie, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields. An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate two-dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that the surface percentage dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionization chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. The corresponding parallel plate ionization chamber measurements are 16%, 27% and 37%, respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. (note)

  14. Overview of EMF 22 U.S. transition scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, Allen A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Chesnaye, Francisco C. de la; Reilly, John M.; Weyant, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum 22 study included a set of U.S. transition scenarios designed to bracket a range of potential U.S. climate policy goals. Models from the six teams that participated in this part of the study include models that have been prominently involved in analyzing proposed U.S. climate legislation, as well as models that have been involved in the Climate Change Science Program and other parts of this EMF 22 study. This paper presents an overview of the results from the U.S. transition scenarios, and provides insights into the comparison of results from the participating models. (author)

  15. Surface aerosol measurements at Barrow during AGASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodhaine, B.A.; Dutton, E.G.; DeLuisi, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surface aerosol measurements were made at the Barrow GMCC Observatory during the AGASP flight series in March 1983. The condensation nucleus, scattering extinction coefficient, size distribution, and total aerosol optical depth measurements all clearly show conditions of background Arctic haze for March 9-11, a series of haze episodes during March 12-16, and a return to background haze for March 17-18. Angstrom exponents calculated from scattering coefficient data were low during March 9-11, relatively higher during March 12-14, and highest during March 15-18. Surface aerosol data and aerosol optical depth data are in good qualitative agreement for the 10-day period studied. Background haze was present when trajectories circled the Arctic basin, and haze episodes occurred when trajectories originated in western Asia and Europe

  16. Plasma measurements with surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H. Jr.; Bradley, A.E.

    1969-01-01

    A surface barrier detector system for measuring the loss rate of protons from a hydrogen plasma and their energy spectrum is described. A full width at half maximum (FWHM) resolution of 1.4 keV for 15-keV hydrogen atoms was obtained using a selected detector having a sensitive area of 3 mm 2 and a depletion depth of 700 microns

  17. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  18. Description of measurement techniques for surface contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The needs of evaluation of the surface contamination are numerous in the processes of production and management of radioactive waste. The market of radiation protection materials proposes a lot of devices answering to the almost all these needs. These device have however their conditions and particular limits for use. To realize correct measurements it is use the device, the technique and the methods adapted to the need, by taking into account the optimization of economical aspect. (N.C.)

  19. Emf, maximum power and efficiency of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggioli, R.A.; Dunbar, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the ideal voltage of steady-flow fuel cells usually expressed by Emf = -ΔG/nF where ΔG is the Gibbs free energy of reaction for the oxidation of the fuel at the supposed temperature of operation of the cell. Furthermore, the ideal power of the cell is expressed as the product of the fuel flow rate with this emf, and the efficiency of a real fuel cell, sometimes called the Gibbs efficiency, is defined as the ratio of the actual power output to this ideal power. Such viewpoints are flawed in several respects. While it is true that if a cell operates isothermally the maximum conceivable work output is equal to the difference between the Gibbs free energy of the incoming reactants and that of the leaving products, nevertheless, even if the cell operates isothermally, the use of the conventional ΔG of reaction assumes that the products of reaction leave separately from one another (and from any unused fuel), and when ΔS of reaction is positive it assumes that a free heat source exists at the operating temperature, whereas if ΔS is negative it neglects the potential power which theoretically could be obtained form the heat released during oxidation. Moreover, the usual cell does not operate isothermally but (virtually) adiabatically

  20. Doping profile measurement on textured silicon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Zahi; Taleb, Nadjib; Sermage, Bernard; Broussillou, Cédric; Bazer-Bachi, Barbara; Quillec, Maurice

    2018-04-01

    In crystalline silicon solar cells, the front surface is textured in order to lower the reflection of the incident light and increase the efficiency of the cell. This texturing whose dimensions are a few micrometers wide and high, often makes it difficult to determine the doping profile measurement. We have measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrochemical capacitance voltage profiling the doping profile of implanted phosphorus in alkaline textured and in polished monocrystalline silicon wafers. The paper shows that SIMS gives accurate results provided the primary ion impact angle is small enough. Moreover, the comparison between these two techniques gives an estimation of the concentration of electrically inactive phosphorus atoms.

  1. Highly accurate surface maps from profilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Kate M.; Nelson, Jessica D.; Mandina, Mike P.

    2013-04-01

    Many aspheres and free-form optical surfaces are measured using a single line trace profilometer which is limiting because accurate 3D corrections are not possible with the single trace. We show a method to produce an accurate fully 2.5D surface height map when measuring a surface with a profilometer using only 6 traces and without expensive hardware. The 6 traces are taken at varying angular positions of the lens, rotating the part between each trace. The output height map contains low form error only, the first 36 Zernikes. The accuracy of the height map is ±10% of the actual Zernike values and within ±3% of the actual peak to valley number. The calculated Zernike values are affected by errors in the angular positioning, by the centering of the lens, and to a small effect, choices made in the processing algorithm. We have found that the angular positioning of the part should be better than 1?, which is achievable with typical hardware. The centering of the lens is essential to achieving accurate measurements. The part must be centered to within 0.5% of the diameter to achieve accurate results. This value is achievable with care, with an indicator, but the part must be edged to a clean diameter.

  2. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  3. Surface temperature measurement with radioactive kryptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruzinec, J.; Piatrik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactive kryptonates is described for measuring surface temperatures within the region of 45 to 70 degC. Two samples each were prepared of kryptonated beechwood and hydroquinone on a paper carrier. One sample served as the standard which during the experiment was placed in a thermostat at a constant temperature of 45 degC. The second sample was placed in another thermostat where the temperature changed from 45 to 70 degC. Both samples were in the thermostat for 30 mins. The temperature was raised in steps of 2.5 degC and the time of measurement was constant in both samples. The dependences are given of the drop in activity on temperature for both types of samples. The difference was determined of the drop in activity between the standard and the second sample and the relation for measuring the temperature of the sample was determined therefrom. (J.B.)

  4. Use of C. Elegans as a model organism for sensing the effects of ELF-EMFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacchini, A H; Everington, M L; Augousti, A T; Walker, A J [School of Life Sciences, Kingston University London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    For the past two decades, there have been concerns and controversy about the effects on human health of the increased exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) resulting from electrification, in both residential and industrial settings. Several epidemiological studies have implicated ELF-EMFs averaging 0.4 {mu}mUTesla (T) or more in increased risk of cancer, especially childhood leukaemia [1,2]; there have also been many reports demonstrating effects of power-frequency EMFs on cells [outlined in 1,3]. Unfortunately, however, the precise mechanisms by which ELF-EMFs exert biological effects have proven difficult to define and results of various studies have often been hard to reproduce [1]. We believe that C. elegans offers an exciting opportunity to elucidate the effects of power-frequency EMFs on cell signalling pathways within the whole organism and are therefore investigating the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on MAPK signalling in intact worms and fertilized embryos. Through taking a targeted approach to studying the effects of ELF-EMF's on MAPK signalling in C. elegans we aim to gather data that is physiologically relevant. Presently, this research is at a preliminary stage of preparation, and more detailed results on the exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ELF-EMF radiation will be presented at the conference itself.

  5. Measurement and removal of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, M.; Tamberg, T.

    1990-01-01

    This is a critical reappraisal of the sampling factor which is important for indirect contamination measurement. The factor gives the radioactivity collected by means of a wipe sample as a fraction of the total loose radioactivity i.e. without firm adhesion. It is used in national and international standard specifications and stated, frequently with excessive conservatism, as 0.1. Secondly, the standard specifications for the testing and appraisal of surface materials in relation to their decontamination capacity and for testing the effect of decontamination agents hitherto bond and Co-60 and Cs-137 are to be expanded to include radioactive iodine, which is important in nuclear medicine. The selection of optimum surface materials will thus be put on an improved basis. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  7. Thermo-emf of cermet films based on rare earth borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islamgaliev, R.K.; Zyrin, A.V.; Shulishova, O.I.; Shcherbak, I.A

    1987-01-01

    Thermo-emf and electric conductivity of granulated films which contain a solid solution of europium and praseodymium borides Eu 0.5 Pr 0.5 B 6 as a conducting phase, and glass-crystal binder on the base of alummomagnesial fluosilicates as a dielectric phase are studied within the temperature range of 100-1100 K. Thermo-emf of films has a negative sign within the temperature range of 100-500 K and does not exceed 5 μkV/K according to the absolute value which is close to the value of the conducting phase thermo-emf. A negative sign and a small value of thermo-emf are indicative of the charge transfer in granulated films by electrons. Contribution of each of the components into the general thermo-emf is different at high temperatures in different temperature ranges and depends on the individual physico-chemical properties of the used materials

  8. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  9. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-06-08

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study's multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  10. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J.

    2017-01-01

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study’s multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  11. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  12. LOFT fuel rod surface temperature measurement testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, A.M.; Tolman, E.L.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Testing of the LOFT fuel rod cladding surface thermocouples has been performed to evaluate how accurately the LOFT thermocouples measure the cladding surface temperature during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence and what effect, if any, the thermocouple would have on core performance. Extensive testing has been done to characterize the thermocouple design. Thermal cycling and corrosion testing of the thermocouple weld design have provided an expected lifetime of 6000 hours when exposed to reactor coolant conditions of 620 K and 15.9 MPa and to sixteen thermal cycles with an initial temperature of 480 K and peak temperatures ranging from 870 to 1200K. Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) tests have indicated a DNB penalty (5 to 28% lower) during steady state operation and negligible effects during LOCA blowdown caused by the LOFT fuel rod surface thermocouple arrangement. Experience with the thermocouple design in Power Burst Facility (PBF) and LOFT nonnuclear blowdown testing has been quite satisfactory. Tests discussed here were conducted using both stainless steel and zircaloy-clad electrically heated rod in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) blowdown simulation loop

  13. Retraction: Evaluation of Carcinogenic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (Emf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This retracts the article "EVALUATION OF CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF" on page 245. The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal ofBasic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: “Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF” published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3:245-50.After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  14. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  15. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Roser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1% and from DECT phone calls (4.8%. Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%, use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2% and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%. The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people’s mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources.

  16. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Shao, Qing; Yang, Lei; Qi, Dianyuan; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiaojun; Yu, Zongying

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge.

  17. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.; Qi, D.; Lin, J.; Lin, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge. (authors)

  18. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  19. Comparative Measurement of Microcystins in Diverse Surface ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of microcystins, cyanotoxins associated with cyanobacterial blooms which are increasingly prevalent in inland waters, is complicated by the diversity of congeners which have been observed in the environment. At present, more than 150 microcystin congeners have been identified, and this poses a significant challenge to analytical methods intended to assess human health risks in surface and drinking water systems. The most widely employed analytical method at present is the ADDA-ELISA technique which is potentially sensitive to all microcystins, but it is primarily intended as a semi-quantitative method, and questions have been raised regarding the potential for cross-reactivity and false positives. LC-MS/MS methods targeting specific congeners, such as US EPA Method 544, are intended for use as a secondary confirmation following a positive ELISA response, but these techniques can target only those congeners for which commercial standards are available. Accordingly, they are not suitable for ascertaining the safety of a given water sample, given the potential for omitting unknown microcystin congeners which might be present.An alternative approach involves oxidative transformation of microcystins to a common product, 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid, or MMPB. Measuring MMPB by LC-MS/MS can potentially provide a metric for the sum of all microcystin congeners present in a sample, subject to the efficiency and overall yield of conversion. The

  20. Optimization of a therapeutic electromagnetic field (EMF) to retard breast cancer tumor growth and vascularity

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Ivan L; Markov, Marko S; Hardman, W Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Background This study provided additional data on the effects of a therapeutic electromagnetic field (EMF) device on growth and vascularization of murine 16/C mammary adenocarcinoma cells implanted in C3H/HeJ mice. Methods The therapeutic EMF device generated a defined 120 Hz semi sine wave pulse signal of variable intensity. Murine 16/C mammary adenocarcinoma tumor fragments were implanted subcutaneously between the scapulae of syngeneic C3H mice. Once the tumor grew to 100 mm3, daily EMF tr...

  1. Experimental measurements of negative hydrogen ion production from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.G.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the production of H - from surfaces bombarded with hydrogen are reviewed. Some measurements of H + and H 0 production from surfaces are also discussed with particular emphasis on work which might be relevant to ion source applications

  2. EMF 7 model comparisons: key relationships and parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, B.G.

    1983-12-01

    A simplified textbook model of aggregate demand and supply interprets the similarities and differences in the price and income responses of the various EMF 7 models to oil and policy shocks. The simplified model is a marriage of Hicks' classic IS-LM formulation of the Keynesian theory of effective demand with a rudimentary model of aggregate supply, combining a structural Phillips curve for wage determination and a markup theory of price determination. The reduced-form income equation from the fix-price IS-LM model is used to define an aggregate demand (AD) locus in P-Y space, showing alternative pairs of the implicit GNP deflator and real GNP which would simultaneously satisfy the saving-investment identity and the condition for money market equilibrium. An aggregate supply (AS) schedule is derived by a similar reduction of relations between output and labor demand, unemployment and wage inflation, and the wage-price-productivity nexus governing markup pricing. Given a particular econometric model it is possible to derive IS and LM curves algebraically. The resulting locuses would show alternative combinations of interest rate and real income which equilibrate real income identity on the IS side and the demand and supply of money on the LM side. By further substitution the reduced form fix-price income relation could be obtained for direct quantification of the AD locus. The AS schedule is obtainable by algebraic reduction of the structural supply side equations.

  3. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Son H.; Wada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 - 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 - 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change

  4. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF: A systematic review of identifying criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliatsas Christos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF remains a complex and unclear phenomenon, often characterized by the report of various, non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS when an EMF source is present or perceived by the individual. The lack of validated criteria for defining and assessing IEI-EMF affects the quality of the relevant research, hindering not only the comparison or integration of study findings, but also the identification and management of patients by health care providers. The objective of this review was to evaluate and summarize the criteria that previous studies employed to identify IEI-EMF participants. Methods An extensive literature search was performed for studies published up to June 2011. We searched EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo, Scopus and Web of Science. Additionally, citation analyses were performed for key papers, reference sections of relevant papers were searched, conference proceedings were examined and a literature database held by the Mobile Phones Research Unit of King’s College London was reviewed. Results Sixty-three studies were included. “Hypersensitivity to EMF” was the most frequently used descriptive term. Despite heterogeneity, the criteria predominantly used to identify IEI-EMF individuals were: 1. Self-report of being (hypersensitive to EMF. 2. Attribution of NSPS to at least one EMF source. 3. Absence of medical or psychiatric/psychological disorder capable of accounting for these symptoms 4. Symptoms should occur soon (up to 24 hours after the individual perceives an exposure source or exposed area. (Hypersensitivity to EMF was either generalized (attribution to various EMF sources or source-specific. Experimental studies used a larger number of criteria than those of observational design and performed more frequently a medical examination or interview as prerequisite for inclusion. Conclusions Considerable heterogeneity exists in the

  5. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements.

  6. Simulation study of induced EMFs and the suppression during SST-1 start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V., E-mail: vishal@ipr.res.in; Sharma, D.; Vardhrajulu, A.; Gupta, C.N.; Srinivasan, R.; Daniel, R.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Induced EMFs study in PF coils during SST-1 start up using MATlab simulink. • Integration of wave shaping network to generate practical OT current profile. • This study would protect coil insulation with identifying RC circulating network. • Study of MOV technique for circulation of current through RC. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) comprises of various copper and superconducting coils for generating magnetic field for initiation, providing equilibrium and shaping of plasma in tokamak. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the induced EMF in superconducting poloidal field coils (PF coils) due to fast ramp down of current in ohmic transformer copper coils (OT coils) for SST-1 plasma initiation. The fast ramp down of current, from few kA to zero amperes in just 50–100 ms in OT coils, is required to achieve plasma breakdown and ramp up of plasma current in tokamak. However, it induces nearly 5 kV EMF in one of the SST-1 PF coils that can damage the coil insulation and also bias negatively the electronic switching of power supply. It is necessary to maintain induced EMF below 1 kV in all PF coils for safe operation of SST-1. The induced EMF up to 1 kV can be clamped without any need of protection and circulating current. If the induced EMF is in excess of 1 kV, then it has to allow the circulation of current through RC network for coil protection from overvoltage. These circulating currents in PF coils will affect the shaping of plasma. In this paper, the induced EMF in PF coils are simulated using MATlab simulink for a typical SST-1 current profile of OT coils. Further, this simulation study is used to design the protection system for PF coils. In this paper, the worst-case induced EMF scenario is considered by excluding the effect of passive elements like vacuum vessel and cryostat on mutual coupling parameters. However, the implementation of the EMF suppression scheme need more elaborated study with considering

  7. The prediction of BRDFs from surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.; Leonard, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of predicting the BRDF of smooth surfaces from profile measurements of their surface finish. The conversion of optical profile data to the BRDF at the same wavelength is essentially independent of scattering models, while the conversion of mechanical measurements, and wavelength scaling in general, are model dependent. Procedures are illustrated for several surfaces, including two from the recent HeNe BRDF round robin, and results are compared with measured data. Reasonable agreement is found except for surfaces which involve significant scattering from isolated surface defects which are poorly sampled in the profile data

  8. A new fiber optic sensor for inner surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shoubin; Hu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    In order to measure inner surface roughness of small holes nondestructively, a new fiber optic sensor is researched and developed. Firstly, a new model for surface roughness measurement is proposed, which is based on intensity-modulated fiber optic sensors and scattering modeling of rough surfaces. Secondly, a fiber optical measurement system is designed and set up. Under the help of new techniques, the fiber optic sensor can be miniaturized. Furthermore, the use of micro prism makes the light turn 90 degree, so the inner side surface roughness of small holes can be measured. Thirdly, the fiber optic sensor is gauged by standard surface roughness specimens, and a series of measurement experiments have been done. The measurement results are compared with those obtained by TR220 Surface Roughness Instrument and Form Talysurf Laser 635, and validity of the developed fiber optic sensor is verified. Finally, precision and influence factors of the fiber optic sensor are analyzed.

  9. Dynamic Control of Adsorption Sensitivity for Photo-EMF-Based Ammonia Gas Sensors Using a Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vashpanov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adsorption sensitivity control method that uses a wireless network and illumination light intensity in a photo-electromagnetic field (EMF-based gas sensor for measurements in real time of a wide range of ammonia concentrations. The minimum measurement error for a range of ammonia concentration from 3 to 800 ppm occurs when the gas concentration magnitude corresponds with the optimal intensity of the illumination light. A simulation with LabView-engineered modules for automatic control of a new intelligent computer system was conducted to improve measurement precision over a wide range of gas concentrations. This gas sensor computer system with wireless network technology could be useful in the chemical industry for automatic detection and measurement of hazardous ammonia gas levels in real time.

  10. Inspection of freeform surfaces considering uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrad, Vahid; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2013-01-01

    Inspection of a manufactured freeform surface can be conducted by building its surface model and comparing this manufactured surface model with the ideal design surface model and its tolerance requirement. The manufactured freeform surface model is usually achieved by obtaining measurement points on the manufactured surface, transforming these measurement points from the measurement coordinate system to the design coordinate system through localization, and reconstructing the surface model using the localized measurement points. In this research, a method was developed to estimate the locations and their variances of any selected points on the reconstructed freeform surface considering different sources of uncertainties in measurement, localization and surface reconstruction processes. In this method, first locations and variances of the localized measurement points are calculated considering uncertainties of the measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the localization processes. Then locations and variances of points on the reconstructed freeform surface are obtained considering uncertainties of the localized measurement points and uncertainties introduced in the freeform surface reconstruction process. Two case studies were developed to demonstrate how these three different uncertainty sources influence the quality of the reconstructed freeform curve and freeform surface in inspection. (paper)

  11. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P.

    2006-01-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  13. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  14. Surface magnetic field measurement with magnetic shielding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2010), 66-68 ISSN 1335-3632 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic hysteresis * magnetic field measurement * magnetic shielding * extrapolation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2010

  15. EMF-research 1993-2003[Health hazards from Electromagnetic fields]; EMF-forskning 1993-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Petra; Lindgren, Rolf [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    This report summarises 10 years of research on power frequency electric and magnetic fields. Cancer is the topic for which most research has been carried out during the 10-year-period. Epidemiological studies have shown statistical correlations between long time exposure to magnetic fields and a few forms of cancer. The most obvious correlation is between childhood leukaemia and magnetic fields from power lines. However, the correlations correspond to very small increases in risk and since there is no experimental evidence and no trustworthy mechanism exists, a cause-and-effect relationship cannot be established. Furthermore, there are also comprehensive and well-performed studies which show no correlations. Some studies indicate a correlation between electric and magnetic fields and cognitive functions and diffuse central nervous symptoms. The results show correspondence with the hypothesis that magnetic fields cause a chronic stress effect to the central nervous system. A relatively strong correlation has been shown between ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and electricity related labour. EMF is however only one of several conceivable explanations. An equivalent, although weaker, correlation has also been shown for Alzheimer's decease. It can be stated that frequent electric and magnetic fields do not seem to have any influence on reproducibility, such as damage on the foetus or negative effects on the reproduction in humans or animals. A potentially important area is the effect on the immune system in humans and animals. In fact, it has been noted that magnetic fields may activate the immune system whilst long term exposure seems to impoverish the capacity of the immune system. The research on field variables and connected mechanisms shows that intermittent magnetic fields have stronger biological impact than continuous fields. Another observation is that biological effects often appear as window effects in amplitude, frequency and sometimes even in time

  16. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near backgr...

  17. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  18. In situ surface roughness measurement using a laser scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C. J.; Wang, S. H.; Quan, C.; Shang, H. M.

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of an optical probe for in situ measurement of surface roughness are discussed. Based on this light scattering principle, the probe which consists of a laser diode, measuring lens and a linear photodiode array, is designed to capture the scattered light from a test surface with a relatively large scattering angle ϕ (=28°). This capability increases the measuring range and enhances repeatability of the results. The coaxial arrangement that incorporates a dual-laser beam and a constant compressed air stream renders the proposed system insensitive to movement or vibration of the test surface as well as surface conditions. Tests were conducted on workpieces which were mounted on a turning machine that operates with different cutting speeds. Test specimens which underwent different machining processes and of different surface finish were also studied. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of surface roughness measurement using the proposed method.

  19. Electromagnetic fields and the public: EMF standards and estimation of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Yury

    2010-04-01

    Mobile communications are a relatively new and additional source of electromagnetic exposure for the population. Standard daily mobile-phone use is known to increase RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic field) exposure to the brains of users of all ages, whilst mobile-phone base stations, and base station units for cordless phones, can regularly increase the exposures of large numbers of the population to RF-EMF radiation in everyday life. The need to determine appropriate standards stipulating the maximum acceptable short-term and long-term RF-EMF levels encountered by the public, and set such levels as general guidelines, is of great importance in order to help preserve the general public's health and that of the next generation of humanity.

  20. Electromagnetic fields and the public: EMF standards and estimation of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications are a relatively new and additional source of electromagnetic exposure for the population. Standard daily mobile-phone use is known to increase RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic field) exposure to the brains of users of all ages, whilst mobile-phone base stations, and base station units for cordless phones, can regularly increase the exposures of large numbers of the population to RF-EMF radiation in everyday life. The need to determine appropriate standards stipulating the maximum acceptable short-term and long-term RF-EMF levels encountered by the public, and set such levels as general guidelines, is of great importance in order to help preserve the general public's health and that of the next generation of humanity.

  1. Synergistic effect of EMF-BEMER-type pulsed weak electromagnetic field and HPMA-bound doxorubicin on mouse EL4 T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš; Šírová, Milada; Tomala, Jakub; Ulbrich, Karel; Kovář, Marek

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated the effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) produced by BEMER device on experimental mouse T-cell lymphoma EL4 growing on conventional and/or athymic (nude) mice. Exposure to EMF-BEMER slowed down the growth of tumor mass and prolonged the survival of experimental animals. The effect was more pronounced in immuno-compromised nude mice compared to conventional ones. Acceleration of tumor growth was never observed. No measurable levels of Hsp 70 or increased levels of specific anti-EL4 antibodies were detected in the serum taken from experimental mice before and at different intervals during the experiment, i.e. before solid tumor appeared, at the time of its aggressive growth, and at the terminal stage of the disease. A significant synergizing antitumor effect was seen when EL4 tumor-bearing mice were simultaneously exposed to EMF-BEMER and treated with suboptimal dose of synthetic HPMA copolymer-based doxorubicin, DOX(HYD)-HPMA. Such a combination may be especially useful for heavily treated patients suffering from advanced tumor and requiring additional aggressive chemotherapy which, however, at that time could represent almost life-threatening way of medication.

  2. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments

  3. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-01-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell...

  4. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  5. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  6. Measurements of radon progeny activity on typical indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Gogolak, C.V.; Klemic, G.

    1992-01-01

    A number of studies aimed at defining how well radon progeny on surfaces can be measured, information that is needed in order to test physical/mathematical models governing indoor radon progeny behaviour, are described. One experiment compared the decomposition on to different surfaces. Only relatively small differences were found among metal, filter paper, broadcloth, corduroy fabric, vinyl wallpaper, glass, and latex paint, but polyethylene film collected two to four times as much as the others, due most likely to electrostatic charge on the plastic surface. Another experiment compared the gamma and gross alpha count methods of measuring surface activity for metal, filter paper, broadcloth and corduroy surfaces. No difference for the surfaces tested was found from which it is concluded that, even for rougher surfaces, progeny atoms deposit mainly on the outer layers. A final experiment compared in situ and surrogate-surface methods for measuring surface deposition. For most tests, the two methods agreed within 30%, and the average ratio was not significantly different from unity. 210 Po is a complication in the in situ method. An unexpected location effect was found in the experiments conducted in houses with high radon concentrations: the deposition on the ceiling was higher than on the surfaces. (author)

  7. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engers, Christian D; Cousens, Nico E A; Babenko, Vitaliy; Britton, Jude; Zappone, Bruno; Grobert, Nicole; Perkin, Susan

    2017-06-14

    Graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising candidate for implementing graphene in a range of technologies. In most device configurations, one side of the graphene is supported by a solid substrate, wheras the other side is in contact with a medium of interest, such as a liquid or other two-dimensional material within a van der Waals stack. In such devices, graphene interacts on both faces via noncovalent interactions and therefore surface energies are key parameters for device fabrication and operation. In this work, we directly measured adhesive forces and surface energies of CVD-grown graphene in dry nitrogen, water, and sodium cholate using a modified surface force balance. For this, we fabricated large (∼1 cm 2 ) and clean graphene-coated surfaces with smooth topography at both macro- and nanoscales. By bringing two such surfaces into contact and measuring the force required to separate them, we measured the surface energy of single-layer graphene in dry nitrogen to be 115 ± 4 mJ/m 2 , which was similar to that of few-layer graphene (119 ± 3 mJ/m 2 ). In water and sodium cholate, we measured interfacial energies of 83 ± 7 and 29 ± 6 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Our work provides the first direct measurement of graphene surface energy and is expected to have an impact both on the development of graphene-based devices and contribute to the fundamental understanding of surface interactions.

  8. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  9. Open questions in surface topography measurement: a roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Evans, Christopher; He, Liangyu; Davies, Angela; Duparré, Angela; Henning, Andrew; Jones, Christopher W; O’Connor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Control of surface topography has always been of vital importance for manufacturing and many other engineering and scientific disciplines. However, despite over one hundred years of quantitative surface topography measurement, there are still many open questions. At the top of the list of questions is ‘Are we getting the right answer?’ This begs the obvious question ‘How would we know?’ There are many other questions relating to applications, the appropriateness of a technique for a given scenario, or the relationship between a particular analysis and the function of the surface. In this first ‘open questions’ article we have gathered together some experts in surface topography measurement and asked them to address timely, unresolved questions about the subject. We hope that their responses will go some way to answer these questions, address areas where further research is required, and look at the future of the subject. The first section ‘Spatial content characterization for precision surfaces’ addresses the need to characterise the spatial content of precision surfaces. Whilst we have been manufacturing optics for centuries, there still isn’t a consensus on how to specify the surface for manufacture. The most common three methods for spatial characterisation are reviewed and compared, and the need for further work on quantifying measurement uncertainties is highlighted. The article is focussed on optical surfaces, but the ideas are more pervasive. Different communities refer to ‘figure, mid-spatial frequencies, and finish’ and ‘form, waviness, and roughness’, but the mathematics are identical. The second section ‘Light scattering methods’ is focussed on light scattering techniques; an important topic with in-line metrology becoming essential in many manufacturing scenarios. The potential of scattering methods has long been recognized; in the ‘smooth surface limit’ functionally significant relationships can be derived from first

  10. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  11. Measurement of near neighbor separations of surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.I.

    Two techniques are being developed to measure the nearest neighbor distances of atoms at the surfaces of solids. Both measures extended fine structure in the excitation probability of core level electrons which are excited by an incident electron beam. This is an important problem because the structures of most surface systems are as yet unknown, even though the location of surface atoms is the basis for any quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics of surfaces and interfaces. These methods would allow any laboratory to make in situ determinations of surface structure in conjunction with most other laboratory probes of surfaces. Each of these two techniques has different advantages; further, the combination of the two will increase confidence in the results by reducing systematic error in the data analysis

  12. Surface deposition measurements of the TMI-2 gross decontamination experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIssac, C.V.; Hetzer, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of the gross decontamination experiment (principally a water spray technique) performed in the TMI-2 reactor building, the Technical Information and Examination Program's Radiation and Environment personnel made surface activity measurements before and after the experiment. In conjunction with surface sampling, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and gamma spectrometry measurements were also performed to distinguish between radiation fields and contamination. The surface sampler used to collect samples from external surfaces within the reactor building is a milling tool having four major components: a 1.27-cm constant-speed drill; a drill support assembly that allows setting sample penetration depth; filter cartridges for intake air purification and sample collection; and an air pump that forces air across the surface being sampled and through the sample filter cartridge

  13. Five years later: the current status of the use of proteomics and transcriptomics in EMF research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; de Pomerai, David; Koczan, Dirk; Stoll, Dieter; Franke, Helmut; Albar, Juan Pablo

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization's and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority's "Workshop on Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in Electromagnetic Fields Research" was held in Helsinki in the October/November 2005. As a consequence of this meeting, Proteomics journal published in 2006 a special issue "Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in EMF Research" (Vol. 6 No. 17; Guest Editor: D. Leszczynski). This Proteomics issue presented the status of research, of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) using proteomics and transcriptomics methods, present in 2005. The current overview/opinion article presents the status of research in this area by reviewing all studies that were published by the end of 2010. The review work was a part of the European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) Action BM0704 that created a structure in which researchers in the field of EMF and health shared knowledge and information. The review was prepared by the members of the COST Action BM0704 task group on the high-throughput screening techniques and electromagnetic fields (TG-HTST-EMF). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Universal "Imaginary Closed Circuit Method" and Formula for Determination of Direction of Induced EMF/Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atram, Dattatraya Balaram

    2011-01-01

    Fleming's right-hand rule and the right-flat-hand rule are generally applied for determining the direction of flow of induced emf/current in straight conductors. The right-hand-fingers rule is applied for coils only. The right-hand-thumb rule can be applied for either straight conductors or coils. Different rules have to be applied for different…

  15. A computer-aided surface roughness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.J.; Schankula, M.H.

    1983-11-01

    A diamond stylus profilometer with computer-based data acquisitions/analysis system is being used to characterize surfaces of reactor components and materials, and to examine the effects of surface topography on thermal contact conductance. The current system is described; measurement problems and system development are discussed in general terms and possible future improvements are outlined

  16. Measuring Forces between Oxide Surfaces Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Guldberg; Høj, Jakob Weiland

    1996-01-01

    The interactions between colloidal particles play a major role in processing of ceramics, especially in casting processes. With the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) it is possible to measure the inter-action force between a small oxide particle (a few micron) and a surface as function of surface...

  17. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulated BRDF based on measured surface topography of metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiyue; Haist, Tobias; Gronle, Marc; Osten, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    The radiative reflective properties of a calibration standard rough surface were simulated by ray tracing and the Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results have been used to compute the reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) of metal surfaces and have been compared with experimental measurements. The experimental and simulated results are in good agreement.

  19. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer scintillometer. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... of soil heat flux and net irradiance, evaporation rates were calculated as a residual of the ...

  20. Calibration technique for the neutron surface moisture measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.T.; Shreve, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for calibrating the response of a surface neutron moisture measurement probe to material moisture concentration has been devised. Tests to ensure that the probe will function in the expected in-tank operating environment are also outlined

  1. Surface Resistance Measurements of LHC Dipole Beam Screen Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Ruggiero, F; Tan, J; Tsutsui, H

    2000-01-01

    An estimate of the resistive losses in the LHC dipole beam screen is given from cold surface resistance measurements using the shielded pair technique. Several beam screen samples have been evaluated, with different copper coating methods, including a sample with ribbed surface envisaged to reduce electron cloud losses thanks to its low reflectivity. Experimental data, derived by a proper analysis of the measured Q-factors and including error estimates are compared with theoretical predictions of the anomalous skin effect.

  2. On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.

  3. International policy and advisory response regarding children's exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure regulations/guidelines generally only consider acute effects, and not chronic, low exposures. Concerns for children's exposure are warranted due to the amazingly rapid uptake of many wireless devices by increasingly younger children. This review of policy and advice regarding children's RF-EMF exposure draws material from a wide variety of sources focusing on the current situation. This is not a systematic review, but aims to provide a representative cross-section of policy and advisory responses within set boundaries. There are a wide variety of approaches which I have categorized and tabulated ranging from ICNIRP/IEEE guidelines and "no extra precautions needed" to precautionary or scientific much lower maxima and extensive advice to minimize RF-EMF exposure, ban advertising/sale to children, and add exposure information to packaging. Precautionary standards use what I term an exclusion principle. The wide range of policy approaches can be confusing for parents/carers of children. Some consensus among advisory organizations would be helpful acknowledging that, despite extensive research, the highly complex nature of both RF-EMF and the human body, and frequent technological updates, means simple assurance of long-term safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children.

  4. Accuracy of Surface Plate Measurements - General Purpose Software for Flatness Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.; Heuvelman, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Flatness departures of surface plates are generally obtained from straightness measurements of lines on the surface. A computer program has been developed for on-line measurement and evaluation, based on the simultaneous coupling of measurements in all grid points. Statistical methods are used to

  5. A noncontact laser system for measuring soil surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.; White, I.; Thwaite, E.G.; Bendeli, A.

    1988-01-01

    Soil surface topography profoundly influences runoff hydrodynamics, soil erosion, and surface retention of water. Here we describe an optical noncontact system for measuring soil surface topography. Soil elevation is measured by projecting a laser beam onto the surface and detecting the position of the interception point. The optical axis of the detection system is oriented at a small angle to the incident beam. A low-power HeNe (Helium-Neon) laser is used as the laser source, a photodiode array is used as the laser image detector and an ordinary 35-mm single lens reflex camera provides the optical system to focus the laser image onto the diode array. A wide spectrum of measurement ranges (R) and resolutions are selectable, from 1 mm to 1 m. These are determined by the laser-camera distance and angle, the focal length of the lens, and the sensing length of the diode array and the number of elements (N) contained in the array. The resolution of the system is approximately R/2N. We show for the system used here that this resolution is approximately 0.2%. In the configuration selected, elevation changes of 0.16 mm could be detected over a surface elevation range of 87 mm. The sampling rate of the system is 1000 Hz, which permits soil surfaces to be measured at speeds of up to 1 m s −1 with measurements taken at 1-mm spacing. Measurements of individual raindrop impacts on the soil and of soil surfaces before and after rain show the versatility of the laser surface profiler, which has applications in studies of erosion processes, surface storage and soil trafficability

  6. Dynamic Bubble Surface Tension Measurements in Northwest Atlantic Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieber, D. J.; Long, M. S.; Keene, W. C.; Kinsey, J. D.; Frossard, A. A.; Beaupre, S. R.; Duplessis, P.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Chang, R.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous reports suggest that most organic matter (OM) associated with newly formed primary marine aerosol (PMA) originates from the sea-surface microlayer. However, surface-active OM rapidly adsorbs onto bubble surfaces in the water column and is ejected into the atmosphere when bubbles burst at the air-water interface. Here we present dynamic surface tension measurements of bubbles produced in near surface seawater from biologically productive and oligotrophic sites and in deep seawater collected from 2500 m in the northwest Atlantic. In all cases, the surface tension of bubble surfaces decreased within seconds after the bubbles were exposed to seawater. These observations demonstrate that bubble surfaces are rapidly saturated by surfactant material scavenged from seawater. Spatial and diel variability in bubble surface evolution indicate corresponding variability in surfactant concentrations and/or composition. Our results reveal that surface-active OM is found throughout the water column, and that at least some surfactants are not of recent biological origin. Our results also support the hypothesis that the surface microlayer is a minor to negligible source of OM associated with freshly produced PMA.

  7. Relation of Giant Thermo-EMF, Magnetothermo-EMF, Magnetoresistance, and Magnetization to Magnetic Impurity States in Manganites Nd(1- x)Sr x MnO3 and Sm(1- x)Sr x MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. I.; Batashev, I. K.; Morozov, A. S.; Balbashov, A. M.; Szymczak, H.; Slawska-Waniew, A.

    2018-02-01

    Thermo-EMF, magnetothermo-EMF, magnetoresistance, and magnetization of single-crystal samples of Nd(1- x)Sr x MnO3 and Sm(1- x)Sr x MnO3 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 have been studied experimentally. A sharp increase in the thermo-EMF and giant magnetothermo-EMF and magnetoresistance has been observed near the Curie point T C in compounds with 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.3. At the same time, no peculiarities have been found in compositions with x = 0. Since compounds with x > 0 consist of ferromagnetic clusters of the ferron type that reside in an antiferromagnetic A-type matrix, this means that the sharp increase in the thermo-EMF near T C is caused by ferrons. Indeed, the disappearance of ferrons due to a magnetic field or heating above T C leads to an abrupt decrease in the thermo-EMF. Therefore, thermo-EMF in alloyed magnetic semiconductors has been determined by the impurity concentration and the sample volume.

  8. Summations over equilaterally triangulated surfaces and the critical string measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, D.J.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the summation over dynamically triangulated Riemann surfaces which does not rely on properties of the potential in a matrix model. Instead, we formulate a purely algebraic discretization of critical string path integral. This is combined with a technique which assigns to each equilateral triangulation of a two-dimensional surface a Riemann surface defined over a certain finite extension of the field of rational numbers, i.e. an arithmetic surface. Thus we establish a new formulated in which the sum over randomly triangulated surfaces defines an invariant measure on the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces. It is shown that because of this it is far from obvious that this measure for large genera approximates the measure defined by the continuum theory, i.e. Liouville theory or critical string theory. In low genus this subtlety does not exist. In the case of critical string theory we explicitly compute the volume of the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces in terms of the modular height function and show that for low genus it approximates correctly the continuum measure. We also discuss a continuum limit which bears some resemblance with a double scaling limit in matrix models. (orig.)

  9. Measurement for Surface Tension of Aqueous Inorganic Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubble columns are effective means of filtration in filtered containment venting systems. Here, the surface tension has a significant influence on bubble size distribution and bubble deformation, which have a strong impact on the behavior of the bubble column. The influence of aqueous inorganic compounds on the surface tension depends on the electrolytic activity, Debye length, entropy of ion hydration, and surface deficiencies or excess. In this work, the surface tensions of same specific aqueous solutions have been measured by different methods including platinum plate method, platinum ring method, and maximum bubble pressure method. The measured surface tensions of both sodium hydroxide and sodium thiosulfate are less than that of water. As solution temperature ranges from 20 to 75°C, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution decreases from 71 to 55 mN/m while that of 1 mol/L solution decreases from 60 to 45 mN/m. Similarly during the same temperature range, the surface tension of 0.5 mol/L sodium thiosulfate decreases from 70 to 38 mN/m, and that of 1 mol/L sodium thiosulfate is between 68 and 36 mN/m. The analysis for the influence mechanism of aqueous inorganic on surface tension is provided. In addition, experimental results show that the surface tension of solid aerosol suspension liquid has no obvious difference from that of distilled water.

  10. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure levels in different European outdoor urban environments in comparison with regulatory limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Joseph, Wout; Huss, Anke; Verloock, Leen; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Röösli, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Concerns of the general public about potential adverse health effects caused by radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) led authorities to introduce precautionary exposure limits, which vary considerably between regions. It may be speculated that precautionary limits affect the base station network in a manner that mean population exposure unintentionally increases. The objectives of this multicentre study were to compare mean exposure levels in outdoor areas across four different European cities and to compare with regulatory RF-EMF exposure levels in the corresponding areas. We performed measurements in the cities of Amsterdam (the Netherlands, regulatory limits for mobile phone base station frequency bands: 41-61 V/m), Basel (Switzerland, 4-6 V/m), Ghent (Belgium, 3-4.5 V/m) and Brussels (Belgium, 2.9-4.3 V/m) using a portable measurement device. Measurements were conducted in three different types of outdoor areas (central and non-central residential areas and downtown), between 2011 and 2012 at 12 different days. On each day, measurements were taken every 4s for approximately 15 to 30 min per area. Measurements per urban environment were repeated 12 times during 1 year. Arithmetic mean values for mobile phone base station exposure ranged between 0.22 V/m (Basel) and 0.41 V/m (Amsterdam) in all outdoor areas combined. The 95th percentile for total RF-EMF exposure varied between 0.46 V/m (Basel) and 0.82 V/m (Amsterdam) and the 99th percentile between 0.81 V/m (Basel) and 1.20 V/m (Brussels). All exposure levels were far below international reference levels proposed by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection). Our study did not find indications that lowering the regulatory limit results in higher mobile phone base station exposure levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RZP 202 - a modular system for surface density measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, L.; Merinsky, J.

    The sensing element is an ionization chamber of the type that has maximum sensitivity to beta radiation of the used radionuclide ( 147 Pm, 85 Kr, 90 Sr- 90 Y) or to gamma radiation of radionuclide 241 Am. Collimation shields were developed for the said sources. Measurement of the ionization currents is made with an electrometer with a vibration capacitor. Invariable configuration is secured by a measuring arm. The modular units are of the CAMAC system design. The surface density meters measure deviations from the rated surface density. The scale for inputting surface density is linear. The configuration, functional continuity of the individual parts and the possibility of variant designs of surface density meters are described and the technical parameters of RZP 202 and its configuration and design are given

  12. Advances in the Surface Renewal Flux Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, T. M.; McElrone, A.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of ecosystem-scale energy and mass fluxes between the planetary surface and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding geophysical processes. Surface renewal is a flux measurement technique based on analyzing the turbulent coherent structures that interact with the surface. It is a less expensive technique because it does not require fast-response velocity measurements, but only a fast-response scalar measurement. It is therefore also a useful tool for the study of the global cycling of trace gases. Currently, surface renewal requires calibration against another flux measurement technique, such as eddy covariance, to account for the linear bias of its measurements. We present two advances in the surface renewal theory and methodology that bring the technique closer to becoming a fully independent flux measurement method. The first advance develops the theory of turbulent coherent structure transport associated with the different scales of coherent structures. A novel method was developed for identifying the scalar change rate within structures at different scales. Our results suggest that for canopies less than one meter in height, the second smallest coherent structure scale dominates the energy and mass flux process. Using the method for resolving the scalar exchange rate of the second smallest coherent structure scale, calibration is unnecessary for surface renewal measurements over short canopies. This study forms the foundation for analysis over more complex surfaces. The second advance is a sensor frequency response correction for measuring the sensible heat flux via surface renewal. Inexpensive fine-wire thermocouples are frequently used to record high frequency temperature data in the surface renewal technique. The sensible heat flux is used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. The robust thermocouples commonly used in field experiments

  13. Outdoor surface temperature measurement: ground truth or lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skauli, Torbjorn

    2004-08-01

    Contact surface temperature measurement in the field is essential in trials of thermal imaging systems and camouflage, as well as for scene modeling studies. The accuracy of such measurements is challenged by environmental factors such as sun and wind, which induce temperature gradients around a surface sensor and lead to incorrect temperature readings. In this work, a simple method is used to test temperature sensors under conditions representative of a surface whose temperature is determined by heat exchange with the environment. The tested sensors are different types of thermocouples and platinum thermistors typically used in field trials, as well as digital temperature sensors. The results illustrate that the actual measurement errors can be much larger than the specified accuracy of the sensors. The measurement error typically scales with the difference between surface temperature and ambient air temperature. Unless proper care is taken, systematic errors can easily reach 10% of this temperature difference, which is often unacceptable. Reasonably accurate readings are obtained using a miniature platinum thermistor. Thermocouples can perform well on bare metal surfaces if the connection to the surface is highly conductive. It is pointed out that digital temperature sensors have many advantages for field trials use.

  14. Measuring and modeling surface sorption dynamics of organophosphate flame retardants on impervious surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains measured and model predicted OPFRs gas-phase and surface-phase...

  15. Noise evaluation of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maculotti, Giacomo; Feng, Xiaobing; Galetto, Maurizio; Leach, Richard

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument is evaluated, as the first step towards establishing a route to traceability for this type of instrument. The evaluation is based on the determination of the metrological characteristics for noise as outlined in draft ISO specification standards by using a calibrated optical flat. The static noise and repeatability of the autofocus sensor are evaluated. The influence of environmental disturbances on the measured surface topography and the built-in software to compensate for such influences are also investigated. The instrument was found to have a measurement noise of approximately 2 nm or, when expressed with the measurement bandwidth, 0.4 nm for a single-point measurement.

  16. Practical aspects of tritium measurement in ground and surface waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, O [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Hebert, D [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1997-03-01

    Tritium measurements are a powerful tool in hydrological and hydrogeological investigations for detecting mean residence times of several water reservoirs. Due to the low tritium activities in precipitation, ground and surface waters a low level measurement is necessary. Therefore often the liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment of water is used. In this paper some practical aspects and problems of measurement are discussed and the problem of contamination in low level laboratories is shown. (orig.)

  17. Surface Moisture Measurement System Operation and Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Pearce, K.L.; Stokes, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    This operations and maintenance manual addresses deployment, equipment and field hazards, operating instructions, calibration verification, removal, maintenance, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) and Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS). These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  18. Surface Forces Apparatus measurements of interactions between rough and reactive calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, Joanna; Javadi, Shaghayegh; Bratvold, Jon Einar; Nilsen, Ola; Røyne, Anja

    2018-05-28

    Nm-range forces acting between calcite surfaces in water affect macroscopic properties of carbonate rocks and calcite-based granular materials, and are significantly influenced by calcite surface recrystallization. We suggest that the repulsive mechanical effects related to nm-scale surface recrystallization of calcite in water could be partially responsible for the observed decrease of cohesion in calcitic rocks saturated with water. Using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA), we simultaneously followed the calcite reactivity and measured the forces in water in two surface configurations: between two rough calcite surfaces (CC), or between rough calcite and a smooth mica surface (CM). We used nm-scale rough, polycrystalline calcite films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). We measured only repulsive forces in CC in CaCO 3 -saturated water, which was related to roughness and possibly to repulsive hydration effects. Adhesive or repulsive forces were measured in CM in CaCO 3 -saturated water depending on calcite roughness, and the adhesion was likely enhanced by electrostatic effects. The pull-off adhesive force in CM became stronger with time and this increase was correlated with a decrease of roughness at contacts, which parameter could be estimated from the measured force-distance curves. That suggested a progressive increase of real contact areas between the surfaces, caused by gradual pressure-driven deformation of calcite surface asperities during repeated loading-unloading cycles. Reactivity of calcite was affected by mass transport across nm to µm-thick gaps between the surfaces. Major roughening was observed only for the smoothest calcite films, where gaps between two opposing surfaces were nm-thick over µm-sized areas, and led to force of crystallization that could overcome confining pressures of the order of MPa. Any substantial roughening of calcite caused a significant increase of the repulsive mechanical force contribution.

  19. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  20. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    surfaces in use have changed - for instance to road surface types with less noise from wheel passages. Because of this, a co-operation between the road administrations of the Nordic countries (abbreviated NMF) decided to construct a portable instrument to be used on selections of traffic roads within......Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  1. Accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional surface reconstruction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Jun; Muneta, Yuki; Tanabe, Makito; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Azemoto, Syougo.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a new three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction system to measure the temporal bones. This system offers the advantage of observation of the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct and the porus acusticus internus in living subjects. However, its accuracy has not been confirmed. To investigate the accuracy of this new system, we measured the length of an in situ ceramic ossicular replacement prosthesis (CORP) of known length of 6.0 mm using 3-D surface reconstruction, conventional plain X-ray and polytomography. The CORP was scanned in the axial, sagittal and oblique directions. The mean measured length obtained with the 3-D surface reconstruction images was 5.94±0.21 on vertical scans, 5.91±0.27 on horizontal scans, and 6.01±0.25 on oblique scans. There were no significant differences among the measured lengths obtained in the three directions. Therefore, this 3-D surface reconstruction measurement system is considered to be reliable. Conversely, the mean measured length obtained by plain X-ray was 7.98±0.20, and by polytomography it was 7.94±0.23. These conventional methods have the inherent disadvantage of magnification of size which consequently requires correction. (author)

  2. Field measurement of albedo for limited extent test surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David J. [Portland State University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, P.O. Box 751-ME, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Resh, Kyle; Segura, Del [Tulane University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 400 Lindy Boggs Center, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A new method is introduced for field measurement of surface albedo. This method consists of the use of a cylindrical shade ring made of opaque fabric with a known (low) albedo placed over a test surface. The albedo measurement is accomplished using two small pyranometers situated so that the downward-facing pyranometer receives radiation only from the test surface and the shade ring. The upward-facing pyranometer simultaneously records the incoming solar radiation. The radiation received by the downward-facing pyramometer is a combination of reflected radiation from shaded and unshaded portions of these two surfaces, requiring detailed accounting of the resulting view factor geometries. The method presented here improves upon past approaches by allowing for smaller sample sizes, minimizing errors associated with reflective properties of the surroundings, and allowing for accurate measurements even under partially cloudy skies. In addition to these methodological improvements we introduce an approach for estimating the uncertainty in the resulting albedo measurements. Results from field measurements are presented to validate the measurement protocol, and to compare its accuracy with the accuracy of a published standard. (author)

  3. Intelligent sampling for the measurement of structured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Jiang, X; Blunt, L A; Scott, P J; Leach, R K

    2012-01-01

    Uniform sampling in metrology has known drawbacks such as coherent spectral aliasing and a lack of efficiency in terms of measuring time and data storage. The requirement for intelligent sampling strategies has been outlined over recent years, particularly where the measurement of structured surfaces is concerned. Most of the present research on intelligent sampling has focused on dimensional metrology using coordinate-measuring machines with little reported on the area of surface metrology. In the research reported here, potential intelligent sampling strategies for surface topography measurement of structured surfaces are investigated by using numerical simulation and experimental verification. The methods include the jittered uniform method, low-discrepancy pattern sampling and several adaptive methods which originate from computer graphics, coordinate metrology and previous research by the authors. By combining the use of advanced reconstruction methods and feature-based characterization techniques, the measurement performance of the sampling methods is studied using case studies. The advantages, stability and feasibility of these techniques for practical measurements are discussed. (paper)

  4. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  5. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  6. Optimized Estimation of Surface Layer Characteristics from Profiling Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreene Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New sampling techniques such as tethered-balloon-based measurements or small unmanned aerial vehicles are capable of providing multiple profiles of the Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer (MASL in a short time period. It is desirable to obtain surface fluxes from these measurements, especially when direct flux measurements are difficult to obtain. The profiling data is different from the traditional mean profiles obtained at two or more fixed levels in the surface layer from which surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat are derived based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST. This research develops an improved method to derive surface fluxes and the corresponding MASL mean profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity with a least-squares optimization method using the profiling measurements. This approach allows the use of all available independent data. We use a weighted cost function based on the framework of MOST with the cost being optimized using a quasi-Newton method. This approach was applied to seven sets of data collected from the Monterey Bay. The derived fluxes and mean profiles show reasonable results. An empirical bias analysis is conducted using 1000 synthetic datasets to evaluate the robustness of the method.

  7. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, Sergio; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Fedorov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E A =1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D 0  = 0.53(×2.1±1) cm 2 s −1 that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  8. Direct measurement of Cu surface self-diffusion on a checked surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, Jacques; Peix, Roger; Perraillon, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    A radiotracer technique ( 64 Cu) was developed to measure surface diffusion on copper surfaces of total impurity concentration not exceeding some 10 -3 monolayers. The apparatus used consists of a slow electron diffraction device, an Auger analysis spectrometer (CMA), an ion gun and an evaporation device assembled in an ultra-vacuum chamber holding a residual pressure below 10 -10 Torr. A sample handler enables the surface studied to be positioned in front of each of these instruments. During the diffusion treatment the chemical composition of the surface is checked intermittently, and afterwards the spread of the deposit is measured outside the ultravacuum chamber. Slices several microns thick are removed and dissolved separately in dishes containing HNO 3 . The activity is then measured with a flow counter [fr

  9. Measurement of surface recombination velocity on heavily doped indium phosphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, P.; Ghalla-Goradia, M.; Faur, M.; Bailey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the published low values of surface recombination velocity (SRV) in n-InP, solidified in recent years when modeling of existing n/p InP solar cells revealed that the front surface SRV had to be higher than 1 x 10 6 cm/sec in order to justify the poor blue response that is characteristic of all n/p InP solar cells. In this paper, SRV on heavily doped (>10 18 cm -3 )n-type and p-type InP is measured as a function of surface treatment. For the limited range of substrates and surface treatments studied, SRV and surface stability depend strongly on the surface treatment. SRVs of ∼10 5 cm/sec in both p-type and n-type InP are obtainable, but in n-type the low SRV surfaces were unstable, and the only stable surfaces on n-type had SRVs of >10 6 cm/sec

  10. Fermi surface measurements in actinide metals and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.; Schirber, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The various techniques of measuring Fermi Surface parameters are briefly discussed in terms f application to actinide systems. Particular emphasis is given the dHvA effect. Some general results found in the dHvA studies of actinide compounds are given. The dHvA effect has been measured in α-U and is presented in detail. None of the observed frequencies corresponds to closed surfaces. Results are compared to the calculations of Freeman, Koelling and Watson-Yang where qualitative agreement is observed

  11. Measuring surface flow velocity with smartphones: potential for citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven V.; Chen, Zichong; Brauchli, Tristan; Huwald, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Stream flow velocity is an important variable for discharge estimation and research on sediment dynamics. Given the influence of the latter on rating curves (stage-discharge relations), and the relative scarcity of direct streamflow measurements, surface velocity measurements can offer important information for, e.g., flood warning, hydropower, and hydrological science and engineering in general. With the growing amount of sensing and computing power in the hands of more outdoorsy individuals, and the advances in image processing techniques, there is now a tremendous potential to obtain hydrologically relevant data from motivated citizens. This is the main focus of the interdisciplinary "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water. In this subproject, we investigate the feasibility of stream flow surface velocity measurements from movie clips taken by (smartphone-) cameras. First results from movie-clip derived velocity information will be shown and compared to reference measurements.

  12. Topography measurements for determining the decay factors in surface replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Rubert, P

    2008-01-01

    The electro-forming technique is used at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the production of standard reference material (SRM) 2461 standard casings to support nationwide ballistics measurement traceability and measurement quality control in the US. In order to ensure that the SRM casings are produced with virtually the same surface topography, it is necessary to test the decay factors of the replication process. Twenty-six replica casings are replicated from the same master casing for the decay factor tests. The NIST topography measurement system is used for measurements and correlations of surface topography. The topography decays are quantified by the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max . Based on the test, it is expected that 256 SRM casings can be replicated from the same master with CCF max values higher than 95%

  13. Measuring the Surface Temperature of the Cryosphere using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    A general description of the remote sensing of cryosphere surface temperatures from satellites will be provided. This will give historical information on surface-temperature measurements from space. There will also be a detailed description of measuring the surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data which will be the focus of the presentation. Enhanced melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been documented in recent literature along with surface-temperature increases measured using infrared satellite data since 1981. Using a recently-developed climate data record, trends in the clear-sky ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet have been studied using the MODIS IST product. Daily and monthly MODIS ISTs of the Greenland Ice Sheet beginning on 1 March 2000 and continuing through 31 December 2010 are now freely available to download at 6.25-km spatial resolution on a polar stereographic grid. Maps showing the maximum extent of melt for the entire ice sheet and for the six major drainage basins have been developed from the MODIS IST dataset. Twelve-year trends of the duration of the melt season on the ice sheet vary in different drainage basins with some basins melting progressively earlier over the course of the study period. Some (but not all) of the basins also show a progressively-longer duration of melt. The consistency of this IST record, with temperature and melt records from other sources will be discussed.

  14. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  15. Study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission from overhead High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, S.R.; Roha Tukimin; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Zulkifli Yusof; Mohd Azizi Mohd Jali

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights the study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission performed at an overhead 275-kV High-Voltage Transmission Lines. The study comprised of assessment at the transmission lines on 3 different cases and locations in Klang Valley, specifically on a vacant land near the transmission line, inside and around the house at the vicinity of the transmission line and the area directly under the transmission line. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results showed that the measured field strengths are within the safety limit with the highest measured exposure was 10.8 % and 1.8 % of the permissible exposure limit for the electric and magnetic field respectively. Both the field strengths were found to drop significantly against distance from the transmission lines where closer distances showed higher field strengths. Furthermore, the study revealed that buildings and other object such as trees and shrubs screen out the electric field, resulting in a lower value at indoor measurements and near the stated objects. In addition, higher value of electric and magnetic field strengths were recorded when assessment was being done directly under the transmission line compared to the lateral measurement. (author)

  16. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Surface Measurement of Liver Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan H; Reistad, Nina; Brange, Hannes; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Sturesson, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Liver parenchymal injuries such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can lead to increased morbidity and liver failure after liver resection. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical measuring method that is fast, convenient, and established. DRS has previously been used on the liver with an invasive technique consisting of a needle that is inserted into the parenchyma. We developed a DRS system with a hand-held probe that is applied to the liver surface. In this study, we investigated the impact of the liver capsule on DRS measurements and whether liver surface measurements are representative of the whole liver. We also wanted to confirm that we could discriminate between tumor and liver parenchyma by DRS. The instrumentation setup consisted of a light source, a fiber-optic contact probe, and two spectrometers connected to a computer. Patients scheduled for liver resection due to hepatic malignancy were included, and DRS measurements were performed on the excised liver part with and without the liver capsule and alongside a newly cut surface. To estimate the scattering parameters and tissue chromophore volume fractions, including blood, bile, and fat, the measured diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to an analytical model. In total, 960 DRS spectra from the excised liver tissue of 18 patients were analyzed. All factors analyzed regarding tumor versus liver tissue were significantly different. When measuring through the capsule, the blood volume fraction was found to be 8.4 ± 3.5%, the lipid volume fraction was 9.9 ± 4.7%, and the bile volume fraction was 8.2 ± 4.6%. No differences could be found between surface measurements and cross-sectional measurements. In measurements with/without the liver capsule, the differences in volume fraction were 1.63% (0.75-2.77), -0.54% (-2.97 to 0.32), and -0.15% (-1.06 to 1.24) for blood, lipid, and bile, respectively. This study shows that it is possible to manage DRS

  17. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms, there is a n......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms......, there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions....

  18. Design and strength evaluation of structural joint made by electro-magnetic forming (EMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Bae; Oh, Soo-Ik; Kim, Heon-Young

    2004-01-01

    Recently, weight reduction of vehicles has been of great interest, and consequently, the use of low-density materials in the automotive industry is increasing every year. Materials should not be substituted such a way that material of component parts is simply changed because there is a problem in achieving stiffness and strength. To achieve these requirements, the automobile should be redesigned totally. Aluminum spaceframe is rapidly being adopted as a body structure for accommodating lightness, stiffness and strength requirement. In aluminum spaceframe manufacturing, it is often required to join aluminum tube. But there are few suitable methods for joining aluminum tube, so that much interest has been focused on testing suitable joining methods. Joining by electromagnetic forming(EMF) can be useful method in joining aluminum tube, which offers some advantages compared with the conventional joining method. In this paper, joining by EMF was investigated as a pre-study for applying an automotive spaceframe. Finite element simulations and strength tests were performed to analyze the influence of geometric parameters on joint strength. Based on these results, configurations of axial joint and torque joint were suggested and guidelines for designing EMF joint were established

  19. RF-EMF exposure of fetus and mother during magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pediaditis, M; Leitgeb, N; Cech, R [Institute of Health Care Engineering with European Notified Body of Medical Devices, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 18, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: norbert.leitgeb@tugraz.at

    2008-12-21

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) avoids risks of genetic damage but may be associated with excess heating of body tissues. To investigate the exposure to MRI radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), low-pass and high-pass birdcage coils were simulated and the whole-body pregnant woman model SILVY used to determine local and whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) in mother and fetus. Resonant RF-EMF of MRI devices were investigated at 0.3, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 T. Results allow extrapolation also to higher fields. They showed that local SAR in mother's trunk reaches exposure limits first. However, data show that during abdominal MRI meeting exposure limits of the mother is not sufficient to protect the fetus if limits of the general populations are applied to it. In that case fetal whole-body SAR exceeds limits by 7.4-fold. It is up to the physician and/or the ethics commission to decide upon justification for abdominal MRI of pregnant women if limits are exceeded. The results indicate the need for specifically addressing fetal exposure to EMF and elaborating general recommendations by radiation protection bodies.

  20. RF-EMF exposure of fetus and mother during magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediaditis, M; Leitgeb, N; Cech, R

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) avoids risks of genetic damage but may be associated with excess heating of body tissues. To investigate the exposure to MRI radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), low-pass and high-pass birdcage coils were simulated and the whole-body pregnant woman model SILVY used to determine local and whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) in mother and fetus. Resonant RF-EMF of MRI devices were investigated at 0.3, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 T. Results allow extrapolation also to higher fields. They showed that local SAR in mother's trunk reaches exposure limits first. However, data show that during abdominal MRI meeting exposure limits of the mother is not sufficient to protect the fetus if limits of the general populations are applied to it. In that case fetal whole-body SAR exceeds limits by 7.4-fold. It is up to the physician and/or the ethics commission to decide upon justification for abdominal MRI of pregnant women if limits are exceeded. The results indicate the need for specifically addressing fetal exposure to EMF and elaborating general recommendations by radiation protection bodies.

  1. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  2. Freeform surface measurement and characterisation using a toolmakers microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Francis Seung-yin; Chauh, Kong-Bieng; Venuvinod, Patri K

    2014-01-01

    Current freeform surface (FFS) characterization systems mainly cover aspects related to computer-aided design/manufacture (CAD/CAM). This paper describes a new approach that extends into computer-aided inspection (CAI).The following novel features are addressed: - ◼ Feature recognition and extraction from surface data; - ◼ Characterisation of properties of the surface's M and N vectors at individual vertex; - ◼ Development of a measuring plan using a toolmakers microscope for the inspection of the FFS; - ◼ Inspection of the actual FFS produced by CNC milling; - ◼ Verification of the measurement results and comparison with the CAD design data; Tests have shown that the deviations between the CAI and CAD data were within the estimated uncertainty limits

  3. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  4. Surface moisture measurement system acceptance testing work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses testing of the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The purpose of this plan is to define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, describe test control requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule associated with acceptance testing

  5. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  6. An instrument for the measurement of road surface reflection properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Sørensen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Road surface reflection data in the form of standard r-tables serve as input for design calculations of road lighting installations on traffic roads. However, in several countries the use of the standard r-tables has not been verified by measurement in a long period of time, while the types of road...

  7. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  8. Investigation of reaction equilibrium in reactor materials by EMF methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, H.; Teske, K.; Reetz, T.; Rettig, D.; Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznecov, E.K.

    1979-01-01

    By means of electrochemical cells with solid electrolytes measurements of the chemical activities of oxygen and hydrogen in a sodium test loop were performed. The reaction equilibrium of oxygen and hydrogen in dilute solutions of sodium was investigated. The activities of both oxygen and hydrogen decrease with increasing concentration of the reaction partner. From the relation between the activivy of one component and the analytic concentration of the reaction partner the equilibrium constant of the reaction 0+H = OH was determinded to lg K sub(diss) = -(1,502+-0,216)-(1356+-140)/T. An electrochemical cell with an iron membrane and a solid electrolyte was used to measure the activity of carbon in a carborizing medium. The cell output was stable over a period of more than 1000 hours at a carbon activity of 1. (orig.) [de

  9. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  10. Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Saletti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  11. Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  12. Field Measurement of Surface Ship Magnetic Signature Using Multiple AUVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    been equipped with a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer and used to perform preliminary magnetic field measurements. Measurements of this type will be...mounted on the AUVs, shown in Fig. 1, was a three-axis fluxgate type [16] magnetometer with a range of ±100,000 nT and a sensitivity of 100μV/nT. The...surface ship. The system will employ a formation of multiple AUVs, each equipped with a magnetometer . The objective is to measure total magnetic

  13. Measurement of annual dose on porcelain using surface TLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of TL authentication test for porcelain, a method of measurement of annual dose using ultrathin (CaSO 4 :Tm) dosage layer on porcelain was studied. The TLD was placed on the part of porcelain without glaze. A comparison of measurement of annual dose for surface TLD, inside TLD and alpha counting on porcelain was made. The results show that this technique is suitable for measuring annual dose and improving accuracy of TL authentication test for both porcelain and pottery

  14. Radiation protection for EMF harmonizing legislation in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaruba, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    To effect a change in biological material through which it is passing, an Electromagnetic wave must deposit enough energy to alter some structure significantly. But:- Every material particle within the body already possesses an average thermal kinetic energy (kT) and these particles continually collide with other particles of similar energy. For a change to occur an EM wave should transfer energy greater than kT. There is a bond energy which is within an order of magnitude of electron volt (1.6 X 10-19 J). For a change to occur an EM photon which typically carries an energy of hf should deposit packets of energy larger than bond energy. RF fields : It is concluded (epidemiological, animal and in vitro studies) that exposure to RF fields is unlikely to lead to an increase in cancer in humans. IF fields: The data are still too limited for an appropriate risk assessment. ELF fields: No new studies support a causal relationship between ELF fields and self-reported symptoms. Preliminary study of RF radiation levels in the residential areas. The study was conducted 2007 - 2008.Measurements of RF radiation levels to 200 cellular phone base stations, 2 Television stations and 5 radio stations. Measurements done aat to 300 meters from the fence of base stations. Preliminary results showed public exposed to 0.05% of the ICNIRP reference levels. Need to re-confirm measurements

  15. In vivo measurement of vocal fold surface resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kurita, Takashi; Dillon, Neal P; Kimball, Emily E; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti; Webster, Robert J; Rousseau, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    A custom-designed probe was developed to measure vocal fold surface resistance in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate proof of concept of using vocal fold surface resistance as a proxy of functional tissue integrity after acute phonotrauma using an animal model. Prospective animal study. New Zealand White breeder rabbits received 120 minutes of airflow without vocal fold approximation (control) or 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation (experimental). The probe was inserted via laryngoscope and placed on the left vocal fold under endoscopic visualization. Vocal fold surface resistance of the middle one-third of the vocal fold was measured after 0 (baseline), 60, and 120 minutes of phonation. After the phonation procedure, the larynx was harvested and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In the control group, vocal fold surface resistance values remained stable across time points. In the experimental group, surface resistance (X% ± Y% relative to baseline) was significantly decreased after 120 minutes of raised intensity phonation. This was associated with structural changes using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed damage to the vocal fold epithelium after phonotrauma, including disruption of the epithelium and basement membrane, dilated paracellular spaces, and alterations to epithelial microprojections. In contrast, control vocal fold specimens showed well-preserved stratified squamous epithelia. These data demonstrate the feasibility of measuring vocal fold surface resistance in vivo as a means of evaluating functional vocal fold epithelial barrier integrity. Device prototypes are in development for additional testing, validation, and for clinical applications in laryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E364-E370, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. DNA conformation on surfaces measured by fluorescence self-interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, Lev; Unlü, M Selim; Swan, Anna K; Goldberg, Bennett B; Cantor, Charles R

    2006-02-21

    The conformation of DNA molecules tethered to the surface of a microarray may significantly affect the efficiency of hybridization. Although a number of methods have been applied to determine the structure of the DNA layer, they are not very sensitive to variations in the shape of DNA molecules. Here we describe the application of an interferometric technique called spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy to the precise measurement of the average location of a fluorescent label in a DNA layer relative to the surface and thus determine specific information on the conformation of the surface-bound DNA molecules. Using spectral self-interference fluorescence microscopy, we have estimated the shape of coiled single-stranded DNA, the average tilt of double-stranded DNA of different lengths, and the amount of hybridization. The data provide important proofs of concept for the capabilities of novel optical surface analytical methods of the molecular disposition of DNA on surfaces. The determination of DNA conformations on surfaces and hybridization behavior provide information required to move DNA interfacial applications forward and thus impact emerging clinical and biotechnological fields.

  17. A new surface resistance measurement method with ultrahigh sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Changnian.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting niobium triaxial cavity has been designed and fabricated to study residual surface resistance of planar superconducting materials. The edge of a 25.4 mm or larger diameter sample in the triaxial cavity is located outside the strong field region. Therefore, the edge effects and possible losses between the thin film and the substrate have been minimized, ensuring that induced RF losses are intrinsic to the test material. The fundamental resonant frequency of the cavity is the same as the working frequency of CEBAF cavities. The cavity has a compact size compared to its TE 011 counterpart, which makes it more sensitive to the sample's loss. For even higher sensitivity, a calorimetry method has been used to measure the RF losses on the superconducting sample. At 2 K, a 2 μK temperature change can be resolved by using carbon resistor sensors. The temperature distribution caused by RF heating is measured by 16 carbon composition resistor sensors. A 0.05 μW heating power can be detected as such a resolution, which translates to a surface resistance of 0.02 nΩ at a surface magnetic field of 52 Oe. This is the most sensitive device for surface resistance measurements to date. In addition, losses due to the indium seal, coupling probes, field emission sites other than the sample, and all of the high field resonator surface, are excluded in the measurement. Surface resistance of both niobium and high-Tc superconducting thin films has been measured. A low R s of 35.2 μΩ was measured for a 25.4 mm diameter YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film at 1.5 GHz and at 2 K. The measurement result is the first result for a large area epitaxially grown thin film sample at such a low RF frequency. The abrupt disappearance of multipacting between two parallel plates has been observed and monitored with the 16 temperature mapping sensors. Field emission or some field dependent anomalous RF losses on the niobium plate have also been observed

  18. Measurements of the near-surface flow over a hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosper, S. B.; Mobbs, S. D.; Gardiner, B. A.

    2002-10-01

    The near-surface flow over a hill with moderate slope and height comparable with the boundary-layer depth is investigated through field measurements of the mean flow (at 2 m), surface pressure, and turbulent momentum flux divergence between 8 and 15 m. The measurements were made along an east-west transect across the hill Tighvein (height 458 m, approximate width 8 km) on the Isle of Arran, south-west Scotland, during two separate periods, each of around three-weeks duration. Radiosonde ascents are used to determine the variation of a Froude number, FL = U/NL, where U is the wind speed at the middle-layer height, hm, N is the mean Brunt-Väisälä frequency below this height and L is a hill length-scale. Measurements show that for moderately stratified flows (for which FL 0.25) a minimum in the hill-induced surface-pressure perturbation occurs across the summit and this is accompanied by a maximum in the near-surface wind speed. In the more strongly stratified case (FL 0.25) the pressure field is more asymmetric and the lee-slope flow is generally stronger than on the windward slope. Such a flow pattern is qualitatively consistent with that predicted by stratified linear boundary-layer and gravity-wave theories. The near-surface momentum budget is analysed by evaluating the dominant terms in a Bernoulli equation suitable for turbulent flow. Measurements during periods of westerly flow are used to evaluate the dominant terms, and the equation is shown to hold to a reasonable approximation on the upwind slope of the hill and also on the downwind slope, away from the summit. Immediately downwind of the summit, however, the Bernoulli equation does not hold. Possible reasons for this, such as non-separated sheltering and flow separation, are discussed.

  19. Simultaneous measurements of top surface and its underlying film surfaces in multilayer film structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Young-Sik; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Davies, Angela

    2017-09-19

    With the growth of 3D packaging technology and the development of flexible, transparent electrodes, the use of multilayer thin-films is steadily increasing throughout high-tech industries including semiconductor, flat panel display, and solar photovoltaic industries. Also, this in turn leads to an increase in industrial demands for inspection of internal analysis. However, there still remain many technical limitations to overcome for measurement of the internal structure of the specimen without damage. In this paper, we propose an innovative optical inspection technique for simultaneous measurements of the surface and film thickness corresponding to each layer of multilayer film structures by computing the phase and reflectance over a wide range of wavelengths. For verification of our proposed method, the sample specimen of multilayer films was fabricated via photolithography process, and the surface profile and film thickness of each layer were measured by two different techniques of a stylus profilometer and an ellipsometer, respectively. Comparison results shows that our proposed technique enables simultaneous measurements of the top surface and its underlying film surfaces with high precision, which could not be measured by conventional non-destructive methods.

  20. Airborne spectral measurements of surface anisotropy during SCAR-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; King, Michael D.; Arnold, G. Thomas; Li, Jason Y.

    1998-12-01

    During the Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B) deployment, angular distributions of spectral reflectance for vegetated surfaces and smoke layers were measured using the scanning cloud absorption radiometer (CAR) mounted on the University of Washington C-131A research aircraft. The CAR contains 13 narrowband spectral channels between 0.3 and 2.3 μm with a 190° scan aperture (5° before zenith to 5° past nadir) and 1° instantaneous field of view. The bidirectional reflectance is obtained by flying a clockwise circular orbit above the surface, resulting in a ground track ˜3 km in diameter within about 2 min. Although the CAR measurements are contaminated by minor atmospheric effects, results show distinct spectral characteristics for various types of surfaces. Spectral bidirectional reflectances of three simple and well-defined surfaces are presented: cerrado (August 18, 1995) and dense forest (August 25, 1995), both measured in Brazil under nearly clear-sky conditions, and thick smoke layers over dense forest (September 6 and 11, 1995). The bidirectional reflectances of cerrado and dense forest revealed fairly symmetric patterns along the principal plane, with varying maximal strengths and widths spectrally in the backscattering direction. In the shortwave-infrared region the aerosol effect is very small due to low spectral optical depth. Also, these backscattering maxima can be seen on the bidirectional reflectance of smoke layer over dense forest. These detailed measurements of the angular distribution of spectral reflectance can be parameterized by a few independent variables and utilized to retrieve either surface characteristics or aerosol microphysical and optical properties (e.g., size distribution and single-scattering parameters), if proper physical and radiation models are used. The spectral-hemispherical albedo of these surfaces is obtained directly by integrating all angular measurements and is compared with the measured nadir reflectance

  1. Hydrologic Science and Satellite Measurements of Surface Water (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    While significant advances continue to be made for satellite measurements of surface waters, important science and application opportunities remain. Examples include the following: (1) Our current methods of measuring floodwater dynamics are either sparsely distributed or temporally inadequate. As an example, flood depths are measured by using high water marks, which capture only the peak of the flood wave, not its temporal variability. (2) Discharge is well measured at individual points along stream networks using in-situ gauges, but these do not capture within-reach hydraulic variability such as the water surface slope changes on the rising and falling limbs of flood waves. (3) Just a 1.0 mm/day error in ET over the Congo Basin translates to a 35,000 m3/s discharge error. Knowing the discharge of the Congo River and its many tributaries should significantly improve our understanding of the water balance throughout the basin. The Congo is exemplary of many other basins around the globe. (4) Arctic hydrology is punctuated by millions of unmeasured lakes. Globally, there might be as many as 30 million lakes larger than a hectare. Storage changes in these lakes are nearly unknown, but in the Arctic such changes are likely an indication of global warming. (5) Well over 100 rivers cross international boundaries, yet the sharing of water data is poor. Overcoming this helps to better manage the entire river basin while also providing a better assessment of potential water related disasters. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) mission is designed to meet these needs by providing global measurements of surface water hydrodynamics. SWOT will allow estimates of discharge in rivers wider than 100m (50m goal) and storage changes in water bodies larger than 250m by 250m (and likely as small as one hectare).

  2. Magnetic flux surface measurements at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Matthias; Andreeva, Tamara; Biedermann, Christoph; Bozhenkov, Sergey; Geiger, Joachim; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Lazerson, Samuel [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Recently the first plasma operation phase of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator has been started at IPP Greifswald. Wendelstein 7-X is an optimized stellarator with a complex superconducting magnet system consisting of 50 non-planar and 20 planar field coils and further 10 normal conducting control and 5 trim coils. The magnetic confinement and hence the expected plasma performance are decisively determined by the properties of the magnet system, especially by the existence and quality of the magnetic flux surfaces. Even small error fields may result in significant changes of the flux surface topology. Therefore, measurements of the vacuum magnetic flux surfaces have been performed before plasma operation. The first experimental results confirm the existence and quality of the flux surfaces to the full extend from low field up to the nominal field strength of B=2.5T. This includes the dedicated magnetic limiter configuration that is exclusively used for the first plasma operation. Furthermore, the measurements are indicating that the intrinsic error fields are within the tolerable range and can be controlled utilizing the trim coils as expected.

  3. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  4. Human thermoregulation model of RF-EMF interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, F.

    2012-01-01

    A thermal model has been developed which allows accurate temperature computations in high resolution anatomical models. The model is based on the basic thermal model described by Pennes which neglects any of the thermoregulatory mechanisms in humans. The thermal model developed here overcomes major simplifications by the mathematical consideration of these mechanisms which is needed for modeling a physiologically correct reaction to a thermal stimulus. The local blood perfusion, as well as the local metabolic rate, is modified as a function of the local tissue temperature. The model implemented increases the blood temperature on the basis of the absorbed energy. The heat exchange at the tissue/air interface, including the skin and respiratory tract, is also improved. The model takes not only the heat dissipation by radiation, conduction and convection into consideration but also the insensible loss of water by evaporation. Furthermore, the thermal model also accounts for the active heat dissipation by sweating. The generic implementation of the thermal model makes it possible to use it for different human models (children, adults, pregnant women) and it is also possible to take implants into consideration. The performance of the model is validated by comparing the simulation results to actual temperature measurements in humans. The thermal model is used to compute the temperature elevation in humans exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Until now, the tissue heating caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields could only be estimated by a surrogate, namely the specific absorption rate. The temperature elevations in children of different sizes and ages as well as pregnant women at different gestational stages exposed to plane waves is computed. Furthermore, the temperature elevation in human bodies is computed for a diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) and a therapeutic modality (medical diathermy). (author) [de

  5. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  6. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  7. Quantitative nanoscale surface voltage measurement on organic semiconductor blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenat, Alexandre; Muñiz-Piniella, Andrés; Muñoz-Rojo, Miguel; Murphy, Craig E; Tsoi, Wing C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the validation of a method based on Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) able to measure the different phases and the relative work function of polymer blend heterojunctions at the nanoscale. The method does not necessitate complex ultra-high vacuum setup. The quantitative information that can be extracted from the topography and the Kelvin probe measurements is critically analysed. Surface voltage difference can be observed at the nanoscale on poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends and dependence on the annealing condition and the regio-regularity of P3HT is observed. (paper)

  8. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test procedure is to verify that the mechanical and electrical features of the Surface Moisture Measurement System are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. This procedure will be used in conjunction with a software acceptance test procedure, which addresses testing of software and electrical features not addressed in this document. Hardware testing will be performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks

  9. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  10. Reliability of surface EMG measurements from the suprahyoid muscle complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2017-01-01

    of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...... reliable for ≈50% of participants. Although using sEMG to assess swallowing musculature function is easier to perform clinically and more comfortable to patients than invasive measures, as the measurement of muscle activity using TMS is unreliable, the use of sEMG for this muscle group is not recommended...

  11. Photometric imaging in particle size measurement and surface visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas

    2011-09-30

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight into photometric particle sizing approaches, which differ from the typical particle size measurement of dispersed particles. These approaches can often be advantageous especially for samples that are moist or cohesive, when dispersion of particles is difficult or sometimes impossible. The main focus of this paper is in the use of photometric stereo imaging. The technique allows the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of objects using multiple light sources in illumination. The use of photometric techniques is demonstrated in at-line measurement of granules and on-line measurement during granulation and dry milling. Also, surface visualization and roughness measurements are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Notes on methodology and pitfalls in science and research and on communication of results. Some aspects related to EMF; Synpunkter paa metodik och fallgropar inom vetenskap och forskning samt hur resultaten kommuniceras. Naagra aspekter relaterade till EMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedervall, Bjoern (Unit of Med. Radiation Physics and Med. Radiation Biology, Dept. Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    There are many aspects of the controversy around EMF and potential risks that are largely unknown to the wider audience. Such aspects form the basis for the topics discussed in this report. More specifically focus has been on arguments related to possible cause-effect where linguistic barriers and societal 'filters' (for instance by uncritical media) may constitute a problem. Regardless of whether scientists are working with for example molecular biology or epidemiology they are confronted with a number of methodological problems that may be difficult or even impossible to master. Such difficulties are seldom seen in press releases, news media and so on but they may still be part of many scientists' daily challenges. The most difficult communication challenge is probably that if something is absolutely safe it cannot be proven. An unknown virus, bacterium, or chemical contaminant may completely ruin experiments in a molecular biology experiment but at least the experiments can be repeated and often measures can be taken once such a contamination has been found. For epidemiological studies there is always a specific challenge in that the investigations cannot be repeated as people never do the same things under the same conditions and in a predictable manner. It is with this background and context that the author has chosen to treat some methodological problems in science as well as the so-called Hill's criteria for cause-effects. A shorter comment has been made with reference to various aspects of the precautionary principle as it is often referred to in the EMF debate but most often, however, it has seldom been clarified what is meant by precautionary practices or actions. Precaution is closely related to human fear and therefore a corresponding chapter has been included. This report ends with a few looks into the historical rear-view mirror which illuminates the anticipated benefits with the invisible and mystical rather than the potential

  13. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cuenca, R.H. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program`s SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  14. The evaporative fraction as a measure of surface energy partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cuenca, R.H. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1990-01-01

    The evaporative fraction is a ratio that expresses the proportion of turbulent flux energy over land surfaces devoted to evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration). It has been used to characterize the energy partition over land surfaces and has potential for inferring daily energy balance information based on mid-day remote sensing measurements. The HAPEX-MOBILHY program's SAMER system provided surface energy balance data over a range of agricultural crops and soil types. The databases from this large-scale field experiment was analyzed for the purpose of studying the behavior and daylight stability of the evaporative fraction in both ideal and general meteorological conditions. Strong linear relations were found to exist between the mid-day evaporative fraction and the daylight mean evaporative fraction. Statistical tests however rejected the hypothesis that the two quantities were equal. The relations between the evaporative fraction and the surface soil moisture as well as soil moisture in the complete vegetation root zone were also explored.

  15. Investigation of micronuclei induction in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to EMF RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomiets, Irina A.; Triapitsina, Galina A.; Polevik, Nikolai D.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The widespread application of cellular phones is of great concern in view possible consequences for human health. The aim of this study is to assess the capability of electromagnetic fields (EMF) RF with frequency 925 MHz and modulation 217 Hz to induce genotoxic effects as evaluated by the in vitro micronucleus assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The flasks of peripheral blood samples collected from healthy volunteers (5 men and 5 women) were placed just on the oscillator of emitting antenna. The signals were produced by the laboratory research plant and were evaluated at four specific absorption rates (SARs) - 0; 0.29; 1.2; 8.1 W/kg. SARs were determined by the calorimetric method. Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes were exposed three times for 10 minutes in the G o (the first 30 minutes after the beginning of cultivation), S (24 hours later), G 2 -M (after 48 hours from the beginning of cultivation) stages of the cell cycle. 72-hours cultures of lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of micronuclei. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance for comparison. The data indicated a significant increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed to EMF RF (6.5 ± 0.51 0/00; 7.1 ± 0.66 0/00; 7.0 ± 0.50 0/00) in comparison with sham-exposed lymphocytes (3.0 ± 0.60 0/00). There was not revealed a dose-dependent increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. It was suggested that the increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes is explicated by a particularity of EMF RF just near the oscillator of emitting antenna. (author)

  16. Radiotherapy high energy surface dose measurements: effects of chamber polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effects of chamber polarity have been investigated for the measurement of 6MV and 18MV x-ray surface dose using a parallel plate ionization chamber. Results have shown that a significant difference in measured ionization is recorded between to polarities at 6MV and 18MV at the phantom surface. A polarity ratio ranging from 1 062 to 1 005 is seen for 6MV x-rays at the phantom surface for field sizes 5cm x 5cm to 40cm x 40cm when comparing positive to negative polarity. These ratios range from 1.024 to 1.004 for 18MV x-rays with the same field sizes. When these charge reading are compared to the D max readings of the same polarity it is found that these polarity effects are minimal for the calculation of percentage dose results with variations being less than 1% of maximum. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  17. Surface Current Measurements In Terra Nova Bay By Hf Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocco, D.; Falco, P.; Wadhams, P.; Spezie, G.

    We present the preliminary results of a field experiment carried out within frame- work of the CLIMA project of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA) and in cooperation with the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge. Dur- ing the second period (02/12/1999-23/01/2000) of the XV Italian expedition a coastal radar was used to characterize the current field in the area of Terra Nova Bay (TNB). One of the aims of the CLIMA (Climatic Long-term Interactions for the Mass balance in Antarctica) project is to determine the role of the polynya in the sea ice mass bal- ance, water structure and local climate. The OSCR-II experiment was planned in order to provide surface current measurements in the area of TNB polynya, one of the most important coastal polynya of the Ross Sea. OSCR (Ocean Surface Current Radar) is a shore based, remote sensing system designed to measure sea surface currents in coastal waters. Two radar sites (a master and a slave) provide with radial current mea- surements; data combined from both sites yield the total current vector. Unfortunately the master and slave stations did not work together throughout the whole period of the experiment. A description of the experiment and a discussion of the results, will be proposed.

  18. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4 fluxes for the period June 2009–December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510–516 Tg yr−1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr−1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr−1 occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45% than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2 and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our

  19. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  20. Measurements of flux surfaces in the ATF torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.; Colchin, R.J.; Harris, J.H.; Hillis, D.L.; Jernigan, T.C.; Anderson, F.S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Flux surfaces in the advanced toroidal facility (ATF) torsatron have been measured using electron-beam techniques. The beam was injected toroidally and impinged on a phosphor-coated screen located ∼ 180 degrees from the gun. The gun was mounted on a drive mechanism that enabled the beam to scan the entire cross section of the last closed flux surface in ATF. The screen material was st. steel, coated with ZnO:Zn (P-15 or P-24) phosphor, and the transparency was ∼ 90%. The emitted light was detected with an image-intensified CCD camera that viewed the mesh through a nearby port. The images were displayed directly on a TV monitor and stored on video tape. Frames from the video tape were transferred to a computer, where the image was enhanced and transformed to remove spatial distortions due to the lens and the viewing angle of the camera

  1. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  2. BOREAS RSS-20 POLDER C-130 Measurements of Surface BRDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Marc; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickerson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-20 data set contains measurements of surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) made by the polarization and Directionality of Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument over several surface types (pine, spruce, fen) of the BOREAS southern study area (SSA) during the 1994 intensive field campaigns (IFCs). Single-point BRDF values were acquired either from the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) C-130 aircraft or from a NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) helicopter. A related data set collected from the helicopter platform is available as is POLDER imagery acquired from the C-130. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  3. Electrical properties of Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR scatterometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, Lauren C.; Zebker, Howard A.; Ostro, Steven J.; West, Richard D.; Gim, Yonggyu; Lorenz, Ralph D.; The Cassini Radar Team

    2007-06-01

    albedo feature Shangri-La is best fit by a Hagfors model with a dielectric constant close to 2.4 and an rms slope near 9.5°. From the modeled backscatter curves, we find the average radar albedo in the same linear (SL) polarization to be near 0.34. We constrain the total-power albedo in order to compare the measurements with available groundbased radar results, which are typically obtained in both senses of circular polarization. We estimate an upper limit of 0.4 on the total-power albedo, a value that is significantly higher than the 0.21 total albedo value measured at 13 cm [Campbell, D., Black, G., Carter, L., Ostro, S., 2003. Science 302, 431-434]. This is consistent with a surface that has more small-scale structure and is thus more reflective at 2-cm than 13-cm. We compare results across overlapping observations and observe that the reduction and analysis are repeatable and consistent. We also confirm the strong correlations between radar and near-infrared images.

  4. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward......, the limits of the range in reaction rate, which can be Studied are estimated. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...... limit for the lateral resolution of the measurement, and that a flow rate of the order of 240 (ml/min)(n) is sufficient to achieve this resolution. The sensitivity is reasonable also with high flow rates, due to the presence of a pocket of stagnant gas under the tip of the capillary. Furthermore...

  5. Surface Fitting for Quasi Scattered Data from Coordinate Measuring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qing; Liu, Shugui; Wang, Sen; Ma, Xinhui

    2018-01-13

    Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface fitting from data points is wildly used in the fields of computer aided design (CAD), medical imaging, cultural relic representation and object-shape detection. Usually, the measured data acquired from coordinate measuring systems is neither gridded nor completely scattered. The distribution of this kind of data is scattered in physical space, but the data points are stored in a way consistent with the order of measurement, so it is named quasi scattered data in this paper. Therefore they can be organized into rows easily but the number of points in each row is random. In order to overcome the difficulty of surface fitting from this kind of data, a new method based on resampling is proposed. It consists of three major steps: (1) NURBS curve fitting for each row, (2) resampling on the fitted curve and (3) surface fitting from the resampled data. Iterative projection optimization scheme is applied in the first and third step to yield advisable parameterization and reduce the time cost of projection. A resampling approach based on parameters, local peaks and contour curvature is proposed to overcome the problems of nodes redundancy and high time consumption in the fitting of this kind of scattered data. Numerical experiments are conducted with both simulation and practical data, and the results show that the proposed method is fast, effective and robust. What's more, by analyzing the fitting results acquired form data with different degrees of scatterness it can be demonstrated that the error introduced by resampling is negligible and therefore it is feasible.

  6. The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.

  7. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR RAPID NEAR SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Stoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer. Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides is demonstrated in two case studies.

  8. Measurement of a surface heat flux and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. M.; Antoine, G. J.; Diller, T. E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1994-04-01

    The Heat Flux Microsensor is a new sensor which was recently patented by Virginia Tech and is just starting to be marketed by Vatell Corp. The sensor is made using the thin-film microfabrication techniques directly on the material that is to be measured. It consists of several thin-film layers forming a differential thermopile across a thermal resistance layer. The measured heat flux q is proportional to the temperature difference across the resistance layer q= k(sub g)/delta(sub g) x (t(sub 1) - T(sub 2)), where k(sub g) is the thermal conductivity and delta (sub g) is the thickness of the thermal resistance layer. Because the gages are sputter coated directly onto the surface, their total thickness is less than 2 micrometers, which is two orders of magnitude thinner than previous gages. The resulting temperature difference across the thermal resistance layer (delta is less than 1 micrometer) is very small even at high heat fluxes. To generate a measurable signal many thermocouple pairs are put in series to form a differential thermopile. The combination of series thermocouple junctions and thin-film design creates a gage with very attractive characteristics. It is not only physically non-intrusive to the flow, but also causes minimal disruption of the surface temperature. Because it is so thin, the response time is less than 20 microsec. Consequently, the frequency response is flat from 0 to over 50 kHz. Moreover, the signal of the Heat Flux Microsensor is directly proportional to the heat flux. Therefore, it can easily be used in both steady and transient flows, and it measures both the steady and unsteady components of the surface heat flux. A version of the Heat Flux Microsensor has been developed to meet the harsh demands of combustion environments. These gages use platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium as the thermoelectric materials. The thermal resistance layer is silicon monoxide and a protective coating of Al2O3 is deposited on top of the sensor. The

  9. "Rapid Revisit" Measurements of Sea Surface Winds Using CYGNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Johnson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a space-borne GNSS-R (GNSS-Reflectometry) mission that launched December 15, 2016 for ocean surface wind speed measurements. CYGNSS includes 8 small satellites in the same LEO orbit, so that the mission provides wind speed products having unprecedented coverage both in time and space to study multi-temporal behaviors of oceanic winds. The nature of CYGNSS coverage results in some locations on Earth experiencing multiple wind speed measurements within a short period of time (a "clump" of observations in time resulting in a "rapid revisit" series of measurements). Such observations could seemingly provide indications of regions experiencing rapid changes in wind speeds, and therefore be of scientific utility. Temporally "clumped" properties of CYGNSS measurements are investigated using early CYGNSS L1/L2 measurements, and the results show that clump durations and spacing vary with latitude. For example, the duration of a clump can extend as long as a few hours at higher latitudes, with gaps between clumps ranging from 6 to as high as 12 hours depending on latitude. Examples are provided to indicate the potential of changes within a clump to produce a "rapid revisit" product for detecting convective activity. Also, we investigate detector design for identifying convective activities. Results from analyses using recent CYGNSS L2 winds will be provided in the presentation.

  10. Contact angle measurements at the colemanite and realgar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Sabiha; Savas, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    Colemanite is one of the most important boron minerals and covers an important part of Turkey's boron mineral deposits. The friable nature of the colemanite tends to produce a large amount of fines. Flotation appears to be a promising technique to recover colemanite from such fines. During flotation process, selectivity problem arises between colemanite and associated gangue minerals such as realgar. There is a close relationship between floatability of minerals and contact angle. Therefore, surface hydrophobicity of colemanite and realgar minerals were investigated by receding contact angle measurements in the absence and presence of flotation reagents. The water contact angle values at the colemanite surface remained almost unchanged at 32-35° in the solutions of potassium amyl xanthate (KAX), potassium ethyl xanthate (KEX) and petroleum sulphanate (R825) while another petroleum sulphanate (R840), sodium oleate and tallow amine (Armac-T) affected hydrophobicity of colemanite, and the contact angle values increased up to 47°. The contact angle values of 62, 63, 45, 46, 39, and 43° at the realgar surface were obtained in the solutions of KAX, KEX, sodium oleate, R825, R840 and Armac-T, respectively.

  11. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, K.; Tanabe, T.; Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles

  12. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  13. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-12-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell base station while in an office environment. It is found that, in average macrocell coverage and MP use-time conditions and for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System technology, the total exposure can be reduced by a factor of 20-40 by using an FBS, mostly due to the significant decrease in the output power of the MP. In general, the framework presented in this study can be used for any exposure scenario, featuring any number of technologies, base stations and/or access points, users and duration. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Autonomous target recognition using remotely sensed surface vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, James; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.; Barr, Dallas N.

    1993-09-01

    The remotely measured surface vibration signatures of tactical military ground vehicles are investigated for use in target classification and identification friend or foe (IFF) systems. The use of remote surface vibration sensing by a laser radar reduces the effects of partial occlusion, concealment, and camouflage experienced by automatic target recognition systems using traditional imagery in a tactical battlefield environment. Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) efficiently represents the vibration signatures and nearest neighbor classifiers exploit the LPC feature set using a variety of distortion metrics. Nearest neighbor classifiers achieve an 88 percent classification rate in an eight class problem, representing a classification performance increase of thirty percent from previous efforts. A novel confidence figure of merit is implemented to attain a 100 percent classification rate with less than 60 percent rejection. The high classification rates are achieved on a target set which would pose significant problems to traditional image-based recognition systems. The targets are presented to the sensor in a variety of aspects and engine speeds at a range of 1 kilometer. The classification rates achieved demonstrate the benefits of using remote vibration measurement in a ground IFF system. The signature modeling and classification system can also be used to identify rotary and fixed-wing targets.

  15. Surface contact potential patches and Casimir force measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. J.; Sushkov, A. O.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Dalvit, D. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present calculations of contact potential surface patch effects that simplify previous treatments. It is shown that, because of the linearity of Laplace's equation, the presence of patch potentials does not affect an electrostatic calibration of a two-plate Casimir measurement apparatus. Using models that include long-range variations in the contact potential across the plate surfaces, a number of experimental observations can be reproduced and explained. For these models, numerical calculations show that if a voltage is applied between the plates which minimizes the force, a residual electrostatic force persists, and that the minimizing potential varies with distance. The residual force can be described by a fit to a simple two-parameter function involving the minimizing potential and its variation with distance. We show the origin of this residual force by use of a simple parallel capacitor model. Finally, the implications of a residual force that varies in a manner different from 1/d on the accuracy of previous Casimir measurements is discussed.

  16. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  17. Entrance surface dose measurements in mammography using thermoluminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, T.; Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E; Azorin, J.; Gonzalez, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Of the various techniques that can be used for personnel dosimetry, thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) has emerged as a superior technique due to its manifold advantages over other methods of dose estimation. Various phosphors have been therefore investigated regarding their suitability for dosimetry. In this paper, a dosimetry system based on thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) from zirconium oxide phosphors embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (ZrO 2 +PTFE) was developed for entrance surface doses (ES) measurements in mammography. Small ZrO 2 pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm in thickness were used. The reproducibility of measurements and linearity of ZrO 2 were also studied. The results were compared with those obtained from LiF:Mg,Cu,P usually used for the determination of absorbed dose in mammography. Measurements both per unit air kerma and In vivo were performed using a mammography unit model DMR (General Electric). The results showed that ZrO 2 TLDs can be used for the same X-ray dosimetry applications as LiF:Mg,Cu,P, with each type having the disadvantage of a response dependent on energy, particularly at low energies. These results indicate a considerable potential for use in routine control and In vivo ES measurements in mammography. (Author)

  18. An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.

  19. Characterization of gloss properties of differently treated polymer coating surfaces by surface clarity measurement methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Dieter P; Buder-Stroisznigg, Michael; Wallner, Gernot; Strauß, Bernhard; Jandel, Lothar; Lang, Reinhold W

    2012-07-10

    With one measurement configuration, existing gloss measurement methodologies are generally restricted to specific gloss levels. A newly developed image-analytical gloss parameter called "clarity" provides the possibility to describe the perceptual result of a broad range of different gloss levels with one setup. In order to analyze and finally monitor the perceived gloss of products, a fast and flexible method also for the automated inspection is highly demanded. The clarity parameter is very fast to calculate and therefore usable for fast in-line surface inspection. Coated metal specimens were deformed by varying degree and polished afterwards in order to study the clarity parameter regarding the quantification of varying surface gloss types and levels. In order to analyze the correlation with the human gloss perception a study was carried out in which experts were asked to assess gloss properties of a series of surface samples under standardized conditions. The study confirmed clarity to exhibit considerably better correlation to the human perception than alternative gloss parameters.

  20. Accurate fluid force measurement based on control surface integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David

    2018-01-01

    Nonintrusive 3D fluid force measurements are still challenging to conduct accurately for freely moving animals, vehicles, and deforming objects. Two techniques, 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a new technique, the aerodynamic force platform (AFP), address this. Both rely on the control volume integral for momentum; whereas PIV requires numerical integration of flow fields, the AFP performs the integration mechanically based on rigid walls that form the control surface. The accuracy of both PIV and AFP measurements based on the control surface integration is thought to hinge on determining the unsteady body force associated with the acceleration of the volume of displaced fluid. Here, I introduce a set of non-dimensional error ratios to show which fluid and body parameters make the error negligible. The unsteady body force is insignificant in all conditions where the average density of the body is much greater than the density of the fluid, e.g., in gas. Whenever a strongly deforming body experiences significant buoyancy and acceleration, the error is significant. Remarkably, this error can be entirely corrected for with an exact factor provided that the body has a sufficiently homogenous density or acceleration distribution, which is common in liquids. The correction factor for omitting the unsteady body force, {{{ {ρ f}} {1 - {ρ f} ( {{ρ b}+{ρ f}} )}.{( {{{{ρ }}b}+{ρ f}} )}}} , depends only on the fluid, {ρ f}, and body, {{ρ }}b, density. Whereas these straightforward solutions work even at the liquid-gas interface in a significant number of cases, they do not work for generalized bodies undergoing buoyancy in combination with appreciable body density inhomogeneity, volume change (PIV), or volume rate-of-change (PIV and AFP). In these less common cases, the 3D body shape needs to be measured and resolved in time and space to estimate the unsteady body force. The analysis shows that accounting for the unsteady body force is straightforward to non

  1. Instrumentation for electromagnetic field generation in biological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaric, K.; Malaric, R.; Tkalec, M.; Lenicek, I.; Sala, A.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are part of everyday life in modern world. Extremely low-frequency EMFs (50 Hz) are produced by most electric home appliance, electric power transmission and distribution lines. For the last ten years mobile phones have been widely used all around the world. They operate on the EMF frequencies from 400 MHz to 1900 MHz. The effects of EMFs on living organisms have been the subject of debate and research for the last thirty years. The instrumentation for generation of EMFs have been designed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, and can be used for controlled exposure to different EMFs. To study the effect of extremely low-frequency EMF, duckweed (Lemna minor) - the model plant in biological measurement, test setup was made for magnetic field in Helmholtz coil and for electric field between two parallel circle electrodes. For the effect of mobile phones frequencies, test setup with exposition to the electromagnetic field was done with Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode (GTEM) cell. The research confirmed that instrumentation used in these experiments is suitable for evaluation of biological effects of EMFs. The effect of different field strengths, exposure times and modulation can be tested with these instrumentation.(author)

  2. Measurement of electromagnetic force between multiple bulk superconductors; Fukusu no barukutai chodendotai to eikyujishakukairo niokeru denjiryoku sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, T.; Murakami, M. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Nagashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M. [Shikoku Ekectric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    The electromagnetic force (EMF) that is exhibited by the interaction between bulk superconductors and permanent magnets is used for magnetic levitation devices. To facilitate such applications, it is necessary to enhance the EMF. We measured the EMF for Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with different shapes and dimensions by varying the structure of disk magnets such as their thickness and the number of poles. The EMF is strongly dependent on the magnet structure as long as permanent magnets and good quality bulk superconductors are used. Thus, for the design of practical devices, it is important to optimize the magnet structure. (author)

  3. Measurement of pressure on a surface using bubble acoustic resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldham, Ben; Manasseh, Richard; Liffman, Kurt; Šutalo, Ilija D; Illesinghe, Suhith; Ooi, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The frequency response of gas bubbles as a function of liquid ambient pressure was measured and compared with theory. A bubble size with equivalent spherical radius of 2.29 mm was used over a frequency range of 1000–1500 Hz. The ultimate aim is to develop an acoustic sensor that can measure static pressure and is sensitive to variations as small as a few kPa. The classical bubble resonance frequency is known to vary with ambient pressure. Experiments were conducted with a driven bubble in a pressurizable tank with a signal processing system designed to extract the resonant peak. Since the background response of the containing tank is significant, particularly near tank-modal resonances, it must be carefully removed from the bubble response signal. A dual-hydrophone method was developed to allow rapid and reliable real-time measurements. The expected pressure dependence was found. In order to obtain a reasonable match with theory, the classical theory was modified by the introduction of a 'mirror bubble' to account for the influence of a nearby surface. (technical design note)

  4. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  5. Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.

    2017-04-01

    A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information

  6. Channel Storage change: a new remote sensed surface water measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, S. P.; Durand, M. T.; Yi, Y.; Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.; Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present river channel storage change (CSC) measurements for 17 major world rivers from 2002-2016. We combined interpolated daily 1 km resolution Global River Radar Altimeter Time Series (GRRATS) river surface elevation data with static widths from the global river Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) dataset, to generate preliminary channel storage measurements. CSC is a previously unmeasured component of the terrestrial water balance It is a fundamental Earth science quantity with global bearing on floodplains, ecology, and geochemistry. CSC calculations require only remote sensed data, making them an ideal tool for studying remote regions where hydrological data is not easily accessible. CSC is uniquely suited to determine the role of hydrologic and hydraulic controls in basins with strong seasonal cycles (freeze-up and break-up). The cumulative CSC anomaly can impart spatial details that discharge measurements cannot. With this new measurement, we may be able to determine critical hydrological and hydraulic controls on rapidly changing systems like Arctic rivers. Results for Mississippi River indicate that peak CSC anomaly was the highest in 2011 (12.6 km3) and minimum CSC anomaly was in 2012 (-12.2 km3). Peak CSC has most frequently occurs in May (5 years), but has come as late in the year as July, and as early as January. Results for the Yukon River indicate that peak CSC anomaly was the highest in 2013 (13.9 km3) and minimum CSC anomaly was in 2010 (-14.2 km3). Peak CSC has most frequently come in early to mid-June (4-18), but has occurred in May (19-31) four years in the study period (three of the last 6 years) and once on April 30th.

  7. Surface force measurements and simulations of mussel-derived peptide adhesives on wet organic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary A; Rapp, Michael V; Wei, Wei; Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Wu, Chun; Zerze, Gül H; Mittal, Jeetain; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2016-04-19

    Translating sticky biological molecules-such as mussel foot proteins (MFPs)-into synthetic, cost-effective underwater adhesives with adjustable nano- and macroscale characteristics requires an intimate understanding of the glue's molecular interactions. To help facilitate the next generation of aqueous adhesives, we performed a combination of surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurements and replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations on a synthetic, easy to prepare, Dopa-containing peptide (MFP-3s peptide), which adheres to organic surfaces just as effectively as its wild-type protein analog. Experiments and simulations both show significant differences in peptide adsorption on CH3-terminated (hydrophobic) and OH-terminated (hydrophilic) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), where adsorption is strongest on hydrophobic SAMs because of orientationally specific interactions with Dopa. Additional umbrella-sampling simulations yield free-energy profiles that quantitatively agree with SFA measurements and are used to extract the adhesive properties of individual amino acids within the context of MFP-3s peptide adhesion, revealing a delicate balance between van der Waals, hydrophobic, and electrostatic forces.

  8. Surface characterization of hemodialysis membranes based on streaming potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C; Jacobasch, H J; Reichelt, G

    1995-01-01

    Hemodialysis membranes made from cellulose (CUPROPHAN, HEMOPHAN) and sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) were characterized using the streaming potential technique to determine the zeta potential at their interfaces against well-defined aqueous solutions of varied pH and potassium chloride concentrations. Streaming potential measurements enable distinction between different membrane materials. In addition to parameters of the electrochemical double layer at membrane interfaces, thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of different solved species were evaluated. For that aim a description of double layer formation as suggested by Börner and Jacobasch (in: Electrokinetic Phenomena, p. 231. Institut für Technologie der Polymere, Dresden (1989)) was applied which is based on the generally accepted model of the electrochemical double layer according to Stern (Z. Elektrochemie 30, 508 (1924)) and Grahame (Chem. Rev. 41, 441 (1947)). The membranes investigated show different surface acidic/basic and polar/nonpolar behavior. Furthermore, alterations of membrane interfaces through adsorption processes of components of biologically relevant solutions were shown to be detectable by streaming potential measurements.

  9. A Method for Dimensional and Surface Optical Measurements Uncertainty Assessment on Micro Structured Surfaces Manufactured by Jet-ECM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    2015-01-01

    Surface texture and step height measurements of electrochemically machined cavities have been compared among optical and tactile instruments. A procedure is introduced for correcting possible divergences among the instruments and, ultimately, for evaluating the measurement uncertainty according t...

  10. Regularities in electroconductivity and thermo-emf in systems of binary continuous solid solutions of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedernikov, M.V.; Dvunitkin, V.G.; Zhumagulov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Given are new experimental data about specific electric resistance of 10 systems of binary continuous solid metal solutions at the temperatures of 293 and 4.2 K: Cr-V, Mo-Nb, Mo-V, Cr-Mo, Nb-V, Ti-Zr, Hf-Zr, Hf-Ti, Sc-Zr, Sc-Hf. For the first time a comparative analysis of all available data on the resistance dependence on the composition of systems of continuous solid solutions, which covers 21 systems, is carried out. The ''resistance-composition'' dependence for such alloy systems is found to be of two types. The dependence of the first type is characteristic of the systems, formed by two isoelectronic metals, the dependence of the second type - for the systems, formed by non-isoelectronic metals. Thermo-emf of each type of solid solutions differently depends on their compositions

  11. Modelling of BLDCM with a double 3-phase stator winding and back EMF harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor (BLDCM with a double 3-phase stator winding is analysed. Both the 3-phase windings are mutually displaced by 30 electrical degree. Special care has been sacrificed to influence of higher harmonics of induced electromotive forces (EMF on electromagnetic torque and zero sequence voltages that may be used for sensorless control. The mathematical model has been presented in natural variables and, after transformation to symmetrical components, in a vector form. This allows, from one side, for formulating the equivalent circuit suitable for circuit oriented simulators (e.g.: Spice, SimPowerSystems of Simulink and, from the other point of view, for analysis of higher harmonics influence on control possibilities. These considerations have been illustrated with some results of four quadrant operation obtainded due to simulation at automatic control.

  12. Modeled and perceived RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations in relation to symptom reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Technological changes have led to a rapid increase in the use of mobile technology. This is coupled with an increase in the number of mobile phone base stations that emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). There are concerns about the potential health effects of this exposure among

  13. Effects of four kinds of electromagnetic fields (EMF) with different frequency spectrum bands on ovariectomized osteoporosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tao; Li, Feijiang; Liang, Zhuowen; Tang, Chi; Xie, Kangning; Wang, Pan; Dong, Xu; Shan, Shuai; Liu, Juan; Xu, Qiaoling; Luo, Erping; Shen, Guanghao

    2017-04-03

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) was considered as a non-invasive modality for treatment of osteoporosis while the effects were diverse with EMF parameters in time domain. In present study, we extended analysis of EMF characteristics from time domain to frequency domain, aiming to investigate effects of four kinds of EMF (LP (1-100 Hz), BP (100-3,000 Hz), HP (3,000-50,000 Hz) and AP (1-50,000 Hz)) on ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis (OP) in mice. Forty-eight 3-month-old female BALB/c mice were equally assigned to Sham, OVX, OVX + LP, OVX + BP, OVX + HP and OVX + AP groups (n = 8). After 8-week exposure (3 h/day), LP and BP significantly increased serum bone formation markers and osteogenesis-related gene expressions compared with OVX. Bedsides, LP and BP also slightly increased bone resorption activity compared with OVX, evidenced by increased RANKL/OPG ratio. HP sharply decreased serum bone formation and resporption markers and osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis related gene expressions compared with OVX. AP had accumulative effects of LP, BP and HP, which significantly increased bone formation and decreased bone resporption activity compared with OVX. As a result, LP, BP and HP exposure did not later deterioration of bone mass, microarchitecture and mechanical strength in OVX mice with OP. However, AP stimulation attenuated OVX-induced bone loss.

  14. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) such as headache, fatigue, nausea and sleep problems and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the general population has been a subject of ongoing scientific debate and public concern. A limited number of epidemiological studies

  15. Leidenfrost drops cooling surfaces: theory and interferometric measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Limbeek, Michiel A. J.; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Sun, Chao; Colinet, Pierre; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    When a liquid drop is placed on a highly superheated surface, it can be levitated by its own vapour. This remarkable phenomenon is referred to as the Leidenfrost effect. The thermally insulating vapour film results in a severe reduction of the heat transfer rate compared to experiments at lower surface temperatures, where the drop is in direct contact with the solid surface. A commonly made assumption is that this solid surface is isothermal, which is at least questionable for materials of lo...

  16. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...

  17. Entrance surface dose measurements in pediatric radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, L.A.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of pediatric radiological examinations was carried out in a reference pediatric hospital of the city of Sao Paulo, in order to investigate the doses to children undergoing conventional X-ray examinations. The results showed that the majority of pediatric patients are below 4 years, and that about 80% of the examinations correspond to chest projections. Doses to typical radiological examinations were measured in vivo with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF: Mg, Ti and LiF: Mg, Cu, P) attached to the skin of the children to determine entrance surface dose (ESD). Also homogeneous phantoms were used to obtain ESD to younger children, because the technique uses a so small kVp that the dosimeters would produce an artifact image in the patient radiograph. Four kinds of pediatric examinations were investigated: three conventional examinations (chest, skull and abdomen) and a fluoroscopic procedure (barium swallow). Relevant information about kVp and mAs values used in the examinations was collected, and we discuss how these parameters can affect the ESD. The ESD values measured in this work are compared to reference levels published by the European Commission for pediatric patients. The results obtained (third-quartile of the ESD distribution) for chest AP examinations in three age groups were: 0.056 mGy (2-4 years old); 0.068 mGy (5-9 years old); 0.069 mGy (10-15 years old). All of them are below the European reference level (0.100 mGy). ESD values measured to the older age group in skull and abdomen AP radiographs (mean values 3.44 and 1.20 mGy, respectively) are above the European reference levels (1.5 mGy to skull and 1.0 mGy to abdomen). ESD values measured in the barium swallow examination reached 10 mGy in skin regions corresponding to thyroid and esophagus. It was noticed during this survey that some technicians use, improperly, X-ray fluoroscopy in conventional examinations to help them in positioning the patient. The results presented here are a

  18. Thermodynamic properties of liquid copper-indium-tin alloys determined from e.m.f. measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Gierlotka, Wojciech; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics properties of liquid Cu-In-Sn alloys were determined using solid oxide galvanic cells with zirconia electrolyte: (I)Re+kanthal,Cu x -In y -Sn (1-x-y) ,'In 2 O 3 '//ZrO 2 +(Y 2 O 3 )//NiO,Ni,Pt in the temperature range (973 to 1223) K. Applied In 2 O 3 can be either pure or in the solid solutions with SnO 2 . Thermodynamics properties of the liquid phase were described by the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu formula. Using the commercial software different phase relations in the ternary system were calculated and compared with experimental data found in the literature

  19. FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface a level of pollution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiangong

    2010-01-01

    On the pipe surface contamination were detected α level of pollution is a frequently encountered dose-detection work. Because the pipeline surface arc, while the measuring probe for the plane, which for accurate measurement difficult. In this paper, on the FJ-2207-type pipe surface contamination measuring instrument measuring pollution levels in the α method was studied. Introduced the FJ-2207 measuring instrument detection pipe surface α pollution levels. Studied this measuring instrument on the same sources of surface, plane α level of radioactivity measured differences in the results obtained control of the apparatus when the direct measurement of the surface correction factor, and gives 32-216 specifications commonly used pipe direct measurement of the amendment factor. Convenient method, test results are reliable for the accurate measurement of pipe pollution levels in the surface of α as a reference and learning. (authors)

  20. Effects of drop size and measuring condition on static contact angle measurement on a superhydrophobic surface with goniometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kwangseok; Kim, Minyoung; Kim, Do Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Keun

    2015-01-01

    It is not a simple task to measure a contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface with sessile drop method, because a roll-off angle is very low. Usually contact angle of a water drop on a superhydrophobic surface is measured by fixing a drop with intentional defects on the surface or a needle. We examined the effects of drop size and measuring condition such as the use of a needle or defects on the static contact angle measurement on superhydrophobic surface. Results showed that the contact angles on a superhydrophobic surface remain almost constant within intrinsic measurement errors unless there is a wetting transition during the measurement. We expect that this study will provide a deeper understanding on the nature of the contact angle and convenient measurement of the contact angle on the superhydrophobic surface.

  1. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  2. Surface temperature measurements on superconducting cavities in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, T.; Junquera, T.; Caruette, A.

    1991-01-01

    Two thermometry systems have been developed: a scanning thermometer system routinely used for the 1.5 GHz monocell cavity studies and a fixed thermometer array used to investigate spatial surface resistance distribution on various SC removable endplates of a cylindrical TE011mode cavity. Thermometers used in these systems are thermally insulated from the surrounding HeII bath by an epoxy housing ('epoxy'thermometers). Accurate calibration of the fixed thermometers was conducted by using different test cells and the experimental results were compared to model calculations performed with a finite element computational code. Measured thermometer efficiency and linearity are in good agreement with numerical results. Some typical temperature maps of different Nb samples obtained with the TE011 array (40 epoxy thermometers) are discussed. On the basis of numerical modelling results, a new type of thermometer with an improved efficiency has been designed. The thermal insulation against Helium II has been drastically improved by placing the sensitive part of the thermometer in a small vacuum jacket ('vacuum' thermometers). Two main goals have been reached with the first prototypes: improved efficiency by a factor of 2.5 - 3, and a bath temperature dependence of the thermal response in good agreement with the expected Kapitza conductance behaviour. Fitting experimental results with numerical modelling data, allow us to estimate the Kapitza conductance. The obtained values are in good agreement with the previous results reported by several authors using a different measurement method. The 'vacuum' thermometers are currently used on the TE011 mode cavity with Nb and NbTiN plates and the first results are presented

  3. Surface Flux Measurements at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, T.; Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Shim, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula is important in terms of global warming research due to pronounced increase of air temperature over the last century. The first eddy covariance system was established and turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, CO2 and momentum have been measured at King Sejong Station (62 \\deg 13øØS, 58 \\deg 47øØW) located in the northern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula since December in 2002. Our objectives are to better understand the interactions between the Antarctic land surface and the atmosphere and to test the feasibility of the long-term operation of eddy covariance system under extreme weather conditions. Various lichens cover the study area and the dominant species is Usnea fasciata-Himantormia. Based on the analyses on turbulent statistics such as integral turbulence characteristics of vertical velocity (w) and heat (T), stationarity test and investigation of correlation coefficient, they follow the Monin-Obukhov similarity and eddy covariance flux data were reliable. About 50 % of total retrieved sensible heat flux data could be used for further analysis. We will report on seasonal variations of energy and mass fluxes and environmental variables. In addition, factors controlling these fluxes will be presented. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by ¡rEnvironmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica¡_ (Project PP04102 of Korea Polar Research Institute) and ¡rEco-technopia 21 project¡_ (Ministry of Environment of Korea).

  4. UAV BASED BRDF-MEASUREMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL SURFACES WITH PFIFFIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Grenzdörffer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BRDF is a common problem in remote sensing and also in oblique photogrammetry. Common approaches of BRDF-measurement with a field goniometer are costly and rather cumbersome. UAVs may offer an interesting alternative by using a special flight pattern of oblique and converging images. The main part of this paper is the description of a photogrammetric workflow in order to determine the anisotropic reflection properties of a given surface. Due to the relatively low flying heights standard procedures from close range photogrammetry were adopted for outdoor usage. The photogrammetric processing delivered automatic and highly accurate orientation information with the aid of coded targets. The interior orientation of the consumer grade camera is more or less stable. The radiometrically corrected oblique images are converted into ortho photos. The azimuth and elevation angle of every point may then be computed. The calculated anisotropy of a winter wheat plot is shown. A system four diagonally-looking cameras (Four Vision and an additional nadir looking camera is under development. The multi camera system especially designed for a Micro- UAV with a payload of min 1 kg. The system is composed of five industrial digital frame cameras (1.3 Mpix CCD-chips, 15 fp/s with fixed lenses. Also special problems with the construction of a light weight housing of the multi camera solution are covered in the paper.

  5. On the measurement of the surface energy budget over a land ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The measurement of surface energy balance over a land surface in an open area in Bangalore is reported. Measurements of all variables needed to calculate the surface energy balance on time scales longer than a week are made. Components of radiative fluxes are measured while sensible and latent heat fluxes are ...

  6. MEASURING PROTOPLANETARY DISK GAS SURFACE DENSITY PROFILES WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; McPartland, Conor, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams and Best to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity {sup 13}CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, M {sub gas} = 0.048 M {sub ⊙}, and accretion disk characteristic size R {sub c} = 213 au and gradient γ = 0.39. The same parameters match the C{sup 18}O 2–1 image and indicate an abundance ratio [{sup 12}CO]/[C{sup 18}O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large {sup 13}CO 2–1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3–10 M {sub Jup} at 150 pc, ALMA observations with a resolution of 0.″2–0.″3 and integration times of ∼20 minutes allow reliable estimates of R {sub c} to within about 10 au and γ to within about 0.2. Economic gas imaging surveys are therefore feasible and offer the opportunity to open up a new dimension for studying disk structure and its evolution toward planet formation.

  7. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Antonia; Tabrez, Shams; Pesce, Mirko; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad A; Reale, Marcella

    2015-01-15

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves. The molecular mechanism through which ELF-EMFs can influence cellular behavior is still unclear. A hypothesis is that ELF-EMFs could interfere with chemical reactions involving free radical production. Under physiologic conditions, cells maintain redox balance through production of ROS/RNS and antioxidant molecules. The altered balance between ROS generation and elimination plays a critical role in a variety of pathologic conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, aging and cancer. Actually, there is a disagreement as to whether there is a causal or coincidental relationship between ELF-EMF exposure and leukemia development. Increased ROS levels have been observed in several hematopoietic malignancies including acute and chronic myeloid leukemias. In our study, the effect of ELF-EMF exposure on catalase, cytochrome P450 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and their expression by Western blot analysis in myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 was evaluated. A significant modulation of iNOS, CAT and Cyt P450 protein expression was recorded as a result of ELF-EMF exposure in both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and non-stimulated cell lines. Modulation in kinetic parameters of CAT, CYP-450 and iNOS enzymes in response to ELF-EMF indicates an interaction between the ELF-EMF and the enzymological system. These new insights might be important in establishing a mechanistic framework at the molecular level within which the possible effects of ELF-EMF on health can be understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya

  9. Surface pressure retrieval from SCIAMACHY measurements in the O2 A Band: validation of the measurements and sensitivity on aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Diedenhoven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform surface pressure retrievals from cloud-free Oxygen A band measurements of SCIAMACHY. These retrievals can be well validated because surface pressure is a quantity that is, in general, accurately known from meteorological models. Therefore, surface pressure retrievals and their validation provide important insight into the quality of the instrument calibration. Furthermore, they can provide insight into retrievals which are affected by similar radiation transport processes, for example the retrieval of total columns of H2O, CO, CO2 and CH4. In our retrieval aerosols are neglected. Using synthetic measurements, it is shown that for low to moderate surface albedos this leads to an underestimation of the retrieved surface pressures. For high surface albedos this generally leads to an overestimation of the retrieved surface pressures. The surface pressures retrieved from the SCIAMACHY measurements indeed show this dependence on surface albedo, when compared to the corresponding pressures from a meteorological database. However, an offset of about 20 hPa was found, which can not be caused by neglecting aerosols in the retrieval. The same offset was found when comparing the retrieved surface pressures to those retrieved from co-located GOME Oxygen A band measurements. This implies a calibration error in the SCIAMACHY measurements. By adding an offset of 0.86% of the continuum reflectance at 756 nm to the SCIAMACHY reflectance measurements, this systematic bias vanishes.

  10. Measuring the surface inhomogeneity of metals on accreting white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M H; Hippel, T von; Thompson, S E

    2009-01-01

    Due to the short settling times of metals in DA white dwarf atmospheres, any white dwarfs with photospheric metals must be actively accreting. It is therefore natural to expect that the metals may not be deposited uniformly on the surface of the star. We present calculations showing how the temperature variations associated with white dwarf pulsations lead to an observable diagnostic of the surface metal distribution, and we show what constraints current data sets are able to provide.

  11. Structural dependence of the 5d-metal surface energies as deduced from surface core-level shift measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrartensson, N.; Saalfeld, H.B.; Kuhlenbeck, H.; Neumann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Surface core-level shift measurements performed at the BESSY storage ring yield -0.41(2) eV for Os(0001) and 0.00(10) eV for Re(0001). An analysis of the surface shifts in the 5d transition series shows that the surface energy as a function of Z has a maximum at lower Z for the bcc phase than for the fcc-hcp phases, at W and between Re and Os, respectively

  12. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  13. Measuring the surface-heating of medical ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollmann, Chr; Vacariu, G; Fialka-Moser, V; Bergmann, H

    2004-01-01

    Due to converting losses the probe's surface itself is heated up, especially when emitting into air. Possible temperature increases in an ensemble of 15 different diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound probes from 7 manufacturers in the frequency range between 0.05-7.5 MHz have been examined. Surface temperatures were detected by means of a calibrated IR-thermographic camera using a scheme of various power and pulse settings, as well as different imaging modalitites as used in clinical routine. Depending on the setup and the output power, the absolute surface temperatures of some of the probes emitting in air can be beyond 43 deg. C within 5-7 min.; a maximum surface temperature of 84 deg. C has been detected. Continuous mode or high pulse repetition frequencies on the therapeutic system side, small focused Doppler modes on the diagnostic system side combined with increased emitted acoustic intensities result in high surface temperatures. Within a worst case scenario a potential risk of negative skin changes (heat damage) or non-optimal therapeutic effects seems to be possible if a therapeutic system is used very often and if its emission continues unintentionally. In general the user should be aware that low emission intensities of e.g. 50 mW cm -2 could already produce hot surfaces

  14. A probability measure for random surfaces of arbitrary genus and bosonic strings in 4 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Paycha, S.; Scarlatti, S.

    1989-01-01

    We define a probability measure describing random surfaces in R D , 3≤D≤13, parametrized by compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus. The measure involves the path space measure for scalar fields with exponential interaction in 2 space time dimensions. We show that it gives a mathematical realization of Polyakov's heuristic measure for bosonic strings. (orig.)

  15. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    KAUST Repository

    Potouroglou, Maria

    2017-09-13

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other \\'blue carbon\\' habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  16. Measuring the role of seagrasses in regulating sediment surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potouroglou, Maria; Bull, James C.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennedy, Hilary A.; Fusi, Marco; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mangora, Mwita M.; Githaiga, Michael N.; Diele, Karen; Huxham, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services and their rapid global loss may reduce human welfare as well as ecological integrity. In common with the other ‘blue carbon’ habitats (mangroves and tidal marshes) seagrasses are thought to provide coastal defence and encourage sediment stabilisation and surface elevation. A sophisticated understanding of sediment elevation dynamics in mangroves and tidal marshes has been gained by monitoring a wide range of different sites, located in varying hydrogeomorphological conditions over long periods. In contrast, similar evidence for seagrasses is sparse; the present study is a contribution towards filling this gap. Surface elevation change pins were deployed in four locations, Scotland, Kenya, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia, in both seagrass and unvegetated control plots in the low intertidal and shallow subtidal zone. The presence of seagrass had a highly significant, positive impact on surface elevation at all sites. Combined data from the current work and the literature show an average difference of 31 mm per year in elevation rates between vegetated and unvegetated areas, which emphasizes the important contribution of seagrass in facilitating sediment surface elevation and reducing erosion. This paper presents the first multi-site study for sediment surface elevation in seagrasses in different settings and species.

  17. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Frei, Patrizia; Bolte, John; Neubauer, Georg; Cardis, Elisabeth; Feychting, Maria; Gajsek, Peter; Heinrich, Sabine; Joseph, Wout; Mann, Simon; Martens, Luc; Mohler, Evelyn; Parslow, Roger C; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Radon, Katja; Schüz, Joachim; Thuroczy, György; Viel, Jean-François; Vrijheid, Martine

    2010-05-20

    The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

  18. An AFM-based pit-measuring method for indirect measurements of cell-surface membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air drying induced the transformation of cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits. • An AFM-based pit-measuring method was developed to measure cell-surface vesicles. • Our method detected at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles. - Abstract: Circulating membrane vesicles, which are shed from many cell types, have multiple functions and have been correlated with many diseases. Although circulating membrane vesicles have been extensively characterized, the status of cell-surface membrane vesicles prior to their release is less understood due to the lack of effective measurement methods. Recently, as a powerful, micro- or nano-scale imaging tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in measuring circulating membrane vesicles. However, it seems very difficult for AFM to directly image/identify and measure cell-bound membrane vesicles due to the similarity of surface morphology between membrane vesicles and cell surfaces. Therefore, until now no AFM studies on cell-surface membrane vesicles have been reported. In this study, we found that air drying can induce the transformation of most cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits that are more readily detectable by AFM. Based on this, we developed an AFM-based pit-measuring method and, for the first time, used AFM to indirectly measure cell-surface membrane vesicles on cultured endothelial cells. Using this approach, we observed and quantitatively measured at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles, a nanoscale population (<500 nm in diameter peaking at ∼250 nm) and a microscale population (from 500 nm to ∼2 μm peaking at ∼0.8 μm), whereas confocal microscopy only detected the microscale population. The AFM-based pit-measuring method is potentially useful for studying cell-surface membrane vesicles and for investigating the mechanisms of membrane vesicle formation/release

  19. Oxidation of clean silicon surfaces studied by four-point probe surface conductance measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Grey, Francois; Aono, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated how the conductance of Si(100)-(2 x 1) and Si(111)-(7 x 7) surfaces change during exposure to molecular oxygen. A monotonic decrease in conductance is seen as the (100) surfaces oxidizes. In contract to a prior study, we propose that this change is caused by a decrease in sur...

  20. Thermo-emf of cadmium under hydrostatic pressure up to 3.0 GPa in the range of electron-topological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajdenov, V.F.; Itskevich, E.S.; Gapotchenko, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dependence of longitudinal d and transverse α thermo-emf of cadmium in 4-300 K temperature range at pressures up to 3.0 GPa was investigated. The anomaly value depends sufficiently on sample perfection

  1. Leidenfrost drops cooling surfaces: theory and interferometric measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Limbeek, Michiel A. J.; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexey; Sun, Chao; Colinet, Pierre; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    When a liquid drop is placed on a highly superheated surface, it can be levitated by its own vapour. This remarkable phenomenon is referred to as the Leidenfrost effect. The thermally insulating vapour film results in a severe reduction of the heat transfer rate compared to experiments at lower

  2. Surface and Flow Field Measurements on the FAITH Hill Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of experimental tests, using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, were conducted to characterize both surface and off-surface flow characteristics of an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Two separate models were employed: a 6" high, 18" base diameter machined aluminum model that was used for wind tunnel tests and a smaller scale (2" high, 6" base diameter) sintered nylon version that was used in the water channel facility. Wind tunnel and water channel tests were conducted at mean test section speeds of 165 fps (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000) and 0.1 fps (Reynolds Number of 1000), respectively. The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3 for both tests. Qualitative techniques that were employed to characterize the complex flow included surface oil flow visualization for the wind tunnel tests, and dye injection for the water channel tests. Quantitative techniques that were employed to characterize the flow included Cobra Probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction (magnitude and direction). This initial report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, data acquired and describes some details of the dataset that is being constructed for use by other researchers, especially the CFD community. Subsequent reports will discuss the data and their interpretation in more detail

  3. Down-Regulation of OsEMF2b Caused Semi-sterility Due to Anther and Pollen Development Defects in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchang Deng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anther and pollen development are crucial processes of plant male reproduction. Although a number of genes involved in these processes have been identified, the regulatory networks of pollen and anther development are still unclear. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2b (OsEMF2b is important for rice development. Its biological function in floral organ, flowering time and meristem determinacy have been well-studied, but its role, if only, on male reproduction is still unknown, because null mutants of OsEMF2b barely have anthers. In this study, we identified a weak allele of OsEMF2b, osemf2b-4. The T-DNA insertion was located in the promoter region of OsEMF2b, and OsEMF2b expression was significantly decreased in osemf2b-4. The osemf2b-4 mutant exhibited much more normal anthers than null mutants of OsEMF2b, and also showed defective floret development similar to null mutants. Cytological analysis showed various defects of anther wall and pollen development in osemf2b-4, such as slightly or extremely enlarged tapetum, irregular or normal morphology microspores, and partial or complete sterility. OsEMF2b was highly expressed in tapetum and microspores, and the protein was localized in the nucleus. The expression of 15 genes essential for anther and pollen development was investigated in both WT and osemf2b-4. Fourteen genes including GAMYB was up-regulated, and only PTC1 was down-regulated in osemf2b-4. This suggests that up-regulated GAMYB and down-regulated PTC1 might contribute to the defective anther and pollen development in osemf2b-4. Overall, our work suggests that OsEMF2b plays an essential role during post-meiotic anther and pollen development.

  4. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure measurements in Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Struchen, Benjamin; Zahner, Marco; Eeftens, Marloes; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents belong to the heaviest users of wireless communication devices, but little is known about their personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this paper is to describe personal RF-EMF exposure of Swiss adolescents and evaluate exposure relevant factors. Furthermore, personal measurements were used to estimate average contributions of various sources to the total absorbed RF-EMF dose of the brain and the whole body. Personal exposure was measured using a portable RF-EMF measurement device (ExpoM-RF) measuring 13 frequency bands ranging from 470 to 3600MHz. The participants carried the device for three consecutive days and kept a time-activity diary. In total, 90 adolescents aged 13 to 17years participated in the study conducted between May 2013 and April 2014. In addition, personal measurement values were combined with dose calculations for the use of wireless communication devices to quantify the contribution of various RF-EMF sources to the daily RF-EMF dose of adolescents. Main contributors to the total personal RF-EMF measurements of 63.2μW/m 2 (0.15V/m) were exposures from mobile phones (67.2%) and from mobile phone base stations (19.8%). WLAN at school and at home had little impact on the personal measurements (WLAN accounted for 3.5% of total personal measurements). According to the dose calculations, exposure from environmental sources (broadcast transmitters, mobile phone base stations, cordless phone base stations, WLAN access points, and mobile phones in the surroundings) contributed on average 6.0% to the brain dose and 9.0% to the whole-body dose. RF-EMF exposure of adolescents is dominated by their own mobile phone use. Environmental sources such as mobile phone base stations play a minor role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current Options for Measuring the Surface Temperature of Dairy Cattle in a Stable Technology: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular measurement of the body surface temperature can help to assess the health status of animals. There are many technological possibilities of contactless temperature measurement of body surface. The important thing is to find the right part of the body whose temperature will point to the first possible symptoms and immediately react to the first signs of the disease. Disagreements about how to measure body surface temperature and accuracy of the method can occur when different measures are used. We review work showing possibilities of contactless surface temperature measurements using 1 thermography, 2 electronic transponders and 3 other possibilities of measuring the body surface temperature of dairy cattle. For example, when we scan the surface temperature with the thermal imager there can operate in individual animals confounding factors such as the nature or degree of muscular coat, which may significantly affect the results.

  6. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias-Viñas David

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure. Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026. The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation.

  7. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav; Dai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xixiang; Bagnarol, Mirko; Martucci, Alessandro; Merano, Michele

    2017-01-01

    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer $\\rm MoS_2$. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Currently experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer $\\rm MoS_2$, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  8. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav

    2017-10-01

    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer $\\ m MoS_2$. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Currently experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer $\\ m MoS_2$, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  9. Measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Quagliotti, Danilo; Maculotti, Giacomo

    Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment.......Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment....

  10. Correlation and uncertainties evaluation in backscattering of entrance surface air kerma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, G.J.; Sousa, C.H.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: gt@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The air kerma measurement is important to verify the applied doses in radiodiagnostic. The literature determines some methods to measure the entrance surface air kerma or entrance surface dose but some of this methods may increase the measurement with the backscattering. Were done setups of measurements to do correlations between them. The expanded uncertainty exceeded 5% for measurements with backscattering, reaching 8.36%, while in situations where the backscattering was avoided, the uncertainty was 3.43%. (author)

  11. Commencement measurements giving fundamental surface tension determinations in tensiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbery, D; Morrin, D; O'Rourke, B; McMillan, N D; O'Neill, M; Riedel, S; Pringuet, P; Smith, S R P

    2011-01-01

    This study provides experimental testing of a ray-tracing model of the tensiotrace that explores the measurement potential of a well-defined optical position in the tensiotrace signal known as the 'commencement'. This point is defined as the first measureable optical coupling in the fiber drophead between source and collector fibers for light injected inside a growing drop. Tensiotrace ray-tracing model is briefly introduced. Empirical relationships of commencement measures from a wide-ranging study are presented. A number of conclusions can be drawn from the successful linking of computer predictions to these experimental relationships.

  12. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  13. Earth System Research Laboratory Long-Term Surface Aerosol Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerosol measurements began at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) baseline observatories in the mid-1970's with the...

  14. Performance verification of focus variation and confocal microscopes measuring tilted ultra-fine surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of two optical instruments, scilicet a laser scanning confocal microscope and a focus-variation microscope, was investigated considering measurements of tilted surfaces. The measured samples were twelve steel artefacts for mould surface finish reference, covering Sa roughness...... parameter in the range (101—103) nm. The 3D surface texture parameters considered were Sa, Sq and Sdq. The small working distance of the confocal microscope objectives influenced the measurement setup, preventing from selecting a high tilting angle. The investigation was carried out comparing measurements...... of flat surfaces (0° tilt) with measurements of 12.5° tilted surfaces. The confocal microscope results showed a high sensitivity to tilting due to the laser beam reflection on the metal surfaces. The focus variation microscope results were more robust with respect to the considered angular variation...

  15. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E.; Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Simon D. P.; Bingley, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. PMID:25157196

  16. Sea level: measuring the bounding surfaces of the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamisiea, Mark E; Hughes, Chris W; Williams, Simon D P; Bingley, Richard M

    2014-09-28

    The practical need to understand sea level along the coasts, such as for safe navigation given the spatially variable tides, has resulted in tide gauge observations having the distinction of being some of the longest instrumental ocean records. Archives of these records, along with geological constraints, have allowed us to identify the century-scale rise in global sea level. Additional data sources, particularly satellite altimetry missions, have helped us to better identify the rates and causes of sea-level rise and the mechanisms leading to spatial variability in the observed rates. Analysis of all of the data reveals the need for long-term and stable observation systems to assess accurately the regional changes as well as to improve our ability to estimate future changes in sea level. While information from many scientific disciplines is needed to understand sea-level change, this review focuses on contributions from geodesy and the role of the ocean's bounding surfaces: the sea surface and the Earth's crust. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Remote measurement of surface roughness, surface reflectance, and body reflectance with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Liang, Yu

    2015-10-20

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) intensity data are attracting increasing attention because of the great potential for use of such data in a variety of remote sensing applications. To fully investigate the data potential for target classification and identification, we carried out a series of experiments with typical urban building materials and employed our reconstructed built-in-lab LiDAR system. Received intensity data were analyzed on the basis of the derived bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model and the established integration method. With an improved fitting algorithm, parameters involved in the BRDF model can be obtained to depict the surface characteristics. One of these parameters related to surface roughness was converted to a most used roughness parameter, the arithmetical mean deviation of the roughness profile (Ra), which can be used to validate the feasibility of the BRDF model in surface characterizations and performance evaluations.

  18. Measurement of the interaction between the flow and the free surface of a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Koji [Univ. of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan); Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The interaction between the flow and free surface was evaluated measuring the velocity distribution and surface movement simultaneously. The test section was a rectangular tank having a free surface. A rectangular nozzle was set near the free surface, causing the wavy free surface condition. The flow under the free surface was visualized by a laser light sheet and small tracer particles. With image processing techniques, the movement of the free surface and the movement of the particles were simultaneously measured from the recorded images, resulting in the velocity distributions and surface locations. Then, the interactions between the flow and free surface were evaluated using the form of turbulent energy and surface-related turbulent values. By increasing the turbulent energy near the free surface, the fluctuations of the free surface height and the inclination of the free surface were increased. The higher fluctuation of horizontal velocity was related to the higher surface position and negative inclination. The image processing technique is found to be very useful to evaluate the interaction between free surface and flow.

  19. Measurement of the interaction between the flow and the free surface of a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction between the flow and free surface was evaluated measuring the velocity distribution and surface movement simultaneously. The test section was a rectangular tank having a free surface. A rectangular nozzle was set near the free surface, causing the wavy free surface condition. The flow under the free surface was visualized by a laser light sheet and small tracer particles. With image processing techniques, the movement of the free surface and the movement of the particles were simultaneously measured from the recorded images, resulting in the velocity distributions and surface locations. Then, the interactions between the flow and free surface were evaluated using the form of turbulent energy and surface-related turbulent values. By increasing the turbulent energy near the free surface, the fluctuations of the free surface height and the inclination of the free surface were increased. The higher fluctuation of horizontal velocity was related to the higher surface position and negative inclination. The image processing technique is found to be very useful to evaluate the interaction between free surface and flow

  20. Tire-to-Surface Friction-Coefficient Measurements with a C-123B Airplane on Various Runway Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard H.; Kolnick, Joseph J.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain information on the tire-to-surface friction coefficients available in aircraft braking during the landing run. The tests were made with a C-123B airplane on both wet and dry concrete and bituminous pavements and on snow-covered and ice surfaces at speeds from 12 to 115 knots. Measurements were made of the maximum (incipient skidding) friction coefficient, the full-skidding (locked wheel) friction coefficient, and the wheel slip ratio during braking.

  1. High-speed 3D surface measurement with mechanical projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Sang; Zhang, Song

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a method to overcome the light spectral range limitation of using digital-light-processing (DLP) projector for 3D shape measurement by developing a mechanical projector. The mechanical projector enables much broader spectral range of light than that the DLP projector allows. The rapidly spinning disk with binary structures can generate desired sinusoidal patterns at a frequency of 10 kHz or higher with a single DC motor. By precisely synchronizing the camera with the projector, phase-shifted fringe patterns can be accurately captured for high-accuracy 3D shape measurement. We further employed a computational framework that could enable absolute phase and thus absolute 3D shape measurement. We developed such prototype system that experimentally demonstrated the success of the proposed method.

  2. Implementing the EMF 9 gas trade scenarios and interpreting the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowse, J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed description of the model employed appears in Rowse (1986) and the Appendix of Rowse (1987). Only the salient features are discussed here, along with the modifications carried out for the EMF scenarios and certain specific data and assumptions important for understanding the empirical results. The nonlinear programming model has seven Canadian regions, pipeline links to three US regions, twenty-five three-year time periods representing 1986-2060, and perfect foresight in allocating gas to domestic and export regions. It determines equilibrium Canadian consumption levels, Canadian supplies and exports to the US over this time frame by solving for equilibrium prices. Figure 1 indicates the regional breakdown employed, with the principal supply regions lying in Western Canada. Ontario is the principal consuming region in Canada. Prospective supplies and their locations are also indicated in Figure 1. All producing provinces of Western Canada have existing and prospective conventional supplies of gas, while prospective nonconventional supplies are confied to Alberta. Nonconventional or Deep Basin supplies are assumed available only by the mid-1990's at the earliest because they have not previously been commercially produced. Prospective supplies are also assumed available from the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea area - henceforth simply Delta - but only by the mid-1990's as well due to the lead time necessary for pipeline construction and for industry confidence in the financial viability of megaprojects to recover. Delta gas is shown as a prospective Alberta source because, if developed, it will likely be pipelined south to connect with the existing transportation network in Alberta. Both nonconventional gas and Delta gas are more costly than future conventional gas supplies but the latter can only be introduced gradually over time because of constraints on gas finding rates and expansion of the domestic drilling rig fleet

  3. Characterization of the Micro-shell Surface Using Holographic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandras, F.; Hermerel, C.; Choux, A.; Merillot, P.; Pin, G.; Jeannot, L. [CEA Valduc, Dept Rech Mat Nucl, Serv Microcibles, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-05-15

    To characterize the shape, the quality, and the roughness of micro-shells, typically used technologies are scanning electron microscopy, scanning interferometric microscopy, or atomic force microscopy. One of the drawbacks of these techniques is that they are generally slow because of their scanning process. Digital holographic microscopy technology is an innovation that can offer ability adapted to these studies. It captures holograms instead of intensity images, as done by conventional microscopes. The holograms are then digitally interpreted (10 per second) to reconstruct a double image, one for the intensity and another one for the phase. Using a rotation axis, the bump counting for the complete micro-shell surface is possible with a very high speed. Using an image stitching software, mapping can be done in a few minutes. Wavelets such as 'Mexican hat' are used to model the bumps. Each bump can then be characterized on the map by its position, diameter, and height. (authors)

  4. Measuring surface current velocities in the Agulhas region with ASAR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, MJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available is known to perform well. Although radial velocities derived from ASAR are on occasion able to represent the measured flow with incredible accuracy, the overall performance of the ASAR radial velocity product is negatively impacted by a few very large...

  5. Measurement of adhesion properties between topcoat paint and metallized/galvanized steel with surface energy measurement equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) Compare the adhesion properties of NEPCOAT-approved topcoat paint over : metallized or galvanized steel. Use surface-energy measuring technique to characterize the wetting properties of the liqui...

  6. An objective device for measuring surface roughness of skin and scars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Monica C. T.; van Gerven, Maaike S.; van der Wal, Martijn B. A.; Verhaegen, Pauline D. H. M.; Middelkoop, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Scar formation remains a major clinical problem; therefore, various therapies have been developed to improve scar quality. To evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. An appropriate, objective measuring instrument for assessment of surface roughness

  7. An objective device for measuring surface roughness of skin and scars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.C.T.; van Gerven, M.S.; van der Wal, M.B.A.; Verhaegen, P.D.H.M.; Middelkoop, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scar formation remains a major clinical problem; therefore, various therapies have been developed to improve scar quality. To evaluate the effectiveness of these therapies, objective measurement tools are necessary. An appropriate, objective measuring instrument for assessment of surface

  8. Direct measurement of surface-state conductance by microscopic four-point probe method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanikawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    For in situ measurements of local electrical conductivity of well defined crystal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum, we have developed microscopic four-point probes with a probe spacing of several micrometres, installed in a scanning-electron - microscope/electron-diffraction chamber. The probe...... is precisely positioned on targeted areas of the sample surface by using piezoactuators. This apparatus enables conductivity measurement with extremely high surface sensitivity, resulting in direct access to surface-state conductivity of the surface superstructures, and clarifying the influence of atomic steps...

  9. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  10. Surface topography measurement by frequency sweeping digital holography.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lédl, Vít; Psota, Pavel; Kaván, František; Matoušek, Ondřej; Mokrý, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 28 (2017), s. 7808-7814 ISSN 1559-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1206; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-11965S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Wavelenght Scanning Interferometry * Shape measurement * Profilomerty Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.56.007808

  11. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  12. Measurement system for special surface mapping using miniature displacement sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zowade Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to design a special system for measurements of elements with repetitive geometry or assemblies with repeating components, set in a linear patterns. The main focus was based on developing a computer program for signal analysis from variable number of miniature displacement sensors. It was set that the response for displacement of measuring tip from each sensor was a 0-5 V voltage signal with possibility of using different type of sensors. Requirements were determined based on projected measurement method. A special design of sensor was made for testing the computer program. If the characteristics of the sensor is known, it is possible to compute the type A evaluation of uncertainty. The results are presented in XY chart on computer screen. The program allows the user to choose any number of the sensors and determine the distance between them. Also, the possibility of calibration of sensors’ set was provided. The test were conducted on a prototype handle for sensors, made on a 3D printer.

  13. Studies of non-contact methods for roughness measurements on wood surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, I.A.S.; Porankiewicz, B.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of wood surfaces after different kinds of machining processes is a property of great importance for the wood processing industries. Present work is a study, whose objective was to evaluate different non-contact methods, for measurement of the quality of the wood surfaces by correlating them with stylus tracing. A number of Scots Pine samples were prepared by different kinds of wood machining processing. Surface roughness measurements were performed, utilizing two optical noncontact methods. The results indicate that the laser scan method can measure surface roughness on sawn wood with a sufficient degree of accuracy. (author) [de

  14. Measurement of natural and anthropogenic radiation in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, Jacques

    1981-01-01

    The use of alumina gel in municipal water treatment plants is proving very promising for the measurement of radioactivity in watercourses. The amazing fixation power of aluminum hydroxide and the large volume of water treated daily in one plant permits alumina gel to concentrate traces of natural and artificial radioisotopes to a level at which it becomes possible to observe very small amounts of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests, or even to follow over hundreds of kilometers the wastes of nuclear stations, no matter how weak the radioactivity may be [fr

  15. Free energy surfaces from nonequilibrium processes without work measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.

    2006-04-01

    Recent developments in statistical mechanics have allowed the estimation of equilibrium free energies from the statistics of work measurements during processes that drive the system out of equilibrium. Here a different class of processes is considered, wherein the system is prepared and released from a nonequilibrium state, and no external work is involved during its observation. For such "clamp-and-release" processes, a simple strategy for the estimation of equilibrium free energies is offered. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations and analyzed in the context of tethered single-molecule experiments.

  16. Sub-Surface Windscreen for Outdoor Measurement of Infrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A windscreen is configured for measuring outdoor infrasonic sound. The windscreen includes a container and a microphone. The container defines a chamber. The microphone is disposed in the chamber and can be operatively supported by the floor. The microphone is configured for detecting infrasonic sound. The container is advantageously formed from material that exhibits an acoustic impedance of between 0 and approximately 3150 times the acoustic impedance of air. A reflector plate may be disposed in the container. The reflector plate operatively can support the microphone and provides a doubling effect of infrasonic pressure at the microphone.

  17. Predictive Measures of Locomotor Performance on an Unstable Walking Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Goel, R.; Wood, S. J.; Cohen, H. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion requires integration of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory information to produce the appropriate motor output to control movement. The degree to which these sensory inputs are weighted and reorganized in discordant sensory environments varies by individual and may be predictive of the ability to adapt to novel environments. The goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to inform the design of training countermeasures designed to enhance the ability of astronauts to adapt to gravitational transitions improving balance and locomotor performance after a Mars landing and enhancing egress capability after a landing on Earth.

  18. Advanced Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques for Near Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadel, Daniel R.

    The development of aerodynamic boundary layers on wind turbine blades is an important consideration in their performance. It can be quite challenging to replicate full scale conditions in laboratory experiments, and advanced diagnostics become valuable in providing data not available from traditional means. A new variant of Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) known as cross-correlation DGV is developed to measure boundary layer profiles on a wind turbine blade airfoil in the large scale Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel. The instrument provides mean velocity vectors with reduced sensitivity to external conditions, a velocity measurement range from 0 ms-1 to over 3000 ms-1, and an absolute uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulations with synthetic signals reveal that the processing routine approaches the Cramer-Rao lower bound in optimized conditions. A custom probe-beam technique is implanted to eliminate laser flare for measuring boundary layer profiles on a DU96-W-180 wind turbine airfoil model. Agreement is seen with laser Doppler velocimetry data within the uncertainty estimated for the DGV profile. Lessons learned from the near-wall flow diagnostics development were applied to a novel benchmark model problem incorporating the relevant physical mechanisms of the high amplitude periodic turbulent flow experienced by turbine blades in the field. The model problem is developed for experimentally motivated computational model development. A circular cylinder generates a periodic turbulent wake, in which a NACA 63215b airfoil with a chord Reynolds number Rec = 170,000 is embedded for a reduced frequency k = pi f c/V = 1.53. Measurements are performed with particle image velocimetry on the airfoil suction side and in highly magnified planes within the boundary layer. Outside of the viscous region, the Reynolds stress profile is consistent with the prediction of Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT), confirming that the redistribution of normal stresses is an inviscid effect. The

  19. Method for Pre-Conditioning a Measured Surface Height Map for Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin

    2012-01-01

    This software allows one to up-sample or down-sample a measured surface map for model validation, not only without introducing any re-sampling errors, but also eliminating the existing measurement noise and measurement errors. Because the re-sampling of a surface map is accomplished based on the analytical expressions of Zernike-polynomials and a power spectral density model, such re-sampling does not introduce any aliasing and interpolation errors as is done by the conventional interpolation and FFT-based (fast-Fourier-transform-based) spatial-filtering method. Also, this new method automatically eliminates the measurement noise and other measurement errors such as artificial discontinuity. The developmental cycle of an optical system, such as a space telescope, includes, but is not limited to, the following two steps: (1) deriving requirements or specs on the optical quality of individual optics before they are fabricated through optical modeling and simulations, and (2) validating the optical model using the measured surface height maps after all optics are fabricated. There are a number of computational issues related to model validation, one of which is the "pre-conditioning" or pre-processing of the measured surface maps before using them in a model validation software tool. This software addresses the following issues: (1) up- or down-sampling a measured surface map to match it with the gridded data format of a model validation tool, and (2) eliminating the surface measurement noise or measurement errors such that the resulted surface height map is continuous or smoothly-varying. So far, the preferred method used for re-sampling a surface map is two-dimensional interpolation. The main problem of this method is that the same pixel can take different values when the method of interpolation is changed among the different methods such as the "nearest," "linear," "cubic," and "spline" fitting in Matlab. The conventional, FFT-based spatial filtering method used to

  20. Automatic centroid detection and surface measurement with a digital Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Zhao, Liping; Li, Xiang; Fang, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    With the breakthrough of manufacturing technologies, the measurement of surface profiles is becoming a big issue. A Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) provides a promising technology for non-contact surface measurement with a number of advantages over interferometry. The SHWS splits the incident wavefront into many subsections and transfers the distorted wavefront detection into the centroid measurement. So the accuracy of the centroid measurement determines the accuracy of the SHWS. In this paper, we have presented a new centroid measurement algorithm based on an adaptive thresholding and dynamic windowing method by utilizing image-processing techniques. Based on this centroid detection method, we have developed a digital SHWS system which can automatically detect centroids of focal spots, reconstruct the wavefront and measure the 3D profile of the surface. The system has been tested with various simulated and real surfaces such as flat surfaces, spherical and aspherical surfaces as well as deformable surfaces. The experimental results demonstrate that the system has good accuracy, repeatability and immunity to optical misalignment. The system is also suitable for on-line applications of surface measurement

  1. Towed underwater PIV measurement for free-surface effects on turbulent wake of a surface-piercing body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Myung Seol

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a towed underwater particle image velocimetry (PIV system was validated in uniform flow and used to investigate the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake of a simple surface-piercing body. The selected test model was a cylindrical geometry formed by extruding the Wigley hull's waterplane shape in the vertical direction. Due to the constraints of the two-dimensional (2D PIV system used for the present study, the velocity field measurements were done separately for the vertical and horizontal planes. Using the measured data at several different locations, it was possible to identify the free-surface effects on the turbulent wake in terms of the mean velocity components and turbulence quantities. In order to provide an accuracy level of the data, uncertainty assessment was done following the International Towing Tank Conference standard procedure.

  2. Surface Roughness Measurements Utilizing Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    8217 The theory dealt only with the depen- modes, one symmetric and one antisymmetric, dence of the real wave vector on the real part of that propagate...quantity, while the wave vector is complex. It is shown that for both the supported and unsup- From Eqs. (1) and (2) one obtains the real implic- ported...Opt. Soc. sabbatical leave from the University of Toledo. Am.). Optical feild enhancemeft by long-range surface- I" ouT In O’ in OUT way@, plasma waves

  3. Campos electromagnéticos y salud: Exposición a CEM de baja frecuencia en oficinas y laboratorios de computación; Electromagnetic Fields and Health: Exposition to Low Frecuency EMF in Office Areas and Calculating Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Castro Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El interés por establecer los límites de influencia de los campos electromagnéticos (CEM sobre los sereshumanos, y definir los riesgos sobre su salud, es uno de los temas que en la actualidad ocupa a empresasde servicio eléctrico, productores de equipos y empresas de seguros. En este artículo se exponen losresultados de mediciones realizadas en diferentes locaciones donde el ser humano ejecuta su trabajodiariamente; las mediciones consistieron en obtener mapas de campo magnético (CM para diferenteszonas de dichas áreas. Aun cundo los resultados obtenidos no pueden ser considerados definitivos ofrecenpuntos de análisis para el debate de un tema de mucho interés en el mundo actual y, por demás, muypolémico. The interes to stablish limits for Electromagnetics Fields (EMF influence on human being and to definerisk on human health has ocuped the electric services, manufacturers and safe enterprise at presentetime.The results of measurements done in differents place where human being realices his dairy work arepresented in this paper; magnetic field map (MFM for different zones in these places is obtained with themeasurements. Results are not final conclusions, but permit to offer point of view to analysis the problemaof EMF, today some confusse. 

  4. Artificial Inductance Concept to Compensate Nonlinear Inductance Effects in the Back EMF-Based Sensorless Control Method for PMSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Lei, Xiao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The back EMF-based sensorless control method is very popular for permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) in the medium- to high-speed operation range due to its simple structure. In this speed range, the accuracy of the estimated position is mainly affected by the inductance, which varies...... at different loading conditions due to saturation effects. In this paper, a new concept of using a constant artificial inductance to replace the actual varying machine inductance for position estimation is introduced. This facilitates greatly the analysis of the influence of inductance variation...

  5. Adaptive fringe-pattern projection for image saturation avoidance in 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Kofman, Jonathan

    2014-04-21

    In fringe-projection 3D surface-shape measurement, image saturation results in incorrect intensities in captured images of fringe patterns, leading to phase and measurement errors. An adaptive fringe-pattern projection (AFPP) method was developed to adapt the maximum input gray level in projected fringe patterns to the local reflectivity of an object surface being measured. The AFPP method demonstrated improved 3D measurement accuracy by avoiding image saturation in highly-reflective surface regions while maintaining high intensity modulation across the entire surface. The AFPP method can avoid image saturation and handle varying surface reflectivity, using only two prior rounds of fringe-pattern projection and image capture to generate the adapted fringe patterns.

  6. Near-field Light Scattering Techniques for Measuring Nanoparticle-Surface Interaction Energies and Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Perry; Ashcroft, Colby K; O'Dell, Dakota; Adam, Ian S; DiPaolo, Brian; Sabharwal, Manit; Shi, Ce; Hart, Robert; Earhart, Christopher; Erickson, David

    2015-08-15

    Nanoparticles are quickly becoming commonplace in many commercial and industrial products, ranging from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals to medical diagnostics. Predicting the stability of the engineered nanoparticles within these products a priori remains an important and difficult challenge. Here we describe our techniques for measuring the mechanical interactions between nanoparticles and surfaces using near-field light scattering. Particle-surface interfacial forces are measured by optically "pushing" a particle against a reference surface and observing its motion using scattered near-field light. Unlike atomic force microscopy, this technique is not limited by thermal noise, but instead takes advantage of it. The integrated waveguide and microfluidic architecture allow for high-throughput measurements of about 1000 particles per hour. We characterize the reproducibility of and experimental uncertainty in the measurements made using the NanoTweezer surface instrument. We report surface interaction studies on gold nanoparticles with 50 nm diameters, smaller than previously reported in the literature using similar techniques.

  7. Photoelectric work function measurement of a cesiated metal surface and its correlation with the surface-produced H- ion flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Berkner, K.H.; Pyle, R.V.; Stearns, J.W.

    1982-09-01

    For application in plasma heating, fueling, and current drive of magnetic fusion devices, high current negative deuterium ion sources for intense neutral beam injectors are being developed using efficient production of negative hydrogen isotope ions on low work function metal surfaces imbedded in hydrogen plasmas. In order to investigate the correlation between work function and negative hydrogen ion production, photoelectron emission from a cesiated metal surface, which is immersed in a hydrogen plasma with an electron density less than 5 x 10 10 /cc, was measured in the photon energy range of 1.3 to 4.1 eV. The work function determination was based on Fowler's analysis, and at the optimum coverage a work function of less than 1.5 eV was observed for a Cs-Cu surface. Measured values of work functions for different Cs coverages were compared to the negative hydrogen currents produced at the metal surface in the discharge; the surface production of negative hydrogen ion current is monotonically increasing with decreasing work function

  8. Surface energy balance measurements in the Mexico City: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejeda Martinez, A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Jauregui Ostos, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th Century, diverse campaigns for measuring the atmospheric energy balance were performed in downtown Mexico City (School of Mines and Preparatory School No. 7), in the southern suburbs (University Reserve) and in the surrounding rural areas (Plan Texcoco), in addition to a campaign carried out in 1985 in the Tacubaya district, a suburban western peripheral site. The objective was to obtain data for a better understanding of the climatic alterations due to urbanization, particularly to describe the role that the modification of the natural ground cover has played as a result of paving and the construction of urban canyons. In this paper, a review of these campaigns is presented. Energy partitioning in some areas (Tacubaya and Preparatory School No.7) is similar to that observed in urban centers of middle latitudes, whereas the major contrast was observed between Texcoco, with maximum energy consumption through evaporation, and School of Mines, where the latent heat is as low as in a desert. From the values of the correlations among the different components of energy balance, it may be possible to attempt the modeling of the diverse components of energy balance by means of regression equations starting from the net radiation. Those same coefficients distinguish the type of environment: urban, suburban or rural. [Spanish] Las primeras mediciones de balance energetico en la Ciudad de Mexico se realizaron en 1985 en un suburbio al poniente de la ciudad (el observatorio de Tacubaya). Ya en la decada de los anos noventa del siglo XX, dichas observaciones se multiplicaron tanto en el centro historico (antigua Escuela de Minas y en el edificio de la Preparatoria No. 7), como en otros sitios al sur (en terrenos de Ciudad Universitaria) y en la periferia rural (Plan Texcoco). El proposito de estas mediciones ha sido tener un mejor entendimiento de las alteraciones climaticas debidas a la urbanizacion. En este trabajo se presenta una revision

  9. Direct measurement of sub-Debye-length attraction between oppositely charged surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Nir; Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Andelman, David; Safran, S A; Klein, Jacob

    2009-09-11

    Using a surface force balance with fast video analysis, we have measured directly the attractive forces between oppositely charged solid surfaces (charge densities sigma(+), sigma(-)) across water over the entire range of interaction, in particular, at surface separations D below the Debye screening length lambda(S). At very low salt concentration we find a long-ranged attraction between the surfaces (onset ca. 100 nm), whose variation at Dsurface charge asymmetry (sigma(+) not equal to |sigma(-)|).

  10. Probing surface charge potentials of clay basal planes and edges by direct force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying; Bhattacharjee, Subir; Chow, Ross; Wallace, Dean; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

    2008-11-18

    The dispersion and gelation of clay suspensions have major impact on a number of industries, such as ceramic and composite materials processing, paper making, cement production, and consumer product formulation. To fundamentally understand controlling mechanisms of clay dispersion and gelation, it is necessary to study anisotropic surface charge properties and colloidal interactions of clay particles. In this study, a colloidal probe technique was employed to study the interaction forces between a silica probe and clay basal plane/edge surfaces. A muscovite mica was used as a representative of 2:1 phyllosilicate clay minerals. The muscovite basal plane was prepared by cleavage, while the edge surface was obtained by a microtome cutting technique. Direct force measurements demonstrated the anisotropic surface charge properties of the basal plane and edge surface. For the basal plane, the long-range forces were monotonically repulsive within pH 6-10 and the measured forces were pH-independent, thereby confirming that clay basal planes have permanent surface charge from isomorphic substitution of lattice elements. The measured interaction forces were fitted well with the classical DLVO theory. The surface potentials of muscovite basal plane derived from the measured force profiles were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. In the case of edge surfaces, the measured forces were monotonically repulsive at pH 10, decreasing with pH, and changed to be attractive at pH 5.6, strongly suggesting that the charge on the clay edge surfaces is pH-dependent. The measured force profiles could not be reasonably fitted with the classical DLVO theory, even with very small surface potential values, unless the surface roughness was considered. The surface element integration (SEI) method was used to calculate the DLVO forces to account for the surface roughness. The surface potentials of the muscovite edges were derived by fitting the measured force profiles with the

  11. Surface dose measurements in and out of field. Implications for breast radiotherapy with megavoltage photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonski, Peta; Kron, Tomas [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); RMIT Univ., Melbourne (Australia); Ramachandran, Prabhakar; Franich, Rick [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the difference in surface dose between flat and flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams in the context of breast radiotherapy. The surface dose was measured for 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, 10 MV, 10 MV FFF and 18 MV photon beams using a thin window ionisation chamber for various field sizes. Profiles were acquired to ascertain the change in surface dose off-axis. Out-of-field measurements were included in a clinically representative half beam block tangential breast field. In the field centres of FFF beams the surface dose was found to be increased for small fields and decreased for large fields compared to flat beams. For FFF beams, surface dose was found to decrease off-axis and resulted in lower surface dose out-of-field compared to flat beams.

  12. Dynamic surface tension measurements of ionic surfactants using maximum bubble pressure tensiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Camilla U.; Moreno, Norman; Sharma, Vivek

    Dynamic surface tension refers to the time dependent variation in surface tension, and is intimately linked with the rate of mass transfer of a surfactant from liquid sub-phase to the interface. The diffusion- or adsorption-limited kinetics of mass transfer to interfaces is said to impact the so-called foamability and the Gibbs-Marangoni elasticity of surfaces. Dynamic surface tension measurements carried out with conventional methods like pendant drop analysis, Wilhelmy plate, etc. are limited in their temporal resolution (>50 ms). In this study, we describe design and application of maximum bubble pressure tensiometry for the measurement of dynamic surface tension effects at extremely short (1-50 ms) timescales. Using experiments and theory, we discuss the overall adsorption kinetics of charged surfactants, paying special attention to the influence of added salt on dynamic surface tension.

  13. Measuring adhesion on rough surfaces using atomic force microscopy with a liquid probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Escobar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a procedure to perform and interpret pull-off force measurements during the jump-off-contact process between a liquid drop and rough surfaces using a conventional atomic force microscope. In this method, a micrometric liquid mercury drop is attached to an AFM tipless cantilever to measure the force required to pull this drop off a rough surface. We test the method with two surfaces: a square array of nanometer-sized peaks commonly used for the determination of AFM tip sharpness and a multi-scaled rough diamond surface containing sub-micrometer protrusions. Measurements are carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere to avoid water capillary interactions. We obtain information about the average force of adhesion between a single peak or protrusion and the liquid drop. This procedure could provide useful microscopic information to improve our understanding of wetting phenomena on rough surfaces.

  14. Digital Moiré based transient interferometry and its application in optical surface measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Tan, Yifeng; Wang, Shaopu; Hu, Yao

    2017-10-01

    Digital Moiré based transient interferometry (DMTI) is an effective non-contact testing methods for optical surfaces. In DMTI system, only one frame of real interferogram is experimentally captured for the transient measurement of the surface under test (SUT). When combined with partial compensation interferometry (PCI), DMTI is especially appropriate for the measurement of aspheres with large apertures, large asphericity or different surface parameters. Residual wavefront is allowed in PCI, so the same partial compensator can be applied to the detection of multiple SUTs. Excessive residual wavefront aberration results in spectrum aliasing, and the dynamic range of DMTI is limited. In order to solve this problem, a method based on wavelet transform is proposed to extract phase from the fringe pattern with spectrum aliasing. Results of simulation demonstrate the validity of this method. The dynamic range of Digital Moiré technology is effectively expanded, which makes DMTI prospective in surface figure error measurement for intelligent fabrication of aspheric surfaces.

  15. Optical microscope for three-dimensional surface displacement and shape measurements at the microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuman; Pan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jingwen

    2014-07-15

    We report a novel optical microscope for full-field, noncontact measurements of three-dimensional (3D) surface deformation and topography at the microscale. The microscope system is based on a seamless integration of the diffraction-assisted image correlation (DAIC) method with fluorescent microscopy. We experimentally demonstrate the microscope's capability for 3D measurements with submicrometer spatial resolution and subpixel measurement accuracy.

  16. The electrical double layer on gold probed by electrokinetic and surface force measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Gold surfaces, obtained by vacuum deposition of 15-nm gold films on glass and silica wafers, were studied in aqueous solutions by streaming potential measurements and colloidal-probe AFM force measurements. In the force measurements both a bare and a gold-coated silica particle (6 m in diameter)

  17. Locating karst depressed columns by means of Rn measurement on the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Daimao; Liu Hongfu; Duan Hongjie; Duan Lindi; Sui Haichen

    1999-01-01

    The coal mining and the related surface projects are extremely harassed by the underground karst depressed columns. The author discussed the surface Rn concentration's abnormality caused by the karst depressed columns. It is concluded that different kinds of karst depressed column can cause different Rn concentration's abnormality. The α-cup Rn measuring instrument was used for detecting Rn abnormality on the surface in order to locate the underground karst depressed columns

  18. Development of shearography for surface strain measurement of non planar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Roger Michael

    2001-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the development of optical instrumentation for surface strain measurement of non-planar objects. The speckle interferometry technique of shearography is used to perform quantitative measurements of surface strain on non-planar objects and to compensate these measurements for the errors that are due to the shape and slope of the object. Shearography is an optical technique that is usually used for defect location and for qualitative strain characterisation. In this thesis a multi-component shearography system is described that can measure the six components of displacement gradient. From these measurements the surface strain can be fully characterised. For non-planar objects an error is introduced into the displacement gradient measurement due to the variation of the sensitivity vector across the field of view and the variation in the magnitude of applied shear due to the curvature of the object surface. To correct for these errors requires a knowledge of the slope and shape of the object. Shearography may also be used to measure object slope and shape by a source displacement technique. Therefore slope, shape and surface strain may be measured using the same optical system. The thesis describes a method of multiplexing the shear direction using polarisation switching, a method of measuring the source position using shadow Moire and the shearography source displacement technique for measuring the surface slope and shape of objects. The multi-component shearography system is used to perform measurements of the six components of surface strain, on an industrial component, with a correction applied for errors due to the shape and slope of the object. (author)

  19. Setting up an off-site emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a DVI incident: disaster victim management (DVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, David; Zimmermann, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Forensic mortuaries in all Australian jurisdictions are dealing with increasing workloads, with routine cases regularly occupying greater than 50%, and often as much as 85%, of existing cold room body storage capacity, particularly over long weekends and during seasonal increases in respiratory infections. Hence the need to deal with a sudden influx of deceased persons or multiple body parts in a mass fatality incident would overwhelm most Australian forensic mortuaries, thereby requiring other means of body storage and processing. Exercise "Construct" was a joint South Australian Police (SAPol) and Forensic Science South Australia exercise designed to practice the establishment and construction of an emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a mass fatality incident and the subsequent disaster victim identification process. The aims of the exercise were to test preparedness, activation and construction processes relative to the establishment of an EMF. The exercise provided the opportunity to identify gaps in the capacity to successfully complete the tasks within the allotted time frames. The exercise reinforced the need to have a comprehensive and clearly documented process which must include a current list of suppliers who can deliver goods and services in a timely manner. The aim of this paper is to report on the exercise findings and share the experience with other jurisdictions. It will also provide other jurisdictions with the opportunity to consider whether the South Australian model will be useful to them in improving their own response when confronted with a mass fatality incident that may overwhelm existing local mortuary capacities and capabilities.

  20. Sickness absence from 1978 to 1992 of Electricite de France (EDF) workers exposed to ELF-EMF: the substation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.; Dab, W.; Lambrozo, J.; Chevalier, A.; Coing, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are suspected of many health effects, including cancers, immunity and fertility disorders, congenital malformations, suicides and depression.... Although the results of all studies are contradictory and no biological mechanism has been found, populations are concerned about this matter. This study analyzes the absence from work of some EDF employees who are a priori the most professionally exposed to ELF EMF. Absence from work is taken as an health indicator. Although it is not specific, it can be predictive of serious health problems. The specific context of EDF has made it possible to collect and analyze the medical aspect of absence from work, that is rare in France. We were interested with employees working with high voltage (over 90 kV). Three job categories have been selected: live line workers, substation maintenance workers and substation exploitation workers (called in the company the ATEX). The first group concerned the live linemen and the results were exposed previously. It appeared they had more accidents at work, but this was more related to the job of lineman rather than to the EMF exposure. Nevertheless, substation workers have an exposure less intensive but longer than live linemen. We present here the result about the absenteeism of the substation workers, maintenance and exploitation. (author)

  1. Ag coated microneedle based surface enhanced Raman scattering probe for intradermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Clement; Liu, Quan

    2013-06-01

    We propose a silver coated microneedle to detect test molecules, including R6G and glucose, positioned at a depth of more than 700 μm below a skin phantom surface for mimicking intradermal surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements.

  2. Calibration of a distributed hydrology and land surface model using energy flux measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jensen, Karsten H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop and test a calibration approach on a spatially distributed groundwater-surface water catchment model (MIKE SHE) coupled to a land surface model component with particular focus on the water and energy fluxes. The model is calibrated against time series of eddy flux measure...

  3. Measurement of sound velocity on metal surfaces by impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yukihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Impulsive stimulated Brillouin Scattering (ISBS) experiment was performed in order to measure acoustic waves on metal surfaces. The ISBS technique offers robust method of obtaining acoustic velocities without physical contact. The generation and detection mechanism were discussed. (author)

  4. Comparison of two methods of surface profile extraction from multiple ultrasonic range measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barshan, B; Baskent, D

    Two novel methods for surface profile extraction based on multiple ultrasonic range measurements are described and compared. One of the methods employs morphological processing techniques, whereas the other employs a spatial voting scheme followed by simple thresholding. Morphological processing

  5. Surface-Borne Time-of-Reception Measurements (STORM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....

  6. Interferometry with flexible point source array for measuring complex freeform surface and its design algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Shen, Hua; Zhu, Rihong; Gao, Jinming; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinsong; Li, Bo

    2018-06-01

    The precision of the measurements of aspheric and freeform surfaces remains the primary factor restrict their manufacture and application. One effective means of measuring such surfaces involves using reference or probe beams with angle modulation, such as tilted-wave-interferometer (TWI). It is necessary to improve the measurement efficiency by obtaining the optimum point source array for different pieces before TWI measurements. For purpose of forming a point source array based on the gradients of different surfaces under test, we established a mathematical model describing the relationship between the point source array and the test surface. However, the optimal point sources are irregularly distributed. In order to achieve a flexible point source array according to the gradient of test surface, a novel interference setup using fiber array is proposed in which every point source can be independently controlled on and off. Simulations and the actual measurement examples of two different surfaces are given in this paper to verify the mathematical model. Finally, we performed an experiment of testing an off-axis ellipsoidal surface that proved the validity of the proposed interference system.

  7. Neutron probe measurement of soil water content close to soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faleiros, M.C.; Ravelo S, A.; Souza, M.D. de

    1993-01-01

    The problem of neutron probe soil water content measurements close to soil surface is analysed from the spatial variability and also from the slow neutron loss to the atmosphere points of view. Results obtained on a dark red latosol of the county of Piracicaba, SP, indicate the possibility of precisely measuring the neutron sphere of influence when different media are used on soil surface. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  8. Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Peter J.

    2014-05-01

    Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

  9. Measurement uncertainty and gauge capability of surface roughness measurements in the automotive industry: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drégelyi-Kiss, Ágota; Czifra, Árpád

    2014-01-01

    The calculation methods of the capability of measurement processes in the automotive industry differ from each other. There are three main calculation methods: MSA, VDA 5 and the international standard, ISO 22514–7. During this research our aim was to compare the capability calculation methods in a case study. Two types of automotive parts (ten pieces of each) are chosen to examine the behaviour of the manufacturing process and to measure the required characteristics of the measurement process being evaluated. The measurement uncertainty of the measuring process is calculated according to the VDA 5 and ISO 22514–7, and MSA guidelines. In this study the conformance of a measurement process in an automotive manufacturing process is determined, and the similarities and the differences between the methods used are shown. (paper)

  10. Surface tension effect on the mechanical properties of nanomaterials measured by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenot, Stéphane; Frétigny, Christian; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard

    2004-04-01

    The effect of reduced size on the elastic properties measured on silver and lead nanowires and on polypyrrole nanotubes with an outer diameter ranging between 30 and 250 nm is presented and discussed. Resonant-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to measure their apparent elastic modulus. The measured modulus of the nanomaterials with smaller diameters is significantly higher than that of the larger ones. The latter is comparable to the macroscopic modulus of the materials. The increase of the apparent elastic modulus for the smaller diameters is attributed to surface tension effects. The surface tension of the probed material may be experimentally determined from these AFM measurements.

  11. Calibration of the geometrical characteristics of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusca, C L; Leach, R K; Helery, F; Gutauskas, T

    2011-01-01

    The use of areal surface topography measuring instruments has increased significantly over the past ten years as industry starts to embrace the use of surface structuring to affect the function of a component. This has led to a range of areal surface topography measuring instruments being developed and becoming available commercially. For such instruments to be used as part of quality control during production, it is essential for them to be calibrated according to international standards. The ISO 25178 suite of specification standards on areal surface topography measurement presents a series of tests that can be used to calibrate the metrological characteristics of an areal surface topography measuring instrument. Calibration artefacts and test procedures have been developed that are compliant with ISO 25178. The material measures include crossed gratings, resolution artefacts and pseudorandom surfaces. Traceability is achieved through the NPL Areal Instrument - a primary stylus-based instrument that uses laser interferometers to measure the displacement of the stylus tip. Good practice guides on areal calibration have also been drafted for stylus instruments, coherence scanning interferometers, scanning confocal microscopes and focus variation instruments.

  12. Measurement of free-surface of liquid metal lithium jet for IFMIF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroo Kondo; Nobuo Yamaoka; Takuji Kanemura; Seiji Miyamoto; Hiroshi Horiike; Mizuho Ida; Hiroo Nakamura; Izuru Matsushita; Takeo Muroga

    2006-01-01

    This reports an experimental study on flow characteristics of a lithium target flow of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). Surface shapes of the target were tried to measure by pattern projection method that is a three dimensional image measurement method. Irregularity of the surface shape caused by surface wakes was successfully measured by the method. IFMIF liquid lithium target is formed a flat plane jet of 25 mm in depth and 260 mm in width, and flows in a flow velocity range of 10 to 20 m/s. Aim of this study is to develop measurement techniques for monitoring of the target when IFMIF is in operation. The lithium target flow is high speed jet and the temperature high is more than 500 K. Also, light is not transmitted into liquid metal lithium. Therefore, almost of all flow measurement techniques developed for water are not used for lithium flow. In this study, pattern projection method was employed to measure the surface irregularity of the target. In the method, stripe patterns are projected onto the flow surface. The projected patterns are deformed according the surface shape. Three-dimensional surface shape is measured by analyzing the deformed patterns recorded using a CCD camera. The method uses the property that lithium dose not transmit visible lights. The experiments were carried out using a lithium loop at Osaka University. In this facility, lithium plane jet of 10 mm in depth and 70 mm width is obtained in the velocity range of less than 15 m/s using a two contractions nozzle. The pattern projection method was used to measure the amplitude of surface irregularity caused by surface wakes. The surface wakes were generated from small damaged at the nozzle edge caused by erosion, and those were successfully measured by the method. The measurement results showed the amplitude of the surface wakes were approximately equal to a size of damage of a nozzle. The amplitude was decreasing with distance to down stream and with decreasing

  13. In-Situ Measurement of Chirality of Molecules and Molecular Assemblies with Surface Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongfei

    2012-01-01

    Developments in quantitative measurement and analysis in nonlinear surface spectroscopy, namely, second harmonic generation linear dichroism (SHG-LD) and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy linear dichroism (SFG-VS-LD), provide new opportunities for probing the surface chirality of monolayers and thin films. In this book chapter, the up-to-date theoretical background and experimental methodology, as well as examples and future perspectives on the developments with surface nonlinear spectroscopy in surface chirality studies are to be summarized and outlined for general readers.

  14. Radius of curvature measurement of spherical smooth surfaces by multiple-beam interferometry in reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, D. G.; Shaalan, M. S.; Eloker, M. M.; Kim, Daesuk

    2010-06-01

    In this paper a method is presented to accurately measure the radius of curvature of different types of curved surfaces of different radii of curvatures of 38 000,18 000 and 8000 mm using multiple-beam interference fringes in reflection. The images captured by the digital detector were corrected by flat fielding method. The corrected images were analyzed and the form of the surfaces was obtained. A 3D profile for the three types of surfaces was obtained using Zernike polynomial fitting. Some sources of uncertainty in measurement were calculated by means of ray tracing simulations and the uncertainty budget was estimated within λ/40.

  15. Surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti binary alloys measured by electromagnetic levitation and thermodynamic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, S.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.; Novakovic, R.

    2011-01-01

    The surface tension of liquid Cu-Ti alloys has been measured by using the containerless technique of electromagnetic levitation and theoretically calculated in the framework of the compound formation model. Measurements have been carried out on alloys covering the entire range of composition and over the temperature range 1275-2050 K. For all investigated alloys the surface tension can be described by a linear function of the temperature with negative slope. Due to the presence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state the surface properties of liquid Cu-Ti alloys are satisfactory described by the compound formation model.

  16. Measurement of lithium target surface velocity in the IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemura, Takuji, E-mail: kanemura.takuji@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Hoashi, Eiji [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshihashi, Sachiko; Horiike, Hiroshi [Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen 3-6-1, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Wakai, Eiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The objective is to measure the free-surface velocity field of the IFMIF Li target. • The Li target has an important role to remove 10 MW heat input from a deuteron beam. • The free-surface of the Li target is under the most severe heat load condition. • Measured surface velocities are almost equal to cross-sectional average velocities. • It was confirmed that the IFMIF Li target has adequate heat removal performance. - Abstract: In the framework of the Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) project of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), we measured surface velocity fields of a lithium (Li) target at the EVEDA Li test loop under specifically-designated IFMIF conditions (target speeds of 10, 15, and 20 m/s, vacuum pressure of 10{sup −3} Pa, and Li temperature of 250 °C). In the current design of the IFMIF, the free surface of the Li target is under a most severe heat load condition with respect to Li boiling. The objective of this study is to measure the actual free-surface velocity under these IFMIF conditions to evaluate the heat removal performance of the Li target. The measured results (using the surface-wave tracking method that our team developed) showed two-dimensional time-averaged velocity distributions around the IFMIF beam footprint being virtually uniform, and close to the cross-sectional average velocity. The uniformity of the velocity distributions was less than 1 m/s. The comparison between the measured and analyzed surface velocity at the beam center showed that the analysis accurately predicts the measurement results within a margin of 3%. Finally, it was confirmed that the Li target delivers adequate heat removal performance in the IFMIF as designed.

  17. Aerosol measurements at the Southern Great Plains Site: Design and surface installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, R.; Knuth, R.H.; Guggenheim, S.F.; Albert, B. [Department of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    To impropve the predictive capabilities of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program radiation models, measurements of awserosol size distributions, condensation particle concentrations, aerosol scattering coefficients at a number of wavelenghts, and the aerosol absorption coefficients are needed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Alos, continuous measurements of ozone concnetrations are needed for model validation. The environmental Measuremenr Laboratory (EMK) has the responsibility to establish the surface aerosol measurements program at the SGP site. EML has designed a special sampling manifold.

  18. Measuring air layer volumes retained by submerged floating-ferns Salvinia and biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Mayser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under water. We recorded the buoyancy force of the air layer on leaf surfaces of four different Salvinia species and on one biomimetic surface using a highly sensitive custom made strain gauge force transducer setup. The volume of air held by a surface was quantified by comparing the buoyancy force of the specimen with and then without an air layer. Air volumes retained by the Salvinia-surfaces ranged between 0.15 and 1 L/m2 depending on differences in surface architecture. We verified the precision of the method by comparing the measured air volumes with theoretical volume calculations and could find a good agreement between both values. In this context we present techniques to calculate air volumes on surfaces with complex microstructures. The introduced method also allows to measure decrease or increase of air layers with high accuracy in real-time to understand dynamic processes.

  19. LDV measurement of boundary layer on rotating blade surface in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Murata, Junsuke; Suzuki, Daiki; Kaga, Norimitsu; Kagisaki, Yosuke

    2014-12-01

    Wind turbines generate electricity due to extracting energy from the wind. The rotor aerodynamics strongly depends on the flow around blade. The surface flow on the rotating blade affects the sectional performance. The wind turbine surface flow has span-wise component due to span-wise change of airfoil section, chord length, twisted angle of blade and centrifugal force on the flow. These span-wise flow changes the boundary layer on the rotating blade and the sectional performance. Hence, the thorough understanding of blade surface flow is important to improve the rotor performance. For the purpose of clarification of the flow behaviour around the rotor blade, the velocity in the boundary layer on rotating blade surface of an experimental HAWT was measured in a wind tunnel. The velocity measurement on the blade surface was carried out by a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). As the results of the measurement, characteristics of surface flow are clarified. In optimum tip speed operation, the surface flow on leading edge and r/R=0.3 have large span-wise velocity which reaches 20% of sectional inflow velocity. The surface flow inboard have three dimensional flow patterns. On the other hand, the flow outboard is almost two dimensional in cross sectional plane.

  20. Measurement of surface temperature profiles on liquid uranium metal during electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    Surface temperature distributions of liquid uranium in a water-cooled copper crucible during electron beam evaporation were measured. Evaporation surface was imaged by a lens through a band-path filter (650{+-}5 nm) and a double mirror system on a charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The video signals of the recorded image were connected to an image processor and converted to two-dimensional spectral radiance profiles. The surface temperatures were obtained from the spectral radiation intensity ratio of the evaporation surface and a freezing point of uranium and/or a reference light source using Planck`s law of radiation. The maximum temperature exceeded 3000 K and had saturation tendency with increasing electron beam input. The measured surface temperatures agreed with those estimated from deposition rates and data of saturated vapor pressure of uranium. (author)

  1. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  2. Actively stabilized optical fiber interferometry technique for online/in-process surface measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaiwei; Martin, Haydn; Jiang Xiangqian

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report the recent progress in optical-beam scanning fiber interferometry for potential online nanoscale surface measurement based on the previous research. It attempts to generate a robust and miniature measurement device for future development into a multiprobe array measurement system. In this research, both fiber-optic-interferometry and the wavelength-division-multiplexing techniques have been used, so that the optical probe and the optical interferometer are well spaced and fast surface scanning can be carried out, allowing flexibility for online measurement. In addition, this system provides a self-reference signal to stabilize the optical detection with high common-mode noise suppression by adopting an active phase tracking and stabilization technique. Low-frequency noise was significantly reduced compared with unstabilized result. The measurement of a sample surface shows an attained repeatability of 3.3 nm

  3. Adaptive Sampling based 3D Profile Measuring Method for Free-Form Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xianyin; Zou, Yu; Gao, Qiang; Peng, Fangyu; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Guozhang

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of adaptability and scanning efficiency of the current surface profile detection device, a high precision and high efficiency detection approach is proposed for surface contour of free-form surface parts based on self- adaptability. The contact mechanical probe and the non-contact laser probe are synthetically integrated according to the sampling approach of adaptive front-end path detection. First, the front-end path is measured by the non-contact laser probe, and the detection path is planned by the internal algorithm of the measuring instrument. Then a reasonable measurement sampling is completed according to the planned path by the contact mechanical probe. The detection approach can effectively improve the measurement efficiency of the free-form surface contours and can simultaneously detect the surface contours of unknown free-form surfaces with different curvatures and even different rate of curvature. The detection approach proposed in this paper also has important reference value for free-form surface contour detection.

  4. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Expected Performance in Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Woods, W. W.; Tyler, G. L.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Strobel, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) payload includes a Radio Science Experiment (REX) for investigating key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the upcoming flyby in July 2015. REX flight equipment augments the NH radio transceiver used for spacecraft communications and tracking. The REX hardware implementation requires 1.6 W and 160 g. This presentation will focus on the final design and the predicted performance of two high-priority observations. First, REX will receive signals from a pair of 70-m antennas on Earth - each transmitting 20 kW at 4.2-cm wavelength - during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. The data recorded by REX will reveal the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius. Second, REX will measure the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2-cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the nightside are visible, allowing the surface temperature and its spatial variations to be determined. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of about 10 pixels; one bisects Pluto whereas the second crosses the winter pole. We will illustrate the capabilities of REX by reviewing the method of analysis and the precision achieved in a lunar occultation observed by New Horizons in May 2011. Re-analysis of radio occultation measurements by Voyager 2 at Triton is also under way. More generally, REX objectives include a radio occultation search for Pluto's ionosphere; examination of Charon through both radio occultation and radiometry; a search for a radar echo from Pluto's surface; and improved knowledge of the Pluto system mass and the Pluto-Charon mass ratio from a combination of two-way and one-way Doppler frequency measurements.

  5. Improving the surface metrology accuracy of optical profilers by using multiple measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xudong; Huang, Qiushi; Shen, Zhengxiang; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-10-01

    The performance of high-resolution optical systems is affected by small angle scattering at the mid-spatial-frequency irregularities of the optical surface. Characterizing these irregularities is, therefore, important. However, surface measurements obtained with optical profilers are influenced by additive white noise, as indicated by the heavy-tail effect observable on their power spectral density (PSD). A multiple-measurement method is used to reduce the effects of white noise by averaging individual measurements. The intensity of white noise is determined using a model based on the theoretical PSD of fractal surface measurements with additive white noise. The intensity of white noise decreases as the number of times of multiple measurements increases. Using multiple measurements also increases the highest observed spatial frequency; this increase is derived and calculated. Additionally, the accuracy obtained using multiple measurements is carefully studied, with the analysis of both the residual reference error after calibration, and the random errors appearing in the range of measured spatial frequencies. The resulting insights on the effects of white noise in optical profiler measurements and the methods to mitigate them may prove invaluable to improve the quality of surface metrology with optical profilers.

  6. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hirokuni [Ohyo Koken Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hatakeyama, Mutsuo [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, Mitsuo; Yanagihara, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures {beta}-rays and {gamma}-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of {beta}-rays measures {gamma}-rays. The {beta}-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting {gamma}-ray counts measured by the inner detector from {gamma}- and {beta}-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of {sup 60}Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm{sup 2} with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm{sup 2} corresponding to clearance level of {sup 60}Co (0.4 Bq/g) can be evaluated with measurement time of 2 seconds, which is equal to measurement speed of 54 m/h. (author)

  7. Research on the method of improving the accuracy of CMM (coordinate measuring machine) testing aspheric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wang; Xu, Lingdi; Li, Ang

    2017-10-01

    Large aspheric surface which have the deviation with spherical surface are being used widely in various of optical systems. Compared with spherical surface, Large aspheric surfaces have lots of advantages, such as improving image quality, correcting aberration, expanding field of view, increasing the effective distance and make the optical system compact, lightweight. Especially, with the rapid development of space optics, space sensor resolution is required higher and viewing angle is requred larger. Aspheric surface will become one of the essential components in the optical system. After finishing Aspheric coarse Grinding surface profile error is about Tens of microns[1].In order to achieve the final requirement of surface accuracy,the aspheric surface must be quickly modified, high precision testing is the basement of rapid convergence of the surface error . There many methods on aspheric surface detection[2], Geometric ray detection, hartmann detection, ronchi text, knifeedge method, direct profile test, interferometry, while all of them have their disadvantage[6]. In recent years the measure of the aspheric surface become one of the import factors which are restricting the aspheric surface processing development. A two meter caliber industrial CMM coordinate measuring machine is avaiable, but it has many drawbacks such as large detection error and low repeatability precision in the measurement of aspheric surface coarse grinding , which seriously affects the convergence efficiency during the aspherical mirror processing. To solve those problems, this paper presents an effective error control, calibration and removal method by calibration mirror position of the real-time monitoring and other effective means of error control, calibration and removal by probe correction and the measurement mode selection method to measure the point distribution program development. This method verified by real engineer examples, this method increases the original industrial

  8. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten

    2016-01-01

    for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.......g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed......, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle...

  9. The deconvolution of sputter-etching surface concentration measurements to determine impurity depth profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Katardjiev, I.V.; Nobes, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-linear partial differential continuity equations that describe the evolution of the depth profiles and surface concentrations of marker atoms in kinematically equivalent systems undergoing sputtering, ion collection and atomic mixing are solved using the method of characteristics. It is shown how atomic mixing probabilities can be deduced from measurements of ion collection depth profiles with increasing ion fluence, and how this information can be used to predict surface concentration evolution. Even with this information, however, it is shown that it is not possible to deconvolute directly the surface concentration measurements to provide initial depth profiles, except when only ion collection and sputtering from the surface layer alone occur. It is demonstrated further that optimal recovery of initial concentration depth profiles could be ensured if the concentration-measuring analytical probe preferentially sampled depths near and at the maximum depth of bombardment-induced perturbations. (author)

  10. Surface electronic transport measurements: A micro multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    This work is mostly focused on the study of electronic transport properties of two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene and topological insulators. To study these, we have improved a unique micro multi-point probe instrument used to perform transport measurements. Not only the experimental...... quantities are extracted, such as conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility. • A method to insulate electrically epitaxial graphene grown on metals, based on a stepwise intercalation methodology, is developed and transport measurements are performed in order to test the insulation. • We show...... a direct measurement of the surface electronic transport on a bulk topological insulator. The surface state conductivity and mobility are obtained. Apart from transport properties, we also investigate the atomic structure of the Bi2Se3(111) surface via surface x-ray diraction and low-energy electron...

  11. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An ellipsometric measurement of optical properties for InP surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Irene, E.A.; Hattangady, S.; Fountain, G.

    1990-01-01

    Several chemical cleaning procedures for InP surfaces have been studied using ellipsometry. The strong influence of cleaning on the optical properties of InP surfaces suggests that the measurements involved the formation of surface films. In order to determine the complex index of refraction for InP, a novel method which employs ellipsometry measurements of a thin nonabsorbing film on a substrate rather than measurements of a bare surface has been explored. From the knowledge of the refractive index for a series of thicknesses of films on a substrate, the complex refractive index value for the substrate can be determined. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 films on InP have been used for this experiment, and the complex refractive index for InP has been determined to be 3.521 + i0.300 at the wavelength of 632.8 nm

  13. Do measures matter? Comparing surface-density-derived and census-tract-derived measures of racial residential segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Lance A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial residential segregation is hypothesized to affect population health by systematically patterning health-relevant exposures and opportunities according to individuals' race or income. Growing interest into the association between residential segregation and health disparities demands more rigorous appraisal of commonly used measures of segregation. Most current studies rely on census tracts as approximations of the local residential environment when calculating segregation indices of either neighborhoods or metropolitan areas. Because census tracts are arbitrary in size and shape, reliance on this geographic scale limits understanding of place-health associations. More flexible, explicitly spatial derivations of traditional segregation indices have been proposed but have not been compared with tract-derived measures in the context of health disparities studies common to social epidemiology, health demography, or medical geography. We compared segregation measured with tract-derived as well as GIS surface-density-derived indices. Measures were compared by region and population size, and segregation measures were linked to birth record to estimate the difference in association between segregation and very preterm birth. Separate analyses focus on metropolitan segregation and on neighborhood segregation. Results Across 231 metropolitan areas, tract-derived and surface-density-derived segregation measures are highly correlated. However overall correlation obscures important differences by region and metropolitan size. In general the discrepancy between measure types is greatest for small metropolitan areas, declining with increasing population size. Discrepancies in measures are greatest in the South, and smallest in Western metropolitan areas. Choice of segregation index changed the magnitude of the measured association between segregation and very preterm birth. For example among black women, the risk ratio for very

  14. Precise measurement of cat patellofemoral joint surface geometry with multistation digital photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsky, J L; Boyd, S K; Lichti, D D; Chapman, M A; Salkauskas, K

    1999-04-01

    Three-dimensional joint models are important tools for investigating mechanisms related to normal and pathological joints. Often these models necessitate accurate three-dimensional joint surface geometric data so that reliable model results can be obtained; however, in models based on small joints, this is often problematic due to limitations of the present techniques. These limitations include insufficient measurement precision the requirement of contact for the measurement process, and lack of entire joint description. This study presents a new non-contact method for precise determination of entire joint surfaces using multistation digital photogrammetry (MDPG) and is demonstrated by determining the cartilage and subchondral bone surfaces of the cat patellofemoral (PF) joint. The digital camera-lens setup was precisely calibrated using 16 photographs arranged to achieve highly convergent geometry to estimate interior and distortion parameters of the camera-lens setup. Subsequently, six photographs of each joint surface were then acquired for surface measurement. The digital images were directly imported to a computer and newly introduced semi-automatic computer algorithms were used to precisely determine the image coordinates. Finally, a rigorous mathematical procedure named the bundle adjustment was used to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the joint surfaces and to estimate the precision of the coordinates. These estimations were validated by comparing the MDPG measurements of a cylinder and plane to an analytical model. The joint surfaces were successfully measured using the MDPG method with mean precision estimates in the least favorable coordinate direction being 10.3 microns for subchondral bone and 17.9 microns for cartilage. The difference in measurement precision for bone and cartilage primarily reflects differences in the translucent properties of the surfaces.

  15. Determination and compensation of the “reference surface” from redundant sets of surface measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polack, François, E-mail: francois.polack@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Thomasset, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.thomasset@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2013-05-11

    When trying to measure an optical surface at utmost absolute precision, the problem of the missing or unknown “reference surface” is often encountered. It is obvious with Fizeau and Michelson's interferometry, where the height difference between the surface under test (SUT) and a reference surface is measured. It is also true from slope measurements in long trace profilers (LTP), where due to small construction errors, the response to a perfectly flat ideal surface can be considered as an unknown reference to be subtracted from the measurement data. As no “perfect artifact” can exist, these references cannot be directly determined. The addition of the unknown reference can severely bias the reconstructed surface when field stitching is applied. The results of ptychography have proved that when a measurement is a function of a unique object function with a translated but unique response function, the redundancy of a large set of data allows accurate reconstructions of the object and response function despite the presence of measurement noise. In the case of LTP and interferometry, the basic problem is linear and can be solved by linear algebra rather than iteratively. The method has been already applied to SOLEIL and ESRF LTPs and is succesfully used on a regular base. We show here that the method can be also applied to interferometry and improve stitching results.

  16. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  17. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A. E.; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane ...

  18. Aggregate surface areas quantified through laser measurements for South African asphalt mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available design. This paper introduces the use of a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning method to directly measure the surface area of aggregates used in road pavements in South Africa. As an application of the laser-based measurements, the asphalt film...

  19. [A method of temperature measurement for hot forging with surface oxide based on infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Qi, Yan-de; Fu, Xian-bin

    2012-05-01

    High temperature large forging is covered with a thick oxide during forging. It leads to a big measurement data error. In this paper, a method of measuring temperature based on infrared spectroscopy is presented. It can effectively eliminate the influence of surface oxide on the measurement of temperature. The method can measure the surface temperature and emissivity of the oxide directly using the infrared spectrum. The infrared spectrum is radiated from surface oxide of forging. Then it can derive the real temperature of hot forging covered with the oxide using the heat exchange equation. In order to greatly restrain interference spectroscopy through included in the received infrared radiation spectrum, three interference filter system was proposed, and a group of optimal gap parameter values using spectral simulation were obtained. The precision of temperature measurement was improved. The experimental results show that the method can accurately measure the surface temperature of high temperature forging covered with oxide. It meets the requirements of measurement accuracy, and the temperature measurement method is feasible according to the experiment result.

  20. Measurement and Modeling of Surface Tensions of Asymmetric Systems: Heptane, Eicosane, Docosane, Tetracosane and their Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, Antonio; Silva, Filipa A.E; Caco, Ana I.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the surface tension database for heavy or asymmetric n-alkane mixtures, measurements were performed using the Wilhelmy plate method. Measured systems included the binary mixtures heptane + eicosane, heptane + docosane and heptane + tetracosane and the ternary mixture heptane + eicosane...

  1. Comparative investigation of optical techniques for topography measurement of rough plastic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    2003-01-01

    An experimental assessment of three-dimensional surface topography characterisation methods for use with rough plastic parts has been carried out. Also, calibration methods and measuring procedures including optimal measuring conditions have been developed and applied. The study is based on rough...

  2. Device for measuring the two-dimensional distribution of a radioactive substance on a surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described by which, using a one-dimensional measuring proportional counter tube depending on position, one can measure the two-dimensionally distributed radioactivity of a surface and can plot this to scale two-dimensionally, after computer processing, or can show it two-dimensionally on a monitor. (orig.) [de

  3. Defining and measuring the mean residence time of lateral surface transient storage zones in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Jackson; R. Haggerty; S.V. Apte; A. Coleman; K.J. Drost

    2012-01-01

    Surface transient storage (STS) has functional significance in stream ecosystems because it increases solute interaction with sediments. After volume, mean residence time is the most important metric of STS, but it is unclear how this can be measured accurately or related to other timescales and field-measureable parameters. We studied mean residence time of lateral...

  4. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  5. Using the lambda function to evaluate probe measurements of charged dielectric surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T. O.; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The use of Pedersen's λ function to evaluate electrostatic probe measurements of charged dielectric surfaces is demonstrated. With a knowledge of the probe λ function, the procedure by which this function is employed is developed, and thereafter applied to a set of experimental measurements avail...

  6. An Evaluation of pectus excavatum by means of body surface measurements on chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotani, Taichi; Ohama, Kazunori; Shimotake, Takashi; Ishikawa, Nobuki; Watanabe, Reiji

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the body surface index replaces the Haller index in order to evaluate the severity of pectus excavatum. Sixty-nine cases with a diagnosis of pectus excavatum between August 2001 and January 2008 were prospectively enrolled in the study. The anterior-posterior chest dimension, lateral chest dimension and depth of the most profound depressed area were measured. The body surface index was expressed as an equation A/(B-C), where A was the transverse diameter, B was the anterior-posterior diameter and C was the depth of the depressed area. This index was compared to the Haller index in each patient. In this study, each value was measured on a chest CT scan. The body surface index significantly correlated with the Haller index, in which the coefficient of correlation was 0.879 (p<0.01). The body surface index corresponding to Haller index 3.25 seems to be 1.67. We could find the body surface index corresponding to each Haller index. We propose that an evaluation of pectus excavatum by means of body surface measurements is clinically useful, and may replace the Haller index. The body surface index may allow us to assess the severity of pectus excavatum without a CT scan, resulting in a reduction of radiation exposure for children with pectus excavatum. It's possible to evaluate the body surface index by using a relational table between this index and the Hailer index. We'll evaluate the body surface index by using values measured on a real body. (author)

  7. Heat Transfer Measurement and Modeling in Rigid High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Cunnington, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer in rigid reusable surface insulations was investigated. Steady-state thermal conductivity measurements in a vacuum were used to determine the combined contribution of radiation and solid conduction components of heat transfer. Thermal conductivity measurements at higher pressures were then used to estimate the effective insulation characteristic length for gas conduction modeling. The thermal conductivity of the insulation can then be estimated at any temperature and pressure in any gaseous media. The methodology was validated by comparing estimated thermal conductivities with published data on a rigid high-temperature silica reusable surface insulation tile. The methodology was also applied to the alumina enhanced thermal barrier tiles. Thermal contact resistance for thermal conductivity measurements on rigid tiles was also investigated. A technique was developed to effectively eliminate thermal contact resistance on the rigid tile s cold-side surface for the thermal conductivity measurements.

  8. Measurement of the sea surface wind speed and direction by an airborne microwave radar altimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrassov, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2001-07-01

    A pilot needs operational information about wind over sea as well as wave height to provide safety of a hydroplane landing on water. Near-surface wind speed and direction can be obtained with an airborne microwave scatterometer, radar designed for measuring the scatter characteristics of a surface. Mostly narrow-beam antennas are applied for such wind measurement. Unfortunately, a microwave narrow-beam antenna has considerable size that hampers its placing on flying apparatus. In this connection, a possibility to apply a conventional airborne radar altimeter as a scatterometer with a nadir-looking wide-beam antenna in conjunction with Doppler filtering for recovering the wind vector over sea is discussed, and measuring algorithms of sea surface wind speed and direction are proposed. The obtained results can be used for creation of an airborne radar system for operational measurement of the sea roughness characteristics and for safe landing of a hydroplane on water. (orig.)

  9. Tile Surface Thermocouple Measurement Challenges from the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Berger, Karen; Anderson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hypersonic entry flight testing motivated by efforts seeking to characterize boundary layer transition on the Space Shuttle Orbiters have identified challenges in our ability to acquire high quality quantitative surface temperature measurements versus time. Five missions near the end of the Space Shuttle Program implemented a tile surface protuberance as a boundary layer trip together with tile surface thermocouples to capture temperature measurements during entry. Similar engineering implementations of these measurements on Discovery and Endeavor demonstrated unexpected measurement voltage response during the high heating portion of the entry trajectory. An assessment has been performed to characterize possible causes of the issues experienced during STS-119, STS-128, STS-131, STS-133 and STS-134 as well as similar issues encountered during other orbiter entries.

  10. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...... measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures...

  11. Noncontact surface tension and viscosity measurements of rhenium in the liquid and undercooled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-Francois; Yoda, Shinichi

    2004-01-01

    Surface tension and viscosity of liquid rhenium, which have hardly been measured due to the extremely high melting temperature of rhenium, were measured using an electrostatic levitation method combined with the oscillation drop technique. Sample position instability problems caused by the photon pressure of the heating lasers and by sample evaporation were solved by modifying the electrodes design. Good sample stability allowed the measurements of the surface tension and the viscosity over wide temperature ranges including the undercooled states. Over the 2800-3600 K interval, the surface tension of rhenium was measured as σ(T)=2.71x10 3 -0.23(T-T m ), where T m is the melting temperature, 3453 K. At T m , the datum agrees well with the literature values. Similarly, on the same temperature range, the viscosity was determined as η(T)=0.08 exp[1.33x10 5 /(RT)] (mPa s)

  12. Liquid-solid contact measurements using a surface thermocouple temperature probe in atmospheric pool boiling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.W.; Chen, J.C.; Nelson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Objective was to apply the technique of using a microthermocouple flush-mounted at the boiling surface for the measurement of the local-surface-temperature history in film and transition boiling on high temperature surfaces. From this measurement direct liquid-solid contact in film and transition boiling regimes was observed. In pool boiling of saturated, distilled, deionized water on an aluminum-coated copper surface, the time-averaged, local-liquid-contact fraction increased with decreasing surface superheat. Average contact duration increased monotonically with decreasing surface superheat, while frequency of liquid contact reached a maximum of approx. 50 contacts/s at a surface superheat of approx. 100 K and decreased gradually to 30 contacts/s near the critical heat flux. The liquid-solid contact duration distribution was dominated by short contacts 4 ms at low surface superheats, passing through a relatively flat contact duration distribution at about 80 0 K. Results of this paper indicate that liquid-solid contacts may be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer in the transition boiling process

  13. Advanced measurement and analysis of surface textures produced by micro-machining processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordatchev, Evgueni V; Hafiz, Abdullah M K

    2014-01-01

    Surface texture of a part or a product has significant effects on its functionality, physical-mechanical properties and visual appearance. In particular for miniature products, the implication of surface quality becomes critical owing to the presence of geometrical features with micro/nano-scale dimensions. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of surface texture are carried out predominantly by profile parameters, which are often insufficient to address the contribution of constituent spatial components with varied amplitudes and wavelengths. In this context, this article presents a novel approach for advanced measurement and analysis of profile average roughness (R a ) and its spatial distribution at different wavelength intervals. The applicability of the proposed approach was verified for three different surface topographies prepared by grinding, laser micro-polishing and micro-milling processes. From the measurement and analysis results, R a (λ) spatial distribution was found to be an effective measure of revealing the contributions of various spatial components within specific wavelength intervals towards formation of the entire surface profile. In addition, the approach was extended to the measurement and analysis of areal average roughness S a (λ) spatial distribution within different wavelength intervals. Besides, the proposed method was demonstrated to be a useful technique in developing a functional correlation between a manufacturing process and its corresponding surface profile. (paper)

  14. Weighted least-square approach for simultaneous measurement of multiple reflective surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shouhong; Bills, Richard E.; Freischlad, Klaus

    2007-09-01

    Phase shifting interferometry (PSI) is a highly accurate method for measuring the nanometer-scale relative surface height of a semi-reflective test surface. PSI is effectively used in conjunction with Fizeau interferometers for optical testing, hard disk inspection, and semiconductor wafer flatness. However, commonly-used PSI algorithms are unable to produce an accurate phase measurement if more than one reflective surface is present in the Fizeau interferometer test cavity. Examples of test parts that fall into this category include lithography mask blanks and their protective pellicles, and plane parallel optical beam splitters. The plane parallel surfaces of these parts generate multiple interferograms that are superimposed in the recording plane of the Fizeau interferometer. When using wavelength shifting in PSI the phase shifting speed of each interferogram is proportional to the optical path difference (OPD) between the two reflective surfaces. The proposed method is able to differentiate each underlying interferogram from each other in an optimal manner. In this paper, we present a method for simultaneously measuring the multiple test surfaces of all underlying interferograms from these superimposed interferograms through the use of a weighted least-square fitting technique. The theoretical analysis of weighted least-square technique and the measurement results will be described in this paper.

  15. In situ measurement of fixed charge evolution at silicon surfaces during atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Ling; Watt, Morgan R.; Strandwitz, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial fixed charge or interfacial dipoles are present at many semiconductor-dielectric interfaces and have important effects upon device behavior, yet the chemical origins of these electrostatic phenomena are not fully understood. We report the measurement of changes in Si channel conduction in situ during atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide using trimethylaluminum and water to probe changes in surface electrostatics. Current-voltage data were acquired continually before, during, and after the self-limiting chemical reactions that result in film growth. Our measurements indicated an increase in conductance on p-type samples with p + ohmic contacts and a decrease in conductance on analogous n-type samples. Further, p + contacted samples with n-type channels exhibited an increase in measured current and n + contacted p-type samples exhibited a decrease in current under applied voltage. Device physics simulations, where a fixed surface charge was parameterized on the channel surface, connect the surface charge to changes in current-voltage behavior. The simulations and analogous analytical relationships for near-surface conductance were used to explain the experimental results. Specifically, the changes in current-voltage behavior can be attributed to the formation of a fixed negative charge or the modification of a surface dipole upon chemisorption of trimethylaluminum. These measurements allow for the observation of fixed charge or dipole formation during ALD and provide further insight into the electrostatic behavior at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces during film nucleation

  16. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, H; Tachibana, M; Yanagihara, S

    2003-01-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures beta-rays and gamma-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of beta-rays measures gamma-rays. The beta-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting gamma-ray counts measured by the inner detector from gamma- and beta-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of sup 6 sup 0 Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm sup 2 with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm sup 2 co...

  17. The Quick Measure of a Nurbs Surface Curvature for Accurate Triangular Meshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniat Aleksander

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NURBS surfaces are the most widely used surfaces for three-dimensional models in CAD/ CAE programs. When a model for FEM calculation is prepared with a CAD program it is inevitable to mesh it finally. There are many algorithms for meshing planar regions. Some of them may be used for meshing surfaces but it is necessary to take the curvature of the surface under consideration to avoid poor quality mesh. The mesh must be denser in the curved regions of the surface. In this paper, instead of analysing a surface curvature, the method to assess how close is a mesh triangle to the surface to which its vertices belong, is presented. The distance between a mesh triangle and a parallel tangent plane through a point on a surface is the measure of the triangle quality. Finding the surface point whose projection is located inside the mesh triangle and which is the tangency point to the plane parallel to this triangle is an optimization problem. Mathematical description of the problem and the algorithm to find its solution are also presented in the paper.

  18. Design of a High Viscosity Couette Flow Facility for Patterned Surface Drag Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler; Lang, Amy

    2009-11-01

    Direct drag measurements can be difficult to obtain with low viscosity fluids such as air or water. In this facility, mineral oil is used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of experimental models. A mounted conveyor creates a flow within a plexiglass tank. The experimental model of a flat or patterned surface is suspended above a moving belt. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile is created. PIV measurements are used to determine the exact velocities and the Reynolds numbers for each experiment. The model is suspended by bars that connect to the pillow block housing of each bearing. Drag is measured by a force gauge connected to linear roller bearings that slide along steel rods. The patterned surfaces, initially consisting of 2-D cavities, are embedded in a plexiglass plate so as to keep the total surface area constant for each experiment. First, the drag across a flat plate is measured and compared to theoretical values for laminar Couette flow. The drag for patterned surfaces is then measured and compared to a flat plate.

  19. Atmospheric effect on the ground-based measurements of broadband surface albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Manninen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based pyranometer measurements of the (clear-sky broadband surface albedo are affected by the atmospheric conditions (mainly by aerosol particles, water vapour and ozone. A new semi-empirical method for estimating the magnitude of the effect of atmospheric conditions on surface albedo measurements in clear-sky conditions is presented. Global and reflected radiation and/or aerosol optical depth (AOD at two wavelengths are needed to apply the method. Depending on the aerosol optical depth and the solar zenith angle values, the effect can be as large as 20%. For the cases we tested using data from the Cabauw atmospheric test site in the Netherlands, the atmosphere caused typically up to 5% overestimation of surface albedo with respect to corresponding black-sky surface albedo values.

  20. Electrical measurement of the hydration state of the skin surface in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, H

    2014-09-01

    Healthy skin surface is smooth and soft, because it is covered by the properly hydrated stratum corneum (SC), an extremely thin and soft barrier membrane produced by the underlying normal epidermis. By contrast, the skin surfaces covering pathological lesions exhibit dry and scaly changes and the SC shows poor barrier function. The SC barrier function has been assessed in vivo by instrumentally measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL). However, there was a lack of any appropriate method for evaluating the hydration state of the skin surface in vivo until 1980 when we reported the feasibility of employing high-frequency conductance or capacitance to evaluate it quickly and accurately. With such measurements, we can assess easily the moisturizing efficacy of various topical agents in vivo as well as the distribution pattern of water in the SC by combining it with a serial tape-stripping procedure of the skin surface. © 2014 The Author BJD © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure levels in different European outdoor urban environments in comparison with regulatory limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Joseph, Wout; Huss, Anke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880; Verloock, Leen; Beekhuizen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Martens, Luc; Röösli, Martin

    Background: Concerns of the general public about potential adverse health effects caused by radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) led authorities to introduce precautionary exposure limits, which vary considerably between regions. It may be speculated that precautionary limits affect the

  2. Nepal and the Americas: Can Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Signals Be Detected There That Yield Information About Culturally Dictated Spiritual Values, and Can Computers Interface Their Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Sanjita; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Nepal has a particularly rich tradition of culturally developed views on the material and spiritual worlds, and also has a powerful natural environment that may generate EMFs in conjunction with natural phenomena. We have an interest in determining whether these can be detected by portable technological means, and recording such data on notebook-type computers for analysis and evaluation. One goal is to assess whether historic Native Americans, such as Maine's and New Hampshire's Molly Ockett, may have been motivated in their selection of special, and perhaps, to them, "sacred" sites for their attention and as possible burial sites. Some of these may have been chosen on the basis of the EMFs that seem to emanate from them, and their assessment of what they meant to their worldviews. Do some Amerindians consider the EMF and reincarnation as requiring their rejection of material aspects of existence? Could other traditional cultures, or even suicidal terrorists, be sensitive to "information" they may receive from the EMF?

  3. Interpretation of hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain indicate the presence of many near-surface geologic inhomogeneities, with no definite indication of deep structural features. A resistive anomaly near drill hole UE25a-6 is interpreted as a thin, vertical, resistive body that nearly intersects the surface, and may be caused by a silicified, or calcified, fracture zone. A resistive anomaly near hole UE25a-7 is probably caused by a near surface, horizontal, lens-shaped body that may represent a devitrified zone in the Tiva Canyon Member. Many conductive anomalies were detected to the southwest of hole UE25a-4. However, these anomalies are interpreted to be caused by variations in the thickness of the surface alluvium

  4. Ultrasonic surface measurements at the Porta Nigra, Trier, and the Neptungrotte, Park Sanssouci Potsdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Fehr, Moritz; Köhn, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasonic measurements along profiles at the surface of an object are well suited to characterize non-destructively weathering of natural stone near the surface. Ultrasonic waveforms of surface measurements in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 300 kHz are often dominated by the Rayleigh wave - a surface wave that is mainly sensitive to the velocity and attenuation of S-waves in the upper 0.3 cm to 3 cm. The frequency dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocity may be used to analyze variations of the material properties with depth. Applications of ultrasonic surface measurements are shown for two buildings: the Roman Porta Nigra in Trier from the 3rd century AD and the Neptungrotte at Park Sanssouci in Potsdam designed by von Knobelsdorff in the 18th century. Both buildings belong to the world cultural heritage and restorations are planned for the near future. It is interesting to compare measurements at these two buildings because they show the applicability of ultrasonic surface measurements to different natural stones. The Porta Nigra is made of local sandstones whereas the facades of the Neptungrotte are made of Carrara and Kauffunger marble. 71 and 46 surface measurements have been carried out, respectively. At both buildings, Rayleigh-wave group velocities show huge variations. At the Porta Nigra they vary between ca. 0.4 km/s and 1.8 km/s and at the Neptungrotte between ca. 0.7 km/s and 3.0 km/s pointing to alterations in the Rayleigh- and S-wave velocities of more than 50 % due to weathering. Note that velocities of elastic waves may increase e.g. because of the formation of black crusts like at the Porta Nigra or they may be strongly reduced due to weathering. The accuracy of the ultrasonic surface measurements, its reproducibility, and the influence of varying water saturation are discussed. Options for the analysis of ultrasonic waveforms are presented ranging from dispersion analysis to full waveform inversions for one-dimensional and two

  5. Analytical real-time measurement of a three-dimensional weld pool surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, WeiJie; Zhang, YuMing; Wang, XueWu

    2013-01-01

    The ability to observe and measure weld pool surfaces in real-time is the core of the foundation for next generation intelligent welding that can partially imitate skilled welders who observe the weld pool to acquire information on the welding process. This study aims at the real-time measurement of the specular three-dimensional (3D) weld pool surface under a strong arc in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). An innovative vision system is utilized in this study to project a dot-matrix laser pattern on the specular weld pool surface. Its reflection from the surface is intercepted at a distance from the arc by a diffuse plane. The intercepted laser dots illuminate this plane producing an image showing the reflection pattern. The deformation of this reflection pattern from the projected pattern (e.g. the dot matrix) is used to derive the 3D shape of the reflection surface, i.e., the weld pool surface. Based on careful analysis, the underlying reconstruction problem is formulated mathematically. An analytic solution is proposed to solve this formulated problem resulting in the weld pool surface being reconstructed on average in 3.04 ms during welding experiments. A vision-based monitoring system is thus established to measure the weld pool surface in GTAW in real-time. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm, first numerical simulation is conducted. The proposed algorithm is then tested on a spherical convex mirror with a priori knowledge of its geometry. The detailed analysis of the measurement error validates the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Results from the real-time experiments verify the robustness of the proposed reconstruction algorithm. (paper)

  6. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  7. Using a terrestrial laser scanner to measure spatiotemporal surface moisture dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Y.; Donker, J.; Ruessink, G.

    2017-12-01

    A terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique that utilizes the round trip time of an emitted laser beam to provide the range between the laser scanner and the backscattering object. It is routinely used for topographic mapping, forest measurements or 3D city models since it derives useful object representations by means of a dense three-dimensional (3D) point cloud. Here, we present a novel application using the returned intensity of the emitted beam to detect surface moisture with the RIEGL VZ-400. Because this TLS operates at a wavelength near a water absorption band (1550 nm), reflectance is an accurate parameter to measure surface moisture over its full range. Five days of intensive laser scanning were performed on a Dutch beach to illustrate the applicability of the TLS. Concurrent gravimetric surface moisture samples were collected to calibrate the relation between reflectance and surface moisture. Results reveal the reflectance output is a robust parameter to measure surface moisture from the thin upper layer over its full range from 0% to 25%. The obtained calibration curve of the presented TLS, describing the relationship between reflectance and surface moisture, has a root-mean-square error of 2.7% and a correlation coefficient squared of 0.85. This relation holds to about 60 m from the TLS. Within this distance the TLS typically produces O(10^6-10^7) data points, which we averaged into surface moisture maps with a 1 x 1 m resolution. This grid size largely removes small moisture disturbances induced by, for example, footprints or tire tracks, while retaining larger scale trends. Concluding, TLS (RIEGL-VZ 400) is a highly suited technique to accurately and robustly measure spatiotemporal surface moisture variations on a coastal beach with high spatial ( 1 x 1 m) and temporal ( 15-30min.) resolution.

  8. DEPTH MEASUREMENT OF DISRUPTED LAYER ON SILICON WAFER SURFACE USING AUGER SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for depth measurement of a disrupted layer on silicon wafer surface which is based on application of Auger spectroscopy with the precision sputtering of surface silicon layers and registration of the Auger electron yield intensity. In order to measure the disrupted layer with the help of Auger spectroscopy it is necessary to determine dependence of the released Auger electron amount on sputtering time (profile and then the dependence is analyzed. Silicon amount in the disrupted layer is less than in the volume. While going deeper the disruptive layer is decreasing that corresponds to an increase of atom density in a single layer. The essence of the method lies in the fact the disruptive layer is removed by ion beam sputtering and detection of interface region is carried out with the help of registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from the sputtered surface up to the moment when it reaches the value which is equal to the Auger electron yield intensity for single-crystal silicon. While removing surface silicon layers the registration of the Auger electron yield intensity from silicon surface makes it possible to control efficiently a presence of the disrupted layer on the silicon wafer surface. In this case depth control locality is about 1.0 nm due to some peculiarities of Auger spectroscopy method. The Auger electron yield intensity is determined automatically while using Auger spectrometer and while removing the disrupted layer the intensity is gradually increasing. Depth of the disrupted layer is determined by measuring height of the step which has been formed as a result of removal of the disrupted layer from the silicon wafer surface. Auger spectroscopy methods ensures an efficient depth control surface disruptions at the manufacturing stages of silicon wafers and integrated circuits. The depth measurement range of disruptions constitutes 0.001–1.000 um.

  9. Measurements of dry-deposition rates on various earth surfaces by 212Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Dry deposition rates of 212 Pb on a coniferous forest (Japanese cedar) and a broad-leaf forest (Pasania edulis) have been measured. Those on various kinds of grass fields, various states on artificial surface such as water, paper, and standing paper have been also measured. The dry deposition rates depend on the characteristics of depositing particles and the conditions of deposited surfaces. Dry deposition rates on the forest of Japanese cedar are highest because of the complex and adhesive surface of the leaves. Those on various grass fields are roughly depend on the logarithm of the height of their grasses. The total deposition rates of 7 Be do not depend on the densities or heights of the grasses. 7 Be may be not kept on their leaves or surface soil for a long time. The dry deposition rates of on artificial surface, e.g. paper and water surfaces make clear the mechanism on dry deposition, and suggest that more chances of collision and more adhesive of the surface are important for the dry deposition. About 90% of all deposition on the artificial paper grass was attached on the standing paper. On water surface, 60% of the rate of paper grass was attached, but only about 20% were attached on a dry paper plate. The aerosol particles are deposited by collision with the surface, therefore the deposition velocity depends on the chance of collision and the characteristics of the surface. Therefore the dry deposition rates on forests are larger and those of coniferous forest are largest. (author)

  10. Reconciling Electrical Properties of Titan's Surface Derived from Cassini RADAR Scatterometer and Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Wye, L. C.; Janssen, M.; Paganelli, F.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2006-12-01

    We observe Titan, Saturn's largest moon, using active and passive microwave instruments carried on board the Cassini spacecraft. The 2.2-cm wavelength penetrates the thick atmosphere and provides surface measurements at resolutions from 10-200 km over much of the satellite's surface. The emissivity and reflectivity of surface features are generally anticorrelated, and both values are fairly high. Inversion of either set of data alone yields dielectric constants ranging from 1.5 to 3 or 4, consistent with an icy hydrocarbon or water ice composition. However, the dielectric constants retrieved from radiometric data alone are usually less than those inferred from backscatter measurements, a discrepancy consistent with similar analyses dating back to lunar observations in the 1960's. Here we seek to reconcile Titan's reflectivity and emissivity observations using a single physical model of the surface. Our approach is to calculate the energy scattered by Titan's surface and near subsurface, with the remainder absorbed. In equilibrium the absorption equals the emission, so that both the reflectivity and emissivity are described by the model. We use a form of the Kirchhoff model for modeling surface scatter, and a model based on weak localization of light for the volume scatter. With this model we present dielectric constant and surface roughness parameters that match both sets of Cassini RADAR observations over limited regions on Titan's surface, helping to constrain the composition and roughness of the surface. Most regions display electrical properties consistent with solid surfaces, however some of the darker "lake-like" features at higher latitudes can be modeled as either solid or liquid materials. The ambiguity arises from the limited set of observational angles available.

  11. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W.

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

  12. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

  13. Ocean current surface measurement using dynamic elevations obtained by the GEOS-3 radar altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Remote Sensing of the ocean surface from the GEOS-3 satellite using radar altimeter data has confirmed that the altimeter can detect the dynamic ocean topographic elevations relative to an equipotential surface, thus resulting in a reliable direct measurement of the ocean surface. Maps of the ocean dynamic topography calculated over a one month period and with 20 cm contour interval are prepared for the last half of 1975. The Gulf Stream is observed by the rapid slope change shown by the crowding of contours. Cold eddies associated with the current are seen as roughly circular depressions.

  14. Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P

    2016-02-08

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.

  15. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  16. Unsteady surface pressure measurements on a slender delta wing undergoing limit cycle wing rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Andrew S., Jr.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of slender wing limit cycle motion known as wing rock was investigated using two unique experimental systems. Dynamic roll moment measurements and visualization data on the leading edge vortices were obtained using a free to roll apparatus that incorporates an airbearing spindle. In addition, both static and unsteady surface pressure data was measured on the top and bottom surfaces of the model. To obtain the unsteady surface pressure data a new computer controller drive system was developed to accurately reproduce the free to roll time history motions. The data from these experiments include, roll angle time histories, vortex trajectory data on the position of the vortices relative to the model's surface, and surface pressure measurements as a function of roll angle when the model is stationary or undergoing a wing rock motion. The roll time history data was numerically differentiated to determine the dynamic roll moment coefficient. An analysis of these data revealed that the primary mechanism for the limit cycle behavior was a time lag in the position of the vortices normal to the wing surface.

  17. The measurement of surface roughness to determine the suitability of different methods for stone cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Calvo, Carmen; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael; Varas-Muriel, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    The roughness of stone surface was measured, before and after bead blasting-based cleaning methods, to select the most efficient one to be used in masonry and stonework of specific areas of the Cathedral of Segovia (Spain). These types of cleaning methods can, besides the removal of soiling and surface deposits, leave a rougher surface, which would mean higher and more rapid water retention and deposit accumulation due to a specific surface increase, therefore accelerating stone decay. Or, in contrast, the cleaning method can be so aggressive that it can smooth the surface by reducing its roughness, a fact that usually corresponds to excessive material removal—soot and deposits–-but also part of the stone substrate. Roughness results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations and analyses and colour measurements. Finally, it was possible to select the best cleaning method among the six that were analysed, for different areas and different stone materials. Therefore, this study confirms the measurement of surface roughness as a reliable test to determine the suitability of stone cleaning methods; it is a non-destructive technique, portable and friendly to use, which can help us to rapidly assess—together with other techniques—the efficacy and aggressiveness of the stone cleaning method. (paper)

  18. Surface profile measurement by using the integrated Linnik WLSI and confocal microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Shen, Ming-Hsing; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Yu, Yun-Ting; Wang, Tzu-Fong

    2017-06-01

    The white-light scanning interferometer (WLSI) and confocal microscope (CM) are the two major optical inspection systems for measuring three-dimensional (3D) surface profile (SP) of micro specimens. Nevertheless, in practical applications, WLSI is more suitable for measuring smooth and low-slope surfaces. On the other hand, CM is more suitable for measuring uneven-reflective and low-reflective surfaces. As for aspect of surface profiles to be measured, the characteristics of WLSI and CM are also different. WLSI is generally used in semiconductor industry while CM is more popular in printed circuit board industry. In this paper, a self-assembled multi-function optical system was integrated to perform Linnik white-light scanning interferometer (Linnik WLSI) and CM. A connecting part composed of tubes, lenses and interferometer was used to conjunct finite and infinite optical systems for Linnik WLSI and CM in the self-assembled optical system. By adopting the flexibility of tubes and lenses, switching to perform two different optical measurements can be easily achieved. Furthermore, based on the shape from focus method with energy of Laplacian filter, the CM was developed to enhance the on focal information of each pixel so that the CM can provide all-in-focus image for performing the 3D SP measurement and analysis simultaneously. As for Linnik WLSI, eleven-step phase shifting algorithm was used to analyze vertical scanning signals and determine the 3D SP.

  19. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  20. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  1. Digital photography and transparency-based methods for measuring wound surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhedi, Amul; Saxena, Atul K; Gadani, Ravi; Patel, Ritesh

    2013-04-01

    To compare and determine a credible method of measurement of wound surface area by linear, transparency, and photographic methods for monitoring progress of wound healing accurately and ascertaining whether these methods are significantly different. From April 2005 to December 2006, 40 patients (30 men, 5 women, 5 children) admitted to the surgical ward of Shree Sayaji General Hospital, Baroda, had clean as well as infected wound following trauma, debridement, pressure sore, venous ulcer, and incision and drainage. Wound surface areas were measured by these three methods (linear, transparency, and photographic methods) simultaneously on alternate days. The linear method is statistically and significantly different from transparency and photographic methods (P value transparency and photographic methods (P value >0.05). Photographic and transparency methods provided measurements of wound surface area with equivalent result and there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods.

  2. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P

    2014-01-24

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  3. Improvement of surface planarity measurements by temperature correction and structural simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Maximilian; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Mueller, Ralph [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Novel micro pattern gaseous detectors, like Micromegas, for particle physics experiments require precise flat active layers of 2-3 m{sup 2} in size. A construction procedure developed at LMU for 2 m{sup 2} sized Micromegas achieves surface planarities with a RMS below 30 μm. The measurements were performed using a laser distance sensor attached to a coordinate measurement machine. Studies were made to investigate the influence of temperature variations on these measurements. The temperature is monitored by several sensors. We present results containing corrections of the measurements in respect to temperature changes. In addition simulations with the FEM program ANSYS are compared to measured detector panel deformations introduced by forces, in order to study their effect on the surface planarity.

  4. New sensitive micro-measurements of dynamic surface tension and diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2017-01-01

    Currently available dynamic surface tension (DST) measurement methods, such as Wilhelmy plate, droplet- or bubble-based methods, still have various experimental limitations such as the large size of the interface, convection in the solution, or a certain “dead time” at initial measurement....... These limitations create inconsistencies for the kinetic analysis of surfactant adsorption/desorption, especially significant for ionic surfactants. Here, the “micropipette interfacial area-expansion method” was introduced and validated as a new DST measurement having a high enough sensitivity to detect diffusion...... for surface excess concentration. We found that the measured diffusion coefficient of 1-Octanol, 7.2 ± 0.8 × 10−6 cm2/s, showed excellent agreement with the result from an alternative method, “single microdroplet catching method”, to measure the diffusion coefficient from diffusion-controlled microdroplet...

  5. An Optimal Estimation Method to Obtain Surface Layer Turbulent Fluxes from Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of direct turbulence measurements, the turbulence characteristics of the atmospheric surface layer are often derived from measurements of the surface layer mean properties based on Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST). This approach requires two levels of the ensemble mean wind, temperature, and water vapor, from which the fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and water vapor can be obtained. When only one measurement level is available, the roughness heights and the assumed properties of the corresponding variables at the respective roughness heights are used. In practice, the temporal mean with large number of samples are used in place of the ensemble mean. However, in many situations the samples of data are taken from multiple levels. It is thus desirable to derive the boundary layer flux properties using all measurements. In this study, we used an optimal estimation approach to derive surface layer properties based on all available measurements. This approach assumes that the samples are taken from a population whose ensemble mean profile follows the MOST. An optimized estimate is obtained when the results yield a minimum cost function defined as a weighted summation of all error variance at each sample altitude. The weights are based one sample data variance and the altitude of the measurements. This method was applied to measurements in the marine atmospheric surface layer from a small boat using radiosonde on a tethered balloon where temperature and relative humidity profiles in the lowest 50 m were made repeatedly in about 30 minutes. We will present the resultant fluxes and the derived MOST mean profiles using different sets of measurements. The advantage of this method over the 'traditional' methods will be illustrated. Some limitations of this optimization method will also be discussed. Its application to quantify the effects of marine surface layer environment on radar and communication signal propagation will be shown as well.

  6. The New Horizons Radio Science Experiment: Performance and Measurements of Pluto's Atmospheric Structure, Surface Pressure, and Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscott, I.; Hinson, D. P.; Bird, M. K.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Olkin, C.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.

    2015-12-01

    The New Horizons (NH) spacecraft payload contained the Radio Science Experiment (REX) for determining key characteristics of Pluto and Charon during the July 14, 2015, flyby of the Pluto/Charon system. The REX flight equipment augments the NH X-band radio transceiver by providing a high precision, narrow band recording of high power uplink transmissions from Earth stations, as well as a record of broadband radiometric power. This presentation will review the performance and initial results of two high- priority observations. First, REX received two pair of 20-kW signals, one pair per polarization, transmitted from the DSN at 4.2-cm wavelength during a diametric radio occultation by Pluto. REX recorded these uplink signals and determined precise measurement of the surface pressure, the temperature structure of the lower atmosphere, and the surface radius of Pluto. The ingress portion of one polarization was played back from the spacecraft in July and processed to obtain the pressure and temperature structure of Pluto's atmosphere. Second, REX measured the thermal emission from Pluto at 4.2- cm wavelength during two linear scans across the disk at close range when both the dayside and the night side are visible. Both scans extend from limb to limb with a resolution of one-tenth Pluto's disk and temperature resolution of 0.1 K. Occultation and radiometric temperature results presented here will encompass additional data scheduled for playback in September.

  7. Surface net solar radiation estimated from satellite measurements - Comparisons with tower observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  8. Surface Net Solar Radiation Estimated from Satellite Measurements: Comparisons with Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqing; Leighton, H. G.; Cess, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    A parameterization that relates the reflected solar flux at the top of the atmosphere to the net solar flux at the surface in terms of only the column water vapor amount and the solar zenith angle was tested against surface observations. Net surface fluxes deduced from coincidental collocated satellite-measured radiances and from measurements from towers in Boulder during summer and near Saskatoon in winter have mean differences of about 2 W/sq m, regardless of whether the sky is clear or cloudy. Furthermore, comparisons between the net fluxes deduced from the parameterization and from surface measurements showed equally good agreement when the data were partitioned into morning and afternoon observations. This is in contrast to results from an empirical clear-sky algorithm that is unable to account adequately for the effects of clouds and that shows, at Boulder, a distinct morning to afternoon variation, which is presumably due to the predominance of different cloud types throughout the day. It is also demonstrated that the parameterization may be applied to irradiances at the top of the atmosphere that have been temporally averaged by using the temporally averaged column water vapor amount and the temporally averaged cosine of the solar zenith angle. The good agreement between the results of the parameterization and surface measurements suggests that the algorithm is a useful tool for a variety of climate studies.

  9. Non-Contact Surface Roughness Measurement by Implementation of a Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aulbach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The surface structure, especially the roughness, has a significant influence on numerous parameters, such as friction and wear, and therefore estimates the quality of technical systems. In the last decades, a broad variety of surface roughness measurement methods were developed. A destructive measurement procedure or the lack of feasibility of online monitoring are the crucial drawbacks of most of these methods. This article proposes a new non-contact method for measuring the surface roughness that is straightforward to implement and easy to extend to online monitoring processes. The key element is a liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulator, integrated in an interferometric setup. By varying the imprinted phase of the modulator, a correlation between the imprinted phase and the fringe visibility of an interferogram is measured, and the surface roughness can be derived. This paper presents the theoretical approach of the method and first simulation and experimental results for a set of surface roughnesses. The experimental results are compared with values obtained by an atomic force microscope and a stylus profiler.

  10. Gaussian process based intelligent sampling for measuring nano-structure surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. J.; Ren, M. J.; Yin, Y. H.

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology is the science and engineering that manipulate matters at nano scale, which can be used to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications. As the nanotech product increasingly enters the commercial marketplace, nanometrology becomes a stringent and enabling technology for the manipulation and the quality control of the nanotechnology. However, many measuring instruments, for instance scanning probe microscopy, are limited to relatively small area of hundreds of micrometers with very low efficiency. Therefore some intelligent sampling strategies should be required to improve the scanning efficiency for measuring large area. This paper presents a Gaussian process based intelligent sampling method to address this problem. The method makes use of Gaussian process based Bayesian regression as a mathematical foundation to represent the surface geometry, and the posterior estimation of Gaussian process is computed by combining the prior probability distribution with the maximum likelihood function. Then each sampling point is adaptively selected by determining the position which is the most likely outside of the required tolerance zone among the candidates and then inserted to update the model iteratively. Both simulationson the nominal surface and manufactured surface have been conducted on nano-structure surfaces to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results imply that the proposed method significantly improves the measurement efficiency in measuring large area structured surfaces.

  11. Design of an experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of metastable fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, V.; Hrubý, J.; Hykl, J.; Blaha, J.; Šmíd, B.

    2013-04-01

    A unique experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of aqueous mixtures has been designed, manufactured, and tested in our laboratory. The novelty of the setup is that it allows measurement of surface tension by two different methods: a modified capillary elevation method in a long vertical capillary tube and a method inspired by the approach of Hacker (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note 2510, 1-20, 1951), i.e. in a short horizontal capillary tube. Functionality of all main components of the apparatus, e.g., glass chamber with the capillary tube, temperature control unit consisting of two thermostatic baths with special valves for rapid temperature jumps, helium distribution setup allowing pressure variation above the liquid meniscus inside the capillary tube, has been successfully tested. Preliminary results for the surface tension of the stable and metastable supercooled water measured by the capillary elevation method at atmospheric pressure are provided. The surface tension of water measured at temperatures between +26 °C and -11 °C is in good agreement with the extrapolated IAPWS correlation (IAPWS Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance, September 1994); however it disagrees with data by Hacker.

  12. Micro-PIV/LIF measurements on electrokinetically-driven flow in surface modified microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiyanagi, Mitsuhisa; Sasaki, Seiichi; Sato, Yohei; Hishida, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Effects of surface modification patterning on flow characteristics were investigated experimentally by measuring electroosmotic flow velocities, which were obtained by micron-resolution particle image velocimetry using a confocal microscope. The depth-wise velocity was evaluated by using the continuity equation and the velocity data. The microchannel was composed of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) chip and a borosilicate cover-glass plate. Surface modification patterns were fabricated by modifying octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) on the glass surface. OTS can decrease the electroosmotic flow velocity compared to the velocity in the glass microchannel. For the surface charge varying parallel to the electric field, the depth-wise velocity was generated at the boundary area between OTS and the glass surfaces. For the surface charge varying perpendicular to the electric field, the depth-wise velocity did not form because the surface charge did not vary in the stream-wise direction. The surface charge pattern with the oblique stripes yielded a three-dimensional flow in a microchannel. Furthermore, the oblique patterning was applied to a mixing flow field in a T-shaped microchannel, and mixing efficiencies were evaluated from heterogeneity degree of fluorescent dye intensity, which was obtained by laser-induced fluorescence. It was found that the angle of the oblique stripes is an important factor to promote the span-wise and depth-wise momentum transport and contributes to the mixing flow in a microchannel

  13. Measurement of Optic Disc Cup Surface Depth Using Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kook; Ha, Ahnul; Lee, Won June; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-12-01

    To introduce the measurement method of optic disc cup surface depth using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and then evaluate the rates of cup surface depression at 3 different stages of glaucoma. We retrospectively identified 52 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, 56 with mild-or-moderate glaucoma and 50 with severe glaucoma and followed them for at least 48 months. Eyes were imaged using SD-OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) at 12-month intervals. The mean cup surface depth was calculated using the following formula: Cup volume/(disc area×average cup-to-disc ratio)-200 μm. The rates of mean cup surface depression (μm/y) were significantly greater in mild-or-moderate glaucoma (-7.96±1.03) than in preperimetric (-3.11±0.61) and severe glaucoma (-0.70±0.12; all Pcup surface depression (%/y) were significantly greater than those of average of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning (%/y) in preperimetric glaucoma (-1.64±0.12 vs. -1.11±0.07; Pcup surface depth changed slower than did average RNFL thickness (-0.64±0.06 vs. -0.75±0.08%/y; Pcup surface depth changed faster than did the RNFL thickness. These results signify the possibility that SD-OCT-based estimation of cup surface depth might be useful for monitoring of glaucoma development and progression.

  14. Flow visualizations, velocity measurements, and surface convection measurements in simulated 20.8-cm Nova box amplifier cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, J.L.; Molishever, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Reported are fluid mechanics experiments performed in models of the 20.8-cm Nova amplifier lamp and disk cavities. Lamp cavity nitrogen flows are shown, by both flow visualization and velocity measurements, to be acceptably uniform and parallel to the flashlamps. In contrast, the nitrogen flows in the disk cavity are shown to be disordered. Even though disk cavity flows are disordered, the simplest of three proposed nitrogen introduction systems for the disk cavity was found to be acceptable based on convection measurements made at the surfaces of simulated laser disks

  15. Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates

  16. Measurements of the anomalous RF surface resistance of niobium using a dielectric resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, D.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Jacques, E.; Safa, H.

    1996-01-01

    The surface resistance of high and low residual resistance ratio (RRR) niobium plates at 4.2 K and 1.8 K has been measured as a function of many processing and testing parameters. A dielectric resonator was used instead of a resonant cavity. This resonator offered the ability to make many, sensitive measurements with an efficient use of time and helium. It was found that the surface resistance, R s , of RRR = 190 niobium increased noticeably from the theoretical value if the cooling rate was slower than ∼ 10 K/min. (author)

  17. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  18. Temperature measurement of the land-surface. Measuring methods and their application for the survey of subsoil water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allvar, T

    1979-02-01

    The variation of the water content of a landscape has been investigated. The method of measurement was the use of the radiation of heat from the land surface. The radiation was measured by an airborne infrared scanner and a manual infrared thermometer. The water content and the temperature of the soil were recorded separately. The principle of the measurement is the slow reaction of a soil with a high water content to the temperature changes between day and night. Comparison of different methods points to an association of temperatures and water content. The correlation of the results is very low so that a mapping of water content in the area of Vibydalen becomes uncertain. The experiment displays the requirements of the accuracy in measuring methods.

  19. EXAMINATION ABOUT INFLUENCE FOR PRECISION OF 3D IMAGE MEASUREMENT FROM THE GROUND CONTROL POINT MEASUREMENT AND SURFACE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results

  20. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  1. XPS and surface resistivity measurements of plasma - treated FEP co-polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitrus, R.K.; Brack, N.; Liesegang, J.; Pigram, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Fluorinated polymers such as fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) play an important role in many applications due to their many desirable properties such as chemical resistivity, inertness, electrical stability and low dielectric constant; however, one disadvantage of fluorinated polymers is their extreme surface hydrophobicity. Previous studies show that plasma treatment will modify the surface by increasing the surface free energy and also offer a rapid and convenient method for pre-treating the polymers for many purposes. This paper, through resistivity and XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, attempts to discover basic effects of such plasma treatment. Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) co-polymer film of (0.05) mm thickness (obtained commercially) and with the following structure (CF 2 -CF 2 )-(CF(CF 3 )CF 2 )- was used. A suitable cleaning procedure was used to remove adventitious carbon from the surface. XPS has been used to study FEP film properties. The spectra of XPS were analyzed with the main focus on carbon and fluorine as they compose the elemental component of FEP film. A value of 2.05 was obtained for the F/C ratio, which is slightly higher than the theoretical F/C value estimated from the chemical structure of FEP (F/C 2). The clean film was then air plasma treated (pressure 10 -1 torr and power 30W) for various treatment times to produce a higher energy fluoropolymer surface. XPS studies investigated changes to the polymer surface and determined that oxidation occurs on the FEP surface. The oxidation reactions on the FEP surface form oxygen functional groups such as C-O and C=O groups. The results also show that the percentage of CF 2 and CF 3 in the co-polymer surface decreased with exposure time and the percentage of CF, C-C, C-O and C=O increased. There is a sharp decrease in F/C ratio and increase in O/C ratio. In addition to XPS, the resistivity of FEP-film was measured by a

  2. A new approach to the retrieval of surface properties from earthshine measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurr, R.J.D. E-mail: rspurr@cfa.harvard.edu

    2004-01-01

    Instruments such as the MODIS and MISR radiometers on EOS AM-1, and POLDER on ADEOS have been deployed for the remote sensing retrieval of surface properties. Typically, retrieval algorithms use linear combinations of semi-empirical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) kernels to model surface reflectance. The retrieval proceeds in two steps; first, an atmospheric correction relates surface BRDF to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances, then regression is used to establish the linear coefficients used in the kernel combination. BRDF kernels may also depend on a number of physical or empirical non-linear parameters (e.g. ocean wind speed for a specular BRDF); such parameters are usually assumed known. A major source of error in this retrieval comes from lack of knowledge of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol properties. In this paper, we present a different approach to surface property retrieval. For the radiative transfer simulations, we use the discrete ordinate LIDORT model, which has the capability to generate simultaneous fields of radiances and weighting functions in a multiply scattering multi-layer atmosphere. Surface-atmosphere coupling due to multiple scattering and reflection effects is treated in full; the use of an atmospheric correction is not required. Further, it is shown that sensitivities of TOA reflectances to both linear and non-linear surface BRDF parameters may be established directly by explicit analytic differentiation of the discrete ordinate radiative transfer equations. Surface properties may thus be retrieved directly and conveniently from satellite measurements using standard non-linear fitting methods. In the fitting for BRDF parameters, lower-boundary aerosol properties can either be retrieved as auxiliary parameters, or they can be regarded as forward model parameter errors. We present examples of simulated radiances and surface/aerosol weighting functions for combinations of multi-angle measurements at several

  3. A new approach to the retrieval of surface properties from earthshine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurr, R.J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Instruments such as the MODIS and MISR radiometers on EOS AM-1, and POLDER on ADEOS have been deployed for the remote sensing retrieval of surface properties. Typically, retrieval algorithms use linear combinations of semi-empirical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) kernels to model surface reflectance. The retrieval proceeds in two steps; first, an atmospheric correction relates surface BRDF to top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances, then regression is used to establish the linear coefficients used in the kernel combination. BRDF kernels may also depend on a number of physical or empirical non-linear parameters (e.g. ocean wind speed for a specular BRDF); such parameters are usually assumed known. A major source of error in this retrieval comes from lack of knowledge of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol properties. In this paper, we present a different approach to surface property retrieval. For the radiative transfer simulations, we use the discrete ordinate LIDORT model, which has the capability to generate simultaneous fields of radiances and weighting functions in a multiply scattering multi-layer atmosphere. Surface-atmosphere coupling due to multiple scattering and reflection effects is treated in full; the use of an atmospheric correction is not required. Further, it is shown that sensitivities of TOA reflectances to both linear and non-linear surface BRDF parameters may be established directly by explicit analytic differentiation of the discrete ordinate radiative transfer equations. Surface properties may thus be retrieved directly and conveniently from satellite measurements using standard non-linear fitting methods. In the fitting for BRDF parameters, lower-boundary aerosol properties can either be retrieved as auxiliary parameters, or they can be regarded as forward model parameter errors. We present examples of simulated radiances and surface/aerosol weighting functions for combinations of multi-angle measurements at several

  4. Determination of the transfer function for optical surface topography measuring instruments—a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, Matthew R; Török, Peter; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K; Coupland, Jeremy M

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of areal surface topography measuring instruments, largely based on optical techniques, are commercially available. However, implementation of optical instrumentation into production is currently difficult due to the lack of understanding of the complex interaction between the light and the component surface. Studying the optical transfer function of the instrument can help address this issue. Here a review is given of techniques for the measurement of optical transfer functions. Starting from the basis of a spatially coherent, monochromatic confocal scanning imaging system, the theory of optical transfer functions in three-dimensional (3D) imaging is presented. Further generalizations are reviewed allowing the extension of the theory to the description of conventional and interferometric 3D imaging systems. Polychromatic transfer functions and surface topography measurements are also discussed. Following presentation of theoretical results, experimental methods to measure the optical transfer function of each class of system are presented, with a focus on suitable methods for the establishment of calibration standards in 3D imaging and surface topography measurements. (topical review)

  5. A fiber-coupled displacement measuring interferometer for determination of the posture of a reflective surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Shuai; Hu, Peng-Cheng; Ding, Xue-Mei; Tan, Jiu-Bin

    2016-01-01

    A fiber-coupled displacement measuring interferometer capable of determining of the posture of a reflective surface of a measuring mirror is proposed. The newly constructed instrument combines fiber-coupled displacement and angular measurement technologies. The proposed interferometer has advantages of both the fiber-coupled and the spatially beam-separated interferometer. A portable dual-position sensitive detector (PSD)-based unit within this proposed interferometer measures the parallelism of the two source beams to guide the fiber-coupling adjustment. The portable dual PSD-based unit measures not only the pitch and yaw of the retro-reflector but also measures the posture of the reflective surface. The experimental results of displacement calibration show that the deviations between the proposed interferometer and a reference one, Agilent 5530, at two different common beam directions are both less than ±35 nm, thus verifying the effectiveness of the beam parallelism measurement. The experimental results of angular calibration show that deviations of pitch and yaw with the auto-collimator (as a reference) are less than ±2 arc sec, thus proving the proposed interferometer’s effectiveness for determination of the posture of a reflective surface.

  6. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Jiang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  7. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Jiang, X. [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  8. The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA): A database for the worldwide measured surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Schär, Christoph; Müller, Guido; Hakuba, Maria Z.; Mystakidis, Stefanos; Arsenovic, Pavle; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-02-01

    The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) is a database for the worldwide measured energy fluxes at the Earth's surface. GEBA is maintained at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) and has been founded in the 1980s by Prof. Atsumu Ohmura. It has continuously been updated and currently contains around 2500 stations with 500`000 monthly mean entries of various surface energy balance components. Many of the records extend over several decades. The most widely measured quantity available in GEBA is the solar radiation incident at the Earth's surface ("global radiation"). The data sources include, in addition to the World Radiation Data Centre (WRDC) in St. Petersburg, data reports from National Weather Services, data from different research networks (BSRN, ARM, SURFRAD), data published in peer-reviewed publications and data obtained through personal communications. Different quality checks are applied to check for gross errors in the dataset. GEBA is used in various research applications, such as for the quantification of the global energy balance and its spatiotemporal variation, or for the estimation of long-term trends in the surface fluxes, which enabled the detection of multi-decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as "global dimming" and "brightening". GEBA is further extensively used for the evaluation of climate models and satellite-derived surface flux products. On a more applied level, GEBA provides the basis for engineering applications in the context of solar power generation, water management, agricultural production and tourism. GEBA is publicly accessible over the internet via www.geba.ethz.ch.

  9. Ultrasound pulse-echo measurements on rough surfaces with linear array transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøj, Sidsel M. N.; Blanco, Esther N.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2012-01-01

    The echo from planar surfaces with rms roughness, Rq, in the range from 0-155 μm was measured with a clinical linear array transducer at different angles of incidence at 6 MHz and 12 MHz. The echo-pulse from the surfaces was isolated with an equal sized window and the power of the echo-pulse was ......The echo from planar surfaces with rms roughness, Rq, in the range from 0-155 μm was measured with a clinical linear array transducer at different angles of incidence at 6 MHz and 12 MHz. The echo-pulse from the surfaces was isolated with an equal sized window and the power of the echo......-pulse was calculated. The power of the echo from the smooth surface (Rq = 0) is highly angle-dependent due to a high degree of specular reflection. Within the angular range considered here, -10° to 10°, the variation spans a range of 18 dB at both 6 MHz and 12 MHz. When roughness increases, the angle......-dependence decreases, as the echo process gradually changes from pure reflection to being predominantly governed by backscattering. The power of the echoes from the two roughest surfaces (Rq = 115 μm and 155 μm) are largely independent of angle at both 6 MHz and 12 MHz with a variation of 2 dB in the angular range...

  10. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics ampersand Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness

  11. Surface dose measurements and comparison of unflattened and flattened photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashokkumar Sigamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the central axis dose in the build-up region and the surface dose of a 6 MV and 10 MV flattened photon beam (FB and flattening filter free (FFF therapeutic photon beam for different square field sizes (FSs for a Varian Truebeam linear accelerator using parallel-plate ionization chamber and Gafchromic film. Knowledge of dosimetric characteristics in the build-up region and surface dose of the FFF is essential for clinical care. The dose measurements were also obtained empirically using two different commonly used dosimeters: a p-type photon semiconductor dosimeter and a cylindrical ionization chamber. Surface dose increased linearly with FS for both FB and FFF photon beams. The surface dose values of FFF were higher than the FB FSs. The measured surface dose clearly increases with increasing FS. The FFF beams have a modestly higher surface dose in the build-up region than the FB. The dependence of source to skin distance (SSD is less significant in FFF beams when compared to the flattened beams at extended SSDs.

  12. "Simultaneous measurement of flame impingement and piston surface temperatures in an optically accessible spark ignition engine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Carl-Philipp; Honza, Rene; Böhm, Benjamin; Dreizler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    This paper shows the results of spatially resolved temperature measurements of the piston surface of an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine during flame impingement. High-speed thermographic phosphor thermometry (TPT), using Gd3Ga5O12:Cr,Ce, and planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH-PLIF) were used to investigate the temperature increase and the time and position of flame impingement at the piston surface. Measurements were conducted at two operating cases and showed heating rates of up to 16,000 K/s. The OH-PLIF measurements were used to localize flame impingement and calculate conditioned statistics of the temperature profiles. The TPT coating was characterized and its influence on the temperature measurements evaluated.

  13. Portable instrumentation for quantitatively measuring radioactive surface contaminations, including 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-10-01

    In order to measure the effectiveness of decontamination efforts, a quantitative analysis of the radiocontamination is necessary, both before and after decontamination. Since it is desirable to release the decontaminated material for unrestricted use or disposal, the assay equipment must provide adequate sensitivity to measure the radioactivity at or below the release limit. In addition, the instrumentation must be capable of measuring all kinds of radiocontaminants including fission products, activation products, and transuranic materials. Finally, the survey instrumentation must be extremely versatile in order to assay the wide variety of contaminated surfaces in many environments, some of which may be extremely hostile or remote. This communication describes the development and application of portable instrumentation capable of quantitatively measuring most transuranics, activation products, and fission products, including 90 Sr, on almost any contaminated surface in nearly any location

  14. Contact angle and surface tension measurements of a five-ring polyphenyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Contact angle measurements were performed for a five-ring polyphenyl ether isomeric mixture on M-50 steel in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. Two different techniques were used: (1) a tilting plate apparatus, and (2) a sessile drop apparatus. Measurements were made for the temperature range 25 to 190 C. Surface tension was measured by a differential maximum bubble pressure technique over the range 23 to 220 C in room air. The critical surface energy of spreading (gamma /sub c/) was determined for the polyphenyl ether by plotting the cosine of the contact angle (theta) versus the surface tension (gamma /sub LV/). The straight line intercept at cosine theta = 1 is defined as gamma (sub c). Gamma (sub c) was found to be 30.1 dyn/cm for the tilting plate technique and 31.3 dyn/cm for the sessile drop technique. These results indicate that the polyphenyl ether is inherently autophobic (i.e., it will not spread on its own surface film until its surface tension is less than gamma /sub c/). This phenomenon is discussed in light of the wettability and wear problems encountered with this fluid.

  15. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Beato, Stefania; Holm, Per

    2016-02-10

    Compounds wettability is critical for a number of central processes including disintegration, dispersion, solubilisation and dissolution. It is therefore an important optimisation parameter both in drug discovery but also as guidance for formulation selection and optimisation. Wettability for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866 MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle. Only for special cases where compounds have poor compressibility would there be a need for a surface-quality-control step before the contact angle determination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. a Cost-Effective Method for Crack Detection and Measurement on Concrete Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, M. M.; Ali, T. A.; Abdelfatah, A.; Yehia, S.; Elaksher, A.

    2017-11-01

    Crack detection and measurement in the surface of concrete structures is currently carried out manually or through Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) such as imaging or scanning. The recent developments in depth (stereo) cameras have presented an opportunity for cost-effective, reliable crack detection and measurement. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of the new inexpensive depth camera (ZED) for crack detection and measurement. This depth camera with its lightweight and portable nature produces a 3D data file of the imaged surface. The ZED camera was utilized to image a concrete surface and the 3D file was processed to detect and analyse cracks. This article describes the outcome of the experiment carried out with the ZED camera as well as the processing tools used for crack detection and analysis. Crack properties that were also of interest were length, orientation, and width. The use of the ZED camera allowed for distinction between surface and concrete cracks. The ZED high-resolution capability and point cloud capture technology helped in generating a dense 3D data in low-lighting conditions. The results showed the ability of the ZED camera to capture the crack depth changes between surface (render) cracks, and crack that form in the concrete itself.

  17. A COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR CRACK DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT ON CONCRETE SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Sarker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Crack detection and measurement in the surface of concrete structures is currently carried out manually or through Non-Destructive Testing (NDT such as imaging or scanning. The recent developments in depth (stereo cameras have presented an opportunity for cost-effective, reliable crack detection and measurement. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of the new inexpensive depth camera (ZED for crack detection and measurement. This depth camera with its lightweight and portable nature produces a 3D data file of the imaged surface. The ZED camera was utilized to image a concrete surface and the 3D file was processed to detect and analyse cracks. This article describes the outcome of the experiment carried out with the ZED camera as well as the processing tools used for crack detection and analysis. Crack properties that were also of interest were length, orientation, and width. The use of the ZED camera allowed for distinction between surface and concrete cracks. The ZED high-resolution capability and point cloud capture technology helped in generating a dense 3D data in low-lighting conditions. The results showed the ability of the ZED camera to capture the crack depth changes between surface (render cracks, and crack that form in the concrete itself.

  18. Simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, J.; Kilzer, A.; Petermann, M.

    2018-01-01

    Oscillations of small liquid drops around a spherical shape have been of great interest to scientists measuring physical properties such as interfacial tension and viscosity, over the last few decades. A powerful tool for contactless positioning is acoustic levitation, which has been used to simultaneously determine the surface tension and viscosity of liquids at ambient pressure. In order to extend this acoustic levitation measurement method to high pressure systems, the method is first evaluated under ambient pressure. To measure surface tension and viscosity using acoustically levitated oscillating drops, an image analysis method has to be developed and factors which may affect measurement, such as sound field or oscillation amplitude, have to be analyzed. In this paper, we describe the simultaneous measurement of surface tension and viscosity using freely decaying shape oscillations of acoustically levitated droplets of different liquids (silicone oils AK 5 and AK 10, squalane, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol) in air. These liquids vary in viscosity from 2 to about 30 mPa s. An acoustic levitation system, including an optimized standing wave acoustic levitator and a high-speed camera, was used for this study. An image analysis was performed with a self-written Matlab® code. The frequency of oscillation and the damping constant, required for the determination of surface tension and viscosity, respectively, were calculated from the evolution of the equatorial and polar radii. The results and observations are compared to data from the literature in order to analyze the accuracy of surface tension and viscosity determination, as well as the effect of non-spherical drop shape or amplitude of oscillation on measurement.

  19. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryniewicz, A. M; Ryniewicz, W.; Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A.

    2010-01-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  20. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryniewicz, A. M.; Ryniewicz, A.; Ryniewicz, W.; Gaska, A.

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  1. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, w...

  2. Evaluation of surface contamination based on certifiably traceable, internationally accreditable measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    National Accreditation and Measurement Service (NAMAS) adopted by the EUROMET agreement requires that the calibration of monitoring instruments be traceable internationally with the objective that radiation hazard assessment be improved. This objective is achieved for Tritium surface contamination by employing calibration sources and evaluation methods which comply with ISO standards including the measurement of activity removable by Volatilization as well as dust. Consideration should be given to organic binding of tritium in the skin with its implications in the event of litigation. (author)

  3. Ultrasonic Surface Measurements for the investigation of superficial alteration of natural stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas; Auras, Michael; Bilgili, Filiz; Christen, Sandra; Cristiano, Luigia; Krompholz, Rolf; Mosca, Ilaria; Rose, David

    2013-04-01

    Seismic waveform analysis is applicable also to the centimeter and decimeter scale for non-destructive testing of pavement, facades, plaster, sculptures, or load-bearing structures like pillars. Mostly transmission measurements are performed and travel-times of first arriving P-waves are considered that have limited resolution for the upper centimeters of an object. In contrast, surface measurements are well suited to quantify superficial alterations of material properties e.g. due to weathering. A number of surface measurements have been carried out in the laboratory as well as on real structures in order to study systematically the information content of ultrasonic waveforms and their variability under real conditions. As a preposition for ultrasonic waveform analysis, reproducible, broad-band measurements have to be carried out with a definite radiation pattern and an about 1 mm accuracy of the measurement geometry. We used special coupling devices for effective ultrasonic surface measurements in the laboratory as well as at real objects. Samples of concrete with varying composition and samples of natural stone - marble, tuff, and sandstone - were repeatedly weathered and tested by ultrasonic measurements. The resistance of the samples to weathering and the penetration depth of the weathering are analyzed. Furthermore, material specific calibration curves for changes in velocities of elastic waves due to weathering can be obtained by these tests. Tests on real structures have been carried out for marble (Schlossbrücke, Berlin) and sandstone (Porta Nigra, Trier). Altogether, these test measurements show clearly that despite of the internal inhomogeneity of many real objects, their surface roughness and topography especially ultrasonic Rayleigh waves are well suited to study material alterations in the upper centimeters. Dispersion of Rayleigh waves may be inverted for shear-wave velocity as a function of depth.

  4. Evaluation on Dorsey Method in Surface Tension Measurement of Solder Liquids Containing Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingke; Xie, Feiming; Fan, Jinsheng; Liu, Dayong; Huang, Jihua; Chen, Shuhai

    2018-06-01

    With the purpose of developing a feasible approach for measuring the surface tension of solders containing surfactants, the surface tension of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-xP solder alloys, with various drop sizes as well as different phosphorus (P) content, was evaluated using the Dorsey method based on the sessile drop test. The results show that the accuracy of the surface tension calculations depends on both of sessile drop size and the liquid metal composition. With a proper drop size, in the range of 4.5 mm to 5.3 mm in equivalent spherical diameters, the deviation of the surface tension calculation can be limited to 1.43 mN·m-1 and 6.30 mN·m-1 for SnAgCu and SnAgCu-P, respectively. The surface tension of SnAgCu-xP solder alloys decreases quickly to a minimum value when the P content reaches 0.5 wt% and subsequently increases slowly with the P content further increasing. The formation of a P-enriched surface layer and Sn4P3 intermetallic phases is regarded to be responsible for the decreasing and subsequent increasing of surface tension, respectively.

  5. Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Taira, Junichi; Takenaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugai, Kenji; Kosako, Toshiso

    2007-01-01

    The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

  6. Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trumpold, H.; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    compression and injection moulded plastic negatives and Ni-negatives have been made from which again Ni-positives were produced. The replication processes showed negligible deviations from the Pt and Pa values compared to the primary standards. An important prerequisite is the cleanliness of the surfaces......Background For the precise and accurate measurement of surface topography a whole range of surface detection systems is available. With their application in research and production problems arise due to the lack of traceable standard artefacts for the instrument calibration in X, Y and Z directions...... and for the calibration of filters. Existing ISO standards on calibration specimens are inadequate and limited in that they only cover contacting instruments and only partially the measuring ranges for these instruments. The whole range of non-contacting instruments are not covered despite their increasing use...

  7. A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y B; Piao, W Y; Xu, J B

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements

  8. A fast Gaussian filtering algorithm for three-dimensional surface roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y. B.; Piao, W. Y.; Xu, J. B.

    2007-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian filter can be separated into two one-dimensional (1-D) Gaussian filters. The 1-D Gaussian filter can be implemented approximately by the cascaded Butterworth filters. The approximation accuracy will be improved with the increase of the number of the cascaded filters. A recursive algorithm for Gaussian filtering requires a relatively small number of simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, so that it has considerable computational efficiency and it is very useful for three-dimensional (3-D) surface roughness measurements. The zero-phase-filtering technique is used in this algorithm, so there is no phase distortion in the Gaussian filtered mean surface. High-order approximation Gaussian filters are proposed for practical use to assure high accuracy of Gaussian filtering of 3-D surface roughness measurements.

  9. Calculation of reasonable exemption levels for surface contamination by measuring overall gamma ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Haruyuki; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    The present regulation on surface contamination [Bq/cm 2 ] is determined from a simple radiological model for the most hazardous radionuclides (Pu-239 for alpha emitters and Sr-90 for beta emitters) and its extremely conservative model is applied for all other alpha and beta emitters. In this study, reasonable exemption levels for surface contamination are calculated for each radionuclide by adopting an original radiological dose evaluation method for surface contamination that can be applied in radiation safety, transport safety and waste safety. Furthermore, a new concept of judging the exemption by estimating the overall contamination [Bq] on the objects from the measurement of gamma ray has been designed and a reasonable value was derived. We conclude that the overall exemption levels obtained by gamma ray measurement can be one order smaller than those obtained by the conventional method for some radionuclides, such as Mn-54, Co-60, Nb-94, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Eu-154. (author)

  10. Slip length measurement of confined air flow on three smooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunlu; Bhushan, Bharat; Maali, Abdelhamid

    2013-04-02

    An experimental measurement of the slip length of air flow close to three different solid surfaces is presented. The substrate was driven by a nanopositioner moving toward an oscillating glass sphere glued to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. A large separation distance was used to get more effective data. The slip length value was obtained by analyzing the amplitude and phase data of the cantilever. The measurements show that the slip length does not depend on the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever. Because of the small difference among the slip lengths of the three surfaces, a simplified analysis method was used. The results show that on glass, graphite, and mica surfaces the slip lengths are 98, 234, and 110 nm, respectively.

  11. Some recent results of Russian measurements of surface ozone in Antarctica. A meteorological interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Elokhov, A.S.; Makarov, O.V.; Mokhov, I.I. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics)

    1993-01-01

    Surface ozone measurements were carried out at Molodezhnaya and Mirny stations in spring 1987-autumn 1988. The data show an annual variation with a summer minimum at 15 ppbv value. The striking feature of the surface ozone record is two types of day-to-day variability. One of the types is characterized by large day-to-day variations with about 10 ppbv magnitude. The likely mechanism of such variations is the vertical transport induced by cyclonic activity. The other type occurs in synoptically quiet periods (frequent in summer) when the day-to-day ozone variations are significant but not so large. The most likely mechanism of these variations is the slope katabatic wind which transports ozone from inside the Antarctic continent. The latitudinal distribution of surface ozone for this period, measured aboard an aircraft, showed a slight increase towards Vostok station. (26 refs., 3 figs.).

  12. Certification of contact probe measurement of surface wave of Li jet for IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Takafumi, E-mail: okita@stu.nucl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Hoashi, Eiji; Yoshihashi, Sachiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kondo, Hiroo; Kanemura, Takuji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamaoka, Nobuo; Horiike, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We have conducted experiments of liquid lithium free-surface flow for IFMIF. • In the experiment using electro-contact probe apparatus, a droplet of liquid Li on the middle of measurement probe was observed. • Behavior of a droplet and false detections were observed by using HSV camera. • The error of the statistical result was roughly evaluated about 1%. • From results of numerical simulations, we obtained the detailed information about the behavior of a Li droplet. - Abstract: The international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF) is a neutron source for developing fusion reactor materials. A liquid lithium (Li) jet with free surface is planned as a target to generate intense neutron field. It is important to obtain information on the surface wave characteristic for safety of the facility and efficient neutron generation. Surface wave characteristics experiment using the liquid Li circulation facility is carried out at Osaka University. In our studies, measurement using an electro-contact probe apparatus is conducted and many data about surface wave height were taken. In this experiment, a liquid Li droplet was observed on the probe. To see effect due to droplets on the probe needle, images near the surface of the Li jet including the Li droplet were taken by HSV camera synchronized with probe contact signals, and correlation between the behavior of the Li droplet and signals was evaluated. From the results, when the droplet on the probe contacts of the droplet with the surface, signals obviously different from the regular signal were observed. The influence on the result of frequency was estimated and is approximately <1%. Accuracy of measurement using probe could be increased by carefully deleting false signals.

  13. Development of the automatic measuring system to survey the surface contamination on equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Akira; Matsumura, Hidekatsu; Nawa, Takao; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yamada, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    The inspection of surface contamination carried out when things are taken out of the control areas in nuclear power stations requires considerable labor and time because it is carried out manually. In order to make the inspection of surface contamination more efficiently and to standardize it, the development of an automatic inspection apparatus was carried out. This apparatus inspects the surface contamination due to radio isotopes which do not emit α-ray, and the objects to be measured are the large things with definite forms, such as boards and pipes for scaffolding. The method of measuring β-ray with a gas flow counter was adopted for the apparatus in view of the good detection sensitivity, relatively simple shielding against background, and easy conversion to surface contamination density. The measuring system was composed of the gas flow counters and a rate meter. The outline of the apparatus made for trial is explained. As the result of the performance test, the lowest detection sensitivity was 1.29 x 10 -5 μCi/cm 2 at the moving speed of an object of 1 cm/sec. The detection sensitivity is improved by the flattening of the sensitivity distribution. The evaluation of the error, the reduction of measuring time and the prevention of contamination were also made. (Kako, I.)

  14. Comparison of HF radar measurements with Eulerian and Lagrangian surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrs, Johannes; Sperrevik, Ann Kristin; Christensen, Kai Håkon; Broström, Göran; Breivik, Øyvind

    2015-05-01

    High-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean currents are compared with in situ measurements to conclude if the radar observations include effects of surface waves that are of second order in the wave amplitude. Eulerian current measurements from a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler and Lagrangian measurements from surface drifters are used as references. Directional wave spectra are obtained from a combination of pressure sensor data and a wave model. Our analysis shows that the wave-induced Stokes drift is not included in the HF radar-derived currents, that is, HF radars measure the Eulerian current. A disputed nonlinear correction to the phase velocity of surface gravity waves, which may affect HF radar signals, has a magnitude of about half the Stokes drift at the surface. In our case, this contribution by nonlinear dispersion would be smaller than the accuracy of the HF radar currents, hence no conclusion can be made. Finally, the analysis confirms that the HF radar data represent an exponentially weighted vertical average where the decay scale is proportional to the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

  15. Cryogenic germanium detectors for dark matter search: Surface events rejection by charge measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniatowski, A.; Censier, B.; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.

    2006-01-01

    Test experiments have been performed on a Ge detector of the Edelweiss collaboration, combining time-resolved acquisition of the ionization signals with heat measurements. Pulse-shape analysis of the charge signals demonstrates the capability to reject surface events of poor charge collection with energies larger than 50 keV in ionization

  16. On the use of double differences in inversion of surface movement measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.; Thienen-Visser, K. van

    2015-01-01

    Surface movement data can be used in data assimilation or inversion exercises to improve the level of knowledge of a compacting reservoir. We have designed, implemented and tested a new algorithm that uses measured optical height differences directly, without having to translate them to heights with

  17. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Thakur, D.B.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon

  18. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie

    2012-01-01

    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one met...

  19. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...

  20. Simultaneous measurement of a fluid flow and the fluid's free surface using PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, O.G.; Hassan, Y.A.; Okamoto, K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the interaction between a fluid flow and its free surface with an improved application of the flow measurement technique, particle image velocimetry (PIV). In this study, improvements in the data acquisition and tracking method of the PIV technique were developed