WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface electrical breakdown

  1. Surface breakdown igniter for mercury arc devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface breakdown igniter comprises a semiconductor of medium resistivity which has the arc device cathode as one electrode and has an igniter anode electrode so that when voltage is applied between the electrodes a spark is generated when electrical breakdown occurs over the surface of the semiconductor. The geometry of the igniter anode and cathode electrodes causes the igniter discharge to be forced away from the semiconductor surface.

  2. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...

  3. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we focus on the chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers prepared in Madsen et al[2] and we investigate the electrical...... breakdown patterns of two similar chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers which break down electrically in a rather different way as well as we compare them to a silicone based reference. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) are used to evaluate...... the elastomers after electrical breakdown....

  4. Electrical breakdown of water in microgaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbach, Karl; Kolb, Juergen; Xiao Shu; Katsuki, Sunao; Minamitani, Yasushi; Joshi, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and modeling studies on electrical breakdown in water in submillimeter gaps between pin and plane electrodes have been performed. Prebreakdown, breakdown and recovery of the water gaps were studied experimentally by using optical and electrical diagnostics with a temporal resolution on the order of one nanosecond. By using Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the electric field distribution in the prebreakdown phase was determined by means of the Kerr effect. Electric fields values in excess of the computed electric fields, which reach >4 MV cm -1 for applied electrical pulses of 20 ns duration, were recorded at the tip of the pin electrode, an effect which can be explained by a reduced permittivity of water at high electric fields. Breakdown of the gaps, streamer-to-arc transition, was recorded by means of high-speed electrical diagnostics, and through high-speed photography. It was shown, through simulations, that breakdown is initiated by field emission at the interface of preexisting microbubbles. Impact ionization within the micro-bubble's gas then contributes to plasma development. Experiments using pulse-probe methods and Schlieren diagnostics allowed us to follow the development of the disturbance caused by the breakdown over a time of more than milliseconds and to determine the recovery time of a water switch. In order to trigger water switches a trigger electrode with a triple point has been utilized. The results of this research have found application in the construction of compact pulse power generators for bioelectric applications.

  5. Quantitative Outgassing studies in DC Electrical breakdown

    CERN Document Server

    Levinsen, Yngve Inntjore; Calatroni, Sergio; Taborelli, Mauro; Wünsch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Breakdown in the accelerating structures sets an important limit to the performance of the CLIC linear collider. Vacuum degradation and subsequent beam instability are possible outcomes of a breakdown if too much gas is released from the cavity surface. Quantitative data of gas released by breakdowns are provided for copper (milled Cu-OFE, as-received and heat-treated), and molybdenum. These data are produced in a DC spark system based on a capacitance charged at fixed energy, and will serve as a reference for the vacuum design of the CLIC accelerating structures.

  6. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    breakdown patterns of two similar chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers which break down electrically in a rather different way as well as we compare them to a silicone based reference. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to evaluate the elastomers...... elastomer electrically. In order to tailor the elastomers, more knowledge is needed but these copolymers pave the first path towards a better understanding of the complex connection between electrical and thermal stability. Minor changes in the polymer backbone structure result in changes in electrical...

  7. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μm, while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  8. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field....... We performed numerical analysis with a quasi-steady state approximation to predict thermal runaway of dielectric elastomer films. We also studied experimentally the effect of temperature on dielectric properties of different PDMS dielectric elastomers. Different films with different percentages...

  9. Surface of Alumina Films after Prolonged Breakdowns in Galvanostatic Anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Girginov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown phenomena are investigated at continuous isothermal (20∘C and galvanostatic (0.2–5 mA cm−2 anodizing of aluminum in ammonium salicylate in dimethylformamide (1 M AS/DMF electrolyte. From the kinetic (-curves, the breakdown voltage ( values are estimated, as well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations of formation voltage ( at different current densities. The surface of the aluminum specimens was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Data on topography and surface roughness parameters of the electrode after electric breakdowns are obtained as a function of anodization time. The electrode surface of anodic films, formed with different current densities until the same charge density has passed (2.5 C cm−2, was assessed. Results are discussed on the basis of perceptions of avalanche mechanism of the breakdown phenomena, due to the injection of electrons and their multiplication in the volume of the film.

  10. Electrical breakdown in thin oxides during bias-temperature ramps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Riewe, Leonard Charles; Winokur, Peter S.; Sexton, Frederick W.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical breakdown in thin oxides is assessed by a new bias-temperature ramp technique. No significant effect of radiation exposure on breakdown is observed for high quality thermal and nitrided oxides, up to 20 Mrad(SiO 2 )

  11. Development of Electrical Breakdown in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are key equipment for transfer and distribution of the electric power. Considering the significance of the power transformers in the electric system, their price and possible damages occurred by accidents, it is necessary to pay attention to their higher prevention. To prevent failure states of transformers, we perform different types ofmeasurements. They shall illustrate a momentary state of the measured equipment and if necessary to draw attention in advance to changes of parameters, which have specific relationship to no-failure operation of the equipment. The conditions under which breakdown of composite liquid/ solid insulation can occur, e.g. in transformer, play an important role in designing such insulation. The liquid, mainly mineral oil, generally constitutes the weakest part of insulation and a great amount of work has been devoted to the study of streamers, which appear in the gaseous phase, and most often are triggering the failure of insulation.

  12. Ion manipulation device with electrical breakdown protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-02

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. The surfaces are housed in a chamber, and at least one electrically insulative shield is coupled to an inner surface of the chamber for increasing a mean-free-path between two adjacent electrodes in the chamber.

  13. Breakdown of highly excited oxygen in a DC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsin, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Deryugin, A.A.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The breakdown of oxygen in a dc electric field is studied. A high concentration of oxygen molecules in the a 1 Δ g excited state is obtained in a purely chemical reactor. A decrease in the breakdown voltage at degrees of excitation exceeding 50% is observed. The theoretical decrement in the breakdown voltage obtained by solving the Boltzmann equation is in good agreement with the experimental data

  14. Electrical breakdown of carbon nanotube devices and the predictability of breakdown position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishna Goswami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated electrical transport properties of long (>10 μm multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NTs by dividing individuals into several segments of identical length. Each segment has different resistance because of the random distribution of defect density in an NT and is corroborated by Raman studies. Higher is the resistance, lower is the current required to break the segments indicating that breakdown occurs at the highly resistive segment/site and not necessarily at the middle. This is consistent with the one-dimensional thermal transport model. We have demonstrated the healing of defects by annealing at moderate temperatures or by current annealing. To strengthen our mechanism, we have carried out electrical breakdown of nitrogen doped NTs (NNTs with diameter variation from one end to the other. It reveals that the electrical breakdown occurs selectively at the narrower diameter region. Overall, we believe that our results will help to predict the breakdown position of both semiconducting and metallic NTs.

  15. An Introduction to Electrical Breakdown in Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Examples include the insulation in parallel plate transmission lines, the dielectrics in high voltage capacitors, and transformer bushings . This can...of the electrodes has a significant effect on the breakdown voltage. Some equip- ment, such as vacuum switchgear , would be rated below the lowest

  16. Runaway breakdown and electrical discharges in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milikh, Gennady; Roussel-Dupré, Robert

    2010-12-01

    This review considers the precise role played by runaway breakdown (RB) in the initiation and development of lightning discharges. RB remains a fundamental research topic under intense investigation. The question of how lightning is initiated and subsequently evolves in the thunderstorm environment rests in part on a fundamental understanding of RB and cosmic rays and the potential coupling to thermal runaway (as a seed to RB) and conventional breakdown (as a source of thermal runaways). In this paper, we describe the basic mechanism of RB and the conditions required to initiate an observable avalanche. Feedback processes that fundamentally enhance RB are discussed, as are both conventional breakdown and thermal runaway. Observations that provide clear evidence for the presence of energetic particles in thunderstorms/lightning include γ-ray and X-ray flux intensifications over thunderstorms, γ-ray and X-ray bursts in conjunction with stepped leaders, terrestrial γ-ray flashes, and neutron production by lightning. Intense radio impulses termed narrow bipolar pulses (or NBPs) provide indirect evidence for RB particularly when measured in association with cosmic ray showers. Our present understanding of these phenomena and their enduring enigmatic character are touched upon briefly.

  17. Pulsed and streamer discharges in air above breakdown electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Sun (Anbang); H.J. Teunissen (Jannis); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractA 3D particle model is developed to investigate the streamer formation in electric fields above the breakdown threshold, in atmospheric air (1bar, 300 Kelvin). Adaptive particle management, adaptive mesh refinement and parallel computing techniques are used in the code. Photoionization

  18. The electrical breakdown strength of pre-stretched elastomers, with and without sample volume conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In practice, the electrical breakdown strength of dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs)determines the upper limit for transduction. During DEAP actuation, the thickness of the elastomer decreases, and thus the electrical field increases and the breakdown process is determined by a coupled...... electro-mechanical failure mechanism. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind the electro-mechanical breakdown process is required for developing reliable transducers. In this study, two experimental configurations were used to determine the stretch dependence of the electrical breakdown...

  19. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part II: Statistical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns of shot distribution and maximum coverage at impulse breakdown voltage for positive point electr-odes (needle and cone electrodes) in small air gaps in non-uniform electric fields were investigated. During the breakdown test, a sheet of paper was placed on the plate electrode (-ve), and each breakdown shot ...

  20. Influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown characteristics in cylindrical diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shouzhe; Uhm, Han S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of magnetic field on the electrical breakdown properties is investigated by applying a magnetic field along the longitudinal direction in a cylindrical diode for two electrical polarities. Breakdown characteristics in a crossed magnetic field are analyzed with the equivalentreduced-electric-field concept and Townsend criterion. The discharge experiment at reduced pressure is carried out in the moderate magnetic field. Experimental investigation is concentrated on the magnetic dependent behavior of the electrical breakdown in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum. It is found that the electrical breakdown characteristics with respect to the magnetic field depend on electrical polarity of the cylindrical diode, which is interpreted by taking the gyromotion of the individual electrons in the diode into accounts under the moderate magnetic field in the lower pressure side of Paschen's minimum

  1. Strongly Dipolar Polythiourea and Polyurea Dielectrics with High Electrical Breakdown, Low Loss, and High Electrical Energy Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Burlingame, Quinn; Cheng, Zhao-Xi; Lin, Minren; Zhang, Q. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dielectric materials with high electric energy density and low loss are of great importance for applications in modern electronics and electrical systems. Strongly dipolar materials have the potential to reach relatively higher dielectric constants than the widely used non-polar or weakly dipolar polymers, as well as a much lower loss than that of nonlinear high K polymer dielectrics or polymer-ceramic composites. To realize the high energy density while maintaining the low dielectric loss, aromatic polythioureas and polyureas with high dipole moments, high dipole densities, tunable molecular structures and dielectric properties were investigated. High energy density (>24 J/cm3), high breakdown strength (>800 MV/m), and high charge-discharge efficiency (>90%) can be achieved in the new polymers. The molecular structure and film surface morphology were also studied; it is of great importance to optimize the fabrication process to make high-quality thin films.

  2. Breakdown in ZnO Varistors by High Power Electrical Pulses; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIKE, GORDON E.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents an investigation of irreversible electrical breakdown in ZnO varistors due to short pulses of high electric field and current density. For those varistors that suffer breakdown, there is a monotonic, pulse-by-pulse degradation in the switching electric field. The electrical and structural characteristics of varistors during and after breakdown are described qualitatively and quantitatively. Once breakdown is nucleated, the degradation typically follows a well-defined relationship between the number of post-initiation pulses and the degraded switching voltage. In some cases the degraded varistor has a remnant 20(micro)m diameter hollow track showing strong evidence of once-molten ZnO. A model is developed for both electrical and thermal effects during high energy pulsing. The breakdown is assumed to start at one electrode and advance towards the other electrode as a thin filament of conductive material that grows incrementally with each successive pulse. The model is partially validated by experiments in which the varistor rod is cut at several different lengths from the electrode. Invariably one section of the cut varistor has a switching field that is not degraded while the other section(s) are heavily degraded. Based on the experiments and models of behavior during breakdown, some speculations about the nature of the nucleating mechanism are offered in the last section

  3. Electrical Breakdown and Mechanical Ageing in Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    that affect the breakdown strength of the pre-stretched DEs was developed. Breakdown strength was determined for samples with and without volume conservation and was found to depend strongly on the strain and the thickness of the samples. In order for DEs to be fully implementable in commercial products...... fillers (e.g. oils). Interestingly, the results also showed that soft fillers significantly influence the long-term electromechanical reliability of PDMS elastomers. However, despite the pre-stretched PDMS elastomers filled with hard and soft filler experience difficulties to maintain their long...

  4. Dissociation dynamics of CH3I in electric spark induced breakdown revealed by time-resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Wei-long; Song, Yun-fei; Duo, Li-ping; Liu, Yu-qiang; Yang, Yan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Emission of electric spark dissociation of CH 3 I is similar to its fs LIBS. • We use fs laser induced breakdown as a simulation for electric spark dissociation. • The I 2 molecule formation is directly observed in the time-resolved LIBS. • Bimolecular collision of I ∗ and CH 3 I is responsible for the formation of I 2 . - Abstract: The electric discharge spark dissociation of gas CH 3 I is found to be similar to its femtosecond laser photodissociation. The almost identical spectra of the two processes show that their initial ionization conditions are very similar. The initial ionization followed by molecular fragmentation is proposed as the dissociation mechanism, in which the characteristic emissions of I + , CH 3 , CH 2 , CH, H, and I 2 are identified as the dissociation products. The emission band of 505 nm I 2 is clearly observed in the time-resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The dynamic curve indicates that I 2 ∗ molecules are formed after the delay time of ∼4.7 ns. The formation of I 2 ∗ molecule results from the bimolecular collision of the highly excited iodine atom I ∗ ( 4 P) and CH 3 I molecule. This dynamical information can help understand the process of electric discharge spark dissociation of CH 3 I

  5. Degradation characteristics of 2G HTS tapes with respect to an electrical breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jong O; Lee, On You; Mo, Young Kyu; Kim, Jun Il; Bang, Seung Min; Lee, Hong Seok; Kang, Hyoung Ku; Lee, Jae Hun; Jang, Cheol Yeong

    2015-01-01

    The electrical insulation design for a superconducting coil system is important for developing high voltage superconducting apparatuses. Also, the degraded characteristics of superconducting tapes due to an electrical breakdown should be considered for superconducting coils design. In this study, the degradation characteristics of 2G high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes were studied with respect to electrical breakdown tests. The degradation tests of 2G HTS tapes were performed with various stabilizer materials. The degradation characteristics of 2G HTS tapes such as critical current(Ic) and index number were observed by performing electrical breakdown tests. It was found that the characteristics such as Ic and index number can be degraded by an electrical breakdown. Moreover, it was concluded that the degradation characteristics of 2G HTS tapes were affected by a stabilizer material and applied breakdown voltage. The cross sectional view of 2G HTS tapes was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). As results, it is found that the degradation characteristics of 2G HTS tapes are concerned with hardness and electrical resistivity of stabilizer layers

  6. Theoretical investigation of the breakdown electric field of SiC polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kikou; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirose, Kazuyuki

    2018-03-01

    The breakdown electric field of several SiC polymorphs has been investigated theoretically using a concept of "recovery rate," which is obtained by first principles calculations. A good relationship between the experimental breakdown electric fields and the calculated recovery rate of 4H-, 6H-, and 3C-SiC was obtained. In order to examine the stability of SiC polymorphs, the total electronic energies of various types of SiC crystal structures were calculated. Here, two candidates of polymorphs-GeS-type- and 2H-SiC-with energies comparable to those of experimentally well-established structures, have been obtained. The breakdown electric fields of these two polymorphs were estimated using a relationship obtained from the results of 4H-, 6H-, and 3C-SiC. This indicates that one of these polymorphs, GeS-type-SiC, has higher breakdown electric field than any other SiC polymorphs. In addition to the investigation with the recovery rate, relationship between experimental breakdown electric field and calculated band gap with recently developed accurate electron-correlation potential has been also discussed.

  7. Electrical Breakdown of Hydrogen and Helium on Subnanosecond Time Scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gahl, J

    2000-01-01

    .... Therefore, electrical field emission plays a very important role in these discharges. This report also includes a theoretical determination of the effective electric field for an arbitrary electromagnetic pulse...

  8. Electric Conductivity and Dielectric-Breakdown Behavior for Polyurethane Magnetic Elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shuhei; Tsujiei, Yuri; Kawai, Mika; Mitsumata, Tetsu

    2017-02-23

    The electric-voltage dependence of the electric conductivity for cross-linked and un-cross-linked magnetic elastomers was measured at various magnetic fields, and the effect of cross-linking on the electric conductivity and the dielectric-breakdown behavior was investigated. The electric conductivity for un-cross-linked elastomers at low voltages was independent of magnetic fields and the volume fraction of magnetic particles, indicating the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At high voltages, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, showing the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. On the other hand, the electric conductivity at low voltages for cross-linked elastomers with volume fractions below 0.06 was independent of the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.14, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. At high voltages, the electric conductivity for cross-linked elastomers with a volume fraction of 0.02 was independent of the magnetic field, indicating the electric conduction through the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.06, the electric conductivity suddenly increased at a critical voltage, exhibiting the dielectric breakdown at the bound layer of magnetic particles and/or the discontinuous part between chains.

  9. ELECTRON AVALANCHE MODEL OF DIELECTRIC-VACUUM SURFACE BREAKDOWN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, E J

    2007-02-21

    The model assumes that an 'initiating event' results in positive ions on the surface near the anode and reverses the direction of the normal component of electric field so that electrons in vacuum are attracted to the dielectric locally. A sequence of surface electron avalanches progresses in steps from the anode to the cathode. For 200 kV across 1 cm, the spacing of avalanches is predicted to be about 13 microns. The time for avalanches to step from the anode to the cathode is predicted to be about a ns.

  10. Field emission driven direct current argon discharges and electrical breakdown mechanism across micron scale gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejčik, Štefan; Radjenović, Branislav; Klas, Matej; Radmilović-Radjenović, Marija

    2015-11-01

    In this paper results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the field emission driven direct current argon microdischarges for the gaps between 1 μm and 100 μm are presented and discussed. The breakdown voltage curves and Volt-Ampere characteristics proved to be a fertile basis providing better understanding of the breakdown phenomena in microgaps. Based on the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields have been estimated confirming that the secondary electron emission due to high electric field generated in microgaps depends primarily on the electric field leading directly to the violation of the Paschen's law. Experimental data are supported by the theoretical predictions that suggest departure from the scaling law and a flattening of the Paschen curves at higher pressures confirming that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism leading to the breakdown. Field emission of electrons from the cathode, the space charge effects in the breakdown and distinction between the Fowler-Nordheim field emission and the space charge limited current density are also analyzed. Images and Volt-Ampere characteristics recorded at the electrode gap size of 20 μm indicate the existence of a discharge region similar to arc at the pressure of around 200 Torr has been observed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  11. Formation of Ohmic contact to semipolar (11-22) p-GaN by electrical breakdown method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Lee, Sung-Nam; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2018-01-01

    The electrical breakdown (EBD) method was used to obtain Ohmic contact to semipolar (11-20) p-GaN surfaces using the Ti/SiO2/ p-GaN structure. The EBD method by which the electrical stress voltage was increased up to 70 V with a compliance current of 30 mA resulted in an Ohmic contact with a specific contact resistance of 3.1×10-3 Ωcm2. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed that the oxygen was slightly out-diffused from SiO2 layer toward Ti surface and the oxidation occurred at the Ti surface, while the GaN remained unchanged.

  12. A new SOI high-voltage device with a step-thickness drift region and its analytical model for the electric field and breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaorong; Zhang Wei; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji; Yang Shouguo; Zhan Zhan; Fu Daping

    2008-01-01

    A new SOI high-voltage device with a step-thickness drift region (ST SOI) and its analytical model for the two-dimension electric field distribution and the breakdown voltage are proposed. The electric field in the drift region is modulated and that of the buried layer is enhanced by the variable thickness SOI layer, thereby resulting in the enhancement of the breakdown voltage. Based on the Poisson equation, the expression for the two-dimension electric field distribution is presented taking the modulation effect into account, from which the RESURF (REduced SURface Field) condition and the approximate but explicit expression for the maximal breakdown voltage are derived. The analytical model can explain the effects of the device parameters, such as the step height and the step length of the SOI layer, the doping concentration and the buried oxide thickness, on the electric field distribution and the breakdown voltage. The validity of this model is demonstrated by a comparison with numerical simulations. Improvement on both the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance (R on ) for the ST SOI is obtained due to the variable thickness SOI layer

  13. Experiments and Computational Theory for Electrical Breakdown in Critical Components: THz Imaging of Electronic Plasmas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hjalmarson, Harold P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bigman, Verle Howard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, Richard Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report describes the development of ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) induced terahertz (THz) radiation to image electronic plasmas during electrical breakdown. The technique uses three pulses from two USPLs to (1) trigger the breakdown, (2) create a 2 picosecond (ps, 10 -12 s), THz pulse to illuminate the breakdown, and (3) record the THz image of the breakdown. During this three year internal research program, sub-picosecond jitter timing for the lasers, THz generation, high bandwidth (BW) diagnostics, and THz image acquisition was demonstrated. High intensity THz radiation was optically-induced in a pulse-charged gallium arsenide photoconductive switch. The radiation was collected, transported, concentrated, and co-propagated through an electro-optic crystal with an 800 nm USPL pulse whose polarization was rotated due to the spatially varying electric field of the THz image. The polarization modulated USPL pulse was then passed through a polarizer and the resulting spatially varying intensity was detected in a high resolution digital camera. Single shot images had a signal to noise of %7E3:1. Signal to noise was improved to %7E30:1 with several experimental techniques and by averaging the THz images from %7E4000 laser pulses internally and externally with the camera and the acquisition system (40 pulses per readout). THz shadows of metallic films and objects were also recorded with this system to demonstrate free-carrier absorption of the THz radiation and improve image contrast and resolution. These 2 ps THz pulses were created and resolved with 100 femtosecond (fs, 10 -15 s) long USPL pulses. Thus this technology has the capability to time-resolve extremely fast repetitive or single shot phenomena, such as those that occur during the initiation of electrical breakdown. The goal of imaging electrical breakdown was not reached during this three year project. However, plans to achieve this goal as part of a follow-on project are described in this document

  14. Restoration of an electrical breakdown Terahertz emitter by 2 MeV He+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang kang; Ma Mingwang; Chen Xiliang; Zhu Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    The irradiation of solids by energetic particles may cause extensive displacement cascades and point defects (vacancies and interstitials), and can be widely used for material modification. In order to repair an electrical breakdown photoconductive antenna (PCA), we irradiated the (100)-oriented, low-temperature (LT) grown GaAs substrate with 10 16 /cm 2 of 2 MeV helium ions. After being implanted, electric resistance of the PCA has increased from 800 Ω to 60 ΜΩ. The irradiated PCA exhibits improvements in the output power in comparison with the electrical breakdown PCA and its signal intensity has increased from 2 nA to 8 nA. Accordingly, its output power has become more than one order of magnitude higher than that before irradiation. The frequency range of PCA has obviously improvement. (authors)

  15. Optically reversible electrical soft-breakdown in wide-bandgap oxides—A factorial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Ang, D. S.; Kalaga, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    In an earlier work, we found that an electrical soft-breakdown region in wide-bandgap oxides, such as hafnium dioxide, silicon dioxide, etc., could be reversed when illuminated by white light. The effect is evidenced by a decrease in the breakdown leakage current, termed as a negative photoconductivity response. This finding raises the prospect for optical sensing applications based on these traditionally non-photo-responsive but ubiquitous oxide materials. In this study, we examine the statistical distribution for the rate of breakdown reversal as well as the influence of factors such as wavelength, light intensity, oxide stoichiometry (or oxygen content) and temperature on the reversal rate. The rate of breakdown reversal is shown to be best described by the lognormal distribution. Light in the range of ˜400-700 nm is found to have relatively little influence on the reversal rate. On the other hand, light intensity, oxygen content and temperature, each of them has a clear impact; a stronger light intensity, an oxide that is richer in oxygen content and a reduced temperature all speed up the reversal process substantially. These experimental results are consistent with the proposed phenomenological redox model involving photo-assisted recombination of the surrounding oxygen interstitials with vacancy defects in the breakdown path.

  16. Experimental vortex breakdown topology in a cylinder with a free surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo Jacono, D.; Nazarinia, M.; Brøns, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The free SLII-face, flow in it circular cylinder driven by a rotating bottom disk IS Studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry. Results are compared With computational,11 results assuming I stress-free surface A dye visualization Study by Spohn et al ["Observations of vortex breakdown...... in in open cylindrical container with I rotating bottom," Exp. Fluids 14. 70 (1993)]v as well as several numerical computations. has found a range of different vortex breakdown Structures in this flow. We confirm the existence of a transition where the top of the breakdown bubble crosses from the axis...... to the surface, which has previously only been found numerically. We employ a technique by Brons et al ["Topology of vortex breakdown bubbles in I cylinder with rotating bottom and free surface J. Fluid Mech 428. 133 (2001)] to find the corresponding bifurcation curve in the parameter plane, which has hitherto...

  17. DOE Task Force meeting on Electrical Breakdown of Insulating Ceramics in a High Radiation Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.

    1991-08-01

    This volume contains the abstracts and presentation material from the Research Assistance Task Force Meeting ''Electrical Breakdown of Insulating Ceramics in a High-Radiation Field.'' The meeting was jointly sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the Office of Fusion Energy of the US Department of Energy in Vail, Colorado, May 28--June 1, 1991. The 26 participants represented expertise in fusion, radiation damage, electrical breakdown, ceramics, and semiconductor and electronic structures. These participants came from universities, industries, national laboratories, and government. The attendees represented eight nations. The Task Force meeting was organized in response to the recent discovery that a combination of temperature, electric field, and radiation for an extended period of time has an unexplained adverse effect in ceramics, termed radiation-enhanced electrical degradation (REED). REED occurs after an incubation period and continues to accelerate with irradiation until the ceramics can no longer be regarded as insulators. It appears that REED is irreversible and the ceramic insulators cannot be readily annealed or otherwise repaired for future services. This effect poses a serious threat for fusion reactors, which require electrical insulators in diagnostic devices, in radio frequency and neutral beam systems, and in magnetic assemblies. The problem of selecting suitable electrical insulating materials in thus far more serious than previously anticipated

  18. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  19. Electrical breakdown and nanogap formation of indium oxide core/shell heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minkyung; Song, Woon; Sung Lee, Joon; Kim, Nam; Kim, Jinhee; Park, Jeunghee; Lee, Hyoyoung; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-12-10

    We report the electrical breakdown behavior and subsequent nanogap formation of In(2)O(3)/InO(x) core/shell heterostructure nanowires with substrate-supported and suspended structures. The radial heterostructure nanowires, composed of crystalline In(2)O(3) cores and amorphous In-rich shells, are grown by chemical vapor deposition. As the nanowires broke down, they exhibited two distinct current drops in the current-voltage characteristics. The tips of the broken nanowires were found to have a cone or a volcano shape depending on the width of the nanowire. The shape, the size, and the position of the nanogap depend strongly on the device structure and the nanowire dimensions. The substrate-supported and the suspended devices exhibit distinct breakdown behavior which can be explained by the diffusive thermal transport model. The breakdown temperature of the nanowire is estimated to be about 450 K, close to the melting temperature of indium. We demonstrated the usefulness of this technique by successful fabrication of working pentacene field-effect transistors.

  20. Effect of surface-breakdown plasma on metal drilling by pulsed CO2-laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutiunian, P. V.; Baranov, V. Iu.; Bobkov, I. V.; Bol'Shakov, L. A.; Dolgov, V. A.

    1988-03-01

    The effect of low-threshold surface breakdown produced by short (5-microsec) CO2-laser pulses on the metal drilling process is investigated. Data on the interaction of metals with laser pulses having the same duration but different shape are shown to be different. The effect of the ambient atmospheric pressure on the laser drilling process is investigated.

  1. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Electric fields of a laser plasma formed by optical breakdown of air near various targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashin, A. V.; Nikitin, P. I.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the spatiotemporal structure of the electric fields of a plasma formed as a result of optical breakdown of air near the target surface by radiations of various wavelengths (0.193, 0.53, 1.06, and 10.6 μm), pulse durations (microsecond, nanosecond, and subnanosecond), and intensities (108 — 1013 W cm-2). A study was made of the influence of the target and of nearby objects, and of their materials (conductor, dielectric) on the distribution of the electric fields of the laser plasma, and also on the probe diagnostic system.

  2. Vortex breakdown in a cylinder with a rotating bottom and a flat stress-free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, E.; Bontoux, P.

    2007-01-01

    Vortex breakdown and transition to time-dependent regimes are investigated in a cylinder (H/R = 4) with a rotating disk and a free-surface. The aim of this study is to show how, by changing upstream conditions it is possible to alter on the flow, particularly the vortex breakdown process. The understanding of such effects on vortex breakdown is very useful in the development of a control strategy in order to intensify or remove the phenomenon. The flow dynamics are explored through numerical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations based on high-order spectral approximations. The use of a flat, stress-free model for the air/water interface is shown to be entirely satisfactory at least for moderate Reynolds numbers. A particular interest of these results is to show how the bubble related to the vortex breakdown becomes attached to the free-surface and grows in diameter as the Reynolds number is increased, Re ≥ 2900. Such a phenomenon removes the cylindrical vortex core upstream of the breakdown which is usually included in classical theories based on idealized models of vortex flows. The flow is shown to be unstable to three-dimensional perturbations for sufficiently large rotation rates. The bifurcated state takes the form of a k = 3 rotating wave at Re = 3000. The existence of the free-surface promotes the onset of periodicity, with a critical Reynolds number about 15% lower than in the case with a rigid cover. Moreover, the successive bifurcations occur over a much shorter range of Reynolds numbers and lead rapidly to a multi-frequency regime with more than five different frequencies. In the unsteady regime, the vortex breakdown is characterized by an elongated, asymmetric recirculation zone, attached to the free-surface and precessing around the axis of the container. By increasing the rotation, the circular stagnation line on the free-surface takes a more irregular form and starts to move around the axis of the cylinder in the same sense as

  3. New distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V Lj; Gocic, S R; Stamenkovic, S N

    2006-01-01

    Two new distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen are reported in this paper. The Gaussian and Gauss-exponential distributions of statistical time delay have been obtained on the basis of thousands of time delay measurements on a gas tube with a plane-parallel electrode system. Distributions of the statistical time delay are theoretically founded on binomial distribution for the occurrence of initiating electrons and described by using simple analytical and numerical models. The shapes of distributions depend on the electron yields in the interelectrode space originating from residual states. It is shown that a distribution of the statistical time delay changes from exponential and Gauss-exponential to Gaussian distribution due to the influence of residual ionization

  4. Electric field-induced breakdown of the Mott insulating state in V2O3 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Justin; Gao, Li; Aetukuri, Nagaphani; Hughes, Brian; Rettner, Charles; Samant, Mahesh; Roche, Kevin; Parkin, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    The origin of the electric field-induced breakdown of the Mott insulating state in vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) nanostructures is of considerable interest. We have prepared high quality, epitaxial films of V2O3 on (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates by oxygen plasma-assisted thermal evaporation. Lateral, two-terminal nanostructures were patterned by electron beam lithography. The nanostructures displayed strong metal-to-insulator transitions upon cooling to below ~ 150 K. Modest voltages applied across the devices drive the films into a conducting state. We discuss the role of temperature, applied voltage, device size, and potential Joule heating effects on the switching process, as well as implications for the underlying mechanism involved.

  5. Scanning nuclear electric resonance microscopy using quantum-Hall-effect breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, K., E-mail: hashi@m.tohoku.ac.jp; Tomimatsu, T.; Shirai, S.; Taninaka, S.; Nagase, K.; Sato, K.; Hirayama, Y. [Graduate School of Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    We present a scanning nuclear-spin resonance (NSR) method that incorporates resistive detection with electric-field induced NSR locally excited by a scanning metallic probe. In the quantum-Hall effect breakdown regime, NSR intensity mapping at both the fundamental NSR frequency f{sub 75As} and twice the frequency 2f{sub 75As} demonstrates the capability to probe the distribution of nuclear polarization, particularly in a semiconductor quantum well. We find that f{sub 75As} NSR excitation drives not only local NSR but also spatially overlapped nonlocal NSR, which suppresses the maximum intensity of local NSR, while the 2f{sub 75As} NSR yields purely local excitation conferring a larger intensity.

  6. The validity of the general similarity law for electrical breakdown of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmokrovic, Predrag; Zivic, Tamara; Loncar, Boris; Vasic, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of the similarity law in cases of dc and pulse breakdown of gases. Geometrically similar systems insulated with SF 6 gas were used during experiments. It is shown that the similarity law is valid for dc breakdown voltage if the electron mean free path is included in geometrical parameters of the system, but not for pulse breakdown voltages. The explanation for this is the mechanism of the pulse discharge. The similarity law was expanded to take into account mechanisms of pulse breakdown initiation. Thus, the general similarity law is obtained, the validity of which in case of a pulse breakdown is established experimentally

  7. DC breakdown experiments with cobalt electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Descoeudres, Antoine; Nordlund, Kai

    2009-01-01

    RF accelerating structures of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) require a material capable of sustaining high electric field with a low breakdown rate and low induced damage. Because of the similarity of many aspects of DC and RF breakdown, a DC breakdown study is underway at CERN in order to test candidate materials and surface preparations, and have a better understanding of the breakdown mechanism under ultra-high vacuum in a simple setup. The conditioning speed, breakdown field and field enhancement factor of cobalt have been measured. The average breakdown field after conditioning reaches 615 MV/m, which places cobalt amongst the best materials tested so far. By comparison with results and properties of other metals, the high breakdown field of Co could be due to its high work function and maybe also to its hexagonal crystal structure. Geneva, Switzerland (June 2009) CLIC – Note – 875

  8. Multi-pulse scheme for laser-guided electrical breakdown of air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polynkin, Pavel

    2017-10-01

    Channeling an extended electrical breakdown of air by a laser beam is a long-standing challenge in applied laser science. Virtually all previously reported experiments on discharge channeling by femtosecond laser beams relied on the application of a single laser pulse and have been conducted with discharge gaps of less than one meter, in which case the direct ohmic heating of the laser-generated plasma by the applied DC electric field is the dominant channeling mechanism. We report a laboratory-scale demonstration of a channeling approach that makes use of concatenated plasma filaments produced by a sequence of multiple ultrashort laser pulses. Direct ohmic heating of the guiding channel is eliminated through the introduction of large temporal delays between the individual laser pulses in the pulse sequence. We propose an extension of this scheme to channeling kilometer-scale discharges, including natural lightning. Our proposed approach alleviates the fundamental range limitations inherent to the single-pulse schemes reported previously. It can channel discharges propagating in either direction and along curved paths.

  9. Remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for the detection and removal of salt on metal and polymeric surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, M; Grönlund, R; Lundqvist, M; Larsson, A; Kröll, S; Svanberg, S

    2006-10-01

    The detection of contamination such as salt in outdoor high-voltage insulator systems and its subsequent removal are vital for a reliable transmission of electric power. Remote detection of salt on a copper metal surface was carried out by using a mobile laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Lidar system with a laser wavelength of 355 nm. Detection of salt on a polymeric high-voltage insulator was obtained when an additional lens was inserted into the beam path, and the number of photons that was detected could be calculated by using a calibrated white light source. Ablative cleaning could readily be carried out with LIBS and was verified by observing the disappearance of the sodium D-line emission.

  10. LASER PLASMA: Experimental confirmation of the erosion origin of pulsed low-threshold surface optical breakdown of air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min'ko, L. Ya; Chumakou, A. N.; Chivel', Yu A.

    1988-08-01

    Nanosecond kinetic spectroscopy techniques were used to identify the erosion origin of pulsed low-threshold surface optical breakdown of air as a result of interaction of microsecond neodymium and CO2 laser pulses with some metals (indium, lead).

  11. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  12. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part I: Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of barrier position on breakdown voltage in air dielectric has been investigated. Needle and Cone positive point electrodes were used and the effects of electrode curvature on barrier position for maximum breakdown voltage were compared, with air gap for the point to plane electrode fixed at 10 cm for all the ...

  13. Electricity Breakdown Management for Sarawak Energy: Use of Condition-Based Equipment for Detection of Defective Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. K.; Abas, N.

    2017-07-01

    Managing electricity breakdown is vital since an outage causes economic losses for customers and the utility companies. However, electricity breakdown is unavoidable due to some internal or external factors beyond our control. Electricity breakdown on overhead lines tend occur more frequently because it is prone to external disturbances such as animal, overgrown vegetation and defective pole top accessories. In Sarawak Energy Berhad (SEB), majority of the network are composed of overhead lines and hence, is more prone to failure. Conventional method of equipment inspection and fault finding are not effective to quickly identify the root cause of failure. SEB has engaged the use of corona discharge camera as condition-based monitoring equipment to carry out condition based inspection on the line in order to diagnose the condition of the lines prior to failure. Experimental testing has been carried out to determine the correlation between the corona discharge count and the level of defect on line insulator. The result shall be tabulated and will be used as reference for future scanning and diagnostic on any defect on the lines.

  14. Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic function of the electrically conductive surface of electrical contacts is electrical conduction. The electrical conductivity of contact materials can be largely reduced by corrosion and in order to avoid corrosion, protective coatings must be used. Another phenomenon that leads to increasing contact resistance is fretting corrosion. Fretting corrosion is the degradation mechanism of surface material, which causes increasing contact resistance. Fretting corrosion occurs when there is a relative movement between electrical contacts with surfaces of ignoble metal. Avoiding fretting corrosion is therefore extremely challenging in electronic devices with pluggable electrical connections. Gold is one of the most commonly used noble plating materials for high performance electrical contacts because of its high corrosion resistance and its good and stable electrical behavior. The authors have investigated different ways to minimize the consumption of gold for electrical contacts and to improve the performance of gold plating. Other plating materials often used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces are tin, nickel, silver and palladium. This paper will deal with properties and new research results of different plating materials in addition to other means used for corrosion protection of electrically conductive surfaces and the testing of corrosion resistance of electrically conductive surfaces.

  15. Experimental research of electrical breakdown for water dielectric coaxial capacitor with microsecond charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinliang; Li Jijian; Chen Dongqun; Zhang Jiande; Li Yongzhong; Feng Jiahuai; Xu Liurong

    2003-01-01

    The experimental apparatus of coaxial water capacitor was set up in microsecond charging condition. Some experiments were done in this device, the voltage of breakdown of coaxial capacitor is measured with positive and negative pulse voltage to charge. Comparing the experimental results with the calculating results, the error of the negative breakdown-voltage is larger and the error of positive breakdown-voltage is less than about 20%. Furthermore, when the resistivity of the water drop to 5 MΩ·cm from 13 MΩ·cm, the breakdown-voltage of the coaxial water capacitor did not change approximately. The results of experiment are analyzed and are important in design of water dielectric Blumlein pulse forming line with microsecond charging

  16. Electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in air over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Baratte, Edmond; Zhang, Cheng; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field in nanosecond pulse discharges in ambient air is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing, with absolute calibration by a known electrostatic field. The measurements are done in two geometries, (a) the discharge between two parallel cylinder electrodes placed inside quartz tubes, and (b) the discharge between a razor edge electrode and distilled water surface. In the first case, breakdown field exceeds DC breakdown threshold by approximately a factor of four, 140 ± 10 kV cm-1. In the second case, electric field is measured for both positive and negative pulse polarities, with pulse durations of ˜10 ns and ˜100 ns, respectively. In the short duration, positive polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at 85 kV cm-1, after which the electric field decreases over several ns due to charge separation in the plasma, with no field reversal detected when the applied voltage is reduced. In a long duration, negative polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at a lower electric field, 30 kV cm-1, after which the field decays over several tens of ns and reverses direction when the applied voltage is reduced at the end of the pulse. For both pulse polarities, electric field after the pulse decays on a microsecond time scale, due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Measurements 1 mm away from the discharge center plane, ˜100 μm from the water surface, show that during the voltage rise, horizontal field component (Ex ) lags in time behind the vertical component (Ey ). After breakdown, Ey is reduced to near zero and reverses direction. Further away from the water surface (≈0.9 mm), Ex is much higher compared to Ey during the entire voltage pulse. The results provide insight into air plasma kinetics and charge transport processes near plasma-liquid interface, over a wide range of time scales.

  17. An investigation into the cumulative breakdown process of polymethylmethacrylate in quasi-uniform electric field under nanosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang; Cang Su, Jian; Bo Zhang, Xi; Feng Pan, Ya; Min Wang, Li; Peng Fang, Jin; Sun, Xu; Lui, Rui [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69 Branch 13, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2013-08-15

    A group of complete images on the discharge channel developed in PMMA in quasi-uniform electric field under nanosecond pulses are observed with an on-line transmission microscope. The characteristics of the cumulative breakdown process are also generalized, which include initiating from the vicinity of the cathode, developing to the anode with a branch-like shape, and taking on a wormhole appearance when final breakdown occurs. The concluded characteristics are explained by referring to the conceptions of “low density domain” and “free radical” and considering the initial discharge channel as a virtual needle. The characteristics are helpful for designers to enhance the lifetime of insulators employed on a nanosecond time scale.

  18. Ionization processes in a transient hollow cathode discharge before electric breakdown: statistical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M.; Favre, M.; Moreno, J.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Choi, P.

    1998-01-01

    The charge formation processes in a hollow cathode region (HCR) of transient hollow cathode discharge have been studied at the final phase. The statistical distribution that describe different processes of ionization have been represented by Gaussian distributions. Nevertheless, was observed a better representation of these distributions when the pressure is near a minimum value, just before breakdown

  19. On the electrical breakdown of gaseous dielectrics-an engineering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    the streamer criterion leads to applicable criteria for the onset of breakdown in air as well as in strongly electronegative gases. In this approach, a knowledge of the relevant ionization coefficients is not required, because these are replaced by parameters obtained from uniform-field Paschen curve data...

  20. On the electrical breakdown of gaseous dielectrics-an engineering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    from breakdown voltage measurements in a uniform field, i.e. from Paschen curve data. No specific data are required for the ionizing coefficients of the gas. The advantage, from an engineering point of view, is that it is much easier to perform reliable Paschen curve measurements than it is to measure...

  1. Selective Surface Sintering Using a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jull

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium metal injection molding allows creation of complex metal parts that are lightweight and biocompatible with reduced cost in comparison with machining titanium. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS can be used to create plasma on the surface of a sample to analyze its elemental composition. Repetitive ablation on the same site has been shown to create differences from the original sample. This study investigates the potential of LIBS for selective surface sintering of injection-molded titanium metal. The temperature created throughout the LIBS process on the surface of the injection-molded titanium is high enough to fuse together the titanium particles. Using the ratio of the Ti II 282.81 nm and the C I 247.86 nm lines, the effectiveness of repetitive plasma formation to produce sintering can be monitored during the process. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on the ablation craters confirms sintering through the reduction in carbon from 20.29 Wt.% to 2.13 Wt.%. Scanning electron microscope images confirm sintering. A conventional LIBS system, with a fixed distance, investigated laser parameters on injection-molded and injection-sintered titanium. To prove the feasibility of using this technique on a production line, a second LIBS system, with an autofocus and 3-axis translation stage, successfully sintered a sample with a nonplanar surface.

  2. Surface characterization of carbon fiber reinforced polymers by picosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rodolfo; Palmieri, Frank; Connell, John; Yost, William; Fitz-Gerald, James

    2018-02-01

    Adhesive bonding of composite materials requires reliable monitoring and detection of surface contaminants as part of a vigorous quality control process to assure robust and durable bonded structures. Surface treatment and effective monitoring prior to bonding are essential in order to obtain a surface which is free from contaminants that may lead to inferior bond quality. In this study, the focus is to advance the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique by using pulse energies below 100 μJ (μLIBS) for the detection of low levels of silicone contaminants in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Various CFRP surface conditions were investigated by LIBS using ∼10 ps, 355 nm laser pulses with pulse energies below 30 μJ. Time-resolved analysis was conducted to optimize the gate delay and gate width for the detection of the C I emission line at 247.9 nm to monitor the epoxy resin matrix of CFRP composites and the Si I emission line at 288.2 nm for detection of silicone contaminants in CFRP. To study the surface sensitivity to silicone contamination, CFRP surfaces were coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the active ingredient in many mold release agents. The presence of PDMS was studied by inspecting the Si I emission lines at 251.6 nm and 288.2 nm. The measured PDMS areal densities ranged from 0.15 to 2 μg/cm2. LIBS measurements were performed before and after laser surface ablation. The results demonstrate the successful detection of PDMS thin layers on CFRP using picosecond μLIBS.

  3. Voltage-stabilised elastomers with increased relative permittivity and high electrical breakdown strength by means of phase separating binary copolymer blends of silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Increased electrical breakdown strength and increased dielectric permittivity of silicone-based dielectric elastomers are achieved by means of the addition of so-called voltage-stabilisers prepared from PDMS–PPMS copolymers as well as PDMS–PEG copolymers in order to compensate for the negative...... effect of softness on electrical stability of silicone elastomers. The voltage-stabilised elastomer, incorporating a high-permittivity PDMS–PEG copolymer, possesses increased relative permittivity, high electrical breakdown strength, excellent network integrity and low dielectric loss and paves the way...

  4. Analysis of the silicone polymer surface aging profile with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilin; Hong, Xiao; Wang, Han; Chen, Can; Zhao, Chenlong; Jia, Zhidong; Wang, Liming; Zou, Lin

    2017-10-01

    Silicone rubber composite materials have been widely used in high voltage transmission lines for anti-pollution flashover. The aging surface of silicone rubber materials decreases service properties, causing loss of the anti-pollution ability. In this paper, as an analysis method requiring no sample preparation that is able to be conducted on site and suitable for nearly all types of materials, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for the analysis of newly prepared and aging (out of service) silicone rubber composites. With scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hydrophobicity test, LIBS was proven to be nearly non-destructive for silicone rubber. Under the same LIBS testing parameters, a linear relationship was observed between ablation depth and laser pulses number. With the emission spectra, all types of elements and their distribution in samples along the depth direction from the surface to the inner part were acquired and verified with EDS results. This research showed that LIBS was suitable to detect the aging layer depth and element distribution of the silicone rubber surface.

  5. Surface erosion by electrical arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss traces of cathode spots from electrical arcs observed on the vessel walls of high temperature plasma experiments. They originate from short metal plasma discharges which can be ignited at the walls due to the Langmuir sheath potential in front of the walls and thus the hydrogen plasma acts as the anode. The arcs may also be caused by electrical potentials which are created by gradients in the plasma, by plasma motion or during disruptive plasma phases. The material eroded from the walls at the cathode spots contributes to impurity introduction into the hydrogen plasma. Further arcing is a critical issue in high intensity ion sources and in RF transmitters and antennas for plasma heating

  6. A model of preliminary breakdown pulse peak currents and their relation to the observed electric-field pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpar, Petr; Santolík, Ondřej; Kolmašová, Ivana; Farges, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 596-603 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : lightning initiation * electromagnetic radiation * preliminary breakdown pulses Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL071483/pdf

  7. Surface electrical resistivity of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, B. C.; Liesegang, J.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented here for measuring surface charge decay, and theory has been developed so as to produce determinations of resistivity in the surface region of insulator films or wafers. This method incorporates the use of a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement and an electrometer interfaced to a PC. The charge transport theory given here is based on Mott-Gurney diffusion, and allows easy interpretation of the experimental data, especially for the initial phase of surface charge decay. Resistivity measurements are presented for glass, mica, perspex and polyethylene, covering a range of 10 9 to 10 18 Ωm, as an illustration of the useful range of the instrument for static and antistatic materials, particularly in film or sheet form. Values for the surface charge diffusion constants of the materials are also presented. The charge transport theory has also been extended to allow the experimental and computational theoretical comparison of surface charge decay not only over the initial phase of charge decay, but also over longer times. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with experiment using the values for the diffusion constants referred to above

  8. Electrical breakdown mechanism of cryogenic liquid coolants in the presence of thermal bubbles. Goku teion reibai ekitai no netsu kiho hakai kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, M.; Suehiro, J.; Nakamura, I.; Saita, K. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1991-04-20

    Investigation was made on a breakdown mechanism of a coolant under the simulated condition of a superconducting magnet coil at quenching. The breakdown mechanism was classified in the following 3 points. (1) For an abrupt pulse voltage with micro-second of rising length, the thermal bubbles do not deform, but a series complex insulating system of the gas phase and the liquid phase in the bubble is caused. (2) In the case of a slow rising electric field having a milli-second order rising length, breakdown is caused accompanying the deformation of floating bubbles in the liquid. (3) In the case of slow rising electric field having at least several tens milli-second rising length, bubbles grow from a hot spot and the breakdown is caused in the gas phase after the gap is suspended. The breakdown voltage at this time is near to the DC breakdown voltage of the saturated gas. The characteristics is directly connected to the deformation of heat bubbles when the voltage raising rate is changed in wide range. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Micro spatial analysis of seashell surface using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan; Li, Yuandong; Li, Ying [Optics and Optoelectronics Lab, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin [Life Science College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Zheng, Ronger, E-mail: rzheng@ouc.edu.cn [Optics and Optoelectronics Lab, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The seashell has been studied as a proxy for the marine researches since it is the biomineralization product recording the growth development and the ocean ecosystem evolution. In this work a hybrid of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy was introduced to the composition analysis of seashell (scallop, bivalve, Zhikong). Without any sample treatment, the compositional distribution of the shell was obtained using LIBS for the element detection and Raman for the molecule recognition respectively. The elements Ca, K, Li, Mg, Mn and Sr were recognized by LIBS; the molecule carotene and carbonate were identified with Raman. It was found that the LIBS detection result was more related to the shell growth than the detection result of Raman. The obtained result suggested the shell growth might be developing in both horizontal and vertical directions. It was indicated that the LIBS–Raman combination could be an alternative way for the shell researches. - Highlights: • A LIBS–Raman hybrid system was developed. • A seashell has been analyzed for the elementary and molecular distribution with a system. • The shell growth development was studied on the surface and in the depth.

  10. Current conduction mechanism and electrical break-down in InN grown on GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmik, J.; Fleury, C.; Adikimenakis, A.; Gregušová, D.; Ťapajna, M.; Dobročka, E.; Haščík, Š.; Kučera, M.; Kúdela, R.; Androulidaki, M.; Pogany, D.; Georgakilas, A.

    2017-06-01

    Current conduction mechanism, including electron mobility, electron drift velocity (vd) and electrical break-down have been investigated in a 0.5 μm-thick (0001) InN layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on a GaN/sapphire template. Electron mobility (μ) of 1040 cm2/Vs and a free electron concentration (n) of 2.1 × 1018 cm-3 were measured at room temperature with only a limited change down to 20 K, suggesting scattering on dislocations and ionized impurities. Photoluminescence spectra and high-resolution X-ray diffraction correlated with the Hall experiment showing an emission peak at 0.69 eV, a full-width half-maximum of 30 meV, and a dislocation density Ndis ˜ 5.6 × 1010 cm-2. Current-voltage (I-V) characterization was done in a pulsed (10 ns-width) mode on InN resistors prepared by plasma processing and Ohmic contacts evaporation. Resistors with a different channel length ranging from 4 to 15.8 μm obeyed the Ohm law up to an electric field intensity Eknee ˜ 22 kV/cm, when vd ≥ 2.5 × 105 m/s. For higher E, I-V curves were nonlinear and evolved with time. Light emission with a photon energy > 0.7 eV has been observed already at modest Erad of ˜ 8.3 kV/cm and consequently, a trap-assisted interband tunneling was suggested to play a role. At Eknee ˜ 22 kV/cm, we assumed electron emission from traps, with a positive feed-back for the current enhancement. Catastrophic break-down appeared at E ˜ 25 kV/cm. Reduction of Ndis was suggested to fully exploit InN unique prospects for future high-frequency devices.

  11. Mechanism of electrical breakdown of gases for pressures from 10-9 to 1 bar and inter-electrode gaps from 0.1 to 0.5 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmokrovic, P; Vujisic, M; Stankovic, K; Vasic, A; Loncar, B

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the mechanisms of gas breakdown at low values of pressure and inter-electrode gap, i.e. in the vicinity of the Paschen minimum. In this area of pressure and inter-electrode gap values, breakdown occurs either through gas or vacuum mechanisms, and also the so called anomalous Paschen effect appears. Electrical breakdown of electropositive, electronegative and noble gases has been investigated theoretically, experimentally and numerically. Based on the results obtained, regions in which particular breakdown mechanisms appear have been demarcated. Special attention has been devoted to the anomalous Paschen effect as well as to the avalanche vacuum breakdown mechanism

  12. On the electric breakdown field of the mesosphere and the influence of electron detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    that the threshold field decreases with time and can reach values well below the conventional threshold field. The concept of a fixed threshold field therefore itself breaks down. We find that the growth rate decreases with decreasing electric field and that long exposure time of electric fields therefore is needed......It has been suggested recently that electron associative detachment from negative atomic oxygen ions provides an additional source of free electrons in electric discharges of the mesosphere, the sprites, and gigantic jets. Here we study attachment under some simplifying assumptions and show...... for electron avalanches to grow. Detachment is likely to affect the conductivity of streamer filaments and other long-lasting space charge structures like gigantic jets or the ionization state of the mesosphere when illuminated by thunderstorm fields. Detachment by itself does not directly affect small...

  13. Study of n-on-p sensors breakdown in presence of dielectrics placed on top surface

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Cole Michael; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Upgrade strip module design has readout flex circuits glued directly on top of the sensors’ active area to facilitate the assembly process and minimize the radiation length. The process requires radiation-hard adhesives compatible with the sensor technology. We report on the studies of the breakdown behavior with miniature versions of the prototype sensors, where candidate adhesives were placed in several locations on top of the sensor, including the strip area, guard ring region, and sensor edge. Thermal cycling tends to attenuate the observed cases of breakdown with glue on top of the guard ring. Glue reaching the sensor edge results in low breakdown voltage if it also covers AC- or DC- pads or bias ring openings. Glue placement on top of guard ring region was performed on a large-format sensor, with generally similar results to the miniature sensor tests, except for a large glue deposition, which resulted in a permanent reduction of the breakdown voltage. Post-irradiation measurements were perf...

  14. Simulation of pre-breakdown phase of electrical discharge in reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, N. S.; Yudin, A. S.; Voitenko, N. V.

    2017-05-01

    The application of an electrical discharge technology for destructive recycling of the reinforced concrete is considered. Its main advantages, in comparison with the mechanical methods, are that the electrical discharge channel acting as a rock-breaking tool has an unlimited service life, and a lifetime of the electrode systems is much higher. The physical and mathematical model of the discharge development is described. The simulation results have shown that the discharge channel propagation velocity and the trajectory depend on the reinforcement locality and the voltage amplitude. The voltage affects the average speed of the discharge structure development which can reach the value of up to υ=5·103 m/s. It is also shown that the reinforcing elements located between the electrodes attract the growing discharge structure. The lower the distance between the vertical axis of the high voltage electrode and the metal reinforcement position, the more probability of the discharge channel orientation towards this element.

  15. Kinetic parameters, collision rates, energy exchanges and transport coefficients of non-thermal electrons in premixed flames at sub-breakdown electric field strengths

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-02

    The effects of an electric field on the collision rates, energy exchanges and transport properties of electrons in premixed flames are investigated via solutions to the Boltzmann kinetic equation. The case of high electric field strength, which results in high-energy, non-thermal electrons, is analysed in detail at sub-breakdown conditions. The rates of inelastic collisions and the energy exchange between electrons and neutrals in the reaction zone of the flame are characterised quantitatively. The analysis includes attachment, ionisation, impact dissociation, and vibrational and electronic excitation processes. Our results suggest that Townsend breakdown occurs for E/N = 140 Td. Vibrational excitation is the dominant process up to breakdown, despite important rates of electronic excitation of CO, CO2 and N2 as well as impact dissociation of O2 being apparent from 50 Td onwards. Ohmic heating in the reaction zone is found to be negligible (less than 2% of peak heat release rate) up to breakdown field strengths for realistic electron densities equal to 1010 cm-3. The observed trends are largely independent of equivalence ratio. In the non-thermal regime, electron transport coefficients are insensitive to mixture composition and approximately constant across the flame, but are highly dependent on the electric field strength. In the thermal limit, kinetic parameters and transport coefficients vary substantially across the flame due to the spatially inhomogeneous concentration of water vapour. A practical approach for identifying the plasma regime (thermal versus non-thermal) in studies of electric field effects on flames is proposed. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  16. Analysis of the modulation mechanisms of the electric field and breakdown performance in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a T-shaped field-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; Fan Ju-Sheng; Du Ming; Zhang Jin-Feng; Zheng Xue-Feng; Wang Chong; Ma Xiao-Hua; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Hao Yue

    2016-01-01

    A novel AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a source-connected T-shaped field-plate (ST-FP HEMT) is proposed for the first time in this paper. The source-connected T-shaped field-plate (ST-FP) is composed of a source-connected field-plate (S-FP) and a trench metal. The physical intrinsic mechanisms of the ST-FP to improve the breakdown voltage and the FP efficiency and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are studied in detail by means of two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. A comparison to the HEMT and the HEMT with an S-FP (S-FP HEMT) shows that the ST-FP HEMT could achieve a broader and more uniform channel electric field distribution with the help of a trench metal, which could increase the breakdown voltage and the FP efficiency remarkably. In addition, the relationship between the structure of the ST-FP, the channel electric field, the breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in ST-FP HEMT is analyzed. These results could open up a new effective method to fabricate high voltage power devices for the power electronic applications. (paper)

  17. Analysis of the modulation mechanisms of the electric field and breakdown performance in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with a T-shaped field-plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Fan, Ju-Sheng; Du, Ming; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Wang, Chong; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue

    2016-12-01

    A novel AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a source-connected T-shaped field-plate (ST-FP HEMT) is proposed for the first time in this paper. The source-connected T-shaped field-plate (ST-FP) is composed of a source-connected field-plate (S-FP) and a trench metal. The physical intrinsic mechanisms of the ST-FP to improve the breakdown voltage and the FP efficiency and to modulate the distributions of channel electric field and potential are studied in detail by means of two-dimensional numerical simulations with Silvaco-ATLAS. A comparison to the HEMT and the HEMT with an S-FP (S-FP HEMT) shows that the ST-FP HEMT could achieve a broader and more uniform channel electric field distribution with the help of a trench metal, which could increase the breakdown voltage and the FP efficiency remarkably. In addition, the relationship between the structure of the ST-FP, the channel electric field, the breakdown voltage as well as the FP efficiency in ST-FP HEMT is analyzed. These results could open up a new effective method to fabricate high voltage power devices for the power electronic applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574112, 61334002, 61306017, 61474091, and 61574110) and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 605119425012).

  18. Study of n-on-p sensors breakdown in presence of dielectrics placed on top surface

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, Tony; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment at LHC will have several upgrade projects for High Luminosity LHC operations. Its tracking system will be replaced to cope with the higher interaction rate and radiation levels. The Strip portion of the tracker will be significantly expanded in radius and instrumented area to control the occupancy and momentum resolution. The strip modules are based on large-area n-on-p sensors with short strips, designed to work with the larger particle fluxes and radiation hardness requirements. The strip module design has readout flex circuit glued directly on top of the sensors’ active area to facilitate the assembly process and minimize the radiation length. Adhesive spread outward to the guard ring (GR) region is typically avoided to control the sensor breakdown. However, due to the large number of modules to be constructed, on the order of 20000, such occasions may in principle happen, depending on the process precision control. Therefore, the adhesive influence on the sensor breakdown and the br...

  19. Repeatable change in electrical resistance of Si surface by mechanical and electrical nanoprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Shojiro; Suzuki, Shota

    2014-01-01

    The properties of mechanically and electrically processed silicon surfaces were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon specimens were processed using an electrically conductive diamond tip with and without vibration. After the electrical processing, protuberances were generated and the electric current through the silicon surface decreased because of local anodic oxidation. Grooves were formed by mechanical processing without vibration, and the electric current increased. In contrast, mechanical processing with vibration caused the surface to protuberate and the electrical resistance increased similar to that observed for electrical processing. With sequential processing, the local oxide layer formed by electrical processing can be removed by mechanical processing using the same tip without vibration. Although the electrical resistance is decreased by the mechanical processing without vibration, additional electrical processing on the mechanically processed area further increases the electrical resistance of the surface.

  20. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    storm current generators, through the ionosphere, and down to the Earth's surface in the fair ... Atmospheric electric field; magnetic storm; magnetosphere; ionosphere; global electrical circuit. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124, No. 8, December ... electrical conductivity of the ice surface is in sev- eral orders of magnitude higher than that ...

  1. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  2. Breakdown, fractoemission, diffusion: role of defects in dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigouroux, J.P.; Serruys, Y.

    1987-01-01

    During the surface analysis of dielectric materials, the impinging ionising particles induce point defects localised in the band gap and build an electrical charge. The electric field created by the charged defects modifies the physico-chemical properties of surface and bulk. We show that the fundamental study of defects allows a better understanding of technological phenomena such as dielectric breakdown, fracture and diffusion [fr

  3. Lunar electric fields, surface potential and associated plasma sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J. W.; Ibrahim, M.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of studies of the electric-field environment of the moon. Surface electric potentials are reported for the dayside and terminator regions, electron and ion densities in the plasma sheath adjacent to each surface-potential regime are evaluated, and the corresponding Debye lengths are estimated. The electric fields, which are approximated by the surface potential over the Debye length, are shown to be at least three orders of magnitude higher than the pervasive solar-wind electric field and to be confined to within a few tens of meters of the lunar surface.

  4. Low temperature motion of hydrogen on metal surfaces signals breakdown of quantum mechanics in 3+1 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakova, D.; Doyen, G.

    2013-06-01

    The low temperature motion of hydrogen on solid metal surfaces displays some unexplained experimental features: in the quantum diffusion regime more than nine orders of magnitude difference between the diffusion rates on different metal surfaces have been measured, the lowest diffusion rates being established in the low temperature scanning tunnelling microscope. Furthermore telegraph-signal-like adsorption site change, rather than Rabi oscillations predicted by Schrödinger equation in 3+1 dimensions, is observed, signaling the breakdown of quantum mechanics in 3+1 dimensions. A theory is presented to resolve these problems, involving the entanglement of the adsorbate motion to gravitons in high-dimensional spacetime. Soft local massive gravonons, induced in the presence of the adsorbate, determine the time scale for surface diffusion. The γη-model is used for the evaluation of the soft gravonon modes. Weak and local entanglement of the adsorbate motion with a nearly degenerate graviton continuum of high density of states are the conditions for the telegraph-signal-like time development of adsorption site change. In contrast to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, this apparent "classical" behaviour of the adsorbate in 3+1 dimensional spacetime is the result of the solution of Schrödinger's time dependent equation in high-dimensional spacetime.

  5. Surrogate measurement of chlorine concentration on steel surfaces by alkali element detection via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Le Berre, S.; Hartig, K. C.; Motta, A. T.; Jovanovic, I.

    2017-04-01

    Chlorine can play an important role in the process of stress corrosion cracking of dry cask storage canisters for used nuclear fuel, which are frequently located in marine environments. It is of significant interest to determine the surface concentration of chlorine on the stainless steel canister surface, but measurements are often limited by difficult access and challenging conditions, such as high temperature and high radiation fields. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) could enable chlorine concentration measurements while meeting the other constraints of this application, but suffers from high excitation energy of chlorine and the interference of the atomic emission lines of iron, thus limiting the sensitivity of detection, especially when LIBS has to be delivered over an optical fiber. We demonstrate that chlorine surface concentrations in the range of 0.5-100 mg/m2 can be inferred by the detection and quantification of sodium contained in chlorine salts if the speciation and neutralization of salts are not of major concern, whereas minor components of sea salt such as magnesium and potassium are less attractive as surrogates for chlorine due to the lower sensitivity of LIBS for their detection and quantification. The limit of detection, measurement accuracy, and other features and limitations of this surrogate measurement approach are discussed.

  6. Formation of ball streamers at a subnanosecond breakdown of gases at a high pressure in a nonuniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloplotov, D. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Sorokin, D. A.; Lomaev, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The formation of a diffuse discharge plasma at a subnanosecond breakdown of a "cone-plane" gap filled with air, nitrogen, methane, hydrogen, argon, neon, and helium at various pressures has been studied. Nanosecond negative and positive voltage pulses have been applied to the conical electrode. The experimental data on the dynamics of plasma glow at the stage of formation and propagation of a streamer have been obtained with intensified charge-coupled device and streak cameras. It has been found that the formation of ball streamers is observed in all gases and at both polarities. A supershort avalanche electron beam has been detected behind the flat foil electrode in a wide range of pressures in the case of a negatively charged conical electrode. A mechanism of the formation of streamers at breakdown of various gases at high overvoltages has been discussed.

  7. Topology of vortex Breakdown bubbles in a cylinder with rotating bottom and Free surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2001-01-01

    The flow patterns in the steady, viscous flow in a cylinder with a rotating bottom and a free surface are investigated by a combination of topological and numerical methods. Assuming the flow is axisymmetric, we derive a list of possible bifurcations of streamline structures on varying two parame...

  8. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 8. Variation of surface electric field ... Diurnal variation of surface electric field measured at Maitri shows a similar variation with worldwide thunderstorm activity, whereas the departure of the field is observed during disturbed periods. This part of the field ...

  9. Dielectric breakdown in AlO{sub x} tunnelling barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D M; Carara, M; Schelp, L F; Dorneles, L S [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria 97105-900, RS (Brazil); Fichtner, P F P, E-mail: lsdorneles@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Fisica, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Caixa Postal 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil)

    2011-04-06

    We studied the dielectric breakdown in tunnelling barriers produced by plasma-assisted oxidation of an aluminium surface. The barrier mean height, thickness and the effective tunnelling area were extracted from current versus voltage curves measured at room temperature. The effective tunnelling area ranged from 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}, corresponding to less than 1% of the geometrical surface of the samples. The estimated electrical field to breakdown agreed with predictions from thermochemical models, and decreased exponentially with the effective tunnelling area.

  10. Miniaturized Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for the in-situ analysis of the Martian surface: Calibration and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, I.; Jessberger, E.K.; Pavlov, S.G.; Huebers, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    We report on our ongoing studies to develop Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for planetary surface missions to Mars and other planets and moons, like Jupiter's moon Europa or the Earth's moon. Since instruments for space missions are severely mass restricted, we are developing a light-weight miniaturized close-up LIBS instrument to be installed on a lander or rover for the in-situ geochemical analysis of planetary surface rocks and coarse fines. The total mass of the instrument will be ∼ 1 kg in flight configuration. Here we report on a systematic performance study of a LIBS instrument equipped with a prototype laser of 216 g total mass and an energy of 1.8 mJ. The LIBS measurements with the prototype laser and the comparative measurements with a regular 40 mJ laboratory laser were both performed under Martian atmospheric conditions. We calibrated 14 major and minor elements by analyzing 18 natural samples of certified composition. The calibration curves define the limits of detection that are > 5 ppm for the lab laser and > 400 ppm for the prototype laser, reflecting the different analyzed sample masses of ∼ 20 μg and ∼ 2 μg, respectively. To test the accuracy we compared the LIBS compositions, determined with both lasers, of Mars analogue rocks with certified or independently measured compositions and found agreements typically within 10-20%. In addition we verified that dust coverage is effectively removed from rock surfaces by the laser blast. Our study clearly demonstrates that a close-up LIBS instrument (spot size ∼ 50 μm) will decisively enhance the scientific output of planetary lander missions by providing a very large number of microscopic elemental analyses.

  11. Surface modification of steels by electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastev, D.; Paunov, V.; Yordanov, B.; Lazarova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In this work are discussed some experimental data about the influence of applied electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte on the surface structure of steels. The electrical discharge treatment of steel surface in electrolyte gives a modified structure with specific combination of characteristics in result of nonequilibrium transformations. The modification goes by a high energy thermal process in a very small volume on the metallic surface involving melting, vaporisation, activation and alloying in electrical discharges, and after that cooling of this surface with high rate in the electrolyte. The surface layers obtain a different structure in comparison with the metal matrix and are with higher hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. key words: surface modification, electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte, steels

  12. Surface states in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steslicka, M.

    1975-10-01

    Under conditions typical for field ion microscopy, true surface states can exist. Their shift towards higher energies can be quite significant and, moreover, additional surface levels at still higher energies can appear. The latter can play an important role in the process of tunneling of image gas electrons into surface states

  13. The electric potential of the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, M. A.; Freeman, J. W., Jr.; Hills, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Acceleration and detection of the lunar thermal ionosphere in the presence of the lunar electric field yields a value of at least +10 V for the lunar electric potential for solar zenith angles between approximately 20 and 45 deg and in the magnetosheath or solar wind. An enhanced positive ion flux is observed with the ALSEP Suprathermal Ion Detector when a pre-acceleration voltage attains certain values. This enhancement is greater when the moon is in the solar wind as opposed to the magnetosheath.

  14. Beauty in the Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Most human beings look at erosion as the destruction of a surface, but artists can see that erosion often creates indefinable beauty. Where do you see beauty in the breakdown? In this article, the author presents an innovative lesson that would allow students to observe both human and physical nature. In this activity students will create a work…

  15. Breakdown voltage at the electric terminals of GCFR-core flow test loop fuel rod simulators in helium and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, W.R.; Conley, T.B.

    1979-12-01

    Tests were performed to determine the ac and dc breakdown voltage at the terminal ends of a fuel rod simulator (FRS) in helium and air atmospheres. The tests were performed at low pressures (1 to 2 atm) and at temperatures from 20 to 350 0 C (68 to 660 0 F). The area of concern was the 0.64-mm (0.025-in.) gap between the coaxial conductor of the FRS and the sheaths of the four internal thermocouples as they exit the FRS. The tests were prformed to ensure a sufficient safety margin during Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) operations that require potentials up to 350 V ac at the FRS terminals. The primary conclusion from the test results is that the CFTL cannot be operated safely if the terminal ends of the FRSs are surrounded by a helium atmosphere but can be operated safely in air

  16. Breakdown voltage at the electric terminals of GCFR-core flow test loop fuel rod simulators in helium and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, W.R.; Conley, T.B.

    1979-12-01

    Tests were performed to determine the ac and dc breakdown voltage at the terminal ends of a fuel rod simulator (FRS) in helium and air atmospheres. The tests were performed at low pressures (1 to 2 atm) and at temperatures from 20 to 350/sup 0/C (68 to 660/sup 0/F). The area of concern was the 0.64-mm (0.025-in.) gap between the coaxial conductor of the FRS and the sheaths of the four internal thermocouples as they exit the FRS. The tests were prformed to ensure a sufficient safety margin during Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) operations that require potentials up to 350 V ac at the FRS terminals. The primary conclusion from the test results is that the CFTL cannot be operated safely if the terminal ends of the FRSs are surrounded by a helium atmosphere but can be operated safely in air.

  17. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  18. High-performance thin-film-transistors based on semiconducting-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes processed by electrical-breakdown strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1" è" r" e Avenue, Val d’Or, Québec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Habib, M.A. [Computer Sciences and Engineering Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Abdul-Hafidh, E.H. [High Energy Physics Department, Yanbu University College, P.O. Box 30031 (Saudi Arabia); Rosei, F. [Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We selectively burn metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) by electrical breakdown. • We successfully achieve a semiconducting enriched-SWCNT in TFT configuration. • High performance, like On/Off of 10{sup 5} and a subthreshold swing of 165 mV/decades were obtained. • After PMMA coating, the SWCNT–TFTs were found stables for more than 4 months. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, among remarkable variety of nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) remain the most intriguing and uniquely well suited materials for applications in high-performance electronics. The most advanced technologies require the ability to form purely semiconducting SWCNTs. Here, we report on our strategy based on the well known progressive electrical breakdown process that offer this capability and serves as highly efficient means for selectively removing metallic carbon nanotubes from electronically heterogeneous random networks, deposited on silicon substrates in a thin film transistor (TFT) configuration. We demonstrate the successful achievement of semiconducting enriched-SWCNT networks in TFT scheme that reach On/Off switching ratios of ∼100,000, on-conductance of 20 μS, and a subthreshold swing of less than 165 mV/decades. The obtained TFT devices were then protected with thin film poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to keep the percolation level of the SWCNTs network spatially and temporally stable, while protecting it from atmosphere exchanges. TFT devices were found to be air-stable and maintained their excellent characteristics in ambient atmosphere for more than 4 months. This approach could work as a platform for future nanotube-based nanoelectronics.

  19. Ionic surface electrical conductivity in sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Paul W. J.; Meredith, Philip G.; Sammonds, Peter R.; Murrell, Stanley A. F.

    1994-11-01

    Recent analyses of complex conductivity measurements have indicated that high-frequency dispersions encountered in rocks saturated with low-salinity fluids are due to ionic surface conduction and that the form of these dispersions may be dependent upon the nature of the pore and crack surfaces within the rock (Ruffet et al., 1991). Unfortunately, the mechanisms of surface conduction are not well understood, and no model based on rigorous physical principles exists. This paper is split into two parts: an experimental section followed by the development of a theoretical description of adsorption of ions onto mineral surfaces. We have made complex conductivity measurements upon samples of sandstone saturated with a range of different types and concentrations of aqueous solution with a frequency range of 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The frequency dependence of complex conductivity was analyzed using the empirical model of Cole and Cole (1941). The 'fractal' surface models of Le Mehaute and Crepy (1983), Po Zen Wong (1987), the Ruffet el at. (1991) were used to calculate apparent fractal pore surface dimensions for samples saturated with different solution types and concentrations. These showed a pronounced decrease of apparent fractal surface dimension with decreasing electrolyte concentration and a decrease of apparent fractal dimension with increasing relative ionic radius of the dominant cation in solution. A model for ionic surface concentration (ISCOM I) has been developed as the first step in producing a rigorous physicochemical model of surface conduction in quartz-dominated rocks. The results from ISCOM I show that quartz surfaces are overwhelmingly dominated by adsorbed Na(+) when saturated with NaCl solutions of salinities and pH found in actual geological situations. ISCOM I also shows that the concentration threshold for dominance of surface conduction over bulk conduction is aided by depletion of ions from the bulk fluid as a result of their adsorption onto the mineral

  20. The nature of dielectric breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Tung, C. H.; Pey, K. L.

    2008-08-01

    Dielectric breakdown is the process of local materials transiting from insulating to conductive when the dielectric is submerged in a high external electric field environment. We show that the atomistic changes of the chemical bonding in a nanoscale breakdown path are extensive and irreversible. Oxygen atoms in dielectric SiO2 are washed out with substoichiometric silicon oxide (SiOx with x <2) formation, and local energy gap lowering with intermediate bonding state of silicon atoms (Si1+, Si2+, and Si3+) in the percolation leakage path. Oxygen deficiency within the breakdown path is estimated to be as high as 50%-60%.

  1. Effect of anode material on the breakdown in low-pressure helium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.; Miles, J. A.; Tolson, B. A.

    2017-10-01

    The electric breakdown of gases is one of the fundamental phenomena of gas discharge physics. It has been studied for a long time but still attracts incessant interest of researchers. Besides the interesting physics, breakdown is important for many applications including development of reliable electric insulation in electric grids and the study of different aspects of gas discharge physics. In this work an experimental study of the electric breakdown in helium gas for the plane-parallel electrode configuration has been conducted using a copper cathode and a variety of anode materials: copper, aluminum, stainless steel, graphite, platinum-plated aluminum and gold-plated aluminum. According to the Paschen law for studied electrode configuration, the breakdown voltage is a function of the product of gas pressure and inter-electrode gap. The breakdown processes on the left, lower pressure side of the Paschen curve have been the subject of this investigation. For those pressures, the Paschen curve may become multi-valued, where any given pressure corresponds to three breakdown voltage values. It was experimentally demonstrated that the form of the Paschen curve might strongly depend on the material of the anode and the cleanness of the anode surface. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that electrons streaming from the cathode are reflected by the surface of the anode.

  2. Experimental study of femtosecond laser-stimulated electrical discharges in small gaps and surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Farson, D. F.; Rokhlin, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    Femtosecond laser-stimulated discharges in nanoscale and microscale gaps between etched nanoprobe tip cathodes and gold film anodes with applied dc potential were experimentally studied to define parameter ranges for their controlled formation and resulting surface modifications. For appropriate values of gap length, applied potential, and laser irradiance, breakdown discharges could be reliably stimulated by femtosecond laser pulses and the mean breakdown field was approximately an order of magnitude smaller than for breakdown without laser stimulation. For 500 nm gaps, discharges were observed for applied potentials as small as 20 V and controllable gold film surface melting was detected for applied potential of 27.5 V. Minor cathode tip ablation could be observed for femtosecond laser pulses that reliably stimulated discharges, suggesting that cathode material played an important role in stimulation of breakdown discharges in nanoscale gaps. Surface melting produced features as small as 60 nm on gold film when discharge current was limited by 1 MΩ series resistor

  3. Electrical Excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, R.V.A. van

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon polariton (SPP) is an electromagnetic wave propagating at the interface between a metal and a dielectric material. The two-dimensional confinement of SPPs and the tunability of their dispersion enable optical functionality that cannot be achieved with regular dielectrics. Several

  4. Electric fields associated with transient surface currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1992-01-01

    The boundary condition to be fulfilled by the potential functions associated with a transient surface current is derived and expressed in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates. From the analysis, it can be deduced that the use of the method of separation of variables is restricted to three ...

  5. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Measurements of electron avalanche formation time in W-band microwave air breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2011-08-01

    We present measurements of formation times of electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of gas, with no nearby surfaces or objects. When the incident field amplitude is near the breakdown threshold for pulsed conditions, measured formation times are ˜0.1-2 μs over the pressure range 5-700 Torr. Combined with electric field breakdown threshold measurements, the formation time data shows the agreement of 110 GHz air breakdown with the similarity laws of gas discharges.

  7. Measurements of electron avalanche formation time in W-band microwave air breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of formation times of electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of gas, with no nearby surfaces or objects. When the incident field amplitude is near the breakdown threshold for pulsed conditions, measured formation times are ∼0.1-2 μs over the pressure range 5-700 Torr. Combined with electric field breakdown threshold measurements, the formation time data shows the agreement of 110 GHz air breakdown with the similarity laws of gas discharges.

  8. A three-dimensional breakdown model of SOI lateral power transistors with a circular layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yufeng; Wang Zhigong; Sheu Gene

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical three-dimensional breakdown model of SOI lateral power devices with a circular layout. The Poisson equation is solved in cylindrical coordinates to obtain the radial surface potential and electric field distributions for both fully- and partially-depleted drift regions. The breakdown voltages for N + N and P + N junctions are derived and employed to investigate the impact of cathode region curvature. A modified RESURF criterion is proposed to provide a design guideline for optimizing the breakdown voltage and doping concentration in the drift region in three dimensional space. The analytical results agree well with MEDICI simulation results and experimental data from earlier publications. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Streamer discharge inception in a sub-breakdown electric field from a dielectric body with a frequency dependent dielectric permittivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. A. Dubinova (Anna); C. Rutjes (Casper); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study positive streamer inception from the tip of an elongated ice particle. The dielectric permittivity of ice drops from 93 to 3 for electric fields changing on the millisecond timescale [1]. We demonstrate that this effect can be important on the nanosecond time scale of

  10. Breakdown resistance of refractory metals compared to copper

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M; Kildemo, M

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of Mo, W and Cu with respect to electrical breakdown in ultra high vacuum has been investigated by means of a capacitor discharge method. The maximum stable electric field without breakdown and the field enhancement factor, beta have been measured between electrodes of the same material in a sphere/plane geometry for anode and cathode, respectively. The maximum stable field increases as a function of the number of breakdown events for W and Mo. In contrast, no systematic increase is observed for Cu. The highest values obtained are typically 500 MV/m for W, 350 MV/m for Mo and only 180 MV/m for Cu. This conditioning, found for the refractory metals, corresponds to a simultaneous decrease of beta and is therefore related to the field emission properties of the surface and their modification upon sparking. Accordingly, high beta values and no applicable field increase occur for Cu even after repeated breakdown. The results are compared with RF breakdown experiments [1] performed on prototype 30 GHz...

  11. Gas breakdown in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Pogutse, O.P.; Yurchenko, Eh.I.

    1975-01-01

    The initial stage of the charge development in a tokomak is considered theoretically. It is supposed that all electrons produced in neutral gas ionisation process are in the regime of an almost continuous acceleration. The production time of a given electron density is calculated as a function of the neutral gas density and of parameters of the vortex electric field. The mechanism of plasma escape on walls is considered. It is shown that the escaping time is defined by a specific inertial flow of plasma and depends on whether chamber walls are metal or dielectric. The criterion of the gas breakdown in a toroidal system is formulated. The developed theory is shown to explain a strong dependence of the breakdown on the gas initial density [ru

  12. 3D electric field calculation with surface charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an outline and some examples of three dimensional electric field calculations with a computer code developed at NIRS. In the code, a surface charge method is adopted because of it's simplicity in the mesh establishing procedure. The charge density in a triangular mesh is assumed to distribute with a linear function of the position. The electric field distribution is calculated for a pair of drift tubes with the focusing fingers on the opposing surfaces. The field distribution in an acceleration gap is analyzed with a Fourier-Bessel series expansion method. The calculated results excellently reproduces the measured data with a magnetic model. (author)

  13. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  14. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Mechanism of energy transfer from an optical-breakdown plasma to a metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, E. A.; Kovalev, A. S.; Popov, Aleksandr M.; Seleznev, B. V.

    1990-03-01

    A two-dimensional theoretical model is developed for the description of the transfer of energy from a surface-breakdown plasma, maintained by CO2 laser radiation, to a target. An investigation is reported of the efficiency of the interaction of laser radiation with a target as a function of the radiation intensity and spot size. A strong localization of the laser interaction is shown to be due to a heat-conduction energy flux, whereas the energy deposited outside the irradiation spot is due to radiative energy transfer at ultraviolet frequencies.

  15. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of surface breakdown on the process of drilling metals with pulsed CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, R. V.; Baranov, V. Yu; Bobkov, I. V.; Bol'shov, Leonid A.; Dolgov, V. A.; Kanevskiĭ, M. F.; Malyuta, D. D.; Mezhevov, V. S.

    1988-03-01

    A report is given of the influence of low-threshold surface optical breakdown, occurring under the action of short (~ 5-μs) radiation pulses from a CO2 laser, on the process of the laser drilling of metals. Data are given on the difference between the interaction of radiation pulses having the same duration but differing in shape. A study was made of the influence of the pressure of the atmosphere surrounding a target on the results of laser drilling of metals. A theoretical explanation is given of the experimental results.

  16. Changes of Surface Electric Potential of Bones Depending on Their Age

    OpenAIRE

    Freimanis, E; Dehtjars, J; Vendiņa, V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine how surface electric potential of bones changes with their age and how it correlates with mechanical properties of bones. Surface electric potential was measured in 6 cross-sectional zones of the tibia. Changes of bones surface electric potential with age were determined and correlations between surface electric potential and mechanical properties were derived.

  17. Effect of anode material on the breakdown in low-pressure helium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S. F.; Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.; Miles, J. A.; Tolson, B. A.

    2017-11-01

    An experimental study of the electric breakdown in helium gas for the plane-parallel electrode configuration has been conducted using a copper cathode and a variety of anode materials: copper, aluminum, stainless steel, graphite, platinum-plated aluminum and goldplated aluminum. According to the Paschen law for studied electrode configuration, the breakdown voltage is a function of the product of gas pressure and inter-electrode gap. The breakdown processes on the left, lower pressure side of the Paschen curve have been the subject of this investigation. For those pressures, the Paschen curve may become multi-valued, where any given pressure corresponds to three breakdown voltage values. It was experimentally demonstrated that the form of the Paschen curve might strongly depend on the material of the anode and the cleanness of the anode surface. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that electrons streaming from the cathode are reflected by the surface of the anode.

  18. New superjuction LDMOS with surface and bulk electric field modulation by buffered step doping and multi floating buried layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Duan, Baoxing; Yuan, Song; Shi, Tongtong; Yang, Yintang

    2017-11-01

    A new superjunction lateral double diffused MOSFET with surface and bulk electric field modulation (SBEFM SJ-LDMOS) by applying of multiple floating buried layers and buffered step doping is proposed in this paper. The Multiple N-type floating buried layers are embedded in P-substrate, to reduce the amount of field crowding at N+/N-buffer/P-substrate junction by spreading the vertical depletion layer, which effectively improves the bulk electric field distribution in SJ-LDMOS, and the N+/N-buffer/P-substrate junction and the auxiliary MFB layers/substrate junctions jointly sustain a high vertical breakdown voltage (BV). In addition, based on the buffered step doping layer under the SJ layer, a uniform lateral electric field at the drift region surface of the device is obtained. Therefore, the bulk and surface electric field are both optimized simultaneously in SBEFM SJ-LDMOS. Simulated results show that compared with the conventional Buffered SJ-LDMOS and BSD SJ-LDMOS, the proposed SBEFM SJ-LDMOS improves BV by 131.7% and 80.4%, respectively, at the same drift region length and with low specific ON-resistance (RON,sp). SBEFM SJ-LDMOS exhibits excellent performance with the power figure-of-merit (FOM=BV2/RON,sp) of 13.07 MW/cm2.

  19. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  20. A silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Robert J.; van Loon, Rob V.A.; Brunets, I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Polman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of a silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at low temperatures using silicon nanocrystal doped alumina within a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide geometry. The fabrication method uses established microtechnology processes

  1. Enhanced osteoblast response to electrical discharge machining surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Fukunaga; Kataoka, Yu; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the surface characteristics and biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified by wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). EDM surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thin-film X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and contact angle measurements. MC3T3-E1 cell morphology, attachment and proliferation, as well as analysis of osteoblastic gene expressions, on machined surfaces and EDM surfaces were also evaluated. EDM surfaces exhibited high super hydrophilicity, due to high surface energy. XPS and XRD revealed that a passive oxide layer with certain developing thickness onto. EDM surfaces promoted cell attachment, but restrained proliferation. Counted cell numbers increased significantly on the machined surfaces as compared to the EDM surfaces. Real-time PCR analyses showed significantly higher relative mRNA expression levels of osteoblastic genes (ALP, osteocalcin, Runx2, Osterix) in cells cultured on the EDM surfaces as compared to cells cultured on the machined surfaces.

  2. Disordered electrical potential observed on the surface of SiO2 by electric field microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa, N; Yan Zang; Ballestar, A; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Bern, F; Esquinazi, P

    2010-01-01

    The electrical potential on the surface of ∼300 nm thick SiO 2 grown on single-crystalline Si substrates has been characterized at ambient conditions using electric field microscopy. Our results show an inhomogeneous potential distribution with fluctuations up to ∼0.4 V within regions of 1 μm. The potential fluctuations observed at the surface of these usual dielectric holders of graphene sheets should induce strong variations in the graphene charge densities and provide a simple explanation for some of the anomalous behaviors of the transport properties of graphene.

  3. Measurement of chlorine concentration on steel surfaces via fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Le Berre, S.; Fobar, D. G.; Burger, M.; Skrodzki, P. J.; Hartig, K. C.; Motta, A. T.; Jovanovic, I.

    2018-03-01

    The corrosive environment provided by chlorine ions on the welds of stainless steel dry cask storage canisters for used nuclear fuel may contribute to the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking. We demonstrate the use of fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (FOLIBS) in the double-pulse (DP) configuration for high-sensitivity, remote measurement of the surface concentrations of chlorine compatible in constrained space and challenging environment characteristic for dry cask storage systems. Chlorine surface concentrations as low as 5 mg/m2 have been detected and quantified by use of a laboratory-based and a fieldable DP FOLIBS setup with the calibration curve approach. The compact final optics assembly in the fieldable setup is interfaced via two 25-m long optical fibers for high-power laser pulse delivery and plasma emission collection and can be readily integrated into a multi-sensor robotic delivery system for in-situ inspection of dry cask storage systems.

  4. Superior electric storage on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Kuroda, Tomoyuki; Hasegawa, Fumihiko; Sueyoshi, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Amorphous perfluoroalkenyl vinyl ether polymer devices can store a remarkably powerful electric charge because their surface contains nanometre-sized cavities that are sensitive to the so-called quantum-size effect. With a work function of approximately 10 eV, the devices show a near-vertical line in the Nyquist diagram and a horizontal line near the -90° phase angle in the Bode diagram. Moreover, they have an integrated effect on the surface area for constant current discharging. This effect can be explained by the distributed constant electric circuit with a parallel assembly of nanometre-sized capacitors on a highly insulating polymer. The device can illuminate a red LED light for 3 ms after charging it with 1 mA at 10 V. Further gains might be attained by integrating polymer sheets with a micro-electro mechanical system.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A three-dimensional breakdown model of SOI lateral power transistors with a circular layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufeng, Guo; Zhigong, Wang; Gene, Sheu

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an analytical three-dimensional breakdown model of SOI lateral power devices with a circular layout. The Poisson equation is solved in cylindrical coordinates to obtain the radial surface potential and electric field distributions for both fully- and partially-depleted drift regions. The breakdown voltages for N+N and P+N junctions are derived and employed to investigate the impact of cathode region curvature. A modified RESURF criterion is proposed to provide a design guideline for optimizing the breakdown voltage and doping concentration in the drift region in three dimensional space. The analytical results agree well with MEDICI simulation results and experimental data from earlier publications.

  6. Breakdown studies for neutral injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Bussac, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Reliable operation of high energy neutral injectors is challenged by the voltage hold-off capability of the extraction systems. The high voltage behavior of a gap depends not only on a large number of macroscopic parameters, e.g. the electrodes material, geometry, separation, and residual gas pressure, but also upon dimly defined and badly controlled microscopic electric properties such as electrodes surface conditions, which are in turn affected by the conditioning procedures and by the operational history of the gap. In fact, it is merely due to the microscopic surface conditions of electrodes, especially cathodes, that for most favorable regimes, macroscopic breakdown fields are two orders of magnitude lower than what can be expected from the field emission theory (E greater than or equal to 3 10 9 V/m). At FAR, experimental data on the voltage hold-off problems are obtained in a large injector (Megawatt Beam Line - MWBL) and in L.E.O., a smaller but more flexible facility where single beam studies will be made, up to 160 keV. Some results are described

  7. Atomistic modeling of metal surfaces under electric fields: direct coupling of electric fields to a molecular dynamics algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Pohjonen, Aarne; Nordlund, Kai

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on metal surfaces is fairly well studied, resulting in numerous analytical models developed to understand the mechanisms of ionization of surface atoms observed at very high electric fields, as well as the general behavior of a metal surface in this condition. However, the derivation of analytical models does not include explicitly the structural properties of metals, missing the link between the instantaneous effects owing to the applied field and the consequent response observed in the metal surface as a result of an extended application of an electric field. In the present work, we have developed a concurrent electrodynamic–molecular dynamic model for the dynamical simulation of an electric-field effect and subsequent modification of a metal surface in the framework of an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The partial charge induced on the surface atoms by the electric field is assessed by applying the classical Gauss law. The electric forces acting on the partially...

  8. Fabrication of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes with high breakdown voltages

    CERN Document Server

    Kum, B H; Shin, M W; Park, J D

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the fabrication and the breakdown characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). Optimal processing conditions for the ohmic contacts were extracted using the transmission-line method (TLM) and were applied to the device fabrication. The Ti/4H-SiC SBDs with Si sub x B sub y passivation showed a maximum reverse breakdown voltage of 268 V with a forward current density as high as 70 mA/cm sup 2 at a forward voltage of 2 V. The breakdown of the Pt. 4H-SiC SBDs without any passivation occurred at near 110 V. It is concluded that the breakdown enhancement in the Ti/4H-SiC SBDs can be attributed to the passivation; otherwise, excess surface charge near the edge of the Schottky contact would lead to electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause field emission.

  9. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorka, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  10. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A

  11. Influence of surface topography on friction, film breakdown and running-in in the mixed lubrication regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Pieter Martin; Severt, R.W.M.; Fogelström, J.; Tripp, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of surface topography on the lubricant film build-up ability and the friction characteristics of potential rolling bearing surfaces has been investigated by experiments on two-disc rigs. Traction-friction torque measurements were made for a variety of surface combinations, together

  12. Proof of concept for the simplified breakdown of cellulose by combining Pseudomonas putida strains with surface displayed thermophilic endocellulase, exocellulase and β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozakidis, Iasson E P; Brossette, Tatjana; Lenz, Florian; Maas, Ruth M; Jose, Joachim

    2016-06-10

    The production and employment of cellulases still represents an economic bottleneck in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and other biocommodities. This process could be simplified by displaying the necessary enzymes on a microbial cell surface. Such an approach, however, requires an appropriate host organism which on the one hand can withstand the rough environment coming along with lignocellulose hydrolysis, and on the other hand does not consume the generated glucose so that it remains available for subsequent fermentation steps. The robust soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida showed a strongly reduced uptake of glucose above a temperature of 50 °C, while remaining structurally intact hence recyclable, which makes it suitable for cellulose hydrolysis at elevated temperatures. Consequently, three complementary, thermophilic cellulases from Ruminiclostridium thermocellum were displayed on the surface of the bacterium. All three enzymes retained their activity on the cell surface. A mixture of three strains displaying each one of these enzymes was able to synergistically hydrolyze filter paper at 55 °C, producing 20 μg glucose per mL cell suspension in 24 h. We could establish Pseudomonas putida as host for the surface display of cellulases, and provided proof-of-concept for a fast and simple cellulose breakdown process at elevated temperatures. This study opens up new perspectives for the application of P. putida in the production of biofuels and other biotechnological products.

  13. Studies of helium breakdown at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, D.

    1981-04-01

    For designing cryogenic installations the breakdown strength of helium at temperatures near absolute zero has to be known. Various breakdown strengths are reported in literature concerning liquid helium. It is the objective of these studies to find an explanation for the different breakdown strengths by suitable variation of parameters. Various electrode materials commonly used in low temperature techniques with different sample preparation are used to measure breakdown strength of liquid helium in the gap range from 0.5 mm to 3 mm. A substantial influence of roughness, oxide layer and microcracks on strength is revealed. These terms are summarized and defined as 'condition of the electrode surface'. Taking this into account the various breakdown strengths can be qualitatively explained. Based on these results breakdown strength in supercritical high density helium is examined. A Paschen-curve can be given for this thermodynamical region. (orig./WL) [de

  14. Investigation of the DC vacuum breakdown mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Descoeudres, A; Calatroni, S; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2009-01-01

    Breakdowns occurring in rf accelerating structures will limit the ultimate performance of future linear colliders such as the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Because of the similarity of many aspects of dc and rf breakdown, a dc breakdown study is underway at CERN to better understand the vacuum breakdown mechanism in a simple setup. Measurements of the field enhancement factor β show that the local breakdown field is constant and depends only on the electrode material. With copper electrodes, the local breakdown field is around 10:8 GV/m, independent of the gap distance. The β value characterizes the electrode surface state, and the next macroscopic breakdown field can be well predicted. In breakdown rate experiments, where a constant field is applied to the electrodes, clusters of consecutive breakdowns alternate with quiet periods. The occurrence and lengths of these clusters and quiet periods depend on the evolution of β. The application of a high field can even modify the electrode surface in the abse...

  15. An apparatus for studying electrical breakdown in liquid helium at 0.4 K and testing electrode materials for the neutron electric dipole moment experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, T. M., E-mail: ito@lanl.gov; Ramsey, J. C.; Clayton, S. M.; Currie, S. A.; Griffith, W. C.; Makela, M.; Tang, Z.; Wei, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Yao, W.; Cianciolo, V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Beck, D. H.; Williamson, S. E. [Loomis Laboratory of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Crawford, C.; Wagner, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States); Filippone, B. W.; Schmid, R. [W. K. Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Seidel, G. M. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have constructed an apparatus to study DC electrical breakdown in liquid helium at temperatures as low as 0.4 K and at pressures between the saturated vapor pressure and ∼600 Torr. The apparatus can house a set of electrodes that are 12 cm in diameter with a gap of 1–2 cm between them, and a potential up to ±50 kV can be applied to each electrode. Initial results demonstrated that it is possible to apply fields exceeding 100 kV/cm in a 1 cm gap between two electropolished stainless steel electrodes 12 cm in diameter for a wide range of pressures at 0.4 K. We also measured the current between two electrodes. Our initial results, I < 1 pA at 45 kV, correspond to a lower bound on the effective volume resistivity of liquid helium of ρ{sub V} > 5 × 10{sup 18} Ω cm. This lower bound is 5 times larger than the bound previously measured. We report the design, construction, and operational experience of the apparatus, as well as initial results.

  16. X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roark A. Marsh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz. The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65  MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110  MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100  MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890  kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14  MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.

  17. Onset of breakdown and formation of cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirzke, F.; Hallal, M.P. Jr.; Maruyama, X.K.

    1992-01-01

    The initial phase of onset of electrical breakdown in a vacuum discharge is characterized by very rapid ionization of surface material which leads to a kind of ''explosive'' plasma formation on electrodes. As an increasing electric field is applied between the two electrodes of vacuum diode the ionization process is initiated by field emission of electrons from highly localized spots on the cathode surface. Despite the fundamental importance of cathode spots for the breakdown process, the structure of cathode spots and the fast ionization rates of surface layers were riot fully understood. Besides joule heating of the field emitting spot, the electrons also desorb contaminants and ionize some of the released neutrals. Ions produced a short distance (∼ 1μm) from the spot are accelerated back towards the cathode. This ion bombardment leads to surface heating of the spot. Calculations of the power deposition show that ion surface heating is initially orders of magnitude larger than joule heating. Ion bombardment is especially important at low initial current densities since it leads efficiently to further desorption arid sputtering of neutrals from the surface and hence increases the neutral density which in turn increases the ionization rate. As more ions are produced, a positive space charge layer forms which enhances the electric field and thus strongly enhances the field emitted electron current. Surface heating and the build-up of positive space charge rapidly lead to further enhanced field emission and finally thermionic electron emission. The localized build-up plasma above the electron emitting spot naturally leads to pressure and electric field distributions which ignite unipolar arcs. The large electron current of the unipolar arc and large ion sputtering rates cause the ''explosion'' of surface material into the dense plasma of a cathode spot

  18. Dielectric breakdown of fast switching LCD shutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozolevskis, Gatis; Sekacis, Ilmars; Nitiss, Edgars; Medvids, Arturs; Rutkis, Martins

    2017-02-01

    Fast liquid crystal optical shutters due to fast switching, vibrationless control and optical properties have found various applications: substitutes for mechanical shutters, 3D active shutter glasses, 3D volumetric displays and more. Switching speed depends not only on properties of liquid crystal, but also on applied electric field intensity. Applied field in the shutters can exceed >10 V/micron which may lead to dielectric breakdown. Therefore, a dielectric thin film is needed between transparent conductive electrodes in order to reduce breakdown probability. In this work we have compared electrical and optical properties of liquid crystal displays with dielectric thin films with thicknesses up to few hundred nanometers coated by flexo printing method and magnetron sputtering. Dielectric breakdown values show flexographic thin films to have higher resistance to dielectric breakdown, although sputtered coatings have better optical properties, such as higher transmission and no coloration.

  19. Oblique interaction of a laminar vortex ring with a non-deformable free surface: Vortex reconnection and breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, S K; Thomas, T G; Coleman, G N

    2011-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study the interaction of a laminar vortex ring with a non-deformable, free-slip surface at an oblique angle of incidence. The interaction leads to the well-known phenomenon of vortex reconnection. It was found that the reconnection process leads to rapid production of small-scale vortical structures. This phenomenon was found to be related to the kinematics of the reconection process.

  20. Surface electrical charge of bloodstream trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream trypomastigotes of some Trypanosoma cruzi strains were processed through DEAE-cellulose columns under standardized conditions. The results obtained suggest mainly that these strains present different surface charges, that there are subpopulations of bloodstream trypomastigotes as regards electrical charges and that the broad forms are less negative than the slender ones.Tripomastigotas sanguíneos de algumas cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi foram processadas em colunas de DEAE-celulose sob condições padronizadas. Os resultados obtidos sugerem principalmente que estas cepas possuem cargas superficiais diferentes, que em relação a este aspecto existem subpopulações de tripomastigotas e que as formas largas são menos negativas do que as finas.

  1. Experimental investigation of surface roughness in electrical discharge turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Vikas; Puri, Y. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the present study the effects of machining parameters on the average surface roughness (Ra) in electrical discharge turning (EDT) is investigated. EDT is a new machining process in which a rotary spindle is added to a conventional die-sinking EDM machine in order to produce cylindrical components. In this method a new process parameter (spindle rotation) along with pulse on time and current is introduced to study its effect on Ra. This has been done by means of full factorial design (21 × 32) of experiments. A mathematical model has been developed for Ra by regression analysis and factor effects were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Signal-to-noise ratio analysis is used to find the optimal condition.

  2. Characteristics of meter-scale surface electrical discharge propagating along water surface at atmospheric pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffer, Petr; Sugiyama, Y.; Hosseini, S.H.R.; Akiyama, H.; Lukeš, Petr; Akiyama, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 41 (2016), č. článku 415202. ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : water surface * spectroscopy * high-speed photography * pulsed plasma discharge * Atmospheric-pressure plasmas * electric discharges * liquids * water Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/49/41/415202

  3. Breakdown characteristics of AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on a silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Lu Hai; Chen Dun-Jun; Ren Fang-Fang; Zhang Rong; Zheng You-Dou

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the breakdown characteristics of AlGaN/GaN planar Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on the silicon substrate are investigated. The breakdown voltage (BV) of the SBDs first increases as a function of the anode-to-cathode distance and then tends to saturate at larger inter-electrode spacing. The saturation behavior of the BV is likely caused by the vertical breakdown through the intrinsic GaN buffer layer on silicon, which is supported by the post-breakdown primary leakage path analysis with the emission microscopy. Surface passivation and field plate termination are found effective to suppress the leakage current and enhance the BV of the SBDs. A high BV of 601 V is obtained with a low on-resistance of 3.15 mΩ·cm 2 . (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Ion doping of surface layers in conducting electrical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukowski, P.; Karwat, Cz.; Kozak, Cz. M.; Kolasik, M.; Kiszczak, K.

    2009-01-01

    The presented article gives basic component elements of an implanter MKPCz-99, its parameters and methods for doping surface layers of conducting electrical materials. The discussed device makes possible to dope the materials with ions of gaseous elements. At the application of cones made of solid-element sheets it is possible to perform doping with atoms that do not chemically react with the modified material. By performing voltage drop measurements with a specialized circuit between a movable testing electrode and the modified sample the dependence of transition resistance on pressure force of the testing electrode on the sample can be determined. The testing can be performed at the current passage of a determined value for surfaces modified with ions of gaseous elements or atoms of solid elements. A computer stand for switch testing makes possible to measure temperature of switch contacts and voltage drop at the contact and thereby to determine contact resistance of a switch depending on the number of switch cycles (ON-OFF). Pattern recording of current and voltage at the switch contacts and the application of an adequate computer software makes possible to determined the value of energy between fixed and moving contacts at their getting apart. In order to eliminate action of the environment onto the switch operation measurements can be performed at placing the tested switch together with the driving system in an atmosphere of noble gas like argon. (authors)

  5. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  6. Comparative Studies of High-Gradient Rf and Dc Breakdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Kovermann, Jan Wilhelm; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC project is based on normal-conducting high-gradient accelerating structures with an average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The maximum achievable gradient in these structures is limited by the breakdown phenomenon. The physics of breakdowns is not yet fully understood quantitatively. A full knowledge could have strong impact on the design, material choice and construction of rf structures. Therefore, understanding breakdowns has great importance to reaching a gradient of 100MV/m with an acceptable breakdown probability. This thesis addresses the physics underlying the breakdown effect, focusing on a comparison of breakdowns in rf structures and in a dc spark setup. The dc system is simpler, easier to benchmark against simulations, with a faster turnaround time, but the relationship to rf breakdown must be established. To do so, an experimental approach based on optical diagnostics and electrical measurements methods was made. Following an introduction into the CLIC project, a general theoretical ...

  7. Photodetachment of negative ion in a gradient electric field near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tian-Qi; Wang De-Hua; Han Cai; Liu Jiang; Liang Dong-Qi; Xie Si-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on closed-orbit theory, the photodetachment of H − in a gradient electric field near a metal surface is studied. It is demonstrated that the gradient electric field has a significant influence on the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. With the increase of the gradient of the electric field, the oscillation in the photodetachment cross section becomes strengthened. Besides, in contrast to the photodetachment of H − near a metal surface in a uniform electric field, the oscillating amplitude and the oscillating region in the cross section of a gradient electric field also become enlarged. Therefore, we can use the gradient electric field to control the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment of negative ions in the vicinity of surfaces, cavities, and ion traps. (atomic and molecular physics)

  8. A Combined Electro-Thermal Breakdown Model for Oil-Impregnated Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown property of oil-impregnated paper is a key factor for converter transformer design and operation, but it is not well understood. In this paper, breakdown voltages of oil-impregnated paper were measured at different temperatures. The results showed that with the increase of temperature, electrical, electro-thermal and thermal breakdown occurred successively. An electro-thermal breakdown model was proposed based on the heat equilibrium and space charge transport, and negative differential mobility was introduced to the model. It was shown that carrier mobility determined whether it was electrical or thermal breakdown, and the model can effectively explain the temperature-dependent breakdown.

  9. SIMULATION OF PULSED BREAKDOWN IN HELIUM BY ADAPTIVE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Eliseev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the processes occurring during electrical breakdown in gases as well as numerical simulation of these processes using adaptive mesh refinement methods. Discharge between needle electrodes in helium at atmospheric pressure is selected for the test simulation. Physical model of the accompanying breakdown processes is based on self- consistent system of continuity equations for streams of charged particles (electrons and positive ions and Poisson equation for electric potential. Sharp plasma heterogeneity in the area of streamers requires the usage of adaptive algorithms for constructing of computational grids for modeling. The method for grid adaptive construction together with justification of its effectiveness for significantly unsteady gas breakdown simulation at atmospheric pressure is described. Upgraded version of Gerris package is used for numerical simulation of electrical gas breakdown. Software package, originally focused on solution of nonlinear problems in fluid dynamics, appears to be suitable for processes modeling in non-stationary plasma described by continuity equations. The usage of adaptive grids makes it possible to get an adequate numerical model for the breakdown development in the system of needle electrodes. Breakdown dynamics is illustrated by contour plots of electron densities and electric field intensity obtained in the course of solving. Breakdown mechanism of positive and negative (orientated to anode streamers formation is demonstrated and analyzed. Correspondence between adaptive building of computational grid and generated plasma gradients is shown. Obtained results can be used as a basis for full-scale numerical experiments on electric breakdown in gases.

  10. A Modified Dynamic Surface Controller for Delayed Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibeji, Naji; Kirsch, Nicholas; Dicianno, Brad E; Sharma, Nitin

    2017-08-01

    A widely accepted model of muscle force generation during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a second-order nonlinear musculoskeletal dynamics cascaded to a delayed first-order muscle activation dynamics. However, most nonlinear NMES control methods have either neglected the muscle activation dynamics or used an ad hoc strategies to tackle the muscle activation dynamics, which may not guarantee control stability. We hypothesized that a nonlinear control design that includes muscle activation dynamics can improve the control performance. In this paper, a dynamic surface control (DSC) approach was used to design a PID-based NMES controller that compensates for EMD in the activation dynamics. Because the muscle activation is unmeasurable, a model based estimator was used to estimate the muscle activation in realtime. The Lyapunov stability analysis confirmed that the newly developed controller achieves semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) tracking for the musculoskeletal system. Experiments were performed on two able-bodied subjects and one spinal cord injury subject using a modified leg extension machine. These experiments illustrate the performance of the new controller and compare it to a previous PID-DC controller that did not consider muscle activation dynamics in the control design. These experiments support our hypothesis that a control design that includes muscle activation improves the NMES control performance.

  11. Electrical conductivity of conductive carbon blacks: influence of surface chemistry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, Dana; Darmstadt, Hans; Kaliaguine, Serge; Roy, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Conductive carbon blacks from different manufacturers were studied in order to obtain some insight into the relation between their electrical conductivity and their surface properties. The surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), whereas the topology of the carbon black surface was investigated using low-pressure nitrogen adsorption. All these techniques yield information on the graphitic character of the surface. In general, the electrical conductivity of the conductive blacks increases with the graphitic character of the surface. For low surface area conductive blacks, the electrical conductivity correlates well with the surface chemistry. In the case of the XPS and SIMS data, this correlation is also valid when other types of carbon blacks such as thermal and furnace blacks are included, confirming the determining influence of the carbon black surface chemistry on the electrical conductivity

  12. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  13. 30 CFR 57.4130 - Surface electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface electric substations and liquid storage... substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply to surface areas only. (a... accumulate within 25 feet of the following: (1) Electric substations. (2) Unburied, flammable or combustible...

  14. Maximized Effective Energy Output of Contact-Separation-Triggered Triboelectric Nanogenerators as Limited by Air Breakdown

    KAUST Repository

    Zi, Yunlong

    2017-05-02

    Recent progress in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) has demonstrated their promising potential as a high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting technology, and plenty of effort has been devoted to improving the power output by maximizing the triboelectric surface charge density. However, due to high-voltage air breakdown, most of the enhanced surface charge density brought by material/surface optimization or external ion injection is not retainable or usable for electricity generation during the operation of contact-separation-triggered TENGs. Here, the existence of the air breakdown effect in a contact-separation mode TENG with a low threshold surface charge density of ≈40–50 µC m−2 is first validated under the high impedance external load, and then followed by the theoretical study of the maximized effective energy output as limited by air breakdown for contact-separation-triggered TENGs. The effects of air pressure and gas composition are also studied and propose promising solutions for reducing the air breakdown effect. This research provides a crucial fundamental study for TENG technology and its further development and applications.

  15. Modifying the photodetachment near a metal surface by a weak electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, B. C.; Du, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    We show the photodetachment cross sections of H near a metal surface can be modified using a weak static electric field. The modification is possible because the oscillatory part of the cross section near a metal surface is directly connected with the transit-time and the action of the detached-electron closed-orbit which can be changed systematically by varying the static electric field strength. Photodetachment cross sections for various photon energies and electric field values are calcula...

  16. Surface and Electrical Characterization of Conjugated Molecular Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Abel Tesfahun

    This thesis describes the surface and electrical characterization of ultrathin organic films and interfaces. These films were synthesized on the surface of gold by utilizing layer by layer synthesis via imine condensation. Film growth by imine click (condensation) chemistry is particularly useful for molecular electronics experiments because it provides a convenient means to obtain and extend ?-conjugation in the growth direction. However, in the context of film growth from a solid substrate, the reaction yield per step has not been characterized previously, though it is critically important. To address these issues, my research focused on a comprehensive characterization of oligophenyleneimine (OPI) wires via Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). In addition, we had the unique opportunity of developing the first of its kind implementation of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to probe the intensity of carbon atoms after each addition step. Overall the combination of various techniques indicated that film growth proceeds in a quantitative manner. Furthermore, the NRA experiment was optimized to measure the carbon content in self-assembled monolayers of alkyl thiols. The results indicated well-resolved coverage values for ultrathin films with consecutive steps of 2 carbon atoms per molecule. Another fundamental problem in molecular electronics is the vast discrepancy in the values of measured resistance per molecule between small and large area molecular junctions. In collaboration with researchers at the National University of Singapore, we addressed these issues by comparing the electrical properties of OPI wires with the eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) junction (1000 mum2), and conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) junction (50 nm2). Our results showed that intensive (i.e., area

  17. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atmospheric electric field; magnetic storm; magnetosphere; ionosphere; global electrical circuit. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124, No. 8, December 2015, pp. ... cycle, climate and air pollution is insufficient for extensive applications. Hence, the ..... frequency radars monitoring plasma flow in the polar ionosphere. The network database ...

  18. Improved polymer nanocomposite dielectric breakdown performance through barium titanate to epoxy interface control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar; Schuman, Thomas P.; Dogan, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A covalent filler-matrix interface improves the dielectric properties of a polymer-particle nanocomposite dielectric. → A covalent interface reduced the polymer free volume around the nanoparticles as assessed through T g measurements. → Composite T g was raised and breakdown strength improved for nanocomposites with a covalent polymer-particle interface. → A larger Maxwell-Wagner (MW) relaxation correlated with reduced breakdown strengths and energy storage densities. → The MW relaxation could be considered a dielectric defect regarding breakdown strength and energy storage density. - Abstract: A composite approach to dielectric design has the potential to provide improved permittivity as well as high breakdown strength and thus afford greater electrical energy storage density. Interfacial coupling is an effective approach to improve the polymer-particle composite dielectric film resistance to charge flow and dielectric breakdown. A bi-functional interfacial coupling agent added to the inorganic oxide particles' surface assists dispersion into the thermosetting epoxy polymer matrix and upon composite cure reacts covalently with the polymer matrix. The composite then retains the glass transition temperature of pure polymer, provides a reduced Maxwell-Wagner relaxation of the polymer-particle composite, and attains a reduced sensitivity to dielectric breakdown compared to particle epoxy composites that lack interfacial coupling between the composite filler and polymer matrix. Besides an improved permittivity, the breakdown strength and thus energy density of a covalent interface nanoparticle barium titanate in epoxy composite dielectric film, at a 5 vol.% particle concentration, was significantly improved compared to a pure polymer dielectric film. The interfacially bonded, dielectric composite film had a permittivity ∼6.3 and at a 30 μm thickness achieved a calculated energy density of 4.6 J/cm 3 .

  19. Dielectric breakdown in silica-amorphous polymer nanocomposite films: the role of the polymer matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Christopher A; Fillery, Scott P; Westing, Nicholas M; Chi, Changzai; Meth, Jeffrey S; Durstock, Michael F; Vaia, Richard A

    2013-06-26

    The ultimate energy storage performance of an electrostatic capacitor is determined by the dielectric characteristics of the material separating its conductive electrodes. Polymers are commonly employed due to their processability and high breakdown strength; however, demands for higher energy storage have encouraged investigations of ceramic-polymer composites. Maintaining dielectric strength, and thus minimizing flaw size and heterogeneities, has focused development toward nanocomposite (NC) films; but results lack consistency, potentially due to variations in polymer purity, nanoparticle surface treatments, nanoparticle size, and film morphology. To experimentally establish the dominant factors in broad structure-performance relationships, we compare the dielectric properties for four high-purity amorphous polymer films (polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene, polyimide, and poly-4-vinylpyridine) incorporating uniformly dispersed silica colloids (up to 45% v/v). Factors known to contribute to premature breakdown-field exclusion and agglomeration-have been mitigated in this experiment to focus on what impact the polymer and polymer-nanoparticle interactions have on breakdown. Our findings indicate that adding colloidal silica to higher breakdown strength amorphous polymers (polymethyl methacrylate and polyimide) causes a reduction in dielectric strength as compared to the neat polymer. Alternatively, low breakdown strength amorphous polymers (poly-4-vinylpyridine and especially polystyrene) with comparable silica dispersion show similar or even improved breakdown strength for 7.5-15% v/v silica. At ∼15% v/v or greater silica content, all the polymer NC films exhibit breakdown at similar electric fields, implying that at these loadings failure becomes independent of polymer matrix and is dominated by silica.

  20. Improved polymer nanocomposite dielectric breakdown performance through barium titanate to epoxy interface control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddabattuni, Sasidhar [Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly the University of Missouri-Rolla), Chemistry Department, 400W. 11th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Schuman, Thomas P., E-mail: tschuman@mst.edu [Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly the University of Missouri-Rolla), Chemistry Department, 400W. 11th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Dogan, Fatih [Missouri University of Science and Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 1400N. Bishop Avenue, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > A covalent filler-matrix interface improves the dielectric properties of a polymer-particle nanocomposite dielectric. > A covalent interface reduced the polymer free volume around the nanoparticles as assessed through T{sub g} measurements. > Composite T{sub g} was raised and breakdown strength improved for nanocomposites with a covalent polymer-particle interface. > A larger Maxwell-Wagner (MW) relaxation correlated with reduced breakdown strengths and energy storage densities. > The MW relaxation could be considered a dielectric defect regarding breakdown strength and energy storage density. - Abstract: A composite approach to dielectric design has the potential to provide improved permittivity as well as high breakdown strength and thus afford greater electrical energy storage density. Interfacial coupling is an effective approach to improve the polymer-particle composite dielectric film resistance to charge flow and dielectric breakdown. A bi-functional interfacial coupling agent added to the inorganic oxide particles' surface assists dispersion into the thermosetting epoxy polymer matrix and upon composite cure reacts covalently with the polymer matrix. The composite then retains the glass transition temperature of pure polymer, provides a reduced Maxwell-Wagner relaxation of the polymer-particle composite, and attains a reduced sensitivity to dielectric breakdown compared to particle epoxy composites that lack interfacial coupling between the composite filler and polymer matrix. Besides an improved permittivity, the breakdown strength and thus energy density of a covalent interface nanoparticle barium titanate in epoxy composite dielectric film, at a 5 vol.% particle concentration, was significantly improved compared to a pure polymer dielectric film. The interfacially bonded, dielectric composite film had a permittivity {approx}6.3 and at a 30 {mu}m thickness achieved a calculated energy density of 4.6 J/cm{sup 3}.

  1. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  2. Progressive current degradation and breakdown behavior in GaN LEDs under high reverse bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Linna; Yu Peihong; Yan Dawei; Zhou Hao; Wu Jinbo; Cui Zhiqiang; Gu Xiaofeng; Guo Zixiang; Sun Huarui

    2017-01-01

    The progressive current degradation and breakdown behaviors of GaN-based light emitting diodes under high reverse-bias stress are studied by combining the electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The current features a typical “soft breakdown” behavior, which is linearly correlated to an increase of the accumulative number of electroluminescence spots. The time-to-failure for each failure site approximately obeys a Weibull distribution with slopes of about 0.67 and 4.09 at the infant and wear-out periods, respectively. After breakdown, visible craters can be observed at the device surface as a result of transient electrostatic discharge. By performing focused ion beam cuts coupled with scan electron microscope, we observed a local current shunt path in the surface layer, caused by the rapid microstructure deterioration due to significant current heating effect, consistent well with the optical beam induced resistance change observations. (paper)

  3. Surface acoustic wave electric field effect on acoustic streaming: Numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darinskii, A. N.; Weihnacht, M.; Schmidt, H.

    2018-01-01

    The paper numerically studies the contribution of the electric field accompanying the surface acoustic wave to the actuation of the acoustic streaming in microchannels. The finite element method is used. The results obtained as applied to the surface waves on 128° and 64°-rotated Y cuts of LiNbO3 demonstrate that the force created by the electric field is capable of accelerating appreciably the acoustic streaming. In particular, examples are given for the situations where the electric field increases the streaming velocity by a factor of about 2-3 and significantly changes the flow pattern as compared to predictions of computations ignoring the electric field.

  4. Product Work Breakdown Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okayama, Y; Chirillo, L. D

    1980-01-01

    .... Any such subdivision scheme is a work breakdown structure. Traditional shipbuilders employ work subdivisions by ships functional systems which are natural and appropriate for estimating and for early design stages...

  5. Electric fields control the orientation of peptides irreversibly immobilized on radical-functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lewis J; Akhavan, Behnam; Bilek, Marcela M M

    2018-01-24

    Surface functionalization of an implantable device with bioactive molecules can overcome adverse biological responses by promoting specific local tissue integration. Bioactive peptides have advantages over larger protein molecules due to their robustness and sterilizability. Their relatively small size presents opportunities to control the peptide orientation on approach to a surface to achieve favourable presentation of bioactive motifs. Here we demonstrate control of the orientation of surface-bound peptides by tuning electric fields at the surface during immobilization. Guided by computational simulations, a peptide with a linear conformation in solution is designed. Electric fields are used to control the peptide approach towards a radical-functionalized surface. Spontaneous, irreversible immobilization is achieved when the peptide makes contact with the surface. Our findings show that control of both peptide orientation and surface concentration is achieved simply by varying the solution pH or by applying an electric field as delivered by a small battery.

  6. The Resistance of Breakdown in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions under which breakdown of composite liquid - solid insulation can be occurred, e.g., in transformer,play an important role in designing of such insulation. The initial state of breakdown development is explained on the basisof bubble theory and formation of a plasma channel between the electrodes. The electrical resistance of plasma channel iscalculated using several theories and its changes from a few ohms to a few hundred milliohms due to Joule heating caused byhigh arc current which flows through the plasma. The dynamics of the arc current depends on the parameters of outer circuitand is represented by RLC circuit.

  7. High power breakdown testing of a photonic band-gap accelerator structure with elliptical rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Munroe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved single-cell photonic band-gap (PBG structure with an inner row of elliptical rods (PBG-E was tested with high power at a 60 Hz repetition rate at X-band (11.424 GHz, achieving a gradient of 128  MV/m at a breakdown probability of 3.6×10^{-3} per pulse per meter at a pulse length of 150 ns. The tested standing-wave structure was a single high-gradient cell with an inner row of elliptical rods and an outer row of round rods; the elliptical rods reduce the peak surface magnetic field by 20% and reduce the temperature rise of the rods during the pulse by several tens of degrees, while maintaining good damping and suppression of high order modes. When compared with a single-cell standing-wave undamped disk-loaded waveguide structure with the same iris geometry under test at the same conditions, the PBG-E structure yielded the same breakdown rate within measurement error. The PBG-E structure showed a greatly reduced breakdown rate compared with earlier tests of a PBG structure with round rods, presumably due to the reduced magnetic fields at the elliptical rods vs the fields at the round rods, as well as use of an improved testing methodology. A post-testing autopsy of the PBG-E structure showed some damage on the surfaces exposed to the highest surface magnetic and electric fields. Despite these changes in surface appearance, no significant change in the breakdown rate was observed in testing. These results demonstrate that PBG structures, when designed with reduced surface magnetic fields and operated to avoid extremely high pulsed heating, can operate at breakdown probabilities comparable to undamped disk-loaded waveguide structures and are thus viable for high-gradient accelerator applications.

  8. Review of Electrical and Gravity Methods of Near-Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theory and practice of electrical and gravity methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration was reviewed with illustrations and data examples. With the goal of reducing cases of borehole/water-well failure attributed to the lack of the knowledge of the methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration and ...

  9. Review of Electrical and Gravity Methods of Near-Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    method of groundwater exploration was discussed with field data from Wokbedilo community in Ethopia. ... Electromagnetic and electrical methods have shown superior suitability for groundwater exploration because rock properties that are crucial to hydrogeology ..... Where M and R are the mass and radius of the earth.

  10. Piezometric surface deduced from vertical electrical sounding data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, one hundred and eight vertical electrical soundings were carried out, with the view of unravelling the hydrogeological characteristics of Kuri River Basin, Kaduna, Nigeria. The water table for eleven hand dug wells were directly measured and a comparison was made with cumulative resistivity (Σρa) plots at such ...

  11. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert L.; Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness

  12. Instrumental Developments for In-situ Breakdown Experiments inside a Scanning Electron Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Muranaka, T; Leifer, K; Ziemann, V

    2011-01-01

    Electrical discharges in accelerating structures are one of the key issues limiting the performance of future high energy accelerators such as the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Fundamental understanding of breakdown phenomena is an indispensable part of the CLIC feasibility study. The present work concerns the experimental study of breakdown using Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs). A SEM gives us the opportunity to achieve high electrical gradients of 1\\,kV/$\\mu$m which corresponds to 1\\,GV/m by exciting a probe needle with a high voltage power supply and controlling the positioning of the needle with a linear piezo motor. The gap between the needle tip and the surface is controlled with sub-micron precision. A second electron microscope equipped with a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is used to create surface corrugations and to sharpen the probe needle to a tip radius of about 50\\,nm. Moreover it is used to prepare cross sections of a voltage breakdown area in order to study the geometrical surface damages as w...

  13. Characteristics of the surface oxides on turned and electrochemically oxidized pure titanium implants up to dielectric breakdown: the oxide thickness, micropore configurations, surface roughness, crystal structure and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Young-Taeg; Johansson, Carina B; Petronis, Sarunas; Krozer, Anatol; Jeong, Yongsoo; Wennerberg, Ann; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2002-01-01

    Titanium implants have been used widely and successfully for various types of bone-anchored reconstructions. It is believed that properties of oxide films covering titanium implant surfaces are of crucial importance for a successful osseointegration, in particular at compromized bone sites. The aim of the present study is to investigate the surface properties of anodic oxides formed on commercially pure (c.p.) titanium screw implants as well as to study 'native' oxides on turned c.p. titanium implants. Anodic oxides were prepared by galvanostatic mode in CH3COOH up to the high forming voltage of dielectric breakdown and spark formation. The oxide thicknesses, measured with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), were in the range of about 200-1000 nm. Barrier and porous structures dominated the surface morphology of the anodic film. Quantitative morphometric analyses of the micropore structures were performed using an image analysis system on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) negatives. The pore sizes were < or = 8 microm in diameter and had 1.27-2.1 microm2 opening area. The porosity was in the range of 12.7-24.4%. The surface roughness was in the range of 0.96-1.03 microm (Sa), measured with TopScan 3D. The crystal structures of the titanium oxide were amorphous, anatase, and a mixtures of anatase and rutile type, as analyzed with thin-film X-ray diffractometry (TF-XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The chemical compositions consisted mainly of TiO2, characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The native (thermal) oxide on turned implants was 17.4 nm (+/- 6.2) thick and amorphous. Its chemical composition was TiO2. The surface roughness had an average height deviation of 0.83 microm (Sa). The present results are needed to elucidate the influence of the oxide properties on the biological reaction. The results of animal studies using the presently characterized surface oxides on titanium implants will be published separately.

  14. Magnetoresistance and magnetic breakdown phenomenon in amorphous magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui-yu; Gong Xiao-yu

    1988-01-01

    Transverse magnetoresistance in amorphous magnetic alloys (Fe/sub 1-//sub x/CO/sub x/) 82 Cu/sub 0.4/Si/sub 4.4/B/sub 13.2/ were measured at room temperature and in the magnetic field range 0--15 kOe. For large magnetic field, three different functional dependences of magnetoresistance on magnetic field strength have been found as follows: (1) Δrho/rho approaches saturation. (2) Δrho/rho increases proportionally to H 2 . (3) For x = 0.15, a sharp Δrho/rho peak appears at a certain magnetic field strength in spatial angular orientation of both magnetic field and electric currents. Case (3) is a magnetic breakdown phenomenon. Magnetic breakdown occurs at the gap between the spin-up and spin-down sheets of the Fermi surface. This gap is the spin-orbit gap and its magnitude is a sensitive function of magnetization. Hence the magnitude and width of the magnetoresistance peak and the magnetic field strength at the peak point are functions of angular orientation of both magnetic field and electric current

  15. Electric double layer interactions in bacterial adhesion to surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, AT; Norde, W; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    2002-01-01

    The DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek) theory was originally developed to describe interactions between non-biological lyophobic colloids such as polystyrene particles, but is also used to describe bacterial adhesion to surfaces. Despite the differences between the surface of bacteria and

  16. Pair-breaking effects by parallel magnetic field in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeta, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kenta K.; Onari, Seiichiro; Ichioka, Masanori

    2016-11-01

    We study paramagnetic pair-breaking in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity, when magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface. The calculation is performed by Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory with s-wave pairing, including the screening effect of electric fields by the induced carriers near the surface. Due to the Zeeman shift by applied fields, electronic states at higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like. Therefore, the magnetic field dependence of Fermi-energy density of states reflects the multi-gap structure in the surface superconductivity.

  17. Characterization of electrical conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced plastic using surface potential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikunaga, Kazuya; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    A new method of evaluating electrical conductivity in a structural material such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using surface potential is proposed. After the CFRP was charged by corona discharge, the surface potential distribution was measured by scanning a vibrating linear array sensor along the object surface with a high spatial resolution over a short duration. A correlation between the weave pattern of the CFRP and the surface potential distribution was observed. This result indicates that it is possible to evaluate the electrical conductivity of a material comprising conducting and insulating regions.

  18. Fast electric field waveforms and near-surface electric field images of lightning discharges detected on Mt. Aragats in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Kozliner, L.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the observational data on fast electric waveforms that are detected at 3200 m altitudes above sea level on Mt. Aragats in Armenia during thunderstorms. We analyse the relations of these forms with count rates of particle flux (during Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements -TGEs); to the slow disturbance of the near-surface electrostatic field; and to the lightning location data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). An observed negative lightning that decreases a negative charge overhead often abruptly terminates TGEs. By analysing the recorded fast electric field waveforms and comparing them with similar classified waveforms reported previously, we could identify the type and polarity of the observed lightnings. (author)

  19. Adsorption of lysozyme on base metal surfaces in the presence of an external electric potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ei Ei, Htwe; Nakama, Yuhi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi

    2016-11-01

    The impact of external electric potential on the adsorption of a protein to base metal surfaces was examined. Hen egg white lysozyme (LSZ) and six types of base metal plates (stainless steel SUS316L (St), Ti, Ta, Zr, Cr, or Ni) were used as the protein and adsorption surface, respectively. LSZ was allowed to adsorb on the surface under different conditions (surface potential, pH, electrolyte type and concentration, surface material), which was monitored using an ellipsometer. LSZ adsorption was minimized in the potential range above a certain threshold and, in the surface potential range below the threshold, decreasing the surface potential increased the amount of protein adsorbed. The threshold potential for LSZ adsorption was shifted toward a positive value with increasing pH and was lower for Ta and Zr than for the others. A divalent anion salt (K2SO4) as an electrolyte exhibited the adsorption of LSZ in the positive potential range while a monovalent salt (KCl) did not. A comprehensive consideration of the obtained results suggests that two modes of interactions, namely the electric force by an external electric field and electrostatic interactions with ionized surface hydroxyl groups, act on the LSZ molecules and determine the extent of suppression of LSZ adsorption. All these findings appear to support the view that a base metal surface can be controlled for the affinity to a protein by manipulating the surface electric potential as has been reported on some electrode materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surfaces on electric and magnetic dipole emission transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, X.; Naik, G. V.; Kildishev, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different metallic surfaces and a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) surface were simulated using the dyadic Green’s function technique. The theoretical approach was verified by experimental results obtained by measuring angular-depende......-dependent emission spectra of europium ions on top of different films. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces. The results of numerical calculations agree well with experimental data.......Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different metallic surfaces and a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) surface were simulated using the dyadic Green’s function technique. The theoretical approach was verified by experimental results obtained by measuring angular...

  1. Electrically driven surface plasmon light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke

    We investigate device performance of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement.......We investigate device performance of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement....

  2. Modelling of time delay of electrical breakdown for nitrogen-filled tubes at pressures of 6.6 and 13.3 mbar in the increase region of the memory curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesic, N T; Ristic, G S; Pejovic, M M; Karamarkovic, J P

    2008-01-01

    Experimentally measured electrical breakdown time delay data versus the afterglow period (representing 'memory curves') for nitrogen-filled tubes at pressures of 6.6 and 13.3 mbar have been shown. The influence of N( 4 S) nitrogen atoms on secondary electron emission from the cathode (the SEE process) in late afterglow has been discussed. N( 4 S) atom concentration decay over relaxation time τ, N( 4 S)(τ), has been analysed by a numerical model and two analytical models. N( 4 S) decay analytical models are combined with different yield models that describe the SEE process by N( 4 S) and these combinations are employed to fit the experimental data. It has been shown that in late afterglow solving of very simple analytical equations instead of numerical solving of partial differential equations for N( 4 S)(τ) fitting can be used and that the combination of the first and the second order of the SEE process by N( 4 S) in yield modelling should be used in the case of 13.3 mbar pressure.

  3. Electrically driven directional motion of a four-wheeled molecule on a metal surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudernac, Tibor; Ruangsupapichat, Nopporn; Parschau, Manfred; Macia, Beatriz; Katsonis, Nathalie; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Ernst, Karl-Heinz; Feringa, Ben L.

    2011-01-01

    Propelling single molecules in a controlled manner along an unmodified surface remains extremely challenging because it requires molecules that can use light, chemical or electrical energy to modulate their interaction with the surface in a way that generates motion. Nature's motor proteins(1,2)

  4. Experimental research for vacuum gap breakdown in high voltage multi-pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ziping; He Jialong; Chen Sifu; Deng Jianjun; Wang Liping

    2008-01-01

    Base on the breakdown theory of vacuum gaps, experiments have been done to find out the breakdown electric field intensities in high voltage single-and triple-pulse for 26 vacuum gaps with different shapes. The experimental results match up to the theory and confirm the effect of the pulse-number increase on the breakdown electric field intensity. The key point to decide the macroscopical breakdown electric field intensity of a vacuum gap has been pointed out with some advises about the design of a multi-pulse linear inductive accelerator's accelerate gap. (authors)

  5. Electrical properties of Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR scatterometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, Lauren C.; Zebker, Howard A.; Ostro, Steven J.; West, Richard D.; Gim, Yonggyu; Lorenz, Ralph D.; The Cassini Radar Team

    2007-06-01

    We report regional-scale low-resolution backscatter images of Titan's surface acquired by the Cassini RADAR scatterometer at a wavelength of 2.18-cm. We find that the average angular dependence of the backscatter from large regions and from specific surface features is consistent with a model composed of a quasi-specular Hagfors term plus a diffuse cosine component. A Gaussian quasi-specular term also fits the data, but less well than the Hagfors term. We derive values for the mean dielectric constant and root-mean-square (rms) slope of the surface from the quasi-specular term, which we ascribe to scattering from the surface interface only. The diffuse term accommodates contributions from volume scattering, multiple scattering, or wavelength-scale near-surface structure. The Hagfors model results imply a surface with regional mean dielectric constants between 1.9 and 3.6 and regional surface roughness that varies between 5.3° and 13.4° in rms-slope. Dielectric constants between 2 and 3 are expected for a surface composed of solid simple hydrocarbons, water ice, or a mixture of both. Smaller dielectric constants, between 1.6 and 1.9, are consistent with liquid hydrocarbons, while larger dielectric constants, near 4.5, may indicate the presence of water-ammonia ice [Lorenz, R.D., 1998. Icarus 136, 344-348] or organic heteropolymers [Thompson, W.R., Squyres, S.W., 1990. Icarus 86, 336-354]. We present backscatter images corrected for angular effects using the model residuals, which show strong features that correspond roughly to those in 0.94-μm ISS images. We model the localized backscatter from specific features to estimate dielectric constant and rms slope when the angular coverage is within the quasi-specular part of the backscatter curve. Only two apparent surface features are scanned with angular coverage sufficient for accurate modeling. Data from the bright albedo feature Quivira suggests a dielectric constant near 2.8 and rms slope near 10.1°. The dark

  6. Electrical properties of polyimides containing a near-surface deposit of silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Porta, G. M.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Films containing a surface or near-surface deposit of palladium, gold or copper metal as well as tin, cobalt, copper, or lithium oxides have been prepared by dissolving appropriate metal salts into poly(amide-acid)/N,N-dimethylacetamide solutions and curing the solvent cast films to temperatures up to 300 C. This preparation technique has been extended to evaluate the thermal, spectroscopic, and electrical characteristics of condensation polyimide films modified with silver nitrate. A near-surface deposit of metallic silver results but the reflective surface has high electrical resistivity (sheet resistivity) due to a polymer coating or overlayer above the metal. Details pertaining to the silver nitrate modified condensation polyimides are presented. Also, the applicability of the structural model and electrical model previously proposed for the cobalt oxide system are assessed.

  7. The effect of surface electrical stimulation on swallowing in dysphagic Parkinson patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baijens, Laura W J; Speyer, Renée; Passos, Valeria Lima; Pilz, Walmari; Roodenburg, Nel; Clavé, Père

    2012-12-01

    Surface electrical stimulation has been applied on a large scale to treat oropharyngeal dysphagia. Patients suffering from oropharyngeal dysphagia in the presence of Parkinson's disease have been treated with surface electrical stimulation. Because of controversial reports on this treatment, a pilot study was set up. This study describes the effects of a single session of surface electrical stimulation using different electrode positions in ten patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (median Hoehn and Yahr score: II) and oropharyngeal dysphagia compared to ten age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects during videofluoroscopy of swallowing. Three different electrode positions were applied in random order per subject. For each electrode position, the electrical current was respectively turned "on" and "off" in random order. Temporal, spatial, and visuoperceptual variables were scored by experienced raters who were blinded to the group, electrode position, and status (on/off) of the electrical current. Interrater and interrater reliabilities were calculated. Only a few significant effects of a single session of surface electrical stimulation using different electrode positions in dysphagic Parkinson patients could be observed in this study. Furthermore, significant results for temporal and spatial variables were found regardless of the status of the electrical current in both groups suggesting placebo effects. Following adjustment for electrical current status as well as electrode positions (both not significant, P > 0.05) in the statistical model, significant group differences between Parkinson patients and healthy control subjects emerged. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect and mechanism of electrical stimulation in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease.

  8. Chlorophyll breakdown in higher plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hörtensteiner Stefan; Kräutler Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Chlorophyll breakdown is an important catabolic process of leaf senescence and fruit ripening. Structure elucidation of colorless linear tetrapyrroles as (final) breakdown products of chlorophyll was crucial for the recent delineation of a chlorophyll breakdown pathway which is highly conserved in land plants. Pheophorbide a oxygenase is the key enzyme responsible for opening of the chlorin macrocycle of pheophorbide a characteristic to all further breakdown products. Degradation of chlorophy...

  9. Effect of the surface film electric resistance on eddy current detectability of surface cracks in Alloy 600 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saario, T.; Paine, J.P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The most widely used technique for NDE of steam generator tubing is eddy current. This technique can reliably detect cracks grown in sodium hydroxide environment only at depths greater than 50% through wall. However, cracking caused by thiosulphate solutions have been detected and sized at shallower depths. The disparity has been proposed to be caused by the different electric resistance of the crack wall surface films and corrosion products in the cracks formed in different environments. This work was undertaken to clarify the role of surface film electric resistance on the disparity found in eddy current detectability of surface cracks in alloy 600 tubes. The proposed model explaining the above mentioned disparity is the following. The detectability of tightly closed cracks by the eddy current technique depends on the electric resistance of the surface films of the crack walls. The nature and resistance of the films which form on the crack walls during operation depends on the composition of the solution inside the crack and close to the crack location. During cooling down of the steam generator, because of contraction and loss of internal pressurization, the cracks are rather tightly closed so that exchange of electrolyte and thus changes in the film properties become difficult. As a result, the surface condition prevailing at high temperature is preserved. If the environment is such that the films formed on the crack walls under operating conditions have low electric resistance, eddy current technique will fail to indicate these cracks or will underestimate the size of these cracks. However, if the electric resistance of the films is high, a tightly closed crack will resemble an open crack and will be easily indicated and correctly sized by eddy current technique

  10. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  11. Changes in electric properties of semimetal and semiconductor films during metals deposition on their surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, V.N.; Ukhlinov, G.A.; Zherebov, V.Yu.; Lakhno, I.G.

    1987-01-01

    Investigation into electrical properties of deposited films of lead and bismuth tellurides, bismuth, tellurium and antimony in the course of copper deposition on their surface is conducted to decorate crystallite boundaries. A sharp drop of electric resistance, then its stabilization and again a drop are observed from the moment of copper deposition beginning. Electric resistance of bismuth, antimony and tellurium films drops monotonously. Electric resistance drop may be explained by removal of barriers at the crystallite boundaries resulting from decoration with copper. The maximum coefficient of thermoelectric capacity is achieved when electric resistance enters its stabilization stage, which testifies to the fact that the film thermoelectrical properties may be improved through decorating the crystallite boundaries

  12. Light irradiation tuning of surface wettability, optical, and electric properties of graphene oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, A.; Landi, G.; Altavilla, C.; Sofia, D.; Iannace, S.; Sorrentino, A.; Neitzert, H. C.

    2017-02-01

    In this work the preparation of flexible polymeric films with controlled electrical conductivity, light transmission and surface wettability is reported. A drop casted graphene oxide thin film is photo-reduced at different levels by UV light or laser irradiation. Optical microscopy, IR spectroscopy, electrical characterization, Raman spectroscopy and static water contact angle measurements are used in order to characterize the effects of the various reduction methods. Correlations between the optical, electrical and structural properties are reported and compared to previous literature results. These correlations provide a useful tool for independently tuning the properties of these films for specific applications.

  13. Laser-based surface preparation of composite laminates leads to improved electrodes for electrical measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled

    2015-10-19

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a low-cost, fast and effective structural health monitoring technique that can be used on carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). Electrodes are a key component of any EIT system and as such they should feature low resistivity as well as high robustness and reproducibility. Surface preparation is required prior to bonding of electrodes. Currently this task is mostly carried out by traditional sanding. However this is a time consuming procedure which can also induce damage to surface fibers and lead to spurious electrode properties. Here we propose an alternative processing technique based on the use of pulsed laser irradiation. The processing parameters that result in selective removal of the electrically insulating resin with minimum surface fiber damage are identified. A quantitative analysis of the electrical contact resistance is presented and the results are compared with those obtained using sanding.

  14. Effect of electric spark pulses on surface layer structure of chromium monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstyukhin, A.I.; Krapivka, N.A.; Barinov, I.P.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of electric spark pulses on the character of fracture of surface layers of chromium monocrystals during cutting in crystallographic planes (100), (110) and (111) is established. Crystallographical anisotropy of defect formation is determined and the value of defective layers during cutting in the above planes is found. A conclusion is made that cracks in chromium monocrystals of commercial grade during electric-spark cutting are formed in planes (100) and more seldom in (111) ones. A high-temperature annealing for the reduction of initial properties of chromium surface layers is suggested

  15. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-07-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  16. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO 2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  17. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Controllable Electrical Conductivity and Water Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lijun; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Zhixiang; Zhao, Jingxin; Ye, Cuicui; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2017-02-14

    A facile and versatile strategy for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable electrical conductivity and water adhesion is reported. "Vine-on-fence"-structured and cerebral cortex-like superhydrophobic surfaces are constructed by filtering a suspension of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), using polyoxymethylene nonwovens as the filter paper. The nonwovens with micro- and nanoporous two-tier structures act as the skeleton, introducing a microscale structure. The MWCNTs act as nanoscale structures, creating hierarchical surface roughness. The surface topography and the electrical conductivity of the superhydrophobic surfaces are controlled by varying the MWCNT loading. The vine-on-fence-structured surfaces exhibit "sticky" superhydrophobicity with high water adhesion. The cerebral cortex-like surfaces exhibit self-cleaning properties with low water adhesion. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces are chemically resistant to acidic and alkaline environments of pH 2-12. They therefore have potential in applications such as droplet-based microreactors and thin-film microextraction. These findings aid our understanding of the role that surface topography plays in the design and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with different water-adhesion properties.

  18. Hardness and structure changes at surface in electrical discharge machined steel C 3840

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastojkovic, Z.; Janjusevic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The electrical discharge machining (EDM) of both hard and soft materials became an important technique in industrial applications. This technique has an advantage in producing of structural/tool parts of complex geometry. The EDM is based on electrical phenomena, when the treated surface undergoes to erosion. The first step in EDM, the melting of thin surface layer, frequently is neglected. In this paper the changes of hardness and structure at surface layer, after EDM is applied on steel C 3840, will be discussed. The steel C- 3840 was quenched and tempered to hardness of 63 HRC, at surface, and than machined by electrical discharging. The changed, white, layer is just a product of melting and decarburization processes. The white layer is registered at surface by using a metallographic investigation. Hardness profile is measured from surface to the interior of material. The achievement of local high temperatures during EDM is resulting on melt and erosion of material. Besides of these effects, during EDM were happened some minor but not a neglectible effects, primary on structure changes on treated surface. It would be expected that melting, even an evaporation of melted metal, and further the phase transformation have an important influence on the starting structure. (Original)

  19. Amplification of surface acoustic waves by transverse electric current in piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulyaev, Yuri V.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the principal characteristic feature of the surface acoustic waves in piezoelectrics—the presence of an alternating electric field transverse to the surface, which can be of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal field—may not only give rise to the known transverse...... acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...

  20. Experimental Study of Magnetic Field Production and Dielectric Breakdown of Auto-Magnetizing Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Gabriel; Awe, Thomas; Hutchinson, Trevor; Hutsel, Brian; Slutz, Stephen; Lamppa, Derek

    2017-10-01

    AutoMag liners premagnetize the fuel in MagLIF targets and provide enhanced x-ray diagnostic access and increased current delivery without requiring external field coils. AutoMag liners are composite liners made with discrete metallic helical conduction paths separated by insulating material. First, a low dI/dt ``foot'' current pulse (1 MA in 100 ns) premagnetizes the fuel. Next, a higher dI/dt pulse with larger induced electric field initiates breakdown on the composite liner's; surface, switching the current from helical to axial to implode the liner. Experiments on MYKONOS have tested the premagnetization and breakdown phases of AutoMag and demonstrate axial magnetic fields above 90 Tesla for a 550 kA peak current pulse. Electric fields of 17 MV/m have been generated before breakdown. AutoMag may enhance MagLIF performance by increasing the premagnetization strength significantly above 30 T, thus reducing thermal-conduction losses and mitigating anomalous diffusion of magnetic field out of hotter fuel regions, by, for example, the Nernst thermoelectric effect. This project was funded in part by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (Projects No. 200169 and 195306).

  1. Pair-breaking effects by parallel magnetic field in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeta, Masahiro, E-mail: nabeta@mp.okayama-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Kenta K.; Onari, Seiichiro; Ichioka, Masanori

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Zeeman effect shifts superconducting gaps of sub-band system, towards pair-breaking. • Higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like electronic states by magnetic fields. • Magnetic field dependence of zero-energy DOS reflects multi-gap superconductivity. - Abstract: We study paramagnetic pair-breaking in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity, when magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface. The calculation is performed by Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory with s-wave pairing, including the screening effect of electric fields by the induced carriers near the surface. Due to the Zeeman shift by applied fields, electronic states at higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like. Therefore, the magnetic field dependence of Fermi-energy density of states reflects the multi-gap structure in the surface superconductivity.

  2. Electrical double layer interactions between dissimilar oxide surfaces with charge regulation and Stern-Grahame layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C; Healy, Thomas W; Supasiti, Tharatorn; Usui, S

    2006-04-01

    Models of surfaces with intrinsic ionisable amphoteric surface sites governed by the dissociation of acid-base potential determining ion species together with the capacity for the adsorption of anion and cations of the supporting electrolyte are required to describe both the results of electrokinetic and titration measurements of inorganic oxides. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Grahame (CGSG) model is one such model that has been widely used in the literature. The electrical double layer interaction between two dissimilar CGSG surfaces has been studied by Usui recently [S. Usui, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280 (2004) 113] where erroneous discontinuities in the slope of the pressure-separation relation were observed. We revisit this calculation and provide a simple general methodology to analyse the electrical double layer interaction between dissimilar ionisable surfaces with ion adsorption.

  3. Pair-breaking effects by parallel magnetic field in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kenta K.; Onari, Seiichiro; Ichioka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Zeeman effect shifts superconducting gaps of sub-band system, towards pair-breaking. • Higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like electronic states by magnetic fields. • Magnetic field dependence of zero-energy DOS reflects multi-gap superconductivity. - Abstract: We study paramagnetic pair-breaking in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity, when magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface. The calculation is performed by Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory with s-wave pairing, including the screening effect of electric fields by the induced carriers near the surface. Due to the Zeeman shift by applied fields, electronic states at higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like. Therefore, the magnetic field dependence of Fermi-energy density of states reflects the multi-gap structure in the surface superconductivity.

  4. Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators Using Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    B. Marungsri; W. Onchantuek; A. Oonsivilai

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation the results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators. Near the same leakage distance subjected to 15 kV in 50 cycle salt fog ageing test, alternate sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator showed better contamination performance than straight sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator. Severe surface ageing was observed on the straight sheds insulator. The objective of this work is to ...

  5. DC electrical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of various condensation polyimides containing surface cobalt oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, J. D.; Boggess, R. K.; Horning, L. S.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Doping polyimides with cobalt ion causes the room temperature direct current electrical resistivity to decrease relative to the polymer alone, the reduction being most pronounced for the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides. At a constant electrical field, resistivity for the volume, air-side and glass-side modes decreases yet further with an increase in temperature as expected for semiconductors and insulators. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the air-side of the cobalt modified polyimides is predominantly Co3O4. The bulk resistivity of the air-side and activation energy of conduction for this surface are comparable to high purity sintered Co3O4. Charging characteristics at room temperature indicate a substantial polymer matrix contribution to both the glass-side and volume mode measurements but a negligible contribution to the air-side electrical properties. Volume electrical resistivity for similar additive levels is reduced by increasing the molecular flexibility of the host polymer.

  6. Dispersion of breakdown voltage of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Itaru; Noguchi, Takuya

    1978-01-01

    As for the electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium, the discrepancy among the measured values by each person is very large even in the fundamental DC breakdown voltage in uniform electric field. The dispersion of experimental values obtained in the experiments by the same person is also large. Hereafter, the difference among the mean values obtained by each experimenter will be referred to as ''deviation of mean values'', and the dispersion of measured values around the mean value obtained by the same person as ''deviation around the man value''. The authors have mainly investigated on the latter experimentally. The cryostat was made of stainless steel, and the innermost helium chamber was of 500 mm I.D. and approximately 1200 mm deep. The high voltage electrode was of brass sphere of 25 mm diameter, and the low voltage electrode was of brass plate. The experiment was conducted for liquid helium boiling at 4.2 K and 1 atm, and the breakdown voltage and time lag were measured by applying the approximately square wave impulses of fast rise and long tail, ramp and DC voltages. The cause of the deviation of mean values may be the presence of impurity particles or the effect of electrode shape. As for the deviation around the mean value, the dispersion is large, and its standard deviation may amount to 10 to 20% of the man value. The dispersion is not due to the statistical time lag, but is due to parameters that vary with breakdown. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. The application of surface electrical and shallow geothermic methods in monitoring network design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Cartwright, K.

    1983-01-01

    There are a variety of surface geophysical methods that are routinely used in geologic investigations. The three broad applications of these methods to evaluate the impact of waste disposal on shallow groundwater flow systems are: 1) evaluation of proposed waste disposal sites; 2) monitoring of site performance; and 3) investigation of contaminant migration at existing sites. Electrical and shallow geothermic are two surface geophysical methods that have application to waste disposal investigations. Of the electrical methods, electrical resistivity has the greatest application with a variety of techniques available. The distribution of temperature in shallow geologic materials (shallow geothermics) may define characteristics of shallow groundwater flow systems including zones of recharge and discharge and lithologic variation in the shallow geologic materials.-from Authors

  8. Electric field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. D. D.

    2013-05-01

    Rydberg atoms may enable hybrid systems that combine the benefits of gas-phase atoms with those of solid-state devices. However, these hybrid systems will require atoms to be located near a heterogeneous surface with exposed metal electrodes and dielectric insulators, which are sources of uncontrollable and unwanted electric fields. With this motivation, we have measured the electric fields near the heterogeneous metal-dielectric surface of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms. We have also developed a technique for reducing the influence of dc and low-frequency electric fields on Rydberg atom transitions, while retaining their sensitivity to high-frequency resonant fields. Work performed in collaboration with J. D. Carter, L. A. Jones, and O. Cherry and supported by NSERC.

  9. Surface roughness and grain boundary scattering effects on the electrical conductivity of thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, George

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we investigate surface/interface roughness and grain boundary scattering effects on the electrical conductivity of polycrystalline thin films in the Born approximation. We assume for simplicity a random Gaussian roughness convoluted with a domain size distribution ~e^-πr^2/ζ^2 to

  10. Cycle-to-cycle control of swing phase of paraplegic gait induced by surface electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, H.M.; Franken, H.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Baardman, G.; Redmeijer, R.A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Parameterised swing phase of gait in paraplegics was obtained using surface electrical stimulation of the hip flexors, hamstrings and quadriceps; the hip flexors were stimulated to obtain a desired hip angle range, the hamstrings to provide foot clearance in the forward swing, and the quadriceps to

  11. Fabrication of surface micro- and nanostructures for superhydrophobic surfaces in electric and electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Yonghao

    In our study, the superhydrophobic surface based on biomimetic lotus leave is explored to maintain the desired properties for self-cleaning. Parameters in controlling bead-up and roll-off characteristics of water droplets were investigated on different model surfaces. The governing equations were proposed. Heuristic study is performed. First, the fundamental understanding of the effect of roughness on superhydrophobicity is performed. The effect of hierarchical roughness, i.e., two scale roughness effect on roughness is investigated using systems of (1) monodisperse colloidal silica sphere (submicron) arrays and Au nanoparticle on top and (2) Si micrometer pyramids and Si nanostructures on top from KOH etching and metal assisted etching of Si. The relation between the contact area fraction and water droplet contact angles are derived based on Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equation for the systems and the two scale effect is explained regarding the synergistic combination of two scales. Previously the microscopic three-phase-contact line is thought to be the key factor in determining contact angles and hystereses. In our study, Laplace pressure was brought up and related to the three-phase-contact line and taken as a key figure of merit in determining superhydrophobicity. In addition, we are one of the first to study the effect of tapered structures (wall inclination). Combining with a second scale roughness on the tapered structures, stable Cassie state for both water and low surface energy oil may be achieved. This is of great significance for designing both superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity. Regarding the origin of contact angle hysteresis, study of superhydrophobicity on micrometer Si pillars was performed. The relation between the interface work of function and contact angle hysteresis was proposed and derived mathematically based on the Young-Dupre equation. The three-phase-contact line was further related to a secondary scale roughness induced. Based on

  12. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M ampersand S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M ampersand S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry

  13. Work breakdown structure guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-06

    Utilization of the work breakdown structure (WBS) technique is an effective aid in managing Department of Energy (DOE) programs and projects. The technique provides a framework for project management by focusing on the products that are being developed or constructed to solve technical problems. It assists both DOE and contractors in fulfilling their management responsibilities. This document provides guidance for use of the WBS technique for product oriented work identification and definition. It is one in a series of policy and guidance documents supporting DOE's project manaagement system.

  14. Surface engineering of ferroelectric polymer for the enhanced electrical performance of organic transistor memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Lee, Gyu-Jeong; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Bae, Jin-Hyuk

    2018-05-01

    We suggest a viable surface control method to improve the electrical properties of organic nonvolatile memory transistors. For viable surface control, the surface of the ferroelectric insulator in the memory field-effect transistors was modified using a smooth-contact-curing process. For the modification of the ferroelectric polymer, during the curing of the ferroelectric insulators, the smooth surface of a soft elastomer contacts intimately with the ferroelectric surface. This smooth-contact-curing process reduced the surface roughness of the ferroelectric insulator without degrading its ferroelectric properties. The reduced roughness of the ferroelectric insulator increases the mobility of the organic field-effect transistor by approximately eight times, which results in a high memory on–off ratio and a low-voltage reading operation.

  15. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... introduced risks of new kinds of breakdown in collaborative information seeking. In working to prevent and recover from breakdowns in the seeking and sharing of information a focus on collaborative information seeking will point toward collaborative, organizational, and systemic reasons for breakdown...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these breakdowns...

  16. Electrical conductivity and electron cyclotron current drive efficiencies for non-circular flux surfaces in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    As is well known, the presence of electron trapping can strongly reduce the electrical conductivity and rf current drive efficiencies of tokamak plasmas. For example, the conductivity (in the low collisionality limit) of a flux surface with inverse aspect ratio ε=0.1 is approximately one half of the Spitzer conductivity (σ sp )for uniform magnetic fields. Previous estimates of these effects have assumed that the variation of magnetic field strength around a flux surface is given by the standard form for circular flux surfaces. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs

  17. Surface plasmon-mediated energy transfer of electrically-pumped excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kwang Hyup; Shtein, Max; Pipe, Kevin P.

    2015-08-25

    An electrically pumped light emitting device emits a light when powered by a power source. The light emitting device includes a first electrode, a second electrode including an outer surface, and at least one active organic semiconductor disposed between the first and second electrodes. The device also includes a dye adjacent the outer surface of the second electrode such that the second electrode is disposed between the dye and the active organic semiconductor. A voltage applied by the power source across the first and second electrodes causes energy to couple from decaying dipoles into surface plasmon polariton modes, which then evanescently couple to the dye to cause the light to be emitted.

  18. Generation of Electricity at Graphene Interface Governed by Underlying Surface Dipole Induced Ion Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanshan; Su, Yudan; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yuanbo; Tian, Chuanshan

    Aqueous droplet moving along graphene surface can produce electricity This interesting phenomenon provided environment-friendly means to harvest energy from graphene interface in contact with sea wave or rain droplets. However, microscopically, the nature of charge adsorption at the graphene interface is still unclear. Here, utilizing sum-frequency spectroscopy in combined with measurement of electrical power generation, the origin of charge adsorption on graphene was investigated. It was found that the direct ion-graphene interaction is negligibly small, contrary to the early speculation, but the ordered surface dipole from the supporting substrate, such as PET, is responsible for ion adsorption at the interface. Graphene serves as a conductive layer with mild screening of Coulomb interaction when aqueous droplet slips over the surface. These results pave the way for optimization of energy harvesting efficiency of graphene-based device.

  19. Dielectric breakdown of ultrathin aluminum oxide films induced by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magtoto, N. P.; Niu, C.; Ekstrom, B. M.; Addepalli, S.; Kelber, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric breakdown of 7-Aa-thick Al 2 O 3 (111) films grown on Ni 3 Al(111) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions is induced by increasing the bias voltage on the scanning tunneling microscopy tip under constant current feedback. Breakdown is marked by the precipitous retreat of the tip from the surface, and the formation of an elevated feature in the scanning tunneling microscopy image, typically greater than 5 nm high and ∼100 nm in diameter. Constant height measurements performed at tip/sample distances of 1 nm or less yield no tip/substrate physical interaction, indicating that such features do not result from mass transport. Consistent with this, current/voltage measurements within the affected regions indicate linear behavior, in contrast to a band gap of 1.5 eV observed at unaffected regions of the oxide surface. A threshold electric field value of 11±1 MV cm -1 is required to induce breakdown, in good agreement with extrapolated values from capacitance measurements on thicker oxides. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. Large apparent electric size of solid-state nanopores due to spatially extended surface conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Joly, Laurent; Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Fulcrand, Rémy; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-08-08

    Ion transport through nanopores drilled in thin membranes is central to numerous applications, including biosensing and ion selective membranes. This paper reports experiments, numerical calculations, and theoretical predictions demonstrating an unexpectedly large ionic conduction in solid-state nanopores, taking its origin in anomalous entrance effects. In contrast to naive expectations based on analogies with electric circuits, the surface conductance inside the nanopore is shown to perturb the three-dimensional electric current streamlines far outside the nanopore in order to meet charge conservation at the pore entrance. This unexpected contribution to the ionic conductance can be interpreted in terms of an apparent electric size of the solid-state nanopore, which is much larger than its geometric counterpart whenever the number of charges carried by the nanopore surface exceeds its bulk counterpart. This apparent electric size, which can reach hundreds of nanometers, can have a major impact on the electrical detection of translocation events through nanopores, as well as for ionic transport in biological nanopores.

  1. Structural and Electrical Characterization of Oxidated, Nitridated and Oxi-nitridated (100) GaAs Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Nakamura, Kazuki; Takebe, Masahide; Takemoto, Akira; Inokuma, Takao; Iiyama, Koichi; Takamiya, Saburo; Higashimine, Koichi; Ohtsuka, Nobuo; Yonezawa, Yasuto

    2003-07-01

    Oxidation by the UV & ozone process, nitridation by the nitrogen helicon-wave-excited plasma process, and the combination of these processes are applied to (100) GaAs wafers. An atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, a transmission electron microscope, photoluminescence and electrical characteristics (current-voltage and capacitance-voltage) were used to analyze the influences of these processes on the structure and composition of the surfaces and the interfaces. Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes and Schottky diodes were fabricated in order to investigate the electrical influences of these processes. The oxidation slightly disorders GaAs surfaces. Nitridation of a bare surface creates about a 2-nm-thick strongly disordered layer, which strongly deteriorates the electrical and photoluminescence characteristics. Nitridation of oxidated wafers (oxi-nitridation) forms firm amorphous GaON layers, which contain GaN, with very flat and sharp GaON/GaAs interfaces, where crystal disorder is hardly observed. It improves the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and the photoluminescence intensity. Results of the structural and the electrical characterizations qualitatively coincide well with each other.

  2. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Morganti, N; Saccone, G

    2015-01-01

    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field. (paper)

  3. Recovery of Alumina Nanocapacitors after High Voltage Breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, A; Bezryadin, A; Hendren, L; Hubler, A

    2017-04-20

    Breakdown of a dielectric material at high electric fields significantly limits the applicability of metal-dielectric-metal capacitors for energy storage applications. Here we demonstrate that the insulating properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al 2 O 3 thin films in Al/Al 2 O 3 /Al trilayers can recover after the breakdown. The recovery has been observed in samples with the dielectric thickness spanning from 4 to 9 nm. This phenomenon holds promise for a new generation of capacitors capable of restoring their properties after the dielectric breakdown. Also, if employed in capacitor banks, the recovery process will ensure that the bank remains operational even if a breakdown occurs.

  4. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  5. Scaling laws for AC gas breakdown and implications for universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Amanda M.; Garner, Allen L.

    2017-10-01

    The reduced dependence on secondary electron emission and electrode surface properties makes radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) plasmas advantageous over direct current (DC) plasmas for various applications, such as microthrusters. Theoretical models relating molecular constants to alternating current (AC) breakdown often fail due to incomplete understanding of both the constants and the mechanisms involved. This work derives simple analytic expressions for RF and MW breakdown, demonstrating the transition between these regimes at their high and low frequency limits, respectively. We further show that the limiting expressions for DC, RF, and MW breakdown voltage all have the same universal scaling dependence on pressure and gap distance at high pressure, agreeing with experiment.

  6. Electrical and Surface Properties of InAs/InSb Nanowires Cleaned by Atomic Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James L; Knutsson, Johan; Hjort, Martin; Gorji Ghalamestani, Sepideh; Dick, Kimberly A; Timm, Rainer; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2015-08-12

    We present a study of InAs/InSb heterostructured nanowires by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and in-vacuum electrical measurements. Starting with pristine nanowires covered only by the native oxide formed through exposure to ambient air, we investigate the effect of atomic hydrogen cleaning on the surface chemistry and electrical performance. We find that clean and unreconstructed nanowire surfaces can be obtained simultaneously for both InSb and InAs by heating to 380 ± 20 °C under an H2 pressure 2 × 10(-6) mbar. Through electrical measurement of individual nanowires, we observe an increase in conductivity of 2 orders of magnitude by atomic hydrogen cleaning, which we relate through theoretical simulation to the contact-nanowire junction and nanowire surface Fermi level pinning. Our study demonstrates the significant potential of atomic hydrogen cleaning regarding device fabrication when high quality contacts or complete control of the surface structure is required. As hydrogen cleaning has recently been shown to work for many different types of III-V nanowires, our findings should be applicable far beyond the present materials system.

  7. Effects of electric field on a copper–dioxolene complex adsorbed on a gold surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostyrko, T., E-mail: tkos@amu.edu.pl; Ślusarski, T.

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Cu–dioxolene complex at Au(1 1 1) surface in electric field was studied with a DFT+U method. • Two valence tautomers of the adsorbed Cu–dioxolene complex were described. • Coulomb correlations on Cu make driving force for valence tautomeric transitions. • Electric field of strength of 0.5 V/Å can almost fully ionize the adsorbed complex. - Abstract: A model of a copper–dioxolene complex linked to Au(1 1 1) surface with butanethiol linker is investigated using first-principles methods. It is shown that the complex adsorbed at the surface may appear in various locally stable structural forms differing in electron charge and spin density distribution, the symmetric high spin (HS) one and the twisted low spin (LS) structure. The electric field directed perpendicular to the surface controls the amount of the charge transfer between the complex and the substrate, starting from the zero-field value of Q = +0.18 |e| up to the value of Q = +0.94 |e| for the field strength of E = 0.5 V/Å. The field modifies also the mutual stability of the two structural forms, reducing the energy gap between the more energetically stable LS twisted form and the symmetrical HS one, from a value of Δ ∼ 0.29 eV in absence of the field to Δ ∼ 0.11 eV for the field strength of E = 0.35 V/Å.

  8. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  9. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qinghe; Liu, Hongtao; Chen, Tianchi; Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  10. Molecular structures of (3-aminopropyl)trialkoxysilane on hydroxylated barium titanate nanoparticle surfaces induced by different solvents and their effect on electrical properties of barium titanate based polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yanyan; Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Bu, Jing; Sun, Xiaojin; Jiang, Pingkai

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The silanization on the surface of hydroxylated barium titanate nanoparticles was introduced by using two kinds of trialkoxysilanes with different solvents (toluene and ethanol), respectively. • Solvents have more remarkable impact on the dielectric properties of the subsequent BT/PVDF nanocomposites than the types of silanes. • The solvents used for BT nanoparticle surface modification exhibit a significant effect on the breakdown strength of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Surface modification of nanoparticles by grafting silane coupling agents has proven to be a significant approach to improve the interfacial compatibility between inorganic filler and polymer matrix. However, the impact of grafted silane molecular structure after the nanoparticle surface modification, induced by the utilized solvents and the silane alkoxy groups, on the electrical properties of the corresponding nanocomposites, has been seldom investigated. Herein, the silanization on the surface of hydroxylated barium titanate (BT-OH) nanoparticles was introduced by using two kinds of trialkoxysilane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMEO) and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMMO), with different solvents (toluene and ethanol), respectively. Solid-state 13 C, 29 Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to validate the structure differences of alkoxysilane attachment to the nanoparticles. The effect of alkoxysilane structure attached to the nanoparticle surface on the dielectric properties of the BT based poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanocomposites were investigated. The results reveal that the solvents used for BT nanoparticle surface modification exhibit a significant effect on the breakdown strength of the nanocomposites. Nevertheless, the alkoxy groups of silane show a marginal influence on the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. These research results provide

  11. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  12. Intracellular protein breakdown. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohley, P.; Kirschke, H.; Langner, J.; Wiederanders, B.; Ansorge, S.

    1976-01-01

    Double-labelled proteins from rat liver cytosol ( 14 C in long-lived, 3 H in short-lived proteins after in-vivo-labelling) are used as substrates for unlabelled proteinases in vitro. Differences in the degradation rates of short-lived and long-lived proteins in vitro by different proteinases and after addition of different effectors allow conclusions concerning their importance for the in-vivo-turnover of substrate proteins. The main activity (>90%) of soluble lysosomal proteinases at pH 6.1 and pH 6.9 is caused by thiolproteinases, which degrade preferentially short-lived cytosol proteins. These proteinases are inhibited by leupeptin. Autolysis of double-labelled cell fractions shows a remarkably faster breakdown of short-lived substrate proteins only in the soluble part of lysosomes. Microsomal fractions degrade in vitro preferentially long-lived substrate proteins. (author)

  13. Extruded Films From Modified Polypropylene Resin: Dielectric and Breakdown Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    antioxidants which would be normally adsorbed on powdered resin surfaces. These species would have become trapped within the PP film during melt extrusion ...AD-A261 382 SResearch and Development Technical Report SLCET-TR-91-29 EXTRUDED FILMS FROM MODIFIED POLYPROPYLENE RESIN: DIELECTRIC AND BREAKDOWN...Auq 91 ’ m u’ . .. . . -. ;M A . .. . .AS EXTRUDED FILMS FROM MODIFIED POLYPROPYLENE RESIN: PE: 61102 DIELECTRIC AND BREAKDOWN STUDIES PR: ILI B

  14. INORGANIC PLUME DELINEATION USING SURFACE HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AT THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES SITE HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2007-05-29

    A surface resistivity survey was conducted on the Hanford Site over a waste disposal trench that received a large volume of liquid inorganic waste. The objective of the survey was to map the extent of the plume that resulted from the disposal activities approximately 50 years earlier. The survey included six resistivity transects of at least 200m, where each transect provided two-dimensional profile information of subsurface electrical properties. The results of the survey indicated that a low resistivity plume resides at a depth of approximately 25-44 m below ground surface. The target depth was calibrated with borehole data of pore-water electrical conductivity. Due to the high correlation of the pore-water electrical conductivity to nitrate concentration and the high correlation of measured apparent resistivity to pore-water electrical conductivity, inferences were made that proposed the spatial distribution of the apparent resistivity was due to the distribution of nitrate. Therefore, apparent resistivities were related to nitrate, which was subsequently rendered in three dimensions to show that the nitrate likely did not reach the water table and the bounds of the highest concentrations are directly beneath the collection of waste sites.

  15. Electrical characterization of chemically modified YBa2Cu3O7-x surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.D.; Foote, M.C.; Vasquez, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Results on electrical characterization of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin-film surfaces treated with a Br/ethanol chemical etch are presented. Electrical measurements of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /Au/Nb device structures fabricated using polycrystalline, post-annealed YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films with Br-etched surfaces, show improvements of approximately one or two orders of magnitude in current densities and resistivities (resistance-area products) relative to unetched devices. The existence of supercurrents in these structures has been confirmed by observation of the ac Josephson effect, and by magnetic field and temperature studies of the critical currents. The Br-etch process has produced 10x10 μm 2 devices with critical current densities greater than 400 A/cm 2 and resistivities as low as 4x10 -7 Ω cm 2

  16. An Electric Field Volume Integral Equation Approach to Simulate Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Remis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an electric field volume integral equation approach to simulate surface plasmon propagation along metal/dielectric interfaces. Metallic objects embedded in homogeneous dielectric media are considered. Starting point is a so-called weak-form of the electric field integral equation. This form is discretized on a uniform tensor-product grid resulting in a system matrix whose action on a vector can be computed via the fast Fourier transform. The GMRES iterative solver is used to solve the discretized set of equations and numerical examples, illustrating surface plasmon propagation, are presented. The convergence rate of GMRES is discussed in terms of the spectrum of the system matrix and through numerical experiments we show how the eigenvalues of the discretized volume scattering operator are related to plasmon propagation and the medium parameters of a metallic object.

  17. The influence of surface functionalisation on the electrical properties and thermal stability of nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Joseph O; Li, Pei; Chaudhary, Aysha; Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B., E-mail: r.jackman@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology and the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-07

    Detonation nanodiamond (ND) has recently emerged as a useful new class of diamond material. However, to date there has been little investigation of the electrical properties of this material. Due to the nanoscale dimensions, the surface functionalisation of the individual ND is of particular importance to the characteristics of ND films. Here, hydrogen and oxygen termination of ND, verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are shown to strongly influence the electronic properties of NDs. Hydrogen terminated ND exhibiting a far greater resilience to thermal decomposition when compared to the oxygen terminated NDs. Moreover, H-NDs also displayed so-called “surface conductivity,” a property displayed by hydrogen-terminated bulk diamond films, whilst O-NDs display properties high resistivity. These results indicate that under the correct conditions ND layers can display similar electrical properties to “bulk” diamond thin films.

  18. ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE SURFACE MODIFICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL POLYPROPYLENE FUMARATE SCAFFOLDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M. Brett; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Polypropylene fumarate (PPF) scaffolds fabricated by rapid prototyping technique were surface modified by solution deposition of electrically conductive polypyrrole coatings with or without hydroxyapatite. Scaffolds were electrically conductive with resistivity as low as 2Ω. Scaffold characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis shows both polypyrrole and hydroxyapatite are present. Cell viability, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation were analyzed using human fetal osteoblast cells. These studies show that surface modification using hydroxyapatite improved cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts onto the PPF scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase activity as a marker for osteogenic differentiation of cell to mature osteoblasts was analyzed. Our data reveal that osteoblasts maintained their phenotype on PPF scaffolds with and without coatings. Thus, these scaffolds could be appropriate candidates for our future in vivo studies. PMID:22051167

  19. Electrical characterization of the near-surface region of semiconductor materials by photoconductive decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Patrick J.

    As the trend in mainstream IC manufacturing continues to move towards using very thin layers of silicon and very shallow junctions, the near-surface electrical properties become more important. Likewise, in the photovoltaic industry, thin layers of amorphous silicon and shallow junction solar cells using single crystal and multi-crystalline silicon are of significant interest. For all of these applications, an effective method of in-line monitoring of near-surface electrical properties is essential. The near-surface properties of solar cell materials are of particular interest, where there is a delicate balance between having the surface textured sufficiently to minimize reflectivity, but not too excessively as to dramatically reduce carrier lifetime. As solar cell wafers are becoming thinner and bulk recombination lifetimes improve, carrier diffusion lengths will begin to exceed the thickness of the wafer. Hence, the back surface recombination velocity, which directly affects cell efficiency, becomes a critical factor. Difficulties in determining the impact of near-surface effects on carrier transport properties of thin layer semiconductors have been encountered with traditional methods of electrical characterization. The goal of this research was to investigate the near-surface electrical properties of semiconductor materials, including multi-crystalline silicon used in the photovoltaic industry, by a modified method of electrical characterization based on the photoconductive decay (PCD) effect. The project was completed in two phases. The first phase involved verification of a photoconductive decay method with a newly developed tool, in both a non-contact version and a physical contact version, with respect to capability for characterizing a shallow subsurface region of selected semiconductor materials. To evaluate the capability of the tool, the longer recombination lifetimes of single crystal wafers of indirect bandgap semiconductors Si and Ge (10--100 micros

  20. Significant improvement in the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes on molecularly modified Gallium Nitride surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manjari; Naik, Tejas R.; Pathak, C. S.; Nagarajan, S.; Rao, V. Ramgopal; Singh, R.

    2018-04-01

    III-Nitride semiconductors face the issue of localized surface states, which causes fermi level pinning and large leakage current at the metal semiconductor interface, thereby degrading the device performance. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) of organic molecules to improve the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on n-type Gallium Nitride (n-GaN) epitaxial films. The electrical characteristics of diodes were improved by adsorption of SAM of hydroxyl-phenyl metallated porphyrin organic molecules (Zn-TPPOH) onto the surface of n-GaN. SAM-semiconductor bonding via native oxide on the n-GaN surface was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Surface morphology and surface electronic properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Current-voltage characteristics of different metal (Cu, Ni) SBDs on bare n-GaN were compared with those of Cu/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN and Ni/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN SBDs. It was found that due to the molecular monolayer, the surface potential of n-GaN was decreased by ˜350 mV. This caused an increase in the Schottky barrier height of Cu and Ni SBDs from 1.13 eV to 1.38 eV and 1.07 eV to 1.22 eV, respectively. In addition to this, the reverse bias leakage current was reduced by 3-4 orders of magnitude for both Cu and Ni SBDs. Such a significant improvement in the electrical performance of the diodes can be very useful for better device functioning.

  1. A surface acoustic wave electric field strength meter for environmental studies of HV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Ranghiasci, C.; Verona, E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in concern over the health and safety aspects of high voltage transmission lines (HVTL). The majority of research has focused on effects directly or indirectly involved with the central nervous system, including physiological, ultrastructural, and biochemical alterations, changes in blood composition, behaviour, reproduction, and development. Several recent epidemiological reports have presented preliminary data suggesting an increase in the incidence of cancer among children and adults exposed to magnetic fields through living close to various types of electrical power lines or devices. With the increase in environmental concerns there has been a concomitant consideration of biological effects and health implications related to presently existing HVTL and those planned in the future. It was concluded that the electric and magnetic field strengths and the electrical discharges are the most important electrophysical factors. Thus, it has been deemed necessary to develop measuring means to determine the field strengths in areas surrounding electric installations, in particular at ground level. In the present paper an electric field meter, based on the use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line, is presented and the experimental results obtained are discussed

  2. Research into action of surface soil moistening, drying or freezing on electrical characteristics of grounding device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Nizhevskiy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis made has shown expediency of modernization rather than reconstruction of earth electrodes, after inspection of long operating substations grounding grids, via building a two-level structure. It will result in both technical and economic effects. The novelty of the results consists in studying, by means of a mathematical model, electrical characteristics of a two-level earth electrode versus the depth of surface soil drying or freezing.

  3. Surface hardening alloy VT6 of electric explosion and by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu. F.; Kobzareva, T. Yu.; Gromov, V. E.; Soskova, N. A.; Budovskikh, E. A.; Raikov, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to study the phase composition, structure and properties of the surface layer of the VT6 titanium alloy, subjected to combined treatment, consisting of alloying by the plasma of an electric explosion of a graphite fiber with a charge of the SiC powder and subsequent exposure by a high-intense electron beam. As a result of such treatment, a multiphase surface layer with a submicron and nanosize structure forms with the microhardness manifold exceeding its value in the sample volume are presented

  4. Water droplets' internal fluidity during horizontal motion on a superhydrophobic surface with an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Munetoshi; Kono, Hiroki; Nakajima, Akira; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2010-02-02

    On a superhydrophobic surface, the internal fluidity of water droplets with different volumes (15, 30 microL) and their horizontal motion in an external electric field were evaluated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). For driving of water droplets on a superhydrophobic coating between parallel electrodes, it was important to place them at appropriate positions. Droplets moved with slipping. Small droplets showed deformation that is more remarkable. Results show that the dielectrophoretic force induced the initial droplet motion and that the surface potential gradient drove the droplets after reaching the middle point between electrodes.

  5. Absorption and atom mobility in electric field: point defect role in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serruys, Y.; Vigouroux, J.P.

    1986-10-01

    During the surface analysis of dielectric materials, the impinging ionising particles induce point defects localised in the band gap and build an electrical charge. The electric field created by the charged defects modifies the physico-chemical properties of surface and bulk. We show that the fundamental study of defects allows a better understanding of technological phenomena such as dielectric breakdown, fracture and diffusion [fr

  6. Influence of surface properties on the electrical conductivity of silicon nanomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiangfu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of the large surface-to-volume ratio, the conductivity of semiconductor nanostructures is very sensitive to surface chemical and structural conditions. Two surface modifications, vacuum hydrogenation (VH and hydrofluoric acid (HF cleaning, of silicon nanomembranes (SiNMs that nominally have the same effect, the hydrogen termination of the surface, are compared. The sheet resistance of the SiNMs, measured by the van der Pauw method, shows that HF etching produces at least an order of magnitude larger drop in sheet resistance than that caused by VH treatment, relative to the very high sheet resistance of samples terminated with native oxide. Re-oxidation rates after these treatments also differ. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are consistent with the electrical-conductivity results. We pinpoint the likely cause of the differences. PACS: 73.63.-b, 62.23.Kn, 73.40.Ty

  7. Surface tension of expanded slag from steel manufacturing in electrical furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabaj

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article a research on the surface tension of slag was conducted from the process of obtaining steel in the electric furnace. Melting in the graphite melting crucible caused the slag to foam. The measurement of the surface tension is being conducted with method of rejection. They make the measurement of maximum power needed for the liquid to reject the working element of the apparatus from the surface. The research was conducted in the temperature of 1 673 – 1 723 K. The results of the measurements allowed to determine the surface tension of slag, which in the analysed scope of the temperature is being changed from 454 to 345 mN•m-1.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Surface Layer Properties of High Thermal Conductivity Tool Steel after Electrical Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Świercz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials require the use of advanced technology in manufacturing complex shape parts. One of the modern materials widely used in the tool industry for injection molds or hot stamping dies is high conductivity tool steel (HTCS 150. Due to its hardness (55 HRC and thermal conductivity at 66 W/mK, this material is difficult to machine by conventional treatment and is being increasingly manufactured by nonconventional technology such as electrical discharge machining (EDM. In the EDM process, material is removed from the workpiece by a series of electrical discharges that cause changes to the surface layers properties. The final state of the surface layer directly influences the durability of the produced elements. This paper presents the influence of EDM process parameters: discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on surface layer properties. The experimental investigation was carried out with an experimental methodology design. Surface layers properties including roughness 3D parameters, the thickness of the white layer, heat affected zone, tempered layer and occurring micro cracks were investigated and described. The influence of the response surface methodology (RSM of discharge current Ic and the pulse time ton on the thickness of the white layer and roughness parameters Sa, Sds and Ssc were described and established.

  9. Near-surface nanoscale InAs Hall cross sensitivity to localized magnetic and electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folks, L; Troup, A S; Boone, T D; Katine, J A; Nishioka, M; Grobis, M; Sullivan, G J; Ikhlassi, A; Field, M; Gurney, B A

    2009-06-24

    We have measured the room temperature response of nanoscale semiconductor Hall crosses to local applied magnetic fields under various local electric gate conditions using scanning probe microscopy. Near-surface quantum wells of AlSb/InAs/AlSb, located just 5 nm from the heterostructure surface, allow very high sensitivity to localized electric and magnetic fields applied near the device surfaces. The Hall crosses have critical dimensions of 400 and 100 nm, while the mean free path of the carriers is about 160 nm; hence the devices nominally span the transition from diffusive to quasi-ballistic transport. With certain small gate voltages (V(g)) the devices of both sizes are strongly responsive to the local magnetic field at the center of the cross, and the results are well described using finite element modeling. At high V(g), the response to local magnetic fields is greatly distorted by strong electric fields applied near the cross corners. However we observe no change in behavior with the size of the device.

  10. Silicone elastomers with high dielectric permittivity and high dielectric breakdown strength based on tunable functionalized copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    system, with respect to functionalization, is achieved. It is investigated how the different functionalization variables affect essential DE properties, including dielectric permittivity, dielectric loss, elastic modulus and dielectric breakdown strength, and the optimal degree of chemical......%) was obtained without compromising other vital DE properties such as elastic modulus, gel fraction, dielectric and viscous loss and electrical breakdown strength....

  11. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AC power generation, its transmission and distribution. The well known observations made by Oersted that an electric current produces a magnetic field led a number of researchers to investigate whether the converse was true i.e. whether electric current can be produced from a magnetic field. Michael Faraday of England ...

  12. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  13. CANCER-PAthological breakdown of coherent energy states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Kobilková, J.; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J. jr.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 115-133 ISSN 1793-0480 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : breakdown of coherent states * Cancer electrodynamics * Warburg effect Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D)

  14. Multi-station synthesis of early twentieth century surface atmospheric electricity measurements for upper tropospheric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Harrison

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The vertical columnar current density in the global atmospheric electrical circuit depends on the local columnar resistance. A simple model for the columnar resistance is suggested, which separates the local boundary layer component from the upper troposphere cosmic ray component, and calculates the boundary layer component from a surface measurement of air conductivity. This theory is shown to provide reasonable agreement with observations. One application of the simple columnar model theory is to provide a basis for the synthesis of surface atmospheric electrical measurements made simultaneously at several European sites. Assuming the ionospheric potential to be common above all the sites, the theoretical air-earth current density present in the absence of a boundary layer columnar resistance can be found by extrapolation. This is denoted the free troposphere limit air-earth current density, J0. Using early surface data from 1909 when no ionospheric potential data are available for corroboration, J0 is found to be ~6 pA m−2, although this is subject to uncertainties in the data and limitations in the theory. Later (1966–1971 European balloon and surface data give J0=2.4 pA m−2.

  15. Reconciling Electrical Properties of Titan's Surface Derived from Cassini RADAR Scatterometer and Radiometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Wye, L. C.; Janssen, M.; Paganelli, F.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2006-12-01

    We observe Titan, Saturn's largest moon, using active and passive microwave instruments carried on board the Cassini spacecraft. The 2.2-cm wavelength penetrates the thick atmosphere and provides surface measurements at resolutions from 10-200 km over much of the satellite's surface. The emissivity and reflectivity of surface features are generally anticorrelated, and both values are fairly high. Inversion of either set of data alone yields dielectric constants ranging from 1.5 to 3 or 4, consistent with an icy hydrocarbon or water ice composition. However, the dielectric constants retrieved from radiometric data alone are usually less than those inferred from backscatter measurements, a discrepancy consistent with similar analyses dating back to lunar observations in the 1960's. Here we seek to reconcile Titan's reflectivity and emissivity observations using a single physical model of the surface. Our approach is to calculate the energy scattered by Titan's surface and near subsurface, with the remainder absorbed. In equilibrium the absorption equals the emission, so that both the reflectivity and emissivity are described by the model. We use a form of the Kirchhoff model for modeling surface scatter, and a model based on weak localization of light for the volume scatter. With this model we present dielectric constant and surface roughness parameters that match both sets of Cassini RADAR observations over limited regions on Titan's surface, helping to constrain the composition and roughness of the surface. Most regions display electrical properties consistent with solid surfaces, however some of the darker "lake-like" features at higher latitudes can be modeled as either solid or liquid materials. The ambiguity arises from the limited set of observational angles available.

  16. Study on the lightning impulse breakdown characteristics of gaseous insulation media for the design of a high voltage superconducting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.; Na, J. B.; Ahn, M. C.; Bae, D. K.; Kim, Y. H.; Ko, T. K.

    2010-11-01

    In general, the current leads of high voltage superconducting apparatuses cooled by liquid nitrogen are exposed to gaseous insulation media. Therefore, the investigation on the electrical breakdown characteristics of gaseous insulation media should be performed to develop electrically reliable high voltage superconducting power apparatuses. In this study, the lightning impulse breakdown tests on gaseous insulation media are conducted by using sphere-to-plane electrode systems made of stainless steel. Also, the lightning impulse breakdown voltage tests on gaseous insulation media according to various pressures are performed. The experimental results show that the electrical breakdown characteristics under lightning impulse voltage are affected by the gap length between electrode systems, the size of electrodes, and the field utilization factors. From these results, the electrical insulation design criteria to estimate the electrical breakdown voltage are established. The results are expected to be applicable to the design of current leads for high voltage superconducting apparatuses.

  17. Effects of an electric field on the adsorption of water molecules on the Cd(0001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yu-Bing; Tao, Min-Long; Sun, Kai; Wang, Jun-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption of water molecules on the Cd(0001) surface has been systematically investigated in the absence or presence of the electric field using first principles calculations based on density functional theory. It has been determined that the adsorption is enhanced by the electric field. From the geometries and energetics, we find that the water-cadmium interaction become stronger (weaker) under a negative (positive) field in the adsorbed monomer. Otherwise, the formation of the hydrogen bonds makes it difficult for molecules in the water clusters to response the electric field. Most importantly, the stability of the water bilayers depends on the strength of the negative electric field. Instead of the H-up bilayer, the H-down bilayer is more stable when the negative field is sufficiently strong. In this case, the dipole-field interaction is the dominant interaction in the change of stability. These results are helpful in the understanding of the fundamental processes at the water-electrode interfaces.

  18. The influence of noble-gas ion bombardment on the electrical and optical properties of clean silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.W.D.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the effect of argon and helium ion bombardment on the electrical and optical properties of the clean silicon (211) surface is described. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of noble gas ions on the density of surface states at the clean silicon surface. (Auth.)

  19. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH3 gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007 m(2)  g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (1532 S m(-1) ), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt %) for electrical double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) , and a capacitance of 261 F g(-1) was retained at 50 A g(-1) , which indicated a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability and preserved 96 % of the initial specific capacitance after 100 000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy results provided evidenced for the recovery of π conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Bacterial inhibiting surfaces caused by the effects of silver release and/or electrical field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Schroll, Casper

    2008-01-01

    In this study, silver-palladium surfaces and silver-bearing stainless steels were designed and investigated focusing on electrochemical principles to form inhibiting effects on planktonic and/or biofilm bacteria in water systems. Silver-resistant Escherichia coli and silver-sensitive E. coli were...... used for the evaluation of inhibiting effects and the inhibiting mechanism. For silver-palladium surfaces combined with bacteria in media, the inhibiting effect was a result of electrochemical interactions and/or electrical field, and in some specific media, such as ammonium containing, undesired...... silver ions release can occur from their Surfaces. For silver-bearing stainless steels, the inhibiting effect can only be explained by high local silver ions release. and can be limited or deactivated dependent on the specific environment. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Electrical signals guided entrapment and controlled release of antibiotics on titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaowen; Wu, Huiping; Li, Yuanyuan; Wei, Xiaoquan; Du, Yumin

    2013-05-01

    Electrical signals are used to trigger the entrapment and release of antibiotics on the surface of titanium plate. The entrapment of antibiotics relies on the electrochemically induced pH gradient generated at the titanium surface that allows the gelation of an aminopolysaccharide chitosan and codeposition of vancomycin, a common antibiotic, within chitosan gel. The release of vancomycin is controlled by an anodic signal imposed to the titanium plate that causes a pH decrease and erosion of chitosan gel. We show that the on demand entrapment and release of vancomycin at the surface of titanium plate is fundamentally altered and controlled by voltage. We expect that this rapid, mild and facile electrochemical process for antibiotics loading and release will find applications in controlled drug release from titanium implants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangam Chinnadurai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip, Pulse on time (Ton, Pulse off time (Toff, Water pressure (Wp, Wire feed rate (Wf, Wire tension (Wt, Servo voltage (Sv and Servo feed setting (Sfs, on the Material Removal Rate (MRR and Surface Roughness (SR for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used.

  3. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  4. A new contact electric resistance technique for in-situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films on metals in electrolytes at high temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saario, T.; Marichev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Surface films play a major role in corrosion assisted cracking. A new Contact Electric Resistance (CER) method has been recently developed for in situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films. The method has been upgraded for high temperature high pressure application. The technique can be used for any electrically conductive material in any environment including liquid, gas or vacuum. The technique has been used to determine in situ the electric resistance of films on metals during adsorption of water and anions, formation and destruction of oxides and hydrides, electroplating of metals and to study the electric resistance of films on semiconductors. The resolution of the CER technique is 10 -9 Ω, which corresponds to about 0.03 monolayers of deposited copper during electrochemical deposition Cu/Cu 2+ . Electric resistance data can be measured with a frequency of the order of one hertz, which enables one to follow in situ the kinetics of surface film related processes. The kinetics of these processes and their dependence on the environment, temperature, pH and electrochemical potential can be investigated

  5. Discrimination of surface tracking patterns of gamma irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fractals have been very successfully used to address the problem of modeling and to provide a description of naturally occurring phenomena and shapes, wherein conventional and existing mathematical models were found to be inadequate. The geometrical patterns of dielectric breakdown like electrical trees, surface ...

  6. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Rosado, Pablo J.; Levinson, Ronnen

    2015-12-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the maximum possible electrical energy saving that might be achieved by increasing the albedo of surfaces in a large city. We restrict this to the “indirect effect”, the cooling of outside air that lessens the demand for air conditioning (AC). Given the power demand of the electric utilities and data about the city, we can use a single linear equation to estimate the maximum savings. For example, the result for an albedo change of 0.2 of pavements in a typical warm city in California, such as Sacramento, is that the saving is less than about 2 kWh per m2 per year. This may help decision makers choose which heat island mitigation techniques are economical from an energy-saving perspective.

  7. Analyzing randomly occurring voltage breakdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    During acceptance testing of high-vacuum neutron tubes, 40% of the tubes failed after experiencing high-voltage breakdowns during the aging process. Use of a digitizer in place of an oscilloscope revealed two types of breakdowns, only one of which affected acceptance testing. This information allowed redesign of the aging sequence to prevent tube damage and improve yield and quality of the final product

  8. Aqueous electrolyte surfaces in strong electric fields: molecular insight into nanoscale jets and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsák, Jan; Moučka, Filip; Škvor, Jiří; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Exposing aqueous surfaces to a strong electric field gives rise to interesting phenomena, such as formation of a floating water bridge or an eruption of a jet in electrospinning. In an effort to account for the phenomena at the molecular level, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using several protocols on both pure water and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride subjected to an electrostatic field. All simulations consistently point to the same mechanisms which govern the rearrangement of the originally planar surface. The results show that the phenomena are primarily governed by an orientational reordering of the water molecules driven by the applied field. It is demonstrated that, for pure water, a sufficiently strong field yields a columnar structure parallel to the field with an anisotropic arrangement of the water molecules with their dipole moments aligned along the applied field not only in the surface layer but over the entire cross section of the column. Nonetheless, the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule does not seem to be affected by the field regardless of its strength and molecule's orientation. In the electrolyte solutions, the ionic charge is able to overcome the effect of the external field tending to arrange the water molecules radially in the first coordination shell of an ion. The ion-water interaction interferes thus with the water-electric field interaction, and the competition between these two forces (i.e., strength of the field versus concentration) provides the key mechanism determining the stability of the observed structures.

  9. Advances in electric field and atomic surface derived properties from experimental electron densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmaida, Nouzha; Ghermani, Nour Eddine

    2008-07-14

    The present study is devoted to a general use of the Gauss law. This is applied to the atomic surfaces derived from the topological analysis of the electron density. The method proposed here is entirely numerical, robust and does not necessitate any specific parametrization of the atomic surfaces. We focus on two fundamental properties: the atomic charges and the electrostatic forces acting on atoms in molecules. Application is made on experimental electron densities modelized by the Hansen-Coppens model from which the electric field is derived for a heterogenic set of compounds: water molecule, NO(3) anion, bis-triazine molecule and MgO cluster. Charges and electrostatic forces are estimated by the atomic surface flux of the electric field and the Maxwell stress tensor, respectively. The charges obtained from the present method are in good agreement with those issued from the conventional volume integration. Both Feynman and Ehrenfest forces as well as the electrostatic potential at the nuclei (EPN) are here estimated from the experimental electron densities. The values found for the molecular compounds are presented and discussed in the scope of the mechanics of atomic interactions.

  10. Electrically controllable twisted-coiled artificial muscle actuators using surface-modified polyester fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwoo; Yoo, Ji Wang; Seo, Hee Won; Lee, Youngkwan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Moon, Hyungpil; Koo, Ja Choon; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Hunt, Robert; Kim, Kwang Jin; Kim, Soo Hyun; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-03-01

    As a new class of thermally activated actuators based on polymeric fibers, we investigated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) yarns for the development of a twisted-coiled polymer fiber actuator (TCA). The PET yarn TCA exhibited the maximum linear actuation up to 8.9% by external heating at above the glass transition temperature, 160 °C-180 °C. The payload of the actuator was successfully correlated with the preload and training-load conditions by an empirical equation. Furthermore, the PET-based TCA was electrically driven by Joule heating after the PET surface was metallization with silver. For the fast and precise control of PET yarn TCA, electroless silver plating was conducted to form electrical conductive layers on the PET fiber surface. The silver plated PET-based TCA was tested by Joule heating and the tensile actuation was increased up to 12.1% (6 V) due to the enhanced surface hardness and slippage of PET fibers. Overall, silver plating of the polymeric yarn provided a fast actuation speed and enhanced actuation performance of the TCA actuator by Joule heating, providing a great potential for being used in artificial muscle for biomimetic machines including robots, industrial actuators and powered exoskeletons.

  11. A Comprehensive Model of Electric-Field-Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbarah, Patrick; Li, Zhaoer; Pauls, Alexander; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-07-21

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding positively charged water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length and allowing the use of external electric fields to enhance droplet removal and heat transfer, in what has been termed electric-field-enhanced (EFE) jumping-droplet condensation. However, achieving optimal EFE conditions for enhanced heat transfer requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While a comprehensive model has been developed for condensation on micro/nanostructured surfaces, it cannot be applied for EFE condensation due to the dynamic droplet-vapor-electric field interactions. In this work, we developed a comprehensive physical model for EFE condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces by incorporating individual droplet motion, electrode geometry, jumping frequency, field strength, and condensate vapor-flow dynamics. As a first step toward our model, we simulated jumping droplet motion with no external electric field and validated our theoretical droplet trajectories to experimentally obtained trajectories, showing excellent temporal and spatial agreement. We then incorporated the external electric field into our model and considered the effects of jumping droplet size, electrode size and geometry, condensation heat flux, and droplet jumping direction. Our model suggests that smaller jumping droplet sizes and condensation heat fluxes require less work input to be removed by the external fields. Furthermore, the results suggest that EFE electrodes can be optimized such that the work input is minimized depending on the condensation heat flux. To analyze overall efficiency, we defined an incremental coefficient of performance and showed that it is very high (∼10(6)) for EFE condensation. We finally proposed mechanisms

  12. Nanosecond air breakdown parameters for electron and microwave beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Air breakdown by avalanche ionization plays an important role in the electron beam and microwave propagations. For high electric fields and short pulse applications one needs avalanche ionization parameters for modeling and scaling of experimental devices. However, the breakdown parameters, i.e., the ionization frequency vs E/p (volt. cm -1 . Torr -1 ) in air is uncertain for very high values of E/P. A review is given of the experimental data for the electron drift velocity, the Townsend ionization coefficient in N 2 and O 2 and the ionization frequency and the collision frequency for momentum transfer in air are developed. (author)

  13. Breakdown and field emission conditioning of Cu, Mo and W

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M; Calatroni, S

    2004-01-01

    The ultra-high-vacuum electrical breakdown characteristics of copper, molybdenum and tungsten have been explored in a setup based on a capacitor discharge. Upon repeated sparking, tungsten and molybdenum showed improvement of the maximum applicable field before breakdown (conditioning) in contrast to copper, which experienced alternate improvement and degrading. After conditioning, tungsten withstood the highest applied field followed by molybdenum and copper. This behaviour was correlated with that of the field enhancement factor  extracted from measurements of the field emission current. These results are compared with the tests performed on 30 GHz test accelerating structures for the future Compact Linear Collider.

  14. High breakdown-strength composites from liquid silicone rubbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Yu, Liyun

    2014-01-01

    available fillers (an anatase TiO2, a core–shell TiO2-SiO2 and a CaCu3Ti4O12 filler) are evaluated with respect to dielectric permittivity, elasticity (Young’s modulus) and electrical breakdown strength. Film formation properties are also evaluated. The best-performing formulations are those with anatase Ti......O2 nanoparticles, where the highest relative dielectric permittivity of 5.6 is obtained, and with STX801, a core–shell morphology TiO2-SiO2 filler from Evonik, where the highest breakdown strength of 173 V μm−1 is obtained....

  15. Recovery of Alumina Nanocapacitors after High Voltage Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Belkin, A.; Bezryadin, A.; Hendren, L.; Hubler, A.

    2017-01-01

    Breakdown of a dielectric material at high electric fields significantly limits the applicability of metal-dielectric-metal capacitors for energy storage applications. Here we demonstrate that the insulating properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films in Al/Al2O3/Al trilayers can recover after the breakdown. The recovery has been observed in samples with the dielectric thickness spanning from 4 to 9?nm. This phenomenon holds promise for a new generation of capacitors capable of rest...

  16. Effects of various surfactants on the dispersion stability and electrical conductivity of surface modified graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Elias [WCU Program, Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kuila, Tapas [Surface Engineering and Tribology, CSIR – Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 721 302 (India); Nayak, Ganesh Chandra [Department of Applied Chemistry, ISM Dhanbad, Dhanbad 826 004, Jharkhand (India); Kim, Nam Hoon [Department of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Bon-Cheol [Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Dunsan-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 864-9 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@chonbuk.ac.kr [WCU Program, Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Water dispersible graphene has been prepared using ionic and non-ionic surfactants. ► XPS and FTIR spectra analysis confirm surface modification and reduction of GO. ► The highest water dispersibility is observed in the graphene modified with of SDBS. ► The best properties of modified graphene is achieved with GO/surfactant ratio of two. -- Abstract: Ionic and non-ionic surfactant functionalized, water dispersible graphene were prepared to investigate the effects on the dispersion stability and electrical conductivity of graphene. In this study, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), sodium dodecyl sulfate and 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) were used as ionic and non-ionic surfactants. The effects of surfactant concentrations on the dispersibility and electrical conductivity of the surface modified graphene were investigated. The dispersion stability of SDBS functionalized graphene (SDBS-G) was found to be best in water at 1.5 mg ml{sup −1}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicate that the presence of surfactants does not prevent the reduction of graphene oxide (GO). These measurements also demonstrated that the surfactants were present on the surface of graphene, resulting in the formation of functionalized graphene. The thickness of different functionalized graphene was measured by Atomic force microscopy and varied significantly with different surfactants. The thermal properties of the functionalized graphene were also found to be dependent on the nature of the surfactants. The electrical conductivity of SDBS-G (108 S m{sup −1}) was comparatively higher than SDS and Triton X-100 functionalized graphene.

  17. Effects of various surfactants on the dispersion stability and electrical conductivity of surface modified graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Md. Elias; Kuila, Tapas; Nayak, Ganesh Chandra; Kim, Nam Hoon; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Lee, Joong Hee

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Water dispersible graphene has been prepared using ionic and non-ionic surfactants. ► XPS and FTIR spectra analysis confirm surface modification and reduction of GO. ► The highest water dispersibility is observed in the graphene modified with of SDBS. ► The best properties of modified graphene is achieved with GO/surfactant ratio of two. -- Abstract: Ionic and non-ionic surfactant functionalized, water dispersible graphene were prepared to investigate the effects on the dispersion stability and electrical conductivity of graphene. In this study, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), sodium dodecyl sulfate and 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenyl-polyethylene glycol (Triton X-100) were used as ionic and non-ionic surfactants. The effects of surfactant concentrations on the dispersibility and electrical conductivity of the surface modified graphene were investigated. The dispersion stability of SDBS functionalized graphene (SDBS-G) was found to be best in water at 1.5 mg ml −1 . X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicate that the presence of surfactants does not prevent the reduction of graphene oxide (GO). These measurements also demonstrated that the surfactants were present on the surface of graphene, resulting in the formation of functionalized graphene. The thickness of different functionalized graphene was measured by Atomic force microscopy and varied significantly with different surfactants. The thermal properties of the functionalized graphene were also found to be dependent on the nature of the surfactants. The electrical conductivity of SDBS-G (108 S m −1 ) was comparatively higher than SDS and Triton X-100 functionalized graphene

  18. Surface electric resistance of YBa2Cu3O7-δ ceramics and its dependence on magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorochev, O.A.; Graboj, I.Eh.; Kaul', A.R.; Mitrofanov, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Method of dielectric resonator in the 4.2-300 K temperature range is used to measure surface electric resistance of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ceramics samples produced by different technologies. The temperature dependence of surface resistance near transition temperature is calculated. At 77.3 K dependence of electric resistance on external magnetic field at H≤200Oe is determined. Calculated dependence is verified in experiment

  19. Electrical resistivity imaging of the near-surface structure of the Solfatara volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Fedele, Alessandro; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    We describe the results from an high-resolution study of the near-surface electrical resistivity structures carried out in the Solfatara area, located in the central part of the Campi Flegrei (CF) composite caldera, west of Naples, Italy. This area represents the most active zone within the CF area. It has been the site of an intense hydrothermal activity since Greek times, and currently exhibits the most impressive degassing manifestations. A direct relationship has always been observed between the increase of hydrothermal activity and ground uplift in the caldera. For this reason, dynamic of the Solfatara zone is considered a direct indicator of the volcanism taking place in the CF caldera. Since 2005 a new gradual increase of the hydrothermal activity and ground uplift has been observed. A steep growth of these effects has been recorded from 2012, accompanied by seismic events with hypocentres mostly concentrated below the area of Pozzuoli at depths ranging between 1 and 3 km, and highest magnitude of 1.8. It is thought that a further increase of the activity might lead to more critical conditions, including the occurrence of phreatic explosions. The detailed recovery of the structure and features of the shallow aquifers, mainly in the largest fumarole areas, is a crucial step for interpreting the ground movements and to improve our capability to forecast future pre-eruptive scenarios. Electrical resistivity results particularly sensitive to the presence of aqueous fluids and partial melts. By electrical imaging the volume of subsurface fluids can be constrained and the rheology of the subsoil can be reconstructed. To this aim, we have carried out eight profiles for electrical resistivity imaging, crossing the fumaroles field, deducting an electric model of the structural setting of the hydrothermal system in the first 100 m depth. Six of the profiles were 250 m long, with an electrodic distance of 5 m. Two longer profiles, up to 750 m, characterised by an

  20. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  1. Modelling the Influence of Ground Surface Relief on Electric Sounding Curves Using the Integral Equations Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of electrical sounding of a medium with ground surface relief is modelled using the integral equations method. This numerical method is based on the triangulation of the computational domain, which is adapted to the shape of the relief and the measuring line. The numerical algorithm is tested by comparing the results with the known solution for horizontally layered media with two layers. Calculations are also performed to verify the fulfilment of the “reciprocity principle” for the 4-electrode installations in our numerical model. Simulations are then performed for a two-layered medium with a surface relief. The quantitative influences of the relief, the resistivity ratios of the contacting media, and the depth of the second layer on the apparent resistivity curves are established.

  2. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadin, V. V., E-mail: fvv@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, M. I., E-mail: aleut@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Seversk Technological Institute, Branch of State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Seversk, 636036 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, V. Ye., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, V. A., E-mail: valery-aleut@yandex.ru [National Research St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  3. Electrical conduction through surface superstructures measured by microscopic four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanabe, F.

    2003-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of the local electrical conductivity of well-defined crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum, we have developed two kinds of microscopic four-point probe methods. One involves a "four-tip STM prober," in which four independently driven tips of a scanning tunneling microscope...... (STM) are used for measurements of four-point probe conductivity. The probe spacing can be changed from 500 nm to 1 mm. The other method involves monolithic micro-four-point probes, fabricated on silicon chips, whose probe spacing is fixed around several mum. These probes are installed in scanning...... compared with the macroscopic four-point probe method. Then the conduction through the topmost atomic layers (surface-state conductivity) and the influence of atomic steps on conductivity can be directly measured....

  4. A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner for coupled surface-volume electric field integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2010-08-01

    A well-conditioned coupled set of surface (S) and volume (V) electric field integral equations (S-EFIE and V-EFIE) for analyzing wave interactions with densely discretized composite structures is presented. Whereas the V-EFIE operator is well-posed even when applied to densely discretized volumes, a classically formulated S-EFIE operator is ill-posed when applied to densely discretized surfaces. This renders the discretized coupled S-EFIE and V-EFIE system ill-conditioned, and its iterative solution inefficient or even impossible. The proposed scheme regularizes the coupled set of S-EFIE and V-EFIE using a Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP)-based technique. The resulting scheme enables the efficient analysis of electromagnetic interactions with composite structures containing fine/subwavelength geometric features. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  5. Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma and Microwave Surface Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sangjin; Lee, Soonbo; Boo, Jinhyo; Shrestha, Shankar Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The plasma and microwave surface treatments of carbon nanotubes that loaded on plastic substrates were carried out with expecting a change of carbon nanotube dispersion by increasing treatment time. The microwave treatment process was undergone by commercial microwave oven (800 W). The electrical property was measured by hall measurement and resistance was increased by increasing O 2 flow rate of plasma, suggesting an improvement of carbon nanotube dispersion and a possibility of controlling the resistances of carbon nanotubes by plasma surface treatment. The resistance was increased in both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates by increasing O 2 flow rate. Resistance changes only slightly with different O 2 flow treatment in measure rho for all polyimide samples. Sheet resistance is lowest in polyimide substrate not due to high carbon nanotube loading but due to tendency to remain in elongated structure. O 2 or N 2 plasma treatments on both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates lead to increase in sheet resistance

  6. Electric control of magnetism in low-dimensional magnets on ferroelectric surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorj Odkhuu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Employing first-principles electronic structure calculations, we have studied the electric field controls of magnetism and magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE of the Fe adatoms on ferroelectric BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 surfaces. Remarkably, those effects exhibit dependence of the level of coverage as well as adsorption site of Fe atoms. While the magnitude of MAE is shown tunable by ferroelectric polarization in the full coverage of Fe monolayer, the direction of magnetization undergoes a transition from perpendicular to in-plane for the half or lower coverages. This magnetization reorientation is mainly ascribed to the site-dependent Fe d–O p hybridization, as a consequence of the formation of FeTiO2 layer at the surface.

  7. Time and frequency domain analysis of surface myoelectric signals during electrically-elicited cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetto, M A; Botter, A; De Grandis, D; Merletti, R

    2009-02-01

    To examine if different frequencies of electrical stimulation trigger different sized cramps in the abductor hallucis muscle and to analyze their surface electromyographic (EMG) behaviour in both time and frequency domains. Fifteen subjects were studied. Stimulation trains of 150 pulses were applied to the muscle motor point. Frequency was increased (starting from 4pps with 2-pps steps) until a cramp developed. Current intensity was 30% higher than that eliciting maximal M-waves. After the first cramp ("threshold cramp"), a 30-minute rest was provided before a second cramp ("above-threshold cramp") was elicited with a frequency increased by 50% with respect to that eliciting the first cramp. We found greater EMG amplitude and a compression of the power spectrum for above-threshold cramps with respect to threshold cramps. M-wave changes (ranging between small decreases of M-wave amplitude to complete M-wave disappearance) occurred and progressively increased throughout stimulation trains. Significant positive correlations were found between estimates of EMG amplitude during cramps and estimated reductions of M-wave amplitude. Varying frequencies of electrical stimulation triggered different sized cramps. Moreover, decreases in M-wave amplitude were observed during both threshold and above-threshold stimulations. The choice of the stimulation frequency has relevance for optimizing electrical stimulation protocols for the study of muscle cramps in both healthy and pathological subjects.

  8. Electric field strength and plasma delay in silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, I.; Inbe, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Kimura, I.

    1994-01-01

    The resistivity change of a silicon irradiated by high energy neutrons became an interest of study associated with the large scale accelerator projects . The increase of the resistivity of the silicon of a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) was studied as a function of neutron fluence. The plasma delay, which was an interesting but not favorite timing property of the SSBD, was reported being dependent on the resistivity of silicon . The neutron irradiation brings the change of timing property as well as the resistivity change on the SSBD. The resistivity dependence of the plasma delay should be studied for the purpose of high energy accelerator experiments. Some empirical formulae of the plasma delay were reported, however, there were no discussions on the physical meanings of the resistivity dependence of the plasma delay. The plasma delay in a SSBD is discussed in the light of electric field strength in the depletion layer of the SSBD. The explanation of the plasma delay is presented taking into account of the competing two electric forces. The resistivity of the silicon affects the plasma delay through the electric forces. 3 figs, 3 refs. (author)

  9. Near-Surface Fault Structures of the Seulimuem Segment Based on Electrical Resistivity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nazli; Yanis, Muhammad; Idris, Syafrizal; Abdullah, Faisal; Hanafiah, Bukhari

    2017-05-01

    The Great Sumatran Fault (GSF) system is arc-parallel strike-slip fault system along the volcanic front related to the oblique subduction of the oceanic Indo-Australian plate. Large earthquakes along the southern GSF since 1892 have been reported, but the Seulimuem segment at the northernmost Sumatran has not produced large earthquakes in the past 100 years. The 200-km-long segment is considered to be a seismic gap. Detailed geological study of the fault and thus its surface trace locations, late Quaternary slip rate, and rupture history are urgently needed for earthquake disaster mitigation in the future. However, finding a suitable area for paleoseismic trenching is an obstacle when the fault traces are not clearly shown on the surface. We have conducted geoelectrical measurement in Lamtamot area of Aceh Besar District in order to locate the fault line for paleoseismic excavation. Apparent resistivity data were collected along 40 m profile parallel to the planned trenching site. The 2D electrical resistivity model provided evidence of some resistivity anomalies by high lateral contrast. This anomaly almost coincides with the topographic scarp which is modified by agriculture on the surface at the northern part of Lamtamot. The steep dipping electrical contrast may correspond to a fault. However, the model does not resolve well evidences from minor faults that can be related to the presence of surface ruptures. A near fault paleoseismic investigation requires trenching across the fault in order to detect and analyze the geological record of the past large earthquakes along the Seulimuem segment.

  10. Surface Electrical Potentials of Root Cell Plasma Membranes: Implications for Ion Interactions, Rhizotoxicity, and Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Min Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many crop plants are exposed to heavy metals and other metals that may intoxicate the crop plants themselves or consumers of the plants. The rhizotoxicity of heavy metals is influenced strongly by the root cell plasma membrane (PM surface’s electrical potential (ψ0. The usually negative ψ0 is created by negatively charged constituents of the PM. Cations in the rooting medium are attracted to the PM surface and anions are repelled. Addition of ameliorating cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+ to the rooting medium reduces the effectiveness of cationic toxicants (e.g., Cu2+ and Pb2+ and increases the effectiveness of anionic toxicants (e.g., SeO42− and H2AsO4−. Root growth responses to ions are better correlated with ion activities at PM surfaces ({IZ}0 than with activities in the bulk-phase medium ({IZ}b (IZ denotes an ion with charge Z. Therefore, electrostatic effects play a role in heavy metal toxicity that may exceed the role of site-specific competition between toxicants and ameliorants. Furthermore, ψ0 controls the transport of ions across the PM by influencing both {IZ}0 and the electrical potential difference across the PM from the outer surface to the inner surface (Em,surf. Em,surf is a component of the driving force for ion fluxes across the PM and controls ion-channel voltage gating. Incorporation of {IZ}0 and Em,surf into quantitative models for root metal toxicity and uptake improves risk assessments of toxic metals in the environment. These risk assessments will improve further with future research on the application of electrostatic theory to heavy metal phytotoxicity in natural soils and aquatic environments.

  11. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which removes the heat produced In the core and the colis. I represents an Isolator which is a kind of. 'switch' used to isolate the station from the grid. Note the huge Insulators (marked I) that are used. The steel structures marked S support the conductors through insulators (courtesy: Kirloskar Electric Company, Bangalore).

  12. Suppression of Voltage Breakdown in High-Gradient RF Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, W.; Garate, E.; Shiloh, J.; Mako, F.; Silberglitt, R.

    1996-11-01

    Experimental results of a promising concept for raising the breakdown limit in accelerating structures by the use of semiconducting or insulating cavity coatings are presented. Extensive experimental measurements of various coatings on OFHC Cu electrodes in the dc regime show that electrical breakdown can be increased from a value of 40 MV/m for bare Copper to 115 MV/m for a specially-coated Copper electrode. TiN-coated electrodes at use in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) were measured to undergo breakdown at 50 MV/m. Dark current levels from our special coatings are over six orders of magnitude less than TiN-coated Copper even after arcing. These coatings can decrease the secondary emission levels, are mechanically stable, are not sensitive to radiation, do not affect the cavity Q, and will not poison the cathode. Hot-tests of coated X-band cavities will be performed in collaboration with SLAC.

  13. Criteria for vacuum breakdown in rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.; Kadish, A.; Thode, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new high-voltage scaling based on Kilpatrick's criterion is presented that suggests that voltages more than twice the Kilpatrick limit can be obtained with identical initial conditions of vacuum and surface cleanliness. The calculations are based on the experimentally observed decrease in secondary electron emission with increasing ion-impact energy above 100 keV. A generalized secondary-emission package has been developed to simulate actual cavity dynamics in conjunction with our 2 1/2-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code CEMIT. The results are discussed with application to the suppression of vacuum breakdown in rf accelerator devices

  14. Effects of electric and magnetic loadings on bone surface remodeling: a model modification and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, Anahita Fathi; Rabbani, Mohsen; Yazdchi, Mohammadreza; Kasiri, Saeid; Rad, Hamidreza Saligheh

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new modification to the previous model of bone surface remodeling under electric and magnetic loadings. For this study, the thermo-electro-magneto-elastic model of bone surface remodeling is used. This model is modified by considering an important phenomenon occurring in living bone through its adaptation to external loadings called desensitization. In fact, bone cells lose their responsiveness and sensitivity to long-term external loadings, i.e., they become desensitized. Therefore, bone cells need a recovery period, during which they become resensitized. In this work, this phenomenon is considered in the original model. The effects of various electric and magnetic loading conditions, including various frequencies, waveforms and pulse duty cycles, are explored on the modified model and compared to the original model. The modified model is also searched for the optimal frequency and duty cycle, to obtain the best bone growth response under electromagnetic fields. The results of this paper show that the modified model is consistent with experimental observations. In addition, it is indicated that this modified model in contrast to the original model, is sensitive to frequency. It is shown that the optimal frequency of loading for the modified model is 1 Hertz (Hz), and the pulse duty cycles up to 50% are sufficient for bone remodeling to reach its maximum value.

  15. Measurement of the electric potential at the surface of nonuniformly charged polypropylene nonwoven media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihou, Ali; Zouzou, Noureddine; Iuga, Gheorghe; Dascalescu, Lucian

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish the conditions in which the vibrating capacitive probe of an electrostatic voltmeter could be employed for mapping the electric potential at the surface of non-uniformly charged insulating bodies. A first set of experiments are performed on polypropylene non-woven media (thickness: 0.4 mm; fiber diameter: 20 μm) in ambient air. In a second set of experiments the non-uniformity of charge is simulated using five copper strips (width: 2 mm or 3 mm; distance between strips: 2 mm). All the strips are connected to a high-voltage supply (Vs = 1000 V). The sample carrier is attached to a computer-controlled positioning system that transfers it under the capacitive probe (TREK, model 3451) of an electrostatic voltmeter (TREK, model 1341B). The measurements are performed at various relative speeds Vb between the sample and the probe, and for various sample rates Fe. A first set of experiments point out that the electric potential displayed by the electrostatic voltmeter depends on the spacing h between the sample and the probe. The diameter D of the spot “seen” by the probe is approximately D ≈ 8h/3. From the second set of experiments performed with the test plate, it can be concluded that the surface potential can be measured with the media in motion, but the accuracy is limited by the spatial resolution defined by k = Vb/Fe.

  16. Avoiding breakdown and near-breakdown in Lanczos type algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, C.; Zaglia, M.; Sadok, H.

    1991-06-01

    Lanczos type algorithms form a wide and interesting class of iterative methods for solving systems of linear equations. One of their main interest is that they provide the exact answer in at mostn steps wheren is the dimension of the system. However a breakdown can occur in these algorithms due to a division by a zero scalar product. After recalling the so-called method of recursive zoom (MRZ) which allows to jump over such breakdown we propose two new variants. Then the method and its variants are extended to treat the case of a near-breakdown due to a division by a scalar product whose absolute value is small which is the reason for an important propagation of rounding errors in the method. Programming the various algorithms is then analyzed and explained. Numerical results illustrating the processes are discussed. The subroutines corresponding to the algorithms described can be obtained vianetlib.

  17. Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface electric potential effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface potential changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves potentials in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface potential.

  18. Human perception of electrical stimulation on the surface of somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Wheeler, Jesse J; Moran, Daniel W; Gaunt, Robert A; Collinger, Jennifer L; Foldes, Stephen T; Weber, Douglas J; Chen, Weidong; Boninger, Michael L; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Recent advancement in electrocorticography (ECoG)-based brain-computer interface technology has sparked a new interest in providing somatosensory feedback using ECoG electrodes, i.e., cortical surface electrodes. We conducted a 28-day study of cortical surface stimulation in an individual with arm paralysis due to brachial plexus injury to examine the sensation produced by electrical stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. A high-density ECoG grid was implanted over the somatosensory and motor cortices. Stimulation through cortical surface electrodes over the somatosensory cortex successfully elicited arm and hand sensations in our participant with chronic paralysis. There were three key findings. First, the intensity of perceived sensation increased monotonically with both pulse amplitude and pulse frequency. Second, changing pulse width changed the type of sensation based on qualitative description provided by the human participant. Third, the participant could distinguish between stimulation applied to two neighboring cortical surface electrodes, 4.5 mm center-to-center distance, for three out of seven electrode pairs tested. Taken together, we found that it was possible to modulate sensation intensity, sensation type, and evoke sensations across a range of locations from the fingers to the upper arm using different stimulation electrodes even in an individual with chronic impairment of somatosensory function. These three features are essential to provide effective somatosensory feedback for neuroprosthetic applications.

  19. Critical surface roughness for wall bounded flow of viscous fluids in an electric submersible pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Dhairyasheel; Siddique, Md Hamid; Kenyery, Frank; Samad, Abdus

    2017-11-01

    Surface roughness plays a vital role in the performance of an electric submersible pump (ESP). A 3-D numerical analysis has been carried out to find the roughness effect on ESP. The performance of pump for steady wall bounded turbulent flows is evaluated at different roughness values and compared with smooth surface considering a non-dimensional roughness factor K. The k- ω SST turbulence model with fine mesh at near wall region captures the rough wall effects accurately. Computational results are validated with experimental results of water (1 cP), at a design speed (3000 RPM). Maximum head is observed for a hydraulically smooth surface (K=0). When roughness factor is increased, the head decreases till critical roughness factor (K=0.1) due to frictional loss. Further increase in roughness factor (K>0.1) increases the head due to near wall turbulence. The performance of ESP is analyzed for turbulent kinetic energy and eddy viscosity at different roughness values. The wall disturbance over the rough surface affects the pressure distribution and velocity field. The roughness effect is predominant for high viscosity oil (43cP) as compared to water. Moreover, the study at off-design conditions showed that Reynolds number influences the overall roughness effect.

  20. Human perception of electrical stimulation on the surface of somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivayogi V Hiremath

    Full Text Available Recent advancement in electrocorticography (ECoG-based brain-computer interface technology has sparked a new interest in providing somatosensory feedback using ECoG electrodes, i.e., cortical surface electrodes. We conducted a 28-day study of cortical surface stimulation in an individual with arm paralysis due to brachial plexus injury to examine the sensation produced by electrical stimulation of the somatosensory cortex. A high-density ECoG grid was implanted over the somatosensory and motor cortices. Stimulation through cortical surface electrodes over the somatosensory cortex successfully elicited arm and hand sensations in our participant with chronic paralysis. There were three key findings. First, the intensity of perceived sensation increased monotonically with both pulse amplitude and pulse frequency. Second, changing pulse width changed the type of sensation based on qualitative description provided by the human participant. Third, the participant could distinguish between stimulation applied to two neighboring cortical surface electrodes, 4.5 mm center-to-center distance, for three out of seven electrode pairs tested. Taken together, we found that it was possible to modulate sensation intensity, sensation type, and evoke sensations across a range of locations from the fingers to the upper arm using different stimulation electrodes even in an individual with chronic impairment of somatosensory function. These three features are essential to provide effective somatosensory feedback for neuroprosthetic applications.

  1. Structural and electrical properties of an Au film system deposited on silicone oil surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Bo; Jin Jin Sheng; Ye Quan Lin; Lao Yan Feng; Jiao Zheng Kuan; Ye Gao Xiang

    2002-01-01

    An Au thin film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by the thermal deposition method, has been fabricated and its structure as well as electrical properties has been studied. A web-shaped characteristic surface morphology of the films is observed. The dc sheet resistance R of the metal films on the liquid surfaces is measured during and after deposition in situ by the four-probe method. The time dependence of the sheet resistance can be explained in terms of the film growth mechanism on the oil surface. The anomalous I-V characteristics of the film system can be interpreted as a competition among the local Joule heating, hopping and tunnelling effects. It is found that the dc third-harmonic coefficient B sub 0 and the zero-power resistance R sub 0 satisfy the power-law relation B sub 0 propor to R sub 0 sup 2 sup + sup w and the exponent w is close to zero. This result indicates that the hopping and tunnelling effects in the samples are much stronger than those of the other film systems. We also find I...

  2. Investigation of electrical characteristics of no-insulation coil wound with surface-processed HTS tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Haeryong; Lee, Woo Seung; Kim, Jinsub; Baek, Geonwoo; Jeon, Sangsu; Yoon, Yong Soo; Ko, Tae Kuk

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the electrical characteristics of no-insulation coil wound with surface-processed HTS tape. The bypassing current path through turn-to-turn contacts within a coil is formed in the no-insulation coil, and this bypassing current path determines two characteristics: 1) self-protection and 2) charge-discharge delay. The amplitude of bypassing current is determined by contact resistance between the turn-to-turn contacts of the no-insulation coil. The surface roughness of the HTS tape is one of the parameters to change the contact resistance. The HTS tapes were processed to roughen by bead blast and abrasive paper, and the no-insulation coil is fabricated using processed HTS tape. We have studied the charge-discharge delay and self-protecting characteristic of each no-insulation coil by 1) sudden discharge tests and 2) overcurrent tests. The FEM simulations of contact resistance of no-insulation coil were carried out. The contact surface resistance of a case processed by abrasive paper has almost three times larger than that of reference no-insulation coil, and a case processed by bead blast presents almost same contact surface resistance with reference no-insulation coil.

  3. Surface element segregation and electrical conductivity of lithium layered transition-metal oxide cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Li, Qi; Li, Liping; Fan, Jianming; Ge, Qingqin; Xie, Dongjiu; Zheng, Jing; Li, Guangshe

    2018-01-01

    Surface element segregation and electric conductivity are critical in determining lithium storage ability of given cathode materials, which are poorly understood and not correlated with the structure and overall performance. Here, layered lithium transition-metal oxides, one of the state-of-the-art cathode materials for lithium ion batteries are chosen to study. A serial of LiNixCo1-2xMnxO2 samples were prepared via a solid state reaction and subsequently characterized by XRD in conjunction with structural refinement, XPS depth profiling, and AC impedance spectroscopy. Slightly different expansion rates are observed for lattice parameters (a and c/3) with varying of Ni content, which is attributed to the increase of average metal-ion radius and an increase of eg electron that enhances the columbic repulsion between transition metal and oxygen atoms. XPS depth profiling results show that surface composition is significantly deviated from bulk, in which Ni and Mn atoms tend to enrich in the surface region, while Co element is relatively deficient. Further, surface element segregation is alleviated by the increase of Ni/Mn content. Moreover, increasing the Ni/Mn content also raises the activation energy of bulk conduction.

  4. Possible Time-Dependent Effect of Ions and Hydrophilic Surfaces on the Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, Nada; Jerman, Igor; Krasovec, Rok; Bukovec, Peter; Zupancic, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of mechanical and electrical treatment on the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions. Solutions were treated mechanically by iteration of two steps: 1:100 dilution and vigorous shaking. These two processes were repeated until extremely dilute solutions were obtained. For electrical treatment the solutions were exposed to strong electrical impulses. Effects of mechanical (as well as electrical) treatment could not be demonstrated using electrical conductivity measurements. However, significantly higher conductivity than those of the freshly prepared chemically analogous solutions was found in all aged solutions except for those samples stored frozen. The results surprisingly resemble a previously observed weak gel-like behavior in water stored in closed flasks. We suggest that ions and contact with hydrophilic glass surfaces could be the determinative conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon. PMID:22605965

  5. Electric charge of a lightning ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A. I.; Shiryaeva, S. O.; Petrushov, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    The electric charge of a lightning ball is found by comparing the electrohydrodynamic stabilities of a charged drop in an electrostatic suspension and a lightning ball floating in a superposition of the gravitational field and the surface electric field. It has been assumed that the electric field strength at the surface is limited by a breakdown value. For a lightning ball radius of 15 cm, its charge is estimated as several microcoulombs. Accordingly, the density of electrostatic energy accumulated in the lightning ball is on the order of one-hundredth of a joule per square centimeter. The density of the material that constitutes the lightning ball has been estimated for the case when the electric field strength at the site of its origination is several times higher than that in fine weather. The density of the lightning ball turns out to differ from that of air by only a few percents.

  6. Atomistic self-sputtering mechanisms of rf breakdown in high-gradient linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insepov, Z.; Norem, J.; Veitzer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) models of sputtering solid and liquid surfaces - including the surfaces charged by interaction with plasma, Coulomb explosion, and Taylor cone formation - were developed. MD simulations of self-sputtering of a crystalline (1 0 0) copper surface by Cu + ions in a wide range of ion energies (50 eV-50 keV) were performed. In order to accommodate energetic ion impacts on a target, a computational model was developed that utilizes MD to simulate rapid atomic collisions in the central impact zone, and a finite-difference method to absorb the energy and shock wave for the collisional processes occurring at a longer time scales. The sputtering yield increases if the surface temperature rises and the surface melts as a result of heat from plasma. Electrostatic charging of the surface under bombardment with plasma ions is another mechanism that can dramatically increase the sputtering yield because it reduces the surface binding energy and the surface tension. An MD model of Taylor cone formation at a sharp tip placed in a high electric field was developed, and the model was used to simulate Taylor cone formation for the first time. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated Taylor cone angle (104.3 deg.) and the experimental one (98.6 deg.). A Coulomb explosion (CE) was proposed as the main surface failure mechanism triggering breakdown, and the dynamics of CE was studied by MD.

  7. Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.

  8. rf breakdown measurements in electron beam driven 200 GHz copper and copper-silver accelerating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Dal Forno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the physics of vacuum rf breakdowns in subterahertz high-gradient traveling-wave accelerating structures. We present the experimental results of rf tests of 200 GHz metallic accelerating structures, made of copper and copper-silver. These experiments were carried out at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The rf fields were excited by the FACET ultrarelativistic electron beam. The traveling-wave structure is an open geometry, 10 cm long, composed of two halves separated by a gap. The rf frequency of the fundamental accelerating mode depends on the gap size and can be changed from 160 to 235 GHz. When the beam travels off axis, a deflecting field is induced in addition to the longitudinal field. We measure the deflecting forces by observing the displacement of the electron bunch and use this measurement to verify the expected accelerating gradient. Furthermore, we present the first quantitative measurement of rf breakdown rates in 200 GHz metallic accelerating structures. The breakdown rate of the copper structure is 10^{-2} per pulse, with a peak surface electric field of 500  MV/m and a rf pulse length of 0.3 ns, which at a relatively large gap of 1.5 mm, or one wavelength, corresponds to an accelerating gradient of 56  MV/m. For the same breakdown rate, the copper-silver structure has a peak electric field of 320  MV/m at a pulse length of 0.5 ns. For a gap of 1.1 mm, or 0.74 wavelengths, this corresponds to an accelerating gradient of 50  MV/m.

  9. A possible new mechanism involved in non-uniform field breakdown in gaseous dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    The electrical breakdown of gases under uniform field conditions is fairly well understood in terms of the Townsend's breakdown theory. In most cases involving uniform fields, the breakdown voltage can be estimated via this theory using basic electron impact parameters for molecules in their ground electronic states. In contrast, a consistent model of gaseous breakdown under nonuniform fields is not available at present although substantial progress has been made recently. We point out the possibility that electron impact processes involving high-lying electronically-excited states may play a significant role under non-uniform field conditions. Thus, such processes may need to be included in order to obtain a better understanding of non-uniform field breakdown phenomena. The general, breakdown characteristics of highly non-uniform field gaps can be illustrated by that for a point-plane geometry. It has been found that the breakdown voltage for such a gap can be calculated by a simple streamer criterion if the pressure P, is above a critical value, P c ; for P c , the estimated breakdown voltage is found to coincide with the corona inception voltage, with the actual breakdown occurring at a higher voltage, corona discharges occur only for P c . In other words, the presence of corona in the pressure region below P c seems to prevent the breakdown from occurring at the predicted value. This has led to the term ''corona stabilization'' to describe the enhancement in the breakdown voltage for pressures below P c . Non-uniform field breakdown measurements in gases will be discussed. We will discuss the possibility that the ''corona stabilization'' is due to the prevention of avalanche progression by attachment of free electrons to molecules in their high-lying electronically-excited states. Information on electron attachment to electronically-excited states of molecules was not available up until the late 1980's

  10. Study on effect of tool electrodes on surface finish during electrical discharge machining of Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Anshuman Kumar; Chatterjee, Suman; Nayak, Praveen Kumar; Sankar Mahapatra, Siba

    2018-03-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process which is widely used in machining of difficult-to-machine materials. EDM process can produce complex and intrinsic shaped component made of difficult-to-machine materials, largely applied in aerospace, biomedical, die and mold making industries. To meet the required applications, the EDMed components need to possess high accuracy and excellent surface finish. In this work, EDM process is performed using Nitinol as work piece material and AlSiMg prepared by selective laser sintering (SLS) as tool electrode along with conventional copper and graphite electrodes. The SLS is a rapid prototyping (RP) method to produce complex metallic parts by additive manufacturing (AM) process. Experiments have been carried out varying different process parameters like open circuit voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ), pulse-on-time (Ton) and tool material. The surface roughness parameter like average roughness (Ra), maximum height of the profile (Rt) and average height of the profile (Rz) are measured using surface roughness measuring instrument (Talysurf). To reduce the number of experiments, design of experiment (DOE) approach like Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array has been chosen. The surface properties of the EDM specimen are optimized by desirability function approach and the best parametric setting is reported for the EDM process. Type of tool happens to be the most significant parameter followed by interaction of tool type and duty cycle, duty cycle, discharge current and voltage. Better surface finish of EDMed specimen can be obtained with low value of voltage (V), discharge current (Ip), duty cycle (τ) and pulse on time (Ton) along with the use of AlSiMg RP electrode.

  11. Kilohertz Electrical Stimulation Nerve Conduction Block: Effects of Electrode Surface Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogi A; Kim, Brian S; Rountree, William S; Butera, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) induces repeatable and reversible conduction block of nerve activity and is a potential therapeutic option for various diseases and disorders resulting from pathological or undesired neurological activity. However, successful translation of KES nerve block to clinical applications is stymied by many unknowns, such as the relevance of the onset response, acceptable levels of waveform contamination, and optimal electrode characteristics. We investigated the role of electrode geometric surface area on the KES nerve block threshold using 20- and 40-kHz current-controlled sinusoidal KES. Electrodes were electrochemically characterized and used to characterize typical KES waveforms and electrode charge characteristics. KES nerve block amplitudes, onset duration, and recovery of normal conduction after delivery of the KES were evaluated along with power requirements for effective KES nerve block. Results from this investigation demonstrate that increasing electrode geometric surface area provides for a more power-efficient KES nerve block. Reductions in block threshold by increased electrode surface area were found to be KES-frequency-dependent, with block thresholds and average power consumption reduced by greater than two times with 20-kHz KES waveforms and greater than three times for 40-kHz KES waveforms.

  12. Electrical Capacitance Tomography Measurement of the Migration of Ice Frontal Surface in Freezing Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of the migration of ice frontal surface is crucial for the understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms in freezing soil. Owing to the distinct advantages, including non-invasive sensing, high safety, low cost and high data acquisition speed, the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT is considered to be a promising visualization measurement method. In this paper, the ECT method is used to visualize the migration of ice frontal surface in freezing soil. With the main motivation of the improvement of imaging quality, a loss function with multiple regularizers that incorporate the prior formation related to the imaging objects is proposed to cast the ECT image reconstruction task into an optimization problem. An iteration scheme that integrates the superiority of the split Bregman iteration (SBI method is developed for searching for the optimal solution of the proposed loss function. An unclosed electrodes sensor is designed for satisfying the requirements of practical measurements. An experimental system of one dimensional freezing in frozen soil is constructed, and the ice frontal surface migration in the freezing process of the wet soil sample containing five percent of moisture is measured. The visualization measurement results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the ECT visualization method

  13. Rotational electrical impedance tomography using electrodes with limited surface coverage provides window for multimodal sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti-Polojärvi, Mari; Koskela, Olli; Seppänen, Aku; Figueiras, Edite; Hyttinen, Jari

    2018-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging method that could become a valuable tool in multimodal applications. One challenge in simultaneous multimodal imaging is that typically the EIT electrodes cover a large portion of the object surface. This paper investigates the feasibility of rotational EIT (rEIT) in applications where electrodes cover only a limited angle of the surface of the object. In the studied rEIT, the object is rotated a full 360° during a set of measurements to increase the information content of the data. We call this approach limited angle full revolution rEIT (LAFR-rEIT). We test LAFR-rEIT setups in two-dimensional geometries with computational and experimental data. We use up to 256 rotational measurement positions, which requires a new way to solve the forward and inverse problem of rEIT. For this, we provide a modification, available for EIDORS, in the supplementary material. The computational results demonstrate that LAFR-rEIT with eight electrodes produce the same image quality as conventional 16-electrode rEIT, when data from an adequate number of rotational measurement positions are used. Both computational and experimental results indicate that the novel LAFR-rEIT provides good EIT with setups with limited surface coverage and a small number of electrodes.

  14. Equilibrium configurations of the conducting liquid surface in a nonuniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    Possible equilibrium configurations of the free surface of a conducting liquid deformed by a nonuniform external electric field are investigated. The liquid rests on an electrode that has the shape of a dihedral angle formed by two intersecting equipotential half-planes (conducting wedge). It is assumed that the problem has plane symmetry: the surface is invariant under shift along the edge of the dihedral angle. A one-parametric family of exact solutions for the shape of the surface is found in which the opening angle of the region above the wedge serves as a parameter. The solutions are valid when the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the liquid is zero. For an arbitrary pressure difference, approximate solutions to the problem are constructed and it is demonstrated the approximation error is small. It is found that, when the potential difference exceeds a certain threshold value, equilibrium solutions are absent. In this case, the region occupied by the liquid disintegrates, the disintegration scenario depending on the opening angle.

  15. Humidity and polarity influence on MIM PZT capacitor degradation and breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiahui; Salm, Cora; Houwman, Evert; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Nguyen, Minh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability study on unpackaged metal-PZT-metal capacitors. Both ramped voltage stress (RVS) and time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) measurements show that environmental humidity dramatically worsens the PZT reliability. Visible breakdown spots on the surface of PZT

  16. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  17. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Wei; Hao, Xiang; Pan, Tao; Zhong, Jia-Lin; Ma, Chun-Lan; Hou, Fang; Wu, Yin-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO) film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  18. Linear instabilities of a planar liquid sheet in a static electric field for intermediate relaxation and convection of surface charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Takao

    2018-04-01

    Linear temporal instabilities of a two-dimensional planar liquid sheet in a static electric field are investigated when the relaxation and convection of surface electric charges are considered. Both viscous sheet liquid and inviscid surrounding liquid are placed between two parallel sheath walls, on which an external electric field is imposed. In particular, effects of the electric Peclet number {Pe} (charge relaxation time/convection time) and the electric Euler number Λ (electric pressure/liquid inertial) on the instabilities are emphasized for the symmetric and antisymmetric deformations of the sheet. It is found that the unstable mode is composed of the aerodynamic and electric modes, which are merged with each other for the symmetric deformation and separated for the antisymmetric deformation. For the symmetric deformation, the combined mode is more destabilized with the decrease of {Pe} and the increase of Λ. On the other hand, for the antisymmetric deformation, the electric mode is more destabilized and the aerodynamic mode is left unchanged with the decrease of {Pe}, while the electric mode is more destabilized but the aerodynamic mode is more stabilized with the increase of Λ. It is also found for both symmetric and antisymmetric deformations that the instabilities are most suppressed when {σ }R≃ 1/{ε }P ({σ }R: conductivity ratio of the surrounding to the sheet liquid, {ε }P: permittivity ratio of the sheet to the surrounding liquid), whose trend of the instabilities is more enhanced with the decrease of {Pe} except for vanishingly small {Pe}.

  19. Augmented visual feedback counteracts the effects of surface muscular functional electrical stimulation on physiological tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that surface muscular functional electrical stimulation (FES) might suppress neurological upper limb tremor. We assessed its effects on upper limb physiological tremor, which is mainly driven by mechanical-reflex oscillations. We investigated the interaction between FES and augmented visual feedback, since (a) most daily activities are performed using visual cues, and (b) augmented visual feedback exacerbates upper limb tremor. Methods 10 healthy subjects (23.4 ± 7.7 years) performed 2 postural tasks with combinations of FES (4 sites; frequency of stimulation: 30 Hz; pulse width: 300 microsec; range of current delivered 10–34 mAmp) and augmented visual feedback. Results Spectral analysis of tremor showed a decrease of power spectral density to 62.18% (p = 0.01), of the integral in the 8-12 Hz frequency band to 57.67% (p = 0.003), and of tremor root mean square (RMS) to 57.16% (p = 0.002) during FES, without any changes in tremor frequency. Augmented visual feedback blocked the beneficial effect of FES, as confirmed by power spectral analysis (p = 0.01). We found a statistically significant interaction between augmented visual feedback and electrical stimulation (p = 0.039). Conclusions Augmented visual feedback antagonizes the effects of FES on physiological tremor. The absence of changes of peak frequency argues against an effect of FES on mechanical properties of the upper limb. PMID:24063436

  20. Understanding the life cycle surface land requirements of natural gas-fired electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Sarah M.; Heath, Garvin A.; Macknick, Jordan; Bush, Brian W.; Mohammadi, Ehsan; Ben-Horin, Dan; Urrea, Victoria; Marceau, Danielle

    2017-10-01

    The surface land use of fossil fuel acquisition and utilization has not been well characterized, inhibiting consistent comparisons of different electricity generation technologies. Here we present a method for robust estimation of the life cycle land use of electricity generated from natural gas through a case study that includes inventories of infrastructure, satellite imagery and well-level production. Approximately 500 sites in the Barnett Shale of Texas were sampled across five life cycle stages (production, gathering, processing, transmission and power generation). Total land use (0.62 m2 MWh-1, 95% confidence intervals ±0.01 m2 MWh-1) was dominated by midstream infrastructure, particularly pipelines (74%). Our results were sensitive to power plant heat rate (85-190% of the base case), facility lifetime (89-169%), number of wells per site (16-100%), well lifetime (92-154%) and pipeline right of way (58-142%). When replicated for other gas-producing regions and different fuels, our approach offers a route to enable empirically grounded comparisons of the land footprint of energy choices.

  1. Distance scaling of electric-field noise in a surface-electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, J. A.; Greene, A.; Stuart, J.; McConnell, R.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate anomalous ion-motional heating, a limitation to multiqubit quantum-logic gate fidelity in trapped-ion systems, as a function of ion-electrode separation. Using a multizone surface-electrode trap in which ions can be held at five discrete distances from the metal electrodes, we measure power-law dependencies of the electric-field noise experienced by the ion on the ion-electrode distance d . We find a scaling of approximately d-4 regardless of whether the electrodes are at room temperature or cryogenic temperature, despite the fact that the heating rates are approximately two orders of magnitude smaller in the latter case. Through auxiliary measurements using the application of noise to the electrodes, we rule out technical limitations to the measured heating rates and scalings. We also measure the frequency scaling of the inherent electric-field noise close to 1 /f at both temperatures. These measurements eliminate from consideration anomalous-heating models which do not have a d-4 distance dependence, including several microscopic models of current interest.

  2. Numerical Studies of Friction Between Metallic Surfaces and of its Dependence on Electric Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintanis, Evangelos; Marder, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We will present molecular dynamics simulations that explore the frictional mechanisms between clean metallic surfaces. We employ the HOLA molecular dynamics code to run slider-on-block experiments. Both objects are allowed to evolve freely. We recover realistic coefficients of friction and verify the importance of cold-welding and plastic deformations in dry sliding friction. We also find that plastic deformations can significantly affect both objects, despite a difference in hardness. Metallic contacts have significant technological applications in the transmission of electric currents. To explore the effects of the latter to sliding, we had to integrate an electrodynamics solver into the molecular dynamics code. The disparate time scales involved posed a challenge, but we have developed an efficient scheme for such an integration. A limited electrodynamic solver has been implemented and we are currently exploring the effects of currents in the friction and wear of metallic contacts.

  3. Surface quality analysis of die steels in powder-mixed electrical discharge machining using titan powder in fine machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banh Tien Long

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of surface molds after electrical discharge machining is still being considered by many researchers. Powder-mixed dielectric in electrical discharge machining showed that it is one of the processing methods with high efficiency. This article reports on the results of surface quality of mold steels after powder-mixed electrical discharge machining using titanium powder in fine machining. The process parameters such as electrode material, workpiece material, electrode polarity, pulse on-time, pulse off-time, current, and titanium powder concentration were considered in the research. These materials are most commonly used with die-sinking electrical discharge machining in the manufacture of molds and has been selected as the subject of research: workpiece materials were SKD61, SKT4, and SKD11 mold steels, and electrode materials were copper and graphite. Taguchi’s method is used to design experiments. The influence of the parameters on surface roughness was evaluated through the average value and ratio (S/N. Results showed that the parameters such as electrical current, electrode material, pulse on-time, electrode polarity, and interaction between the electrode materials with concentration powder mostly influence surface roughness and surface roughness at optimal parameters SRopt = 1.73 ± 0.39 µm. Analysis of the surface layer after powder-mixed electrical discharge machining using titanium powder in optimal conditions has shown that the white layer with more uniform thickness and increased hardness (≈861.0 HV, and amount and size of microscopic cracks, is reduced. This significantly leads to the increase in the quality of the surface layer.

  4. RF breakdown by toroidal helicons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Bounded whistlers are well-known for their efficient plasma production capabilities in thin cylindrical tubes. In this paper we shall present their radio frequency (RF) breakdown and discharge sustaining capabilities in toroidal systems. Pulsed RF power in the electronmagnetohy- drodynamic (EMHD) frequency ...

  5. RF breakdown by toroidal helicons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bounded whistlers are well-known for their efficient plasma production capabilities in thin cylindrical tubes. In this paper we shall present their radio frequency (RF) breakdown and discharge sustaining capabilities in toroidal systems. Pulsed RF power in the electronmagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) frequency regime is fed to ...

  6. Discussion of 'Breakdown and Groups'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genton, M.; Lucas, A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of breakdown point was introduced by Hampel [Ph.D. dissertation (1968), Univ. California, Berkeley; Ann. Math. Statist. 42 (1971) 1887-1896] and developed further by, among others, Huber [Robust Statistics (1981). Wiley, New York] and Donoho and Huber [In A Festschrift for Erich L.

  7. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ECR surface (B = 875.0 G) resides at the geometrical centre of the plasma system. ECR breakdown parameters such as plasma delay time and plasma decay time from plasma density measurements are carried out at the centre using a Langmuir probe. The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10−5–1 ...

  8. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  9. Deriving the geomagnetically induced electric field at the Earth's surface from the time derivative of the vertical magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, Heikki; Viljanen, Ari; Pirjola, Risto; Amm, Olaf

    2013-09-01

    We present a new method for estimating the geomagnetically induced electric field at the Earth's surface directly from the time derivative of the vertical magnetic field, without any need for additional information about the Earth's electric conductivity. This is a simplification compared to the presently used calculation methods, which require both the magnetic variation field and ground conductivity model as input data. The surface electric field is needed e.g. in modeling Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC) that flow in man-made conductor systems, such as gas and oil pipelines or high-voltage power grids. We solve the induced electric field directly from Faraday's law, by representing the magnetic variation field in terms of external equivalent current and taking time derivative of the associated vector potential. This gives an approximative solution, where the divergence-free part of the electric field is reproduced accurately (at least in principle), but the curl-free part related to lateral variations in ground conductivity is completely neglected. We test the new calculation method with several realistic models of typical ionospheric current systems, as well as actual data from the Baltic Electromagnetic Array Research (BEAR) network. We conclude that the principle of calculating the (divergence-free part of the) surface electric field from time derivative of the vertical magnetic field is sound, and the method works reasonably well also in practice. However, practical applications may be rather limited as the method seems to require data from a quite dense and spatially extended magnetometer network.

  10. Site-specific Pt deposition and etching on electrically and thermally isolated SiO2 micro-disk surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V

    2010-01-01

    Electrically and thermally isolated surfaces are crucial for improving the detection sensitivity of microelectronic sensors. The site-specific in situ growth of Pt nano-rods on thermally and electrically isolated SiO 2 micro-disks using wet chemical etching and a focused ion/electron dual beam (FIB-SEM) is demonstrated. Fabrication of an array of micro-cavities on top of a micro-disk is also demonstrated. The FIB source is utilized to fabricate through-holes in the micro-disks. Due to the amorphous nature of SiO 2 micro-disks, the Ga implantation possibly modifies through-hole sidewall surface chemistry rather than affecting its transport properties. Some sensor design concepts based on micro-fabrication of SiO 2 micro-disks utilizing thermally and electrically isolated surfaces are discussed from the viewpoint of applications in photonics and bio-sensing.

  11. Characterization of electric discharge machining, subsequent etching and shot-peening as a surface treatment for orthopedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stráský, Josef; Havlíková, Jana; Bačáková, Lucie; Harcuba, Petr; Mhaede, Mansour; Janeček, Miloš

    2013-09-01

    Presented work aims at multi-method characterization of combined surface treatment of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for biomedical use. Surface treatment consists of consequent use of electric discharge machining (EDM), acid etching and shot peening. Surface layers are analyzed employing scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Acid etching by strong Kroll's reagent is capable of removing surface layer of transformed material created by EDM. Acid etching also creates partly nanostructured surface and significantly contributes to the enhanced proliferation of the bone cells. The cell growth could be positively affected by the superimposed bone-inspired structure of the surface with the morphological features in macro-, micro- and nano-range. Shot peening significantly improves poor fatigue performance after EDM. Final fatigue performance is comparable to benchmark electropolished material without any adverse surface effect. The proposed three-step surface treatment is a low-cost process capable of producing material that is applicable in orthopedics.

  12. Breakdown of transistors in Marx bank circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amitabh

    2000-09-01

    We reconsider the mode of operation of a Marx bank circuit and analyze the secondary breakdown of transistors with shorted emitter-base. The mechanism of breakdown of the transistor when a fast rising voltage pulse is applied across is investigated. The device exhibits chaotic behavior at the breakdown point where it can go into two possible modes of breakdown. A new explanation for the working of the circuit consistent with the experimental observations is proposed.

  13. Radiofrequency electric field hyperthermia with gold nanostructures: role of particle shape and surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Gilani, Kambiz

    2017-09-10

    Hyperthermia treatment of cancerous cells has been recently developed drastically with the help of nanostructures. Heating of gold nanoparticles in non-invasive radiofrequency electric field (RF-EF) is a promising and unique technique for cancer hyperthermia. However, because of differences between particles (i.e. their surface chemistry and dispersion medium) and between RF-EF sources, the research community has not reached a consensus yet. Here, we report the results of investigations on heating of gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods under RF-EF and feasibility of in-vitro cancer hyperthermia. The heating experiments were performed to investigate the role of particle shape and surface chemistry (CTAB, citrate and PEG molecules). In-vitro hyperthermia was performed on human pancreatic cancer cell (MIA Paca-2) with PEG-coated GNPs and GNRs at concentrations that were found non-toxic based on the results of cytotoxicity assay. Application of RF-EF on cells treated with PEG-GNPs and PEG-GNRs proved highly effective in killing cells.

  14. Experimental study of surface roughness in Electric Discharge Machining (EDM based on Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Deris Ashanira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Discharge Machining (EDM is one of the modern machining which is capable in handling hard and difficult-to-machine material. The successful of EDM basically depends on its performances such as surface roughness (Ra, material removal rate (MRR, electrode wear rate (EWR and dimensional accuracy (DA. Ra is considered as the most important performance due to it role as a technological quality measurement for a product and also a factor that significantly affects the manufacturing process. This paper presents the experimental study of surface roughness in die sinking EDM using stainless steel SS316L with copper impregnated graphite electrode. The machining experimental is conducted based on the two levels full factorial design of design of experiment (DOE with five machining parameters which are peak current, servo voltage, servo speed, pulse on time and pulse off time. The results were analyzed using grey relational analysis (GRA and it was found that pulse on time and servo voltage give the most influence to the Ra value.

  15. Calculation of electrical potentials on the surface of a realistic head model by finite differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, L.; McBride, A.; Hand, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for the calculation of electrical potentials at the surface of realistic head models from a point dipole generator based on a 3D finite-difference algorithm. The model was validated by comparing calculated values with those obtained algebraically for a three-shell spherical model. For a 1.25 mm cubic grid size, the mean error was 4.9% for a superficial dipole (3.75 mm from the inner surface of the skull) pointing in the radial direction. The effect of generator discretization and node spacing on the accuracy of the model was studied. Three values of the node spacing were considered: 1, 1.25 and 1.5 mm. The mean relative errors were 4.2, 6.3 and 9.3%, respectively. The quality of the approximation of a point dipole by an array of nodes in a spherical neighbourhood did not depend significantly on the number of nodes used. The application of the method to a conduction model derived from MRI data is demonstrated. (author)

  16. Sample preconcentration utilizing nanofractures generated by junction gap breakdown assisted by self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Jen

    Full Text Available The preconcentration of proteins with low concentrations can be used to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of detection. A nonlinear electrokinetic flow is induced in a nanofluidic channel due to the overlap of electrical double layers, resulting in the fast accumulation of proteins, referred to as the exclusion-enrichment effect. The proposed chip for protein preconcentration was fabricated using simple standard soft lithography with a polydimethylsiloxane replica. This study extends our previous paper, in which gold nanoparticles were manually deposited onto the surface of a protein preconcentrator. In the present work, nanofractures were formed by utilizing the self-assembly of gold-nanoparticle-assisted electric breakdown. This reliable method for nanofracture formation, involving self-assembled monolayers of nanoparticles at the junction gap between microchannels, also decreases the required electric breakdown voltage. The experimental results reveal that a high concentration factor of 1.5×10(4 for a protein sample with an extremely low concentration of 1 nM was achieved in 30 min by using the proposed chip, which is faster than our previously proposed chip at the same conditions. Moreover, an immunoassay of bovine serum albumin (BSA and anti-BSA was carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed chip.

  17. Accoustic Localization of Breakdown in Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Peter Gwin [IIT, Chicago

    2016-07-01

    Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.

  18. Investigation of Thermostressed State of Coating Formation at Electric Contact Surfacing of “Shaft” Type Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena V. Berezshnaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The forming of coating at electric contact surfacing is considered. The mathematical model of the coating formation is developed. The method of numerical recurrent solution of the finite-difference form of static equilibrium conditions of the selected elementary volume of coating is used. This model considers distribution of thermal properties and geometric parameters along the thermal deformation zone during the process of electric contact surfacing by compact material. It is found that the change of value of speed asymmetry factor leads to increasing of the friction coefficient in zone of surfacing. This provides the forming of the coating of higher quality. The limitation of the technological capabilities of equipment for electric contact surfacing is related to the size of recoverable parts and application of high electromechanical powers. The regulation of the speed asymmetry factor allows for expanding the technological capabilities of equipment for electric contact surfacing. The nomograms for determination of the stress on the roller electrode and the finite thickness of the coating as the function of the initial thickness of the compact material and the deformation degree are shown.

  19. Evaluation of Fatigue Behavior and Surface Characteristics of Aluminum Alloy 2024 T6 After Electric Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Shahid; Shah, Masood; Pasha, Riffat Asim; Sultan, Amir

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric discharge machining (EDM) on surface quality and consequently on the fatigue performance of Al 2024 T6 is investigated. Five levels of discharge current are analyzed, while all other electrical and nonelectrical parameters are kept constant. At each discharge current level, dog-bone specimens are machined by generating a peripheral notch at the center. The fatigue tests are performed on four-point rotating bending machine at room temperature. For comparison purposes, fatigue tests are also performed on the conventionally machined specimens. Linearized SN curves for 95% failure probability and with four different confidence levels (75, 90, 95 and 99%) are plotted for each discharge current level as well as for conventionally machined specimens. These plots show that the electric discharge machined (EDMed) specimens give inferior fatigue behavior as compared to conventionally machined specimen. Moreover, discharge current inversely affects the fatigue life, and this influence is highly pronounced at lower stresses. The EDMed surfaces are characterized by surface properties that could be responsible for change in fatigue life such as surface morphology, surface roughness, white layer thickness, microhardness and residual stresses. It is found that all these surface properties are affected by changing discharge current level. However, change in fatigue life by discharge current could not be associated independently to any single surface property.

  20. Application of Electric-Arc Pulsed Mode for Obtaining Surfacings of Fe–Mo–Cr–Ti–Ni–Cu–Al-System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz’kov, Anatoly F.; Ditenberg, Ivan A.; Gavrilin, Aleksey N.; Grinyaev, Konstantin V.; Knyaz’kov, Sergey A.; Smirnov, Ivan V.

    2017-10-01

    Method of electric-arc melting with nonconsumable electrode in a protective argon atmosphere with using a pulsed mode was used to show possibility in principle of obtaining multi-component metallic surfacing of Fe–Mo–Cr–Ti–Ni–Cu–Al system on uncooled steel substrate. Features of structure and elemental composition were studied using scanning electron microscopy methods. Component intermixing of the surfacing is observed. Surfacing microhardness is 5 times greater than that of the substrate. «Surfacing-substrate» boundary has high adhesion strength.

  1. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, W. G.; Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F.

    2014-01-01

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times

  2. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, W. G.; Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F.

    2014-05-01

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times.

  3. Experimental Study on Breakdown Characteristics of Transformer Oil Influenced by Bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxu Qin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubbles will reduce the electric strength of transformer oil, and even result in the breakdown of the insulation. This paper has studied the breakdown voltages of transformer oil and oil-impregnated pressboard under alternating current (AC and direct current (DC voltages. In this paper, three types of electrodes were applied: cylinder-plan electrodes, sphere-plan electrodes, and cone-plan electrodes, and the breakdown voltages were measured in both no bubbles and bubbles. The sphere-sphere electrodes were used to study the breakdown voltage of the oil-impregnated pressboard. The results showed that under the influence of bubble, the breakdown voltage of the cylinder-plan electrode dropped the most, and the breakdown voltage of the cone-plan electrode dropped the least. The bubbles motion was the key factor of the breakdown. The discharge types of the oil-impregnated pressboard were different with bubbles, and under DC, the main discharge type was flashover along the oil-impregnated pressboard, while under AC, the main discharge type was breakdown through the oil-impregnated pressboard.

  4. Monitoring Dopamine ex Vivo during Electrical Stimulation Using Liquid-Microjunction Surface Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Emily L; Marks, Megan; Yost, Richard A; Vedam-Mai, Vinata; Garrett, Timothy J

    2017-12-19

    Liquid-microjunction surface sampling (LMJ-SS) is an ambient ionization technique based on the continuous flow of solvent using an in situ microextraction device in which solvent moves through the probe, drawing in the analytes in preparation for ionization using an electrospray ionization source. However, unlike traditional mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, it operates under ambient pressure and requires no sample preparation, thereby making it ideal for rapid sampling of thicker tissue sections for electrophysiological and other neuroscientific research studies. Studies interrogating neural synapses, or a specific neural circuit, typically employ thick, ex vivo tissue sections maintained under near-physiological conditions to preserve tissue viability and maintain the neural networks. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure used to treat the neurological symptoms that are associated with certain neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder which is commonly treated with DBS therapy. PD is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta portion of the brain. Here, we demonstrate that the LMJ-SS methodology can provide a platform for ex vivo analysis of the brain during electrical stimulation, such as DBS. We employ LMJ-SS in the ex vivo analysis of mouse brain tissue for monitoring dopamine during electrical stimulation of the striatum region. The mouse brain tissue was sectioned fresh post sacrifice and maintained in artificial cerebrospinal fluid to create near-physiological conditions before direct sampling using LMJ-SS. A selection of metabolites, including time-sensitive metabolites involved in energy regulation in the brain, were identified using standards, and the mass spectral database mzCloud was used to assess the feasibility of the methodology. Thereafter, the intensity of m/z 154 corresponding to protonated dopamine was monitored before

  5. Interaction Of CO2 Laser Nanosecond Pulse Train With The Metallic Targets In Optical Breakdown Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Konov, V. I.; Nikitin, P. I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Silenok, A. S.; Sorochenko, V. R.

    1986-11-01

    In the present paper the electric field and currents in the air-breakdown plasma, produced by the train of nanosecond pulses of TEA-002 - regenerative amplifier near the un-charged targets are studied. The breakdown thresholds and the efficiency of plasma-target heat transmission are also measured. The results of numerical calculations made for increasing of the pulse train contrast with respect to the background in a regenerative amplifier are advanced.

  6. Evaporation of water droplets on Pt-surface in presence of external electric field—A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Abhiram; Biswas, Gautam; De, Sudipta

    2015-09-01

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet on a hot solid substrate is an important problem in fluid mechanics. It is relevant to theoretical issues in heat transfer as well as several practical applications. This study investigates the spreading and evaporation of a nanoscale water droplet on a solid platinum surface. The major objective was to analyze the effect of an external electric field on these phenomena. Varying the intensity and direction of the external electric field, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to understand these phenomena at a molecular level. The results reveal that a horizontal electric field assists in droplet spreading, whereas a vertical electric field enhances the rate of evaporation for a certain range of field intensities. It also shows that the substrate temperature plays an important role in such processes. It is seen that the effect of an external electric field on droplet evaporation becomes significant at an intermediate range of surface temperatures and this effect is not clearly visible for either very high or very low range of surface temperatures.

  7. Evaporation of water droplets on Pt-surface in presence of external electric field--A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Abhiram; Biswas, Gautam; De, Sudipta

    2015-09-07

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet on a hot solid substrate is an important problem in fluid mechanics. It is relevant to theoretical issues in heat transfer as well as several practical applications. This study investigates the spreading and evaporation of a nanoscale water droplet on a solid platinum surface. The major objective was to analyze the effect of an external electric field on these phenomena. Varying the intensity and direction of the external electric field, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to understand these phenomena at a molecular level. The results reveal that a horizontal electric field assists in droplet spreading, whereas a vertical electric field enhances the rate of evaporation for a certain range of field intensities. It also shows that the substrate temperature plays an important role in such processes. It is seen that the effect of an external electric field on droplet evaporation becomes significant at an intermediate range of surface temperatures and this effect is not clearly visible for either very high or very low range of surface temperatures.

  8. HF and VHF Spectra of Fast Breakdown Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Tilles, J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Stanley, M. A.; Rison, W.; Dwyer, J. R.; Brown, R. G.; Wilson, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    The recent discovery of fast positive breakdown (FPB) as the underlying process of narrow bipolar events (NBEs) or compact intracloud discharges [Rison et al., Nat. Commun., 7, 10721, 2016] is an important step towards understanding why NBEs radiate strongly in high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) and very high frequency (VHF, 30-300 MHz) bands. Rison et al. [2016] has further hypothesized that fast positive breakdown is a system of volumetrically distributed streamers. The current theory of radio emissions from streamers is based on the concept of accelerating and expanding streamers. An expanding streamer carries an exponentially increasing current, and its resulting electromagnetic radiation extends to HF and VHF bands, when the external electric field supporting its propagation varies from 0.5Ek to 1.5Ek at 9 km altitude, where Ek is the conventional breakdown threshold field [Shi et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 7284, 2016]. It should be noted that the spectrum of NBEs below 50 MHz is available in the literature [Willett et al., J. Geophys. Res., 94, 16255, 1989], but the spectrum beyond 50 MHz is not well known currently. The broadband, high-speed radio interferometer (INTF) used by Rison et al. [2016] was deployed at Kennedy Space Center, Florida to collect data from July to October in 2016. Many NBEs were recorded. The majority of the NBEs are caused by FPB, similar to those reported by Rison et al. [2016], but there exist a few cases, where the breakdown process propagates in the opposite direction expected of fast positive breakdown and is termed fast negative breakdown [Tilles et al., AE12A-03, AGU Fall Meeting, 2016]. In this talk, we will analyze the spectra of fast breakdown of both polarities in the frequency band of the INTF, 20-80 MHz, and compare the results with published NBE spectra. We will also apply the technique developed by Dwyer and Cummer [J. Geophys. Res., 118, 3769, 2013] to synthesize the radio pulse and spectrum of a system of streamers

  9. Selective breakdown of metallic pathways in double-walled carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Allen L; Sun, Yong; Powell, Lyndsey; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lee, Cheng S; Wang, YuHuang

    2015-01-07

    Covalently functionalized, semiconducting double-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit remarkable properties and can outperform their single-walled carbon nanotube counterparts. In order to harness their potential for electronic applications, metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes must be separated from the semiconductors. However, the inner wall is inaccessible to current separation techniques which rely on the surface properties. Here, the first approach to address this challenge through electrical breakdown of metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes, both inner and outer walls, within networks of mixed electronic types is described. The intact semiconductors demonstrate a ∼62% retention of the ON-state conductance in thin film transistors in response to covalent functionalization. The selective elimination of the metallic pathways improves the ON/OFF ratio, by more than 360 times, to as high as 40 700, while simultaneously retaining high ON-state conductance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Individual breakdown of pension rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You should have recently received, via email, your “Individual breakdown of pension rights”.   Please note that: the calculation was based on data as at 1st July 2016, as at 1st September 2016, CERN will introduce a new career structure; the salary position will now be expressed as a percentage of a midpoint of a grade.   We would like to draw your attention to the fact that your pension rights will remain unchanged. Benefits Service CERN Pension Fund

  11. Electric field strength in a silicon surface barrier detector with the presence of a dielectric plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic change of the electric field strength in a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) is studied. With the presence of a dielectric plasma column in the depletion layer of the SSBD, the electric field strength inside/outside the plasma column is suppressed/enhanced. As the length and the dielectric constant of the plasma column become shorter and smaller, the suppression and enhancement of the electric field strength become less. The electric field strength recovers the initial state, when the plasma column disappears. When the electrons and holes are inside/outside the dielectric plasma column, they have less/more electric potential than the one they have when there is no plasma column. During the movement of the electron/hole outside the plasma column to the positive/negative electrode, the enhanced electric field strength becomes smaller. Electron and hole pairs, which are the parts of the dielectric plasma column, arrive at positive and negative electrodes, having insufficient electric potential to induce the unit charge. This paper shows that the presence of a dielectric plasma column explains the main part of the residual defect in a SSBD. ((orig.))

  12. A bioluminescence ATP assay for estimating surface hydrophobicity and membrane damage of Escherichia coli cells treated with pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatments, a non-thermal process have been reported to injure and inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, the effect of this treatment on bacterial cell surface charge and hydrophobicity has not been investigated. Apple juice (AJ, pH 3.8) purchased from a wholesale ...

  13. Response surface modelling of tool electrode wear rate and material removal rate in micro electrical discharge machining of Inconel 718

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    conductivity and high strength causing it extremely difficult tomachine. Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining (Micro-EDM) is a non-conventional method that has a potential toovercome these restrictions for machining of Inconel 718. Response Surface Method (RSM) was used for modelling thetool Electrode Wear...

  14. Electromagnetic fields due to a horizontal electric dipole antenna laid on the surface of a two-layer medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    With applications to geophysical subsurface probings, electromagnetic fields due to a horizontal electric dipole laid on the surface of a two-layer medium are solved by a combination of analytic and numerical methods. Interference patterns are calculated for various layer thickness. The results are interpreted in terms of normal modes, and the accuracies of the methods are discussed.

  15. From organized high throughput data to phenomenological theory: The example of dielectric breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chiho; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    Understanding the behavior (and failure) of dielectric insulators experiencing extreme electric fields is critical to the operation of present and emerging electrical and electronic devices. Despite its importance, the development of a predictive theory of dielectric breakdown has remained a challenge, owing to the complex multiscale nature of this process. Here, we focus on the intrinsic dielectric breakdown field of insulators--the theoretical limit of breakdown determined purely by the chemistry of the material, i.e., the elements the material is composed of, the atomic-level structure, and the bonding. Starting from a benchmark dataset (generated from laborious first principles computations) of the intrinsic dielectric breakdown field of a variety of model insulators, simple predictive phenomenological models of dielectric breakdown are distilled using advanced statistical or machine learning schemes, revealing key correlations and analytical relationships between the breakdown field and easily accessible material properties. The models are shown to be general, and can hence guide the screening and systematic identification of high electric field tolerant materials.

  16. Oscillation of Vortex Breakdown Location and Blowing Control of Time-Averaged Location

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this research is the control of leading-edge vortex breakdown location utilizing along-the-core blowing near the apex on the leeward surface of sharp-edged, slender, delta wings at high angles of attack...

  17. Electric Characteristic Enhancement of an AZO/Si Schottky Barrier Diode with Hydrogen Plasma Surface Treatment and AlxOx Guard Ring Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the design and fabrication of AZO/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs with hydrogen plasma treatment on silicon surface and AlxOx guard ring were presented. The Si surface exhibited less interface defects after the cleaning process following with 30 w of H2 plasma treatment that improved the switching properties of the following formed SBDs. The rapid thermal annealing experiment also held at 400 °C to enhance the breakdown voltage of SBDs. The edge effect of the SBDs was also suppressed with the AlxOx guard ring structure deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD at the side of the SBDs. Experimental results show that the reverse leakage current was reduced and the breakdown voltage increased with an addition of the AlxOx guard ring. The diode and fabrication technology developed in the study were applicable to the realization of SBDs with a high breakdown voltage (>200 V, a low reverse leakage current density (≤72 μA/mm2@100 V, and a Schottky barrier height of 1.074 eV.

  18. Gum ghatti based novel electrically conductive biomaterials: A study of conductivity and surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide-aniline interpenetrating network (IPN was synthesized by a two-step aqueous polymerization method, in which aniline monomer was absorbed into the network of gum ghatti-cl-poly(acrylamide and followed by a polymerization reaction between aniline monomers. Initially, semi-IPN based on acrylamide and gum ghatti was prepared by free-radical copolymerization in aqueous media with optimized process parameters, using N,N'-methylenebis-acrylamide, as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate, as an initiator system. Optimum reaction conditions affording maximum percentage swelling were: solvent [mL] =12, Acrylamide (AAm [mol•L–1] = 1.971, Ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS [mol•L–1] = 0.131•10–1, N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA [mol•L–1] = 0.162•10–1, reaction time [min] = 210, temperature [°C] = 100 and pH = 7.0. The resulting IPN was doped with different protonic acids. The effect of the doping has been investigated on the conductivity and surface morphology of the IPN hydrogel. The maximum conductivity was observed with 1.5N HClO4 concentration. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of the candidate polymers were studied using scanning electron micrscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR and two-probe method, respectively.

  19. Electrical conduction of Si/indium tin oxide/Si junctions fabricated by surface activated bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianbo; Ogawa, Tomoki; Hara, Tomoya; Araki, Kenji; Kamioka, Takefumi; Shigekawa, Naoteru

    2018-02-01

    The electrical properties of n+-Si//indium tin oxide (ITO)/n+-Si, n+-Si//ITO/p+-Si, and p+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions fabricated by surface activated bonding (SAB) were investigated. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of n+-Si//ITO/n+-Si, n+-Si//ITO/p+-Si, and p+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions showed excellent linear properties. The interface resistances of n+-Si//ITO/n+-Si, n+-Si//ITO/p+-Si, and p+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions were found to be 0.030, 0.025, and 0.029 Ω·cm2, respectively, which are lower than required for concentrator photovoltaics. The interface resistances of all the junctions increased with increasing annealing temperature. The degradation of the interface resistance is lower in n+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions than in n+-Si//ITO/p+-Si and p+-Si//ITO/n+-Si junctions, when the annealing temperature is higher than 100 °C. These results demonstrate that the ITO thin film as an intermediate layer has high potential application for the connection of subcells in the fabrication of tandem solar cells.

  20. Modeling the Electric Potential and Surface Charge Density Near Charged Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Matthew Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Thundercloud charge separation, or the process by which the bottom portion of a cloud gathers charge and the top portion of the cloud gathers the opposite charge, is still not thoroughly understood. Whatever the mechanism, though, a charge separation definitely exists and can lead to electrostatic discharge via cloud-to-cloud lightning and cloud-to-ground lightning. We wish to examine the latter form, in which upward leaders from Earth connect with downward leaders from the cloud to form a plasma channel and produce lightning. Much of the literature indicates that the lower part of a thundercloud becomes negatively charged while the upper part becomes positively charged via convective charging, although the opposite polarity can certainly exist along with various, complex intra-cloud currents. It is estimated that >90% of cloud-to-ground lightning is "negative lightning," or the flow of charges from the bottom of the cloud, while the remaining the flow of charges from the top of the cloud. We wish to understand the electric potential surrounding charged thunderclouds as well as the resulting charge density on the surface of Earth below them. In this paper we construct a simple and adaptable model that captures the very basic features of the cloud/ground system and that exhibits conditions favorable for both forms of lightning. In this way, we provide a practical application of electrostatic dipole physics as well as the method of images that can serve as a starting point for further modeling and analysis by students.

  1. Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of a Hybrid Composite: Evaluation of Kerf Width and Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil KUŞ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the machinability characteristics of Al/B4C-Gr hybrid composite were investigated using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM. In the experiments, the machining parameters of wire speed, pulse-on time and pulse-off time were varied in order to explaiın their effects on machining performance, including the width of slit (kerf and surface roughness values (Rz and Rt. According to the Taguchi quality design concept, a L18 (21×32 orthogonal array was used to determine the S/N ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA and the F-test were used to indicate the significant machining parameters affecting the machining performance. From the ANOVA and F-test results, the significant factors were determined for each of the machining performance criteria of kerf, Rz and Rt. The variations of kerf, Rz and Rt with the machining parameters were statistically modeled via the regression analysis method. The optimum levels of the control factors for kerf, Rz and Rt were specified as A1B1C1, A1B1C2 and A1B1C2, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the predictive equations developed for kerf, Rz and Rt were calculated as 0.98, 0.828 and 0.855, respectively.

  2. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig; Lempert, Walter R; Adamovich, Igor V; Goldberg, Benjamin M; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of temporally and spatially resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air, sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode covered by a thin dielectric plate. The electric field is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing in a collinear phase-matching geometry, with time resolution of approximately 2 ns, using an absolute calibration provided by measurements of a known electrostatic electric field. The results demonstrate electric field offset on the discharge center plane before the discharge pulse due to surface charge accumulation on the dielectric from the weaker, opposite polarity pre-pulse. During the discharge pulse, the electric field follows the applied voltage until ‘forward’ breakdown occurs, after which the field in the plasma is significantly reduced due to charge separation. When the applied voltage is reduced, the field in the plasma reverses direction and increases again, until the weak ‘reverse’ breakdown occurs, producing a secondary transient reduction in the electric field. After the pulse, the field is gradually reduced on a microsecond time scale, likely due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Spatially resolved electric field measurements show that the discharge develops as a surface ionization wave. Significant surface charge accumulation on the dielectric surface is detected near the end of the discharge pulse. Spatially resolved measurements of electric field vector components demonstrate that the vertical electric field in the surface ionization wave peaks ahead of the horizontal electric field. Behind the wave, the vertical field remains low, near the detection limit, while the horizontal field is gradually reduced to near the detection limit at the discharge center plane. These results are consistent with time-resolved measurements of electric field

  3. Effect of electrical discharge machining on surface characteristics and machining damage of AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guu, Y.H.; Hocheng, H.; Chou, C.Y.; Deng, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of AISI D2 tool steel was investigated. The surface characteristics and machining damage caused by EDM were studied in terms of machining parameters. Based on the experimental data, an empirical model of the tool steel was also proposed. A new damage variable was used to study the EDM damage. The workpiece surface and re-solidified layers were examined by a scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness was determined with a surface profilometer. The residual stress acting on the EDM specimen was measured by the X-ray diffraction technique. Experimental results indicate that the thickness of the recast layer, and surface roughness are proportional to the power input. The EDM process introduces tensile residual stress on the machined surface. The EDM damage leads to strength degradation

  4. Dynamic of microwave breakdown in the localized places of transmitting line driving by Cherenkov-type oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jialing; Chen, Changhua; Chang, Chao; Wu, Cheng; Shi, Yanchao; Cao, Yibing; Song, Zhimin; Zhang, Yuchuan

    2018-02-01

    A breakdown cavity is designed to study the breakdown phenomena of high-power microwaves in transmission waveguides. The maximum electric field within the cavity varies in amplitude from 400 kV/cm to 1.8 MV/cm and may surpass breakdown thresholds. The breakdown cavities were studied in particle-in-cell simulations and experiments, the results of which yielded waveforms that were consistent. The experimental results indicate that the microwave pulse does not shorten, and the amplitude of the electric field does not fall below 800 kV/cm. Moreover, large numbers of electrons are not emitted in microwaves below 670 kV/cm at 9.75 GHz frequency and 25-ns pulse width transmitted in stainless steel waveguides. The radiation waveforms of breakdown cavity with different materials are compared in experiments, with titanium material performing better.

  5. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  6. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xun; Xiang Hao; Tao Pan; Jia-Lin Zhong; Chun-Lan Ma; Fang Hou; Yin-Zhong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO) film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investiga...

  7. Breakdown study of dc silicon micro-discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaederlé, L; Kulsreshath, M K; Lefaucheux, P; Tillocher, T; Dussart, R; Overzet, L J

    2012-01-01

    The influence of geometrical and operating parameters on the electrical characteristics of dc microcavity discharges provides insight into their controlling physics. We present here results of such a study on silicon-based microcavity discharge devices carried out in helium at pressure ranging from 100 to 1000 Torr. Different micro-reactor configurations were measured. The differences include isolated single cavities versus arrays of closely spaced cavities, various cavity geometries (un-etched as well as isotropically and anisotropically etched), various dimensions (100 or 150 µm cavity diameter and 0-150 µm depth). The electrode gap was kept constant in all cases at approximately 6 µm. The applied electric field reaches 5 × 10 7 V m -1 which results in current and power densities up to 2 A cm -2 and 200 kW cm -3 , respectively. The number of microcavities and the microcavity depth are shown to be the most important geometrical parameters for predicting breakdown and operation of microcavity devices. The probability of initiatory electron generation which is volume dependent and the electric field strength which is depth dependent are, respectively, considered to be responsible. The cavity shape (isotropic/anisotropic) and diameter had no significant influence. The number of micro-discharges that could be ignited depends on the rate of voltage rise and pressure. Larger numbers ignite at lower frequency and pressure. In addition, the voltage polarity has the largest influence on the electrical characteristics of the micro-discharge of all parameters, which is due to both the asymmetric role of electrodes as electron emitter and the non-uniformity of the electric field resulting in different ionization efficiencies. The qualitative shape of all breakdown voltage versus pressure curves can be explained in terms of the distance over which the discharge breakdown effectively occurs as long as one understand that this distance can depend on pressure. (paper)

  8. The Dynamics of the Electric Field Distribution in the Surface of Insulating Film Irradiated by Air Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julionas KALADE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When deposited on a surface, electric charge usually accumulates near the tips of surface irregularities, from where it can be transferred to nearby objects due to ionization of ambient air. The amount of transferred charge, the rate of charge transfer, the size of the charged spot (e.g., on the surface of an insulator and its tendency to spread will depend on properties of air during electric discharge, on the magnitude of charge accumulated at the tip of an object, on possibilities for replenishing that charge, on the time spent for charge transfer from the tip onto the insulating layer, on properties of the insulating layer, etc. Those properties are discussed in this work by comparing the results of measurements and theoretical analysis.

  9. Modeling and simulation of the free electron laser and railgun on an electric Naval surface platform

    OpenAIRE

    Bowlin, Oscar E.

    2006-01-01

    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) and Rail Gun are electric weapons which will require a significant amount of stored energy for operation. These types of weapons are ideal for use onboard an all-electric ship. An investigation is made of the effects these weapons will have on a proposed electrical system architecture using simulation modeling. Specifically, this thesis identifies possible design weaknesses and shows where further research and modeling is needed in order to ensure the proper inte...

  10. Effects of strong earthquakes in variations of electrical and meteorological parameters of the near-surface atmosphere in Kamchatka region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, S. E.; Mikhailova, G. A.; Mikhailov, Yu. M.; Kapustina, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    The diurnal variations in electrical (quasistatic electric field and electrical conductivity) and meteorological (temperature, pressure, relative humidity of the atmosphere, and wind speed) parameters, measured simultaneously before strong earthquakes in Kamchatka region (November 15, 2006, M = 8.3; January 13, 2007, M = 8.1; January 30, 2016, M = 7.2), are studied for the first time in detail. It is found that a successively anomalous increase in temperature, despite the negative regular trend in these winter months, was observed in the period of six-seven days before the occurrences of earthquakes. An anomalous temperature increase led to the formation of "winter thunderstorm" conditions in the near-surface atmosphere of Kamchatka region, which was manifested in the appearance of an anomalous, type 2 electrical signal, the amplification of and intensive variations in electrical conductivity, heavy precipitation (snow showers), high relative humidity of air, storm winds, and pressure changes. With the weak flow of natural heat radiation in this season, the observed dynamics of electric and meteorological processes can likely be explained by the appearance of an additional heat source of seismic nature.

  11. Ventricular Repolarization Evaluation From Surface ECG for Identification of the Patients With Increased Myocardial Electrical Instability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lass, Jaanus

    2001-01-01

    In order to reveal the possible correlation between the level of myocardial electrical instability assessed at Holter monitoring and certain ECG parameters characterizing ventricular repolarization...

  12. Research of Dielectric Breakdown Micro fluidic Sampling Chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, F.; Lei, Y.; Yu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Micro fluidic chip is mainly driven electrically by external electrode and array electrode, but there are certain disadvantages in both of ways, which affect the promotion and application of micro fluidic technology. This paper discusses a scheme that uses the conductive solution in a microchannel made by PDMS, replacing electrodes and the way of dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver. It could reduce the driving voltage and simplify the chip production process. To prove the feasibility of this method, we produced a micro fluidic chip used in PDMS material with the lithography technology and experimented it. The results showed that using the dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver is feasible, and it has certain application prospect.

  13. Dielectric breakdown in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus consists of a 130 kV dc 80 kV ac intermediate voltage unit and a 600 kV dc 700 kV high voltage unit under construction. The experimental devices consist of an insulated container, or dewar, in which two electrodes are placed, one above the other. A voltage is built up in one electrode until an arc occurs to the other electrode. A typical set of breakdown data is shown. A mathematical analysis is briefly described. (MOW)

  14. Built-in surface electric field, piezoelectricity and photoelastic effect in GaN nanorods for nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W S; Chen, T T; Cheng, C L; Fu, S P; Chen, Y F; Hsiao, C L; Tu, L W

    2008-06-11

    Novel behaviors arising from the coupling between the built-in surface electric field, piezoelectricity, electron-hole pairs and external light beam were observed in GaN nanorods. An increase in the optical excitation density resulted in a blueshift in the photoluminescence spectra and a redshift in the frequency of the GaN A(1)(LO) phonon. The underlying mechanism was attributed to the screening of the built-in surface electric field by photoexcited carriers and, through the converse piezoelectric effect, a reduction in the internal strain. The existence of the built-in surface electric field in GaN nanorods was confirmed by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. Our results firmly establish the existence of the photoelastic effect in GaN nanorods. In addition to underpinning the principle for applications in nanophotonic devices, this discovery also draws attention to the novel effects arising from the inherent large surface-to-volume ratio of nanostructures, which is possibly applicable to many other nanomaterials.

  15. Development and Experimental Study of Surface-Electrical Discharge Diamond Grinding of Al-10 wt%SiC Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shyam Sunder; Yadava, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    As silicon carbide possesses small fracture toughness, it is difficult to grind because it leads to cracking. Metal matrix composites can be machined using electrical discharge machining (EDM) but the process is slow. Electrical discharge diamond grinding (EDDG), which consists of diamond grinding and EDM with a rotating disk which enhanced material removal rate (MRR) and produce better surface finish. This paper describes the machining characteristic of Al-SiC composite using EDDG in surface grinding configuration which is called as surface-electrical discharge diamond grinding (S-EDDG). A chain of experiments were performed on S-EDDG set up by mounting newly self designed and fabricated set up on conventional die sinking EDM machine using the approach of one parameter-at-a-time concept. Surface roughness (Ra) and MRR are taken as output parameters as both are important outcome in the manufacturing process and they materialize a major division in the manufacturing system. The effects of current, wheel speed and depth of cut is analyzed on MRR and Ra. Finally, optimization have been done through weighted principal component analysis.

  16. Sensitivity of the near-surface vertical electric field land Controlled-Source Electromagnetic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaller, A.M.; Hunziker, J.W.; Streich, R.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate potential benefits of measuring the vertical electric field component in addition to the routinely measured horizontal electric field components in onshore time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics. Synthetic electromagnetic data based on a model of the Schoonebeek onshore oil

  17. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvin......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  18. Discharge breakdown in the EXTRAP configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    The breakdown of a discharge in a linear EXTRAP configuration has been studied experimentally. In this configuration the breakdown occurs along the zero B-field line, which is the axis of the linear octupole magnetic field, between the anode and cathode which constitute the ends of the linear device. Breakdown could be described by a modified Townsend criterion which included additional electron losses due to the presence of the B-field transverse to the discharge. (author)

  19. Avoiding breakdown in the CGS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, Claude; Sadok, Hassane

    1991-06-01

    The conjugate gradient squared algorithm can suffer of similar breakdowns as Lanczos type methods for the same reason that is the non-existence of some formal orthogonal polynomials. Thus curing such breakdowns is possible by jumping over these non-existing polynomials and using only those of them which exist. The technique used is similar to that employed for avoiding breakdowns in Lanczos type methods. The implementation of these new methods is discussed. Numerical examples are given.

  20. The Development of Breakdown in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions under which breakdown of composite liquid - solid insulation can be occurred, e.g. in transformer, play an important role in designing of such insulation. The initial state of breakdown development is explained based on development of streamers in cavitations. The whole breakdown development in transformer oil is represented by RLC circuit and it depends on the parameters of outer circuit.

  1. Optimization design on breakdown voltage of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Changchun, Chai; Chunlei, Shi; Qingyang, Fan; Yuqian, Liu

    2016-12-01

    Simulations are carried out to explore the possibility of achieving high breakdown voltage of GaN HEMT (high-electron mobility transistor). GaN cap layers with gradual increase in the doping concentration from 2 × 1016 to 5 × 1019 cm-3 of N-type and P-type cap are investigated, respectively. Simulation results show that HEMT with P-doped GaN cap layer shows more potential to achieve higher breakdown voltage than N-doped GaN cap layer under the same doping concentration. This is because the ionized net negative space charges in P-GaN cap layer could modulate the surface electric field which makes more contribution to RESURF effect. Furthermore, a novel GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT with P-doped GaN buried layer in GaN buffer between gate and drain electrode is proposed. It shows enhanced performance. The breakdown voltage of the proposed structure is 640 V which is increased by 12% in comparison to UID (un-intentionally doped) GaN/AlGaN/GaN HEMT. We calculated and analyzed the distribution of electrons' density. It is found that the depleted region is wider and electric field maximum value is induced at the left edge of buried layer. So the novel structure with P-doped GaN buried layer embedded in GaN buffer has the better improving characteristics of the power devices. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB339900) and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  2. The Multistability of Technological Breakdowns in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarke Lindsø; Tafdrup, Oliver Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Everyone who is involved with modern technological artefacts such as computers, software and tablets has experienced situations where the artefacts suddenly cease to function properly. This is commonly known as a technological breakdown. Within education and the praxis of teaching...... technological breakdowns become a more and more ubiquitous phenomenon due to the rapid increase of technological artefacts utilized for educational purposes (Riis, 2012). The breakdowns impact the educational practice with consequences ranging from creating small obstacles to rendering it impossible to conduct...... successful teaching. Thus, knowing how to cope with technological breakdowns is a pivotal part of being a technological literate....

  3. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide program/project teams necessary instruction and guidance in the best practices for Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and WBS dictionary development and use for project implementation and management control. This handbook can be used for all types of NASA projects and work activities including research, development, construction, test and evaluation, and operations. The products of these work efforts may be hardware, software, data, or service elements (alone or in combination). The aim of this document is to assist project teams in the development of effective work breakdown structures that provide a framework of common reference for all project elements. The WBS and WBS dictionary are effective management processes for planning, organizing, and administering NASA programs and projects. The guidance contained in this document is applicable to both in-house, NASA-led effort and contracted effort. It assists management teams from both entities in fulfilling necessary responsibilities for successful accomplishment of project cost, schedule, and technical goals. Benefits resulting from the use of an effective WBS include, but are not limited to: providing a basis for assigned project responsibilities, providing a basis for project schedule development, simplifying a project by dividing the total work scope into manageable units, and providing a common reference for all project communication.

  4. Effect of an external alternating electric field non-monochromaticity on parametric excitation of surface ion cyclotron X-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, V O; Puzyrkov, S Yu; Shpagina, V O; Shpagina, L O

    2012-01-01

    The application of an external alternating electric field in the range of ion cyclotron frequencies is a well-known method for the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves. The present paper is devoted to the development of a kinetic theory of parametric excitation of these eigenwaves propagating across an external steady magnetic field along the plasma boundary at the second harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency. Unlike previous papers on this subject, parametric excitation of surface ion cyclotron X-modes is studied here under the condition of non-monochromaticity of an external alternating electric field. Non-monochromaticity of the external alternating electric field is modeled by the superposition of two uniform and monochromatic electric fields with different amplitudes and frequencies. The nonlinear boundary condition is formulated for a tangential magnetic field of the studied surface waves. An infinite set of equations for the harmonics of a tangential electric field is solved using the approximation of the wave packet consisting of the main harmonic and two nearest satellite harmonics. Two different regimes of instability have been considered. If one of the applied generators has an operation frequency that is close to the ion cyclotron frequency, then changing the amplitude of the second generator allows one to enhance the growth rate of the parametric instability or to diminish it. But if the operation frequencies of the both generators are not close to the ion cyclotron frequency, then changing the amplitudes of their fields allows one to decrease the growth rate of the instability and even to suppress its development. The problem is studied both analytically and numerically.

  5. Surface treatment by electric discharge machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy for potential application in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcuba, Petr; Bačáková, Lucie; Stráský, Josef; Bačáková, Markéta; Novotná, Katarína; Janeček, Miloš

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after surface treatment by the electric discharge machining (EDM) process. The EDM process with high peak currents proved to induce surface macro-roughness and to cause chemical changes to the surface. Evaluations were made of the mechanical properties by means of tensile tests, and of surface roughness for different peak currents of the EDM process. The EDM process with peak current of 29 A was found to induce sufficient surface roughness, and to have a low adverse effect on tensile properties. The chemical changes were studied by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyser (EDX). The surface of the benchmark samples was obtained by plasma-spraying a titanium dioxide coating. An investigation of the biocompatibility of the surface-treated Ti-6Al-4V samples in cultures of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells revealed that the samples modified by EDM provided better substrates for the adhesion, growth and viability of MG 63 cells than the TiO2 coated surface. Thus, EDM treatment can be considered as a promising surface modification to orthopaedic implants, in which good integration with the surrounding bone tissue is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the dynamics of a subnanosecond breakdown in nitrogen below atmospheric pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyaev, V. A., E-mail: shklyaev@to.hcei.tsc.ru, E-mail: beh@loi.hcei.tsc.ru [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of High Technology Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Baksht, E. Kh., E-mail: shklyaev@to.hcei.tsc.ru, E-mail: beh@loi.hcei.tsc.ru; Tarasenko, V. F. [Laboratory of Optical Radiations, Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Belomyttsev, S. Ya.; Grishkov, A. A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Burachenko, A. G. [Laboratory of Optical Radiations, Institute of High Current Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Low Temperature Plasma, Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-07

    The dynamics of a breakdown in a gas-filled diode with a highly inhomogeneous electric field was studied in experiments at a time resolution of ∼100 ps and in numerical simulation by the 2D axisymmetric particle-in-cell (PIC) code XOOPIC. The diode was filled with nitrogen at pressures of up to 100 Torr. The dynamics of the electric field distribution in the diode during the breakdown was analyzed, and the factors that limit the pulse duration of the runaway electron beam current at different pressures were determined.

  7. Characteristics and Breakdown Behaviors of Polysilicon Resistors for High Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the power integrated circuit technology, polysilicon resistors have been widely used not only in traditional CMOS circuits, but also in the high voltage applications. However, there have been few detailed reports about the polysilicon resistors’ characteristics, like voltage and temperature coefficients and breakdown behaviors which are critical parameters of high voltage applications. In this study, we experimentally find that the resistance of the polysilicon resistor with a relatively low doping concentration shows negative voltage and temperature coefficients, while that of the polysilicon resistor with a high doping concentration has positive voltage and temperature coefficients. Moreover, from the experimental results of breakdown voltages of the polysilicon resistors, it could be deduced that the breakdown of polysilicon resistors is thermally rather than electrically induced. We also proposed to add an N-type well underneath the oxide to increase the breakdown voltage in the vertical direction when the substrate is P-type doped.

  8. Effects of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of Schottky diodes of CBD deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwankemwa, Benard S.; Akinkuade, Shadrach; Maabong, Kelebogile; Nel, Jackie M.; Diale, Mmantsae

    2018-04-01

    We report on effect of surface morphology on the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures. ZnO nanostructures were deposited on the seeded conducting indium doped tin oxide substrate positioned in three different directions in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the morphological properties of the synthesized nanostructures and revealed that the positioning of the substrate in the growth solution affects the surface morphology of the nanostructures. The optical absorbance, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures are discussed. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode such as barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratios, reverse saturation current and series resistance were found to depend on the nanostructures morphology. In addition, current transport mechanism in the higher forward bias of the Schottky diode was studied and space charge limited current was found to be the dominant transport mechanism in all samples.

  9. Analysis of Effects of Cutting Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonday, H. R.; Tigga, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    As wire electrical discharge machining is pioneered as a vigorous, efficient and precise and complex nontraditional machining technique, research is needed in this area for efficient machining. In this paper, the influence of various input factors of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) on output variable has been analyzed by using Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. The design of experiments has been done and by applying L8 orthogonal arrays method and experiments have been conducted and collected required data. The objectives of the research are to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize the surface roughness value (Ra). Surface morphology of machined workpiece has been obtained and examined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique.

  10. Analysis of Effects of Cutting Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonday, H. R.; Tigga, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    As wire electrical discharge machining is pioneered as a vigorous, efficient and precise and complex nontraditional machining technique, research is needed in this area for efficient machining. In this paper, the influence of various input factors of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) on output variable has been analyzed by using Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. The design of experiments has been done and by applying L8 orthogonal arrays method and experiments have been conducted and collected required data. The objectives of the research are to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize the surface roughness value (Ra). Surface morphology of machined workpiece has been obtained and examined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. (paper)

  11. Surface treatment by electric discharge machining of Ti–6Al–4V alloy for potential application in orthopaedics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harcuba, P.; Bačáková, Lucie; Stráský, J.; Bačáková, Markéta; Novotná, Katarína; Janeček, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAR (2012), s. 96-105 ISSN 1751-6161. [Symposium on Biological Materials Science /7./. San Diego, 27.02.2011-03.03.2011] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : electric discharge machining * surface roughness * mechanical properties Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2012

  12. Electrical resistivity dynamics beneath a fractured sedimentary bedrock riverbed in response to temperature and groundwater–surface water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Steelman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bedrock rivers occur where surface water flows along an exposed rock surface. Fractured sedimentary bedrock can exhibit variable groundwater residence times, anisotropic flow paths, and heterogeneity, along with diffusive exchange between fractures and rock matrix. These properties of the rock will affect thermal transients in the riverbed and groundwater–surface water exchange. In this study, surface electrical methods were used as a non-invasive technique to assess the scale and temporal variability of riverbed temperature and groundwater–surface water interaction beneath a sedimentary bedrock riverbed. Conditions were monitored at a semi-daily to semi-weekly interval over a full annual period that included a seasonal freeze–thaw cycle. Surface electromagnetic induction (EMI and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT methods captured conditions beneath the riverbed along a pool–riffle sequence of the Eramosa River in Canada. Geophysical datasets were accompanied by continuous measurements of aqueous specific conductance, temperature, and river stage. Time-lapse vertical temperature trolling within a lined borehole adjacent to the river revealed active groundwater flow zones along fracture networks within the upper 10 m of rock. EMI measurements collected during cooler high-flow and warmer low-flow periods identified a spatiotemporal riverbed response that was largely dependent upon riverbed morphology and seasonal groundwater temperature. Time-lapse ERT profiles across the pool and riffle sequence identified seasonal transients within the upper 2 and 3 m of rock, respectively, with spatial variations controlled by riverbed morphology (pool versus riffle and dominant surficial rock properties (competent versus weathered rock rubble surface. While the pool and riffle both exhibited a dynamic resistivity through seasonal cooling and warming cycles, conditions beneath the pool were more variable, largely due to the formation of river

  13. An analytical model for the vertical electric field distribution and optimization of high voltage REBULF LDMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xia-Rong; Lü Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical model for the vertical electric field distribution and optimization of a high voltage-reduced bulk field (REBULF) lateral double-diffused metal—oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor is presented. The dependences of the breakdown voltage on the buried n-layer depth, thickness, and doping concentration are discussed in detail. The REBULF criterion and the optimal vertical electric field distribution condition are derived on the basis of the optimization of the electric field distribution. The breakdown voltage of the REBULF LDMOS transistor is always higher than that of a single reduced surface field (RESURF) LDMOS transistor, and both analytical and numerical results show that it is better to make a thick n-layer buried deep into the p-substrate. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Effects of microwave electric fields on the translational diffusion of dipolar molecules in surface potential: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, Sergey V.; Kouzaev, Guennadi A.

    2018-01-01

    Variations of effective diffusion coefficient of polar molecules exposed to microwave electric fields in a surface potential are studied by solving coupled stochastic differential equations of motion with a deterministic component of the surface force. Being an essential tool for the simulation interpretation, a theoretical approach to effective diffusion in surface potential is first developed. The effective diffusion coefficient is represented as the product of the normal diffusion coefficient and potential-dependent correction function, whose temperature dependence is close to the Arrhenius form. The analytically found zero-diffusion condition defines the state of thermal equilibrium at the surface. The diffusion of a water-like dipole molecule in the potential of graphite surface is simulated in the field-free conditions and in the presence of the alternating electric fields of various magnitude intensities and frequencies. Temperature dependence of the correction function exhibits field-induced variations of the effective Lennard-Jones energy parameter. It demonstrates maximum departure from the zero-field value at certain frequencies and intensities, which is associated with variations in the rotational dynamics. A concept of the amplitude-frequency resonance put forward to interpret the simulation results is explained using a heuristic reasoning and is corroborated by semi-quantitative considerations in terms of the Dissado-Hill cluster theory of dielectric relaxation.

  15. [Effects of surface electrical stimulation in older women with stress urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V S; Bonioti, L; Correia, G N; Driusso, P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface electrical stimulation in elderly women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) as compared to no treatment. This randomized controlled pilot study included women over the age of 60 years, with at least one episode of stress urinary leakage during the previous month. Fourteen women were allocated according to a computer generated randomization list in two groups: surface electrical stimulation (SES), and control group (CG). The women in the SES group were treated with surface electrical stimulation using four electrodes, during six weeks with two weekly sessions of 20 minutes each. They were evaluated before and after treatment primary outcome, urinary leakage, and secondary outcomes, King's Health Questionnaire, pressure perineometry, and subjective satisfaction. For the urinary leakage, there was a significant decrease in SES group after treatment (P=.017). Significant differences were observed between the SES group and CG in the evaluation after treatment (Pelectrical stimulation in elderly women with SUI can be an effective method for the improvement of urinary leakage. Copyright © 2011 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. A Nondestructive Evaluation Method: Measuring the Fixed Strength of Spot-Welded Joint Points by Surface Electrical Resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Keitaro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Yang, Sung-Mo; Iwata, Masahiro; Ike, Natsuko

    2013-04-01

    Destructive tests are generally applied to evaluate the fixed strength of spot-welding nuggets of zinc-plated steel (which is a widely used primary structural material for automobiles). These destructive tests, however, are expensive and time-consuming. This paper proposes a nondestructive method for evaluating the fixed strength of the welded joints using surface electrical resistance. A direct current nugget-tester and probes have been developed by the authors for this purpose. The proposed nondestructive method uses the relative decrease in surface electrical resistance, α . The proposed method also considers the effect of the corona bond. The nugget diameter is estimated by two factors: R Quota , which is calculated from variation of resistance, and a constant that represents the area of the corona bond. Since the maximum tensile strength is correlated with the nugget diameter, it can be inferred from the estimated nugget diameter. When appropriate measuring conditions for the surface electrical resistance are chosen, the proposed method can effectively evaluate the fixed strength of the spot-welded joints even if the steel sheet is zinc-plated.

  17. The mechanical analysis of thermo-magneto-electric laminated composites in nanoscale with the consideration of surface and flexoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuanhu; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2018-01-01

    A theoretical thermo-magneto-electric (TME) bilayer model is established based on the Hamilton principle, in which both surface effect and flexoelectricity are all taken into account. The governing equations are proposed with the aid of the nonlinear constitutive relations of giant magnetostrictive materials. These equations are general, which can be applied to analyze the coupled extensional, shear and bending deformations at both macroscale and nanoscale. As a specific example, the coupled extensional and bending motion of a slender beam suffering from external magnetic field and thermal variation is investigated, in which the Miller-Shenoy coefficient, magneto-electric (ME) effect, strain gradient and displacement are discussed in detail. After the necessary verification, a critical thickness of the TME model is proposed, below which the surface effect exhibits a remarkable influence on the mechanical behaviors and can not be ignored. It is revealed that the surface effect, flexoelectric effect and temperature increment are beneficial for the enhancement of the induced electric field. This study can provide theoretical basis for the design of nanoscale laminates, especially for the performance evaluation of ME composites under complex environment.

  18. Investigation on surface, electrical and optical properties of ITO-Ag-ITO coated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan Necdet; Sen, Tuba; Coruhlu Turgay; Senturk Kenan; Keskin Sinan; Seker Sedat; Dobrovolskiy Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the optical and electrical properties of thick ITO-Ag-ITO multilayer coating onto glass. ITO-Ag-ITO coatings with thickness of ITO layers 110 nm, 185 nm and intermediate Ag layer thickness 40 nm were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The optical, electrical and atomic properties of the coating were examined by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction analysis and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy

  19. Avalanche breakdown of the quantum hall effects

    CERN Document Server

    Komiyama, S

    1999-01-01

    Heat stability of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems in the integer quantum hall effect (IQHE) regime is discussed, and a heat instability is suggested to be the intrinsic mechanism behind the breakdown of the IQHE. Phenomenological argument is provided to suggest that the 2DEG system in the IQHE state becomes thermally unstable when the Hall electric field E sub y reaches a threshold value E sub b. Above E sub b , excited nonequilibrium electrons (holes), which are initially present in the conductor as the temperature fluctuation, are accelerated by E sub y and the 2DEG thereby undergoes a transition to a warm dissipative state. The critical field, E sub b , of this abrupt transition is theoretically estimated and shown to be in fare agreement with experimentally reported values. Consideration of the dynamics of electrons suggests that the transition is a process of avalanche electron-hole pair multiplication, in which a small number of non-equilibrium carriers, gains kinetic energy within a Landau ...

  20. Anisotropic relaxation of a CuO/TiO2 surface under an electric field and its impact on visible light absorption: ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Wenshi; Ji, Aimin; Wang, Ziou; Zhu, Canyan; Zhang, Lijun; Yang, Jianfeng; Mao, Ling-Feng

    2015-07-21

    Ab initio calculations on the anisotropic relaxation of a CuO/TiO2 surface under electric fields and the visible light absorption of these relaxed surfaces are reported. We compare the relaxation of the CuO/TiO2 surface under the electric fields in the direction of [001] or [010]. Fewer Cu-O bonds with highly coordinated Cu-ions are found in the CuO/TiO2 relaxed surface under the electric field in the [010] direction. The Cu-O bonds in the interface of the CuO/TiO2 surface led to an improved visible light absorption in the polarization direction of [001]. The CuO/TiO2 relaxed surface under the electric field in the [010] direction exhibits a more effective absorption of visible light. However, the electric field in the [001] direction induces more relaxation on the CuO/TiO2 surface, breaking the Cu-O bonds. This leads to the partial reduction of CuO to Cu2O on the CuO/TiO2 relaxed surface under the electric field in the [001] direction and inefficient absorption of visible light is observed for this surface.

  1. Leaf breakdown in streams differing in catchment land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.J.; Meyer, J.L.; Couch, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    1. The impact of changes in land use on stream ecosystem function is poorly understood. We studied leaf breakdown, a fundamental process of stream ecosystems, in streams that represent a range of catchment land use in the Piedmont physiographic province of the south-eastern United States. 2. We placed bags of chalk maple (Acer barbatum) leaves in similar-sized streams in 12 catchments of differing dominant land use: four forested, three agricultural, two suburban and three urban catchments. We measured leaf mass, invertebrate abundance and fungal biomass in leaf bags over time. 3. Leaves decayed significantly faster in agricultural (0.0465 day-1) and urban (0.0474 day-1) streams than in suburban (0.0173 day-1) and forested (0.0100 day-1) streams. Additionally, breakdown rates in the agricultural and urban streams were among the fastest reported for deciduous leaves in any stream. Nutrient concentrations in agricultural streams were significantly higher than in any other land-use type. Fungal biomass associated with leaves was significantly lower in urban streams; while shredder abundance in leaf bags was significantly higher in forested and agricultural streams than in suburban and urban streams. Storm runoff was significantly higher in urban and suburban catchments that had higher impervious surface cover than forested or agricultural catchments. 4. We propose that processes accelerating leaf breakdown in agricultural and urban streams were not the same: faster breakdown in agricultural streams was due to increased biological activity as a result of nutrient enrichment, whereas faster breakdown in urban streams was a result of physical fragmentation resulting from higher storm runoff. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  2. On exponential growth [of gas breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The agreement obtained between measured breakdown voltages and predicted breakdown values is frequently used as a means of assessing the validity of the theory/model in question. However, owing to the mathematical nature of exponential growth, it is easy to formulate a criterion that provides acc...

  3. Effects of surface and intravaginal electrical stimulation in the treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Grasiéla N; Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of surface electrical stimulation (SES) and to compare them with the effects of the intravaginal electrical stimulation (IVES) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This randomized controlled study included 48 women aged over 50 years, who complained of SUI evaluated according to two structured questions of King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and who had not previously undergone physical therapy for SUI. The calculation of the sample size estimated a sample of 45 volunteers with a significance level of 5% and statistical power of 90%. The women were randomized to: Surface Electrical Stimulation Group (SESG) (n=15), Intravaginal Electrical Stimulation Group (IVESG) (n=15) and Control Group (CG) (n=15). Subjects in the intervention groups were treated with the same parameters of electrical stimulation for 12 sessions. The SESG had four silicone electrodes fixed in the suprapubic and ischial tuberosity regions. The IVES group used an intravaginal electrode. The CG did not receive any treatment during the corresponding time. They were evaluated before and after treatment by a physical therapist who was blind to group allocation. The primary outcomes were urinary leakage, pressure and strength of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction. The secondary outcome was quality of life (QOL) evaluated by KHQ. Forty-five women completed the study and were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon test for intragroup analysis and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests for intergroup analysis (purinary loss and pressure of contraction in the SESG and IVESG. PFM strength increased only in the IVESG. Intergroup analysis found differences after the treatment in: urinary leakage between the SESG and CG (pincontinence impact, limitations of daily activities, physical limitation, emotion, sleep and disposition and severity domains in the SESG (all purinary leakage, and strength and pressure of PFM contraction. Copyright

  4. Study of vortex breakdown of F-106B by Euler code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Jenn Louh

    1990-01-01

    The 'Three-dimensional Euler Aerodynamic Method' (TEAM) is presently applied to the F-106B at subsonic speed, in order to examine the relationship between off- and on-surface flow features at angles-of-attack sufficiently great for the occurrence of vortex breakdown. Although TEAM's flow separation is triggered by numerical dissipation, the general trend of vortex-breakdown effect on computed lift characteristics is similar to extant wind tunnel results.

  5. Experiments concerning the theories of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the stagnation and wave guide theories of vortex breakdown. Three different wings were used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Disturbances were then introduced onto the vortex using a moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. A downstream traveling wave was observed to produce a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. An upstream traveling wave produced a moving turbulent region. The upstream disturbance moved into an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect while the downstream moving vortex breakdown moved against a jet-like overshoot. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by LDV measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.

  6. Breakdown properties of irradiated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paccagnella, A.; Candelori, A.; Pellizzer, F.; Fuochi, P.G.; Lavale, M.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on the breakdown properties of different types of MOS capacitors, with thick (200 nm) and thin (down to 8 nm) oxides. In general, no large variations of the average breakdown field, time-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown values have been observed after high dose irradiation (20 Mrad(Si) 9 MeV electrons on thin and thick oxides, 17(Si) Mrad Co 60 gamma and 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 only on thick oxides). However, some modifications of the cumulative failure distributions have been observed in few of the oxides tested

  7. Preliminary Breakdown: Physical Mechanisms and Potential for Energetic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D.; Beasley, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the preliminary breakdown phase of virgin negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning strokes will be presented. Of primary interest are the physical processes responsible for the fast electric field "characteristic" pulses that are often observed during this phase. The pulse widths of characteristic pulses are shown to occur as a superposed bimodal distribution, with the short and long modes having characteristic timescales on the order of 1 microsecond and 10 microseconds, respectively. Analysis of these pulses is based on comparison with laboratory observations of long spark discharge processes and with recently acquired high-speed video observations of a single -CG event. It will be argued that the fast electric field bimodal distribution is the result of conventional discharge processes operating in an extensive strong ambient electric field environment. An important related topic will also be discussed, where it will be argued that preliminary breakdown discharges are capable of generating energetic electrons and may therefore seed relativistic electron avalanches that go on to produce pulsed energetic photon emissions.

  8. Effects of vacuum heat treatment on the photoelectric work function and surface morphology of multilayered silver–metal electrical contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbi, Mohamed, E-mail: akbi_mohamed@umbb.dz [Laboratoire “Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques”, CNRS, UPRES-A 6069, 24, Avenue des Landais, F-63177 Aubière Cedex (France); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Boumerdes (UMBB), Independence Avenue, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Bouchou, Aïssa [Faculty of Physics, University of Algiers (USTHB), B.P. 32, El-Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Zouache, Noureddine [Laboratoire “Arc Electrique et Plasmas Thermiques”, CNRS, UPRES-A 6069, 24, Avenue des Landais, F-63177 Aubière Cedex (France)

    2014-06-01

    Contact materials used for electrical breakers are often made with silver alloys. Mechanical and thermodynamical properties as well as electron emission of such complicated alloys present a lack of reliable and accurate experimental data. This paper deals mainly with electron work function (EWF) measurements about silver–metal (Ag–Me) electrical contacts (Ag–Ni (60/40) and Ag–W (50/50)), before and after surface heat treatments at 513 K–873 K, under UHV conditions (residual gas pressure of 1.4 × 10{sup −7} mbar). The electron work function (EWF) of silver alloyed contacts was measured photoelectrically, using both Fowler's method of isothermal curves and linearized Fowler plots. An interesting fact brought to light by this investigation is that after vacuum heat treatments, the diffusion and/or evaporation phenomena, affecting the atomic composition of the alloy surface, somehow confine the EWF of the silver–nickel alloy, Φ(Ag–Ni), determined at room temperature in interval]Φ(Ag), Φ(Ni) [=] 4.26 eV, 4.51 eV[. Surface analysis of two specimens before and after heating showed a significant increase of tungsten atomic proportion on the contact surface for Ag–W contacts after VH treatments. A multilayer model, taking into account the strong intergranular and volume segregation gives a good interpretation of the obtained results.

  9. Breakdown of coupling dielectrics for Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Padova Univ.; Saglimbeni, G.

    1999-01-01

    Double-layer coupling dielectrics for AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors have been electrically characterized in order to determine their performance in a radiation-harsh environment, with a focus on the dielectric breakdown. Two different dielectric technologies have been investigated: SiO 2 /TEOS and SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 . Dielectrics have been tested by using a negative gate voltage ramp of 0.2 MV/(cm·s). The metal/insulator/Si I-V characteristics show different behaviours depending on the technology. The extrapolated values of the breakdown field for unirradiated devices are significantly higher for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics, but the data dispersion is lower for SiO 2 /TEOS devices. No significant variation of the breakdown field has been measured after a 10 Mrad (Si) γ irradiation for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics. Finally, the SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 DC conduction is enhanced if a positive gate voltage ramp is applied with respect to the negative one, due to the asymmetric conduction of the double-layer dielectric

  10. INCREASING THE BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE OF BJT'S AS SWITCHING DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SÖNMEZ

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrical parameters of the transistor must be taken into account in the designing of electronic circuit. One parameter, VCBO, is one of the most important parameter for the designer. Using transistor which has the breakdown voltage of 50 V, it is not possible to obtain 80 V pulse output since the output voltage can not exceed the supply voltage. In this work, a new method is presented to obtain output voltage bigger than supply voltage by using more than one transistor.

  11. Radial electric field and transport near the rational surface and the magnetic island in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Tamura, N.

    2002-10-01

    The structure of the radial electric field and heat transport at the magnetic island in the Large Helical Device is investigated by measuring the radial profile of poloidal flow with charge exchange spectroscopy. The convective poloidal flow inside the island is observed when the n/m=1/1 external perturbation field becomes large enough to increase the magnetic island width above a critical value (15-20% of minor radius) in LHD. This convective poloidal flow results in a non-flat space potential inside the magnetic island. The sign of the curvature of the space potential depends on the radial electric field at the boundary of the magnetic island. The heat transport inside the magnetic island is studied with a cold pulse propagation technique. The experimental results show the existence of the radial electric field shear at the boundary of the magnetic island and a reduction of heat transport inside the magnetic island. (author)

  12. Modification of Nafion Membranes by IL-Cation Exchange: Chemical Surface, Electrical and Interfacial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romero

    2012-01-01

    A study of time evolution of the impedance curves measured in the system “IL aqueous solution/Nafion-112 membrane/IL aqueous solution” was also performed. This study allows us monitoring the electrical changes associated to the IL-cation incorporation in both the membrane and the membrane/IL solution interface, and it provides supplementary information on the characteristic of the Nafion/DTA+ hybrid material. Moreover, the results also show the significant effect of water on the electrical resistance of the Nafion-112/IL-cation-modified membrane.

  13. Correlated electric-field induced reversal of antiferromagnetic order and surface magnetization in magnetoelectric Cr2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlei; Singh, Uday; Binek, Christian

    The electric-field-induced Faraday effect in magnetoelectrics comprises a superimposition of linear electric field responses with temperature dependencies of the linear magnetoelectric susceptibility and the antiferromagnetic order parameter. The tunability of the relative strength between the two contributions leads to a table-top set-up allowing to measure voltage-controlled selection and temperature dependence of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. Simultaneous measurement of the polar Kerr effect and the electric-field-induced Faraday effect is utilized to investigate correlated formation and switching of the surface magnetization and bulk antiferromagnetic order in Cr2O3 The correlated reversal of surface or boundary magnetization in response to voltage-controlled reversal of the bulk antiferromagnetic order parameter is of key importance for applications in spintronic devices such as the magnetoelectric MRAM. The Faraday rotation per applied voltage is independent of the sample thickness making the method scalable and versatile for thin film investigations. Scalability, compactness, and simplicity of the data analysis combined with low photon flux requirements make the Faraday approach advantageous for the investigation of the otherwise difficult to access voltage-controlled switching of antiferromagnetic domain states in magnetoelectric thin films. Acknowledgment: This project was supported by SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center, by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, and by the NSF through MRSEC DMR-0820521.

  14. Modification of surface characteristic and tribo-electric properties of polymers by DBD plasma in atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkara, Mohammed Fethi; Dascalescu, Lucien; Benmimoun, Youcef; Zeghloul, Thami; Tilmatine, Amar; Zouzou, Noureddine

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the effects of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure on the physico-chemical and tribo-electric properties of polymers. The study was conducted in atmospheric air on polypropylene, polyethylene and polyvinyl-chloride. These three types of polymers are widely used in industry. The polymers were characterized by means of an optical profilometer, a fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and an electric charge measurement system. The latter is composed of a Faraday pail connected to an electrometer. The profilometer analyses showed that the DBD plasma treatment has increased the surface roughness of the three polymers. FTIR revealed that oxygen atoms and polar groups were grafted on their surfaces, thereby conferring them a hydrophilic character. The short (2 sec) DBD plasma treatment has considerably improved the electrostatic charge acquired by the polymers during electrostatic tribo-charging, while longer exposures conferred the polymer anti-static properties and decreased its tribo-charging capability. The correlation between the results of the physico-chemical analyses and the tribo-electric behavior has been discussed.

  15. Enhancement in electrical conductivity of pastes containing submicron Ag-coated Cu filler with palmitic acid surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Byeol; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication and applied use of submicron Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) particles as a filler material for epoxy-based conductive pastes having the advantages of a lower material cost and antioxidation behavior were studied. Submicron Cu@Ag particles were successfully prepared and surface-modified using palmitic acid. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry results indicated the formation of an organic layer by the chemical interaction between the Cu@Ag surface and palmitic acid and the survival of the organic layer after treatment at 160 °C for 3 h in air. The printed pastes containing both commercial micron Cu@Ag flakes and the fabricated submicron Cu@Ag particles showed a greatly reduced electrical resistivity (4.68 × 10-4 Ω cm) after surface modification compared to an initial value of 1.85 × 10-3 Ω cm when cured.

  16. Effects of electrical discharge surface modification of superalloy Haynes 230 with aluminum and molybdenum on oxidation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, C.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process on improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of the Ni-based superalloy Haynes 230 have been investigated. The 85 at.% Al and 15 at.% Mo composite electrode provided the surface alloying materials. An Al-rich layer is produced on the surface of the EDA specimen alloyed with positive electrode polarity, whereas, many discontinuous piled layers are attached to the surface of the EDA superalloy when negative electrode polarity is selected. The oxidation resistance of the specimen alloyed with positive electrode polarity is better than that of the unalloyed superalloy, and the effective temperature of oxidation resistance of the alloyed layer can be achieved to 1100 o C. Conversely, the oxidation resistance of the other EDA specimen alloyed with negative electrode polarity is even worse than that of the unalloyed superalloy

  17. Closed-form nonlinear frequency of flexoelectric nanobeams with surface and nonlocal effects under closed circuit electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects on nonlinear vibration characteristics of a flexoelectric nanobeams under magnetic field are examined. Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity as well as surface elasticity theories are employed to describe the size-dependency of the flexoelectric nanobeam. Also, flexoelectricity is an important size-dependent phenomena for piezoelectric structures at nanoscale, related to the strain gradient-electric polarization coupling. After the derivation of governing equation via Hamilton’s principle, Galerkin method is employed to satisfy boundary conditions. Also, analytical procedures are implemented to obtain the closed-form nonlinear frequency of flexoelectric nanobeam. It is showed that magnetic field intensity, flexoelectric parameter, nonlocal parameter, elastic foundation and applied voltage on the top surface of the nanobeam have great influences on nonlinear vibration frequency.

  18. Computer modeling and laboratory experiments of a specific borehole to surface electrical monitoring technique (BSEMT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, J.A.C.; Zhang, X.; Abdul Fattah, R.

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical monitoring of the dynamical behavior of subsurface reservoirs (oil, gas, CO2) remains an important issue in geophysical research. A new idea for reservoir monitoring based on electrical resistivity tomography was developed at TNO. The essential element of the so-called BSEMT (Borehole to

  19. Spatial and temporal monitoring of soil moisture using surface electrical resistivity tomography in Mediterranean soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alamry, Abdulmohsen S.; van der Meijde, Mark; Noomen, Marleen; Addink, Elisabeth A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/224281216; van Benthem, Rik; de Jong, Steven M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120221306

    2017-01-01

    ERT techniques are especially promising in (semi-arid) areas with shallow and rocky soils where other methods fail to produce soil moisture maps and to obtain soil profile information. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was performed in the Peyne catchment in southern France at four sites

  20. Direct observations of surface water-groundwater interaction using electrical resistivity tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noell, Ursula; Wießner, Claudia; Ganz, Christina; Westhoff, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography is a helpful tool to observe the infiltration process in and through the soil. Array 3-D measurements and 3-D inversion schemes are required for reliable interpretation of heterogeneous subsurface structures. Smoothing of the inversion can be minimized by using

  1. The Work Breakdown Structure in an Acquisition Reform Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert, Neil

    1997-01-01

    These viewgraphs discuss acquisition reform, costs, provide a definition for work breakdown structure, development process of work breakdown, an overview of contract business management, a GAO review...

  2. A Review of Additive Mixed-Electric Discharge Machining: Current Status and Future Perspectives for Surface Modification of Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul’Azeez Abdu Aliyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment remained a key solution to numerous problems of synthetic hard tissues. The basic methods of implant surface modification include various physical and chemical deposition techniques. However, most of these techniques have several drawbacks such as excessive cost and surface cracks and require very high sintering temperature. Additive mixed-electric discharge machining (AM-EDM is an emerging technology which simultaneously acts as a machining and surface modification technique. Aside from the mere molds, dies, and tool fabrication, AM-EDM is materializing to finishing of automobiles and aerospace, nuclear, and biomedical components, through the concept of material migrations. The mechanism of material transfer by AM-EDM resembles electrophoretic deposition, whereby the additives in the AM-EDM dielectric fluids are melted and migrate to the machined surface, forming a mirror-like finishing characterized by extremely hard, nanostructured, and nanoporous layers. These layers promote the bone in-growth and strengthen the cell adhesion. Implant shaping and surface treatment through AM-EDM are becoming a key research focus in recent years. This paper reports and summarizes the current advancement of AM-EDM as a potential tool for orthopedic and dental implant fabrication. Towards the end of this paper, the current challenges and future research trends are highlighted.

  3. Surface plasmon-enhanced localized electric field in organic light-emitting diodes by incorporating silver nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Chung; Gao, Chia-Yuan [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • A higher luminance and electron-injection ability are obtained when the mean cluster size of SNCs is 34 nm. • SPRE is the crucial factor to contribute the electron injection. • SPRE induced the enhanced localized electric field around the Ag NPs. - Abstract: The influence of silver nanoclusters (SNCs) on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes is investigated in this study. The SNCs are introduced between the electron-injection layer and cathode alumina by means of thermal evaporation, resulting that different absorption peaks of SNCs were formed. A higher luminance and electron-injection ability are obtained when the mean cluster size is 34 nm. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy reveals that the localized electric field around the SNCs is enhanced, resulting in an increase in electron injection from cathode electrode.

  4. The wavelength dependence of gold nanorod-mediated optical breakdown during infrared ultrashort pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davletshin, Yevgeniy R.; Kumaradas, J. Carl [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    This paper investigates the wavelength dependence of the threshold of gold nanorod-mediated optical breakdown during picosecond and femtosecond near infrared optical pulses. It was found that the wavelength dependence in the picosecond regime is governed solely by the changes of a nanorod's optical properties. On the other hand, the optical breakdown threshold during femtosecond pulse exposure falls within one of two regimes. When the ratio of the maximum electric field from the outside to the inside of the nanorod is less then 7 (the absorption regime) the seed electrons are initiated by photo-thermal emission, and the wavelength dependence in the threshold of optical breakdown is the result of optical properties of the nanoparticle. When the ratio is greater than 7 (the near-field regime) more seed electrons are initiated by multiphoton ionization, and the wavelength dependence of the threshold of optical breakdown results from a combination of nanorod's optical properties and transitions in the order of multiphoton ionization. The findings of this study can guide the design of nanoparticle based optical breakdown applications. This analysis also deepens the understanding of nanoparticle-mediated laser induced breakdown for picosecond and femtosecond pulses at near infrared wavelengths. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Junjuri, R.; Myakalwar, A.K.; Gundawar, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 6 (2017), s. 623-630 ISSN 0011-748X Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy * Multivariate analysis * Principal component analysis * Explosive detection Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  6. High glycogen levels enhance glycogen breakdown in isolated contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    and after 15 min of intermittent electrical muscle stimulation. Before stimulation, glycogen was higher in rats that swam on the preceding day (supercompensated rats) compared with controls. During muscle contractions, glycogen breakdown in fast-twitch red and white fibers was larger in supercompensated...

  7. Standoff Detection of Explosives at 1 m using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Junjuri, R.; Myakalwar, A.K.; Gundawar, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 6 (2017), s. 623-630 ISSN 0011-748X Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy * Multivariate analysis * Principal component analysis * Explosive detection Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  8. Effects of Surface Modification of MWCNT on the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Fluoro Elastomer/MWCNT Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification is a good way to improve the surface activity and interfacial strength of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs when used as fillers in the polymer composites. Among the reported methods for nanotube modification, mixed acid oxidation and plasma treatment is often used by introducing polar groups to the sidewall of MWCNT successfully. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of different surface modification of MWCNT on the mechanical property and electrical conductivity of Fluoro-elastomer (FE/MWCNT nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface modified by mixed oxidation and CF4 plasma treatment and then used to reinforce the fluoro elastomer (FE, a copolymer of trifluorochloroethylene and polyvinylidene fluoride. FE/MWCNT composite films were prepared from mixture solutions of ethylacetate and butylacetate, using untreated CNTs (UCNTs, acid-modified CNTs (ACNTs, and CF4 plasma-modified CNT (FCNTs. In each case, MWCNT content was 0.01 wt%, 0.05 wt%, 0.1 wt%, and 0.2 wt% with respect to the polymer. Morphology and mechanical properties were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, as well as dynamic mechanical tests. The SEM results indicated that dispersion of ACNTs and especially FCNTs in FE was better than that of UCNTs. DMA indicated mechanical properties of FCNT composites were improved over ACNT and UCNT filled FE. The resulting electrical properties of the composites ranged from dielectric behavior to bulk conductivities of 10-2 Sm-1 and were found to depend strongly on the surface modification methods of MWCNTs.

  9. Dependence of single-shot pulse durations on near-infrared filamentation-guided breakdown in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt-Sody

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present results of an experimental investigation of laser pulsewidth dependence of filamentation-guided high voltage breakdown in air. The experiments are conducted at laser peak power levels of 1 TW and pulse durations of 0.7 to 10 ps with a discharge gap separation of 10 cm. Synchronized electrical and optical diagnostic techniques were used to determine the pulsewidth dependence on the breakdown mechanism, threshold levels, time delays and associated jitter. The results indicate that longer pulses provide greater than 30% reduction in breakdown threshold voltage.

  10. On the breakdown modes and parameter space of Ohmic Tokamak startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanli; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ya; Hu, Xiwei; Zhuang, Ge; Innocenti, Maria; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Tokamak plasma has to be hot. The process of turning the initial dilute neutral hydrogen gas at room temperature into fully ionized plasma is called tokamak startup. Even with over 40 years of research, the parameter ranges for the successful startup still aren't determined by numerical simulations but by trial and errors. However, in recent years it has drawn much attention due to one of the challenges faced by ITER: the maximum electric field for startup can't exceed 0.3 V/m, which makes the parameter range for successful startup narrower. Besides, this physical mechanism is far from being understood either theoretically or numerically. In this work, we have simulated the plasma breakdown phase driven by pure Ohmic heating using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo code, with the aim of giving a predictive parameter range for most tokamaks, even for ITER. We have found three situations during the discharge, as a function of the initial parameters: no breakdown, breakdown and runaway. Moreover, breakdown delay and volt-second consumption under different initial conditions are evaluated. In addition, we have simulated breakdown on ITER and confirmed that when the electric field is 0.3 V/m, the optimal pre-filling pressure is 0.001 Pa, which is in good agreement with ITER's design.

  11. Time-Domain Full-Wave Modeling of Nonlinear Air Breakdown in High-Power Microwave Devices and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    electromagnetic --plasma interactions and the resulting air breakdown, electromagnetic pulse tail erosion, plasma formation and shielding are simulated and...DEVICES AND SYSTEMS Su Yan and Jian-Ming Jin Center for Computational Electromagnetics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering...Computational Electromagnetics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING

  12. Electrical conductance change of graphene-based devices upon surface modification for detecting botulinum neurotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehee; Kim, Ho-Jong; Shim, Seung-Bo; Jung, Suyong; Lee, Nam Hee; Nahm, Seung Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yun, Wan Soo; Ha, Dong Han

    2017-06-01

    We report an electric conductance change in a graphene-based device upon molecular adsorption for detecting botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) using the antibody-antigen binding strategy. This device consists of a 400-µm-wide monolayer of graphene between the source and drain electrodes. As-fabricated devices exhibit p-type behaviors. After modifying graphene with linkers and antibodies, BoNT detection was performed by dropping a target solution and measuring the conductance change of the devices. The immobilization of linkers on graphene decreases the electrical conductance as a result of electron transfer from linkers to graphene. However, the conductance change caused by the adsorption of antibodies or BoNTs is ascribed to the top-gating effects of the molecules adsorbed on graphene. The normalized conductance change of the graphene-based device upon antibody-BoNT binding was greater than 5%.

  13. Spin-related tunneling through a nanostructured electric-magnetic barrier on the surface of a topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua; Li, Jun

    2012-01-27

    We investigate quantum tunneling through a single electric and/or magnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We found that (1) the propagating behavior of electrons in such system exhibits a strong dependence on the direction of the incident electron wavevector and incident energy, giving the possibility to construct a wave vector and/or energy filter; (2) the spin orientation can be tuned by changing the magnetic barrier structure as well as the incident angles and energies.PACS numbers: 72.25.Dc; 73.20.-r; 73.23.-b; 75.70.-i.

  14. Nanoparticles assume electrical potential according to substrate, size and surface termination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Štěpán; Petit, T.; Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2013), s. 1634-1641 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100902 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond and gold nanoparticles * electrical potential * AFM * KFM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.384, year: 2013

  15. Surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation for quadriceps strengthening pre and post total knee replacement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Total knee replacement has been demonstrated to be one of the most successful procedures in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However quadriceps weakness and reductions in function are commonly reported following surgery. Recently Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) has been used as an adjunct to traditional strengthening programmes. This review considers the effectiveness of NMES as a means of increasing quadriceps strength in patients before and after total knee replacement.

  16. Measuring oxygen surface exchange kinetics on mixed-conducting composites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Bobing; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Zhuoying; Xia, Changrong; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen release kinetics of mixed-conducting Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 d–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 d (SFM–SDC) dualphase composites has been investigated, at 750 C, as a function of the SDC phase volume fraction using electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) under reducing atmospheres, extending our previous work on

  17. Effect of laser pulse energies in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of laser pulse energy on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal is studied. In particular, the energy of the first pulse has been changed, while the second pulse energy is held fixed. A systematic study of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal dependence on the interpulse delay is performed, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. At the same time, the crater formed at the target surface is studied by video-confocal microscopy, and the variation in crater dimensions is correlated to the enhancement of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal. The results obtained are consistent with the interpretation of the double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement in terms of the changes in ambient gas pressure produced by the shock wave induced by the first laser pulse

  18. Dielectric breakdown of γ-ray irradiated epoxy resin with alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruike, Mitsuo; Fujita, Shigetaka; Noto, Fumitoshi.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we report on dielectric breakdown characteristics of alumina-filled epoxy resin irradiated by γ-ray under a needle-plane electrode geometry. For that purpose, we studied relationship between breakdown voltage and filler parts, relationship between breakdown voltage and irradiation dose, and an influence of thickness of epoxy resin on breakdown voltage. In order to investigate these results, we made further experiments on Glass Transition Temperature change before and after γ-ray irradiation using a DSC method, and filler parts dependence of tan δ and ε. We also investigated surface oxidization of epoxy resin from a wave analysis of spectra measured using FT-IR difference spectrometer. We observed surfaces of epoxy resin before and after γ-ray irradiation using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results are as follows: 1) In the case of 2 mm thick, dielectric breakdown voltage of epoxy resin increases suddenly from 5 parts to 40 parts, and decreases slowly from 40 parts to 300 parts, under both positive and negative impulse voltage. 2) Dielectric breakdown voltage of epoxy resin with 2 mm thick begins to decrease at 2 MGy under positive impulse voltage, but it begins to decrease at 5 MGy under negative impulse voltage. (author)

  19. Effects of Nb and Ti Addition and Surface Treatments on the Electrical Conductivity of 316 Stainless Steel as Bipolar Plates for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Hyun; Chun, Dong Hyun; Wee, Dang Moon; Kim, Jeong Heon; Kim, Min Chul

    2007-01-01

    Nb and Ti were added to 316 stainless steel, and then heat-treatments and surface treatments were performed on the 316 stainless steel and the Nb- and Ti-added alloys. All samples indicated enhanced electrical conductivity after surface treatments, whereas they showed low electrical conductivity before surface treatments due to the existence of non-conductive passive film on the allot surface. In particular, the Nb- and Ti-added alloys showed remarkable enhancement of electrical conductivity compared to the original alloy, 316 stainless steel. Surface characterization revealed that small carbide particles formed on the alloy surface after surface treatments, while the alloys indicated flat surface structure before surface treatments. Cr 23 C 6 mainly formed on the 316 stainless steel, and NbC and TiC mainly formed on the Nb- and Ti-added alloys, respectively. We attribute the enhanced electrical conductivity after surface treatments to the formation of these carbide particles, possibly acting as a means of electro-conductive channel through the passive film. Furthermore, NbC and TiC are supposed to be more effective carbides than Cr 23 C 6 as electro-conductive channels of stainless steel

  20. Influence of ion pairing in ionic liquids on electrical double layer structures and surface force using classical density functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Forsman, Jan; Woodward, Clifford E

    2015-05-07

    We explore the influence of ion pairing in room temperature ionic liquids confined by planar electrode surfaces. Using a coarse-grained model for the aromatic ionic liquid [C4MIM(+)][BF4 (-)], we account for an ion pairing component as an equilibrium associating species within a classical density functional theory. We investigated the resulting structure of the electrical double layer as well as the ensuing surface forces and differential capacitance, as a function of the degree of ion association. We found that the short-range structure adjacent to surfaces was remarkably unaffected by the degree of ion pairing, up to several molecular diameters. This was even the case for 100% of ions being paired. The physical implications of ion pairing only become apparent in equilibrium properties that depend upon the long-range screening of charges, such as the asymptotic behaviour of surface forces and the differential capacitance, especially at low surface potential. The effect of ion pairing on capacitance is consistent with their invocation as a source of the anomalous temperature dependence of the latter. This work shows that ion pairing effects on equilibrium properties are subtle and may be difficult to extract directly from simulations.

  1. PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF TI-6AL-4V IN ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING: A REGRESSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Maleque

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a single order mathematical model for correlating various electrical discharge machining (EDM parameters and performance characteristics by utilizing relevant experimental data obtained through experimentation. In addition to the effect of peak ampere, the effect of pulse on time and pulse off time on surface roughness has also been investigated. Experiments have been conducted on titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V with a copper electrode retaining negative polarity as per the Design of Experiments. Response surface methodology techniques are utilized to develop the mathematical model as well as to optimize the EDM parameters. An analysis of variance has been performed for the validity test of fit and adequacy of the proposed models. It can be seen that increasing pulse on time causes a fine surface until a certain value, beyond which the surface finish deteriorates. The excellent surface finish is investigated in this study for the case of pulse on time below 80 µs. This result acts as a guide for selecting the required process outputs and most economic industrial machining conditions for optimizing the input factors.

  2. Test data on electrical contacts at high surface velocities and high current densities for homopolar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.; Tolk, K.M.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Test data is presented for one grade of copper graphite brush material, Morganite CMlS, over a wide range of surface velocities, atmospheres, and current densities that are expected for fast discharge (<100 ms) homopolar generators. The brushes were run on a copper coated 7075-T6 aluminum disk at surface speeds up to 277 m/sec. One electroplated copper and three flame sprayed copper coatings were used during the tests. Significant differences in contact voltage drops and surface mechanical properties of the copper coatings were observed

  3. Influence of the crystallographic structure of the electrode surface on the structure of the electrical double layer and adsorption of organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochorovski, Z.; Zagorska, I.; Pruzhkovska-Drakhal, R.; Trasatti, S.

    1995-01-01

    The results of systematic investigation of influence of crystal structure of Bi-, Sb- and Cd-electrode surfaces on regularities of double electric layer structure in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions of surface-nonactive electrolyte are given. Influence of electrode surface characteristics on adsorptive behaviour of different organic molecules has been studied. General regularities of of chemical nature influence and surface crystallographic structure on the double layer structure and on organic compounds adsorption have been established. 57 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Analysis and comparison of the breakdown performance of semi-insulator and dielectric passivated Si strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Namrata; Chatterji, Sudeep; Srivastava, Ajay K.; Shivpuri, R. K.

    2002-12-01

    The harsh radiation environment in future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments like LHC provides a challenging task to the performance of Si microstrip detectors. Normal operating condition for silicon detectors in HEP experiments are in most cases not as favourable as for experiments in nuclear physics. In HEP experiments the detector may be exposed to moisture and other adverse atmospheric environment. It is therefore utmost important to protect the sensitive surfaces against such poisonous effects. These instabilities can be nearly eliminated and the performance of Si detectors can be improved by implementing suitably passivated metal-overhang structures. This paper presents the influence of the relative permittivity of the passivant on the breakdown performance of the Si detectors using computer simulations. The semi-insulator and the dielectric passivated metal-overhang structures are compared under optimal conditions. The influence of various parameters such as passivation layer thickness, junction depth, metal-overhang width, device depth, substrate resistivity and fixed oxide charge on the junction breakdown voltage of these structures is extensively studied. The results presented in this work clearly demonstrate the superiority of the metal-overhang structure design employing semi-insulator passivated structures over dielectric passivated ones in realising a given breakdown voltage. The effect of bulk damage caused by hadron environment in the passivated Si detectors is simulated, to a first order approximation, by varying effective carrier concentration (calculated using Hamburg Model) and minority carrier lifetime. This approach allows getting an insight of the device behaviour after radiation damage by evaluating the electric field distribution, and thus proves helpful in predicting some interesting results.

  5. Plasma Conductivity and Ionization Growth in Flame Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Martinez, Arturo; Hernandez, J. Luis

    2000-10-01

    An investigation into the properties of flame breakdown is reported. A series of DC discharge tests were performed in a set of parallel plane electrodes bridged by flames from a bunsen burner. The experimental setup aims to reproduce the conditions found in waste-disposal reactors where the combined effect of fire and an electrical arc degrade noxious substances. The current was simultaneously monitored in different points of the discharge zone. As the applied voltage is increased, it is found that initially the ionization from the flame controls discharge growth but that in later stages avalanche growth takes over. The slope of the I-V characteristics was used for estimating the Townsend ionization coefficients. The overall plasma conductivity was estimated from both the external circuit measurements and the plasma parameters. The results obtained are compared with previous investigations in which mean discharge resistivity is a relevant parameter, employed for designing applications. The effect of gap separation and height over the burner top were also analyzed. This way it was observed that the temperature profile of the flame dictates the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity and thus of breakdown.

  6. Regime Jumps in Electricity Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Huisman (Ronald); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractElectricity prices are known to be very volatile and subject to frequent jumps due to system breakdown, demand shocks, and inelastic supply. As many international electricity markets are in some state of deregulation, more and more participants in these markets are exposed to these

  7. New mechanism of cluster-field evaporation in rf breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Insepov

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple field evaporation model and molecular dynamics simulations of nanoscale copper tip evolution in a high electric field gradient typical for linacs, we have studied a new mechanism for rf-field evaporation. The mechanism consists of simultaneous (collective field evaporation of a large group of tip atoms in high-gradient fields. Thus, evaporation of large clusters is energetically more favorable when compared with the conventional, “one-by-one” mechanism. The studied mechanism could also be considered a new mechanism for the triggering of rf-vacuum breakdown. This paper discusses the mechanism and the experimental data available for electric field evaporation of field-emission microscopy tips.

  8. Effect of electric arc cutting procedures on the properties of processed metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, L.M.; Novikova, D.P.; Struina, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the data of comparative studies of the cutting surface, made by the electrodes of the ANR-2 type and by the coal electrode by the method of air-arc cutting. Absence of carbonization of cutting surface, minimum structural changes in metal and a considerably high productivity permit to recommend the ANR-2 and ANR-2M electrodes for separation metal cutting, weld root and defect area cut without further stripping by the grinding stone

  9. Electric Double Layer Composed of an Antagonistic Salt in an Aqueous Mixture: Local Charge Separation and Surface Phase Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira

    2017-09-15

    We examine an electric double layer containing an antagonistic salt in an aqueous mixture, where the cations are small and hydrophilic but the anions are large and hydrophobic. In this situation, a strong coupling arises between the charge density and the solvent composition. As a result, the anions are trapped in an oil-rich adsorption layer on a hydrophobic wall. We then vary the surface charge density σ on the wall. For σ>0 the anions remain accumulated, but for σ<0 the cations are attracted to the wall with increasing |σ|. Furthermore, the electric potential drop Ψ(σ) is nonmonotonic when the solvent interaction parameter χ(T) exceeds a critical value χ_{c} determined by the composition and the ion density in the bulk. This leads to a first-order phase transition between two kinds of electric double layers with different σ and common Ψ. In equilibrium such two-layer regions can coexist. The steric effect due to finite ion sizes is crucial in these phenomena.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of morphological and functional changes of the uterus induced by sacral surface electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Takahide; Murakami, Takashi; Ozawa, Yuka; Seki, Kazunori; Handa, Yasunobu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the morphological and kinematical changes of the uterus induced by electrical stimulation applied to the skin just above the second and fourth posterior sacral foramens (sacral surface electrical stimulation [ssES]) in 26 healthy subjects. Out of them, eight subjects who had severe pain subjectively during every menstruation received ssES just in menstruation. Morphological and functional changes of the uterus were examined by using T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T1-weighted MR cinematography, respectively. Cyclic electrical stimulation for 15 min with 5 sec ON and 5 sec OFF was applied just before MR scanning. A decrease in thickness of the muscular layer of the uterus was observed in every subject after ssES for 15 min and was significant as compared with the thickness before ssES. Periodic uterine movement during menstruation was observed in the subjects with severe menstrual pain in MR cine and the power spectrum analysis of the movement showed a marked decrease in peak power and frequency after ssES treatment. We conclude that ssES causes a reduction of static muscle tension of the uterus in all menstrual cycle periods and suppression of uterine peristalsis during menstruation in the subjects with severe menstrual pain. Possible neural mechanisms for these static and dynamic effects of ssES on the uterus at spinal level are discussed. (author)

  11. Chronological change of electrical resistance in GeCu2Te3 amorphous film induced by surface oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuta; Shindo, Satoshi; Sutou, Yuji; Koike, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Unusual chronological electrical resistance change behavior was investigated for amorphous GeCu 2 Te 3 phase change material. More than a 1 order decrease of electrical resistance was observed in the air even at room temperature. The resistance of the amorphous film gradually increased with increasing temperature and then showed a drop upon crystallization. Such unusual behavior was attributed to the oxidation of the amorphous GeCu 2 Te 3 film. From the compositional depth profile measurement, the GeCu 2 Te 3 film without any capping layer was oxidized in air at room temperature and the formed oxide was mainly composed of germanium oxide. Consequently, a highly-conductive Cu-rich layer was formed in the vicinity of the surface of the film, which reduced the total resistance of the film. The present results could provide insight into the chronological change of electrical resistance in amorphous chalcogenide materials, indicating that not only relaxation of the amorphous, but also a large atomic diffusion contributes to the chronological resistance change. (paper)

  12. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Khasan S.; Muqeet Rehman, M.; Zameer Abbas, S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Mahroof-Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H 2 Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H 2 Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 μm. For the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ∼ 80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. (paper)

  13. Obstacle-induced spiral vortex breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Simon; Gallaire, François; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on vortex breakdown dynamics is performed. An adverse pressure gradient is created along the axis of a wing-tip vortex by introducing a sphere downstream of an elliptical hydrofoil. The instrumentation involves high-speed visualizations with air bubbles used as tracers and 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Two key parameters are identified and varied to control the onset of vortex breakdown: the swirl number, defined as the maximum azimuthal velocity divided by...

  14. Modeling Covariance Breakdowns in Multivariate GARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xin; Maheu, John M

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a flexible way of modeling dynamic heterogeneous covariance breakdowns in multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) models. During periods of normal market activity, volatility dynamics are governed by an MGARCH specification. A covariance breakdown is any significant temporary deviation of the conditional covariance matrix from its implied MGARCH dynamics. This is captured through a flexible stochastic component that allows for changes in the conditional variances, covariances and impl...

  15. Investigation of dielectric breakdown in silica-epoxy nanocomposites using designed interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Krentz, Timothy; Keith Nelson, J; Schadler, Linda; Wu, Ke; Breneman, Curt; Zhao, Su; Hillborg, Henrik; Benicewicz, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Adding nano-sized fillers to epoxy has proven to be an effective method for improving dielectric breakdown strength (DBS). Evidence suggests that dispersion state, as well as chemistry at the filler-matrix interface can play a crucial role in property enhancement. Herein we investigate the contribution of both filler dispersion and surface chemistry on the AC dielectric breakdown strength of silica-epoxy nanocomposites. Ligand engineering was used to synthesize bimodal ligands onto 15nm silica nanoparticles consisting of long epoxy compatible, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) chains, and short, π-conjugated, electroactive surface ligands. Surface initiated RAFT polymerization was used to synthesize multiple graft densities of PGMA chains, ultimately controlling the dispersion of the filler. Thiophene, anthracene, and terthiophene were employed as π-conjugated surface ligands that act as electron traps to mitigate avalanche breakdown. Investigation of the synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles was effective in defining the maximum particle spacing or free space length (L f ) that still leads to property enhancement, as well as giving insight into the effects of varying the electronic nature of the molecules at the interface on breakdown strength. Optimization of the investigated variables was shown to increase the AC dielectric breakdown strength of epoxy composites as much as 34% with only 2wt% silica loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrical resistivity surface for FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J. G.; Kinser, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The dc electrical properties and microstructure of x(FeO-Fe2O3)-(100-x)P2O5 glasses were investigated up to a maximum of x = 75 mol %. Results indicate that, in general, the minimum resistivity of the glass does not occur at equal Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) concentrations, although for the special case where x = 55 mol % the minimum does occur at Fe(2+)/Fe total = 0.5, as reported by other investigators. Evidence presented shows that the position of the minimum resistivity is a function of total iron content. The minimum shifts to glasses richer in Fe(2+) at higher total iron concentrations.

  17. Electric Double Layer at Metal Oxide Surfaces: Static Properties of the Cassiterite-Water Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Lukáš; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M.L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Předota, Milan; Cummings, P.T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2007), s. 4925-4937 ISSN 0743-7463 Grant - others:OBES(US) DE-AC05-00OR22727; OBES(US) DE-AC02-05CH11231; OBES(US) DE-AC02-06CH11357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : electric double layer * cassiterite * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.009, year: 2007

  18. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  19. Human Missions to Mars Orbit, Phobos, and Mars Surface Using 100-kWe-Class Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Humphrey W.; Woolley, Ryan C.; Strange, Nathan J.; Baker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) tugs in the 100-kWe range, may be utilized to preposition cargo in the Mars system to enable more affordable human missions to Phobos and to the surface of Mars. The SEP tug, a high heritage follow-on to the 50-kWe SEP spacecraft proposed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), would have the same structure, tankage, electric propulsion components, and avionics as the ARRM version, But with double the number of solar arrays, Hall thrusters, and power processor units (PPUs) and would be accommodated within the same launch envelope defined for ARRM. As a feasibility study, a 950-day human mission to Phobos using a conjunction class trajectory, such as the 2033 opportunity, was developed using two 100-kWe SEP vehicles to preposition a habitat at Phobos and propulsion stages in high Mars orbit (HMO). An architecture concept for a crewed Mars surface lander mission was also developed as a reference to build on the Phobos mission architecture, adding a lander element that could be delivered using chemical propulsion and aerocapture.

  20. Influence of an External DC Electric Current on Plasma Cleaning Rate: an Application on the Enlarged Plasma-Surface Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xaplanteris, Constantine L.; Filippaki, Eleni D.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades many researchers have been occupied with other plasma applications apart from the big challenge which the thermonuclear fusion poses. Many experiments have been carried out on the plasma behavior in contact with a solid surface; when the surface material consists of chemical compounds (e.g. oxides of metals), then the plasma chemistry takes place. The present paper contains the final experimental and theoretical work of Plasma Laboratory at “Demokritos , which consists of an elaboration of plasma sheath parameters adapted to experimental conditions, a suitable choice of plasma gases (either H 2 or N 2 ), and an electric potential current enforcement on objects. Additionally, a brief theory is given to explain the results, with a short reference to both boundary phenomena in thermonuclear reactors and low pressure plasma of glow discharges, so as to reveal the similarities and differences of these two cases. An extensive examination of the treated objects by X-ray diffraction method (XRD) gives results in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Using this improvement on plasma restoration system, (a combination of electric current on metallic object into suitable plasma), it is shown that better results can be achieved on the cleaning and conservation of archaeological objects. (plasma technology)

  1. Structure, surface morphology and electrical properties of evaporated Ni thin films: Effect of substrates, thickness and Cu underlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmous, M.; Layadi, A.; Guittoum, A.; Souami, N.; Mebarki, M.; Menni, N.

    2014-01-01

    Series of Ni thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass, Si(111), Cu, mica and Al 2 O 3 substrates with and without a Cu underlayer. The Ni thicknesses, t, are in the 4 to 163 nm range. The Cu underlayer has also been evaporated with a Cu thickness equal to 27, 52 and 90 nm. The effects of substrate, the Ni thickness and the Cu underlayer on the structural and electrical properties of Ni are investigated. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy was used to probe the Ni/Substrate and Ni–Cu underlayer interfaces and to measure both Ni and Cu thicknesses. The texture, the strain and the grain size values were derived from X-ray diffraction experiments. The surface morphology is studied by means of a Scanning Electron Microscope. The electrical resistivity is measured by the four point probe. The Ni films grow with the <111> texture on all substrates. The Ni grain sizes D increase with increasing thickness for the glass, Si and mica substrates and decrease for the Cu one. The strain ε is positive for low thickness, decreases in magnitude and becomes negative as t increases. With the Cu underlayer, the growth mode goes through two phases: first, the stress (grain size) increases (decreases) up to a critical thickness t Cr , then stress is relieved and grain size increases. All these results will be discussed and correlated. - Highlights: • The structural and electrical properties of evaporated Ni thin films are studied. • The effect of thickness, substrates and Cu underlayer is investigated. • Texture, grain size, strain and surface morphology are discussed. • Growth modes are described as a function of Ni thickness

  2. Measuring protein breakdown rate in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo.......To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo....

  3. Surface-effect enhanced magneto-electric coupling in FePt/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. T.; Li, J.; Peng, X. L.; Hong, B.; Wang, X. Q.; Ge, H. L.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2017-05-01

    A series of FePt films with different film thickness are deposited on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates. A standard symmetric `Butterfly' shaped Δ M /M -Ed c loops is obtained in 8 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostrucuture via strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling. For the 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure, the loop-like in-plane magnetization (M) -E curve shares a similar shape with the electric polarization of PMN-PT as a function of electric field. The value of MS shows a dramatic change of 30.9% with Edc changing from 0 to 8 kV/cm, this giant magnetoelectric effect in 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure results from the remnant polarization induced charge on FePt/PMN-PT interface via the screening charge effect. The enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures opens a promising avenue for the design of ultralow power magnetoelectric devices and information storage devices.

  4. Review of Electrical and Gravity Methods of Near-Surface Exploration for Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Raji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory and practice of electrical and gravity methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration was reviewed with illustrations and data examples. With the goal of reducing cases of borehole/water-well failure attributed to the lack of the knowledge of the methods of geophysics for groundwater exploration and development, the paper reviews the basic concepts, field procedures for data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation as applied to the subject matter. Given a case study of groundwater exploration in University of Ilorin Campus, the three important techniques of electrical method of groundwater exploration are explained and illustrated using field data obtained in a previous study. Interpretation of resistivity data shows that an area measuring low resistivity (high conductivity, having thick pile of unconsolidated rock, and underlained by fracture crystalline is a ‘bright spot’ for citing borehole for groundwater abstraction in a basement complex area. Further to this, gravity method of groundwater exploration was discussed with field data from Wokbedilo community in Ethopia. Bouguer and reduced gravity anomaly results were presented as maps and contours to demonstrate how gravity data can be inverted to map groundwater aquifers and subsurface geological structures during groundwater exploration.

  5. Modeling the effects of electrical and non-electrical parameters on the material removal and surface integrity in case of µEDM of a non-conductive ceramic material using a combined fuzzy-AOM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2016-01-01

    Micro-EDM is a non-contact process based on the thermoelectric energy between a tool electrode and a workpiece. In μEDM process, the mechanism of material removal is melting and evaporation. The thermal energy in the discharge plasma helps remove material from the workpiece, at the same time...... deteriorates the quality and integrity of the workpiece surface. The material removal phenomenon in μEDM of partially conductive and non-conductive materials is very complex. This paper presents a novel approach to model the effects of electrical and non-electrical parameters on the material removal phenomenon...... and surface integrity for a non-conductive ceramic material. The fuzzy logic modeling system is employed for predicting the μEDM process responses. The trends in the material removal rate and hardness values with the chosen electrical and non-electrical parameter for the model and obtained using AOM approach...

  6. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  7. A computational study of the topology of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional numerical simulation of vortex breakdown using the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been performed. Solutions to four distinct types of breakdown are identified and compared with experimental results. The computed solutions include weak helical, double helix, spiral, and bubble-type breakdowns. The topological structure of the various breakdowns as well as their interrelationship are studied. The data reveal that the asymmetric modes of breakdown may be subject to additional breakdowns as the vortex core evolves in the streamwise direction. The solutions also show that the freestream axial velocity distribution has a significant effect on the position and type of vortex breakdown.

  8. In situ measurements of the Runaway Breakdown (RB) on Aragats mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Mailyan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Acceleration and multiplication of the cosmic ray electrons by strong electric fields in the thundercloud are well-established phenomena comprising the core of the atmospheric high-energy physics. The majority of experimental data on particle acceleration in the thunderclouds comes from space-born experiments detecting Terrestrial Gamma flashes (TGFs) and from networks of particle detectors located on the earth's surface observing Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). Models for explaining both TGF and TGE are based on the concept of a Runaway Breakdown (RB) introduced by A. Gurevich. Prove of these models requires registration of the electromagnetic avalanches developing in the thundercloud and reaching the earth's surface. Unfortunately due to high location of cloud and fast attenuation of electrons in the atmosphere the registration of such an avalanches are very rare. On Aragats mountain in Armenia, where the cloud location is very low we observe several TGE events with sizable electron contribution. We present direct measurements of such an avalanches lasting less than a microsecond; hundreds of such avalanches comprise a TGE lasting few minutes. We recovered as well the differential energy spectra of electron and gamma ray content of avalanches. The abrupt termination of the particle flux by nearby lightning indicates that RB process precedes (initiates) the lightning flash.

  9. Raydet non-electric blast initiation system for efficient and environment-friendly surface blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, M.O. [IDL Chemicals Ltd., Hyderabad (India). Technical Services Cell

    1995-08-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using the Raydet shock tube based blast initiation system and reviews research work carried out on release of explosive energy in the drillhole, effect of stemming retention (stemming effectiveness) and advantages of `true bottom hole initiation` of drillholes in surface blasting. Some case studies are presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Electrical characteristics of a vertical light emitting diode with n-type contacts on a selectively wet-etching roughened surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liancheng; Guo Enqing; Liu Zhiqiang; Yi Xiaoyan; Wang Guohong

    2011-01-01

    Low resistance and thermally stable n-type contacts to N-polar GaN are essentially important for vertical light emitting diodes (VLEDs). The electrical characteristics of VLEDs with n-type contacts on a roughened and flat N-polar surface have been compared. VLEDs with contacts deposited on a roughened surface exhibit lower leakage currents yet a higher operating voltage. Based on this, a new scheme by depositing metallization contacts on a selectively wet-etching roughened surface has been developed. Excellent electrical and optical characteristics have been achieved with this method. An aging test further confirmed its stability. (semiconductor devices)

  11. RF breakdown in "cold" slow wave structures operating at travelling wave mode of TM01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuzhang; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Zhang, Dian; Bai, Zhen; Zhu, Danni

    2018-01-01

    RF breakdown experiments and simulations in "cold" slow wave structures (SWSs) are executed. All the SWSs are designed as traveling wave structures, which operate at the π/2 mode of TM01 waves. The experimental results indicate that the input microwave energy is mainly absorbed, not reflected by the RF breakdown process in traveling wave SWSs. Both larger magnitude of Es-max and more numbers of periods of SWSs aggravate the microwave absorption in the breakdown process and bring about a shorter transmission pulse width. We think that the critical surface E-field of the multi-period SWSs is 1 MV/cm. However, little correlation between RF breakdown effects and Bext is observed in the experiments. The simulation conditions are coincident with the experimental setup. Explosive emissions of electrons in the rounded corner of SWSs together with the ionization of the gas layer close to it supply the breakdown plasma. The gas layer consists of water vapor and hydrogen gas and has a pressure of 1 Pa. Different kinds of circumstances of SWSs are simulated. We mainly concern about the characteristic of the plasma and its influence on microwave power. Comprehensive simulation results are obtained. The simulation results match the experimental results basically and are helpful in explaining the RF breakdown phenomenon physically.

  12. On the interpretation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jakob J.

    1995-07-01

    Studying the numerous papers that have appeared in the recent past that address ``vortex breakdown,'' it may be difficult for a reader to avoid getting rather confused. It appears that various authors or even schools have conflicting views on the correct interpretation of the physics of vortex breakdown. Following the investigation by Keller et al. [Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 36, 854 (1985)], in this paper, axisymmetric forms of vortex breakdown, as originally defined by Benjamin [J. Fluid Mech. 14, 593 (1962)] are addressed. It is argued that at least some of the previous investigations have been concerned with different aspects of the same phenomena and may, in fact, not disagree. One of the most fundamental questions in this context concerns the properties of the distributions of total head and circulation on the downstream side of vortex breakdown transitions. Some previous investigators have suggested that the downstream flow would exhibit properties that are similar to those of a wake. For this reason the phenomenon of vortex breakdown is investigated for a class of distributions of total head and circulation in the domain of flow reversal that is substantially more general than in previous investigations. Finally, a variety of problems are discussed that are crucial for a more complete theory of vortex breakdown, but have not yet been solved. It is shown that for the typically small flow speeds in a domain of flow reversal produced by a vortex breakdown wave, the departures of both vortex core size and swirl number, with respect to the case of uniform total pressure in the zone of flow reversal, as discussed by Keller et al. [Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 36, 854 (1985)], remain surprisingly small. As a consequence, the possible appearance of large departures from a Kirchhoff-type wake must be due to viscous diffusion at low and due to shear-layer instabilities at high Reynolds numbers.

  13. High Current Density Electrical Breakdown of TiS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Island, J.O.; Paz, Wendel S.; Clamagirand, Jose Manuel; Ares, Josè Ramon; Flores, Eduardo; Leardini, Fabrice; Sánchez, Carlos; Agraït, Nicolás; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; Palacios, JJ; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The high field transport characteristics of nanostructured transistors based on layered materials are not only important from a device physics perspective but also for possible applications in next generation electronics. With the growing promise of layered materials as replacements to

  14. Preliminary Studies on Pulsed Electric Field Breakdown of Lead Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    monitor for this work was Mr. James. H. Gwaltney, NWEP0. .HI if! HUM o D •*• ’.’••’«« :y Km P\\ r D D C TWEEEE-TGIE "’ NOV 12 1976 rat - D...initiation. This conclusion is further strengthened by recent Russian work that reported experiments on pressed pellets of copper and thallium azide

  15. Some problems on rf breakdown in room temperature accelerator structure, a possible criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    The discussion is confined to high gradient, room-temperature accelerators which have clean well-finished cavity surfaces and good vacuum conditions. Breakdown-initiating mechanisms due to ''cold'' field electron emission occurring at isolated sites on broad-area cavity surfaces, where the field is enhanced, are described. The influences of an alternating field and transition time tunneling are taken into account. The thermal instability resulting in vacuum voltage breakdown is hypothesized to derive a new criterion for room-temperature accelerator structure. 18 refs., 5 figs

  16. The inception of pulsed discharges in air: simulations in background fields above and below breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Anbang; Teunissen, Jannis; Ebert, Ute

    2014-11-01

    We investigate discharge inception in air, in uniform background electric fields above and below the breakdown threshold. We perform 3D particle simulations that include a natural level of background ionization in the form of positive and \\text{O}2- ions. In background fields below breakdown, we use a strongly ionized seed of electrons and positive ions to enhance the field locally. In the region of enhanced field, we observe the growth of positive streamers, as in previous simulations with 2D plasma fluid models. The inclusion of background ionization has little effect in this case. When the background field is above the breakdown threshold, the situation is very different. Electrons can then detach from \\text{O}2- and start ionization avalanches in the whole volume. These avalanches together create one extended discharge, in contrast to the ‘double-headed’ streamers found in many fluid simulations.

  17. Enhancement of laser-induced optical breakdown using metal/dendrimer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jingyong; Balogh, Lajos; Norris, Theodore B.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate that dendrimer nanocomposites (DNC) can be used to remarkably change the laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) threshold of a material, owing to a large enhancement of the local electric field. We have implemented LIOB using femtosecond laser pulses in a gold/dendrimer hybrid nanocomposite as a model system. Third-harmonic generation measurements have been employed as a sensitive way for monitoring the LIOB in situ and in real time. The observed statistical behavior of the breakdown process is attributed to a laser-driven aggregation of individual DNC particles. The breakdown threshold value of the DNC has been found to be up to two orders of magnitude lower than that of pure dendrimers or normal tissues

  18. Optical and electrical characteristics of N2 microdischarges produced in coplanar surface DBD geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Schmidt, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2008), s. 60-60 ISSN 0003-0503. [The 61st Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference. Dallas, Texas , 13.10.2008-17.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : dielectric barrier surface discharge * nitrogen * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  19. Electric field measurements in a dielectric barrier nanosecond pulse discharge with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; O’Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of time-resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond discharge between two plane electrodes covered by dielectric plates, using picosecond four-wave mixing diagnostics. For absolute calibration, the IR signal was measured in hydrogen at a pressure of 440 Torr, for electrostatic electric field ranging from 0 to 8 kV cm −1 . The calibration curve (i.e. the square root of IR signal intensity versus electric field) was shown to be linear. By measuring the intensities of the pump, Stokes, and IR signal beam for each laser shot during the time sweep across the high-voltage pulse, temporal evolution of the electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge was determined with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The results are compared to kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement, including non-zero electric field offset before the main high voltage pulse, breakdown moment, and reduction of electric field in the plasma after breakdown. The difference between the experimental results and model predictions is likely due to non-1D structure of the discharge. Comparison with the kinetic modeling predictions shows that electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge is controlled primarily by electron impact excitation and charge accumulation on the dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  20. Calculation of t8/5 by response surface methodology for electric arc welding applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meseguer-Valdenebro José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest difficulties traditionally found in stainless steel constructions has been the execution of welding parts in them. At the present time, the available technology allows us to use arc welding processes for that application without any disadvantage. Response surface methodology is used to optimise a process in which the variables that take part in it are not related to each other by a mathematical law. Therefore, an empiric model must be formulated. With this methodology the optimisation of one selected variable may be done. In this work, the cooling time that takes place from 800 to 500ºC, t8/5, after TIG welding operation, is modelled by the response surface method. The arc power, the welding velocity and the thermal efficiency factor are considered as the variables that have influence on the t8/5 value. Different cooling times,t8/5, for different combinations of values for the variables are previously determined by a numerical method. The input values for the variables have been experimentally established. The results indicate that response surface methodology may be considered as a valid technique for these purposes.

  1. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Woo; Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K.; Lee, Kang Yong

    2009-01-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at ±25 μm displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 ± 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  2. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Woo [Stainless Steel Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-300 (Korea, Republic of); Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K. [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Yong, E-mail: kyl2813@yonsei.ac.kr [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at {+-}25 {mu}m displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 {+-} 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  3. The effect of electron-surface scattering and thiol adsorption on the electrical resistivity of gold ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, Ricardo; Del Campo, Valeria; Gonzalez-Fuentes, Claudio; Correa-Puerta, Jonathan; Moraga, Luis; Flores, Marcos; Segura, Rodrigo; Donoso, Sebastián; Marín, Francisca; Bravo, Sergio; Häberle, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We prepared ultra thin films (10 nm) on mica on top of a chromium seedlayer (<1 nm). • We prepared samples with different topographies controlling the substrate temperature. • We studied the contribution of the different scattering mechanims on the resistivity. • We developed a discernment method based on thiol adsorption. - Abstract: In order to study the effect of electron-surface scattering in gold ultrathin films (∼10 nm), we have prepared a set of Au samples on mica on top of a chromium seedlayer (<1 nm). Chromium is added as a metallic surfactant which enables surpassing the electric percolation threshold for substrate temperatures above room temperature. We prepared samples with the same thickness but different topographies setting different substrate temperatures. These modifications modulate the contributions of the different electronic scattering mechanisms to the film resistivity. A second set of gold thin films deposited on mica at room temperature, with different thicknesses between 8 and 100 nm, was also prepared to compare the resisitivities of both sets through Mayadas and Shatzkes theory. We found that in samples with thicknesses below 15 nm, the electron-surface scattering is indeed the dominant mechanism influencing the film resistivity. To obtain further evidence of this prevalence, we developed a discrimination method based on thiol adsorption. The film with the highest resistivity increase is the sample in which electron-surface scattering is dominant. With this method, we observed that a large enhancement of the electron-surface scattering not only occurs in samples with large diameters grains, but also if the film has a reduced surface roughness.​

  4. The effect of electron-surface scattering and thiol adsorption on the electrical resistivity of gold ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.henriquez@usm.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile); Del Campo, Valeria; Gonzalez-Fuentes, Claudio [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile); Correa-Puerta, Jonathan [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Moraga, Luis [Universidad Central de Chile, Toesca 1783, Santiago 8370178 (Chile); Flores, Marcos [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Segura, Rodrigo [Instituto de Química y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Donoso, Sebastián; Marín, Francisca; Bravo, Sergio; Häberle, Patricio [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We prepared ultra thin films (10 nm) on mica on top of a chromium seedlayer (<1 nm). • We prepared samples with different topographies controlling the substrate temperature. • We studied the contribution of the different scattering mechanims on the resistivity. • We developed a discernment method based on thiol adsorption. - Abstract: In order to study the effect of electron-surface scattering in gold ultrathin films (∼10 nm), we have prepared a set of Au samples on mica on top of a chromium seedlayer (<1 nm). Chromium is added as a metallic surfactant which enables surpassing the electric percolation threshold for substrate temperatures above room temperature. We prepared samples with the same thickness but different topographies setting different substrate temperatures. These modifications modulate the contributions of the different electronic scattering mechanisms to the film resistivity. A second set of gold thin films deposited on mica at room temperature, with different thicknesses between 8 and 100 nm, was also prepared to compare the resisitivities of both sets through Mayadas and Shatzkes theory. We found that in samples with thicknesses below 15 nm, the electron-surface scattering is indeed the dominant mechanism influencing the film resistivity. To obtain further evidence of this prevalence, we developed a discrimination method based on thiol adsorption. The film with the highest resistivity increase is the sample in which electron-surface scattering is dominant. With this method, we observed that a large enhancement of the electron-surface scattering not only occurs in samples with large diameters grains, but also if the film has a reduced surface roughness.​.

  5. Analysis on micro-regional characters of the resistance wires surface in electrical immersion heater by SEM/EDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haixin; Xue, Lin; Zhang, Yongfeng; Cao, Liying; Ding, Minju; Huang, Hao; Bao, Renlie

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel method for identifying the conditions of electrical resistance wires before fire basing on micro-regional characters. The morphology and elemental compositions of resistance wires surface under normally used, misused and external heating conditions were respectively studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results show that the normally used wire has a smooth surface and stable metal composition. While the resistance wire under misused condition for the certain time could be characterized as a coarse surface covered by compacted and silica-embedded oxide layer, and the proportion of elemental compositions of different metals is also changed with higher content of Al and lower content of Fe and Cr. The external heating condition has little influence on inside wires. The mechanism of changes formed under misused condition was explained. We demonstrate that this approach is practical and functional to aid fire investigators in determining the cause of related fires. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of MRR and surface roughness during electrical discharge machining (EDM) using aluminum oxide powder mixed dielectric fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. A.; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Latif, M. A. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of aluminium oxide (Al203) addition to dielectric fluid during electrical discharge machining (EDM). Aluminium oxide was added to the dielectric used in the EDM process to improve its performance when machining the stainless steel AISI 304, while copper was used as the electrode. Effect of the concentration of Al203 (0.3 mg/L) in dielectric fluid was compared with EDM without any addition of Al203. Surface quality of stainless steel and the material removal rate were investigated. Design of the experiment (DOE) was used for the experimental plan. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and then appropriate model was designated. The experimental results show that with dispersing of aluminium oxide in dielectric fluid surface roughness was improved while the material removal rate (MRR) was increased to some extent. These indicate the improvement of EDM performance using aluminium oxide in dielectric fluid. It was also found that with increase in pulse on time both MRR and surface roughness increase sharply.

  7. ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENT IN ROD-DISCONTINUED PLANE AIR GAPS USING DISTRIBUTED CAPACITY PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khechekhouche

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental carried out investigations aimed at elucidating the effect of earth discontinuity on the breakdown voltage of short rod-plane air gap (80 to160 mm under negative lightning impulses (-1.2/50ms.We also carried out investigations on electric field measurement on the surface of a discontinuous plane of a rod-plane air gap arrangement. For this purpose, we used a probe with distributed capacity, under negative lightning applied impulse voltage. The probe is incorporated on the same level of plane surface.The interface locally reinforces the electric field. The electric field increases at the interface may lead to a discharge between the high voltage rode and the interface. In the vicinity of the interface, we observe a kind of discontinuity in the evolution of the electric field intensity. This one becomes greater than the value obtained in the case of gaps with homogeneous plane earth.

  8. ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENT IN ROD-DISCONTINUED PLANE AIR GAPS USING DISTRIBUTED CAPACITY PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khechekhouche

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental carried out investigations aimed at elucidating the effect of earth discontinuity on the breakdown voltage of short rod-plane air gap (80 to 160 mm under negative lightning impulses (-1.2/50s. We also carried out investigations on electric field measurement on the surface of a discontinuous plane of a rod-plane air gap arrangement. For this purpose, we used a probe with distributed capacity, under negative lightning applied impulse voltage. The probe is incorporated on the same level of plane surface. The interface locally reinforces the electric field. The electric field increases at the interface may lead to a discharge between the high voltage rode and the interface. In the vicinity of the interface, we observe a kind of discontinuity in the evolution of the electric field intensity. This one becomes greater than the value obtained in the case of gaps with homogeneous plane earth.

  9. Hydrogen leak detection using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, A J; Hohreiter, V; Hahn, D W

    2005-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is investigated as a technique for real-time monitoring of hydrogen gas. Two methodologies were examined: The use of a 100 mJ laser pulse to create a laser-induced breakdown directly in a sample gas stream, and the use of a 55 mJ laser pulse to create a laser-induced plasma on a solid substrate surface, with the expanding plasma sampling the gas stream. Various metals were analyzed as candidate substrate surfaces, including aluminum, copper, molybdenum, stainless steel, titanium, and tungsten. Stainless steel was selected, and a detailed analysis of hydrogen detection in binary mixtures of nitrogen and hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was performed. Both the gaseous plasma and the plasma initiated on the stainless steel surface generated comparable hydrogen emission signals, using the 656.28 Halpha emission line, and exhibited excellent signal linearity. The limit of detection is about 20 ppm (mass) as determined for both methodologies, with the solid-initiated plasma yielding a slightly better value. Overall, LIBS is concluded to be a viable candidate for hydrogen sensing, offering a combination of high sensitivity with a technique that is well suited to implementation in field environments.

  10. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  11. Electrical Performance of Distribution Insulators with Chlorella vulgaris Growth on its Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Enrique Rojas Cubides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about electrical performance of ceramic and polymeric insulators bio-contaminated with alga Chlorella vulgaris. The performed tests involve ANSI 55-2 and ANSI 52-1 ceramic insulators and ANSI DS-15 polymeric insulators, all of them used in distribution systems of Colombia. Biological contamination of insulators is realized using a controlled environment chamber that adjusts the temperature, humidity and light radiation. The laboratory tests include measurements of flashover voltages and leakage currents and they were performed to determine how insulators are affected by biological contamination. After a series of laboratory tests, it was concluded that the presence of Chlorella vulgaris on the contaminated ceramic insulators reduces the wet flashover voltage up to 12% and increases their leakage currents up to 80%. On the other hand, for polymeric insulators the effect of algae growth on flashover voltages was not to strong, although the leakage currents increase up to 60%.

  12. Electrosprayed Heavy Ion and Nanodrop Beams for Surface Engineering and Electrical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-10

    Gamero-Castaño, A. Torrents , R. Borrajo-Pelaez, J.G. Zheng, “Amorphization of Hard Crystalline Materials by Electrosprayed Nanodroplet Impact”, Submitted...Electrosprayed Nanodroplets”, Submitted to Applied Surface Science.  M. Gamero-Castaño, A. Torrents , R. Borrajo-Pelaez, J.G. Zheng, “Amorphization of...Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 2097 (2008). 12M. Gamero-Casta~no and M. Mahadevan, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054305 (2009). 13M. Gamero-Casta~no, A. Torrents , L

  13. Quantitative Determination of the Breakdown Field of Air from Van de Graaff Generator Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, John; Chartrand, Bridget; Gallagher, Hugh

    2016-03-01

    The Van de Graaff generator (VG) is ubiquitous in electrostatic demonstrations because of the large static charge and dramatic sparks produced. We have developed a novel technique for determining the breakdown field of air using the VG. When a spark occurs, the force of attraction between the VG and a discharge sphere suspended above it is measured by a Pasco force sensor. At this time the charge is not symmetric but pulled towards the near side of the spheres by mutual attraction. In order to interpret the measured force in terms of the breakdown field, an accurate model of the charge distribution is needed. Using the method of images for a spherical conductor in an iterative fashion we can provide this model. The electric field in the vicinity of the spheres is then calculated from the charge distribution and its maximum value is the breakdown field. In preliminary work, we determined the breakdown field to be 3.1x106 N/C at 24.9 C and 18% relative humidity. We will report our most recent determination of the breakdown field using this method and discuss the validity of the results in terms of accepted values, experimental limitations and sensitivity to the charge distribution model.

  14. A novel high breakdown voltage lateral bipolar transistor on SOI with multizone doping and multistep oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loan, Sajad A; Qureshi, S; Kumar Iyer, S S

    2009-01-01

    A novel high breakdown voltage lateral bipolar junction transistor (LBJT) on silicon-on- insulator (SOI) is proposed. The novelty of the device is the use of the combination of multistep-doped drift region and multistep buried oxide. The steps in doping and in oxide thickness have been used as a replacement for much complex linearly varying drift doping and linearly varying oxide thickness. The LBJT structure incorporating the combination of multistep doping and multistep oxide is analyzed for electrical characteristics using a two-dimensional numerical simulator MEDICI. Numerical simulation has demonstrated that the breakdown voltage of the proposed device with a two-zone step doped (TZSD) drift region is >150% higher than the conventional device. It has been observed that increasing the number of doping zones to 3 from 2 results in a >40% rise in breakdown voltage. The proposed device gives high breakdown voltage even at high doping concentration in the collector drift region. This reduces the on-resistance of the device and thus improves its speed. The dependence of breakdown voltage on various device parameters has been extensively studied to achieve optimum device performance. A process flow for the device fabrication is also being proposed

  15. Electrical pulse – mediated enhanced delivery of silver nanoparticles into living suspension cells for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J; Li, B; Feng, S; Chen, G; Li, Y; Huang, Z; Chen, R; Yu, Y; Huang, H; Lin, S; Li, C; Su, Y; Zeng, H

    2012-01-01

    Electrical pulse-mediated enhanced silver nanoparticles delivery is a much better method for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurements of suspension cells. Robust and high-quality SERS spectra of living suspension cells were obtained based on an electroporation-SERS method, which can overcomes the shortcoming of non-uniform distribution of silver nanoparticles localized in the cell cytoplasm after electroporation and reduces the amount variance of silver nanoparticles delivered into different cells. The electroporation parameters include three 150 V (375 V/cm) electric pulses of 1, 5, and 5 ms durations respectively. Our results indicate that considerable amount of silver nanoparticles can be rapidly delivered into the human promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells, and the satisfied SERS spectra were obtained while the viability of the treated cells was highly maintained (91.7%). The electroporation-SERS method offers great potential approach in delivering silver nanoparticles into living suspension cells, which is useful for widely biomedical applications including the real-time intracellular SERS analysis of living cells

  16. Epoxy composites filled with high surface area-carbon fillers: Optimization of electromagnetic shielding, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhir, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Plyushch, A.; Volynets, N.; Maksimenko, S.; Macutkevic, J.; Kranauskaite, I.; Banys, J.; Ivanov, E.; Kotsilkova, R.; Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.; Zicans, J.; Ivanova, T.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bochkov, I.; Cataldo, A.; Micciulla, F.; Bellucci, S.; Lambin, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of electrical, electromagnetic (EM), mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin composites filled with 0.25-2.0 wt. % of carbon additives characterized by high surface area, both nano-sized, like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon black (CBH), and micro-sized exfoliated graphite (EG), was performed. We found that the physical properties of both CNTs- and CBH-based epoxy resin composites increased all together with filler content and even more clearly for CBH than for CNTs. In the case of EG-based composites, good correlation between properties and filler amount was observed for concentrations below 1.5 wt. %. We conclude that CBH and, to a lower extent, EG could replace expensive CNTs for producing effective EM materials in microwave and low-frequency ranges, which are, in addition, mechanically and thermally stable.

  17. Coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and transverse electric polarized light via L-shaped nano-apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Hu, Chuang; Wen, Qiuling; Zhao, Chenglong; Zhang, Jiasen

    2015-03-15

    Given that plasmonic fields are intrinsically transverse magnetic (TM), coupling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and transverse electric (TE) polarized light, especially at nanoscale, remain challenging. We propose the use of L-shaped nano-apertures to overcome this fundamental limitation and enable coupling between SPPs and TE polarized light. Polarization conversion originates from the interference of two resonant modes excited in the nano-apertures and the nearly 180° phase retardation between them. The experiments show that both TE-to-plasmon and plasmon-to-TE couplings can be implemented at the subwavelength scale. This discovery provides great freedom when manipulating light based on SPPs at the nanoscale and helps in using the energy of TE polarized light.

  18. Crystal Orientation and Electrical Properties of Tin Oxide Transparent Conducting Films Deposited on Rutile Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Uchida, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Sun, L.; Yue, B.

    2017-10-01

    Thin films of tin oxide (SnO2) without doping are attractive transparent conducting film since environmentally unfavorable elements of antimony or fluorine are eliminated. Tin oxide films without doping were fabricated very cheaply on (001) and (100) planes of single crystal of rutile (TiO2) by spray chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD). The film deposited on rutile (001) surface was poorly epitaxial (double domain) but with higher mobility (24 cm2 V-1 s-1) and lower resistivity (1.6×10-3 Ω cm) than that deposited on glass substrate (16 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.4×10-3 Ω cm) for reference. Deposition on rutile (100) surface resulted in better epitaxial growth (single domain). The mobility (39 cm2 V-1 s-1) and the carrier electron density (2.7×1020 cm-3) were much higher. The resistivity (6.2×10-4 Ω cm) was compatible with those doped with antimony or fluorine and will be the lowest among tin oxide films without doping.

  19. Measured surface magnetic field attenuation of shielded windows and wire mesh over an electrically small enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, L.O.; Hofstra, J.S.; Karaskiewicz, R.J.; Wiser, G.

    1984-01-01

    The surface magnetic field attenuation of five types of shielded transparency (window) material was measured over the frequency range 10 kHz to 100 MHz by installing them on an .61 m x .61 m x .2 m enclosure, placing the enclosure on the wall of a TEM cell and measuring the surface and interior magnetic fields using a computer-controlled network analyzer system. The samples included two thicknesses of conductive grids on acrylic, hardware, cloth with 1/8 and 1/4-inch mesh, and a fine mesh laminated optical display window. These measurements are indicative of an enclosure with aperture coupling; namely, they become frequency-independent at high frequencies. Coarse mesh samples (1/8-1/4-inch mesh) were able to provide 50 to 60 dB of magnetic field reduction at tens of MHz, whereas the finer mesh did slightly better. This behavior is consistent with magnetic polarizability theory. Material thickness did not have an appreciable effect for frequencies above a MHz

  20. Low-temperature aluminum reduction of graphene oxide, electrical properties, surface wettability, and energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dongyun; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Tang, Yufeng; Zhou, Mi; Zhong, Yajuan; Huang, Fuqiang; Lin, Jianhua

    2012-10-23

    Low-temperature aluminum (Al) reduction is first introduced to reduce graphene oxide (GO) at 100-200 °C in a two-zone furnace. The melted Al metal exhibits an excellent deoxygen ability to produce well-crystallized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) papers with a low O/C ratio of 0.058 (Al-RGO), compared with 0.201 in the thermally reduced one (T-RGO). The Al-RGO papers possess outstanding mechanical flexibility and extremely high electrical conductivities (sheet resistance R(s) ~ 1.75 Ω/sq), compared with 20.12 Ω/sq of T-RGO. More interestingly, very nice hydrophobic nature (90.5°) was observed, significantly superior to the reported chemically or thermally reduced papers. These enhanced properties are attributed to the low oxygen content in the RGO papers. During the aluminum reduction, highly active H atoms from H(2)O reacted with melted Al promise an efficient oxygen removal. This method was also applicable to reduce graphene oxide foams, which were used in the GO/SA (stearic acid) composite as a highly thermally conductive reservoir to hold the phase change material for thermal energy storage. The Al-reduced RGO/SnS(2) composites were further used in an anode material of lithium ion batteries possessing a higher specific capacity. Overall, low-temperature Al reduction is an effective method to prepare highly conductive RGO papers and related composites for flexible energy conversion and storage device applications.