WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface electric fields

  1. Surface states in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steslicka, M.

    1975-10-01

    Under conditions typical for field ion microscopy, true surface states can exist. Their shift towards higher energies can be quite significant and, moreover, additional surface levels at still higher energies can appear. The latter can play an important role in the process of tunneling of image gas electrons into surface states

  2. Analysis of Surface Electric Field Measurements from an Array of Electric Field Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Deierling, W.

    2016-12-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has operated an distributed array of over 30 electric field mills over the past 18 years, providing a unique data set of surface electric field measurements over a very long timespan. In addition to the electric field instruments there are many meteorological towers around KSC that monitor the local meteorological conditions. Utilizing these datasets we have investigated and found unique spatial and temporal signatures in the electric field data that are attributed to local meteorological effects and the global electric circuit. The local and global scale influences on the atmospheric electric field will be discussed including the generation of space charge from the ocean surf, local cloud cover, and a local enhancement in the electric field that is seen at sunrise.

  3. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  4. Probing Surface Electric Field Noise with a Single Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    potentials is housed inside a Faraday cage providing more than 40 dB of attenuation for electromagnetic fields in the range of frequencies between 200...and measuring the ion quantum state [16]. Thus, by measuring the effect of electric field noise on the motional quantum state of the ion, one can probe...understand these effects . In summary, we have probed the electric field noise near an aluminum-copper surface at room temperature using a single trapped ion

  5. Electric fields associated with transient surface currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1992-01-01

    The boundary condition to be fulfilled by the potential functions associated with a transient surface current is derived and expressed in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates. From the analysis, it can be deduced that the use of the method of separation of variables is restricted to three ...

  6. Characterization of complementary electric field coupled resonant surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Thomas H.; Gollub, Jonah; Sajuyigbe, Soji; Smith, David R.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2008-11-01

    We present angle-resolved free-space transmission and reflection measurements of a surface composed of complementary electric inductive-capacitive (CELC) resonators. By measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a CELC surface with different polarizations and particle orientations, we show that the CELC only responds to in-plane magnetic fields. This confirms the Babinet particle duality between the CELC and its complement, the electric field coupled LC resonator. Characterization of the CELC structure serves to expand the current library of resonant elements metamaterial designers can draw upon to make unique materials and surfaces.

  7. 3D electric field calculation with surface charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an outline and some examples of three dimensional electric field calculations with a computer code developed at NIRS. In the code, a surface charge method is adopted because of it's simplicity in the mesh establishing procedure. The charge density in a triangular mesh is assumed to distribute with a linear function of the position. The electric field distribution is calculated for a pair of drift tubes with the focusing fingers on the opposing surfaces. The field distribution in an acceleration gap is analyzed with a Fourier-Bessel series expansion method. The calculated results excellently reproduces the measured data with a magnetic model. (author)

  8. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  9. Properties of bare strange stars associated with surface electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picanco Negreiros, Rodrigo; Mishustin, Igor N.; Schramm, Stefan; Weber, Fridolin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the electrodynamic surface properties of bare strange quark stars. The surfaces of such objects are characterized by the formation of ultrahigh electric surface fields which might be as high as ∼10 19 V/cm. These fields result from the formation of electric dipole layers at the stellar surfaces. We calculate the increase in gravitational mass associated with the energy stored in the electric dipole field, which turns out to be only significant if the star possesses a sufficiently strong net electric charge distribution. In the second part of the paper, we explore the intriguing possibility of what happens when the electron layer (sphere) rotates with respect to the stellar strange matter body. We find that in this event magnetic fields can be generated which, for moderate effective rotational frequencies between the electron layer and the stellar body, agree with the magnetic fields inferred for several central compact objects. These objects could thus be comfortably interpreted as strange stars whose electron atmospheres rotate at frequencies that are moderately different (∼10 Hz) from the rotational frequencies of the strange star itself.

  10. Atomistic modeling of metal surfaces under electric fields: direct coupling of electric fields to a molecular dynamics algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Djurabekova, Flyura; Pohjonen, Aarne; Nordlund, Kai

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on metal surfaces is fairly well studied, resulting in numerous analytical models developed to understand the mechanisms of ionization of surface atoms observed at very high electric fields, as well as the general behavior of a metal surface in this condition. However, the derivation of analytical models does not include explicitly the structural properties of metals, missing the link between the instantaneous effects owing to the applied field and the consequent response observed in the metal surface as a result of an extended application of an electric field. In the present work, we have developed a concurrent electrodynamic–molecular dynamic model for the dynamical simulation of an electric-field effect and subsequent modification of a metal surface in the framework of an atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The partial charge induced on the surface atoms by the electric field is assessed by applying the classical Gauss law. The electric forces acting on the partially...

  11. Pair-breaking effects by parallel magnetic field in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, Masahiro; Tanaka, Kenta K.; Onari, Seiichiro; Ichioka, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Zeeman effect shifts superconducting gaps of sub-band system, towards pair-breaking. • Higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like electronic states by magnetic fields. • Magnetic field dependence of zero-energy DOS reflects multi-gap superconductivity. - Abstract: We study paramagnetic pair-breaking in electric-field-induced surface superconductivity, when magnetic field is applied parallel to the surface. The calculation is performed by Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory with s-wave pairing, including the screening effect of electric fields by the induced carriers near the surface. Due to the Zeeman shift by applied fields, electronic states at higher-level sub-bands become normal-state-like. Therefore, the magnetic field dependence of Fermi-energy density of states reflects the multi-gap structure in the surface superconductivity.

  12. Disordered electrical potential observed on the surface of SiO2 by electric field microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa, N; Yan Zang; Ballestar, A; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Bern, F; Esquinazi, P

    2010-01-01

    The electrical potential on the surface of ∼300 nm thick SiO 2 grown on single-crystalline Si substrates has been characterized at ambient conditions using electric field microscopy. Our results show an inhomogeneous potential distribution with fluctuations up to ∼0.4 V within regions of 1 μm. The potential fluctuations observed at the surface of these usual dielectric holders of graphene sheets should induce strong variations in the graphene charge densities and provide a simple explanation for some of the anomalous behaviors of the transport properties of graphene.

  13. Photodetachment of negative ion in a gradient electric field near a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tian-Qi; Wang De-Hua; Han Cai; Liu Jiang; Liang Dong-Qi; Xie Si-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Based on closed-orbit theory, the photodetachment of H − in a gradient electric field near a metal surface is studied. It is demonstrated that the gradient electric field has a significant influence on the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. With the increase of the gradient of the electric field, the oscillation in the photodetachment cross section becomes strengthened. Besides, in contrast to the photodetachment of H − near a metal surface in a uniform electric field, the oscillating amplitude and the oscillating region in the cross section of a gradient electric field also become enlarged. Therefore, we can use the gradient electric field to control the photodetachment of negative ions near a metal surface. We hope that our results will be useful for understanding the photodetachment of negative ions in the vicinity of surfaces, cavities, and ion traps. (atomic and molecular physics)

  14. Fast electric field waveforms and near-surface electric field images of lightning discharges detected on Mt. Aragats in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Kozliner, L.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the observational data on fast electric waveforms that are detected at 3200 m altitudes above sea level on Mt. Aragats in Armenia during thunderstorms. We analyse the relations of these forms with count rates of particle flux (during Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements -TGEs); to the slow disturbance of the near-surface electrostatic field; and to the lightning location data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). An observed negative lightning that decreases a negative charge overhead often abruptly terminates TGEs. By analysing the recorded fast electric field waveforms and comparing them with similar classified waveforms reported previously, we could identify the type and polarity of the observed lightnings. (author)

  15. Electric fields control the orientation of peptides irreversibly immobilized on radical-functionalized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lewis J; Akhavan, Behnam; Bilek, Marcela M M

    2018-01-24

    Surface functionalization of an implantable device with bioactive molecules can overcome adverse biological responses by promoting specific local tissue integration. Bioactive peptides have advantages over larger protein molecules due to their robustness and sterilizability. Their relatively small size presents opportunities to control the peptide orientation on approach to a surface to achieve favourable presentation of bioactive motifs. Here we demonstrate control of the orientation of surface-bound peptides by tuning electric fields at the surface during immobilization. Guided by computational simulations, a peptide with a linear conformation in solution is designed. Electric fields are used to control the peptide approach towards a radical-functionalized surface. Spontaneous, irreversible immobilization is achieved when the peptide makes contact with the surface. Our findings show that control of both peptide orientation and surface concentration is achieved simply by varying the solution pH or by applying an electric field as delivered by a small battery.

  16. Protruding organic surfaces triggered by in-plane electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Tito, N.B.; Broer, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Coatings with a dynamic surface topography are of interest for applications in haptics, soft robotics, cell growth in biology, hydro- and air dynamics and tribology. Here we propose a design for creating oscillating surface topographies in thin liquid crystal polymer network coatings under an

  17. Engineering Topological Surface State of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 under external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Lian, Ruqian; Yang, Yanmin; Xu, Guigui; Zhong, Kehua; Huang, Zhigao

    2017-03-01

    External electric field control of topological surface states (SSs) is significant for the next generation of condensed matter research and topological quantum devices. Here, we present a first-principles study of the SSs in the magnetic topological insulator (MTI) Cr-doped Bi2Se3 under external electric field. The charge transfer, electric potential, band structure and magnetism of the pure and Cr doped Bi2Se3 film have been investigated. It is found that the competition between charge transfer and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) will lead to an electrically tunable band gap in Bi2Se3 film under external electric field. As Cr atom doped, the charge transfer of Bi2Se3 film under external electric field obviously decreases. Remarkably, the band gap of Cr doped Bi2Se3 film can be greatly engineered by the external electric field due to its special band structure. Furthermore, magnetic coupling of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 could be even mediated via the control of electric field. It is demonstrated that external electric field plays an important role on the electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 film. Our results may promote the development of electronic and spintronic applications of magnetic topological insulator.

  18. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  19. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-07-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  20. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO 2 (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  1. Electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in air over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Baratte, Edmond; Zhang, Cheng; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field in nanosecond pulse discharges in ambient air is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing, with absolute calibration by a known electrostatic field. The measurements are done in two geometries, (a) the discharge between two parallel cylinder electrodes placed inside quartz tubes, and (b) the discharge between a razor edge electrode and distilled water surface. In the first case, breakdown field exceeds DC breakdown threshold by approximately a factor of four, 140 ± 10 kV cm-1. In the second case, electric field is measured for both positive and negative pulse polarities, with pulse durations of ˜10 ns and ˜100 ns, respectively. In the short duration, positive polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at 85 kV cm-1, after which the electric field decreases over several ns due to charge separation in the plasma, with no field reversal detected when the applied voltage is reduced. In a long duration, negative polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at a lower electric field, 30 kV cm-1, after which the field decays over several tens of ns and reverses direction when the applied voltage is reduced at the end of the pulse. For both pulse polarities, electric field after the pulse decays on a microsecond time scale, due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Measurements 1 mm away from the discharge center plane, ˜100 μm from the water surface, show that during the voltage rise, horizontal field component (Ex ) lags in time behind the vertical component (Ey ). After breakdown, Ey is reduced to near zero and reverses direction. Further away from the water surface (≈0.9 mm), Ex is much higher compared to Ey during the entire voltage pulse. The results provide insight into air plasma kinetics and charge transport processes near plasma-liquid interface, over a wide range of time scales.

  2. Macroscopic electrical field distribution and field-induced surface stresses of needle-shaped field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, Charles K.S., E-mail: charles.moy@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ranzi, Gianluca [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Petersen, Timothy C. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ringer, Simon P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    One major concern since the development of the field ion microscope is the mechanical strength of the specimens. The macroscopic shape of the imaging tip greatly influences field-induced stresses and there is merit in further study of this phenomenon from a classical perspective. Understanding the geometrical, as opposed to localized electronic, factors that affect the stress might improve the quality and success rate of atom probe experiments. This study uses macroscopic electrostatic principles and finite element modelling to investigate field-induced stresses in relation to the shape of the tip. Three two-dimensional idealized models are considered, namely hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone; the shapes of which are compared to experimental tips prepared by electro-polishing. Three dimensional morphologies of both a nano-porous and single-crystal aluminium tip are measured using electron tomography to quantitatively test the assumption of cylindrical symmetry for electro-polished tips. The porous tip was prepared and studied to demonstrate a fragile specimen for which such finite element studies could determine potential mechanical failure, prior to any exhaustive atom probe investigation. -- Research highlights: {yields} We use electrostatic principles and finite element to model field-induced stresses. {yields} We study two-dimensional idealized needle-shaped field emitters. {yields} Stress distribution of hyperbolic, parabolic and sphere-on-orthogonal-cone tips mapped. {yields} Electron tomography to obtain the morphology of three-dimensional aluminium tips. {yields} Studies of the morphology of the porous tip demonstrate a fragile specimen.

  3. En route to surface-bound electric field-driven molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Huahua; Tour, James M

    2003-06-27

    Four caltrop-shaped molecules that might be useful as surface-bound electric field-driven molecular motors have been synthesized. The caltrops are comprised of a pair of electron donor-acceptor arms and a tripod base. The molecular arms are based on a carbazole or oligo(phenylene ethynylene) core with a strong net dipole. The tripod base uses a silicon atom as its core. The legs of the tripod bear sulfur-tipped bonding units, as acetyl-protected benzylic thiols, for bonding to a gold surface. The geometry of the tripod base allows the caltrop to project upward from a metallic surface after self-assembly. Ellipsometric studies show that self-assembled monolayers of the caltrops are formed on Au surfaces with molecular thicknesses consistent with the desired upright-shaft arrangement. As a result, the zwitterionic molecular arms might be controllable when electric fields are applied around the caltrops, thereby constituting field-driven motors.

  4. A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner for coupled surface-volume electric field integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Cools, Kristof; Olyslager, Femke; Michielssen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A well-conditioned coupled set of surface (S) and volume (V) electric field integral equations (S-EFIE and V-EFIE) for analyzing wave interactions with densely discretized composite structures is presented. Whereas the V-EFIE operator is well

  5. Aqueous electrolyte surfaces in strong electric fields: molecular insight into nanoscale jets and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsák, Jan; Moučka, Filip; Škvor, Jiří; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Exposing aqueous surfaces to a strong electric field gives rise to interesting phenomena, such as formation of a floating water bridge or an eruption of a jet in electrospinning. In an effort to account for the phenomena at the molecular level, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using several protocols on both pure water and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride subjected to an electrostatic field. All simulations consistently point to the same mechanisms which govern the rearrangement of the originally planar surface. The results show that the phenomena are primarily governed by an orientational reordering of the water molecules driven by the applied field. It is demonstrated that, for pure water, a sufficiently strong field yields a columnar structure parallel to the field with an anisotropic arrangement of the water molecules with their dipole moments aligned along the applied field not only in the surface layer but over the entire cross section of the column. Nonetheless, the number of hydrogen bonds per molecule does not seem to be affected by the field regardless of its strength and molecule's orientation. In the electrolyte solutions, the ionic charge is able to overcome the effect of the external field tending to arrange the water molecules radially in the first coordination shell of an ion. The ion-water interaction interferes thus with the water-electric field interaction, and the competition between these two forces (i.e., strength of the field versus concentration) provides the key mechanism determining the stability of the observed structures.

  6. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  7. Optimized extraction of polysaccharides from corn silk by pulsed electric field and response surface quadratic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenzhu; Yu, Zhipeng; Liu, Jingbo; Yu, Yiding; Yin, Yongguang; Lin, Songyi; Chen, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Corn silk is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been widely used for treatment of some diseases. In this study the effects of pulsed electric field on the extraction of polysaccharides from corn silk were investigated. Polysaccharides in corn silk were extracted by pulsed electric field and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Three independent variables, including electric field intensity (kV cm(-1) ), ratio of liquid to raw material and pulse duration (µs), were investigated. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation and also profiled into the corresponding 3-D contour plots. Optimal extraction conditions were as follows: electric field intensity 30 kV cm(-1) , ratio of liquid to raw material 50, and pulse duration 6 µs. Under these condition, the experimental yield of extracted polysaccharides was 7.31% ± 0.15%, matching well with the predicted value. The results showed that a pulsed electric field could be applied to extract value-added products from foods and/or agricultural matrix. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Morganti, N; Saccone, G

    2015-01-01

    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field. (paper)

  9. [Determination of electric field distribution in dielectric barrier surface glow discharge by spectroscopic method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-chen; Jia, Peng-ying; Liu, Zhi-hui; Li, Li-chun; Dong, Li-fang

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, stable glow discharges were obtained in air at low pressure with a dielectric barrier surface discharge device. Light emission from the discharge was detected by photomultiplier tubes and the research results show that the light signal exhibited one discharge pulse per half cycle of the applied voltage. The light pulses were asymmetric between the positive half cycle and the negative one of the applied voltage. The images of the glow surface discharge were processed by Photoshop software and the results indicate that the emission intensity remained almost constant for different places with the same distance from the powered electrode, while the emission intensity decreased with the distance from the powered electrode increasing. In dielectric barrier discharge, net electric field is determined by the applied voltage and the wall charges accumulated on the dielectric layer during the discharge, and consequently, it is important to obtain information about the net electric field distribution. For this purpose, optical emission spectroscopy method was used. The distribution of the net electric field can be deduced from the intensity ratio of spectral line 391.4 nm emitted from the first negative system of N2+ (B 2sigma u+ -->X 2sigma g+) to 337.1 nm emitted from the second positive system of N2 (C 3IIu-B 3IIg). The research results show that the electric field near the powered electric field is higher than at the edge of the discharge. These experimental results are very important for numerical study and industrial application of the surface discharge.

  10. A surface acoustic wave electric field strength meter for environmental studies of HV transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Ranghiasci, C.; Verona, E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in concern over the health and safety aspects of high voltage transmission lines (HVTL). The majority of research has focused on effects directly or indirectly involved with the central nervous system, including physiological, ultrastructural, and biochemical alterations, changes in blood composition, behaviour, reproduction, and development. Several recent epidemiological reports have presented preliminary data suggesting an increase in the incidence of cancer among children and adults exposed to magnetic fields through living close to various types of electrical power lines or devices. With the increase in environmental concerns there has been a concomitant consideration of biological effects and health implications related to presently existing HVTL and those planned in the future. It was concluded that the electric and magnetic field strengths and the electrical discharges are the most important electrophysical factors. Thus, it has been deemed necessary to develop measuring means to determine the field strengths in areas surrounding electric installations, in particular at ground level. In the present paper an electric field meter, based on the use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line, is presented and the experimental results obtained are discussed

  11. Electric field stabilization of viscous liquid layers coating the underside of a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.; Cimpeanu, Radu; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Petropoulos, Peter G.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a horizontal surface in the presence of an electric field applied parallel to the surface. The model includes the effect of bounding solid dielectric regions above and below the liquid-air system that are typically found in experiments. The competition between gravitational forces, surface tension, and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semispectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the volume-of-fluid methodology and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions in the long-wave (thin-film) regime when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior as the liquid layer thickness increases and find excellent agreement even beyond the regime of strict applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are utilized to identify robust and efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.

  12. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  13. Water droplets' internal fluidity during horizontal motion on a superhydrophobic surface with an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Munetoshi; Kono, Hiroki; Nakajima, Akira; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2010-02-02

    On a superhydrophobic surface, the internal fluidity of water droplets with different volumes (15, 30 microL) and their horizontal motion in an external electric field were evaluated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). For driving of water droplets on a superhydrophobic coating between parallel electrodes, it was important to place them at appropriate positions. Droplets moved with slipping. Small droplets showed deformation that is more remarkable. Results show that the dielectrophoretic force induced the initial droplet motion and that the surface potential gradient drove the droplets after reaching the middle point between electrodes.

  14. A Comprehensive Model of Electric-Field-Enhanced Jumping-Droplet Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbarah, Patrick; Li, Zhaoer; Pauls, Alexander; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2015-07-21

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding positively charged water droplets via coalescence-induced droplet jumping at length scales below the capillary length and allowing the use of external electric fields to enhance droplet removal and heat transfer, in what has been termed electric-field-enhanced (EFE) jumping-droplet condensation. However, achieving optimal EFE conditions for enhanced heat transfer requires capturing the details of transport processes that is currently lacking. While a comprehensive model has been developed for condensation on micro/nanostructured surfaces, it cannot be applied for EFE condensation due to the dynamic droplet-vapor-electric field interactions. In this work, we developed a comprehensive physical model for EFE condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces by incorporating individual droplet motion, electrode geometry, jumping frequency, field strength, and condensate vapor-flow dynamics. As a first step toward our model, we simulated jumping droplet motion with no external electric field and validated our theoretical droplet trajectories to experimentally obtained trajectories, showing excellent temporal and spatial agreement. We then incorporated the external electric field into our model and considered the effects of jumping droplet size, electrode size and geometry, condensation heat flux, and droplet jumping direction. Our model suggests that smaller jumping droplet sizes and condensation heat fluxes require less work input to be removed by the external fields. Furthermore, the results suggest that EFE electrodes can be optimized such that the work input is minimized depending on the condensation heat flux. To analyze overall efficiency, we defined an incremental coefficient of performance and showed that it is very high (∼10(6)) for EFE condensation. We finally proposed mechanisms

  15. Monitoring Induced Fractures with Electrical Measurements using Depth to Surface Resistivity: A Field Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, M.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Sun, S.; MacLennan, K.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical methods offer an attractive option to map induced fractures because the recovered anomaly is related to the electrical conductivity of the injected fluid in the open (propped) section of the fracture operation. This is complementary to existing micro-seismic technology, which maps the mechanical effects of the fracturing. In this paper we describe a 2014 field case where a combination of a borehole casing electrode and a surface receiver array was used to monitor hydrofracture fracture creation and growth in an unconventional oil field project. The fracture treatment well was 1 km long and drilled to a depth of 2.2 km. Twelve fracture events were induced in 30 m intervals (stages) in the 1 km well. Within each stage 5 events (clusters) were initiated at 30 m intervals. Several of the fracture stages used a high salinity brine, instead of fresh water, to enhance the electrical signal. The electrical experiment deployed a downhole source in a well parallel to the treatment well and 100 m away. The source consisted of an electrode attached to a wireline cable into which a 0.25 Hz square wave was injected. A 60-station electrical field receiver array was placed above the fracture and extending for several km. Receivers were oriented to measure electrical field parallel with the presumed fracture direction and those perpendicular to it. Active source electrical data were collected continuously during 7 frac stages, 3 of which used brine as the frac fluid over a period of several days. Although the site was quite noisy and the electrical anomaly small we managed to extract a clear frac anomaly using field separation, extensive signal averaging and background noise rejection techniques. Preliminary 3D modeling, where we account for current distribution of the casing electrode and explicitly model multiple thin conductive sheets to represent fracture stages, produces a model consistent with the field measurements and also highlights the sensitivity of the

  16. Applied electric field enhances DRG neurite growth: influence of stimulation media, surface coating and growth supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D.; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2009-08-01

    Electrical therapies have been found to aid repair of nerve injuries and have been shown to increase and direct neurite outgrowth during stimulation. This enhanced neural growth existed even after the electric field (EF) or stimulation was removed, but the factors that may influence the enhanced growth, such as stimulation media or surface coating, have not been fully investigated. This study characterized neurite outgrowth and branching under various conditions: EF magnitude and application time, ECM surface coating, medium during EF application and growth supplements. A uniform, low-magnitude EF (24 or 44 V m-1) was applied to dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglia seeded on collagen or laminin-coated surfaces. During the growth period, cells were either exposed to NGF or N2, and during stimulation cells were exposed to either unsupplemented media (Ca2+) or PBS (no Ca2+). Parallel controls for each experiment included cells exposed to the chamber with no stimulation and cells remaining outside the chamber. After brief electrical stimulation (10 min), neurite length significantly increased 24 h after application for all conditions studied. Of particular interest, increased stimulation time (10-100 min) further enhanced neurite length on laminin but not on collagen surfaces. Neurite branching was not affected by stimulation on any surface, and no preferential growth of neurites was noted after stimulation. Overall, the results of this report suggest that short-duration electric stimulation is sufficient to enhance neurite length under a variety of conditions. While further data are needed to fully elucidate a mechanism for this increased growth, these data suggest that one focus of those investigations should be the interaction between the growth cone and the substrata.

  17. A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner for coupled surface-volume electric field integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2010-08-01

    A well-conditioned coupled set of surface (S) and volume (V) electric field integral equations (S-EFIE and V-EFIE) for analyzing wave interactions with densely discretized composite structures is presented. Whereas the V-EFIE operator is well-posed even when applied to densely discretized volumes, a classically formulated S-EFIE operator is ill-posed when applied to densely discretized surfaces. This renders the discretized coupled S-EFIE and V-EFIE system ill-conditioned, and its iterative solution inefficient or even impossible. The proposed scheme regularizes the coupled set of S-EFIE and V-EFIE using a Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP)-based technique. The resulting scheme enables the efficient analysis of electromagnetic interactions with composite structures containing fine/subwavelength geometric features. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  18. Experimentally obtained values of electric field of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet impinging on a dielectric surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report on experimentally obtained values of the electric field magnitude on a dielectric surface induced by an impinging atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma plume was striking the dielectric surface at an angle of 45¿, at 5mm from the surface measured at the axis of the jet. The results

  19. Surface electric fields and geomagnetically induced currents in the Scottish Power grid during the 30 October 2003 geomagnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Alan W.P.; McKay, Allan J.; Clarke, Ellen; Reay, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    A surface electric field model is used to estimate the UK surface E field during the 30 October 2003 severe geomagnetic storm. This model is coupled with a power grid model to determine the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) through the Scottish part of the UK grid. Model data are compared with GIC measurements at four sites in the power network. During this storm, measured and modeled GIC levels exceeded 40 A, and the surface electric field reached 5 V/km at sites in ...

  20. Sensitivity of the near-surface vertical electric field land Controlled-Source Electromagnetic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaller, A.M.; Hunziker, J.W.; Streich, R.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate potential benefits of measuring the vertical electric field component in addition to the routinely measured horizontal electric field components in onshore time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics. Synthetic electromagnetic data based on a model of the Schoonebeek onshore oil

  1. Electric field strength and plasma delay in silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, I.; Inbe, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Kimura, I.

    1994-01-01

    The resistivity change of a silicon irradiated by high energy neutrons became an interest of study associated with the large scale accelerator projects . The increase of the resistivity of the silicon of a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) was studied as a function of neutron fluence. The plasma delay, which was an interesting but not favorite timing property of the SSBD, was reported being dependent on the resistivity of silicon . The neutron irradiation brings the change of timing property as well as the resistivity change on the SSBD. The resistivity dependence of the plasma delay should be studied for the purpose of high energy accelerator experiments. Some empirical formulae of the plasma delay were reported, however, there were no discussions on the physical meanings of the resistivity dependence of the plasma delay. The plasma delay in a SSBD is discussed in the light of electric field strength in the depletion layer of the SSBD. The explanation of the plasma delay is presented taking into account of the competing two electric forces. The resistivity of the silicon affects the plasma delay through the electric forces. 3 figs, 3 refs. (author)

  2. Distance scaling of electric-field noise in a surface-electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, J. A.; Greene, A.; Stuart, J.; McConnell, R.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate anomalous ion-motional heating, a limitation to multiqubit quantum-logic gate fidelity in trapped-ion systems, as a function of ion-electrode separation. Using a multizone surface-electrode trap in which ions can be held at five discrete distances from the metal electrodes, we measure power-law dependencies of the electric-field noise experienced by the ion on the ion-electrode distance d . We find a scaling of approximately d-4 regardless of whether the electrodes are at room temperature or cryogenic temperature, despite the fact that the heating rates are approximately two orders of magnitude smaller in the latter case. Through auxiliary measurements using the application of noise to the electrodes, we rule out technical limitations to the measured heating rates and scalings. We also measure the frequency scaling of the inherent electric-field noise close to 1 /f at both temperatures. These measurements eliminate from consideration anomalous-heating models which do not have a d-4 distance dependence, including several microscopic models of current interest.

  3. Electric-field effects on magnetic anisotropy in Pd/Fe/Pd(0 0 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, Shinya; Tsujikawa, Masahito; Gotou, Junpei; Oda, Tatsuki

    2011-01-01

    Electric-field (EF) effects have been studied on magnetic anisotropy in the metallic surfaces Pt/Fe/Pt(0 0 1) and Pd/Fe/Pd(0 0 1) by means of the first-principles electronic structure calculation which employs the generalized gradient approximation. The variation of anisotropy energy with respect to the EF is found to be opposite to each other. The modulus rate of the variation is larger by a few factors in the Pt substrate than in the Pd one. These results agree qualitatively well with the available experimental data. The electronic structures are presented and the origins in EF effects are discussed along a line of the second perturbative fashion.

  4. Surface electric resistance of YBa2Cu3O7-δ ceramics and its dependence on magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorochev, O.A.; Graboj, I.Eh.; Kaul', A.R.; Mitrofanov, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Method of dielectric resonator in the 4.2-300 K temperature range is used to measure surface electric resistance of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ceramics samples produced by different technologies. The temperature dependence of surface resistance near transition temperature is calculated. At 77.3 K dependence of electric resistance on external magnetic field at H≤200Oe is determined. Calculated dependence is verified in experiment

  5. Equilibrium configurations of the conducting liquid surface in a nonuniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    Possible equilibrium configurations of the free surface of a conducting liquid deformed by a nonuniform external electric field are investigated. The liquid rests on an electrode that has the shape of a dihedral angle formed by two intersecting equipotential half-planes (conducting wedge). It is assumed that the problem has plane symmetry: the surface is invariant under shift along the edge of the dihedral angle. A one-parametric family of exact solutions for the shape of the surface is found in which the opening angle of the region above the wedge serves as a parameter. The solutions are valid when the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the liquid is zero. For an arbitrary pressure difference, approximate solutions to the problem are constructed and it is demonstrated the approximation error is small. It is found that, when the potential difference exceeds a certain threshold value, equilibrium solutions are absent. In this case, the region occupied by the liquid disintegrates, the disintegration scenario depending on the opening angle.

  6. Electric Field Distribution and Switching Impulse Discharge under Shield Ball Surface Scratch Defect in an UHVDC Hall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghai Geng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dimension and surface state of shielding fittings in ultra high voltage direct current (UHVDC converter station valve halls have a great influence on their surface electric field and switching impulse characteristics, which are important parameters confirming the air gap distance in the valve hall. The characteristics of impulse discharge under different lengths, dent degrees and burrs around the scratches of Φ1.3 m shield balls with a 2 m sphere-plane gap length were tested, in the UHVDC testing base of the Hebei Electric Power Research Institute. The discharge characteristics under the influence of the surface scratches of the shield ball were obtained. The results demonstrate that the discharge voltage of sphere-plane gap decreases obviously when there are unpolished scratches on the surface of the shield ball. However, when the scratches are polished, the discharge voltage has no significant impact. At the same time, a 1:1 full-scale impulse test model was established based on the finite element method. The electric field intensity and the space electric field distribution of the shield ball were obtained under the influence of scratches with or without burrs. The results of the simulation show that when the surface of the shield ball is smooth, the electric field distribution around it is even. The electric field intensity on the surface of the shield ball increases obviously when there are burrs around the scratches. When there is no burr around the scratches, the length and depth of the scratches have no obvious effect on its electric field distribution. Meanwhile, calculation results are consistent with test results. The results can provide an important basis for the design and optimization of shielding fittings, and technical support for its localization.

  7. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  8. Radial electric field and transport near the rational surface and the magnetic island in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Inagaki, S.; Tamura, N.

    2002-10-01

    The structure of the radial electric field and heat transport at the magnetic island in the Large Helical Device is investigated by measuring the radial profile of poloidal flow with charge exchange spectroscopy. The convective poloidal flow inside the island is observed when the n/m=1/1 external perturbation field becomes large enough to increase the magnetic island width above a critical value (15-20% of minor radius) in LHD. This convective poloidal flow results in a non-flat space potential inside the magnetic island. The sign of the curvature of the space potential depends on the radial electric field at the boundary of the magnetic island. The heat transport inside the magnetic island is studied with a cold pulse propagation technique. The experimental results show the existence of the radial electric field shear at the boundary of the magnetic island and a reduction of heat transport inside the magnetic island. (author)

  9. Electric field strength in a silicon surface barrier detector with the presence of a dielectric plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic change of the electric field strength in a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) is studied. With the presence of a dielectric plasma column in the depletion layer of the SSBD, the electric field strength inside/outside the plasma column is suppressed/enhanced. As the length and the dielectric constant of the plasma column become shorter and smaller, the suppression and enhancement of the electric field strength become less. The electric field strength recovers the initial state, when the plasma column disappears. When the electrons and holes are inside/outside the dielectric plasma column, they have less/more electric potential than the one they have when there is no plasma column. During the movement of the electron/hole outside the plasma column to the positive/negative electrode, the enhanced electric field strength becomes smaller. Electron and hole pairs, which are the parts of the dielectric plasma column, arrive at positive and negative electrodes, having insufficient electric potential to induce the unit charge. This paper shows that the presence of a dielectric plasma column explains the main part of the residual defect in a SSBD. ((orig.))

  10. Response of the Shockley surface state to an external electrical field: A density-functional theory study of Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, K.; Einstein, T. L.; Hyldgaard, P.

    2012-01-01

    The response of the Cu(111) Shockley surface state to an external electrical field is characterized by combining a density-functional theory calculation for a slab geometry with an analysis of the Kohn-Sham wave functions. Our analysis is facilitated by a decoupling of the Kohn-Sham states via a rotation in Hilbert space. We find that the surface state displays isotropic dispersion, quadratic until the Fermi wave vector but with a significant quartic contribution beyond. We calculate the shift in energetic position and effective mass of the surface state for an electrical field perpendicular to the Cu(111) surface; the response is linear over a broad range of field strengths. We find that charge transfer occurs beyond the outermost copper atoms and that accumulation of electrons is responsible for a quarter of the screening of the electrical field. This allows us to provide well converged determinations of the field-induced changes in the surface state for a moderate number of layers in the slab geometry.

  11. A bioluminescence ATP assay for estimating surface hydrophobicity and membrane damage of Escherichia coli cells treated with pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatments, a non-thermal process have been reported to injure and inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, the effect of this treatment on bacterial cell surface charge and hydrophobicity has not been investigated. Apple juice (AJ, pH 3.8) purchased from a wholesale ...

  12. Electric Field Imaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields....

  13. Equilibrium and surface stability of liquid dielectric interface in electrical and gravitational fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ievlev, I I; Isers, A B

    1976-01-01

    An examination is made of the problem of locating the stable equilibrium surface shape of the interface between two liquid, uniform, isotropic, ideal dielectrics subject to the force of gravity, surface tension, and electrical forces. The conditions for the equilibrium and surface stability of the interface were obtained from the minimum free energy principle. These conditions are used for solving problems on locating the stable equilibrium interface boundary between two dielectrics positioned between infinite charged vertical plates, between infinite vertical coaxial cylinders, between infinite grounded plates and two horizontal charged thin cylinders placed between them. 8 references, 4 figures.

  14. Effect of an external alternating electric field non-monochromaticity on parametric excitation of surface ion cyclotron X-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, V O; Puzyrkov, S Yu; Shpagina, V O; Shpagina, L O

    2012-01-01

    The application of an external alternating electric field in the range of ion cyclotron frequencies is a well-known method for the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves. The present paper is devoted to the development of a kinetic theory of parametric excitation of these eigenwaves propagating across an external steady magnetic field along the plasma boundary at the second harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency. Unlike previous papers on this subject, parametric excitation of surface ion cyclotron X-modes is studied here under the condition of non-monochromaticity of an external alternating electric field. Non-monochromaticity of the external alternating electric field is modeled by the superposition of two uniform and monochromatic electric fields with different amplitudes and frequencies. The nonlinear boundary condition is formulated for a tangential magnetic field of the studied surface waves. An infinite set of equations for the harmonics of a tangential electric field is solved using the approximation of the wave packet consisting of the main harmonic and two nearest satellite harmonics. Two different regimes of instability have been considered. If one of the applied generators has an operation frequency that is close to the ion cyclotron frequency, then changing the amplitude of the second generator allows one to enhance the growth rate of the parametric instability or to diminish it. But if the operation frequencies of the both generators are not close to the ion cyclotron frequency, then changing the amplitudes of their fields allows one to decrease the growth rate of the instability and even to suppress its development. The problem is studied both analytically and numerically.

  15. Instability of surface electron cyclotron TM-modes influenced by non-monochromatic alternating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, I. O.; Girka, V. O.; Sydora, R. D.; Thumm, M.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of non-monochromaticity of an external alternating electric field on excitation of TM eigenmodes at harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency is considered here. These TM-modes propagate along the plasma interface in a metal waveguide. An external static constant magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly to the plasma interface. The problem is solved theoretically using the kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann equation for description of plasma particles motion and the Maxwell equations for description of the electromagnetic mode fields. The external alternating electric field is supposed to be a superposition of two waves, whose amplitudes are different and their frequencies correlate as 2:1. An infinite set of equations for electric field harmonics of these modes is derived with the aid of nonlinear boundary conditions. This set is solved using the wave packet approach consisting of the main harmonic frequency and two nearest satellite temporal harmonics. Analytical studies of the obtained set of equations allow one to find two different regimes of parametric instability, namely, enhancement and suppression of the instability. Numerical analysis of the instability is carried out for the three first electron cyclotron harmonics.

  16. Effects of microwave electric fields on the translational diffusion of dipolar molecules in surface potential: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, Sergey V.; Kouzaev, Guennadi A.

    2018-01-01

    Variations of effective diffusion coefficient of polar molecules exposed to microwave electric fields in a surface potential are studied by solving coupled stochastic differential equations of motion with a deterministic component of the surface force. Being an essential tool for the simulation interpretation, a theoretical approach to effective diffusion in surface potential is first developed. The effective diffusion coefficient is represented as the product of the normal diffusion coefficient and potential-dependent correction function, whose temperature dependence is close to the Arrhenius form. The analytically found zero-diffusion condition defines the state of thermal equilibrium at the surface. The diffusion of a water-like dipole molecule in the potential of graphite surface is simulated in the field-free conditions and in the presence of the alternating electric fields of various magnitude intensities and frequencies. Temperature dependence of the correction function exhibits field-induced variations of the effective Lennard-Jones energy parameter. It demonstrates maximum departure from the zero-field value at certain frequencies and intensities, which is associated with variations in the rotational dynamics. A concept of the amplitude-frequency resonance put forward to interpret the simulation results is explained using a heuristic reasoning and is corroborated by semi-quantitative considerations in terms of the Dissado-Hill cluster theory of dielectric relaxation.

  17. Design of electric-field assisted surface plasmon resonance system for the detection of heavy metal ions in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyaw, Htet Htet [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P. O. Box 36, Al-Khoud 123 (Oman); Boonruang, Sakoolkan, E-mail: sakoolkan.boonruang@nectec.or.th, E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th [Photonics Technology Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), 112 Thailand Science Park, PathumThani 12120 (Thailand); Mohammed, Waleed S., E-mail: sakoolkan.boonruang@nectec.or.th, E-mail: waleed.m@bu.ac.th [Center of Research in Optoelectronics, Communication and Control Systems (BUCROCCS), School of Engineering, Bangkok University, PathumThani 12120 (Thailand); Dutta, Joydeep [Functional Materials Division, School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Isafjordsgatan 22, SE-164 40 Kista, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used in diverse applications. For detecting heavy metal ions in water, surface functionalization of the metal surface is typically used to adsorb target molecules, where the ionic concentration is detected via a resonance shift (resonance angle, resonance wavelength or intensity). This paper studies the potential of a possible alternative approach that could eliminate the need of using surface functionalization by the application of an external electric field in the flow channel. The exerted electrical force on the ions pushes them against the surface for enhanced adsorption; hence it is referred to as “Electric-Field assisted SPR system”. High system sensitivity is achieved by monitoring the time dynamics of the signal shift. The ion deposition dynamics are discussed using a derived theoretical model based on ion mobility in water. On the application of an appropriate force, the target ions stack onto the sensor surface depending on the ionic concentration of target solution, ion mass, and flow rate. In the experimental part, a broad detection range of target cadmium ions (Cd{sup 2+}) in water from several parts per million (ppm) down to a few parts per billion (ppb) can be detected.

  18. Built-in surface electric field, piezoelectricity and photoelastic effect in GaN nanorods for nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W S; Chen, T T; Cheng, C L; Fu, S P; Chen, Y F; Hsiao, C L; Tu, L W

    2008-06-11

    Novel behaviors arising from the coupling between the built-in surface electric field, piezoelectricity, electron-hole pairs and external light beam were observed in GaN nanorods. An increase in the optical excitation density resulted in a blueshift in the photoluminescence spectra and a redshift in the frequency of the GaN A(1)(LO) phonon. The underlying mechanism was attributed to the screening of the built-in surface electric field by photoexcited carriers and, through the converse piezoelectric effect, a reduction in the internal strain. The existence of the built-in surface electric field in GaN nanorods was confirmed by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. Our results firmly establish the existence of the photoelastic effect in GaN nanorods. In addition to underpinning the principle for applications in nanophotonic devices, this discovery also draws attention to the novel effects arising from the inherent large surface-to-volume ratio of nanostructures, which is possibly applicable to many other nanomaterials.

  19. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  20. Electric-field induced surface instabilities of soft dielectrics and their effects on optical transmittance and scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shian, Samuel; Kjeer, Peter; Clarke, David R.

    2018-03-01

    When a voltage is applied to a percolative, mechanically compliant mat of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a smooth elastomer bilayer attached to an ITO coated glass substrate, the in-line optical transmittance decreases with increasing voltage. Two regimes of behavior have been identified based on optical scattering, bright field optical microscopy, and confocal optical microscopy. In the low field regime, the electric field produces a spatially inhomogeneous surface deformation of the elastomer that causes local variations in optical refraction and modulates the light transmittance. The spatial variation is associated with the distribution of the CNTs over the surface. At higher fields, above a threshold voltage, an array of pits in the surface form by a nucleation and growth mechanism and these also scatter light. The formation of pits, and creases, in the thickness of the elastomer, is due to a previously identified electro-mechanical surface instability. When the applied voltage is decreased from its maximum, the transmittance returns to its original value although there is a transmittance hysteresis and a complicated time response. When the applied voltage exceeds the threshold voltage, there can be remnant optical contrast associated with creasing of the elastomer and the recovery time appears to be dependent on local jamming of CNTs in areas where the pits formed. A potential application of this work as an electrically tunable privacy window or camouflaging devices is demonstrated.

  1. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  2. Water surface deformation in strong electrical fields and its influence on electrical breakdown in a metal pin-water electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Graham, Leigh; Groote, Joris de; Vierendeels, Jan; Leys, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Electrical breakdown and water surface deformation in a metal pin-water electrode system with dc applied voltages is studied for small inter-electrode distances (2-12 mm). The radius of curvature of the metal pin is 0.5 cm to exclude corona before breakdown at these small inter-electrode spacings. Calculations of the water surface deformation as a function of the applied voltage and initial inter-electrode spacing are compared with measurements of the water elevation. For distances smaller than 7 mm the calculated stability limit of the water surface corresponds with the experimentally obtained breakdown voltage. It is proved with fast CCD images and calculations of the electrical field distribution that the water surface instability triggers the electrical breakdown in this case. The images show that at breakdown the water surface has a Taylor cone-like shape. At inter-electrode distance of 7 mm and larger the breakdown voltage is well below the water stability limit and the conductive channel at breakdown is formed between the pin electrode and the static water surface. Both cases are discussed and compared

  3. Measured surface magnetic field attenuation of shielded windows and wire mesh over an electrically small enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, L.O.; Hofstra, J.S.; Karaskiewicz, R.J.; Wiser, G.

    1984-01-01

    The surface magnetic field attenuation of five types of shielded transparency (window) material was measured over the frequency range 10 kHz to 100 MHz by installing them on an .61 m x .61 m x .2 m enclosure, placing the enclosure on the wall of a TEM cell and measuring the surface and interior magnetic fields using a computer-controlled network analyzer system. The samples included two thicknesses of conductive grids on acrylic, hardware, cloth with 1/8 and 1/4-inch mesh, and a fine mesh laminated optical display window. These measurements are indicative of an enclosure with aperture coupling; namely, they become frequency-independent at high frequencies. Coarse mesh samples (1/8-1/4-inch mesh) were able to provide 50 to 60 dB of magnetic field reduction at tens of MHz, whereas the finer mesh did slightly better. This behavior is consistent with magnetic polarizability theory. Material thickness did not have an appreciable effect for frequencies above a MHz

  4. Electric field dependent structural and vibrational properties of the Si(100)-H(2 x 1) surface and its implications for STM induced hydrogen desorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    We report a first principles study of the structure and the vibrational properties of the Si(100)-H(2 x 1) surface in an electric field. The calculated vibrational parameters are used to model the vibrational modes in the presence of the electric field corresponding to a realistic scanning...

  5. 3 MeV proton irradiation effects on surface, structural, field emission and electrical properties of brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mian Ahsan; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Faizan-ul-Haq; Hayat, Asma; Mutaza, G.; Chishti, Naveed Ahmed; Khan, M. Asad; Ahmad, Shahbaz

    2018-05-01

    Ion-induced modifications of brass in terms of surface morphology, elemental composition, phase changes, field emission properties and electrical conductivity have been investigated. Brass targets were irradiated by proton beam at constant energy of 3 MeV for various doses ranges from 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 to 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2 using Pelletron Linear Accelerator. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis reveals the formation of randomly distributed clusters, particulates, droplets and agglomers for lower ion doses which are explainable on the basis of cascade collisional process and thermal spike model. Whereas, at moderate ion doses, fiber like structures are formed due to incomplete melting. The formation of cellular like structure is observed at the maximum ion dose and is attributed to intense heating, melting and re-solidification. SRIM software analysis reveals that the penetration depth of 3 MeV protons in brass comes out to be 38 μm, whereas electronic and nuclear energy losses come out to be 5 × 10-1 and 3.1 × 10-4 eV/Å respectively. The evaluated values of energy deposited per atom vary from 0.01 to 1.5 eV with the variation of ion doses from 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 to 1.5 × 1014 ions/cm2. Both elemental analysis i.e. Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) supports each other and no new element or phase is identified. However, slight change in peak intensity and angle shifting is observed. Field emission properties of ion-structured brass are explored by measuring I-V characteristics of targets under UHV condition in diode-configuration using self designed and fabricated setup. Improvement in field enhancement factor (β) is estimated from the slope of Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots and it shows significant increase from 5 to 1911, whereas a reduction in turn on field (Eo) from 65 V/μm to 30 V/μm and increment in maximum current density (Jmax) from 12 μA/cm2 to 3821 μA/cm2 is observed. These enhancements

  6. Beyond the Point Charge: Equipotential Surfaces and Electric Fields of Various Charge Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Sanny, Jeff; Berube, David; Hoemke, Anatol

    2017-01-01

    A laboratory experiment often performed in an introductory electricity and magnetism course involves the mapping of equipotential lines on a conductive sheet between two objects at different potentials. In this article, we describe how we have expanded this experiment so that it can be used to illustrate the electrostatic properties of conductors.…

  7. The 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid nanodroplets on solid surfaces and in electric field: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dengpan; Vatamanu, Jenel P.; Wei, Xiaoyu; Bedrov, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the wetting states of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)-imide ionic liquid (IL) nanodroplets on surfaces with different strengths of van der Waals (VDW) interactions and in the presence of an electric field. By adjusting the depth of Lennard-Jones potential, the van der Waals interaction between the solid surface and ionic liquid was systematically varied. The shape of the droplets was analyzed to extract the corresponding contact angle utilized to characterize wetting states of the nanodroplets. The explored range of surface-IL interactions allowed contact angles ranging from complete IL spreading on the surface to poor wettability. The effect of the external electrical field was explored by adding point charges to the surface atoms. Systems with two charge densities (±0.002 e/atom and ±0.004 e/atom) that correspond to 1.36 V/nm and 2.72 V/nm electric fields were investigated. Asymmetrical wetting states were observed for both cases. At 1.36 V/nm electric field, contributions of IL-surface VDW interactions and Coulombic interactions to the wetting state were competitive. At 2.72 V/nm field, electrostatic interactions dominate the interaction between the nanodroplet and surface, leading to enhanced wettability on all surfaces.

  8. Bacterial inhibiting surfaces caused by the effects of silver release and/or electrical field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Schroll, Casper

    2008-01-01

    In this study, silver-palladium surfaces and silver-bearing stainless steels were designed and investigated focusing on electrochemical principles to form inhibiting effects on planktonic and/or biofilm bacteria in water systems. Silver-resistant Escherichia coli and silver-sensitive E. coli were...... silver ions release can occur from their Surfaces. For silver-bearing stainless steels, the inhibiting effect can only be explained by high local silver ions release. and can be limited or deactivated dependent on the specific environment. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Response of the Shockley surface state on Cu(111) to an external electrical field: A density-functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berland, Kristian; Hyldgaard, Per; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-03-01

    We study the response of the Cu(111) Shockley surface state to an external electrical field E by combining a density-functional theory calculation for a finite slab geometry with an analysis of the Kohn-Sham wavefunctions to obtain a well-converged characterization. We find that the surface state displays isotropic dispersion, quadratic until the Fermi wave vector but with a significant quartic contribution beyond. We find that the shift in band minimum and effective mass depend linearly on E. Most change in electrostatic potential profile, and charge transfer occurs outside the outermost copper atoms, and most of the screening is due to bulk electrons. Our analysis is facilitated by a method used to decouple the Kohn-Sham states due to the finite slab geometry, using a rotation in Hilbert space. We discuss applications to tuning the Fermi wavelength and so the many patterns attributed to metallic surface states. Supported by (KB and PH) Swedish Vetenskapsrådet VR 621-2008-4346 and (TLE) NSF CHE 07-50334 & UMD MRSEC DMR 05-20471.

  10. Experimental investigation on the effect of surface electric field in the growth of tungsten nano-tendril morphology due to low energy helium irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woller, K.B.; Whyte, D.G.; Wright, G.M.; Brunner, D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for and controlling the growth of tungsten nano-tendrils (or “fuzz”) under low-energy helium plasma exposure remain unclear. For the first time in nano-tendril experiments, the plasma sheath-produced electric field and the helium (He) ion energy have been decoupled, showing that the sheath electric field has little impact on nano-tendril growth, eliminating a possible cause for tendril growth. The well-established necessary growth conditions for W fuzz were maintained with He ion flux density Γ He  > 10 21  He m −2  s −1 , surface temperature T s  = 1273 K, He ion energy E He  = 64 eV, and He ion fluence Φ He  > 10 24  He m −2 . A grid is situated between the tungsten sample and plasma, with the grid and sample potentials independently controlled in order to control the electric field at the surface of the sample while maintaining the same incident He ion energy to the surface. A calculation of the potential profile in the drift space between the grid and sample was used to account for space charge and calculate the electric field at the surface of the sample. Tungsten fuzz formed at all electric fields tested, even near zero electric field. Also, the depth of the resulting W fuzz layer was unaltered by the electric field when compared to the calculated depth determined from an empirical growth model. The conclusion is that the sheath electric field is not necessary to cause the changes in surface morphology. - Highlights: • Surface electric field is proposed as a possible driver of tungsten fuzz growth. • A method that decouples plasma sheath electric field and ion energy is described. • Tungsten fuzz is shown to grow even without direct exposure to plasma. • Tungsten fuzz grows to the same depth with and without the plasma sheath.

  11. An electric field in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpaz, Amos

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of an electric field in a gravitational field is analysed. It is found that due to the mass (energy) of the electric field, it is subjected to gravity and it falls in the gravitational field. This fall curves the electric field, a stress force (a reaction force) is created, and the interaction of this reaction force with the static charge gives rise to the creation of radiation

  12. Electromagnetic Field Analysis of an Electric Dipole Antenna Based on a Surface Integral Equation in Multilayered Dissipative Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method based on the Poggio–Miller–Chang-Harrington–Wu–Tsai (PMCHWT integral equation is presented to study the electromagnetic fields excited by vertical or horizontal electric dipoles in the presence of a layered region which consists of K-layered dissipative media and the air above. To transform the continuous integral equation into a block tridiagonal matrix with the feature of convenient solution, the Rao–Wilton–Glisson (RWG functions are introduced as expansion and testing functions. The electromagnetic fields excited by an electric dipole are calculated and compared with the available results, where the electric dipole antenna is buried in the non-planar air–sea–seabed, air–rock–earth–mine, and multilayered sphere structures. The analysis and computations demonstrate that the method exhibits high accuracy and solving performance in the near field propagation region.

  13. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF PATCHOULI OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLIN, BENTH WITH STEAM DISTILLATION ASSISTED BY PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD VIA RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKARDI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the role of pulsed electric field (PEF treatment before hydro-distillation of the patchouli oil. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize PEF treatment (voltages, frequencies and times of distillation of patchouli oil from dried patchouli crops. The experimental design and analysis the result to obtain the optimal processing parameters was a Box-Behnken Design (BBD. Three variables were examined in this study: voltages (1,000-2,000 volt; frequencies (1,000-2,000 Hz; and distillation time (4-8 hours. The results showed that the voltage greatly affects the volume of patchouli oil obtained and optimum condition of PEF was voltages of 2,000 volts, frequencies of 1,874 Hz, and 8 hours distillation. The patchouli oil obtained is 8.037 ml of 300 g of dry material (±2.7%. The verification of the model shows that 96.6% (7.76±0.15 ml can adequately for reflecting the expected optimization.

  15. Comparison Between the Trajectories of Electric Field Resonances and those of Rational Surfaces in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    2000-01-01

    Both the radial electric field resonance case and the corresponding to rational magnetic surfaces, show a number of similar behaviours: a) Strong sensitivity of the passing particle loss fraction, and mainly of their los times, to lower order rational values of the ratio between the poloidal and toroidal rotation angular velocities. b) In both cases there exist similar simple analytical models that allow qualitative predictions for the phase space regions where resonant effects can be expected. c) Strong similitude of trajectories, as well in the Poincare diagrams as in the angular maps. Near the resonant regions a extreme minimization of the radial excursion appears, and both diagrams present a minimum filling. At both sides of these regions there are wide excursions, directed alternatively towards the inner and the outer parts of the plasma. Far from these resonant zones the diagrams filling comes back to be continuous. d) All these behaviours are more marked, and the topology change more sudden, the lower is the periodicity order of the resonance, and are extremely clear for the 1/3 and 1/2 cases. This wealth of similar behaviour suggests a single origin for all these phenomena, linked with the trajectory topology, that will be the subject of a specific study. (Author) 13 refs

  16. The Dynamics of the Electric Field Distribution in the Surface of Insulating Film Irradiated by Air Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julionas KALADE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When deposited on a surface, electric charge usually accumulates near the tips of surface irregularities, from where it can be transferred to nearby objects due to ionization of ambient air. The amount of transferred charge, the rate of charge transfer, the size of the charged spot (e.g., on the surface of an insulator and its tendency to spread will depend on properties of air during electric discharge, on the magnitude of charge accumulated at the tip of an object, on possibilities for replenishing that charge, on the time spent for charge transfer from the tip onto the insulating layer, on properties of the insulating layer, etc. Those properties are discussed in this work by comparing the results of measurements and theoretical analysis.

  17. Energy levels of a quantum particle on a cylindrical surface with non-circular cross-section in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Philip Christopher S.; Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the energy levels of a quantum particle on a cylindrical surface with non-circular cross-section in uniform electric and magnetic fields. Using separation of variables method and a change of independent variable, we show that the problem can be reduced to a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for a periodic potential. The effects of varying the shape of the cross-section while keeping the same perimeter and the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields are investigated for elliptical, corrugated, and nearly-rectangular tubes with radial dimensions of the order of a nanometer. The geometric potential has minima at the angular positions where there is a significant amount of curvature. For the elliptical and corrugated tubes, it is shown that as the tube departs from the circular shape of cross-section the double-degeneracy between the energy levels is lifted. For the nearly-rectangular tube, it is shown that energy level crossings occur as the horizontal dimension of the tube is varied while keeping the same perimeter and radius of circular corners. The interplay between the curvature and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields determines the overall behavior of the energy levels. As the strength of the electric field increases, the overall potential gets skewed creating a potential well on the side corresponding to the more negative electric potential. The energy levels of the first few excited states approach more positive values while the ground state energy level approaches a more negative value. For large electric fields, all bound state energy levels tend to more negative values. The contribution of weak magnetic fields to the overall potential behaves in the same way as the electric field contribution but with its sign depending on the direction of the component of the momentum parallel to the cylindrical axis. Large magnetic fields lead to pairing of energy levels reminiscent of 2D Landau levels for the elliptical and nearly

  18. Energy levels of a quantum particle on a cylindrical surface with non-circular cross-section in electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Philip Christopher S., E-mail: pscruz1@up.edu.ph; Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph

    2017-04-15

    We calculate the energy levels of a quantum particle on a cylindrical surface with non-circular cross-section in uniform electric and magnetic fields. Using separation of variables method and a change of independent variable, we show that the problem can be reduced to a one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for a periodic potential. The effects of varying the shape of the cross-section while keeping the same perimeter and the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields are investigated for elliptical, corrugated, and nearly-rectangular tubes with radial dimensions of the order of a nanometer. The geometric potential has minima at the angular positions where there is a significant amount of curvature. For the elliptical and corrugated tubes, it is shown that as the tube departs from the circular shape of cross-section the double-degeneracy between the energy levels is lifted. For the nearly-rectangular tube, it is shown that energy level crossings occur as the horizontal dimension of the tube is varied while keeping the same perimeter and radius of circular corners. The interplay between the curvature and the strength of the electric and magnetic fields determines the overall behavior of the energy levels. As the strength of the electric field increases, the overall potential gets skewed creating a potential well on the side corresponding to the more negative electric potential. The energy levels of the first few excited states approach more positive values while the ground state energy level approaches a more negative value. For large electric fields, all bound state energy levels tend to more negative values. The contribution of weak magnetic fields to the overall potential behaves in the same way as the electric field contribution but with its sign depending on the direction of the component of the momentum parallel to the cylindrical axis. Large magnetic fields lead to pairing of energy levels reminiscent of 2D Landau levels for the elliptical and nearly

  19. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falthammar, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Electric field measurements on the satellites GEOS-1, GEOS-2, ISEE-1, and Viking have extended the empirical knowledge of electric fields in space so as to include the outer regions of the magnetosphere. While the measurements confirm some of the theoretically expected properties of the electric fields, they also reveal unexpected features and a high degree of complexity and variability. The existence of a magnetospheric dawn-to-dusk electric field, as expected on the basis of extrapolation from low altitude measurements, is confirmed in an average sense. However, the actual field exhibits large spatial and temporal variations, including strong fields of inductive origin. At the magnetopause, the average (dawn-to-dusk directed) tangential electric field component is typically obscured by irregular fluctuations of larger amplitude. The magnetic-field aligned component of the electric field, which is of particular importance for ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and for auroral acceleration, is even now very difficult to measure directly. However, the data from electric field measurements provide further support for the conclusion, based on a variety of evidence, that a non-vanishing magnetic-field aligned electric field exists in the auroral acceleration region

  20. Dependence of B1+ and B1- Field Patterns of Surface Coils on the Electrical Properties of the Sample and the MR Operating Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Manushka V; Collins, Christopher M; Sodickson, Daniel K; Brown, Ryan; Wiggins, Graham C; Lattanzi, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    In high field MRI, the spatial distribution of the radiofrequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field is usually affected by the presence of the sample. For hardware design and to aid interpretation of experimental results, it is important both to anticipate and to accurately simulate the behavior of these fields. Fields generated by a radiofrequency surface coil were simulated using dyadic Green's functions, or experimentally measured over a range of frequencies inside an object whose electrical properties were varied to illustrate a variety of transmit [Formula: see text] and receive [Formula: see text] field patterns. In this work, we examine how changes in polarization of the field and interference of propagating waves in an object can affect the B 1 spatial distribution. Results are explained conceptually using Maxwell's equations and intuitive illustrations. We demonstrate that the electrical conductivity alters the spatial distribution of distinct polarized components of the field, causing "twisted" transmit and receive field patterns, and asymmetries between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Additionally, interference patterns due to wavelength effects are observed at high field in samples with high relative permittivity and near-zero conductivity, but are not present in lossy samples due to the attenuation of propagating EM fields. This work provides a conceptual framework for understanding B 1 spatial distributions for surface coils and can provide guidance for RF engineers.

  1. Electric field gradients in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, G.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the recent works on electric field gradient in metals is given. The main emphasis is put on the temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in nonmagnetic metals. Some methods of investigation of this effect using nuclear probes are described. One of them is nuclear accoustic resonance method. (S.B.)

  2. Cryosurgery with pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte S Daniels

    Full Text Available This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused

  3. Cryosurgery with Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  4. Electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The electric field plays an important role in the complex plasma system called the magnetosphere. In spite of this, direct measurement of this quantity are still scarce except in its lowest-altitude part, i.e. the ionosphere. The large scale ionospheric electric field has been determined from measurement on the ground and in low satellite orbit. For most of the magnetosphere, our concepts of the electric field have mostly been based on theoretical considerations and extrapolations of the ionspheric electric field. Direct, in situ, electric field measurements in the outer parts of the magnetosphere have been made only relatively recently. A few satellite missions. most recently the Viking mission, have extended the direct empirical knowledge so as to include major parts of the magnetosphere. These measurements have revealed a number of unexpected features. The actual electric field has been found to have unexpectedly strong space and time variations, which reflect the dynamic nature of the system. Examples are give of measured electric fields in the plasmasphere, the plasmasheet, the neutral sheet, the magnetotail, the flanks of the magnetosphere, the dayside magnetopause and the auroral acceleration region. (author)

  5. Realization of Multi-Stable Ground States in a Nematic Liquid Crystal by Surface and Electric Field Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwag, Jin Seog; Kim, Young-Ki; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Owing to the significant price drop of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the efforts to save natural resources, LCDs are even replacing paper to display static images such as price tags and advertising boards. Because of a growing market demand on such devices, the LCD that can be of numerous surface alignments of directors as its ground state, the so-called multi-stable LCD, comes into the limelight due to the great potential for low power consumption. However, the multi-stable LCD with industrial feasibility has not yet been successfully performed. In this paper, we propose a simple and novel configuration for the multi-stable LCD. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that a battery of stable surface alignments can be achieved by the field-induced surface dragging effect on an aligning layer with a weak surface anchoring. The simplicity and stability of the proposed system suggest that it is suitable for the multi-stable LCDs to display static images with low power consumption and thus opens applications in various fields.

  6. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  7. Application and optimization of electric field-assisted ultrasonication for disintegration of waste activated sludge using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Hwang, Min-Jin; Cha, Min-Jung; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, an electric field is applied in order to disintegrate waste activated sludge (WAS). As a preliminary step, feasibility tests are investigated using different applied voltages of 10-100V for 60min. As the applied voltage increases, the disintegration degrees (DD) are gradually enhanced, and thereby the soluble N, P, and carbohydrate concentrations increase simultaneously due to the WAS decomposition. Subsequently, an optimization process is conducted using a response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The total solid concentration, applied voltage, and reaction time are selected as independent variables, while the DD is selected as the response variable. The overall results demonstrate that the BBD with an experimental design can be used effectively in the optimization of the electric field treatment of WAS. In the confirmation test, a DD of 10.26±0.14% is recorded, which corresponds to 99.1% of the predicted response value under the statistically optimized conditions. Finally, the statistic optimization of the combined treatment (electric field+ultrasonication) demonstrated that even though this method is limited to highly disintegrated WAS when it is applied individually, a high DD of 47.28±0.20% was recorded where the TS concentration was 6780mg/l, the strength of ultrasonication was 8.0W, the applied voltage was 68.4V, and the reaction time was 44min. E-SEM images clearly revealed that the application of the electric field is a significant alternative method for the combined treatment of WAS. This study was the first attempt to increase disintegration using the electric field for a combined treatment with ultrasonication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inductive electric field at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The electric field data for two crossings of the magnetopause by ISEE-1 on November 20, 1977, have been analyzed with high time resolution. In both cases the electric field has a negative dawn-dusk component in the boundary layer, so it must reverse somewhere within the current layer to the positive value outside. If there is a component parallel to the moving magnetopause current it is small, and by no means obvious. In the case of the exit crossing from the boundary layer to the magnetosheath the data show that the electric field vector is turning for about two seconds at roughly the satellite spin rate; this changing direction suggests that the electric field has a curl. Such a curl could be caused by a travelling localized perturbation of the magnetopause surface current associated with impulsive plasma transport through the magnetopause

  9. Electric Field Fluctuations in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Dayton; Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    Charge transfer in solution, such as autoionization and ion pair dissociation in water, is governed by rare electric field fluctuations of the solvent. Knowing the statistics of such fluctuations can help explain the dynamics of these rare events. Trajectories short enough to be tractable by computer simulation are virtually certain not to sample the large fluctuations that promote rare events. Here, we employ importance sampling techniques with classical molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water to study statistics of electric field fluctuations far from their means. We find that the distributions of electric fields located on individual water molecules are not in general gaussian. Near the mean this non-gaussianity is due to the internal charge distribution of the water molecule. Further from the mean, however, there is a previously unreported Bjerrum-like defect that stabilizes certain large fluctuations out of equilibrium. As expected, differences in electric fields acting between molecules are gaussian to a remarkable degree. By studying these differences, though, we are able to determine what configurations result not only in large electric fields, but also in electric fields with long spatial correlations that may be needed to promote charge separation.

  10. Interaction between lf electric fields and biological bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Češelkoska Vesna C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Equivalent electrodes method is used for electric field calculation in the proximity of the various biological subjects exposed to an electric field in the LF range. Several results of the electric field intensity on the body surface and numerous graphical results for equipotential and equienergetic curves are presented.

  11. Detection of electric field around field-reversed configuration plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Taeko; Hiroi, Masanori; Nogi, Yasuyuki; Ohkuma, Yasunori

    2010-01-01

    Electric-field probes consisting of copper plates are developed to measure electric fields in a vacuum region around a plasma. The probes detect oscillating electric fields with a maximum strength of approximately 100 V/m through a discharge. Reproducible signals from the probes are obtained with an unstable phase dominated by a rotational instability. It is found that the azimuthal structure of the electric field can be explained by the sum of an n=2 mode charge distribution and a convex-surface electron distribution on the deformed separatrix at the unstable phase. The former distribution agrees with that anticipated from the diamagnetic drift motions of plasma when the rotational instability occurs. The latter distribution suggests that an electron-rich plasma covers the separatrix.

  12. Visualization of induced electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    A cylindrical electrolytic tank between a set of Helmholtz coils provides a classroom demonstration of induced, nonconservative electric fields. The field strength is measured by a sensor consisting of a pair of tiny spheres immersed in the liquid. The sensor signal depends on position, frequency,

  13. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  14. Optical tolerances for the PICTURE-C mission: error budget for electric field conjugation, beam walk, surface scatter, and polarization aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendillo, Christopher B.; Howe, Glenn A.; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Martel, Jason; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment - Coronagraph (PICTURE-C) mission will directly image debris disks and exozodiacal dust around nearby stars from a high-altitude balloon using a vector vortex coronagraph. Four leakage sources owing to the optical fabrication tolerances and optical coatings are: electric field conjugation (EFC) residuals, beam walk on the secondary and tertiary mirrors, optical surface scattering, and polarization aberration. Simulations and analysis of these four leakage sources for the PICTUREC optical design are presented here.

  15. Influence of a single lightning discharge on the intensity of an air electric field and acoustic emission of near-surface rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Smirnov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect was observed as a sharp fall of the electric potential gradient from +80 V m−1 down to –21 V m−1. After that the field returned to its normal level according to the formula of the capacitor discharge with 17 s characteristic time. Simultaneously, the response of the acoustic emission of surface rocks in the range of frequencies between 6.5 kHz and 11 kHz was evaluated.

  16. Apparatus and procedure to characterize the surface quality of conductors by measuring the rate of cathode emission as a function of surface electric field strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, Mac; Christo, Steve; Taylor, Mark

    2014-10-21

    A device and method for characterizing quality of a conducting surface. The device including a gaseous ionizing chamber having centrally located inside the chamber a conducting sample to be tested to which a negative potential is applied, a plurality of anode or "sense" wires spaced regularly about the central test wire, a plurality of "field wires" at a negative potential are spaced regularly around the sense, and a plurality of "guard wires" at a positive potential are spaced regularly around the field wires in the chamber. The method utilizing the device to measure emission currents from the conductor.

  17. Microstickies agglomeration by electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaotang Tony; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2016-01-01

    Microstickies deposits on both paper machine and paper products when it agglomerates under step change in ionic strength, pH, temperature and chemical additives. These stickies increase the down time of the paper mill and decrease the quality of paper. The key property of microstickies is its smaller size, which leads to low removal efficiency and difficulties in measurement. Thus the increase of microstickies size help improve both removal efficiency and reduce measurement difficulty. In this paper, a new agglomeration technology based on electric field was investigated. The electric treatment could also increase the size of stickies particles by around 100 times. The synergetic effect between electric field treatment and detacky chemicals/dispersants, including polyvinyl alcohol, poly(diallylmethylammonium chloride) and lignosulfonate, was also studied.

  18. Electric fields and quantum wormholes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, D.; Freivogel, B.; Iqbal, N.

    2015-01-01

    Electric fields can thread a classical Einstein-Rosen bridge. Maldacena and Susskind have recently suggested that in a theory of dynamical gravity the entanglement of ordinary perturbative quanta should be viewed as creating a quantum version of an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the particles, or a

  19. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  20. Electric Field Effects in RUS Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Allured, Bradley [UNIV NEVADA, RENO; Carpenter, Michael A [CAMBRIDGE UNIV. UK

    2009-09-21

    Much of the power of the Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) technique is the ability to make mechanical resonance measurements while the environment of the sample is changed. Temperature and magnetic field are important examples. Due to the common use of piezoelectric transducers near the sample, applied electric fields introduce complications, but many materials have technologically interesting responses to applied static and RF electric fields. Non-contact optical, buffered, or shielded transducers permit the application of charge and externally applied electric fields while making RUS measurements. For conducting samples, in vacuum, charging produces a small negative pressure in the volume of the material - a state rarely explored. At very high charges we influence the electron density near the surface so the propagation of surface waves and their resonances may give us a handle on the relationship of electron density to bond strength and elasticity. Our preliminary results indicate a charge sign dependent effect, but we are studying a number of possible other effects induced by charging. In dielectric materials, external electric fields influence the strain response, particularly in ferroelectrics. Experiments to study this connection at phase transformations are planned. The fact that many geological samples contain single crystal quartz suggests a possible use of the piezoelectric response to drive vibrations using applied RF fields. In polycrystals, averaging of strains in randomly oriented crystals implies using the 'statistical residual' strain as the drive. The ability to excite vibrations in quartzite polycrystals and arenites is explored. We present results of experimental and theoretical approaches to electric field effects using RUS methods.

  1. Pentacene Excitons in Strong Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnke, Klaus; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Rahman, Talat S; Kern, Klaus

    2018-02-05

    Electroluminescence spectroscopy of organic semiconductors in the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) provides access to the polarizability of neutral excited states in a well-characterized molecular geometry. We study the Stark shift of the self-trapped lowest singlet exciton at 1.6 eV in a pentacene nanocrystal. Combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with experiment allows for assignment of the observation to a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. Its charge separation is perpendicular to the applied field, as the measured polarizability is moderate and the electric field in the STM junction is strong enough to dissociate a CT exciton polarized parallel to the applied field. The calculated electric-field-induced anisotropy of the exciton potential energy surface will also be of relevance to photovoltaic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Printed Circuit Board Surface Finish and Effects of Chloride Contamination, Electric Field, and Humidity on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    probability under condensing conditions. Leakage currents were measured on interdigitated comb test patterns with three different types of surface finish typically used in the electronics industry, namely gold, copper, and tin. Susceptibility to electrochemical migration was studied under droplet conditions...

  3. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets in Helium – the electric field and the charge delivered to a dielectric surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Slikboer, E.T.; Guaitella, O.Y.N.

    2015-01-01

    The family of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges has been the focus of intense research of a large number of research groups in the last fifteen years, as they are easy and cheap to assemble and run, and exhibit properties that can be used in surface treatment or biological applications. In

  4. Electric-field-modulated exchange coupling within and between magnetic clusters on metal surfaces: Mn dimers on Cu(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juárez-Reyes, L; Pastor, G M; Stepanyuk, V S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of external electric fields (EFs) on the magnetic state and substrate-mediated magnetic coupling between Mn dimers on Cu(1 1 1) have been studied using a first-principles theoretical method. The calculations show that a change in the ground-state magnetic order, from antiferromagnetic (AF) to ferromagnetic (FM), can be induced within an isolated Mn 2 on Cu(1 1 1) by applying a moderately strong EF of about 1 V Å −1 . The magnetic exchange coupling between pairs of dimers displays Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida-like oscillations as a function of the interdimer distance, which depend significantly on the magnetic order within the dimers (FM or AF) and on their relative orientation on the surface. Moreover, it is observed that applying EFs allows modulation of the exchange coupling within and between the clusters as a function of the intercluster distance. At short distances, AF order within the dimers is favoured even in the presence of EFs, while for large distances the EF can induce a FM order. EFs pointing outwards and inwards with respect to the surface favour parallel and antiparallel magnetic alignment between the dimers, resspectively. The dependence of the substrate-mediated interaction on the magnetic state of Mn 2 is qualitatively interpreted in terms of the differences in the scattering of spin-polarized surface electrons. (paper)

  5. Effect of increased ionization on the atmospheric electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study is a review of atmospheric electrical theory with the purpose of predicting the atmospheric electrical effects of increased ionization caused by radioactive inert gases. A time-independent perturbation model for the global atmospheric electric circuit precdicts that the electric field at the sea surface would be reduced to about 76% of its unperturbed value by a surface 85 Kr concentration of 3 nCi/m 3 . The electric field at a typical land station is predicted to be about 84% of its unperturbed value. Some scientists have suggested that the atmospheric electric field is part of a closed electrical feedback loop. The present model does not include such a closed feedback loop and may underestimate the total effects. This model is also useful for interpreting atmospheric electrical responses to natural fluctuations in the cosmic-ray component of background radiation

  6. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  7. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  8. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection. In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg. Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  9. Numerical simulations of electric potential field for alternating current potential drop associated with surface cracks in low-alloy steel nuclear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Ping; Huang, Jiunn-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Low-alloy steels used as structural materials in nuclear power plants are subjected to cyclic stresses during power plant operations. As a result, cracks may develop and propagate through the material. The alternating current potential drop technique is used to measure the lengths of cracks in metallic components. The depth of the penetration of the alternating current is assumed to be small compared to the crack length. This assumption allows the adoption of the unfolding technique to simplify the problem to a surface Laplacian field. The numerical modelling of the electric potential and current density distribution prediction model for a compact tension specimen and the unfolded crack model are presented in this paper. The goal of this work is to conduct numerical simulations to reduce deviations occurring in the crack length measurements. Numerical simulations were conducted on AISI 4340 low-alloy steel with different crack lengths to evaluate the electric potential distribution. From the simulated results, an optimised position for voltage measurements in the crack region was proposed.

  10. Electric field measurements in high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitko, S.V.; Ochkin, V.N.; Serdyuchenko, A.Yu.; Tskhai, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Electric fields define a wide range of interactions and phenomena at different phases of matter both on micro- and macro-level. Investigation of electric fields behavior provides a key for understanding of these phenomena and their application

  11. Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    When dipolar gases are condensed at sufficiently low temperature onto a solid surface, they form films that may spontaneously exhibit electric fields in excess of 108V/m. This effect, called the ‘spontelectric effect’, was recently revealed using an instrument designed to measure scattering....... Heterolayers may also be laid down creating potential wells on the nanoscale. A model is put forward based upon competition between dipole alignment and thermal disorder, which is successful in reproducing the variation of the degree of dipole alignment and the spontelectric field with deposition temperature...

  12. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Nur Badariah Ahmad; Nordin, Farah Hani; Ismail, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmad; Alkahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Balasubramaniam, Nagaletchumi; Hock, Goh Chin; Shariff, Z A M

    2013-01-01

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  13. Inhomogeneous electric field air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    For applications requiring the filtration of air contaminated with enriched uranium, plutonium or other transuranium compounds, it appears desirable to collect the material in a fashion more amenable to recovery than is now practical when material is collected on HEPA filters. In some instances, it may also be desirable to use an air cleaner of this type to substantially reduce the loading to which HEPA filters are subjected. A theoretical evaluation of such an air cleaner considers the interaction between an electrically neutral particle, dielectric or conducting, with an inhomogeneous electric field. An expression is derived for the force exerted on a particle in an electrode configuration of two concentric cylinders. Equations of motion are obtained for a particle suspended in a laminar flow of air passing through this geometry. An electrical quadrupole geometry is also examined and shown to be inferior to the cylindrical one. The results of two separate configurations of the single cell prototypes of the proposed air cleaner are described. These tests were designed to evaluate collection efficiencies using mono-disperse polystyrene latex and polydisperse NaCl aerosols. The advantages and problems of such systems in terms of a large scale air cleaning facility will be discussed

  14. Do neutrons feel electric fields?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Tony; Werner, Sam

    1991-01-01

    An accounts is given of the results of a co-operative research carried out at the University of Melbourne in Australia and the University of Missouri, Columbia in the United States on the physics of neutrons and their interactions as a test of fundamental principles in quantum mechanics and electrodynamics. In particular it comments on the verification of the Aharonov-Casher effect in electric as well as magnetic fields in the case of neutral particles. It was demonstrated that neutrons have a magnetic moment which precess and acquire phase shifts when exposed to magnetic fields. The sign of the measured phase shift agreed with the theoretical prediction and the magnitude was within one and a half standard deviations of it. 12 refs., 4 figs

  15. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.; Park, Sun H.; Park, Jeong; Fujita, Osamu; Keel, Sang I.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field

  16. Electric field numerical simulation of disc type electrostatic spinning spinneret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Deng, ZL; Qin, XH; Liang, ZY

    2018-01-01

    Electrospinning is a new type of free-end spinning built on electric field. Different from traditional single needle spinneret, in this study, a new disc type free surface spinneret is used to produce multiple jets, this will greatly improve production efficiency of nanofiber. The electric-field distribution of spinneret is the crux of the formation and trajectory of jets. In order to probe the electric field intensity of the disc type spinneret, computational software of Ansoft Maxwell 12 is adopted for a precise and intuitive analysis. The results showed that the whole round cambered surface of the spinning solution at edge of each layer of the spinneret with the maximum curvature has the highest electric field intensity, and through the simulation of the electric field distribution of different spinneret parameters such as layer, the height and radius of the spinneret. Influences of various parameters on the electrostatic spinning are obtained.

  17. Effect of External Electric Field Stress on Gliadin Protein Conformation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Shirin; Raghavan, Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    A molecular dynamic (MD) modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of external electric field on gliadin protein structure and surface properties. Static electric field strengths of 0.001 V/nm and 0.002 V/nm induced conformational changes in the protein but had no significant effect on its surface properties. The study of hydrogen bond evolution during the course of simulation revealed that the root mean square deviation, radius of gyration and secondary structure formation, all de...

  18. Surface modifications by field induced diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olsen

    Full Text Available By applying a voltage pulse to a scanning tunneling microscope tip the surface under the tip will be modified. We have in this paper taken a closer look at the model of electric field induced surface diffusion of adatoms including the van der Waals force as a contribution in formations of a mound on a surface. The dipole moment of an adatom is the sum of the surface induced dipole moment (which is constant and the dipole moment due to electric field polarisation which depends on the strength and polarity of the electric field. The electric field is analytically modelled by a point charge over an infinite conducting flat surface. From this we calculate the force that cause adatoms to migrate. The calculated force is small for voltage used, typical 1 pN, but due to thermal vibration adatoms are hopping on the surface and even a small net force can be significant in the drift of adatoms. In this way we obtain a novel formula for a polarity dependent threshold voltage for mound formation on the surface for positive tip. Knowing the voltage of the pulse we then can calculate the radius of the formed mound. A threshold electric field for mound formation of about 2 V/nm is calculated. In addition, we found that van der Waals force is of importance for shorter distances and its contribution to the radial force on the adatoms has to be considered for distances smaller than 1.5 nm for commonly used voltages.

  19. Nucleation of superconductivity under rapid cycling of an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay

    2008-01-01

    The effect of an externally applied high-frequency oscillating electric field on the critical nucleation field of superconductivity in the bulk as well as at the surface of a superconductor is investigated in detail in this work. Starting from the linearized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDLG) theory, and using the variational principle, I have shown the analogy between a quantum harmonic oscillator with that of the nucleation of superconductivity in the bulk and a quantum double oscillator with that of the nucleation at the surface of a finite sample. The effective Hamiltonian approach of Cook et al (1985 Phys. Rev. A 31 564) is employed to incorporate the effect of an externally applied highly oscillating electric field. The critical nucleation field ratio is also calculated from the ground state energy method. The results obtained from these two approximate theories agree very well with the exact results for the case of an undriven system, which establishes the validity of these two approximate theories. It is observed that the highly oscillating electric field actually increases the bulk critical nucleation field (H c 2 ) as well as the surface critical nucleation field (H c 3 ) of superconductivity as compared to the case of absent electric field (ε 0 = 0). But the externally applied rapidly oscillating electric field accentuates the surface critical nucleation field more than the bulk critical nucleation field, i.e. the increase of H c 3 is 1.6592 times larger than that of H c 2

  20. An Electric Field Test Using the MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiala, P.; Bartušek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 7 (2008), s. 701-705 ISSN 1931-7360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MRI * electric field * numerical modeling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  1. Electric fields in plasmas under pulsed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigutkin, K.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Bernshtam, V.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtman, A.; Commisso, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Electric fields in a plasma that conducts a high-current pulse are measured as a function of time and space. The experiment is performed using a coaxial configuration, in which a current rising to 160 kA in 100 ns is conducted through a plasma that prefills the region between two coaxial electrodes. The electric field is determined using laser spectroscopy and line-shape analysis. Plasma doping allows for three-dimensional spatially resolved measurements. The measured peak magnitude and propagation velocity of the electric field is found to match those of the Hall electric field, inferred from the magnetic-field front propagation measured previously

  2. Electrochemistry of 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol SAM on gold electrode: Interaction with SWCNT-poly(m-aminobenzene sulphonic acid), electric field-induced protonation-deprotonation, and surface pKa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available -called electric field induced protonation-deprotonation process, hitherto observed for the -COOH terminated SAMs, is also observed for the -N(H)+(CH3)2 terminated. The surface pKa of DMAET was estimated as 7.6, smaller than its solution pKa of 10.8. It is also...

  3. Monitoring the interfacial electric field in pure and doped SrTiO3 surfaces by means of phase-resolved optical second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubano, Andrea; Mou, Sen; Paparo, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    Oxides and new functional materials such as oxide-based hetero-structures are very good candidates to achieve the goal of the next generation electronics. One of the main features that rules the electronic behavior of these compounds is the interfacial electric field which confines the charge carriers to a quasi-two-dimensional space region. The sign of the confined charge clearly depends on the electric field direction, which is however a very elusive quantity, as most techniques can only detect its absolute value. Even more valuable would be to access the sign of the interfacial electric field directly during the sample growth, being thus able to optimize the growth conditions directly looking at the feature of interest. For this aim, solid and reliable sensors are needed for monitoring the thin films while grown. Recently optical second harmonic generation has been proposed by us as a tool for non-invasive, non-destructive, real-time, in-situ imaging of oxide epitaxial film growth. The spatial resolution of this technique has been exploited to obtain real-time images of the sample under investigation. Here we propose to exploit another very important physical property of the second harmonic wave: its phase, which is directly coupled with the electric field direction, as shown by our measurements.

  4. Two devices for atmospheric electric field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombet, Andre; Hubert, Pierre.

    1977-02-01

    Two instruments installed at St Privat d'Allier for electric field measurement in connection with the rocket triggered lighting experiment program are described. The first one is a radioactive probe electrometer used as a warning device. The second is a field mill used for tape recording of electric field variation during the triggering events. Typical examples of such records are given [fr

  5. Liquid toroidal drop under uniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabarankin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The problem of a stationary liquid toroidal drop freely suspended in another fluid and subjected to an electric field uniform at infinity is addressed analytically. Taylor's discriminating function implies that, when the phases have equal viscosities and are assumed to be slightly conducting (leaky dielectrics), a spherical drop is stationary when Q=(2R2+3R+2)/(7R2), where R and Q are ratios of the phases' electric conductivities and dielectric constants, respectively. This condition holds for any electric capillary number, CaE, that defines the ratio of electric stress to surface tension. Pairam and Fernández-Nieves showed experimentally that, in the absence of external forces (CaE=0), a toroidal drop shrinks towards its centre, and, consequently, the drop can be stationary only for some CaE>0. This work finds Q and CaE such that, under the presence of an electric field and with equal viscosities of the phases, a toroidal drop having major radius ρ and volume 4π/3 is qualitatively stationary-the normal velocity of the drop's interface is minute and the interface coincides visually with a streamline. The found Q and CaE depend on R and ρ, and for large ρ, e.g. ρ≥3, they have simple approximations: Q˜(R2+R+1)/(3R2) and CaE∼3 √{3 π ρ / 2 } (6 ln ⁡ρ +2 ln ⁡[96 π ]-9 )/ (12 ln ⁡ρ +4 ln ⁡[96 π ]-17 ) (R+1 ) 2/ (R-1 ) 2.

  6. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  7. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Huveneers

    Full Text Available Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1 the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias near a static bait, and (2 the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  8. Electric fields in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.

    1975-01-01

    F-region drift velocities, measured by incoherent-scatter radar, were analyzed in terms of diurnal, seasonal, magnetic-activity, and solar-cycle effects. A comprehensive electric field model was developed that includes the effects of the E and F-region dynamos, magnetospheric sources, and ionospheric conductivities, for both the local and conjugate regions. The E-region dynamo dominates during the day, but at night the F-region and convection are more important. This model provides much better agreement with observations of the F-region drifts than previous models. Results indicate that larger magnitudes occur at night, and that daily variation is dominated by the diurnal mode. Seasonal variations in conductivities and thermospheric winds indicate a reversal in direction in the early morning during winter from south to northward. On magnetic perturbed days the drifts deviate rather strongly from the quiet days average, especially around 13 L.T. for the northward and 18 L.T. for the westward component

  9. Electric-field-induced superconductivity detected by magnetization measurements of an electric-double-layer capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ye, Jianting; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Takahiro; Sato, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    We report evidence for superconductivity induced by the application of strong electric fields onto the surface of a band insulator, ZrNCl, provided by the observation of a shielding diamagnetic signal. We introduced an electric-double-layer capacitor configuration and in situ magnetization measurements at low temperatures as a method to detect the novel electric-field-induced superconducting state. The results showed excellent agreement with a previous report using a transistor configuration, demonstrating that the present technique is a novel method for investigating the nonequilibrium phase induced by electric fields. (author)

  10. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  11. Laser ablation of titanium in liquid in external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V., E-mail: barminaev@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in liquid is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. • Applied cathodic bias leads to increase in average size of self-organized nanostructures formed upon ablation of titanium target. • Laser ablation of Ti target in external electric field results in generation of elongated titanium oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in water is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. It is demonstrated that both lateral size of nanostructures (NS) on Ti surface and their density depend on the electric field applied to the target. Scanning Electron Microscopy of NS reveals the shift of their size distribution function toward larger sizes with applied field (cathodic bias, 25 V DC). Density of mushroom-like NS with applied electric field amounts to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction of generated nanoparticles (NPs) shows difference in the crystallographic structure of NPs of non-stoichiometric Ti oxides generated with and without electric field. This conclusion is corroborated with the optical absorption spectroscopy of obtained colloids. Transmission Electron Microscopy of NPs also shows difference in morphology of particles produced with and without cathodic bias. The results are interpreted on the basis of instability of the melt on Ti surface in the electric field.

  12. Radial electric fields for improved tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of externally-imposed radial electric fields on the fusion energy output, energy multiplication, and alpha-particle ash build-up in a TFTR-sized, fusing tokamak plasma is explored. In an idealized tokamak plasma, an externally-imposed radial electric field leads to plasma rotation, but no charge current flows across the magnetic fields. However, a realistically-low neutral density profile generates a non-zero cross-field conductivity and the species dependence of this conductivity allows the electric field to selectively alter radial particle transport

  13. Underwater electric field detection system based on weakly electric fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electric field detection system. However, due to the insufficient detection capacity of the electric field, the detection distance is not enough, and the detection accuracy is not high. In this paper, a method of underwater detection based on rotating current field theory is proposed to improve the performance of underwater electric field detection system. First of all, we built underwater detection system based on the theory of the spin current field mathematical model with the help of the results of previous researchers. Then we completed the principle prototype and finished the metal objects in the water environment detection experiments, laid the foundation for the further experiments.

  14. Electrical manipulation of oligonucleotides grafted to charged surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2006-09-21

    The electrical manipulation of short DNA molecules on surfaces offers novel functionalities with fascinating possibilities in the field of bio-interfaces. Here we present systematic investigations of the electrical interactions which govern the structure of oligonucleotides on charged gold surfaces. Successively, we address influences of the applied field strength, the role of DC electrode potentials, in particular for polycrystalline surfaces, as well as screening effects of the surrounding electrolyte solution. Data obtained for single and double stranded DNA exhibit differences which can be attributed to the dissimilar flexibility of the different molecular conformations. A comparison of the experimental results with a basic model shows how the alignment of the molecules adjusts according to a balance between electrically induced ordering and stochastic thermal motions. The presented conclusions are expected to be of general relevance for the behaviour of polyelectrolytes exposed to localized electric fields at interfaces.

  15. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  16. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  17. Radial-Electric-Field Piezoelectric Diaphragm Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert G.; Working, Dennis C.; Mossi, Karla; Castro, Nicholas D.; Mane, Pooma

    2009-01-01

    In a recently invented class of piezoelectric diaphragm pumps, the electrode patterns on the piezoelectric diaphragms are configured so that the electric fields in the diaphragms have symmetrical radial (along-the-surface) components in addition to through-the-thickness components. Previously, it was accepted in the piezoelectric-transducer art that in order to produce the out-of-plane bending displacement of a diaphragm needed for pumping, one must make the electric field asymmetrical through the thickness, typically by means of electrodes placed on only one side of the piezoelectric material. In the present invention, electrodes are placed on both sides and patterned so as to produce substantial radial as well as through-the-thickness components. Moreover, unlike in the prior art, the electric field can be symmetrical through the thickness. Tests have shown in a given diaphragm that an electrode configuration according to this invention produces more displacement than does a conventional one-sided electrode pattern. The invention admits of numerous variations characterized by various degrees of complexity. Figure 1 is a simplified depiction of a basic version. As in other piezoelectric diaphragm pumps of similar basic design, the prime mover is a piezoelectric diaphragm. Application of a suitable voltage to the electrodes on the diaphragm causes it to undergo out-of-plane bending. The bending displacement pushes a fluid out of, or pulls the fluid into, a chamber bounded partly by the diaphragm. Also as in other diaphragm pumps in general, check valves ensure that the fluid flows only in through one port and only out through another port.

  18. Electric-Field-Induced Superconductivity Detected by Magnetization Measurements of an Electric-Double-Layer Capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasahara, Yuichi; Nishijima, Takahiro; Sato, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ye, Jianting; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    We report evidence for superconductivity induced by the application of strong electric fields onto the surface of a band insulator, ZrNCl, provided by the observation of a shielding diamagnetic signal. We introduced an electric-double-layer capacitor configuration and in situ magnetization

  19. The convection electric field in auroral substorms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...

  20. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  1. Electric field mapping and auroral Birkeland currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Larson, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic field lines, electric fields and equipotentials have been mapped throughout the magnetosphere in the vicinity of strong Birkeland currents. It was found that a uniform electric field at either the ionospheric or the equatorial end of a field line can map to a highly structured field at the other end if strong Birkeland currents are located nearby. The initiation of sheet currents of the region 1 - region 2 scale size and intensity resulted in magnetic field line displacements of about 1/2 hour in local time between equatorial and ionospheric end points. As a result, a uniform dawn to dusk electric field at the equator mapped to an ionospheric electric field with strong inward pointing components in the dusk hemisphere. Similar distortions were produced by Birkeland currents associated with narrow east-west-aligned auroral arcs. A specific model for the auroral current system, based on ionospheric measurements during a large substorm, was used to study effects seen during disturbed periods. An iterative procedure was developed to generate a self-consistent current system even in the presence of highly twisted field lines. The measured ionospheric electric field was projected tot he equatorial plane in the presence of the model Birkeland current system. Several physical processes were seen to influence ionospheric and equatorial electric fields, and the associated plasma convection, during a substorm

  2. Dependence of electric field on STM tip preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, D.H.; Grey, Francois; Aono, M.

    1998-01-01

    Voltage pulses applied between an STM tip and a surface can modify the surface on the nanometer scale due to electric-field-induced evaporation. However, at present, different groups have achieved surface modification with quite different bias conditions, and it is still difficult to obtain high...... reproducibility in such experiments. In this paper, we measure the tip displacement during a pulse at constant tunnelling current, and deduce that the electric field produced by the pulse depends in a systematic way on tip preparation, The results show how differences in tip preparation can be a major source...

  3. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  4. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  5. The relationship between anatomically correct electric and magnetic field dosimetry and published electric and magnetic field exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavet, R.; Dovan, T.; Patrick Reilly, J.

    2012-01-01

    Electric and magnetic field exposure limits published by International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers are aimed at protection against adverse electro-stimulation, which may occur by direct coupling to excitable tissue and, in the case of electric fields, through indirect means associated with surface charge effects (e.g. hair vibration, skin sensations), spark discharge and contact current. For direct coupling, the basic restriction (BR) specifies the not-to-be-exceeded induced electric field. The key results of anatomically based electric and magnetic field dosimetry studies and the relevant characteristics of excitable tissue were first identified. This permitted us to assess the electric and magnetic field exposure levels that induce dose in tissue equal to the basic restrictions, and the relationships of those exposure levels to the limits now in effect. We identify scenarios in which direct coupling of electric fields to peripheral nerve could be a determining factor for electric field limits. (authors)

  6. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. ESTIMATING ELECTRIC FIELDS FROM VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM SEQUENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G. H.; Welsch, B. T.; Abbett, W. P.; Bercik, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the electric field distribution on the Sun's photosphere is essential for quantitative studies of how energy flows from the Sun's photosphere, through the corona, and into the heliosphere. This electric field also provides valuable input for data-driven models of the solar atmosphere and the Sun-Earth system. We show how observed vector magnetogram time series can be used to estimate the photospheric electric field. Our method uses a 'poloidal-toroidal decomposition' (PTD) of the time derivative of the vector magnetic field. These solutions provide an electric field whose curl obeys all three components of Faraday's Law. The PTD solutions are not unique; the gradient of a scalar potential can be added to the PTD electric field without affecting consistency with Faraday's Law. We then present an iterative technique to determine a potential function consistent with ideal MHD evolution; but this field is also not a unique solution to Faraday's Law. Finally, we explore a variational approach that minimizes an energy functional to determine a unique electric field, a generalization of Longcope's 'Minimum Energy Fit'. The PTD technique, the iterative technique, and the variational technique are used to estimate electric fields from a pair of synthetic vector magnetograms taken from an MHD simulation; and these fields are compared with the simulation's known electric fields. The PTD and iteration techniques compare favorably to results from existing velocity inversion techniques. These three techniques are then applied to a pair of vector magnetograms of solar active region NOAA AR8210, to demonstrate the methods with real data. Careful examination of the results from all three methods indicates that evolution of the magnetic vector by itself does not provide enough information to determine the true electric field in the photosphere. Either more information from other measurements, or physical constraints other than those considered here are necessary to find

  8. Vacuum instability in a random electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Pastur, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of the vacuum on an intense spatially homogeneous random electric field is investigated. It is shown that a stochastic electric field always causes a breakdown of the boson vacuum, and the number of pairs of particles which are created by the electric field increases exponentially in time. For the choice of potential field in the form of a dichotomic random process we find in explicit form the dependence of the average number of pairs of particles on the time of the action of the source of the stochastic field. For the fermion vacuum the average number of pairs of particles which are created by the field in the lowest order of perturbation theory in the amplitude of the random field is independent of time

  9. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for pasteurisation are high intensity pulsed electric fields aiming for minimal heat load, with an electric field strength (E) in the range of 15 − 20 kV/cm and pulse width (τ) between 2 − 20 μs. Alternativel...

  10. Numerical Study of Electric Field Enhanced Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2016-12-26

    Electric fields can be used to change and control flame properties, for example changing flame speed, enhancing flame stability, or reducing pollutant emission. The ions generated in flames are believed to play the primary role. Although experiments have been carried out to study electric field enhanced combustion, they are not sufficient to explain how the ions in a flame are affected by an electric field. It is therefore necessary to investigate the problem through numerical simulations. In the present work, the electric structure of stabilized CH4/air premixed flames at atmospheric pressure within a direct current field is studied using numerical simulations. This study consists of three parts. First, the transport equations are derived from the Boltzmann kinetic equation for each individual species. Second, a general method for computing the diffusivity and mobility of ions in a gas mixture is introduced. Third, the mechanisms for neutral and charged species are improved to give better predictions of the concentrations of charged species, based on experimental data. Following from this, comprehensive numerical results are presented, including the concentrations and fluxes of charged species, the distributions of the electric field and electric potential, and the electric current-voltage relation. Two new concepts introduced with the numerical results are the plasma sheath and dead zone in the premixed flame. A reactive plasma sheath and a Boltzmann relation sheath are discovered in the region near the electrodes. The plasma sheath penetrates into the flame gas when a voltage is applied, and penetrating further if the voltage is higher. The zone outside the region of sheath penetration is defined as the dead zone. With the two concepts, analytical solutions for the electric field, electric potential and current-voltage curve are derived. The solutions directly describe the electric structure of a premixed flame subject to a DC field. These analytical solutions

  11. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; De Luca, Sergio; Todd, Billy

    2013-01-01

    exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum...

  12. Roles of electric field on toroidal magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Sanuki, Heiji; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1992-11-01

    Theoretical research on the influence of the electric field on the toroidal magnetic confinement is surveyed. The static electric field is first described. Physics pictures on the generation of the radial electric field and the influence on the confinement are shown. Neoclassical effects as well as the nonclassical processes are discussed. Emphasis is made on the connection with the improved confinement. Convective cell, i.e. the nonuniform potential on the magnetic surface is also discussed. The roles of the fluctuating electric field are then reviewed. The progress in the recent theories on the anomalous transport is addressed. Through these surveys, the impact of the experiments using the heavy ion beam probes on the modern plasma physics is illustrated. (author) 66 refs

  13. Erythrocytes in alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, V.V.; Chifu, A.; Simplaceanu, T.; Frangopol, P.T.

    1983-02-01

    The elastic and inelastic deformation of erythrocytes induced by alternating fields and the suggestion that moderate field intensities (1.2 kV/cm) when continuously applied can cause lysis by a different mechanism compared to the action of short intense field pulses is presented. The different experimental conditions can be used to approach various properties of the membrane such as those related to the dielectric polarization of the membrane or to the interfacial polarization, leading to the inelastic deformation of the cells. (authors)

  14. Axial Field Electric Motor and Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Chahee P

    2007-01-01

    .... A hybrid field, brushless, permanent magnet electric motor utilizing a rotor with two sets of permanent magnets oriented such that the flux produced by the two sets of magnets is perpendicular to each...

  15. Numerical Study of Electric Field Enhanced Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Electric fields can be used to change and control flame properties, for example changing flame speed, enhancing flame stability, or reducing pollutant emission. The ions generated in flames are believed to play the primary role. Although experiments

  16. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  17. Particle creation in colour-electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjorn, J.; Hughes, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The decay of the Yang-Mills vacuum in a uniform colour-electric field is calculated using the method of Bogoliubov transformations. The result does not agree with that obtained by summation of the corresponding perturbation series. (orig.)

  18. Molecular dynamics in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Cune, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method for rotation molecular spectra in high electric fields. • Parametric resonances – new features in spectra. • New elementary excitations in polar solids from dipolar interaction (“dipolons”). • Discussion about a possible origin of the ferroelectricity from dipolar interactions. - Abstract: Molecular rotation spectra, generated by the coupling of the molecular electric-dipole moments to an external time-dependent electric field, are discussed in a few particular conditions which can be of some experimental interest. First, the spherical-pendulum molecular model is reviewed, with the aim of introducing an approximate method which consists in the separation of the azimuthal and zenithal motions. Second, rotation spectra are considered in the presence of a static electric field. Two particular cases are analyzed, corresponding to strong and weak fields. In both cases the classical motion of the dipoles consists of rotations and vibrations about equilibrium positions; this motion may exhibit parametric resonances. For strong fields a large macroscopic electric polarization may appear. This situation may be relevant for polar matter (like pyroelectrics, ferroelectrics), or for heavy impurities embedded in a polar solid. The dipolar interaction is analyzed in polar condensed matter, where it is shown that new polarization modes appear for a spontaneous macroscopic electric polarization (these modes are tentatively called “dipolons”); one of the polarization modes is related to parametric resonances. The extension of these considerations to magnetic dipoles is briefly discussed. The treatment is extended to strong electric fields which oscillate with a high frequency, as those provided by high-power lasers. It is shown that the effect of such fields on molecular dynamics is governed by a much weaker, effective, renormalized, static electric field.

  19. Surface electrical resistivity of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, B. C.; Liesegang, J.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented here for measuring surface charge decay, and theory has been developed so as to produce determinations of resistivity in the surface region of insulator films or wafers. This method incorporates the use of a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement and an electrometer interfaced to a PC. The charge transport theory given here is based on Mott-Gurney diffusion, and allows easy interpretation of the experimental data, especially for the initial phase of surface charge decay. Resistivity measurements are presented for glass, mica, perspex and polyethylene, covering a range of 10 9 to 10 18 Ωm, as an illustration of the useful range of the instrument for static and antistatic materials, particularly in film or sheet form. Values for the surface charge diffusion constants of the materials are also presented. The charge transport theory has also been extended to allow the experimental and computational theoretical comparison of surface charge decay not only over the initial phase of charge decay, but also over longer times. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with experiment using the values for the diffusion constants referred to above

  20. Sparse Reconstruction of Electric Fields from Radial Magnetic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, Anthony R.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the horizontal electric field on the Sun’s visible surface are important not only for estimating the Poynting flux of magnetic energy into the corona but also for driving time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic models of the corona. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the horizontal electric field from a sequence of radial-component magnetic field maps. This problem of inverting Faraday’s law has no unique solution. Unfortunately, the simplest solution (a divergence-free electric field) is not realistically localized in regions of nonzero magnetic field, as would be expected from Ohm’s law. Our new method generates instead a localized solution, using a basis pursuit algorithm to find a sparse solution for the electric field. The method is shown to perform well on test cases where the input magnetic maps are flux balanced in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. However, we show that if the input maps have a significant imbalance of flux—usually arising from data assimilation—then it is not possible to find a localized, realistic, electric field solution. This is the main obstacle to driving coronal models from time sequences of solar surface magnetic maps.

  1. Sparse Reconstruction of Electric Fields from Radial Magnetic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-10

    Accurate estimates of the horizontal electric field on the Sun’s visible surface are important not only for estimating the Poynting flux of magnetic energy into the corona but also for driving time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic models of the corona. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the horizontal electric field from a sequence of radial-component magnetic field maps. This problem of inverting Faraday’s law has no unique solution. Unfortunately, the simplest solution (a divergence-free electric field) is not realistically localized in regions of nonzero magnetic field, as would be expected from Ohm’s law. Our new method generates instead a localized solution, using a basis pursuit algorithm to find a sparse solution for the electric field. The method is shown to perform well on test cases where the input magnetic maps are flux balanced in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. However, we show that if the input maps have a significant imbalance of flux—usually arising from data assimilation—then it is not possible to find a localized, realistic, electric field solution. This is the main obstacle to driving coronal models from time sequences of solar surface magnetic maps.

  2. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal

  3. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  4. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications & Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown. A wearable EFI system has been developed by using fundamental EFI concepts. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of

  5. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  6. Magnetospheric electric fields and auroral oval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Harri; Pedersen, Arne; Craven, John D.; Frank, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    DC electric field variations in a synchronous orbit (GEOS 2) during four substorms in the time sector 19 to 01 LT were investigated. Simultaneously, the imaging photometer on board DE 1 provided auroral images that are also utilized. Substorm onset is defined here as a sudden appearance of large electric fields. During the growth phase, the orientation of the electric field begins to oscillate some 30 min prior to onset. About 10 min before the onset GEOS 2 starts moving into a more tenuous plasma, probably due to a thinning of the current sheet. The onset is followed by a period of 10 to 15 min during which large electric fields occur. This interval can be divided into two intervals. During the first interval, which lasts 4 to 8 min, very large fields of 8 to 20 mV/m are observed, while the second interval contains relatively large fields (2 to 5 mV/m). A few min after the onset, the spacecraft returns to a plasma region of higher electron fluxes which are usually larger than before substorm. Some 30 min after onset, enhanced activity, lasting about 10 min, appears in the electric field. One of the events selected offers a good opportunity to study the formation and development of the Westward Traveling Surge (WST). During the traversal of the leading edge of the WTS (approximately 8 min) a stable wave mode at 5.7 mHz is detected.

  7. Midday reversal of equatorial ionospheric electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the geomagnetic and ionospheric data at equatorial and low-latitude stations in India over the 20 year period 1956–1975 is described. The reversal of the electric field in the ionosphere over the magnetic equator during the midday hours indicated by the disappearance of the equatorial sporadic E region echoes on the ionograms is a rare phenomenon occurring on about 1% of time. Most of these events are associated with geomagnetically active periods. By comparing the simultaneous geomagnetic H field at Kodaikanal and at Alibag during the geomagnetic storms it is shown that ring current decreases are observed at both stations. However, an additional westward electric field is superimposed in the ionosphere during the main phase of the storm which can be strong enough to temporarily reverse the normally eastward electric field in the dayside ionosphere. It is suggested that these electric fields associated with the V×Bz electric fields originate at the magnetopause due to the interaction of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field.

  8. Electrically induced magnetic fields; a consistent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian; Ferstl, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    Electromagnetic radiation exists because changing magnetic fields induce changing electric fields and vice versa. This fact often appears inconsistent with the way some physics textbooks solve particular problems using Faraday's law. These types of problems often ask students to find the induced electric field given a current that does not vary linearly with time. A typical example involves a long solenoid carrying a sinusoidal current. This problem is usually solved as an example or assigned as a homework exercise. The solution offered by many textbooks uses the approximation that the induced, changing electric field produces a negligible magnetic field, which is only valid at low frequencies. If this approximation is not explicitly acknowledged, then the solution appears inconsistent with the description of electromagnetic radiation. In other cases, when the problem is solved without this approximation, the electric and magnetic fields are derived from the vector potential. We present a detailed calculation of the electric and magnetic fields inside and outside the long solenoid without using the vector potential. We then offer a comparison of our solution and a solution given in an introductory textbook.

  9. Hofstadter spectrum in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunold, Alejandro; Torres, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The problem of Bloch electrons in two dimensions subjected to magnetic and intense electric fields is investigated. Magnetic translations, electric evolution, and energy translation operators are used to specify the solutions of the Schroedinger equation. For rational values of the magnetic flux quanta per unit cell and commensurate orientations of the electric field relative to the original lattice, an extended superlattice can be defined and a complete set of mutually commuting space-time symmetry operators is obtained. Dynamics of the system is governed by a finite difference equation that exactly includes the effects of: an arbitrary periodic potential, an electric field orientated in a commensurable direction of the lattice, and coupling between Landau levels. A weak periodic potential broadens each Landau level in a series of minibands, separated by the corresponding minigaps. The addition of the electric field induces a series of avoided and exact crossing of the quasienergies, for sufficiently strong electric field the spectrum evolves into equally spaced discreet levels, in this 'magnetic Stark ladder' the energy separation is an integer multiple of hE/aB, with a the lattice parameter

  10. On a Correlation between the Ionospheric Electric Field and the Time Derivative of the Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Ilma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A correlation of the ionospheric electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field was noticed over thirty years ago and has yet to be explained. Here we report on another set of examples during the superstorm of November 2004. The electric field in the equatorial ionosphere, measured with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar, exhibited a 3 mV/m electric field pulse that was not seen in the interplanetary medium. It was, however, accompanied by a correlation with the time derivative of the magnetic field measured at two points in Peru. Our inclination was to assume that the field was inductive. However, the time scale of the pulse was too short for the magnetic field to penetrate the crust of the Earth. This means that the area threaded by ∂B/∂t was too small to create the observed electric field by induction. We suggest that the effect was caused by a modulation of the ring current location relative to the Earth due to the electric field. This electric field is required, as the magnetic field lines are considered frozen into the plasma in the magnetosphere. The closer location of the ring current to the Earth in turn increased the magnetic field at the surface.

  11. Electric and magnetic fields at extremely low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    Whole-body exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF, 30-300 Hz) electric fields may involve effects related to stimulation of the sensory apparatus at the body surface (hair vibration, possible direct neural stimulation) and effects within the body caused by the flow of current. Magnetic fields may interact predominantly by the induction of internal current flow. Biological effects observed in a living organism may depend on the electric fields induced inside the body, possibly on the magnetic fields penetrating into the body, and on the fields acting at the surface of the body. Areas in which effects have been observed often appear to be associated with the nervous system, including altered neuronal excitability and neurochemical changes, altered hormone levels, changes in behavioural responses, and changes in biological rhythms. No studies unequivocably demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF electric or magnetic field exposure on mammalian reproduction and development, but several suggest such effects. Exposure to ELF electric and magnetic fields does produce biological effects. However, except for fields strong enough to induce current densities above the threshold for the stimulation of nerve tissues, there is no consensus as to whether these effects constitute a hazard to human health. Human data from epidemiological studies, including reported effects on cancer promotion, congenital malformations, reproductive performance and general health, though somewhat suggestive of adverse health effects, are not conclusive. 274 refs, 13 figs, 6 tabs

  12. Electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Bryan M.; Wachsman, Eric D.; Van Assche, IV, Frederick Martin

    2015-05-19

    Electrode configurations for electric-field enhanced performance in catalysis and solid-state devices involving gases are provided. According to an embodiment, electric-field electrodes can be incorporated in devices such as gas sensors and fuel cells to shape an electric field provided with respect to sensing electrodes for the gas sensors and surfaces of the fuel cells. The shaped electric fields can alter surface dynamics, system thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and adsorption/desorption processes. In one embodiment, ring-shaped electric-field electrodes can be provided around sensing electrodes of a planar gas sensor.

  13. Positrons trapped in polyethylene: Electric field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolaccini, M.; Bisi, A.; Gambarini, G.; Zappa, L.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity of the iot 2 -component of positrons annihilated in polyethylene is found to increase with increasing electric field, while the formation probability of the positron state responsible for this component remains independent of the field. (orig.) 891 HPOE [de

  14. Electric arc behaviour in dynamic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Put'ko, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of an electric arc in different time-dependent (dynamic) magnetic fields was investigated. New possibilities were found for spatial and energy stabilisation of a discharge, for intensifying heat exchange, extending the electric arc and distributed control of electric arc plasma. Rotating, alternating and travelling magnetic fields were studied. It was found that under the effect of a relatively low frequency of variations of dynamic magnetic fields (f 1000 Hz) the arc stabilised at the axis of the discharge chamber, the pulsation level decreased and discharge stability increased. The borders between these two arc existence modes were formed by a certain critical field variation frequency the period of which was determined by the heat relaxation time of the discharge. (author)

  15. The relationship between anatomically correct electric and magnetic field dosimetry and publishe delectric and magnetic field exposure limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavet, Robert; Dovan, Thanh; Reilly, J Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Electric and magnetic field exposure limits published by International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers are aimed at protection against adverse electrostimulation, which may occur by direct coupling to excitable tissue and, in the case of electric fields, through indirect means associated with surface charge effects (e.g. hair vibration, skin sensations), spark discharge and contact current. For direct coupling, the basic restriction (BR) specifies the not-to-be-exceeded induced electric field. The key results of anatomically based electric and magnetic field dosimetry studies and the relevant characteristics of excitable tissue were first identified. This permitted us to assess the electric and magnetic field exposure levels that induce dose in tissue equal to the basic restrictions, and the relationships of those exposure levels to the limits now in effect. We identify scenarios in which direct coupling of electric fields to peripheral nerve could be a determining factor for electric field limits.

  16. Technical report: Electric field in not completely symmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, F.

    1994-08-01

    In this paper it is studied theoretically the electric field in the not completely symmetric system earthed metallic sphere-uniformly charged dielectric plan, for sphere surface points situated in the plan that contains sphere's center and vertical symmetry axe of dielectric plan. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig

  17. Simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic field in photonic crystal nanocavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignolini, S.; Intonti, F.; Riboli, F.; Wiersma, D.S.; Balet, L.P.; Li, L.H.; Francardi, M.; Gerardino, A.; Fiore, A.; Gurioli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The insertion of a metal-coated tip on the surface of a photonic crystal microcavity is used for simultaneous near field imaging of electric and magnetic fields in photonic crystal nanocavities, via the radiative emission of embedded semiconductor quantum dots (QD). The photoluminescence intensity

  18. Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig; Lempert, Walter R; Adamovich, Igor V; Goldberg, Benjamin M; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of temporally and spatially resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge in atmospheric air, sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode covered by a thin dielectric plate. The electric field is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing in a collinear phase-matching geometry, with time resolution of approximately 2 ns, using an absolute calibration provided by measurements of a known electrostatic electric field. The results demonstrate electric field offset on the discharge center plane before the discharge pulse due to surface charge accumulation on the dielectric from the weaker, opposite polarity pre-pulse. During the discharge pulse, the electric field follows the applied voltage until ‘forward’ breakdown occurs, after which the field in the plasma is significantly reduced due to charge separation. When the applied voltage is reduced, the field in the plasma reverses direction and increases again, until the weak ‘reverse’ breakdown occurs, producing a secondary transient reduction in the electric field. After the pulse, the field is gradually reduced on a microsecond time scale, likely due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Spatially resolved electric field measurements show that the discharge develops as a surface ionization wave. Significant surface charge accumulation on the dielectric surface is detected near the end of the discharge pulse. Spatially resolved measurements of electric field vector components demonstrate that the vertical electric field in the surface ionization wave peaks ahead of the horizontal electric field. Behind the wave, the vertical field remains low, near the detection limit, while the horizontal field is gradually reduced to near the detection limit at the discharge center plane. These results are consistent with time-resolved measurements of electric field

  19. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  20. Temperature/electric field scaling in Ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, Abdelowahed; Guyomar, Daniel; Pruvost, Sebastien; Touhtouh, Samira; Yuse, Kaori; Boughaleb, Yahia

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the field amplitude (E) and temperature on the polarization and their scaling relations were investigated on rhombohedral PMN-xPT ceramics. The scaling law was based on the physical symmetries of the problem and rendered it possible to express the temperature variation (Δθ) as an electric field equivalent ΔE eq =(α+2βxP(E,θ 0 ))xΔθ. Consequently, this was also the case for the relationship between the entropy (Γ) and polarization (P). Rhombohedral Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 ) 0.75 Ti 0.25 O 3 ceramics were used for the verification. It was found that such an approach permitted the prediction of the maximal working temperature, using only purely electrical measurements. It indicates that the working temperature should not exceed 333 K. This value corresponds to the temperature maximum before the dramatic decrease of piezoelectric properties. Reciprocally, the polarization behavior under electrical field can be predicted, using only purely thermal measurements. The scaling law enabled a prediction of the piezoelectric properties (for example, d 31 ) under an electrical field replacing the temperature variation (Δθ) by ΔE/(α+2βxp(E,θ 0 )). Inversely, predictions of the piezoelectric properties (d 31 ) as a function of temperature were permitted using purely only electrical measurements.

  1. Temperature/electric field scaling in Ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjaji, Abdelowahed, E-mail: Hajjaji12@gmail.co [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Guyomar, Daniel; Pruvost, Sebastien [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Touhtouh, Samira [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, LPMC, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, 24000 El-Jadida, Maroc (Morocco); Yuse, Kaori [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique et Ferroelectricite, LGEF, INSA LYON, Bat. Gustave Ferrie, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Boughaleb, Yahia [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, LPMC, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, 24000 El-Jadida, Maroc (Morocco)

    2010-07-01

    The effects of the field amplitude (E) and temperature on the polarization and their scaling relations were investigated on rhombohedral PMN-xPT ceramics. The scaling law was based on the physical symmetries of the problem and rendered it possible to express the temperature variation ({Delta}{theta}) as an electric field equivalent {Delta}E{sub eq}=({alpha}+2{beta}xP(E,{theta}{sub 0}))x{Delta}{theta}. Consequently, this was also the case for the relationship between the entropy ({Gamma}) and polarization (P). Rhombohedral Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.75}Ti{sub 0.25}O{sub 3} ceramics were used for the verification. It was found that such an approach permitted the prediction of the maximal working temperature, using only purely electrical measurements. It indicates that the working temperature should not exceed 333 K. This value corresponds to the temperature maximum before the dramatic decrease of piezoelectric properties. Reciprocally, the polarization behavior under electrical field can be predicted, using only purely thermal measurements. The scaling law enabled a prediction of the piezoelectric properties (for example, d{sub 31}) under an electrical field replacing the temperature variation ({Delta}{theta}) by {Delta}E/({alpha}+2{beta}xp(E,{theta}{sub 0})). Inversely, predictions of the piezoelectric properties (d{sub 31}) as a function of temperature were permitted using purely only electrical measurements.

  2. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  3. Electric field effects in scanning tunneling microscope imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Quaade, Ulrich; Grey, Francois

    1998-01-01

    We present a high-voltage extension of the Tersoff-Hamann theory of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images, which includes the effect of the electric field between the tip and the sample. The theoretical model is based on first-principles electronic structure calculations and has no adjustable...... parameters. We use the method to calculate theoretical STM images of the monohydrate Si(100)-H(2x1) surface with missing hydrogen defects at -2V and find an enhanced corrugation due to the electric field, in good agreement with experimental images....

  4. Parallel electric fields from ionospheric winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The possible production of electric fields parallel to the magnetic field by dynamo winds in the E region is examined, using a jet stream wind model. Current return paths through the F region above the stream are examined as well as return paths through the conjugate ionosphere. The Wulf geometry with horizontal winds moving in opposite directions one above the other is also examined. Parallel electric fields are found to depend strongly on the width of current sheets at the edges of the jet stream. If these are narrow enough, appreciable parallel electric fields are produced. These appear to be sufficient to heat the electrons which reduces the conductivity and produces further increases in parallel electric fields and temperatures. Calculations indicate that high enough temperatures for optical emission can be produced in less than 0.3 s. Some properties of auroras that might be produced by dynamo winds are examined; one property is a time delay in brightening at higher and lower altitudes

  5. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  6. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Warrell, G. R.; Shvydka, Diana, E-mail: diana.shvydka@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We have investigated the impact of strong (∼10{sup 4} V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  7. 3D modeling of electric fields in the LUX detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2017-11-01

    This work details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) electric field model for the LUX detector. The detector took data to search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) during two periods. After the first period completed, a time-varying non-uniform negative charge developed in the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) panels that define the radial boundary of the detector's active volume. This caused electric field variations in the detector in time, depth and azimuth, generating an electrostatic radially-inward force on electrons on their way upward to the liquid surface. To map this behavior, 3D electric field maps of the detector's active volume were generated on a monthly basis. This was done by fitting a model built in COMSOL Multiphysics to the uniformly distributed calibration data that were collected on a regular basis. The modeled average PTFE charge density increased over the course of the exposure from -3.6 to -5.5 μC/m2. From our studies, we deduce that the electric field magnitude varied locally while the mean value of the field of ~200 V/cm remained constant throughout the exposure. As a result of this work the varying electric fields and their impact on event reconstruction and discrimination were successfully modeled.

  8. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  9. Premixed combustion under electric field in a constant volume chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2012-12-01

    The effects of electric fields on outwardly propagating premixed flames in a constant volume chamber were experimentally investigated. An electric plug, subjected to high electrical voltages, was used to generate electric fields inside the chamber. To minimize directional ionic wind effects, alternating current with frequency of 1 kHz was employed. Lean and rich fuel/air mixtures for both methane and propane were tested to investigate various preferential diffusion conditions. As a result, electrically induced instability showing cracked structure on the flame surface could be observed. This cracked structure enhanced flame propagation speed for the initial period of combustion and led to reduction in flame initiation and overall combustion duration times. However, by analyzing pressure data, it was found that overall burning rates are not much affected from the electric field for the pressurized combustion period. The reduction of overall combustion time is less sensitive to equivalence ratio for methane/air mixtures, whereas the results demonstrate pronounced effects on a lean mixture for propane. The improvement of combustion characteristics in lean mixtures will be beneficial to the design of lean burn engines. Two hypothetical mechanisms to explain the electrically induced instability were proposed: 1) ionic wind initiated hydrodynamic instability and 2) thermodiffusive instability through the modification of transport property such as mass diffusivity. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Premixed combustion under electric field in a constant volume chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Lee, Yonggyu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of electric fields on outwardly propagating premixed flames in a constant volume chamber were experimentally investigated. An electric plug, subjected to high electrical voltages, was used to generate electric fields inside the chamber. To minimize directional ionic wind effects, alternating current with frequency of 1 kHz was employed. Lean and rich fuel/air mixtures for both methane and propane were tested to investigate various preferential diffusion conditions. As a result, electrically induced instability showing cracked structure on the flame surface could be observed. This cracked structure enhanced flame propagation speed for the initial period of combustion and led to reduction in flame initiation and overall combustion duration times. However, by analyzing pressure data, it was found that overall burning rates are not much affected from the electric field for the pressurized combustion period. The reduction of overall combustion time is less sensitive to equivalence ratio for methane/air mixtures, whereas the results demonstrate pronounced effects on a lean mixture for propane. The improvement of combustion characteristics in lean mixtures will be beneficial to the design of lean burn engines. Two hypothetical mechanisms to explain the electrically induced instability were proposed: 1) ionic wind initiated hydrodynamic instability and 2) thermodiffusive instability through the modification of transport property such as mass diffusivity. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Green functions in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of scalar quantum electrodynamics, when vacuum is unstable as to the birth of electron-positron couples, calculated have been Green functions for the case of stable homogeneous electric field. By summing corresponding solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation of the Green function are obtained in the form of contour integrals according to the proper time. Operation representations of all the calculated Green functions in the mentioned field are presented

  12. Electrical circuit modeling of reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.C.

    1988-02-01

    Equations are proposed to describe the radial variation of the magnetic field and current density in a circular, cylindrical RFP. These equations are used to derive the electrical circuit parameters (inductance, resistance, and coupling coefficient) for an RFP discharge. The circuit parameters are used to evaluate the flux and energy consumption for various startup modes and for steady-state operation using oscillating field current drive. The results are applied to the MST device. 32 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  13. The electric field of a uniformly charged cubic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Kaitlin; Greenside, Henry

    2018-01-01

    As an integrative and insightful example for undergraduates learning about electrostatics, we discuss how to use symmetry, Coulomb's law, superposition, Gauss's law, and visualization to understand the electric field E (x ,y ,z ) produced by a uniformly charged cubic shell. We first discuss how to deduce qualitatively, using freshman-level physics, the perhaps surprising fact that the interior electric field is nonzero and has a complex structure, pointing inwards from the middle of each face of the shell and pointing outwards towards each edge and corner. We then discuss how to understand the quantitative features of the electric field by plotting an analytical expression for E along symmetry lines and on symmetry surfaces of the shell.

  14. Pulsed Electric Field treatment of packaged food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Food manufacturers are looking for new preservation techniques that don’t influence the fresh-like characteristics of products. Non-thermal pasteurisation of food with Pulsed Electric Fields (often referred to as PEF) is an emerging technology, where the change of the food is less than with thermal

  15. Moderate and high intensity pulsed electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Rian Adriana Hendrika

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) processing has gained a lot of interest the last decades as mild processing technology as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, and is suitable for preservation of liquid food products such as fruit juices. PEF conditions typically applied at industrial scale for

  16. Distribution of particles in stochastic electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolland, Paul.

    1979-11-01

    The distribution of one particle as well as an ensemble of particles submitted to a stochastic electric field obeying different kinds of laws is studied. A particular attention is devoted to the deviation from the gaussian distribution and to the consequences of this effect on diffusion and heating [fr

  17. Plasma instabilities in high electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1994-01-01

    expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....

  18. AC Electric Field Communication for Human-Area Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    We have proposed a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses an AC electric field signal below the resonant frequency of the human body. This technology aims to achieve a “touch and connect” intuitive form of communication by using the electric field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body, while suppressing both the electric field radiating from the human body and mutual interference. To suppress the radiation field, the frequency of the AC signal that excites the transmitter electrode must be lowered, and the sensitivity of the receiver must be raised while reducing transmission power to its minimally required level. We describe how we are developing AC electric field communication technologies to promote the further evolution of a human-area network in support of ubiquitous services, focusing on three main characteristics, enabling-transceiver technique, application-scenario modeling, and communications quality evaluation. Special attention is paid to the relationship between electro-magnetic compatibility evaluation and regulations for extremely low-power radio stations based on Japan's Radio Law.

  19. Silicon Photomultiplier Performance in High ELectric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J.; Morad, J.

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 27% of the universe is thought to be composed of dark matter. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) relies on the emission of light from xenon atoms after a collision with a dark matter particle. After a particle interaction in the detector, two things can happen: the xenon will emit light and charge. The charge (electrons), in the liquid xenon needs to be pulled into the gas section so that it can interact with gas and emit light. This allows LUX to convert a single electron into many photons. This is done by applying a high voltage across the liquid and gas regions, effectively ripping electrons out of the liquid xenon and into the gas. The current device used to detect photons is the photomultiplier tube (PMT). These devices are large and costly. In recent years, a new technology that is capable of detecting single photons has emerged, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). These devices are cheaper and smaller than PMTs. Their performance in a high electric fields, such as those found in LUX, are unknown. It is possible that a large electric field could introduce noise on the SiPM signal, drowning the single photon detection capability. My hypothesis is that SiPMs will not observe a significant increase is noise at an electric field of roughly 10kV/cm (an electric field within the range used in detectors like LUX). I plan to test this hypothesis by first rotating the SiPMs with no applied electric field between two metal plates roughly 2 cm apart, providing a control data set. Then using the same angles test the dark counts with the constant electric field applied. Possibly the most important aspect of LUX, is the photon detector because it's what detects the signals. Dark matter is detected in the experiment by looking at the ratio of photons to electrons emitted for a given interaction in the detector. Interactions with a low electron to photon ratio are more like to be dark matter events than those with a high electron to photon ratio. The ability to

  20. Charge transfer to a dielectric target by guided ionization waves using electric field measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikboer, E.T.; Garcia-Caurel, E.; Guaitella, O.; Sobota, A.

    2017-01-01

    A kHz-operated atmospheric pressure plasma jet is investigated by measuring charge transferred to a dielectric electro-optic surface (BSO crystal) allowing for the measurement of electric field by exploiting the Pockels effect. The electric field values, distribution of the surface discharge and

  1. Plasmasheet boundary electric fields during substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electric field data from the ISEE-1 and GEOS-2 satellites have been studied during two substorms when ISEE-1 was in a favourable position in the magneto-tail and GEOS-2 was in the afternoon/evening sector of the geostationary orbit. Both electric field measurements were carried out with spherical double probes, separately by 73.5 m on ISEE-1, and 42 m on GEOS-2. In one case GEOS-2, in the afternoon sector, detected an increase of the dawn-to-dusk electric field during plasmasheet thinning and approximately 10 minutes prior to a substorm expansion. At the time of this expansion ISEE-1 was most likely near an X-line, on the Earthward side and detected Earthward antiE x antiB velocities, in excess of 500 km s -1 . In another example ISEE-1 was most likely near an X-line, on the tailward side, and observed tailward antiE x antiB velocities which were followed, 5-20 minutes later, by characteristic oscillating electric fields (time scales of 10s-30s) on GEOS-2 near 23 local time. Such signatures have on many occasions been connected with observations of westward travelling surges near the GEOS-2 conjugated area in Scandinavia. The ISEE-1 observations of large-dawn-to-dusk electric fields were concentrated to the outer boundary of the plasmasheet, and in the case of the westward travelling surge. GEOS-2 was most likely at the inner, Earthward edge of the plasmasheet. Time delays between ISEE-1 and GEOS-2 indicate a propagation velocity comparable to the antiE x antiB velocity

  2. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detmold, William; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2010-01-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields. A staple component of any electrodynamics or quantum mechanics course is the electric polarizability. Neutral material immersed in a weak external field polarizes, internally setting up an electric dipole moment, aligned so as to minimize the energy. At the atomic level, the electron clouds are distorted creating these microscopic dipole moments. The same process occurs at the hadronic level but the polarization effects are now constrained by the strong force. Polarizabilities of these bound QCD states can be viewed as a distortion of the charged pion cloud of a given hadron. One can use lattice QCD to non-perturbatively compute the quark and gluon interactions in the presence of background electric (or magnetic) fields. For sufficiently weak background fields, the low energy properties of the hadrons can be rigorously computed using effective field theory. With this treatment, a picture of hadrons emerges from chiral dynamics: that of a hadronic core surrounded by a pseudoscalar meson cloud. As some pseudoscalar mesons are charged, polarizabilities of hadrons encode the stiffness of the charged meson cloud (as well as that of the core). The form of pseudoscalar meson polarizabilities is consequently strongly constrained by chiral dynamics. However, beyond the leading order, the results depend upon essentially unknown low-energy constants, which must currently be estimated in a model-dependent fashion. In the case of the charged pion, the experimental measurement of the polarizability has proven difficult, both in the original measurement as well as the most recent published result. Currently, there is a 2-3 sigma discrepancy between the two-loop cPT prediction and the measured charged pion polarizability. New results with higher

  3. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L

    2011-06-15

    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  4. Tikekar superdense stars in electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-04-01

    We present exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations with a specified form of the electric field intensity by assuming that the hypersurface {t=constant} are spheroidal. The solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system is reduced to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients which can be solved in general using mathematical induction. New classes of solutions of linearly independent functions are obtained by restricting the spheroidal parameter K and the electric field intensity parameter α. Consequently, it is possible to find exact solutions in terms of elementary functions, namely, polynomials and algebraic functions. Our result contains models found previously including the superdense Tikekar neutron star model [J. Math. Phys. 31, 2454 (1990)] when K=-7 and α=0. Our class of charged spheroidal models generalize the uncharged isotropic Maharaj and Leach solutions [J. Math. Phys. 37, 430 (1996)]. In particular, we find an explicit relationship directly relating the spheroidal parameter K to the electromagnetic field.

  5. Alternative current source based Schottky contact with additional electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, R. K.; Aslanova, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    Additional electric field (AEF) in the Schottky contacts (SC) that covered the peripheral contact region wide and the complete contact region narrow (as TMBS diode) SC. Under the influence of AEF is a redistribution of free electrons produced at certain temperatures of the semiconductor, and is formed the space charge region (SCR). As a result of the superposition of the electric fields SCR and AEF occurs the resulting electric field (REF). The REF is distributed along a straight line perpendicular to the contact surface, so that its intensity (and potential) has a minimum value on the metal surface and the maximum value at a great distance from the metal surface deep into the SCR. Under the influence of AEF as a sided force the metal becomes negative pole and semiconductor - positive pole, therefore, SC with AEF becomes an alternative current source (ACS). The Ni-nSi SC with different diameters (20-1000 μm) under the influence of the AEF as sided force have become ACS with electromotive force in the order of 0.1-1.0 mV, which are generated the electric current in the range of 10-9-10-7 A, flowing through the external resistance 1000 Ohm.

  6. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  7. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knápek, Alexandr, E-mail: knapek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic); Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel [Department of Physics, FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technická 8, Brno (Czech Republic); Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  8. Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.

  9. Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, M; Harrison, C; Austin, R H; Megens, M; Hollingsworth, A; Russel, W B; Cheng Zhen; Mason, T; Chaikin, P M

    2003-01-01

    We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.

  10. Control of colloids with gravity, temperature gradients, and electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Matt [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Zhao Kun [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Harrison, Christopher [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Austin, Robert H [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Megens, Mischa [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Hollingsworth, Andrew [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Russel, William B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Cheng Zhengdong [ExxonMobil Research, Annandale, NJ (United States); Mason, Thomas [ExxonMobil Research, Annandale, NJ (United States); Chaikin, P M [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2003-01-15

    We have used a variety of different applied fields to control the density, growth, and structure of colloidal crystals. Gravity exerts a body force proportional to the buoyant mass and in equilibrium produces a height-dependent concentration profile. A similar body force can be obtained with electric fields on charged particles (electrophoresis), a temperature gradient on all particles, or an electric field gradient on uncharged particles (dielectrophoresis). The last is particularly interesting since its magnitude and sign can be changed by tuning the applied frequency. We study these effects in bulk (making 'dielectrophoretic bottles' or traps), to control concentration profiles during nucleation and growth and near surfaces. We also study control of non-spherical and optically anisotropic particles with the light field from laser tweezers.

  11. Control of magnetism in Co by an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, D.; Ono, T.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we review the recent experimental developments on electric-field switching of ferromagnetism in ultra-thin Co films. The application of an electric field changes the electron density at the surface of the Co film, which results in modulation of its Curie temperature. A capacitor structure consisting of a gate electrode, a solid-state dielectric insulator and a Co bottom electrode is used to observe the effect. To obtain a larger change in the electron density, we also fabricated an electric double-layer capacitor structure using an ionic liquid. A large change in the Curie temperature of ∼100 K across room temperature is achieved with this structure. The application of the electric field influences not only the Curie temperature but also the domain-wall motion. A change in the velocity of a domain wall prepared in a Co micro-wire of more than one order of magnitude is observed. Possible mechanisms to explain the above-mentioned electric-field effects in Co ultra-thin films are discussed.

  12. Control of magnetism in Co by an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, D; Ono, T

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the recent experimental developments on electric-field switching of ferromagnetism in ultra-thin Co films. The application of an electric field changes the electron density at the surface of the Co film, which results in modulation of its Curie temperature. A capacitor structure consisting of a gate electrode, a solid-state dielectric insulator and a Co bottom electrode is used to observe the effect. To obtain a larger change in the electron density, we also fabricated an electric double-layer capacitor structure using an ionic liquid. A large change in the Curie temperature of ∼100 K across room temperature is achieved with this structure. The application of the electric field influences not only the Curie temperature but also the domain-wall motion. A change in the velocity of a domain wall prepared in a Co micro-wire of more than one order of magnitude is observed. Possible mechanisms to explain the above-mentioned electric-field effects in Co ultra-thin films are discussed. (topical review)

  13. Analysis of the temporal electric fields in lossy dielectric media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent electric fields associated with lossy dielectric media are examined. The analysis illustrates that, with respect to the basic time constant, these lossy media can take a considerable time to attain a steady-state condition. Time-dependent field enhancement factors are considered......, and inherent surface-charge densities quantified. The calculation of electrostatic forces on a free, lossy dielectric particle is illustrated. An extension to the basic analysis demonstrates that, on reversal of polarity, the resultant tangential field at the interface could play a decisive role...

  14. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [de

  15. Redshift of A 1(longitudinal optical) mode for GaN crystals under strong electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hong; Wu, Kaijie; Zheng, Shunan; Shi, Lin; Zhang, Min; Liu, Zhenghui; Liu, Xinke; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Taofei; Xu, Ke

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the property of GaN crystals under a strong electric field. The Raman spectra of GaN were measured using an ultraviolet laser, and a remarkable redshift of the A 1(LO) mode was observed. The role of the surface depletion layer was discussed, and the interrelation between the electric field and phonons was revealed. First-principles calculations indicated that, in particular, the phonons that vibrate along the [0001] direction are strongly influenced by the electric field. This effect was confirmed by a surface photovoltage experiment. The results revealed the origin of the redshift and presented the phonon property of GaN under a strong electric field.

  16. An Optimal Electric Dipole Antenna Model and Its Field Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal electric dipole antennas model is presented and analyzed, based on the hemispherical grounding equivalent model and the superposition principle. The paper also presents a full-wave electromagnetic simulation for the electromagnetic field propagation in layered conducting medium, which is excited by the horizontal electric dipole antennas. Optimum frequency for field transmission in different depth is carried out and verified by the experimental results in comparison with previously reported simulation over a digital wireless Through-The-Earth communication system. The experimental results demonstrate that the dipole antenna grounding impedance and the output power can be efficiently reduced by using the optimal electric dipole antenna model and operating at the optimum frequency in a vertical transmission depth up to 300 m beneath the surface of the earth.

  17. Pulsed Electric Field treatment of packaged food

    OpenAIRE

    Roodenburg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Food manufacturers are looking for new preservation techniques that don’t influence the fresh-like characteristics of products. Non-thermal pasteurisation of food with Pulsed Electric Fields (often referred to as PEF) is an emerging technology, where the change of the food is less than with thermal pasteurisation. With this method, pasteurisation is realised by electroporation of bacterial membranes, which prolong the shelf-life of the product. Existing PEF treatment is based on the applicati...

  18. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  19. Effect of parallel electric fields on the whistler mode wave propagation in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.P.; Singh, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of parallel electric fields on whistler mode wave propagation has been studied. To account for the parallel electric fields, the dispersion equation has been analyzed, and refractive index surfaces for magnetospheric plasma have been constructed. The presence of parallel electric fields deforms the refractive index surfaces which diffuse the energy flow and produce defocusing of the whistler mode waves. The parallel electric field induces an instability in the whistler mode waves propagating through the magnetosphere. The growth or decay of whistler mode instability depends on the direction of parallel electric fields. It is concluded that the analyses of whistler wave records received on the ground should account for the role of parallel electric fields

  20. Field and electric potential of conductors with fractal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Thiago A de; Mota, Fernando de B; Miranda, Jose G V; Andrade, Roberto F S; Castilho, Caio M C de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario da Federacao, 40210-340, Salvador (Brazil)

    2007-11-28

    In this study, the behavior of the electric field and its potential are investigated in a region bounded by a rough fractal surface and a distant plane. Both boundaries, maintained at distinct potential values, are assumed to be conductors and, as such, the electric potential is obtained by numerically solving Laplace's equation subject to the appropriate Dirichlet's condition. The rough boundaries, generated by the ballistic deposition and fractal Brownian motion methods, are characterized by the values of the surface roughness W and the local fractal dimension df = 3-{alpha}, where {alpha} is the usual roughness exponent. The equipotential surfaces, obtained from Laplace's equation, are characterized by these same parameters. Results presented show how df depends on the potential value, on the method used to generate the boundary and on W. The behavior of the electric field with respect to the equipotential surface is also considered. Its average intensity was found to increase as a function of the average distance from the equipotential to the fractal boundary; however, its intensity reaches a maximum before decreasing towards an asymptotic constant value, an effect that increases as the value of W increases.

  1. Field and electric potential of conductors with fractal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Thiago A de; Mota, Fernando de B; Miranda, Jose G V; Andrade, Roberto F S; Castilho, Caio M C de

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the behavior of the electric field and its potential are investigated in a region bounded by a rough fractal surface and a distant plane. Both boundaries, maintained at distinct potential values, are assumed to be conductors and, as such, the electric potential is obtained by numerically solving Laplace's equation subject to the appropriate Dirichlet's condition. The rough boundaries, generated by the ballistic deposition and fractal Brownian motion methods, are characterized by the values of the surface roughness W and the local fractal dimension df = 3-α, where α is the usual roughness exponent. The equipotential surfaces, obtained from Laplace's equation, are characterized by these same parameters. Results presented show how df depends on the potential value, on the method used to generate the boundary and on W. The behavior of the electric field with respect to the equipotential surface is also considered. Its average intensity was found to increase as a function of the average distance from the equipotential to the fractal boundary; however, its intensity reaches a maximum before decreasing towards an asymptotic constant value, an effect that increases as the value of W increases

  2. Study of Dynamic Membrane Behavior in Applied DC Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prashanta; Morshed, Adnan; Hossan, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    Electrodeformation of vesicles can be used as a useful tool to understand the characteristics of biological soft matter, where vesicles immersed in a fluid medium are subjected to an applied electric field. The complex response of the vesicle membrane strongly depends on the conductivity of surrounding fluid, vesicle size and shape, and applied electric field We studied the electrodeformation of vesicles immersed in a fluid media under a short DC electric pulse. An immersed interface method is used to solve the electric field over the domain with conductive or non-conductive vesicles while an immersed boundary scheme is employed to solve fluid flow, fluid-solid interaction, membrane mechanics and vesicle movement. Force analysis on the membrane surface reveals almost linear relation with vesicle size, but highly nonlinear influence of applied field as well as the conductivity ratios inside and outside of the vesicle. Results also point towards an early linear deformation regime followed by an equilibrium stage for the membranes. Moreover, significant influence of the initial aspect ratio of the vesicle on the force distribution is observed across a range of conductivity ratios. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01GM122081.

  3. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Following preliminary investigations of the low frequency electric and magnetic fields that may exists in the Earth-ionospheric cavity, measurements were taken with state-of-the art spectrum analyzers. As a follow up to this activity, an investigation was initiated to determine sources and values for possible low frequency signal that would appear in the cavity. The lowest cavity resonance is estimated at about 8 Hz, but lower frequencies may be an important component of our electromagnetic environment. The potential field frequencies produced by the electron were investigated by a classical model that included possible cross coupling of the electric and gravitation fields. During this work, an interesting relationship was found that related the high frequency charge field with the extremely low frequency of the gravitation field. The results of numerical calculations were surprisingly accurate and this area of investigation is continuing. The work toward continued development of a standardized monitoring facility is continuing with the potential of installing the prototype at West Virginia State College early in 1990. This installation would be capable of real time monitoring of ELF signals in the Earth-ionoshpere cavity and would provide some directional information. A high gain, low noise, 1/f frequency corrected preamplifier was designed and tested for the ferrite core magnetic sensor. The potential application of a super conducting sensor for the ELF magnetic field detection is under investigation. It is hoped that a fully operational monitoring network could pinpoint the location of ELF signal sources and provide new information on where these signals originate and what causes them, assuming that they are natural in origin.

  4. Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Electric field can be a viable method in controlling various combustion properties. Comparing to traditional actuators, an application of electric field requires very small power consumption. Especially, alternating current (AC) has received

  5. Modelling electricity forward markets by ambit fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Fred Espen Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper proposes a new modelling framework for electricity forward markets, which is based on ambit fields. The new model can capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. One of the main differences to the traditional models lies in the fact that we do not model the dynamics......, but the forward price directly, where we focus on models which are stationary in time. We give a detailed account on the probabilistic properties of the new model and we discuss martingale conditions and change of measure within the new model class. Also, we derive a model for the spot price which is obtained...

  6. Electrostatic air filters generated by electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Hebard, H.D.; Lum, B.Y.; Kuhl, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental findings on fibrous filters converted to electrostatic operation by a nonionizing electric field. Compared to a conventional fibrous filter, the electrostatic filter has a higher efficiency and a longer, useful life. The increased efficiency is attributed to a time independent attraction between polarized fibers and charged, polarized particles and a time dependent attraction between charged fibers and charged, polarized particles. The charge on the fibers results from a dynamic process of charge accumulation due to the particle deposits and a charge dissipation due to the fiber conductivity

  7. Detection of weak electric fields by sharks, rays, and skates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Robert K.; Astumian, R. Dean; Weaver, James C.

    1998-09-01

    The elasmobranchs-sharks, rays, and skates-can detect very weak electric fields in their aqueous environment through a complex sensory system, the ampullae of Lorenzini. The ampullae are conducting tubes that connect the surface of the animal to its interior. In the presence of an electric field, the potential of the surface of the animal will differ from that of the interior and that potential is applied across the apical membrane of the special sensory cells that line the ampullae. The firing rate of the afferent neurons that transmit signals from the ampullae has been shown to vary with that potential. We show that those firing rates can be described quantitatively in terms of synchronous firing of the sensory cells that feed the neurons. We demonstrate that such synchronism follows naturally from a hypothetical weak cell-to-cell interaction that results in a self-organization of the sensory cells. Moreover, the pulse rates of those cells-and the neurons that service the cells-can be expected to vary with the imposed electric fields in accord with measured values through actions of voltage gated transmembrane proteins in the apical sector of the cell membranes that admit Ca(++) ions. We also present a more conjectural model of signal processing at the neuron level that could exploit small differences in firing rates of nerve fibers servicing different ampullae to send an unambiguous signal to the central nervous system of the animal. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Hydrogenic donor in a quantum well with an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, K.; Balasubramanian, S.; Tomak, M.

    1985-08-01

    Variational calculations of the binding energy of a hydrogenic donor in a quantum well formed by GaAs and Gasub(1-x)A1sub(x)As with a constant electric field are performed for different electric fields and well widths. A critical electric field is defined and its variation with well width is presented. (author)

  9. A miniature sensor for electrical field measurements in dusty planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renno, N O; Rogacki, S; Kok, J F; Kirkham, H

    2008-01-01

    Dusty phenomena such as regular wind-blown dust, dust storms, and dust devils are the most important, currently active, geological processes on Mars. Electric fields larger than 100 kV/m have been measured in terrestrial dusty phenomena. Theoretical calculations predict that, close to the surface, the bulk electric fields in martian dusty phenomena reach the breakdown value of the isolating properties of thin martian air of about a few 10 kV/m. The fact that martian dusty phenomena are electrically active has important implications for dust lifting and atmospheric chemistry. Electric field sensors are usually grounded and distort the electric fields in their vicinity. Grounded sensors also produce large errors when subject to ion currents or impacts from clouds of charged particles. Moreover, they are incapable of providing information about the direction of the electric field, an important quantity. Finally, typical sensors with more than 10 cm of diameter are not capable of measuring electric fields at distances as small as a few cm from the surface. Measurements this close to the surface are necessary for studies of the effects of electric fields on dust lifting. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed the miniature electric-field sensor described in this article.

  10. Empirical high-latitude electric field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heppner, J.P.; Maynard, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements from the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite have been analyzed to extend the empirical models previously developed from dawn-dusk OGO 6 measurements (J.P. Heppner, 1977). The analysis embraces large quantities of data from polar crossings entering and exiting the high latitudes in all magnetic local time zones. Paralleling the previous analysis, the modeling is based on the distinctly different polar cap and dayside convective patterns that occur as a function of the sign of the Y component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The objective, which is to represent the typical distributions of convective electric fields with a minimum number of characteristic patterns, is met by deriving one pattern (model BC) for the northern hemisphere with a +Y interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and southern hemisphere with a -Y IMF and two patterns (models A and DE) for the northern hemisphere with a -Y IMF and southern hemisphere with a +Y IMF. The most significant large-scale revisions of the OGO 6 models are (1) on the dayside where the latitudinal overlap of morning and evening convection cells reverses with the sign of the IMF Y component, (2) on the nightside where a westward flow region poleward from the Harang discontinuity appears under model BC conditions, and (3) magnetic local time shifts in the positions of the convection cell foci. The modeling above was followed by a detailed examination of cases where the IMF Z component was clearly positive (northward). Neglecting the seasonally dependent cases where irregularities obscure pattern recognition, the observations range from reasonable agreement with the new BC and DE models, to cases where different characteristics appeared primarily at dayside high latitudes

  11. The electric field standing wave effect in infrared transflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    We show that an electric field standing wave effect is responsible for the oscillations and the non-linear dependence of the absorbance on the layer thickness in thin layers on a reflective surface. This effect is connected to the occurrence of interference inside these layers. Consequently, the absorptance undergoes a maximum electric field intensity enhancement at spectral positions close to those where corresponding non-absorbing layers on a metal show minima in the reflectance. The effect leads to changes of peak maxima ratios with layer thickness and shows the same periodicity as oscillations in the peak positions. These peculiarities are fully based on and described by Maxwell's equations but cannot be understood and described if the strongly simplifying model centered on reflectance absorbance is employed.

  12. The induced electric field distribution in the solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rong; Yang Zhi-Liang; Deng Yuan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method of calculating the induced electric field is presented. The induced electric field in the solar atmosphere is derived by the time variation of the magnetic field when the accumulation of charged particles is neglected. In order to derive the spatial distribution of the magnetic field, several extrapolation methods are introduced. With observational data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory taken on 2010 May 20, we extrapolate the magnetic field from the photosphere to the upper atmosphere. By calculating the time variation of the magnetic field, we can get the induced electric field. The derived induced electric field can reach a value of 10 2 V cm −1 and the average electric field has a maximum point at the layer 360 km above the photosphere. The Monte Carlo method is used to compute the triple integration of the induced electric field.

  13. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography for determining electric field distribution during electroporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranjc, Matej; Miklavcic, Damijan; Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon caused by externally applied electric field to cells that results in an increase of cell membrane permeability to various molecules. Accurate coverage of the tissue with a sufficiently large electric field presents one of the most important conditions for successful membrane permeabilization. Applications based on electroporation would greatly benefit with a method for monitoring the electric field, especially if it could be done in situ. As the membrane electroporation is a consequence of an induced transmembrane potential, which is directly proportional to the local electric field, we have been investigating current density imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography techniques to determine the electric field distribution during electroporation. In this paper, we present comparison of current density and electric field distribution in an agar phantom and in a liver tissue exposed to electroporation pulses. As expected, a region of increased electrical conductivity was observed in the liver tissue exposed to sufficiently high electric field but not in agar phantom.

  14. Enhanced Dielectronic Recombination in Crossed Electric and Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robicheaux, F.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The dependence of the dielectronic recombination cross section on crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The enhancement of this cross section due to a static electric field is further increased when a magnetic field is added perpendicular to the electric field. Calculation of this field induced enhancement is presented for a realistic atomic model, and the mechanism for the enhancement is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Manipulating colloids with charges and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, M. E.

    2007-02-01

    This thesis presents the results of experimental investigations on a variety of colloidal suspensions. Colloidal particles are at least a hundred times larger than atoms or molecules, but suspended in a liquid they display the same phase behavior, including fluid and crystalline phases. Due to their relatively large size, colloids are much easier to investigate and manipulate, though. This makes them excellent condensed matter model systems. With this in mind, we studied micrometer-sized perspex (‘PMMA’) spheres, labeled with a fluorescent dye for high-resolution confocal microscopy imaging, and suspended in a low-polar mixture of the organic solvents cyclohexyl bromide and cis-decalin. This system offered us the flexibility to change the interactions between the particles from ‘hard-sphere-like’ to long-ranged repulsive (between like-charged particles), long-ranged attractive (between oppositely charged particles) and dipolar (in an electric field). We investigated the phase behavior of our suspensions as a function of the particle concentration, the ionic strength of the solvent and the particles’ charges. In this way, we obtained new insight in the freezing and melting behavior of like-charged and oppositely charged colloids. Interestingly, we found that the latter can readily form large crystals, thus defying the common belief that plus-minus interactions inevitably lead to aggregation. Moreover, we demonstrated that these systems can serve as a reliable model system for classical ionic matter (‘salts’), and that opposite-charge interactions can greatly facilitate the self-assembly of new structures with special properties for applications. On a slightly different note, we also studied electrostatic effects in mixtures of the cyclohexyl bromide solvent and water, both with and without colloidal particles present. This provided new insight in the stabilization mechanisms of oil-water emulsions and gave us control over the self-assembly of various

  16. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields

  17. Experimental Investigation of Integrated Optical Intensive Impulse Electric Field Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sun; Fu-Shen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    We design and fabricate an integrated optical electric field sensor with segmented electrode for intensive impulse electric field measurement. The integrated optical sensor is based on a Mach–Zehnder interferometer with segmented electrodes. The output/input character of the sensing system is analysed and measured. The maximal detectable electric field range (−75 kV/m to 245 kV/m) is obtained by analysing the results. As a result, the integrated optics electric field sensing system is suitable for transient intensive electric field measurement investigation

  18. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [School of Biosystem and Biomedical Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eui Kwan [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  19. Static electric field enhancement in nanoscale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.lepetit@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Lemoine, Didier, E-mail: didier.lemoine@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Márquez-Mijares, Maykel, E-mail: mmarquez@instec.cu [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Avenida Salvador Allende 1110, Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-08-28

    We study the effect of local atomic- and nano-scale protrusions on field emission and, in particular, on the local field enhancement which plays a key role as known from the Fowler-Nordheim model of electronic emission. We study atomic size defects which consist of right angle steps forming an infinite length staircase on a tungsten surface. This structure is embedded in a 1 GV/m ambient electrostatic field. We perform calculations based upon density functional theory in order to characterize the total and induced electronic densities as well as the local electrostatic fields taking into account the detailed atomic structure of the metal. We show how the results must be processed to become comparable with those of a simple homogeneous tungsten sheet electrostatic model. We also describe an innovative procedure to extrapolate our results to nanoscale defects of larger sizes, which relies on the microscopic findings to guide, tune, and improve the homogeneous metal model, thus gaining predictive power. Furthermore, we evidence analytical power laws for the field enhancement characterization. The main physics-wise outcome of this analysis is that limited field enhancement is to be expected from atomic- and nano-scale defects.

  20. A wireless wearable surface functional electrical stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Guo, Ai-Wen; Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Xia, Yang; Huang, Jia; Xu, Chong-Yao; Huang, Zong-Hao; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Gong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a wireless wearable functional electrical stimulator controlled by Android phone with real-time-varying stimulation parameters for multichannel surface functional electrical stimulation application has been developed. It can help post-stroke patients using more conveniently. This study focuses on the prototype design, including the specific wristband concept, circuits and stimulation pulse-generation algorithm. A novel stimulator circuit with a driving stage using a complementary current source technique is proposed to achieve a high-voltage compliance, a large output impedance and an accurate linear voltage-to-current conversion. The size of the prototype has been significantly decreased to 17 × 7.5 × 1 cm3. The performance of the prototype has been tested with a loaded resistor and wrist extension/flexion movement of three hemiplegic patients. According to the experiments, the stimulator can generate four-channel charge-balanced biphasic stimulation with a voltage amplitude up to 60 V, and the pulse frequency and width can be adjusted in real time with a range of 100-600 μs and 20-80 Hz, respectively.

  1. Electric field distribution and current emission in a miniaturized geometrical diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinpu; Wong, Patrick Y.; Yang, Penglu; Lau, Y. Y.; Tang, W.; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    We study the electric field distribution and current emission in a miniaturized geometrical diode. Using Schwarz-Christoffel transformation, we calculate exactly the electric field inside a finite vacuum cathode-anode (A-K) gap with a single trapezoid protrusion on one of the electrode surfaces. It is found that there is a strong field enhancement on both electrodes near the protrusion, when the ratio of the A-K gap distance to the protrusion height d /h spot checked against COMSOL simulations. We calculate the effective field enhancement factor for the field emission current, by integrating the local Fowler-Nordheim current density along the electrode surfaces. We systematically examine the electric field enhancement and the current rectification of the miniaturized geometrical diode for various geometric dimensions and applied electric fields.

  2. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  3. Effect of pH and pulsed electric field process parameters on the aflatoxin reduction in model system using response surface methodology: Effect of pH and PEF on Aflatoxin Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Subramanian; Nadanasabhapathi, Shanmugam; Kumar, Ranganathan; Sunny Kumar, S

    2018-03-01

    The presence of aflatoxin, a carcinogenic and toxigenic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus species, in food matrix has been a major worldwide problem for years now. Food processing methods such as roasting, extrusion, etc. have been employed for effective destruction of aflatoxins, which are known for their thermo-stable nature. The high temperature treatment, adversely affects the nutritive and other quality attributes of the food, leading to the necessity of application of non-thermal processing techniques such as ultrasonication, gamma irradiation, high pressure processing, pulsed electric field (PEF), etc. The present study was focused on analysing the efficacy of the PEF process in the reduction of the toxin content, which was subsequently quantified using HPLC. The process parameters of different pH model system (potato dextrose agar) artificially spiked with aflatoxin mix standard was optimized using the response surface methodology. The optimization of PEF process effects on the responses aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin reduction (%) by pH (4-10), pulse width (10-26 µs) and output voltage (20-65%), fitted 2FI model and quadratic model respectively. The response surface plots obtained for the processes were of saddle point type, with the absence of minimum or maximum response at the centre point. The implemented numerical optimization showed that the predicted and actual values were similar, proving the adequacy of the fitted models and also proved the possible application of PEF in toxin reduction.

  4. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E γ , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric field have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially producing a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by 1) changing the radial profile of the helical ripples, ε h , 2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and 3) changing the local island divertor coil current. (author)

  5. Control of the radial electric field shear by modification of the magnetic field configuration in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.

    2005-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field, E r , is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. In general, the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, and positive or negative electric fields have been obtained by decreasing or increasing the electron density, respectively. Although the sign of the radial electric field can be controlled by changing the collisionality, modification of the magnetic field is required to achieve further control of the radial electric field, especially to produce a strong radial electric field shear. In the Large Helical Device (LHD) the radial electric field profiles are shown to be controlled by the modification of the magnetic field by (1) changing the radial profile of the effective helical ripples, ε h (2) creating a magnetic island with an external perturbation field coil and (3) changing the local island divertor coil current

  6. MTX microwave-electric-field diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odajima, Kazuo; Ohasa, Kazumi; Shiho, Makoto

    1990-06-01

    A joint Japan-U.S. project is in progress to measure the high electric fields produced by a free-electron laser beam of GW-peak-power level when injected into the plasma of the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. In this report, we discuss the planned method of measurement and the status of the work. The equipment needed is either well along in the design stage or is being built. We plan to test out the combined operation of all components in Japan before shipping to Livermore. Although the measurement appears difficult for a variety of technical and physics reasons, calculations indicate that it should be possible. (author)

  7. Topology Optimized Nanostrips for Electric Field Enhancements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Petersen, Joakim; Christiansen, Rasmus E.; Julsgaard, Brian

    This work addresses efficiency improvements of solar cells by manipulating the spectrum of sunlight to bettermatch the range of efficient current generation. The intrinsic transmission losses in crystalline silicon can effectivelybe reduced using photon upconversion in erbium ions in which low...... energy photons are converted to higher energy photons able to bridge the band gap energy and contribute the energy generation. The upconversion process in erbium is inefficient under the natural solar irradiation, and without any electric field enhancements of the incident light, the process...... is negligible for photo-voltaic applications. However, the probability for upconversion can be increased by focusing the incident light onto the erbium ions using optimized metal nanostructures[1, 2, 3]. The aim of this work is to increase the photon upconversion yield by optimizing the design of metalic...

  8. 3-D modelling the electric field due to ocean tidal flow and comparison with observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Junge, A.; Utada, H.

    2006-01-01

    The tidal motion of the ocean water through the ambient magnetic field, generates secondary electric field. This motionally induced electric field can be detected in the sea or inland and has a potential for electrical soundings of the Earth. A first goal of the paper is to gain an understanding...... that in some coastal regions the amplitudes of the electric field can reach 100 mV/km and 10 mV/km for M2 and O1 tides respectively. The changes of lithosphere resistance produce detectable changes in the tidal electric signals. We show that our predictions are in a good agreement with observations....... of the global distribution of the electric signal due to tidal ocean flow. We simulate the electric signals for two tidal constituents - lunar semidiurnal (M2) and diurnal (O1) tides. We assume a realistic Earth's conductivity model with a surface thin shell and 1-D mantle underneath. Simulations demonstrate...

  9. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  10. Electric field encephalography for brain activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versek, Craig William; Frasca, Tyler; Zhou, Jianlin; Chowdhury, Kaushik; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2018-05-11

    Objective - We describe an early-stage prototype of a new wireless electrophysiological sensor system, called NeuroDot, which can measure neuroelectric potentials and fields at the scalp in a new modality called Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG). We aim to establish the physical validity of the EFEG modality, and examine some of its properties and relative merits compared to EEG. Approach - We designed a wireless neuroelectric measurement device based on the Texas Instrument ADS1299 Analog Front End platform and a sensor montage, using custom electrodes, to simultaneously measure EFEG and spatially averaged EEG over a localized patch of the scalp (2cm x 2cm). The signal properties of each modality were compared across tests of noise floor, Berger effect, steady-state Visually Evoked Potential (ssVEP), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and others. In order to compare EFEG to EEG modalities in the frequency domain, we use a novel technique to compute spectral power densities and derive narrow-band SNR estimates for ssVEP signals. A simple binary choice brain-computer-interface (BCI) concept based on ssVEP is evaluated. Also, we present examples of high quality recording of transient Visually Evoked Potentials and Fields (tVEPF) that could be used for neurological studies. Main results - We demonstrate the capability of the NeuroDot system to record high quality EEG signals comparable to some recent clinical and research grade systems on the market. We show that the locally-referenced EFEG metric is resistant to certain types of movement artifacts. In some ssVEP based measurements, the EFEG modality shows promising results, demonstrating superior signal to noise ratios than the same recording processed as an analogous EEG signal. We show that by using EFEG based ssVEP SNR estimates to perform a binary classification in a model BCI, the optimal information transfer rate (ITR) can be raised from 15 to 30 bits per minute - though these preliminary results are likely

  11. Technical Note: Computation of Electric Field Strength Necessary for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obviously, electric field is established by this charge. The effects of this field on the objects lying within its vicinity depend on its intensity. In this paper, the electric field of 33kV overhead line is considered. The aim of the paper is to determine the maximum electric field strength or potential gradient, E of the 33kV overhead ...

  12. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulation of the response of bi-disperse polyelectrolyte brushes to external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fen; Ding Huan-Da; Duan Chao; Tong Chao-Hui; Zhao Shuang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Langevin dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the response of bi-disperse and strong polyacid chains grafted on an electrode to electric fields generated by opposite surface charges on the polyelectrolyte (PE)-grafted electrode and a second parallel electrode. Simulation results clearly show that, under a negative external electric field, the longer grafted PE chains are more strongly stretched than the shorter ones in terms of the relative change in their respective brush heights. Whereas under a positive external electric field, the grafted shorter chains collapse more significantly than the longer ones. It was found that, under a positive external electric field, the magnitude of the total electric force acting on one shorter PE chain is larger than that on one longer PE chain, or vice versa. The effects of smeared and discrete charge distributions of grafted PE chains on the response of PE brushes to external electric fields were also examined. (paper)

  14. Fission of Multielectron Bubbles in Liquid Helium Under Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkumbatt, V.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-06-01

    Multielectron bubbles (MEBs) are cavities in liquid helium which contain a layer of electrons trapped within few nanometres from their inner surfaces. These bubbles are promising candidates to probe a system of interacting electrons in curved geometries, but have been subjected to limited experimental investigation. Here, we report on the observation of fission of MEBs under strong electric fields, which arises due to fast rearrangement of electrons inside the bubbles, leading to their deformation and eventually instability. We measured the electrons to be distributed unequally between the daughter bubbles which could be used to control the charge density inside MEBs.

  15. Role of random electric fields in relaxors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel; Stock, Christopher; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Chi, Songxue; Leão, Juscelino; Long, Xifa; Xie, Yujuan; Bokov, Alexei A.; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Gehring, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    PbZr1–xTixO3 (PZT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1–xTixO3 (PMN-xPT) are complex lead-oxide perovskites that display exceptional piezoelectric properties for pseudorhombohedral compositions near a tetragonal phase boundary. In PZT these compositions are ferroelectrics, but in PMN-xPT they are relaxors because the dielectric permittivity is frequency dependent and exhibits non-Arrhenius behavior. We show that the nanoscale structure unique to PMN-xPT and other lead-oxide perovskite relaxors is absent in PZT and correlates with a greater than 100% enhancement of the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient in PMN-xPT relative to that in PZT. By comparing dielectric, structural, lattice dynamical, and piezoelectric measurements on PZT and PMN-xPT, two nearly identical compounds that represent weak and strong random electric field limits, we show that quenched (static) random fields establish the relaxor phase and identify the order parameter. PMID:24449912

  16. Electrosprayed Heavy Ion and Nanodrop Beams for Surface Engineering and Electrical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-10

    Studies At the macroscale, the surface of a Taylor cone just before ion emission is an equipotential with a normal electric field strength found from...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0246 Electrosprayed Heavy Ion and Nanodrop Beams for Surface Engineering M Gamero-Castano UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA IRVINE Final...298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1 Electrosprayed Heavy Ion and Nanodrop Beams for Surface Engineering and Electrical Propulsion

  17. Measurement of full-field deformation induced by a dc electrical field in organic insulator films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudou L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image correlation method (DIC using the correlation coefficient curve-fitting for full-field surface deformation measurements of organic insulator films is investigated in this work. First the validation of the technique was undertaken. The computer-generated speckle images and the measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of aluminium are used to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the technique. In a second part the technique is applied to measure the mechanical deformation induced by electrical field application to organic insulators. For that Poly(ethylene naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylate (PEN thin films were subjected to DC voltage stress and DIC provides the full-field induced deformations of the test films. The obtained results show that the DIC is a practical and robust tool for better comprehension of mechanical behaviour of the organic insulator films under electrical stress.

  18. Plasma Flows in Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the magnitude and direction of an external electric field on the plasma flowing through a magnetic barrier is studied by numerically solving two-fluid MHD equations. The drift velocity of the plasma flow and the distribution of the flow electrons over transverse velocities are found to depend on the magnitude and direction of the electric field. It is shown that the direction of the induced longitudinal electric field is determined by the direction of the external field and that the electric current generated by the plasma flow significantly disturbs the barrier field

  19. Electric field measurements with electro-optical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, R.

    1992-03-01

    When electric field calculations on the surface of electrodes and electrical insulation present difficulties due to complex geometries and diverse dielectric properties, it is sometimes very useful to resort to direct measurements. However, conventional probes, based on the capacitive effect, are not quite suitable for this purpose due to strong perturbations introduced by probes themselves and to difficulties in isolating the sensors from the instrumentation at points of measurement with a high potential. To avoid these difficulties, a measurement system was developed which incorporates a Pockels effect crystal sensor, a moveable HeNe laser beam for signal transmission and beam polarization modulation, and a laser beam analyzer which detects variations in polarization induced by the sensor. This paper describes the key design, operation and performance characteristics of this device

  20. Multistate nonvolatile straintronics controlled by a lateral electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurchuk, V; Doudin, B; Kundys, B

    2014-01-01

    We present a multifunctional and multistate permanent memory device based on lateral electric field control of a strained surface. Sub-coercive electrical writing of a remnant strain of a PZT substrate imprints stable and rewritable resistance changes on a CoFe overlayer. A proof-of-principle device, with the simplest resistance strain gage design, is shown as a memory cell exhibiting 17-memory states of high reproducibility and reliability for nonvolatile operations. Magnetoresistance of the film also depends on the cell state, and indicates a rewritable change of magnetic properties persisting in the remnant strain of the substrate. This makes it possible to combine strain, magnetic and resistive functionalities in a single memory element, and suggests that sub-coercive stress studies are of interest for straintronics applications. (fast track communication)

  1. Multistate nonvolatile straintronics controlled by a lateral electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurchuk, V; Doudin, B; Kundys, B

    2014-07-23

    We present a multifunctional and multistate permanent memory device based on lateral electric field control of a strained surface. Sub-coercive electrical writing of a remnant strain of a PZT substrate imprints stable and rewritable resistance changes on a CoFe overlayer. A proof-of-principle device, with the simplest resistance strain gage design, is shown as a memory cell exhibiting 17-memory states of high reproducibility and reliability for nonvolatile operations. Magnetoresistance of the film also depends on the cell state, and indicates a rewritable change of magnetic properties persisting in the remnant strain of the substrate. This makes it possible to combine strain, magnetic and resistive functionalities in a single memory element, and suggests that sub-coercive stress studies are of interest for straintronics applications.

  2. Surface Magnetic Fields on Giants and Supergiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, Agnès

    2018-04-01

    After a short introduction to spectropolarimetry and the tecnics allowing for the detection of surface fields, I will review the numerous and various detections of magnetic fields at the surface of giant and supergiant stars. On Betelgeuse, the prototype of Red Supergiants, I will present recent results collected after a 10 years long spectropolarimetric survey.

  3. Vector electric field measurement via position-modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Ryan P.; Smieska, Louisa M.; Tirmzi, Ali Moeed; Marohn, John A.

    2017-10-01

    High-quality spatially resolved measurements of electric fields are critical to understanding charge injection, charge transport, and charge trapping in semiconducting materials. Here, we report a variation of frequency-modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy that enables spatially resolved measurements of the electric field. We measure electric field components along multiple directions simultaneously by employing position modulation and lock-in detection in addition to numeric differentiation of the surface potential. We demonstrate the technique by recording linescans of the in-plane electric field vector in the vicinity of a patch of trapped charge in a 2,7-diphenyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT) organic field-effect transistor. This technique is simple to implement and should be especially useful for studying electric fields in spatially inhomogeneous samples like organic transistors and photovoltaic blends.

  4. Determination of Moessbauer electric field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    There are several reports of the electric quadrupole interactions available in the literature. 1 - 4 The present discussion is a short survey, introducing the electric quadrupole up to the experimental polarised studies. (Author) [pt

  5. Electrospinning of Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers and Simulation of Electric Field via Finite Element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Samadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Since the electric field is the main driving force in electrospinning systems, the modeling and analysis of electric field distribution are critical to the nanofibers production. The aim of this study was modeling of the electric field and investigating the various parameters on polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers morphology and diameter. Methods: The electric field profile at the nozzle and electrospinning zone was evaluated by Finite Element Method. The morphology and diameter of nanofibers were examined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results: The results of the electric field analysis indicated that the electric field was concentrated at the tip of the nozzle. Moreover, in the spinning direction, the electric field was concentrated at the surface of the spinneret and decayed rapidly toward the surface of the collector. Increasing polymer solution concentration from 7 to 11wt.% led to increasing nanofibers diameter form 77.76 ± 19.44 to 202.42 ± 36.85. Conclusions: Base on our results, it could be concluded that concentration of the electric field at the tip of the nozzle is high and initiates jet and nanofibers formation. PAN nanofibers can be transformed to carbon nanofibers which have various applications in biomedicine.

  6. Simulating evaporation of surface atoms of thorium-alloyed tungsten in strong electronic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkanov, P.V.; Mordyuk, V.S.; Ivanov, Yu.I.

    1984-01-01

    By the Monte Carlo method simulating evaporation of surface atoms of thorium - alloyed tungsten in strong electric fields is realized. The strongest evaporation of surface atoms of pure tungsten as compared with thorium-alloyed tungsten in the contentration range of thorium atoms in tungsten matrix (1.5-15%) is shown. The evaporation rate increases with thorium atoms concentration. Determined is in relative units the surface atoms evaporation rate depending on surface temperature and electric field stront

  7. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Donglei

    transport charged Au nanowires with length longer than 4 mum. The surface of Au nanowires has been chemical functionalized by either positive or negative charges. High frequency AC electric field has been applied to align and fix the orientation of the charged nanowires, though not to induce any motions, whereas a small DC voltage causes linear motion. The velocity of nanowires increases linearly with the DC electric field. The moving direction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the orientation of nanowires. Nanowires modified with different charges behave differently due to the electroosmosis flow induced by the DC electric field on the negatively charged quartz substrate. The zeta potential of quartz surface and the ratio of Stokes coefficients for longitudinal nano-entities suspended in a low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5) has been determined. Due to the small size of the nanowires, the nanowires suspended in liquids such as DI water are in extremely low Reynolds number regime (< 10-5). Manipulation due to DEP and EP forces are versatile and precise. Nanowires have been set into motion with prescribed tracks, such as squares and zigzags. The manipulation is also so precise that oppositely charged nanowires with radius of 150 nm have been moved to contact and connected end to end. A nanowire clipper have been assembled by this technique and set into oscillation. This method is not only applicable to nanowires, it has been successfully applied to multiwall carbon nanotubes as well. To demonstrate the complete control and flexibility of manipulating nanoparticles by E field, we have programmed nanowires to dance with music by Mozart with regard to clearly demonstrating the versatility of manipulating small entities of metallic, semiconductor, and biological materials. This work has been conducted under the guidance of the author's thesis advisors, Prof. Robert C. Cammarata, chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering of the Johns Hopkins University

  8. Markov Random Field Surface Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    ) and knowledge about data (the observation model) in an orthogonal fashion. Local models that account for both scene-specific knowledge and physical properties of the scanning device are described. Furthermore, how the optimal distance field can be computed is demonstrated using conjugate gradients, sparse...

  9. Vector fields on nonorientable surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Barza

    2003-01-01

    X, and the space of vector fields on X are proved by using a symmetrisation process. An example related to the normal derivative on the border of the Möbius strip supports the nontriviality of the concepts introduced in this paper.

  10. The chromatographic separation of particles using optical electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Jeppesen, Claus; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new field-flow fractionation (FFF) technique, whereby molecules are separated based on their differential interaction (dielectrophoresis (DEP)) with optical electric fields, i.e. electric fields with frequencies in the visible and near-infrared range. The results show that a parall...

  11. ion in crossed gradient electric and magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photodetachment cross-section for variousexternal fields and the laser polarization are calculated and displayed. A comparison with the photodetachment cross-section in crossed uniform electric and magnetic fields or in a single gradient electric field has been made.The agreement of our results with the above two special ...

  12. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  13. Field-Induced Superconductivity in Electric Double Layer Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueno, Kazunori; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Yuan, Hongtao; Ye, Jianting; Kawasaki, Masashi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    Electric field tuning of superconductivity has been a long-standing issue in solid state physics since the invention of the field-effect transistor (FET) in 1960. Owing to limited available carrier density in conventional FET devices, electric-field-induced superconductivity was believed to be

  14. Problems related to macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.

    1977-01-01

    The macroscopic electric fields in the magnetosphere originate from internal as well as external sources. The fields are intimately coupled with the dynamics of magnetospheric plasma convection. They also depend on the complicated electrical properties of the hot collisionless plasma. Macroscopic electric fields are responsible for some important kinds of energization of charged particles that take place in the magnetosphere and affect not only particles of auroral energy but also, by multistep processes, trapped high-energy particles. A particularly interesting feature of magnetospheric electric fields is that they can have substantial components along the geomagnetic field, as has recently been confirmed by observations. Several physical mechanisms have been identified by which such electric fields can be supported even when collisions between particles are negligible. Comments are made on the magnetic mirror effect, anomalous resistivity, the collisionless thermoelectric effect, and electric double layers, emphasizing key features and differences and their significance in the light of recent observational data

  15. Dynamics analysis of extraction of manganese intensified by electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenrui; Tao, Changyuan; Li, Huizhan; Liu, Zuohua; Liu, Renlong

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a process reinforcement technology for leaching process of pyrolusite was developed. The electric field was introduced to decrease reaction temperature and improve the leaching rate of pyrolusite. The mechanisms of electric field intensifying leaching process of pyrolusite were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) in detail. The results showed that the electric field could decrease obviously the apparent activation energy of leaching process of pyrolusite. The apparent activation energy of the leaching of pyrolusite intensified by electric field was calculated to be 53.76 kJ.mol-1. In addition, the leaching efficiency of manganese was effectively increased by 10% to 20% than that without electric field under the same conditions. This was because that the electron conduit between Fe (II)/Fe (III) and pyrite was dredged effectively by electric field.

  16. Influence of the oscillating electric field on the photodetachment of H− ion in a static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-hua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The photodetachment of H − in an oscillating electric field has been studied using the time-dependent closed orbit theory. • An analytical formula for calculating the photodetachement cross section has been put forward. • Our study provides a clear physical picture for the photodetachment of negative ion in an oscillating electric filed. • Our work is useful in guiding the experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the time-dependent field. - Abstract: Using the time-dependent closed orbit theory, we study the photodetachment of H − ion in a time-dependent electric field. The photodetachment cross section is specifically studied in the presence of a static electric field plus an oscillating electric field. We find that the photodetachment of negative ion in the time-dependent electric field becomes much more complicated than the case in a static electric field. The oscillating electric field can weaken the photodetachment cross section greatly when the strength of the oscillating electric field is less than the static electric field. However, as the strength of the oscillating electric field is larger than the static electric field, four types of closed orbits are identified for the detached electron, which makes the oscillating amplitude in the photodetachment cross section gets increased again. The connection between the detached electron’s closed orbit with the oscillating cross section is analyzed quantitatively. This study provides a clear and intuitive picture for the understanding of the connections between quantum and classical description for the time-dependent Hamiltonian systems and may guide the future experimental research for the photodetachment dynamics in the time-dependent electric field.

  17. Controlling stray electric fields on an atom chip for experiments on Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, D.; Machluf, S.; Soudijn, M. L.; Naber, J. B.; van Druten, N. J.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2018-02-01

    Experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces must necessarily deal with the high sensitivity of Rydberg atoms to (stray) electric fields that typically emanate from adsorbates on the surface. We demonstrate a method to modify and reduce the stray electric field by changing the adsorbate distribution. We use one of the Rydberg excitation lasers to locally affect the adsorbed dipole distribution. By adjusting the averaged exposure time we change the strength (with the minimal value less than 0.2 V /cm at 78 μ m from the chip) and even the sign of the perpendicular field component. This technique is a useful tool for experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces, including atom chips.

  18. Influence of Electric Fields on Biofouling of Carbonaceous Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Soumya; Shanbhag, Sneha; Mauter, Meagan; Oren, Yoram; Herzberg, Moshe

    2017-09-05

    Biofouling commonly occurs on carbonaceous capacitive deionization electrodes in the process of treating natural waters. Although previous work reported the effect of electric fields on bacterial mortality for a variety of medical and engineered applications, the effect of electrode surface properties and the magnitude and polarity of applied electric fields on biofilm development has not been comprehensively investigated. This paper studies the formation of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm on a Papyex graphite (PA) and a carbon aerogel (CA) in the presence and the absence of an electric field. The experiments were conducted using a two-electrode flow cell with a voltage window of ±0.9 V. The CA was less susceptible to biofilm formation compared to the PA due to its lower surface roughness, lower hydrophobicity, and significant antimicrobial properties. For both positive and negative applied potentials, we observed an inverse relationship between biofilm formation and the magnitude of the applied potential. The effect is particularly strong for the CA electrodes and may be a result of cumulative effects between material toxicity and the stress experienced by cells at high applied potentials. Under the applied potentials for both electrodes, high production of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) was indicative of bacterial stress. For both electrodes, the elevated specific ROS activity was lowest for the open circuit potential condition, elevated when cathodically and anodically polarized, and highest for the ±0.9 V cases. These high applied potentials are believed to affect the redox potential across the cell membrane and disrupt redox homeostasis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth.

  19. Measurement of electric fields in the H-1NF heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, B.W.; Howard, J.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of laser induced fluorescence techniques which can be used to measure internal plasma electric fields. It is planned to use a technique based on Stark mixing of energy levels in a supersonic beam containing metastable helium atoms to measure radial electric fields in H-1NF. Enhanced values of radial electric field are associated with improved confinement modes in H-1NF and other magnetically confined plasmas

  20. Field emission electric propulsion thruster modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwyst, Anton Sivaram

    Electric propulsion allows space rockets a much greater range of capabilities with mass efficiencies that are 1.3 to 30 times greater than chemical propulsion. Field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thrusters provide a specific design that possesses extremely high efficiency and small impulse bits. Depending on mass flow rate, these thrusters can emit both ions and droplets. To date, fundamental experimental work has been limited in FEEP. In particular, detailed individual droplet mechanics have yet to be understood. In this thesis, theoretical and computational investigations are conducted to examine the physical characteristics associated with droplet dynamics relevant to FEEP applications. Both asymptotic analysis and numerical simulations, based on a new approach combining level set and boundary element methods, were used to simulate 2D-planar and 2D-axisymmetric probability density functions of the droplets produced for a given geometry and electrode potential. The combined algorithm allows the simulation of electrostatically-driven liquids up to and after detachment. Second order accuracy in space is achieved using a volume of fluid correction. The simulations indicate that in general, (i) lowering surface tension, viscosity, and potential, or (ii) enlarging electrode rings, and needle tips reduce operational mass efficiency. Among these factors, surface tension and electrostatic potential have the largest impact. A probability density function for the mass to charge ratio (MTCR) of detached droplets is computed, with a peak around 4,000 atoms per electron. High impedance surfaces, strong electric fields, and large liquid surface tension result in a lower MTCR ratio, which governs FEEP droplet evolution via the charge on detached droplets and their corresponding acceleration. Due to the slow mass flow along a FEEP needle, viscosity is of less importance in altering the droplet velocities. The width of the needle, the composition of the propellant, the

  1. Comparison Between the Trajectories of Electric Field Resonances and those of Rational Surfaces in TJ-II; Comparacion entre las Trayectorias Correspondientes a Resonancias del Campo Electrico y las de Superficies Racionales en el TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Both the radial electric field resonance case and the corresponding to rational magnetic surfaces, show a number of similar behaviours: a) Strong sensitivity of the passing particle loss fraction, and mainly of their los times, to lower order rational values of the ratio between the poloidal and toroidal rotation angular velocities. b) In both cases there exist similar simple analytical models that allow qualitative predictions for the phase space regions where resonant effects can be expected. c) Strong similitude of trajectories, as well in the Poincare diagrams as in the angular maps. Near the resonant regions a extreme minimization of the radial excursion appears, and both diagrams present a minimum filling. At both sides of these regions there are wide excursions, directed alternatively towards the inner and the outer parts of the plasma. Far from these resonant zones the diagrams filling comes back to be continuous. d) All these behaviours are more marked, and the topology change more sudden, the lower is the periodicity order of the resonance, and are extremely clear for the 1/3 and 1/2 cases. This wealth of similar behaviour suggests a single origin for all these phenomena, linked with the trajectory topology, that will be the subject of a specific study. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O [Los Alamos, NM; Feldman, William C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  3. Magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    An existent magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation comprises at least a pair of permanent magnets disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke having such a cross sectional area that two pairs of parallel sides are present, in which different magnetic poles are opposed while interposing a flow channel for a conductive fluid therebetween. Then, first permanent magnets which generate main magnetic fields are disposed each at a gap sandwiching a plane surface including a center axis of a flow channel for the conductive fluid. Second permanent magnets which generate auxiliary magnetic fields are disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke intersecting the yoke to which the first permanent magnets are disposed. The magnetic poles on the side of the flow channel for the second permanent magnets have identical polarity with that of the magnetic poles of the adjacent first permanent magnets. As a result, a magnetic flux density in the flow channel for the conductive fluid can be kept homogeneous and at a high level from a position of the axial line of the flow channel to the outer circumference, thereby enabling to remarkably improve a power generation efficiency. (N.H.)

  4. End-shorting and electric field in edge plasmas with application to field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2002-01-01

    The shorting of open field lines where they intersect external boundaries strongly modifies the transverse electric field all along the field lines. The modified electric field is found by an extension of the familiar Boltzmann relation for the electric potential. This leads to a prediction of the electric drift. Flow generation by electrical shorting is applied here to three aspects of elongated field-reversed configurations: plasma rotation rate; the particle-loss spin-up mechanism; and the sustainability of the rotating magnetic field current drive method

  5. The study of the dynamics of erythrocytes under the influence of an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaeva, Sargylana N.; Maksimov, Georgy V.; Antonov, Stepan R.

    2017-11-01

    A mathematical model is considered for the determination of the surface charge of an erythrocyte with its shape approximated by a surface of revolution of the second order, and the investigation of the dynamics of erythrocytes under the influence of an external electric field. In the first part of this work, the electrical surface charge of the erythrocyte of the patient was calculated with the assumption that the change in the shape and size of the red blood cells leads to stabilization of the electric field, providing a normal electrostatic repulsion. In the second part of the work, the research results of dynamics of changes in the morphology of erythrocytes under the influence of an external electric field depending on the values of their surface charge and resistance of blood plasma is presented. In the course of the work, the dependence of the surface charge of red blood cells from their shape and size is presented. The determination of the relationship between the value of the charge field and the surface of erythrocytes in norm and in pathology is shown. The dependence of the velocity of the erythrocytes on the characteristics of the external electric field, surface charge of the erythrocyte and properties of the medium is obtained. The results of this study can be applied indirectly to diagnose diseases and to develop recommendations for experimental studies of hemodynamics under the influence of various external physical factors.

  6. Application of equivalent electrodes method to analysis of interaction between ELF-LF electric fields and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceselkoska, Vesna C.; Velickovic, Dragutin M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the use of equivalent electrodes method, numerical method, based on surface-charge equation to quantify the interaction of low frequencies electric fields with various models of human body. The evaluation of the electric field intensity on the body surface is performed for a realistic model of the human body. Several examples for different postures of the model are given. (Author)

  7. Magnetic field influence on substructure formed by electric spark treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Rahbari, G.; Ivanov, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The substructure of surface layer (about 10 microns thick) has been studied by x-ray line broadening technique in the samples of plain carbon steel (0.45%C) after electric spark doping with and without magnetic field (MF). The applied spark pulse energy was 0.12 J and MF induction varied from 0 to 0.08 T. The electrode material was the same as that of the treated sample. It has been observed that the MF reduces the tensile residual surface stresses from 660 ± 15MPa (no MF) to 260 ± 15MPa (B=0.053 T). The analysis of x-ray line broadening has revealed only the existence of microstrains, which are dependent of the MF magnitude. The microstrains have been related to the randomly distributed dislocation with the density of about 3x10 sup 11 cm sup -2

  8. A percolation approach to study the high electric field effect on electrical conductivity of insulating polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallou, Amina; Hadri, Baghdad; Martinez-Vega, Juan; El Islam Boukortt, Nour

    2018-04-01

    The effect of percolation threshold on the behaviour of electrical conductivity at high electric field of insulating polymers has been briefly investigated in literature. Sometimes the dead ends links are not taken into account in the study of the electric field effect on the electrical properties. In this work, we present a theoretical framework and Monte Carlo simulation of the behaviour of the electric conductivity at high electric field based on the percolation theory using the traps energies levels which are distributed according to distribution law (uniform, Gaussian, and power-law). When a solid insulating material is subjected to a high electric field, and during trapping mechanism the dead ends of traps affect with decreasing the electric conductivity according to the traps energies levels, the correlation length of the clusters, the length of the dead ends, and the concentration of the accessible positions for the electrons. A reasonably good agreement is obtained between simulation results and the theoretical framework.

  9. Effect of applied DC electric fields in flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Young Kyu

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally investigated the effect of applied DC electric fields on the flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire. The flame-spread rates over electrical wire with negative and positive DC electric fields from 0 to ±7 kV were measured and analyzed. We compared the results for DC electric fields with previous results for AC electric fields. We explored whether or not various flame shapes could be obtained with DC electric fields and the main reason for the flame-spread acceleration, particularly at the end of the electrical wire, for AC electric fields. We found that DC electric fields do not significantly affect the flame-spread rates. However, the flame shape is mildly altered by the ionic wind effect even for DC electric fields. The flame-spread rate is relevant to the flame shape and the slanted direction in spite of the mild impact. A possible explanation for the flame spread is given by a thermal-balance mechanism and fuel-vapor jet. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  10. Redox processes at a nanostructured interface under strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Wolfram; Surnev, Svetlozar; Netzer, Falko P; Sementa, Luca; Negreiros, Fabio R; Barcaro, Giovanni; Durante, Nicola; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2014-09-21

    Manipulation of chemistry and film growth via external electric fields is a longstanding goal in surface science. Numerous systems have been predicted to show such effects but experimental evidence is sparse. Here we demonstrate in a custom-designed UHV apparatus that the application of spatially extended, homogeneous, very high (>1 V nm(-1)) DC-fields not only changes the system energetics but triggers dynamic processes which become important much before static contributions appreciably modify the potential energy landscape. We take a well characterized ultrathin NiO film on a Ag(100) support as a proof-of-principle test case, and show how it gets reduced to supported Ni clusters under fields exceeding the threshold of +0.9 V nm(-1). Using an effective model, we trace the observed interfacial redox process down to a dissociative electron attachment resonant mechanism. The proposed approach can be easily implemented and generally applied to a wide range of interfacial systems, thus opening new opportunities for the manipulation of film growth and reaction processes at solid surfaces under strong external fields.

  11. Neutralization of Rubidium Adsorbate Electric Fields by Electron Attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, J. A. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Kim, E. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Rittenhouse, S. T. [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Weck, Philippe F [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sadeghpour, H. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shaffer, J. P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the (0001) surface of single crystal quartz with a submonolayer of Rb adsorbates. Using Rydberg atom electromagnetically induced transparency, we investigate the electric elds resulting from Rb adsorbed on the quartz surface, and measure the activation energy of the Rb adsorbates. We show that the Rb induces a negative electron affnity (NEA) on the quartz surface. The NEA surface allows for low energy electrons to bind to the surface and cancel the electric eld from the Rb adsorbates. Our results have implications for integrating Rydberg atoms into hybrid quantum systems and the fundamental study of atom-surface interactions, as well as applications for electrons bound to a 2D surface.

  12. Gastric applications of electrical field stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in clinical applications of electricity have been vast since the launch of Hayman\\'s first cardiac pacemaker more than 70 years ago. Gastric electrical stimulation devices have been recently licensed for treatment of gastroparesis and preliminary studies examining their potential for use in refractory obesity yield promising results.

  13. Electric Field Measurements At The Magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, P.-A.; Dunlop, M.

    The quasi-thermal noise (QTN) is due to the thermal motions of the particles, which produce electrostatic fluctuations. This noise is detected by any sensitive receiver at the ports of an electric antenna immersed in a plasma and can be used to measure in-situ the plasma density, temperature and bulk velocity. The basic reason is that this noise can be formally calculated as a function of both the particle velocity distribu- tions and the antenna geometry. So, conversely, the "spectroscopy" of this noise re- veals the local plasma properties. This method is routinely used on various spacecraft (Ulysses, Wind) in the solar wind or in planetary magnetospheres/ionospheres (Image at Earth, Cassini at Venus, Earth and soon at Saturn). This method has the advantage of being relatively immune to spacecraft potential and photoelectrons pertubations, since it senses a large plasma volume. It provides an accurate measurement of the electron density (a few %) because it is based on the detection of the strong signal peak near the local plasma frequency (which is close to a resonance for electrostatic waves). We will show that QTN may be as well adapted to measure 1) magnetized (anisotropic) plasmas (and deduce the magnetic field strength), 2) suprathermal or non-thermal component (as for example a kappa distribution), and 3) a wide range of core temperature, i.e from ~10 eV, as in the solar wind, to rather low temperatures (tron density and temperature for comparison with our models of Mercury/solar wind interaction.

  14. Static and low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.; Tynes, T.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields are reviewed with the objective of summarizing effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people. Static and low frequency electric and magnetic fields may elicit biological reactions. Whether exposure to such fields may affect human health at field strengths present in everyday or occupational life is still unsettled. There is unsufficient knowledge to establish any dose concept relevant to health risk. 196 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Geomagnetic storms and electric fields in the equatorial ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Using direct measurements of equatorial electric field during a geomagnetic storm it is shown that the large decrease in the field observed near the dip equator is due to the reversal of the equatorial electrojet current. This is caused by the imposition of an additional westward electric field on the equatorial ionosphere which was originated by the interaction of solar wind with the interplanetary magnetic field. (author)

  16. High resistance to sulfur poisoning of Ni with copper skin under electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaopei; Zhang, Yanxing [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Yang, Zongxian, E-mail: yzx@henannu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Materials Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications, Kaifeng, Henan Province (China)

    2017-02-12

    The effects of sulfur poisoning on the (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces of pure Ni and Cu/Ni alloy are studied in consideration of the effect of electric field. The effects of Cu dopants on the S poisoning characteristics are analyzed by the means of the density functional theory results in combination with thermodynamics data using the ab initio atomistic thermodynamic method. When the Cu concentration increases to 50% on the surface layer of the Cu/Ni alloy, the (1 1 0) surface becomes the most vulnerable to the sulfur poisoning. Ni with a copper skin can mostly decrease the sulfur poisoning effect. Especially under the electric field of 1.0 V/Å, the sulfur adsorption and phase transition temperature can be further reduced. We therefore propose that Ni surfaces with copper skin can be very effective to improve the resistance to sulfur poisoning of the Ni anode under high electric field. - Highlights: • The electric field and Cu dopant effects on S poisoning feature of Ni are analyzed. • The present of large electric field can enhance S tolerance. • Cu dopant concentration affect the surface electronic structure of Ni. • 100% Cu doping on surface Ni layer can mostly decrease the sulfur poison.

  17. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. Methods. In this paper the software “COMSOL Multiphysics” was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. Results. The second generation (2G Global System for Mobile (GSM phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear, and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head’s surface. Conclusion. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user ear.

  18. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckus, Raimondas; Strukcinskiene, Birute; Raistenskis, Juozas; Stukas, Rimantas

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. In this paper the software "COMSOL Multiphysics" was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. The second generation (2G) Global System for Mobile (GSM) phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G) GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G) UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz) radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear), and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head's surface. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR) and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user's ear.

  19. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M [Institute of Clinical Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 18, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2007-02-21

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

  20. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R; Leitgeb, N; Pediaditis, M

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary

  1. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.; Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.

    2004-07-01

    Large mesospheric electric fields can play an essential role in middle atmospheric electrodynamics (see, e.g., Goldberg, R. A., Middle Atmospheric Electrodynamics during MAP, Adv. Space Res. 10 (10) (1990) 209). The V/m electric fields of atmospheric origin can be the possible cause of large variations in the electron collision frequency at mesospheric altitudes, and this provides a unique opportunity to take measurements of electric fields in the lower ionosphere by using remote sensing instruments employing radiowave techniques. A technique has been proposed for making estimates of large mesospheric electric field intensities on the lower edge of the ionosphere by using MF radar data and the inherent effective electron collision frequency. To do this, data collected in Canada and Ukraine were utilized. The developed technique permits the changes in mesospheric electric field intensities to be derived from MF radar data in real time. The statistical analysis of data consistent with large mesospheric electric field intensities in the 60-67km region resulted in the following inferences. There are at least two mechanisms for the generation of large mesospheric electric fields in the mesosphere. The most likely mechanism, with a probability of 60-70%, is the summation of random fields from a large number of elementary small-scale mesospheric generators, which results in a one-parameter Rayleigh distribution of the total large mesospheric electric field intensity E with a mean value of approximately 0.7-0.9V/m in the 60-67km altitude region, or in the corresponding one-parameter exponential distribution of the intensity squared E2 of large mesospheric electric fields. The second mechanism of unknown nature, with 5-15% probability, gives rise to the sporadic appearance of large mesospheric electric field intensities E>2.5V/m with a mean of 4V/m. Statistically significant seasonal differences in the averaged large mesospheric electric field parameters have not been

  2. A simplified model of polar cap electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A simple-minded 'model' is used in order to visualize the gross features of polar cap electric fields, in particular the 'diode' effect which had emerged already from earlier observations and the asymmetry between the electric fields observed on the dawn and dusk sides of the polar cap, which depends on Bsub(y)

  3. Electric field induced dewetting at polymer/polymer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Z.Q.; Kerle, T.; Russell, T.P.; Schäffer, E.; Steiner, U

    2002-01-01

    External electric fields were used to amplify interfacial fluctuations in the air/polymer/polymer system where one polymer dewets the other. Two different hydrodynamic regimes were found as a function of electric field strength. If heterogeneous nucleation leads to the formation of holes before the

  4. Effect of electric field (at different temperatures) on germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds were exposed to electric field from zero to 1300 V for 15 min at three different temperatures (13, 16 and 19°C). It was found that the exposure of chickpea seeds to the electric field caused a change in water uptake capacity (and its coefficient) as compared to control. A new theoretical model ...

  5. Incompressible Einstein–Maxwell fluids with specified electric fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Einstein–Maxwell equations describing static charged spheres with uniform density and variable electric field intensity are studied. The special case of constant electric field is also studied. The evolution of the model is governed by a hypergeometric differential equation which has a general solution in terms of special ...

  6. Study of electric field pulsation in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S; Itoh, K

    2011-01-01

    A model for the experimental results of the periodic oscillation of the electric field, so-called the electric field pulsation, observed in the Compact Helical Device (Fujisawa et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 2256) and the Large Helical Device (Shimizu et al 2010 Plasma Fusion Res. 5 S1015) is presented. A self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as the simulation result in helical plasmas. The reduction of the anomalous transport diffusivity in the core region is observed due to the strong shear of the radial electric field when the positive electric field is shown in the core region in the periodic oscillation of E r . Two different time scales are found in the self-generated oscillation, which are the transport time scale and the fast time scale at the transition of the radial electric field. This oscillation because of the hysteresis characteristic is attributed to the electric field pulsation observed in helical plasmas. The parameter region of the condition for the self-generated oscillation is derived. It is shown that the multiple solutions of the radial electric field for the ambipolar condition are necessary but not sufficient for obtaining the self-generated oscillation.

  7. Effects of Radial Electric Fields on ICRF Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.K.; Hosea, J.C.; Ono, M.; Wilson, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Equilibrium considerations infer that large localized radial electric fields are associated with internal transport barrier structures in tokamaks and other toroidal magnetic confinement configurations. In this paper, the effects of an equilibrium electric field on fast magnetosonic wave propagation are considered in the context of a cold plasma model

  8. Phonon-assisted transitions in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1980-05-01

    A theory of the effect of a crossed electric, E, and magnetic, H, fields in the indirect transitions in semiconductors is developed. A semi-classical treatment is adopted where the electric field is considered as a small perturbation. A numerical application to GaP gives the limiting values of E/H valid to this approach. (author)

  9. High School Students' Representations and Understandings of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…

  10. The effect of pulsed electric fields on carotenoids bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Francesca; Verkerk, Ruud; Mastwijk, Hennie; Anese, Monica; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    Tomato fractions were subjected to pulsed electric fields treatment combined or not with heating. Results showed that pulsed electric fields and heating applied in combination or individually induced permeabilization of cell membranes in the tomato fractions. However, no changes in β-carotene and

  11. Electric field measurements in a xenon discharge using Spark spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of electric field distributions in a low-pressure xenon discharge are presented. The measurement technique is based on Stark spectroscopy, using a 2 + 1 excitation scheme with fluorescence dip detection. Electric fields can be measured by detecting Stark shifts of high-lying Rydberg

  12. Effect of a background electric field on the Hagedorn temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, E.J.; Incera, V. de la; Fradkin, E.S.

    1990-07-01

    We compute the one-loop free energy of the open neutral string gas in a constant electromagnetic background. Starting from this result we show that the Hagedorn temperature of this hot string gas depends on the background electric field. The larger the electric field, the lower the Hagedorn temperature is. (author). 13 refs

  13. Electric Field-Assisted Pressureless Sintering of Ceramic Protonic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muccillo, R.; Esposito, Vincenzo; Zanetti De Florio, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Gadolinium, yttrium and samarium-doped barium cerate (BCGd, BCY and BCSm, respectively) polycrystalline green pellets were submitted to electric field-assisted pressureless sintering experiments isothermally in the temperature range 800-1200oC under 100-200 V cm-1 electric fields, limiting to 1-5...

  14. An effective field theory for the neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Kephart, T.W.; Keung, W.Y.; Yuan, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    We derive a CP-odd effective field theory involving the field strengths of the gluon and the photon and their duals as a result of integrating out a heavy quark which carries both the chromo-electric dipole moment and electric dipole moment. The coefficients of the induced gluonic, photonic, and mixed gluon-photon operators with dimension ≤ 8 are determined. Implications of some of these operators on the neutron electric dipole moment are also discussed. (orig.)

  15. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLuengo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  16. Absorption and atom mobility in electric field: point defect role in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serruys, Y.; Vigouroux, J.P.

    1986-10-01

    During the surface analysis of dielectric materials, the impinging ionising particles induce point defects localised in the band gap and build an electrical charge. The electric field created by the charged defects modifies the physico-chemical properties of surface and bulk. We show that the fundamental study of defects allows a better understanding of technological phenomena such as dielectric breakdown, fracture and diffusion [fr

  17. Electric field measurements in the auroral E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, H.P.; Smiddy, M.; Sagalyn, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Dipole electric field, positive ion and electron densities and temperatures, vehicle potential, and plasma sheath measurements have been made in the auroral E region by means of rockets flown from Fort Churchill, Canada. These results are described and compared over the altitude region 100 to 165 km. On a rocket flight launched on 10 December 1969 during very quiet conditions, adjacent to a stable, low intensity auroral arc, the plasma density and temperatures are found to be high and the electric fields large and steady. Electric field components of the order of -17 mv m -1 to +6 mv m -1 were measured along the Earth's magnetic field. The plasma results indicate that these fields may be contributing to enhanced electron temperatures. On a flight of 9 March 1970 during a large magnetic storm with widespread auroral activity, lower plasma densities and temperatures and much smaller and more erratic electric fields were observed with no significant component parallel to the magnetic field. (auth)

  18. Surface modification of steels by electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastev, D.; Paunov, V.; Yordanov, B.; Lazarova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In this work are discussed some experimental data about the influence of applied electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte on the surface structure of steels. The electrical discharge treatment of steel surface in electrolyte gives a modified structure with specific combination of characteristics in result of nonequilibrium transformations. The modification goes by a high energy thermal process in a very small volume on the metallic surface involving melting, vaporisation, activation and alloying in electrical discharges, and after that cooling of this surface with high rate in the electrolyte. The surface layers obtain a different structure in comparison with the metal matrix and are with higher hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. key words: surface modification, electrical discharge treatment in electrolyte, steels

  19. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  20. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  1. Electric field with bipolar structure during magnetic reconnection without a guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun

    2014-05-01

    We present a study on the polarized electric field during the collisionless magnetic reconnection of antiparallel fields using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations demonstrate clearly that electron holes and electric field with bipolar structure are produced during magnetic reconnection without a guide field. The electric field with bipolar structure can be found near the X-line and on the separatrix and the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is consistent with the observations. These structures will elongate electron's time staying in the diffusion region. In addition, the electric fields with tripolar structures are also found in our simulation.

  2. Control of the Intrinsic Sensor Response to Volatile Organic Compounds with Fringing Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Alex; Swaminathan, Nandhini; Vaknin, Yonathan; Jurca, Titel; Shimanovich, Klimentiy; Shalev, Gil; Rosenwaks, Yossi

    2018-01-26

    The ability to control surface-analyte interaction allows tailoring chemical sensor sensitivity to specific target molecules. By adjusting the bias of the shallow p-n junctions in the electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN) chemical sensor, a multiple gate transistor with an exposed top dielectric layer allows tuning of the fringing electric field strength (from 0.5 × 10 7 to 2.5 × 10 7 V/m) above the EFN surface. Herein, we report that the magnitude and distribution of this fringing electric field correlate with the intrinsic sensor response to volatile organic compounds. The local variations of the surface electric field influence the analyte-surface interaction affecting the work function of the sensor surface, assessed by Kelvin probe force microscopy on the nanometer scale. We show that the sensitivity to fixed vapor analyte concentrations can be nullified and even reversed by varying the fringing field strength, and demonstrate selectivity between ethanol and n-butylamine at room temperature using a single transistor without any extrinsic chemical modification of the exposed SiO 2 surface. The results imply an electric-field-controlled analyte reaction with a dielectric surface extremely compelling for sensitivity and selectivity enhancement in chemical sensors.

  3. Radiation of an electron in an electric field. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedosov, N.I.; Flesher, G.I.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of electron radiation in a field of a travelling electric wave is solved by methods of classical electrodynamics. Such a field may serve as a model of a field on the linear accelerator axis. It is shown that the total radiation power, as well as the spectral-angular distribution of the radiation energy of an electron travelling in a longitudinal electric wave coincide with radiation in a stationary uniform electric field with the strength equal to that of the wave at the point where the particle velocity becomes close to the velocity of light [ru

  4. Neoclassical transport and radial electric fields in TJ-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbarnia, K.; Greiner, F.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.; Greiner, F.

    2003-01-01

    The neoclassical transport is investigated in the torsatron TJ-K, which is operated with a low-temperature plasma. In the low-collisionality regime neoclassical losses are not intrinsically ambipolar, leading to the formation of a radial electric field which acts on both neoclassical and turbulent transport. This electric field is measured with a combination of Langmuir and emissive probes. The data are compared with the ambipolar electric field calculated with an analytic model. The experimental fields are positive and larger than the calculated ones. Direct losses of the fast electrons might explain this discrepancy. (orig.)

  5. Radio Frequency Trap for Containment of Plasmas in Antimatter Propulsion Systems Using Rotating Wall Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor); Martin, James Joseph (Inventor); Lewis, Raymond A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A containment apparatus for containing a cloud of charged particles comprises a cylindrical vacuum chamber having a longitudinal axis. Within the vacuum chamber is a containment region. A magnetic field is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vacuum chamber. The magnetic field is time invariant and uniform in strength over the containment region. An electric field is also aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vacuum chamber and the magnetic field. The electric field is time invariant, and forms a potential well over the containment region. One or more means are disposed around the cloud of particles for inducing a rotating electric field internal to the vacuum chamber. The rotating electric field imparts energy to the charged particles within the containment region and compress the cloud of particles. The means disposed around the outer surface of the vacuum chamber for inducing a rotating electric field are four or more segments forming a segmented ring, the segments conforming to the outer surface of the vacuum chamber. Each of the segments is energized by a separate alternating voltage. The sum of the voltages imposed on each segment establishes the rotating field. When four segments form a ring, the rotating field is obtained by a signal generator applying a sinusoidal signal phase delayed by 90,180 and 270 degrees in sequence to the four segments.

  6. Dependent of electrical resistivity of thin wire on magnetic field and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, E.; Zare, M.

    2006-01-01

    Variation of electrical resistivity of Bismuth nano wire versus magnetic field the and temperature are considered. We study the size effect and surface scattering of the carrier in thin wire for systems with ellipsoidal Fermi surfaces. Results are in good agreement with experimental points

  7. Nucleation and evaporation of domains due to electric field at room ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    by methanol, since methanol acts as a cleaning agent and removes impurity clusters from the surfaces.21. This suggests that these areas marked by N and P correspond to the 180° domains. Photomicrograph shown in figure 7b is again of the same surface as referred in figure 7a but now with the electric field of about 7 kV ...

  8. Should we be afraid of magnetic fields related to electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled that the main sources of 50 Hz electric field are high voltage lines while such a field around any electrical equipment is null because of a presence of insulation, the author comments the magnetic field level at the vicinity of common electrical equipment (refrigerator, hi-fi, computer, television, and so on) and at some distance (30 or 100 meters) of high-voltage and low-voltage lines. She comments the knowledge on the effects of exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field, and recalls that a publication suggested in 1979 that there was a risk of leukaemia for children living close to electrical lines. More recent studies proposed to apply to magnetic fields an existing classification of products with respect to cancer risk (known, likely, possible, insufficient knowledge, not carcinogen). Some studies put the risk of leukaemia associated to magnetic fields into question again

  9. On an effect of interplanetary magnetic field on a distribution electric fields in the polar ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.; Barashkov, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    The problem on the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on the distribution of electric fields in polar ionosphere is discussed. The problem on excitation of electric fields is reduced to the solution of the system of continuity equations for the current in three regions-northern polar cap, southern cap and the region outside the caps. It is shown that one succeeds in reproducing the observed types of distributions of electric fields

  10. Electric field cycling behavior of ferroelectric hafnium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe; Pešić, Milan; Popovici, Mihaela; Pershin, Yuriy V; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    HfO2 based ferroelectrics are lead-free, simple binary oxides with nonperovskite structure and low permittivity. They just recently started attracting attention of theoretical groups in the fields of ferroelectric memories and electrostatic supercapacitors. A modified approach of harmonic analysis is introduced for temperature-dependent studies of the field cycling behavior and the underlying defect mechanisms. Activation energies for wake-up and fatigue are extracted. Notably, all values are about 100 meV, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than for conventional ferroelectrics like lead zirconate titanate (PZT). This difference is mainly atttributed to the one to two orders of magnitude higher electric fields used for cycling and to the different surface to volume ratios between the 10 nm thin films in this study and the bulk samples of former measurements or simulations. Moreover, a new, analog-like split-up effect of switching peaks by field cycling is discovered and is explained by a network model based on memcapacitive behavior as a result of defect redistribution.

  11. Rovibrational dynamics of the RbCs molecule in static electric fields. Classical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, Pedro F.; Iñarrea, Manuel [Área de Física, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logroño (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo, E-mail: josepablo.salas@unirioja.es [Área de Física, Universidad de la Rioja, E-26006 Logroño (Spain)

    2012-04-02

    We study the classical dynamics of the RbCs molecule in the presence of a static electric field. Under the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, we perform a rovibrational investigation which includes the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. The stability of the equilibrium points and the phase space structure of the system are explored in detail. We find that, for strong electric fields or for energies close to the dissociation threshold, the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the classical rovibrational dynamics of the alkali polar dimer RbCs. ► In the model we consider the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. ► The potential energy surface is studied depending on the electric field strength. ► Using surfaces of section we study the phase space structure. ► We find that the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics.

  12. Rovibrational dynamics of the RbCs molecule in static electric fields. Classical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaiz, Pedro F.; Iñarrea, Manuel; Salas, J. Pablo

    2012-01-01

    We study the classical dynamics of the RbCs molecule in the presence of a static electric field. Under the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, we perform a rovibrational investigation which includes the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. The stability of the equilibrium points and the phase space structure of the system are explored in detail. We find that, for strong electric fields or for energies close to the dissociation threshold, the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the classical rovibrational dynamics of the alkali polar dimer RbCs. ► In the model we consider the interaction of the field with the molecular polarizability. ► The potential energy surface is studied depending on the electric field strength. ► Using surfaces of section we study the phase space structure. ► We find that the molecular polarizability causes relevant effects on the system dynamics.

  13. Determinants of the electric field during transcranial direct current stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Alexander; Paulus, Walter; Will, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) causes a complex spatial distribution of the electric current flow in the head which hampers the accurate localization of the stimulated brain areas. In this study we show how various anatomical features systematically shape the electric field...... over the motor cortex in small steps to examine the resulting changes of the electric field distribution in the underlying cortex. We examined the effect of skull thickness and composition on the passing currents showing that thinner skull regions lead to higher electric field strengths. This effect...... fluid and the skull, the gyral depth and the distance to the anode and cathode. These factors account for up to 50% of the spatial variation of the electric field strength. Further, we demonstrate that individual anatomical factors can lead to stimulation "hotspots" which are partly resistant...

  14. Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Nir; Bono, David; Dedic, Nina; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Rudenko, Andrii; Suk, Ho-Jun; Cassara, Antonino M; Neufeld, Esra; Kuster, Niels; Tsai, Li-Huei; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Boyden, Edward S

    2017-06-01

    We report a noninvasive strategy for electrically stimulating neurons at depth. By delivering to the brain multiple electric fields at frequencies too high to recruit neural firing, but which differ by a frequency within the dynamic range of neural firing, we can electrically stimulate neurons throughout a region where interference between the multiple fields results in a prominent electric field envelope modulated at the difference frequency. We validated this temporal interference (TI) concept via modeling and physics experiments, and verified that neurons in the living mouse brain could follow the electric field envelope. We demonstrate the utility of TI stimulation by stimulating neurons in the hippocampus of living mice without recruiting neurons of the overlying cortex. Finally, we show that by altering the currents delivered to a set of immobile electrodes, we can steerably evoke different motor patterns in living mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electric field measurements at subcritical, oblique bow shock crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wygant, J.R.; Bensadoun, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements at oblique, subcritical bow shock crossings are presented from the ISEE 1 University of California, Berkeley, double-probe electric field experiment. The measurements averaged over the 3-s spin period of the spacecraft provide the first observations of the large-scale (100 km) laminar oscillations in the longitudinal component of the electric field associated with the whistler precursor which is characteristic of these dispersive shocks. The amplitude of the oscillations increases from ∼0.5 mV/m to a maximum of 6 mV/m across the magnetic ramp of the shock (directed along the shock normal). The calculated electric potential drops across the shocks varied from 340 to 550 volts, which is 40-60% of the observed loss of kinetic energy associated with the bulk flow of the ions. These measurements suggest that at these shocks the additional deceleration of incident ions is due to the Lorentz force. The contributions to the normal component of the large-scale electric field at the shock due to the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the magnetic field) of the electric field are evaluated. It is shown that the perpendicular component of the electric field dominates, accounting for most of the cross-shock potential, but that there is a nonnegligible parallel component. This large-scale parallel component has a magnitude of 1-2 mV/m which sometimes results in a potential well for electrons with a depth of ∼150 eV. It is experimentally demonstrated that the dominance of the perpendicular over the parallel component of the electric field resulted in a correlation between the longitudinal component of the large-scale electric field and the fluctuations in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the coplanarity plane

  16. High impact ionization rate in silicon by sub-picosecond THz electric field pulses (Conference Presentation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hirori, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Summary form only given. Metallic antenna arrays fabricated on high resistivity silicon are used to localize and enhance the incident THz field resulting in high electric field pulses with peak electric field strength reaching several MV/cm on the silicon surface near the antenna tips. In such high...... electric field strengths high density of carriers are generated in silicon through impact ionization process. The high density of generated carriers induces a change of refractive index in silicon. By measuring the change of reflectivity of tightly focused 800 nm light, the local density of free carriers...... near the antenna tips is measured. Using the NIR probing technique, we observed that the density of carriers increases by over 8 orders of magnitude in a time duration of approximately 500 fs with an incident THz pulse of peak electric field strength 700 kV/cm. This shows that a single impact...

  17. Nonpremixed flame in a counterflow under electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Daegeun

    2016-05-08

    Electrically assisted combustion has been studied in order to control or improve flame characteristics, and emphasizing efficiency and emission regulation. Many phenomenological observations have been reported on the positive impact of electric fields on flame, however there is a lack of detailed physical mechanisms for interpreting these. To clarify the effects of electric fields on flame, I have investigated flame structure, soot formation, and flow field with ionic wind electrical current responses in nonpremixed counterflow flames. The effects of direct current (DC) electric field on flame movement and flow field was also demonstrated in premixed Bunsen flames. When a DC electric field was applied to a lower nozzle, the flames moved toward the cathode side due to Lorentz force action on the positive ions, soot particles simultaneously disappeared completely and laser diagnostics was used to identify the results from the soot particles. To understand the effects of an electric field on flames, flow visualization was performed by Mie scattering to check the ionic wind effect, which is considered to play an important role in electric field assisted combustion. Results showed a bidirectional ionic wind, with a double-stagnant flow configuration, which blew from the flame (ionic source) toward both the cathode and the anode. This implies that the electric field affects strain rate and the axial location of stoichiometry, important factors in maintaining nonpremixed counterflow flames; thus, soot formation of the counterflow flame can also be affected by the electric field. In a test of premixed Bunsen flames having parallel electrodes, flame movement toward the cathode and bidirectional ionic wind were observed. Using PIV measurement it was found that a created radial velocity caused by positive ions (i.e. toward a cathode), was much faster than the velocity toward the anode. Even in a study of alternating current (AC) electric fields, bidirectional ionic wind could

  18. Electric conductivity of TlInTe2 monocrystal in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbaliev, M.M.; Godzhaev, Eh.M.; Gadzhiev, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Electric condUctivity of the TlInTe 2 single crystal in strong electric fields has been studied in the range of 77-300 K. The electron part of the TlInTe 2 dielectric constant has been found to be 4. The dependence of the activation energy of current carriers on the electric field strength is constructed and the value of the activation energy of current carriers in the absence of an electric field is determined by the extrapolation method. The results of the experiments are in good agreement with the Frenkel-Pool theory, and this affords grounds for asserting that the obtained dependences of electric conductivity on temperature and the electric field strength are defined by variation in the current carrier concentration due to action of the thermal-electron ionization mechanism

  19. Electric field prediction for a human body-electric machine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Maria G; Papadopoulos, Peter J; Dimitropoulou, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    A system consisting of an electric machine and a human body is studied and the resulting electric field is predicted. A 3-phase induction machine operating at full load is modeled considering its geometry, windings, and materials. A human model is also constructed approximating its geometry and the electric properties of tissues. Using the finite element technique the electric field distribution in the human body is determined for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine and its effects are studied. Particularly, electric field potential variations are determined at specific points inside the human body and for these points the electric field intensity is computed and compared to the limit values for exposure according to international standards.

  20. Electric field theory and the fallacy of void capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the capacitance of a gaseous void is discussed as applied to electrical insulation science. The most pertinent aspect of the capacitance definition is that of reference to a single-valued potential difference between surfaces. This implies that these surfaces must be surfaces...

  1. Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-04-30

    The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nanoscale electron manipulation in metals with intense THz electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Jun; Yoshioka, Katsumasa; Minami, Yasuo; Katayama, Ikufumi

    2018-03-01

    Improved control over the electromagnetic properties of metals on a nanoscale is crucial for the development of next-generation nanoelectronics and plasmonic devices. Harnessing the terahertz (THz)-electric-field-induced nonlinearity for the motion of electrons is a promising method of manipulating the local electromagnetic properties of metals, while avoiding undesirable thermal effects and electronic transitions. In this review, we demonstrate the manipulation of electron delocalization in ultrathin gold (Au) films with nanostructures, by intense THz electric-field transients. On increasing the electric-field strength of the THz pulses, the transmittance in the THz-frequency region abruptly decreases around the percolation threshold. The observed THz-electric-field-induced nonlinearity is analysed, based on the Drude-Smith model. The results suggest that ultrafast electron delocalization occurs by electron tunnelling across the narrow insulating bridge between the Au nanostructures, without material breakdown. In order to quantitatively discuss the tunnelling process, we perform scanning tunnelling microscopy with carrier-envelope phase (CEP)-controlled single-cycle THz electric fields. By applying CEP-controlled THz electric fields to the 1 nm nanogap between a metal nanotip and graphite sample, many electrons could be coherently driven through the quantum tunnelling process, either from the nanotip to the sample or vice versa. The presented concept, namely, electron tunnelling mediated by CEP-controlled single-cycle THz electric fields, can facilitate the development of nanoscale electron manipulation, applicable to next-generation ultrafast nanoelectronics and plasmonic devices.

  3. Impact ionization by electric fields in intrinsic indium-antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhns, H.; Huebner, K.

    1977-01-01

    The impact-ionization rate in InSb at 300 K between 200 and 500 V/cm is found to be g(E) = 2 x 10 9 exp(-10 3 /E)s -1 with E being the electric field (V/cm). We use current-voltage characteristics measured by A.C. Prior in 1957. In evaluating the impact-ionization rate we take into account Auger and linear recombination, surface generation, z-pinch compression, and doping of the sample. We also discuss the effects of ohmic heating and change in electron temperature. The rates evaluated from four independent measurements done by Prior agree reasonably well. (orig.) [de

  4. Dielectric-spectroscopy approach to ferrofluid nanoparticle clustering induced by an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, Michal; Kurimsky, Juraj; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kopcansky, Peter; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Taculescu-Moaca, Elena Alina; Timko, Milan

    2014-09-01

    An experimental study of magnetic colloidal particles cluster formation induced by an external electric field in a ferrofluid based on transformer oil is presented. Using frequency domain isothermal dielectric spectroscopy, we study the influence of a test cell electrode separation distance on a low-frequency relaxation process. We consider the relaxation process to be associated with an electric double layer polarization taking place on the particle surface. It has been found that the relaxation maximum considerably shifts towards lower frequencies when conducting the measurements in the test cells with greater electrode separation distances. As the electric field intensity was always kept at a constant value, we propose that the particle cluster formation induced by the external ac electric field accounts for that phenomenon. The increase in the relaxation time is in accordance with the Schwarz theory of electric double layer polarization. In addition, we analyze the influence of a static electric field generated by dc bias voltage on a similar shift in the relaxation maximum position. The variation of the dc electric field for the hysteresis measurements purpose provides understanding of the development of the particle clusters and their decay. Following our results, we emphasize the utility of dielectric spectroscopy as a simple, complementary method for detection and study of clusters of colloidal particles induced by external electric field.

  5. Surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry studies of nonequilibrium surface ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blashenkov, Nikolai M; Lavrent'ev, Gennadii Ya

    2007-01-01

    The ionization of polyatomic molecules on tungsten and tungsten oxide surfaces is considered for quasiequilibrium or essentially nonequilibrium conditions (in the latter case, the term nonequilibrium surface ionization is used for adsorbate ionization). Heterogeneous reactions are supposed to proceed through monomolecular decay of polyatomic molecules or fragments of multimolecular complexes. The nonequilibrium nature of these reactions is established. The dependences of the current density of disordered ions on the surface temperature, electric field strength, and ionized particle energy distribution are obtained in analytical form. Heterogeneous dissociation energies, the ionization potentials of radicals, and the magnitude of reaction departure from equilibrium are determined from experimental data, as are energy exchange times between reaction products and surfaces, the number of molecules in molecular complexes, and the number of effective degrees of freedom in molecules and complexes. In collecting the data a new technique relying on surface-ionization field mass-spectrometry was applied. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  6. A corotation electric field model of the Earth derived from Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Rotation of the Earth in its own geomagnetic field sets up a primary corotation electric field, compensated by a secondary electric field of induced electrical charges. For the geomagnetic field measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites, a derivation of the global corotation electric field inside and outside of the corotation region is provided here, in both inertial and corotating reference frames. The Earth is assumed an electrical conductor, the lower atmosphere an insulator, followed by the corotating ionospheric E region again as a conductor. Outside of the Earth's core, the induced charge is immediately accessible from the spherical harmonic Gauss coefficients of the geomagnetic field. The charge density is positive at high northern and southern latitudes, negative at midlatitudes, and increases strongly toward the Earth's center. Small vertical electric fields of about 0.3 mV/m in the insulating atmospheric gap are caused by the corotation charges located in the ionosphere above and the Earth below. The corotation charges also flow outward into the region of closed magnetic field lines, forcing the plasmasphere to corotate. The electric field of the corotation charges further extends outside of the corotating regions, contributing radial outward electric fields of about 10 mV/m in the northern and southern polar caps. Depending on how the magnetosphere responds to these fields, the Earth may carry a net electric charge.

  7. Longitudinal and transverse electric field measurements in resonant cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Dechun; Chen Linfeng; Zheng Xiaoyue

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a measuring technique for the electric field distribution of high order modes in resonant cavities. A perturbing bead-like cage made with metallic wires are developed for S-band field measurements, which can be used to detect a small electric field component in the presence of other strong electric or magnetic field components (That means high sensitivity and high directivity). In order to avoid orientation error for the cage with very high directivity, two parallel threads were used for supporting the perturbing cage. A simple mechanical set-up is described. The cage can be driven into the cavity on-axis or off-axis in any azimuth for the longitudinal and transverse electric field measurements

  8. Galvanotactic behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis under electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Kim, Paul Seung Soo; Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Kim, JinSeok

    2013-01-01

    Tetrahymena pyriformis, a eukaryotic ciliate, swims toward a cathode in straight or cross-shaped microchannels under an applied electric field, a behavioral response called cathodal galvanotaxis. In straight channel experiments, a one-dimensional electric field was applied, and the galvanotactic swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis was observed and described in detail while the polarity of this field is switched. In most individual cases, the cell would immediately switch its direction toward the cathode; however, exceptional cases have been observed where cells exhibit a turning delay or do not turn after a polarity switch. In cross-channel experiments, feedback control using vision-based tracking was used to steer a cell in the microchannel intersection using a two-dimensional electric field generated by four electrodes placed at four ends of the cross channel. The motivation for this work is to study the swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis as a microrobot under the control of electric fields. (paper)

  9. Optical Remote Sensing of Electric Fields Above Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, B. M.; Carlson, B. E.; Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Smith, D.; Inan, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of thunderstorm electric fields typically require balloon-borne measurements in the region of interest. Such measurements are cumbersome and provide limited information at a single point. Remote sensing of electric fields by Kerr-effect induced optical polarization changes of background skylight circumvents many of these difficulties and can in principle provide a high-speed movie of electric field behavior. Above-thundercloud 100 kV/m quasi-static electric fields are predicted to produce polarization changes at above the part in one million level that should be detectable at a ground instrument featuring 1 cm2sr geometric factor and 1 kHz bandwidth (though more sensitivity is nonetheless desired). Currently available optical and electronic components may meet these requirements. We review the principles of this measurement and discuss the current status of a field-ready prototype instrument currently in construction.

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Corona Discharge in Electrical Transmission due to AC/DC Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuangpian Phanupong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, using of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission to maximize the transmission efficiency, bulk power transmission, connection of renewable power source from wind farm to the grid is of prime concern for the utility. However, due to the high electric field stress from Direct Current (DC line, the corona discharge can easily be occurred at the conductor surface leading to transmission loss. Therefore, the polarity effect of DC lines on corona inception and breakdown voltage should be investigated. In this work, the effect of DC polarity and Alternating Current (AC field stress on corona inception voltage and corona discharge is investigated on various test objects, such as High Voltage (HV needle, needle at ground plane, internal defect, surface discharge, underground cable without cable termination, cable termination with simulated defect and bare overhead conductor. The corona discharge is measured by partial discharge measurement device with high-frequency current transformer. Finally, the relationship between supply voltage and discharge intensity on each DC polarity and AC field stress can be successfully determined.

  11. Nonlinear piezoelectricity in epitaxial ferroelectrics at high electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Alexei; Sichel, Rebecca; Lee, Ho Nyung; Landahl, Eric C; Adams, Bernhard; Dufresne, Eric M; Evans, Paul G

    2008-01-18

    Nonlinear effects in the coupling of polarization with elastic strain have been predicted to occur in ferroelectric materials subjected to high electric fields. Such predictions are tested here for a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 ferroelectric thin film at electric fields in the range of several hundred MV/m and strains reaching up to 2.7%. The piezoelectric strain exceeds predictions based on constant piezoelectric coefficients at electric fields from approximately 200 to 400 MV/m, which is consistent with a nonlinear effect predicted to occur at corresponding piezoelectric distortions.

  12. Initial plasma production by induction electric field on QUEST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sato, Kohnosuke

    2007-01-01

    Induction electric field by center solenoid coil plays a roll to produce initial plasma. According to Townsend avalanche theory, minimum electric field for plasma breakdown depends on neutral gas pressure and connection length. On QUEST spherical tokamak, a connection length is evaluated as 966m on null point neighborhood with coil current ratio I PF26 /I CS =0.1, and induction electric field considering eddy current of vacuum vessel is evaluated as about 0.1 V/m on null point neighborhood. With Townsend avalanche theory, these values manage to produce initial plasma on QUEST. (author)

  13. Distributions of electric and elastic fields at domain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Josef; Fousek, Jan; Maryska, Jiri; Marvan, Milan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of the finite element method (FEM) in modelling spatial distributions of electric and elastic fields in a ferroelectric crystals with two domains separated by a 90 deg. domain wall. The domain boundary is idealized as a two-dimensional defect in an electro-elastic continuum. It represents the source of inhomogenity and internal distortion in both elastic and electric fields. The main results are distributions of electric field, strain and mechanical force along the domain boundary

  14. [Mechanism of ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xin-hua; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation has been widely applied in clinical cancer treatment, while its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Researchers have revealed that nanosecond pulsed electric field generates nanopores in plasma membrane, leading to a rapid influx of Ca²⁺; it has specific effect on intracellular organelle membranes, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum injuries and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. In addition, it may also change cellular morphology through damage of cytoskeleton. This article reviews the recent research advances on the molecular mechanism of cell membrane and organelle changes induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation.

  15. Electric field studies: TLE-induced waveforms and ground conductivity impact on electric field propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Thomas; Garcia, Geraldine; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    We review in this paper main results obtained from electric field (from VLF to HF) measurement campaigns realized by CEA in the framework of the Eurosprite program [Neubert et al., 2005, 2008] from 2003 to 2009 in France in different configurations. Two main topics have been studied: sprite or elve induced phenomena (radiation or perturbation) and wave propagation. Using a network of 4 stations, VLF radiations from sprite have been successfully located at 10 km from the sprite parent lightning, in agreement with possible sprite location, generally displaced from the parent lightning. The MF (300 kHz - 3 MHz) source bursts were identified simultaneously with the occurrence of sprites observed with cameras [Farges et al., 2004; Neubert et al., 2008]. These observations are compared to recent broadband measurements, assumed to be due to relativistic electron beam radiation related to sprites [Fullekrug et al., 2009]. Recently, in 2009, with a new instrumentation, an ELF tail has been clearly measured after the lightning waveform, while sprites were observed at about 500 km from our station. This ELF tail is usually observed at distances higher than thousand km and is associated to sprite generation. This opens the capacity to measure the charge moment of the parent-lightning, using such measurement close to the source. Farges et al. [2007] showed that just after a lightning return stroke, a strong transient attenuation is very frequently observed in the MF waves of radio transmissions. They showed that this perturbation is due to heating of the lower ionosphere by the lightning-induced EMP during few milliseconds. These perturbations are then the MF radio signature of the lightning EMP effects on the lower ionosphere, in the same way as elves correspond to their optical signature. The experiment also provided the electric field waveforms directly associated to elves, while lightning were not detected by Météorage. Many of them present a double peak feature. The

  16. Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyun; Wang Bingbing; Li Xiaofeng; Fu Panming; Chen Jing; Liu Jie; Jiang Hongbing; Gong Qihuang; Yan Zongchao

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional semiclassical method, we perform a systematic analysis of the effects of an additional static electric field on nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of a helium atom in an intense, linearly polarized laser field. It is found that the static electric field influences not only the ionization rate, but also the kinetic energy of the ionized electron returning to the parent ion, in such a way that, if the rate is increased, then the kinetic energy of the first returning electron is decreased, and vice versa. These two effects compete in NSDI. Since the effect of the static electric field on the ionization of the first electron plays a more crucial role in the competition, the symmetric double-peak structure of the He 2+ momentum distribution parallel to the polarization of the laser field is destroyed. Furthermore, the contribution of the trajectories with multiple recollisions to the NSDI is also changed dramatically by the static electric field. As the static electric field increases, the trajectories with two recollisions, which start at the time when the laser and the static electric field are in the same direction, become increasingly important for the NSDI

  17. Electric field measurements in a dielectric barrier nanosecond pulse discharge with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; O’Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of time-resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond discharge between two plane electrodes covered by dielectric plates, using picosecond four-wave mixing diagnostics. For absolute calibration, the IR signal was measured in hydrogen at a pressure of 440 Torr, for electrostatic electric field ranging from 0 to 8 kV cm −1 . The calibration curve (i.e. the square root of IR signal intensity versus electric field) was shown to be linear. By measuring the intensities of the pump, Stokes, and IR signal beam for each laser shot during the time sweep across the high-voltage pulse, temporal evolution of the electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge was determined with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The results are compared to kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement, including non-zero electric field offset before the main high voltage pulse, breakdown moment, and reduction of electric field in the plasma after breakdown. The difference between the experimental results and model predictions is likely due to non-1D structure of the discharge. Comparison with the kinetic modeling predictions shows that electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge is controlled primarily by electron impact excitation and charge accumulation on the dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  18. Electric field induced instabilities in free emulsion films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchoukov, P.; Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada); Mostowfi, F. [Schlumberger DBR Technology Center, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Czarnecki, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that investigated the mechanism of electric field-induced breakdown of free emulsion films. Instability patterns were observed on the plane of a water-oil-water film following electric polarization. The length-scales of the instabilities were measured by analyzing images immediately after applying the electric field. Linear stability analysis was used to calculate the theoretical dominant wavelengths. The calculated values were found to be in good agreement with measured values. The films were formed in a thin film apparatus modified so that the oil film separated 2 aqueous phase compartments, each in contact with a platinum electrode. This enabled the measurement of disjoining pressure while applying the electric field to the film. It was concluded that breakdown of thin films induced by electric field has many applications, including electrostatic de-emulsification/desalination of crude oil and emulsion stability measurements. It was concluded that electroporation and dielectric breakdown may be responsible for electric field-induced breakdown. This study also presented evidence of an increase in electric field-induced instabilities in emulsion films resulting in rupture. tabs., figs.

  19. Quantum particle in a potential well field and in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, U.; Olejnik, V.P.

    1990-01-01

    Solutions of the Dirac equation in the field of δ-like potential well with arbitrary symmetry and in uniform electric field were obtained and analyzed. It is shown that wave function and energy of electron in bound state in the absence of electric field depend sufficiently on the type of potential well symmetry. 1 ref

  20. Surface morphology, structural and electrical properties of RF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5

    electrical properties of RF sputtered ITO thin films deposited onto Si(100). .... scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface images are shown along with the cross- ..... annealing effect”, J. of Alloys and Compounds 509, (2011) 6072-6076.

  1. Measuring the vertical electrical field above an oceanic convection system using a meteorological sounding balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A. B.; Chiu, C.; Lai, S.; Chen, C.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical electric field above thundercloud plays an important role in the generation and modeling of transient luminous events. For example, Pasko [1995] proposed that the high quasi-static E-field following the positive cloud-to-ground lightning could accelerate and input energy to ambient electrons; as they collide and excite nitrogen and oxygen molecules in upper atmosphere, sprites may be induced. A series of balloon experiments led by Holzworth have investigated the temporal and spatial fluctuations of the electric field and conductivity in the upper atmosphere at different sites [Holzworth 2005, and references in]. But the strength and variation of the vertical electric field above thundercloud, especially oceanic ones, are not well documented so far. A lightweight, low-cost measurement system including an electric field meter and the associated aviation electronics are developed to carry out the in-situ measurement of the vertical electric field and the inter-cloud charge distribution. Our measuring system was first deployed using a meteorological sounding balloon from Taitung, Taiwan in May 2012. The measured electric field below 3km height shows an exponential decay and it is consistent with the expected potential gradient variation between ionosphere and the Earth surface. But the background strength of the measured E-field grows up exponentially and a violent fluctuations is also observed when the balloon flew over a developing oceanic convection cell. The preliminary results from this flight will be reported and discussed. This low-cost electric field meter is developed within one year. In the coming months, more flights will be performed with the aim to measure the rapid variation of the electric field above thundercloud as well as the E-field that may induce transient luminous events. Our ground campaigns show that the occurrence rates of blue and gigantic jet are relatively high in the vicinity of Taiwan. Our experiment can be used to diagnose

  2. Manipulation of positron orbits in a dipole magnetic field with fluctuating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, H.; Horn-Stanja, J.; Nißl, S.; Stenson, E. V.; Hergenhahn, U.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Singer, M.; Dickmann, M.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Stoneking, M. R.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the manipulation of positron orbits in a toroidal dipole magnetic field configuration realized with electric fields generated by segmented electrodes. When the toroidal circulation motion of positrons in the dipole field is coupled with time-varying electric fields generated by azimuthally segmented outer electrodes, positrons undergo oscillations of their radial positions. This enables quick manipulation of the spatial profiles of positrons in a dipole field trap by choosing appropriate frequency, amplitude, phase, and gating time of the electric fields. According to numerical orbit analysis, we applied these electric fields to positrons injected from the NEPOMUC slow positron facility into a prototype dipole field trap experiment with a permanent magnet. Measurements with annihilation γ-rays clearly demonstrated the efficient compression effects of positrons into the strong magnetic field region of the dipole field configuration. This positron manipulation technique can be used as one of essential tools for future experiments on the formation of electron-positron plasmas.

  3. Surface multipole guide field for plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breun, R.A.; Rael, B.H.; Wong, A.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Described here is a surface guide field system which is useful for injection of plasmas into confinement devices. Experimental results are given for 5--25-eV hydrogen plasmas produced by a coaxial discharge (Marshall) gun. It is found that better than 90% of the plasma produced by the gun is delivered to the end of the guide 180 cm away, while the neutral component falls by more than an order of magnitude. For these results the rod current providing the magnetic field had to be large enough to provide at least 1.5-ion gyroradii from the center of the guide to the surface of the inner rod

  4. Effect of oil-pipelines existed in HVTL corridor on the electric field distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, H.M. [College of Technological Studies, Kuwait (Kuwait). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The overhead transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances requires high transmission voltages which can generate high electric fields that may have harmful effects on both human and animals. Therefore, corridors or right-of-way are left on both sides along the route of transmission lines. Overhead power transmission lines need strips of land to be designated as rights-of-way. These strips of land can also support other uses such as pipelines, railroads and highways. The primary purpose for minimizing the field effects of high voltage AC lines is to reduce the electric field at ground level. This study investigated the effects of oil-pipelines running parallel to the lines in the rights-of-way corridors on the electric fields generated from high voltage electrical networks in Kuwait. In order to examine the impact of certain design parameters on the electric field distribution near the ground surface, this study varied the oil pipelines diameter, the proximity of the pipeline from the transmission line center and the number of pipelines. The objective was to determine if the amount of land which is required as right-of-way can be reduced. This study also examined the effect of two parallel oil pipelines on the field distribution. Both pipelines were separated by a given distance and ran parallel to the transmission line conductors. The charge simulation method (CSM) was used to simulate and model both the conductors of the transmission lines and the oil-pipelines. Graphs for the electric field distribution profiles at the ground surface, at transmission line conductors' surfaces and at the surfaces of the oil pipelines were presented and evaluated for each scenario. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Enhanced electrical conductivity in graphene and boron nitride nanoribbons in large electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2018-02-01

    Based on data of density function theory (DFT) as the input of tight binding model, the electrical conductivity (σ(T)) of graphene nanoribbos (GNRs) and Boron Nitride nanoribbos (BNNRs) under external electric fields with different wide are studied using the Green's function method. The BNNRs are wide band gap semiconductor and they are turned into metal depending on their electric field strength. The σ(T) shows increasing in low temperature region and after reaching the maximum value, it will decrease in high temperature region. In lower temperature ranges, the electrical conductivity of the GNRs is greater than that of the BNNRs. In a low temperature region, the σ(T) of GNRs increases linearly with temperature unlike the BNNRs. The electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the electric field strength.

  6. On the electric field model for an open magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Walker, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new canonical separator line type magnetospheric magnetic field and electric field model for use in magnetospheric calculations, we determine the magnetic and electric field by controlling the reconnection rate at the subsolar magnetopause. The model is applicable only for purely southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We have obtained a more realistic magnetotail configuration by applying a stretch transformation to an axially symmetric field solution. We also discuss the Stern singularity in which there is an electric field singlarity in the canonical separate line models for B(sub y) not = to 0 by using a new technique that solves for the electric field along a field line directly instead of determining it by a potential mapping. The singularity not only causes an infinite electric field on the polar cap, but also causes the boundary conditions at plus infinity and minus infinity in the solar wind to contradict each other. This means that the canonical separator line models do not represent the open magnetosphere well, except for the case of purely southward IMF.

  7. The bee, the flower and the electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects use several different senses to forage on flowers, and detect floral cues such as color, shape, pattern, humidity and chemical volatiles. This presentation will present our discovery of a previously unappreciated sensory capacity in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris: the detection of floral electric fields. We show that these floral fields act as informational cues, and that they can be affected by the visit of naturally electrically charged bees. Like visual cues, floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We also show that such electric field information contributes to the complex array of floral cues that together improve a pollinator’s memory of floral rewards. Floral electric fields arise from complex interactions with the surrounding atmosphere, an interaction between plants and their environment that not well understood. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this new sensory modality - electrostatic field detection- may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.

  8. Electric and magnetic fields in medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Papers Include: The effects of low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields on neuro-chemical transmission in vitro; Morphological changes in E Coli subjected to DC electrical fields; An investigation of some claimed biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Electrical phenomena and bone healing - a comparison of contemporary techniques; Clinical evaluations of a portable module emitting pulsed RF energy; The design, construction and performance of a magnetic nerve stimulator; The principle of electric field tomography and its application to selective read-out of information from peripheral nerves; Applied potential tomography - clinical applications; Impendance imaging using a linear electrode array; Mathematics as an aid to experiment: human body currents induced by power frequency electric fields; Effects of electric field near 750KV transmission line and protection against their harmful consequences; Leukemia and electromagnetic fields: a case-control study; Overhead power lines and childhood cancer; Magnetic measurement of nerve action currents - a new intraoperative recording technique; The potential use of electron spin resonance or impedance measurement to image neuronal electrical activity in the human brain

  9. The transient electric field measurement system for EAST device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y., E-mail: wayong@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Ji, Z.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Zhu, C.M. [The Experiment & Verification Center of State Grid Electric Power Research Institute (The Automation Equipment EMC Lab. of State Grid Co.), Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Z.C.; Ma, T.F.; Xu, Z.H. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2016-11-15

    The electromagnetic environment around the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) device is very complex during plasma discharge experiment. In order to fully monitor the changes of electric field around the EAST device during plasma discharge, a transient electric field measurement system based on PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation (PXI) platform has been designed. A digitizer is used for high-speed data acquisition of raw signals from electric field sensors, and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) module is used for realizing an on-the-fly fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) algorithm including a beforehand identified antenna factor (AF) to achieve finally a calibrated and filtered electric field measurement, then these signals can be displayed and easily analyzed. The raw signals from electric field sensors are transferred through optical fiber by optical isolation to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI). The high speed data streaming technology is used for data storage. A prototype of this system has been realized to measure the transient electric field strength, with the real-time processing and continuous acquisition ability of one channel of 14-bit resolution and up to 50 MHz sampling rate, and 6 KHz FFT frequency resolution.

  10. Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-07-01

    We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations of "electric charges" and "magnetic charges" can engineer the spatial structure and symmetry of polarizations of vector optical field, providing additional degrees of freedom assisting in controlling the field symmetry at the focus and allowing engineering of the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications.

  11. Streamer discharges can move perpendicularly to the electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, S.; Takahashi, E.; Teunissen, J.; Ebert, U.

    2014-01-01

    Streamer discharges are a primary mode of electric breakdown in thunderstorms and high voltage technology; they are generally believed to grow along electric field lines. However, we here give experimental and numerical evidence that streamers can propagate nearly perpendicularly to the background

  12. Lattice topological field theory on nonorientable surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimipour, V.; Mostafazadeh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The lattice definition of the two-dimensional topological quantum field theory [Fukuma et al., Commun. Math. Phys. 161, 157 (1994)] is generalized to arbitrary (not necessarily orientable) compact surfaces. It is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between real associative *-algebras and the topological state sum invariants defined on such surfaces. The partition and n-point functions on all two-dimensional surfaces (connected sums of the Klein bottle or projective plane and g-tori) are defined and computed for arbitrary *-algebras in general, and for the group ring A=R[G] of discrete groups G, in particular. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  13. Quantum field theory near surfaces of discontinuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, H.T.

    1981-01-01

    This work deals with the problem of a quantized scalar field propagating near a surface of discontinuity. The proper time formalism is employed to express the Green's function and stress tensor as proper time integrals of a transformation function. The transformation function is calculated by a WKB approximation which exhibits the essential singularities generated by the high frequency behavior of waves propagating near the surface. Two singularities are present, the usual direct singularity and an additional reflected singularity generated by the high frequency behavior of waves reflected by the discontinuity. The stress tensor is calculated by dimensional continuation. The results are employed to analyze energy generated by the surface

  14. On the Role of the Electrical Field in Spark Plasma Sintering of UO2+x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrpekl, Vaclav; Naji, Mohamed; Holzhäuser, Michael; Freis, Daniel; Prieur, Damien; Martin, Philippe; Cremer, Bert; Murray-Farthing, Mairead; Cologna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The electric field has a large effect on the stoichiometry and grain growth of UO2+x during Spark Plasma Sintering. UO2+x is gradually reduced to UO2.00 as a function of sintering temperature and time. A gradient in the oxidation state within the pellets is observed in intermediate conditions. The shape of the gradient depends unequivocally on the direction of the electrical field. The positive surface of the pellet shows a higher oxidation state compared to the negative one. An area with larger grain size is found close to the positive electrode, but not in contact with it. We interpret these findings with the redistribution of defects under an electric field, which affect the stoichiometry of UO2+x and thus the cation diffusivity. The results bear implications for understanding the electric field assisted sintering of UO2 and non-stoichiometric oxides in general. PMID:28422164

  15. Electric field effects in hyperexcitable neural tissue: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Uniform electric fields applied to neural tissue can modulate neuronal excitability with a threshold value of about 1mV mm -1 in normal physiological conditions. However, electric fields could have a lower threshold in conditions where field sensitivity is enhanced, such as those simulating epilepsy. Uniform electrical fields were applied to hippocampal brain slices exposed to picrotoxin, high potassium or low calcium solutions. The results in the low calcium medium show that neuronal activity can be completely blocked in 10% of the 30 slices tested with a field amplitude of 1mV mm -1 . These results suggest that the threshold for this effect is clearly smaller than 1mV mm -1 . The hypothesis that the extracellular resistance could affect the sensitivity to the electrical fields was tested by measuring the effect of the osmolarity of the extracellular solution on the efficacy of the field. A 10% decrease on osmolarity resulted in a 56% decrease ( n =4) in the minimum field required for full suppression. A 14% in osmolarity produced an 81% increase in the minimum field required for full suppression. These results show that the extracellular volume can modulate the efficacy of the field and could lower the threshold field amplitudes to values lower than ∼1mmV mm -. (author)

  16. Communication: Control of chemical reactions using electric field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Shivaraj D.; Tsori, Yoav, E-mail: tsori@bgu.ac.il [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-05-21

    We examine theoretically a new idea for spatial and temporal control of chemical reactions. When chemical reactions take place in a mixture of solvents, an external electric field can alter the local mixture composition, thereby accelerating or decelerating the rate of reaction. The spatial distribution of electric field strength can be non-trivial and depends on the arrangement of the electrodes producing it. In the absence of electric field, the mixture is homogeneous and the reaction takes place uniformly in the reactor volume. When an electric field is applied, the solvents separate and the reactants are concentrated in the same phase or separate to different phases, depending on their relative miscibility in the solvents, and this can have a large effect on the kinetics of the reaction. This method could provide an alternative way to control runaway reactions and to increase the reaction rate without using catalysts.

  17. Impact of electric field on Hofmeister effects in aggregation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field; Hofmeister effects; ionic polarization; colloidal minerals; electrostatic interaction. 1. Introduction. Aggregation .... sions containing a given quantity of colloidal minerals ..... account to explain the observed Hofmeister effects. On the ...

  18. Ion-storage in radiofrequency electric quadrupole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, V.

    1976-01-01

    The confinement of charged particles in a quadrupole radiofrequency electric field are presented. The stability diagrams and phase space trajectories for the quadrupole mass spectrometer and for the ion trap are represented and their main characteristics are discussed. (author)

  19. Communication: Control of chemical reactions using electric field gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Shivaraj D; Tsori, Yoav

    2016-05-21

    We examine theoretically a new idea for spatial and temporal control of chemical reactions. When chemical reactions take place in a mixture of solvents, an external electric field can alter the local mixture composition, thereby accelerating or decelerating the rate of reaction. The spatial distribution of electric field strength can be non-trivial and depends on the arrangement of the electrodes producing it. In the absence of electric field, the mixture is homogeneous and the reaction takes place uniformly in the reactor volume. When an electric field is applied, the solvents separate and the reactants are concentrated in the same phase or separate to different phases, depending on their relative miscibility in the solvents, and this can have a large effect on the kinetics of the reaction. This method could provide an alternative way to control runaway reactions and to increase the reaction rate without using catalysts.

  20. Pulsed electric fields for pasteurization: defining processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) technology in food pasteurization has been extensively studied. Optimal PEF treatment conditions for maximum microbial inactivation depend on multiple factors including PEF processing conditions, production parameters and product properties. In order for...

  1. Interferometric methods for mapping static electric and magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzi, Giulio; Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensi......) the model-independent determination of the locations and magnitudes of field sources (electric charges and magnetic dipoles) directly from electron holographic data.......The mapping of static electric and magnetic fields using electron probes with a resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to reveal nanoscale features in materials requires the use of phase-sensitive methods such as the shadow technique, coherent Foucault imaging and the Transport of Intensity...... on theoretical models that form the basis of the quantitative interpretation of electron holographic data. We review the application of electron holography to a variety of samples (including electric fields associated with p–n junctions in semiconductors, quantized magnetic flux in superconductors...

  2. Equatorial ionospheric electric fields during the November 2004 magnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Fejer, Bela G.; Jensen, J. W.; Kikuchi, T.; Abdu, M. A.; Chau, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] We use radar measurements from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory, magnetometer observations from the Pacific sector and ionosonde data from Brazil to study equatorial ionospheric electric fields during the November 2004 geomagnetic storm. Our data show very large eastward and westward daytime electrojet current perturbations with lifetimes of about an hour (indicative of undershielding and overshielding prompt penetration electric fields) in the Pacific equatorial region during the November...

  3. 3D Modeling of Electric Fields in the LUX Detector

    OpenAIRE

    LUX Collaboration; Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.

    2017-01-01

    This work details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) electric field model for the LUX detector. The detector took data during two periods of searching for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) searches. After the first period completed, a time-varying non-uniform negative charge developed in the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) panels that define the radial boundary of the detector's active volume. This caused electric field variations in the detector in time, depth and azimuth, g...

  4. 3D modeling of electric fields in the LUX detector

    OpenAIRE

    Akerib, DS; Alsum, S; Araújo, HM; Bai, X; Bailey, AJ; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, EP; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, TP; Boulton, EM; Brás, P; Byram, D; Cahn, SB; Carmona-Benitez, MC

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab. This work details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) electric field model for the LUX detector. The detector took data to search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) during two periods. After the first period completed, a time-varying non-uniform negative charge developed in the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) panels that define the radial boundary of the detector's active volume. This caused electric field variations in the de...

  5. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  6. Etalon (standard) for surface potential distribution produced by electric activity of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szathmáry, V; Ruttkay-Nedecký, I

    1981-01-01

    The authors submit etalon (standard) equipotential maps as an aid in the evaluation of maps of surface potential distributions in living subjects. They were obtained by measuring potentials on the surface of an electrolytic tank shaped like the thorax. The individual etalon maps were determined in such a way that the parameters of the physical dipole forming the source of the electric field in the tank corresponded to the mean vectorcardiographic parameters measured in a healthy population sample. The technique also allows a quantitative estimate of the degree of non-dipolarity of the heart as the source of the electric field.

  7. Interaction of the superconducting domains induced by external electric field with electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of a superconductor in time-independent electric field perpendicular to the surface and in the external electromagnetic wave is theoretically investigated. A new type of the resonance interaction between superconducting domains localized along the magnetic field (if the superconducting phase transition takes place in the external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface) and electromagnetic waves is predicted. The surface impedance of the superconductor with domains is calculated. It is shown that the real part of the impedance has a saturation if the skin length equals the domain size. (orig.)

  8. Electric Field Encephalography as a tool for functional brain research: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Petrov

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG based on measuring electric fields of the brain and demonstrate, using computer modeling, that given the appropriate electric field sensors this technique may have significant advantages over the current EEG technique. Unlike EEG, EFEG can be used to measure brain activity in a contactless and reference-free manner at significant distances from the head surface. Principal component analysis using simulated cortical sources demonstrated that electric field sensors positioned 3 cm away from the scalp and characterized by the same signal-to-noise ratio as EEG sensors provided the same number of uncorrelated signals as scalp EEG. When positioned on the scalp, EFEG sensors provided 2-3 times more uncorrelated signals. This significant increase in the number of uncorrelated signals can be used for more accurate assessment of brain states for non-invasive brain-computer interfaces and neurofeedback applications. It also may lead to major improvements in source localization precision. Source localization simulations for the spherical and Boundary Element Method (BEM head models demonstrated that the localization errors are reduced two-fold when using electric fields instead of electric potentials. We have identified several techniques that could be adapted for the measurement of the electric field vector required for EFEG and anticipate that this study will stimulate new experimental approaches to utilize this new tool for functional brain research.

  9. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  10. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbolfrc@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Zhi-meng; Hong, Wei; He, Shu-Kai; Teng, Jian [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Gu, Yu-qiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2017-04-10

    Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  11. Spiking patterns of a hippocampus model in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men Cong; Wang Jiang; Qin Ying-Mei; Wei Xi-Le; Deng Bin; Che Yan-Qiu

    2011-01-01

    We develop a model of CA3 neurons embedded in a resistive array to mimic the effects of electric fields from a new perspective. Effects of DC and sinusoidal electric fields on firing patterns in CA3 neurons are investigated in this study. The firing patterns can be switched from no firing pattern to burst or from burst to fast periodic firing pattern with the increase of DC electric field intensity. It is also found that the firing activities are sensitive to the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal electric field. Different phase-locking states and chaotic firing regions are observed in the parameter space of frequency and amplitude. These findings are qualitatively in accordance with the results of relevant experimental and numerical studies. It is implied that the external or endogenous electric field can modulate the neural code in the brain. Furthermore, it is helpful to develop control strategies based on electric fields to control neural diseases such as epilepsy. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Effect of the radial electric field on turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1990-01-01

    For many years, the neoclassical transport theory for three- dimensional magnetic configurations, such as magnetic mirrors, ELMO Bumpy Tori (EBTs), and stellarators, has recognized the critical role of the radial electric field in the confinement. It was in these confinement devices that the first experimental measurements of the radial electric field were made and correlated with confinement losses. In tokamaks, the axisymmetry implies that the neoclassical fluxes are ambipolar and, as a consequence, independent of the radial electric field. However, axisymmetry is not strict in a tokamak with turbulent fluctuations, and near the limiter ambipolarity clearly breaks down. Therefore, the question of the effect of the radial electric field on tokamak confinement has been raised in recent years. In particular, the radial electric field has been proposed to explain the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement. There is some initial experimental evidence supporting this type of explanation, although there is not yet a self-consistent theory explaining the generation of the electric field and its effect on the transport. Here, a brief review of recent results is presented. 27 refs., 4 figs

  13. Enhance soil bioremediation with electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, Y.B.; Rabbi, M.F.; Gale, R.J.; Ozsu, E.E.; Alshawabkeh, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ remediation technique that uses low-level direct-current electric potential differences (on the order of volts per centimeter) or an electric current (on the order of milliamps per square centimeter of cross-sectional area between electrodes) applied across a soil mass by electrodes placed in an open- or closed-flow arrangement. In electrokinetic methods, the groundwater in the boreholes or an externally supplied fluid (processing fluid) is used as the conductive medium. Electrokinetic remediation technology for metal extraction is expected to decrease the cost of remediating contaminated soils to the lower end of the $100--$1,000/m 3 range. This would be a significant savings in the $350 billion hazardous waste site cleanup and remediation market. The environmental restoration cost for the mixed (radioactive)-waste market is separately estimated to be $65 billion. The potential of the electrokinetic remediation technique in remediating soils contaminated with radioactive mixed waste using depolarization agents and complexing agents is noteworthy. The authors have removed uranyl ions from spiked kaolinite using the technique

  14. Resonance localization and poloidal electric field due to cyclo- tron wave heating in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.Y.; Chan, V.S.; Harvey, R.W.; Prater, R.; Wong, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The perpendicular heating in cyclotron waves tends to pile up the resonant particles toward the low magnetic field side with their banana tips localized to the resonant surface. A poloidal electric field with an E x B drift comparable to the ion vertical drift in a toroidal magnetic field may result. With the assumption of anomalous electron and neoclassical ion transport, density variations due to wave heating are discussed

  15. Electric fields and monopole currents in compact QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.; Faber, M.; Kainz, W.; Skala, P.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement in compact QED is known to be related to magnetic monopoles. Magnetic currents form a solenoid around electric flux lines between a pair of electric charges. This behaviour can be described by the dual version of Maxwell-London equations including a fluctuating string. We use a definition of magnetic monopole currents adjusted to the definition of the electric field strength on a lattice and get good agreement for field and current distributions between compact QED and the predictions of dual Maxwell-London equations. Further we show that the monopole fluctuations in the vacuum are suppressed by the flux tube. ((orig.))

  16. Electric field and temperature effects in irradiated MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M. A. G., E-mail: marcilei@fei.edu.br; Santos, R. B. B.; Leite, F. G.; Araújo, N. E.; Cirne, K. H.; Melo, M. A. A.; Rallo, A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo, S.P. (Brazil); Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Aguirre, F.; Macchione, E. L. A.; Added, N.; Medina, N. H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2016-07-07

    Electronic devices exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit degradation on their electrical characteristics, which may compromise the functionality of the device. Understanding the physical phenomena responsible for radiation damage, which may be specific to a particular technology, it is of extreme importance to develop methods for testing and recovering the devices. The aim of this work is to check the influence of thermal annealing processes and electric field applied during irradiation of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) in total ionizing dose experiments analyzing the changes in the electrical parameters in these devices.

  17. Action potential propagation: ion current or intramembrane electric field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Albert; Pérez, Juan J; Madrenas, Jordi

    2018-01-01

    The established action potential propagation mechanisms do not satisfactorily explain propagation on myelinated axons given the current knowledge of biological channels and membranes. The flow across ion channels presents two possible effects: the electric potential variations across the lipid bilayers (action potential) and the propagation of an electric field through the membrane inner part. The proposed mechanism is based on intra-membrane electric field propagation, this propagation can explain the action potential saltatory propagation and its constant delay independent of distance between Ranvier nodes in myelinated axons.

  18. Critical electric field for maximum tunability in nonlinear dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-09-01

    The authors develop a self-consistent thermodynamic theory to compute the critical electric field at which maximum tunability is attained in a nonlinear dielectric. They then demonstrate that the stored electrostatic free energy functional has to be expanded at least up to the sixth order in electric field so as to define the critical field, and show that it depends solely on the fourth and sixth order permittivities. They discuss the deficiency of the engineering tunability metric in describing nonlinear dielectric phenomena, introduce a critical field renormalized tunability parameter, and substantiate the proposed formalism by computing the critical electric field for prototypical 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)-0.1PbTiO3 and Ba(Ti0.85,Sn0.15)O3 paraelectrics.

  19. Low-pressure gas breakdown in longitudinal combined electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V A; Kharchenko, N D; Yegorenkov, V D

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains the complete experimental and analytical picture of gas breakdown in combined electric fields for arbitrary values of rf and dc fields. To obtain it, we continued the study of the discharge ignition modes in nitrogen with simultaneous application of dc and rf electric fields presented in Lisovskiy et al (2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 125207). To this end, we studied the effect of rf voltage on dc discharge ignition. When we applied an rf voltage exceeding the one corresponding to the minimum breakdown voltage of a self-sustained rf discharge, the curve of dependence of the dc breakdown voltage of a combined discharge on gas pressure was found to consist of two sections. We got the generalized gas breakdown criterion in the combined field valid for arbitrary values of rf and dc electric fields. The calculation results agree with experimental data satisfactorily.

  20. Electric fields in nonhomogeneously doped silicon. Summary of simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, I.V.; Humanic, T.J.; Nouais, D.; Randel, J.; Rashevsky, A.

    2006-01-01

    Variations of the doping concentration inside a silicon device result in electric field distortions. These distortions, 'parasitic' fields, have been observed in Silicon Drift Detectors [D. Nouais, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 119; E. Crescio, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 539 (2005) 250]. Electric fields inside a silicon device can be calculated for a given doping profile. In this study, the ATLAS device simulator. [Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg.2, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA and s imulation/atlas.html>] was used to calculate the electric field inside an inhomogeneously doped device. Simulations were performed for 1D periodic doping profiles. Results show strong dependence of the parasitic field strength on the 'smoothness' of the doping profile

  1. Electric fields in nonhomogeneously doped silicon. Summary of simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)]. E-mail: kotov@mps.ohio-state.edu; Humanic, T.J. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Nouais, D. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Randel, J. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rashevsky, A. [INFN, Sezione di Triste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-11-30

    Variations of the doping concentration inside a silicon device result in electric field distortions. These distortions, 'parasitic' fields, have been observed in Silicon Drift Detectors [D. Nouais, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 501 (2003) 119; E. Crescio, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 539 (2005) 250]. Electric fields inside a silicon device can be calculated for a given doping profile. In this study, the ATLAS device simulator. [Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg.2, Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA and ] was used to calculate the electric field inside an inhomogeneously doped device. Simulations were performed for 1D periodic doping profiles. Results show strong dependence of the parasitic field strength on the 'smoothness' of the doping profile.

  2. New Method for Solving Inductive Electric Fields in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, H.

    2005-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. It is well established that on large scales the ionospheric electric field is a potential field. This is understandable, since the temporal variations of large scale current systems are generally quite slow, in the timescales of several minutes, so inductive effects should be small. However, studies of Alfven wave reflection have indicated that in some situations inductive phenomena could well play a significant role in the reflection process, and thus modify the nature of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The input to our calculation method are the time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfven wave reflection from uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  3. Resonant fields created by spiral electric currents in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.S.; Caldas, I.L.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the resonant magnetic perturbations, created by electric currents in spirals, on the plasma confinement in a tokamak with circular section and large aspect ratio is investigated. These perturbations create magnetic islands around the rational magnetic surface which has the helicity of the helicoidal currents. The intensities of these currents are calculated in order to the magnetic islands reach the limiter or others rational surfaces, what could provoke the plasma disrupture. The electric current intensities are estimated, in two spiral sets with different helicities, which create a predominantly stocastic region among the rational magnetic surfaces with these helicities. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Sound field separation with cross measurement surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Mao

    Full Text Available With conventional near-field acoustical holography, it is impossible to identify sound pressure when the coherent sound sources are located on the same side of the array. This paper proposes a solution, using cross measurement surfaces to separate the sources based on the equivalent source method. Each equivalent source surface is built in the center of the corresponding original source with a spherical surface. According to the different transfer matrices between equivalent sources and points on holographic surfaces, the weighting of each equivalent source from coherent sources can be obtained. Numerical and experimental studies have been performed to test the method. For the sound pressure including noise after separation in the experiment, the calculation accuracy can be improved by reconstructing the pressure with Tikhonov regularization and the L-curve method. On the whole, a single source can be effectively separated from coherent sources using cross measurement.

  5. Limiting electric fields of HVDC overhead power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, N

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of renewable energy and the now long distances between energy generation and consumption, in Europe, electric power transfer by high-voltage (HV) direct current (DC) overhead power lines gains increasing importance. Thousands of kilometers of them are going to be built within the next years. However, existing guidelines and regulations do not yet contain recommendations to limit static electric fields, which are one of the most important criteria for HVDC overhead power lines in terms of tower design, span width and ground clearance. Based on theoretical and experimental data, in this article, static electric fields associated with adverse health effects are analysed and various criteria are derived for limiting static electric field strengths.

  6. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  7. Electric-field-induced monoclinic phase in (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, A. S.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.; Golovko, Yu. I.; Mukhortov, V. M.; El Marssi, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied electric-field-induced symmetry lowering in the tetragonal (001)-oriented heteroepitaxial (Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 )TiO 3 thin film deposited on (001)MgO substrate. Polarized micro-Raman spectra were recorded from the film area in between two planar electrodes deposited on the film surface. Presence of c domains with polarization normal to the substrate was confirmed from polarized Raman study under zero field, while splitting and hardening of the E(TO) soft mode and polarization changes in the Raman spectra suggest monoclinic symmetry under external electric field.

  8. Redistribution of charged aluminum nanoparticles on oil droplets in water in response to applied electrical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing, E-mail: dongqing@mme.uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Janus droplets with two opposite faces of different physical or chemical properties have great potentials in many fields. This paper reports a new method for making Janus droplets by covering one side of the droplet with charged nanoparticles in an externally applied DC electric field. In this paper, aluminum oxide nanoparticles on micro-sized and macro-sized oil droplets were studied. In order to control the surface area covered by the nanoparticles on the oil droplets, the effects of the concentration of nanoparticle suspension, the droplet size as well as the strength of electric field on the final accumulation area of the nanoparticles are studied.Graphical abstract.

  9. Effect of rotating electric field on 3D complex (dusty) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörner, L.; Nosenko, V.; Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Kroll, M.; Schablinski, J.; Block, D.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of rotating electric field on 3D particle clusters suspended in rf plasma was studied experimentally. Spheroidal clusters were suspended inside a glass box mounted on the lower horizontal rf electrode, with gravity partially balanced by thermophoretic force. Clusters rotated in the horizontal plane, in response to rotating electric field that was created inside the box using conducting coating on its inner surfaces ("rotating wall" technique). Cluster rotation was always in the direction of applied field and had a shear in the vertical direction. The angular speed of rotation was 104-107 times lower than applied frequency. The experiment is compared to a recent theory.

  10. An analytical model for the vertical electric field distribution and optimization of high voltage REBULF LDMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xia-Rong; Lü Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical model for the vertical electric field distribution and optimization of a high voltage-reduced bulk field (REBULF) lateral double-diffused metal—oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor is presented. The dependences of the breakdown voltage on the buried n-layer depth, thickness, and doping concentration are discussed in detail. The REBULF criterion and the optimal vertical electric field distribution condition are derived on the basis of the optimization of the electric field distribution. The breakdown voltage of the REBULF LDMOS transistor is always higher than that of a single reduced surface field (RESURF) LDMOS transistor, and both analytical and numerical results show that it is better to make a thick n-layer buried deep into the p-substrate. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. Behaviour of nematic liquid crystals doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles in the presence of an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdadi, M.; Poursamad, J. B.; Sahrai, M.; Moghaddas, F.

    2018-06-01

    A planar nematic liquid crystal cell (NLC) doped with spherical ferroelectric nanoparticles is considered. Polarisation of the nanoparticles are assumed to be along the NLC molecules parallel and antiparallel to the director with equal probability. The NLC molecules anchoring to the cell walls are considered to be strong, while soft anchoring at the nanoparticles surface is supposed. Behaviour of the NLC molecules and nanoparticles in the presence of a perpendicular electric field to the NLC cell is theoretically investigated. The electric field of the nanoparticles is taken into account in the calculations. Freedericksz transition (FT) threshold field in the presence of nanoparticles is found. Then, the director and particles reorientations for the electric fields larger than the threshold field are studied. Measuring the onset of the nanoparticles reorientation is proposed as a new method for the FT threshold measurement.

  12. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  13. Electric Field-Dependent Photoluminescence in Multilayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, T. K.; Henning, A.; Sangwan, V. K.; Speiser, N.; Stern, N. P.; Lauhon, L. J.; Hersam, M. C.; Wang, K.; Valencia, D.; Charles, J.; Kubis, T. C.

    Owing to interlayer coupling, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2 exhibit strong layer dependence of optical and electronic phenomena such as the band gap and trion and neutral exciton population dynamics. Here, we systematically measure the effect of layer number on the optical response of multilayer MoS2 in an external electric field, observing field and layer number dependent emission energy and photoluminescence intensity. These effects are studied in few (2-6) and bulk (11 +) layered structures at low temperatures. In MoS2\\ the observed layer dependence arises from several mechanisms, including interlayer charge transfer, band structure, Stark Effect, Fermi level changes, screening, and surface effects, so it can be challenging to isolate how these mechanisms impact the observables. Because it behaves like a stack of weakly interacting monolayers rather than multilayer or bulk, ReS2 provides a comparison to traditional TMDCs to help isolate the underlying physical mechanisms dictating the response of multilayers. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation MRSEC program (DMR-1121262), and the 2-DARE Grant (EFRI-1433510). N.P.S. is an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow.

  14. Effect of Electric Field on Outwardly Propagating Spherical Flame

    KAUST Repository

    Mannaa, Ossama

    2012-06-01

    The thesis comprises effects of electric fields on a fundamental study of spheri­cal premixed flame propagation.Outwardly-propagating spherical laminar premixed flames have been investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by applying au uni-directional electric potential.Direct photography and schlieren techniques have been adopted and captured images were analyzed through image processing. Unstretched laminar burning velocities under the influence of electric fields and their associated Markstein length scales have been determined from outwardly prop­agating spherical flame at a constant pressure. Methane and propane fuels have been tested to assess the effect of electric fields on the differential diffusion of the two fuels.The effects of varying equivalence ratios and applied voltages have been in­vestigated, while the frequency of AC was fixed at 1 KHz. Directional propagating characteristics were analyzed to identify the electric filed effect. The flame morphology varied appreciably under the influence of electric fields which in turn affected the burning rate of mixtures.The flame front was found to propagate much faster toward to the electrode at which the electric fields were supplied while the flame speeds in the other direction were minimally influenced. When the voltage was above 7 KV the combustion is markedly enhanced in the downward direction since intense turbulence is generated and as a result the mixing process or rather the heat and mass transfer within the flame front will be enhanced.The com­bustion pressure for the cases with electric fields increased rapidly during the initial stage of combustion and was relatively higher since the flame front was lengthened in the downward direction.

  15. Electrical resistivity of UBe13 in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedeshoff, G.M.; Lacerda, A.; Fisk, Z.; Smith, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the temperature dependent electrical resistivity of single and polycrystal samples of UBe 13 in high magnetic fields. Two maxima in the resistivity are observed at T M1 and T M2 . T M1 , the temperature of the colder maximum, increases quadratically with magnetic field H, a field dependence previously observed under hydrostatic pressure. The high temperature maximum at T M2 emerges in fields above about 4 T and increases linearly with H, a behavior which may be due to a sharpening of the crystal field levels associated with a depression of the Kondo effect by high magnetic fields. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Asymmetry of neoclassical transport by dipole electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongtian; Wang Long

    2004-01-01

    Effects of dipole electric fields on neoclassical transport are studied. Large asymmetry in transport is created. The dipole fields, which are in a negative R-direction, reduce the ion drift, increase electron drift, and change the steps of excursion due to collisions. It is found that different levels of dipole field intensities have different types of transport. For the lowest level of the dipole field, the transport returns to the neoclassical one. For the highest level of the dipole field, the transport is turned to be the turbulence transport similar to the pseudo-classical transport. Experimental data may be corresponded to a large level of the dipole field intensity. (authors)

  17. Statistical analysis of the ratio of electric and magnetic fields in random fields generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, R.; Nijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present statistical models of the ratio of random electric and magnetic fields in mode-stirred reverberation chambers. This ratio is based on the electric and magnetic field statistics derived for ideal reverberation conditions. It provides a further performance indicator for

  18. FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SOLVING THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paţiuc V.I.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a new approach to finite volume method which is used to calculate the electric field spatially homogeneous three-dimensional environment. It is formulated the problem Dirihle with building of the computational grid on base of space partition, which is known as Delone triangulation with the use of Voronoi cells. It is proposed numerical algorithm for calculating the potential and electric field strength in the space formed by a cylinder placed in the air. It is developed algorithm and software which were for the case, when the potential on the inner surface of the cylinder has been assigned and on the outer surface and the bottom of cylinder it was assigned zero potential. There are presented results of calculations of distribution in the potential space and electric field strength.

  19. Spatiotemporal structure of intracranial electric fields induced by transcranial electric stimulation in humans and nonhuman primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opitz, Alexander; Falchier, Arnaud; Yan, Chao-Gan

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial electric stimulation (TES) is an emerging technique, developed to non-invasively modulate brain function. However, the spatiotemporal distribution of the intracranial electric fields induced by TES remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how much current actually reac...

  20. Electric field dependence of excess electrical conductivity below transition temperature in thin superconducting lead films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwini Kumar, P K; Duggal, V P [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1976-01-26

    Results of measurements of the electric field dependence of the excess electrical conductivity are reported in thin superconducting lead films below the transition temperature. It is observed that the normal state sheet resistance has some effect on the nonlinearity but the theory of Yamaji still fits well to the experimental data.

  1. Optimized design of micromachined electric field mills to maximize electrostatic field sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yu; Shafai, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design optimization of a micromachined electric field mill, in relation to maximizing its output signal. The cases studied are for a perforated electrically grounded shutter vibrating laterally over sensing electrodes. It is shown that when modeling the output signal of the sensor, the differential charge on the sense electrodes when exposed to vs. visibly shielded from the incident electric field must be considered. Parametric studies of device dimensions show that t...

  2. Production of pulsed electric fields using capacitively coupled electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.; Schwab, F. A. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that pulsed electric fields can be produced over extended volumes by taking advantage of the internal capacitances in a stacked array of electrodes. The design, construction, and performance of practical arrays are discussed. The prototype arrays involved fields of 100-1000 V/cm extending over several centimeters. Scaling to larger physical dimensions is straightforward.

  3. Endogenous Cortical Oscillations Constrain Neuromodulation by Weak Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen L.; Iyengar, Apoorva K.; Foulser, A. Alban; Boyle, Michael R.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that may modulate cognition by enhancing endogenous neocortical oscillations with the application of sine-wave electric fields. Yet, the role of endogenous network activity in enabling and shaping the effects of tACS has remained unclear. Objective We combined optogenetic stimulation and multichannel slice electrophysiology to elucidate how the effect of weak sine-wave electric field depends on the ongoing cortical oscillatory activity. We hypothesized that the structure of the response to stimulation depended on matching the stimulation frequency to the endogenous cortical oscillation. Methods We studied the effect of weak sine-wave electric fields on oscillatory activity in mouse neocortical slices. Optogenetic control of the network activity enabled the generation of in vivo like cortical oscillations for studying the temporal relationship between network activity and sine-wave electric field stimulation. Results Weak electric fields enhanced endogenous oscillations but failed to induce a frequency shift of the ongoing oscillation for stimulation frequencies that were not matched to the endogenous oscillation. This constraint on the effect of electric field stimulation imposed by endogenous network dynamics was limited to the case of weak electric fields targeting in vivo-like network dynamics. Together, these results suggest that the key mechanism of tACS may be enhancing but not overriding of intrinsic network dynamics. Conclusion Our results contribute to understanding the inconsistent tACS results from human studies and propose that stimulation precisely adjusted in frequency to the endogenous oscillations is key to rational design of non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms. PMID:25129402

  4. Effects of pulsed electric field on ULQ and RFP plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Saito, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo activity and self-organization processes are investigated using the application of pulsed poloidal and toroidal electric fields on ULQ and RFP plasmas. Synchronized to the application of the pulsed electric fields, the remarkable responses of the several plasma parameters are observed. The plasma has a preferential magnetic field structure, and the external perturbation activates fluctuation to maintain the structure through dynamo effect. This process changes the total dissipation with the variation of magnetic helicity in the system, showing that self organization accompanies an enhanced dissipation. (author)

  5. Relativistic Bosons in Time-Harmonic Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhucianu, Ovidiu; Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2012-02-01

    In the present paper, we consider a bi-dimensional thin sample, placed in a strong harmonically oscillating electric field and a static magnetic induction, both directed along the normal to the sample's plane. The Klein-Gordon equation describing the relativistic bosons leads to a Mathieu's type equation for the temporal part of the wave functions. It follows that, for the electric field pulsation inside a computable range, depending on the external fields intensities, the amplitude functions are turning from oscillatory to exponentially growing modes. For ultra-relativistic particles, one can recover the periodic stationary amplitude behavior.

  6. High-electric-field quantum transport theory for semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Shon; Nazareno, H.N.

    1995-12-01

    Based on the Baym-Kadanoff-Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's functions technique, a quantum transport theory for semiconductor superlattices under high-electric field is developed. This theory is capable of considering collisional broadening, intra-collisional field effects and band transport and hopping regimes simultaneously. Numerical calculations for narrow-miniband superlattices in high electric field, when the hopping regime dominates are in reasonable agreement with experimental results and show a significant deviation from the Boltzmann theory. A semiphenomenological formula for current density in hopping regime is proposed. (author). 60 refs, 4 figs

  7. Ab initio molecular dynamics in a finite homogeneous electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2002-10-07

    We treat homogeneous electric fields within density functional calculations with periodic boundary conditions. A nonlocal energy functional depending on the applied field is used within an ab initio molecular dynamics scheme. The reliability of the method is demonstrated in the case of bulk MgO for the Born effective charges, and the high- and low-frequency dielectric constants. We evaluate the static dielectric constant by performing a damped molecular dynamics in an electric field and avoiding the calculation of the dynamical matrix. Application of this method to vitreous silica shows good agreement with experiment and illustrates its potential for systems of large size.

  8. Ionization and recombination in attosecond electric field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Solov'ev, Eugene A.; Briggs, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the results of a previous communication [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083003 (2004)], we study ionization and excitation of a hydrogenic atom from the ground and first excited states in short electric field pulses of several cycles. A process of ionization and recombination which occurs periodically in time is identified, for both small and extremely large peak electric field strengths. In the limit of large electric peak fields closed-form analytic expressions for the population of the initial state after single- and few-cycle pulses are derived. These formulas, strictly valid for asymptotically large momentum transfer from the field, give excellent agreement with fully numerical calculations for all momentum transfers

  9. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  10. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  11. The impact of the biasing radial electric field on the SOL in a divertor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V.; Tendler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Strong radial electric field can be induced within the SOL in a divertor tokamak by applying a voltage to divertor plates with respect to the first wall. This biasing scheme results in the strong radial electric field which is much larger than the natural electric field, usually of the order T e /e. Experiments employing this biasing scheme were carried out on the tokamak TdeV. Many interesting effects such as - modifications of the density profile and radial transport of impurities as a function of the polarity and the magnitude of the biasing voltage, the generation of the flux surface average toroidal rotation proportional to the applied voltage, redistribution of the plasma outflow onto divertor plates and so on - were demonstrated to result from the biasing. Furthermore, in contrast to studies carried out employing a different biasing scheme which primarily results in a poloidal electric field, the strong radial electric field impacts more significantly within SOL than the poloidal electric field. Here, we aim to show that the main effects observed experimentally follow from the analysis, provided continuity and momentum balances are employed invoking anomalous viscosity and inertia. (author) 4 refs

  12. Electric field influence on exciton absorption of Er doped and undoped InSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerbulak, B; Kundakci, M; Ates, A; Yildirim, M

    2007-01-01

    Undoped InSe and Er doped InSe (InSe:Er) single crystals were grown by using the Stockbarger method. Ingots had no cracks and voids on the surface. The absorption measurements were carried out in InSe and InSe:Er samples for U=0 and U=30 V in the temperature range 10-320 K with a step of 10 K. Electric field effects on excitons are observed in InSe and InSe:Er single crystals. The absorption edge shifted towards longer wavelengths and decreased intensity in absorption spectra under an electric field E≅5.9 kV cm -1 . The applied electric field caused a shifting and a decreasing of intensity in the absorption spectra. The shifting of the absorption edge can be explained on the basis of the Franz-Keldysh effect (FKE) or thermal heating of the sample under the electric field. At 10 and 320 K, the first exciton energies for InSe were calculated as 1.336 and 1.291 eV for zero voltage and 1.331 and 1.280 eV for electric field and InSe:Er as 1.329 and 1.251 eV for zero voltage and 1.318 and 1.248 eV for electric field, respectively

  13. In-channel electrochemical detection in the middle of microchannel under high electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chung Mu; Joo, Segyeong; Bae, Je Hyun; Kim, Yang-Rae; Kim, Yongseong; Chung, Taek Dong

    2012-01-17

    We propose a new method for performing in-channel electrochemical detection under a high electric field using a polyelectrolytic gel salt bridge (PGSB) integrated in the middle of the electrophoretic separation channel. The finely tuned placement of a gold working electrode and the PGSB on an equipotential surface in the microchannel provided highly sensitive electrochemical detection without any deterioration in the separation efficiency or interference of the applied electric field. To assess the working principle, the open circuit potentials between gold working electrodes and the reference electrode at varying distances were measured in the microchannel under electrophoretic fields using an electrically isolated potentiostat. In addition, "in-channel" cyclic voltammetry confirmed the feasibility of electrochemical detection under various strengths of electric fields (∼400 V/cm). Effective separation on a microchip equipped with a PGSB under high electric fields was demonstrated for the electrochemical detection of biological compounds such as dopamine and catechol. The proposed "in-channel" electrochemical detection under a high electric field enables wider electrochemical detection applications in microchip electrophoresis.

  14. Electrohydrodynamics in nanochannels coated by mixed polymer brushes: effects of electric field strength and solvent quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qianqian; Tian, Xiu; You, Hao

    2018-04-01

    We examine the electrohydrodynamics in mixed polymer brush-coated nanochannels and the conformational dynamics of grafted polymers using molecular dynamics simulations. Charged (A) and neutral polymers (B) are alternately grafted on the channel surfaces. The effects of the electric field strength and solvent quality are addressed in detail. The dependence of electroosmotic flow characteristics and polymer conformational behavior on the solvent quality is influenced due to the change of the electric field strength. The enhanced electric field induces a collapse of the neutral polymer chains which adopt a highly extended conformation along the flow direction. However, the thickness of the charged polymer layer is affected weakly by the electric field, and even a slight swelling is identified for the A-B attraction case, implying the conformational coupling between two polymer species. Furthermore, the charged polymer chains incline entirely towards the electric field direction oppositely to the flow direction. More importantly, unlike the neutral polymer chains, the shape factor of the charged polymer chains, which is used to describe the overall shape of polymer chains, is reduced significantly with increasing the electric field strength, corresponding to a more coiled structure.

  15. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  16. The role of electric field during spray deposition on fluorine doped tin oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Anuj, E-mail: anujkumarom@gmail.com; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Fluorine doped tin oxide deposition by spray technique. • The growth reaction of tin oxide, controlled by the electric field on the substrate surface. • Deposit on large scale substrate 10 cm × 10 cm by single nozzle. • Obtained good quality of thin film. -- Abstract: The fluorine doped tin oxide film has been deposited on 10 cm × 10 cm glass substrate by using spray technique with a voltage applied between the nozzle and an annular electrode placed 2 mm below the nozzle. The effect of the electric field thus created during the spray deposition on structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2}:F (FTO) film was studied. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the presence of cassiterite structure with (2 0 0) orientation for all the FTO film. SEM study revealed the formation of smooth and uniform surface FTO film under the electric field over the entire substrate area. The electrical measurements show that the film prepared under the electric field (for an applied voltage of 2000 V) had a resistivity ∼1.2 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, carrier concentration ∼4.21 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} and mobility ∼14.48 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The sprayed FTO film have the average transmission in the visible region of more than about 80%.

  17. Electric field confinement effect on charge transport in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I.I.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Broer, D.J.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Bässler, H.

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that the charge-carrier mobility in organic semiconductors is only weakly dependent on the electric field at low fields, the experimental mobility in organic field-effect transistors using silylethynyl-substituted pentacene is found to be surprisingly field dependent at low

  18. Methodology for Time-Domain Estimation of Storm-Time Electric Fields Using the 3D Earth Impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbert, A.; Balch, C. C.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Egbert, G. D.; Love, J. J.; Rigler, E. J.; Fujii, I.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic storms can induce geoelectric fields in the Earth's electrically conducting interior, interfering with the operations of electric-power grid industry. The ability to estimate these electric fields at Earth's surface in close to real-time and to provide local short-term predictions would improve the ability of the industry to protect their operations. At any given time, the electric field at the Earth's surface is a function of the time-variant magnetic activity (driven by the solar wind), and the local electrical conductivity structure of the Earth's crust and mantle. For this reason, implementation of an operational electric field estimation service requires an interdisciplinary, collaborative effort between space science, real-time space weather operations, and solid Earth geophysics. We highlight in this talk an ongoing collaboration between USGS, NOAA, NASA, Oregon State University, and the Japan Meteorological Agency, to develop algorithms that can be used for scenario analyses and which might be implemented in a real-time, operational setting. We discuss the development of a time domain algorithm that employs discrete time domain representation of the impedance tensor for a realistic 3D Earth, known as the discrete time impulse response (DTIR), convolved with the local magnetic field time series, to estimate the local electric field disturbances. The algorithm is validated against measured storm-time electric field data collected in the United States and Japan. We also discuss our plans for operational real-time electric field estimation using 3D Earth impedances.

  19. The corrosion behavior of steel exposed to a DC electric field in the simulated wet-dry cyclic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Nianwei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Qimeng [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zhang, Junxi, E-mail: zhangjunxi@shiep.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zhang, Xin; Ni, Qingzhao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Jiang, Yiming; Li, Jin [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The corrosion of steel exposed under a direct current (DC) electric field during simulated wet-dry cycles was investigated using weight gain, electrochemical tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the steel exposed to a DC electric field exhibits a higher corrosion rate than those exposed under no DC electric field. The higher the DC electric field intensity, the higher the corrosion rate of steel. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that more γ-FeOOH and cracks appear in the rust formed on steel exposed to the DC electric field. The porous γ-FeOOH, formation and expansion of cracks enhance the transfer of oxygen and corrosion products, thereby accelerating corrosion of steel exposed to DC electric field. - Highlights: • Effect of DC electric field on the corrosion of steel in wet/dry cycles was studied. • DC electric field accelerates the steel corrosion in wet/dry cyclic processes. • More γ-FeOOH is generated on the surface of steel exposed under a DC electric field. • More cracks appear in the rust formed on the steel exposed under a DC electric filed.

  20. The corrosion behavior of steel exposed to a DC electric field in the simulated wet-dry cyclic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Nianwei; Chen, Qimeng; Zhang, Junxi; Zhang, Xin; Ni, Qingzhao; Jiang, Yiming; Li, Jin

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion of steel exposed under a direct current (DC) electric field during simulated wet-dry cycles was investigated using weight gain, electrochemical tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the steel exposed to a DC electric field exhibits a higher corrosion rate than those exposed under no DC electric field. The higher the DC electric field intensity, the higher the corrosion rate of steel. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that more γ-FeOOH and cracks appear in the rust formed on steel exposed to the DC electric field. The porous γ-FeOOH, formation and expansion of cracks enhance the transfer of oxygen and corrosion products, thereby accelerating corrosion of steel exposed to DC electric field. - Highlights: • Effect of DC electric field on the corrosion of steel in wet/dry cycles was studied. • DC electric field accelerates the steel corrosion in wet/dry cyclic processes. • More γ-FeOOH is generated on the surface of steel exposed under a DC electric field. • More cracks appear in the rust formed on the steel exposed under a DC electric filed.

  1. Relationships between the Birkeland currents, ionospheric currents, and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleuler, E.; Li, C.H.; Nisbet, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations are made of the currents and electric fields in the ionosphere by using a global model of the electron densities including conjugate coupling along field lines. Incoherent scatter and rocket measurements of high-latitude electron densities have been used to derive realistic variations of the polar conductivities as a function of magnetic activity. The Birkeland currents have been specified in terms of three indices, the total current into and out of the hemisphere, the ratio of the magnitudes of the currents in the AM and PM sectors, R/sub ap/ , and R 12 , the ratio of the magnitudes of the currents in region 1 and 2. The relationship between these parameters of the Birkeland current systems and the auroral electrojet indices AE, AL, and AU is examined as well as the polar cap potential and the electric field at lower latitudes. The cusp currents have been modeled in relation to the interplanetary magnetic field and calculations are given of their effect on electric field and current patterns. One aim of this study is to produce a mathematical model of the currents, electric fields and energy inputs produced by field aligned currents that is consistent with, and specifiable in terms of, measured geophysical indices

  2. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2010-01-26

    The electric field dependence of charge carrier transport and the effect of carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers were investigated. A parameter-free multiscale methodology consisting of classical molecular dynamics simulation for the generation of the atomic structure, large system electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling constants calculations and the procedure for extracting the bulk polymer mobility, was used. The results suggested that the mobility of a fully disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer increases with electric field which is consistent with the experimental results on samples of regiorandom P3HT and different from the results on more ordered regioregular P3HT polymers, where the opposite trend is often observed at low electric fields. We calculated the electric field dependence of the effective carrier temperature and showed however that the effective temperature cannot be used to replace the joint effect of temperature and electric field, in contrast to previous theoretical results from phenomenological models. Such a difference was traced to originate from the use of simplified Miller-Abrahams hopping rates in phenomenological models in contrast to our considerations that explicitly take into account the electronic state wave functions and the interaction with all phonon modes.

  3. Detailed 3D models of the induced electric field of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, F S; Lancaster, J L; Fox, P T

    2007-01-01

    Previous models neglected contributions from current elements spanning the full geometric extent of wires in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils. A detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry is shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of electric field (E-field) models. Modeling E-field dependence based on the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured) where simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured)

  4. Electric field dependence of the electron mobility in bulk wurtzite ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electric field dependence of the electron mobility in bulk wurtzite ZnO. K ALFARAMAWI ... tion to ultraviolet light emitters, gas sensors, surface acoustic wave devices and ..... Dorkel J M and Leturcq P H 1981 Solid-State Electron. 24 8211.

  5. Effect of earth discontinued to the electrical field distribution in rod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, will present some results of investigations carried out on electric field distribution on the surface of a discontinuous plane of short rod-plane air gap arrangement. For this purpose, we have used different results obtained by an experimental model and a numerical method for computation used the finite elements ...

  6. HIGHLY RESOLVED MEASUREMENTS OF PERIODIC RADIAL ELECTRIC FIELD AND ASSOCIATED RELAXATIONS IN EDGE BIASING EXPERIMENTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleman, P.; Xu, Y.; Spolaore, M.; Brotánková, Jana; Devynck, P.; Stöckel, Jan; Van Oost, G.; Boucher, C.

    363-365, č. 17 (2007), s. 638-642 ISSN 0022-3115. [ Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/17th./. Hefei, 22.05.2007-26.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Relaxations * Edge transport * Plasma flow * Radial electric fields Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2007

  7. A physics-based potential and electric field model of a nanoscale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we have developed a physics-based model for surface potential, channel potential, electric field and drain current for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor with high-K gate dielectric using two-dimensional Poisson equation under full depletion approximation with the inclusion of effect of polarization ...

  8. Electric field of not completely symmetric systems earthed sphere-uniformly charged dielectric plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, F.

    1994-07-01

    In this paper we study theoretically the electric field in the not completely symmetric system, earthed metallic sphere-uniformly charged dielectric plan, for sphere surface points situated in the plan that contains sphere's center and vertical symmetry axe of dielectric plan. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig

  9. [Measurement of the electric field of the heart in a homogeneous volume conductor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, B M; Titomir, L I

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a technique and some results of experimental measurements of electrical potentials generated by an isolated dog heart in homogeneous conductor, drawing equipotential maps of the field, and calculating the characteristics of the dipole equivalent generator of the heart. The form of potential distribution on a spherical surface around the heart and its ideal orthogonal vectorcardiograms are discussed.

  10. A physics-based potential and electric field model of a nanoscale ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... paper, we have developed a physics-based model for surface potential, channel potential, electric field and drain current for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor with high-K gate dielectric using two-dimensional Poisson equation under full depletion approximation with the inclusion of effect of polarization charges.

  11. Electric field effect on the electronic structure of 2D Y2C electride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youngtek; Lee, Junsu; Park, Jongho; Kwon, Hyeokshin; Jeon, Insu; Wng Kim, Sung; Kim, Gunn; Park, Seongjun; Hwang, Sung Woo

    2018-07-01

    Electrides are ionic compounds in which electrons confined in the interstitial spaces serve as anions and are attractive owing to their exotic physical and chemical properties in terms of their low work function and efficient charge-transfer characteristics. Depending on the topology of the anionic electrons, the surface electronic structures of electrides can be significantly altered. In particular, the electronic structures of two-dimensional (2D) electride surfaces are of interest because the localized anionic electrons at the interlayer space can be naturally exposed to cleaved surfaces. In this paper, we report the electronic structure of 2D Y2C electride surface using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and first-principles calculations, which reveals that anionic electrons at a cleaved surface are absorbed by the surface and subsequently resurged onto the surface due to an applied electric field. We highlight that the estranged anionic electrons caused by the electric field occupy the slightly shifted crystallographic site compared with a bulk Y2C electride. We also measure the work function of the Y2C single crystal, and it shows a slightly lower value than the calculated one, which appears to be due to the electric field from the STM junction.

  12. Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A

    2018-02-20

    Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.

  13. Electric field enhanced hydrogen storage on polarizable materials substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, Q.; Sun, Q.; Jena, P.; Chen, X. S.

    2010-01-01

    Using density functional theory, we show that an applied electric field can substantially improve the hydrogen storage properties of polarizable substrates. This new concept is demonstrated by adsorbing a layer of hydrogen molecules on a number of nanomaterials. When one layer of H2 molecules is adsorbed on a BN sheet, the binding energy per H2 molecule increases from 0.03 eV/H2 in the field-free case to 0.14 eV/H2 in the presence of an electric field of 0.045 a.u. The corresponding gravimetric density of 7.5 wt% is consistent with the 6 wt% system target set by Department of Energy for 2010. The strength of the electric field can be reduced if the substrate is more polarizable. For example, a hydrogen adsorption energy of 0.14 eV/H2 can be achieved by applying an electric field of 0.03 a.u. on an AlN substrate, 0.006 a.u. on a silsesquioxane molecule, and 0.007 a.u. on a silsesquioxane sheet. Thus, application of an electric field to a polarizable substrate provides a novel way to store hydrogen; once the applied electric field is removed, the stored H2 molecules can be easily released, thus making storage reversible with fast kinetics. In addition, we show that materials with rich low-coordinated nonmetal anions are highly polarizable and can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials. PMID:20133647

  14. Effects of electric field on the fracture toughness (KIc) of ceramic PZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goljahi, Sam; Lynch, Christopher S

    2013-01-01

    This work was motivated by the observation that a small percentage of the ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) parts in a device application, one that requires an electrode pattern on the PZT surface, developed fatigue cracks at the edges of the electrodes; yet all of the parts were subjected to similar loading. To obtain additional information on the fracture behavior of this material, similar specimens were run at higher voltage in the laboratory under a microscope to observe the initiation and growth of the fatigue cracks. A sequence of experiments was next performed to determine whether there were fracture toughness variations that depended on material processing. Plates were cut from a single bar in different locations and the Vickers indentation technique was used to measure the relative fracture toughness as a function of position along the bar. Small variations in toughness were found, that may account for some of the devices developing fatigue cracks and not others. Fracture toughness was measured next as a function of electric field. The surface crack in flexure technique was modified to apply an electric field perpendicular to a crack. The results indicate that the fracture toughness drops under a positive electric field and increases under a negative electric field that is less than the coercive field, but as the negative coercive field is approached the fracture toughness drops. Examination of the fracture surfaces using an optical microscope and a surface profilometer reveal the initial indentation crack shape and (although less accurately) the crack shape and size at the transition from stable to unstable growth. These results are discussed in terms of a ferroelastic toughening mechanism that is dependent on electric field. (paper)

  15. Effects of electric field on the fracture toughness (KIc) of ceramic PZT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljahi, Sam; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    This work was motivated by the observation that a small percentage of the ceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) parts in a device application, one that requires an electrode pattern on the PZT surface, developed fatigue cracks at the edges of the electrodes; yet all of the parts were subjected to similar loading. To obtain additional information on the fracture behavior of this material, similar specimens were run at higher voltage in the laboratory under a microscope to observe the initiation and growth of the fatigue cracks. A sequence of experiments was next performed to determine whether there were fracture toughness variations that depended on material processing. Plates were cut from a single bar in different locations and the Vickers indentation technique was used to measure the relative fracture toughness as a function of position along the bar. Small variations in toughness were found, that may account for some of the devices developing fatigue cracks and not others. Fracture toughness was measured next as a function of electric field. The surface crack in flexure technique was modified to apply an electric field perpendicular to a crack. The results indicate that the fracture toughness drops under a positive electric field and increases under a negative electric field that is less than the coercive field, but as the negative coercive field is approached the fracture toughness drops. Examination of the fracture surfaces using an optical microscope and a surface profilometer reveal the initial indentation crack shape and (although less accurately) the crack shape and size at the transition from stable to unstable growth. These results are discussed in terms of a ferroelastic toughening mechanism that is dependent on electric field.

  16. Resistance switching induced by electric fields in manganite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, M; Juarez, G; Duhalde, S; Golmar, F; Degreef, C L; Heluani, S P

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the polarity-dependent Electric Pulses Induced Resistive (EPIR) switching phenomenon in thin films driven by electric pulses. Thin films of 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 (manganite) were deposited by PLD on Si substrate. The transport properties at the interface between the film and metallic electrode are characterized in order to study the resistance switching. Sample thermal treatment and electrical field history are important to be considered for get reproducible EPIR effect. Carriers trapping at the interfaces are considered as a possible explanation of our results

  17. Electric Field Structures in Thin Films: Formation and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, Andrew; Plekan, Oksana; Balog, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A newly discovered class of molecular materials, so-called “spontelectrics”, display spontaneous electric fields. Here we show that the novel properties of spontelectrics can be used to create composite spontelectrics, illustrating how electric fields in solid films may be structured on the nanoscale...... by combining layers of different spontelectric materials. This is demonstrated using the spontelectric materials nitrous oxide, toluene, isoprene, isopentane, and CF2Cl2. These yield a variety of tailored electric field structures, with individual layers harboring fields between 107 and 108 V/m. Fields may...

  18. Modelling of radial electric field profile for different divertor configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhansky, V; Kaveeva, E; Voskoboynikov, S; Counsell, G; Kirk, A; Meyer, H; Coster, D; Conway, G; Schirmer, J; Schneider, R

    2006-01-01

    The impact of divertor configuration on the structure of the radial electric field has been simulated by the B2SOLPS5.0 transport fluid code. It is shown that the change in the parallel flows in the scrape-off layer, which are transported through the separatrix due to turbulent viscosity and diffusivity, should result in variation of the radial electric field and toroidal rotation in the separatrix vicinity. The modelling predictions are compared with the measurements of the radial electric field for the low field side equatorial mid-plane of ASDEX Upgrade in lower, upper and double-null (DN) divertor configurations. The parallel (toroidal) flows in the scrape-off layer and mechanisms for their formation are analysed for different geometries. It is demonstrated that a spike in the electric field exists at the high field side equatorial mid-plane in the connected DN divertor configuration. Its origin is connected with different potential drops between the separatrix vicinity and divertor plates in the two disconnected scrape-off layers, while the separatrix should be at almost the same potential. The spike might be important for additional turbulent suppression

  19. On the ionospheric coupling of auroral electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Marklund

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-static coupling of high-altitude potential structures and electric fields to the ionosphere is discussed with particular focus on the downward field-aligned current (FAC region. Results are presented from a preliminary analysis of a selection of electric field events observed by Cluster above the acceleration region. The degree of coupling is here estimated as the ratio between the magnetic field-aligned potential drop, ΔΦII, as inferred from the characteristic energy of upward ion (electron beams for the upward (downward current region and the high-altitude perpendicular (to B potential, ΔΦbot, as calculated by integrating the perpendicular electric field across the structure. For upward currents, the coupling can be expressed analytically, using the linear current-voltage relation, as outlined by Weimer et al. (1985. This gives a scale size dependent coupling where structures are coupled (decoupled above (below a critical scale size. For downward currents, the current-voltage relation is highly non-linear which complicates the understanding of how the coupling works. Results from this experimental study indicate that small-scale structures are decoupled, similar to small-scale structures in the upward current region. There are, however, exceptions to this rule as illustrated by Cluster results of small-scale intense electric fields, correlated with downward currents, indicating a perfect coupling between the ionosphere and Cluster altitude.

  20. Pulsed electric field sensor based on original waveform measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wu Wei; Cheng Yinhui; Zhou Hui; Li Baozhong; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the differential and original waveform measurement principles for pulsed E-field, and develops an pulsed E-field sensor based on original waveform measurement along with its theoretical correction model. The sensor consists of antenna, integrator, amplifier and driver, optic-electric/electric-optic conversion module and transmission module. The time-domain calibration in TEM cell indicates that, its risetime response is shorter than 1.0 ns, and the output pulse width at 90% of the maximum amplitude is wider than 10.0 μs. The output amplitude of the sensor is linear to the electric field intensity in a dynamic range of 20 dB. The measurement capability can be extended to 10 V/m or 50 kV/m by changing the system's antenna and other relative modules. (authors)

  1. Controlling turbulent drag across electrolytes using electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Lee, Alpha A

    2017-07-01

    Reversible in operando control of friction is an unsolved challenge that is crucial to industrial tribology. Recent studies show that at low sliding velocities, this control can be achieved by applying an electric field across electrolyte lubricants. However, the phenomenology at high sliding velocities is yet unknown. In this paper, we investigate the hydrodynamic friction across electrolytes under shear beyond the transition to turbulence. We develop a novel, highly parallelised numerical method for solving the coupled Navier-Stokes Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation. Our results show that turbulent drag cannot be controlled across dilute electrolytes using static electric fields alone. The limitations of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism hint at ways in which turbulent drag could be controlled using electric fields.

  2. Time dependent convection electric fields and plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    Large-scale electric fields associated with storms or substorms are responsible for inward convection and energization of plasma sheet plasma. Calculations based on steady state convection theory show that the response to such electric fields qualitatively accounts for many features of the injected particle distribution, but quantitative agreement with the theory has not yet been obtained. It is known that the predictions can be improved by introducing the concept of convection in response to a time dependent electric field. On the other hand, time dependent calculations are sensitive to the choice of initial conditions, and most models have failed to incorporate these conditions in a realistic and self-consistent manner. In this paper we present a more complete model consisting of realisic initial conditions and time dependent convection to explain a typical substorm-associated electron injection event. We find very good agreement between the observed electron flux changes and those predicted by our model

  3. Anomalous Capacitive Sheath with Deep Radio Frequency Electric Field Penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel nonlinear effect of anomalously deep penetration of an external radio-frequency electric field into a plasma is described. A self-consistent kinetic treatment reveals a transition region between the sheath and the plasma. Because of the electron velocity modulation in the sheath, bunches in the energetic electron density are formed in the transition region adjusted to the sheath. The width of the region is of order V(subscript T)/omega, where V(subscript T) is the electron thermal velocity, and w is frequency of the electric field. The presence of the electric field in the transition region results in a cooling of the energetic electrons and an additional heating of the cold electrons in comparison with the case when the transition region is neglected

  4. Properties of partially ionized hydrogen plasmas in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.

    1993-03-01

    In this thesis the fundamental equations of many-particle quantum-statistics of nonequilibrium are treated in respect to arbitrary high electric fields. Generalizations are found for the T-matrix approximation as well as for the shielded potential approximation valid for any field strength. These result in a non-Markovian behavior of the obtained collision integrals, also known as intra-collisional-field-effect (ICFE), and in a broadening of the energy conservation, the so-called collisional broadening (CB), caused by applied electric fields. In linear response it is shown in a new way, how the Debye-Onsager relaxation effect can be rederived from these collision integrals. Furthermore the complete quantum result is presented. Both effects, ICFE and CB, contribute to the right classical limit. The quantum result yields an surprising maximum of this field effects in dependence of the interacting mass ratio, which may be important in exciton-plasmas and semiconductors. (orig.)

  5. Electric and magnetic field reduction by alternative transmission line options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.R. (Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)); Dale, S.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Klein, K.W. (Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Ground level electric, and more recently magnetic, fields from overhead power transmission lines are increasingly important considerations in right of way specification, with states setting or planning to set edge of right of way limits. Research has been conducted in high phase order power transmission wherein six of twelve phases are used to transmit power in less physical space and with reduced electrical environmental effects than conventional designs. The first magnetic field testing, as reported in this paper, has verified predictive methods for determination of magnetic fields from high phase order lines. Based on these analytical methods, field profiles have been determined for lines of different phase order of comparable power capacity. Potential advantages of high phase order as a means of field mitigation are discussed. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Phenomenon of the time-reversal violating magnetic field generation by a static electric field in a medium and vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the T- and P-odd weak interactions yield to the existence of both electric field and magnetic (directed along the electric field) field around an electric charge. Similarly the assotiated magnetic field is directed along the vector of strength of stationary gravitational field.

  7. An explanation for parallel electric field pulses observed over thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Barnum, B. H.

    2009-10-01

    Every electric field instrument flown on sounding rockets over a thunderstorm has detected pulses of electric fields parallel to the Earth's magnetic field associated with every strike. This paper describes the ionospheric signatures found during a flight from Wallops Island, Virginia, on 2 September 1995. The electric field results in a drifting Maxwellian corresponding to energies up to 1 eV. The distribution function relaxes because of elastic and inelastic collisions, resulting in electron heating up to 4000-5000 K and potentially observable red line emissions and enhanced ISR electron temperatures. The field strength scales with the current in cloud-to-ground strikes and falls off as r -1 with distance. Pulses of both polarities are found, although most electric fields are downward, parallel to the magnetic field. The pulse may be the reaction of ambient plasma to a current pulse carried at the whistler packet's highest group velocity. The charge source required to produce the electric field is very likely electrons of a few keV traveling at the packet velocity. We conjecture that the current source is the divergence of the current flowing at mesospheric heights, the phenomenon called an elve. The whistler packet's effective radiated power is as high as 25 mW at ionospheric heights, comparable to some ionospheric heater transmissions. Comparing the Poynting flux at the base of the ionosphere with flux an equal distance away along the ground, some 30 db are lost in the mesosphere. Another 10 db are lost in the transition from free space to the whistler mode.

  8. Improving NASICON Sinterability through Crystallization under High Frequency Electrical Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya eLisenker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high frequency (HF electric fields on the crystallization and sintering rates of a lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP ion conducting ceramic was investigated. LAGP with the nominal composition Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO43 was crystallized and sintered, both conventionally and under effect of electrical field. Electrical field application, of 300V/cm at 1MHz, produced up to a 40% improvement in sintering rate of LAGP that was crystallized and sintered under the HF field. Heat sink effect of the electrodes appears to arrest thermal runaway and subsequent flash behavior. Sintered pellets were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and EIS to compare conventionally and field sintered processes. The as-sintered structure appears largely unaffected by the field as the sintering curves tend to converge beyond initial stages of sintering. Differences in densities and microstructure after 1 hour of sintering were minor with measured sintering strains of 31% vs. 26% with and without field, respectively . Ionic conductivity of the sintered pellets was evaluated and no deterioration due to the use of HF field was noted, though capacitance of grain boundaries due to secondary phases was significantly increased.

  9. Do dielectric nanostructures turn metallic in high-electric dc fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaeva, E P; Arnoldi, L; Karahka, M L; Deconihout, B; Menand, A; Kreuzer, H J; Vella, A

    2014-11-12

    Three-dimensional dielectric nanostructures have been analyzed using field ion microscopy (FIM) to study the electric dc field penetration inside these structures. The field is proved to be screened within a few nanometers as theoretically calculated taking into account the high-field impact ionization process. Moreover, the strong dc field of the order of 0.1 V/Å at the surface inside a dielectric nanostructure modifies its band structure leading to a strong band gap shrinkage and thus to a strong metal-like optical absorption near the surface. This metal-like behavior was theoretically predicted using first-principle calculations and experimentally proved using laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT). This work opens up interesting perspectives for the study of the performance of all field-effect nanodevices, such as nanotransistor or super capacitor, and for the understanding of the physical mechanisms of field evaporation of dielectric nanotips in APT.

  10. Surface assisted electric transport in Ag2S thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karashanova, D.; Starbov, N.

    2006-01-01

    Electric transport measurements of thickness-dependent electronic and ionic conductivity of epitaxial Ag 2 S films are used to split both kinds of conductivity into bulk and surface components. The established considerable electronic and ionic surface conductances demonstrate unambiguously the co-existance of electronic and ionic space charge regions in the vicinity of silver sulfide free surface oriented along the zone axes [1-bar 01-bar ]. The parameters of both space charge layers - surface potential, thickness of the space charge region and concentration of the surface compensating charges, are calculated. It is estimated that for intrinsic silver sulfide, the effective surface potential of (1-bar 01-bar ) Ag 2 S surface is negative, its value being about -610mV at 400K

  11. Effects of radial electrical field on neoclassical transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongtian; Le Clair, G.

    1996-07-01

    Neoclassical transport theory for tokamaks in presence of a radial electrical field with shear is developed using Hamiltonian formalism. Diffusion coefficients are derived in both plateau regime including a large electric field and banana regime including the squeezing factor which can greatly affect diffusion at the plasma edge. The scaling on squeezing factor is different from the one given by Shaing and Hazeltine. Rotation speeds are calculated in the scrape-off region. They are in good agreement with measurements on TdeV Tokamak. (2 figs.)

  12. Reduced dielectric response in spatially varying electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    relations between the flux and the gradient of the polarization. Comparison between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations confirms this effect. The effect is significant for small length scale electric field variations and the inclusion of the flux is thus important in nanoscale modeling......In this paper, the dynamical equation for polarization is derived. From this the dielectric response to a spatially varying electric field is analyzed showing a reduced response due to flux of polarization in the material. This flux is modeled as a diffusive process through linear constitutive...

  13. Magnetic fluid droplet in a harmonic electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvasov, D., E-mail: kvasovdmitry@gmail.com [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Naletova, V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beketova, E.; Dikanskii, Yu. [North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    A magnetic fluid droplet immersed in oil in an applied harmonic electric field is studied experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that deformations of the droplet observed experimentally are not described by the well-known theory. New double-layer droplet model which describes experimental data well is proposed. - Highlights: • The magnetic fluid droplet in the oil in a harmonic electric field is studied. • The paradoxical flattening effect of the droplet is observed experimentally. • For explaining this effect the model of the double-layer droplet is proposed. • Numerical and experimental data coincide qualitatively and quantitatively.

  14. Laterally coupled circular quantum dots under applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, C. M.; Correa, J. D.; Morales, A. L.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    The optical response of a system of two laterally coupled quantum dots with circular cross-sectional shape is investigated within the effective mass approximation, taking into account the effects of the change in the geometrical configuration, the application of an external static electric field, and the presence of a donor impurity center. The first-order dielectric susceptibility is calculated in order to derive the corresponding light absorption and relative refractive index coefficients. The possibility of tuning these optical properties by means of changes in the quantum dot symmetry and the electric field intensity is particularly discussed.

  15. Electric field measuring and display system. [for cloud formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasinski, R. J.; Lovall, D. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus is described for monitoring the electric fields of cloud formations within a particular area. It utilizes capacitor plates that are alternately shielded from the clouds for generating an alternating signal corresponding to the intensity of the electric field of the clouds. A synchronizing signal is produced for controlling sampling of the alternating signal. Such samplings are fed through a filter and converted by an analogue to digital converter into digital form and subsequently fed to a transmitter for transmission to the control station for recording.

  16. Electric field-decoupled electroosmotic pump for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J

    2003-09-26

    An electric field-free electroosmotic pump has been constructed and its pumping rate has been measured under various experimental conditions. The key component of the pump is an ion-exchange membrane grounding joint that serves two major functions: (i) to maintain fluid continuity between pump channels and microfluidic conduit and (ii) to ground the solution in the microfluidic channel at the joint through an external electrode, and hence to decouple the electric field applied to the pump channels from the rest of the microfluidic system. A theoretical model has been developed to calculate the pumping rates and its validity has been demonstrated.

  17. Electric-field induced spin accumulation in the Landau level states of topological insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2017-08-01

    A topological insulator (TI) thin film differs from the more typically studied thick TI system in that the former has both a top and a bottom surface where the states localized at both surfaces can couple to one other across the finite thickness. An out-of-plane magnetic field leads to the formation of discrete Landau level states in the system, whereas an in-plane magnetization breaks the angular momentum symmetry of the system. In this work, we study the spin accumulation induced by the application of an in-plane electric field to the TI thin film system where the Landau level states and inter-surface coupling are simultaneously present. We show, via Kubo formula calculations, that the in-plane spin accumulation perpendicular to the magnetization due to the electric field vanishes for a TI thin film with symmetric top and bottom surfaces. A finite in-plane spin accumulation perpendicular to both the electric field and magnetization emerges upon applying either a differential magnetization coupling or a potential difference between the two film surfaces. This spin accumulation results from the breaking of the antisymmetry of the spin accumulation around the k-space equal-energy contours.

  18. Effect of AC electric fields on flame spread over electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on the characteristics of flame spread over insulated electrical wire has been investigated experimentally by varying AC voltage and frequency applied to the wire in the normal gravity condition. The polyethylene (PE) insulated electrical wire was placed horizontally on electrically non-conducting posts and one end of the wire was connected to the high voltage terminal. Thus, the electrical system is the single electrode configuration. The wire was ignited at one end and the flame spread rate along the wire has been measured from the images using a video camera. Two distinct regimes existed depending on the applied AC frequency. In the low frequency regime, the flame spread rate decreased with the frequency and voltage. While in the high frequency regime, it decreased initially with voltage and then increased. At high frequency, the spread rate was even over that without applying electric fields. This result implies that fire safety codes developed without considering the effect of electric fields may require modifications. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  19. Electroporation of Mammalian Cells by Nanosecond Electric Field Oscillations and its Inhibition by the Electric Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-08

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) March 2013 to July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electroporation of mammalian cells by nanosecond electric field...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1Scientific RepoRts | 5:13818 | DOi: 10.1038/srep13818 www.nature.com/scientificreports Electroporation of mammalian cells...first to demonstrate that mammalian cells can be electroporated by damped sine wave electric stimuli of nanosecond duration. By comparing the

  20. Effect of radial electric field inhomogeneity on anomalous cross field plasma flux in Heliotron/Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tomejiro; Sanuki, Heiji.

    1996-01-01

    Anomalous cross field plasma fluxes induced by the electric field fluctuations has been evaluated in a rotating plasma with shear flow in a helical system. The anomalous ion flux is evaluated by the contribution from ion curvature drift resonance continuum in the test particle model. The radial electric field induces the Doppler frequency shift which disappears in the frequency integrated anomalous flux. The inhomogeneity of the electric field (shear flow effect), however, induces a new force term in the flux. The curvature drift resonance also induces a new force term '/ which, however, did not make large influence in the ion flux in the CHS configuration. The shear flow term in the flux combined with the electric field in neoclassical flux reduces to a first order differential equation which governs the radial profile of the electric field. Numerical results indicate that the shear flow effect is important for the anomalous cross field flux and for determination of the radial electric field particularly in the peripheral region. (author)

  1. Acceleration of auroral particles by magnetic-field aligned electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements on the S3-3 and Viking satellites appear to show that at least a large fraction of magnetic field-aligned potential drops are made up of multiple double layers. Solitons and double layers in U-shaped potential structures give rise to spiky electric fields also perpendicular to the magnetic field in agreement with satellite measurements. The large scale potential structures associated with inverted V-events are built up of many similar short-lived structures on a small scale. Viking measurements indicate that electric fields parallel to the magnetic field are almost always directed upward

  2. Effects of the reconnection electric field on crescent electron distribution functions in asymmetric guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L. J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection with a guide field in the Earth's magnetopause, electron motion in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is largely affected by the guide field, the Hall electric field, and the reconnection electric field. The electron motion in the EDR is neither simple gyration around the guide field nor simple meandering motion across the current sheet. The combined meandering motion and gyration has essential effects on particle acceleration by the in-plane Hall electric field (existing only in the magnetospheric side) and the out-of-plane reconnection electric field. We analyze electron motion and crescent-shaped electron distribution functions in the EDR in asymmetric guide field reconnection, and perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to elucidate the effect of reconnection electric field on electron distribution functions. Recently, we have analytically expressed the acceleration effect due to the reconnection electric field on electron crescent distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field (Bessho et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 072903, 2017). We extend the theory to asymmetric guide field reconnection, and predict the crescent bulge in distribution functions. Assuming 1D approximation of field variations in the EDR, we derive the time period of oscillatory electron motion (meandering + gyration) in the EDR. The time period is expressed as a hybrid of the meandering period and the gyro period. Due to the guide field, electrons not only oscillate along crescent-shaped trajectories in the velocity plane perpendicular to the antiparallel magnetic fields, but also move along parabolic trajectories in the velocity plane coplanar with magnetic field. The trajectory in the velocity space gradually shifts to the acceleration direction by the reconnection electric field as multiple bounces continue. Due to the guide field, electron distributions for meandering particles are bounded by two paraboloids (or hyperboloids) in the

  3. Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James; Wu, Jianchun; Ding, Junfeng; Lin, Weinan; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.

  4. Electric fields and energetic particle precipitation in an auroral arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.; Bryant, D.A.; Smith, M.J.; Fahleson, U.; Faelthammer, C.G.; Pedersen, A.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a rocket flight across a single discrete auroral arc extending from early evening to magnetic midnight. The rocket was fired at the end of the growth phase of an isolated auroral substorm. It carried a separating payload to make simultaneous measurements of electrons (0.6 - 25 keV, pitch angle 0 - 60 0 ) at two points. From the main vehicle measurements were also made of ions (same energy range) as well as of the electric field vector and plasma parameters. The electron spectra were hardest towards the centre of the arc, where the peak intensity was at 9.5 keV. The precipitation structure observed was similar to that of an 'inverted V' but on a smaller scale. The electric field was northward south of the arc, southward within the arc and somewhat north of it, then again northward. At the northern edge of the precipitation region the field was very irregular. The field strength reached a maximum of about 50 mV/m some distance north of the arc. The line integral of the electric field across the arc was of the order of a kilovolt, too small to be responsible for the changes observed in the electron energy spectrum. An electric potential distribution, consistent with the results obtained, is present. (Auth.)

  5. Plasmasphere and ring current electric fields observed by GEOS 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Pedersen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric field double probe data from GEOS 2 have been statistically examined to study the consecutive passage of the afternoon plasmaspheric bulge and the trough at the geostationary orbit. It was found that the average location of the bulge depends on the magnetic activity and was encountered at earlier local times for higher magnetospheric activity. Within the bulge the electric field showed very frequently a typical directional change from dawnward outside to duskward inside the bulge. The magnitude of the magnetic field was frequently much smaller near the outbound crossing of the plasmaspheric bulge than is expected from a long-term average. The E x B/B-squared drift pointed azimuthally eastward prior to the encounter of the bulge and rotated into the sunward direction within the bulge. Following its passage through the dense, cold plasma in the bulge, GEOS 2 encountered a hot and tenuous plasma sheet-type plasma in the trough that occasionally corrupted the electric field measurements. Generally, the electric field in the trough is much smaller than in the bulge. A possible cause of the sunward plasma flow within the bulge is discussed on the basis of these data. 13 references

  6. Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.

  7. The effect of an external electric field on the growth of incongruent-melting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Satoshi; Huang, Xinming; Wang, Shou-Qi

    2005-02-01

    The significance of an electric field on the crystallization process is differentiated into two consequences; (i) thermodynamic effect and (ii) growth-dynamic effect. The former modifies the chemical potential of the associated phases which changes the equilibrium phase relationship while the latter influences the solute transport, growth kinetics, surface creation and defect generation during growth. The intrinsic electric field generating during growth is attributed to the crystallization-related electromotive force and the thermoelectric power driven by the temperature gradient at the interface which influences the solute transport and solute partitioning. The external electric field was applied to the growth apparatus in the ternary system of La2O3- Ga2O3- SiO2 so that the chemical potential of both solid and liquid phases changed leading to the variation of the equilibrium phase relationship. Imposing a 500 V/cm electric field on the system moved the boundary of primary phase field of lanthanum gallate ( LaGaO3) and Ga-bearing lanthanum silicate ( La14GaxSi9-xO) toward the SiO2 apex by 5 mol% which clearly demonstrated the change of the phase relationship by the external electric field.

  8. Encaged molecules in external electric fields: A molecular "tug-of-war"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Nalini D.; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Bartolotti, Libero J.; Pathak, Rajeev K.

    2016-08-01

    Response of polar molecules CH3OH and H2O2 and a non-polar molecule, CO2, as "guests" encapsulated in the dodecahedral water cage (H2O)20 "host," to an external, perturbative electric field is investigated theoretically. We employ the hybrid density-functionals M06-2X and ωB97X-D incorporating the effects of damped dispersion, in conjunction with the maug-cc-pVTZ basis set, amenable for a hydrogen bonding description. While the host cluster (cage) tends to confine the embedded guest molecule through cooperative hydrogen bonding, the applied electric field tends to rupture the cluster-composite by stretching it; these two competitive effects leading to a molecular "tug-of-war." The composite remains stable up to a maximal sustainable threshold electric field, beyond which, concomitant with the vanishing of the HOMO-LUMO gap, the field wins over and the cluster breaks down. The electric-field effects are gauged in terms of the changes in the molecular geometry of the confined species, interaction energy, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, and frequency shifts of characteristic normal vibrations in the IR regime. Interestingly, beyond the characteristic threshold electric field, the labile, distorted host cluster fragmentizes, and the guest molecule still tethered to a remnant fragment, an effect attributed to the underlying hydrogen-bonded networks.

  9. Structural and morphological changes in P3HT thin film transistors applying an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Deepak Kumar; Grigorian, Souren; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany); Flesch, Heinz; Resel, Roland [University of Siegen (Germany); Graz University of Technology (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    We report on electric field dependent crystalline structure and morphological changes of drop casting and spin coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films. In order to probe the morphological changes induced by an applied electric field the samples were covered with thin source/drain electrodes separated by a small channel of 2 mm width. A series of x-ray reflectivity, X-ray grazing incidence out-of-plane and in-plane scans have been performed as function of the applied electric voltage. The (100) peak shows a decrease in intensity with increase of the applied electric field. This might be caused by Joule heating and the creation of current induced defects in the P3HT film. On other hand the (020) peak intensity shows much stronger changes with applied field. Considering the *-* stacking direction the measured effect can be directly related to a change in the electric transport. The observed changes in structure are reversible and the current-voltage cycle can be repeated several times. For X-ray reflectivity major changes have been found close to critical angle of total external reflection indicating the film becomes less dense and increases in surface roughness with increase of the voltage. This change in surface behaviour could be confirmed by in-situ AFM measurements.

  10. Extraction of the Electric Field in Field Plate Assisted RESURF Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksteen, B.K.; Dhar, S.; Heringa, A.; Koops, G.E.J.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2012-01-01

    It has previously been reported that the lateral electric field (Ex) in the drain extension of thin SOI HV (700V) field plate assisted RESURF devices can be extracted from their ID-VD characteristics in the subthreshold regime. In this work the prerequisites for valid field extraction and the

  11. A silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, Robert J.; van Loon, Rob V.A.; Brunets, I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Polman, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of a silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at low temperatures using silicon nanocrystal doped alumina within a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide geometry. The fabrication method uses established microtechnology processes

  12. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  13. Design of Electric Field Sensors for Measurement of Electromagnetic Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a D-dot electric field sensor and a fiber-optic transmission electric field sensor are developed for measurement of electromagnetic pulse. The D-dot sensor is a differential model sensor without source and has a simple structure. The fiber-optic transmission sensor is in the type of small dipole antenna, which uses its outside shielding layer as a pair of antennas. Design of the sensor circuit and the test system are introduced in this paper. A calibration system for these pulsed field sensors is established and the test results verified the ability of the developed sensors for measurement of the standard electromagnetic pulse field (the half peak width is 25 ns and the rising time is 2.5 ns.

  14. Low frequency electric and magnetic fields - the topic of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the literature about the biological effects of low frequency electric and magnetic fields. It is still an unsettled question whether extremely low frequency magnetic fields may increase the incidence of cancer. Experimental data arise mainly from exposure to field strengths or frequencies seldom or never encountered by people. The results give no clear explanation to the increase in cancer incidence reported in epidemiological works. The spectre of possible mechanisms imply that no simple dose/effect relationship should be expected, as conflicting mechanisms may dominate at different exposure levels. There is therefore no basis at present for giving numerical value to cancer risk from exposure to low frequency electric or magnetic fields

  15. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in milk by pulsed electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, L D; Jin, Z T; Zhang, Q H; Yousef, A E

    1998-09-01

    Pasteurized whole, 2%, and skim milk were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and treated with high-voltage pulsed electric field (PEF). The effects of milk composition (fat content) and PEF parameters (electric field strength, treatment time, and treatment temperature) on the inactivation of the bacterium were studied. No significant differences were observed in the inactivation of L. monocytogenes Scott A in three types of milk by PEF treatment. With treatment at 25 degrees C, 1- to 3-log reductions of L. monocytogenes were observed. PEF lethal effect was a function of field strength and treatment time. Higher field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of viable cells. A 4-log reduction of the bacterium was obtained by increasing the treatment temperature to 50 degrees C. Results indicate that the use of a high-voltage PEF is a promising technology for inactivation of foodborne pathogens.

  16. Calculation of the Magnetic Fields of the Electric Power Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsiuk V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of calculation of per unit length parameters of multi-conductor electrical overhead transmission lines has been treated in the paper. The calculation of distribution of electric and magnetic fields has been performed by means of the finite volume method for entire span of the line. The theoretical justification of the method for calculation the parameters of electromagnetic field taking into account the change of the vector of magnetic potential along the line has been given. The problems of electrostatic and magnetostatic for a single electric conductor and unlimited long conductor with current have been solved. For the inner and total inductivities of a single conductor under the current have been obtained relationships and drawn dependences. Dependence between the speeds of light and of electromagnetic wave’s propagation has been presented. Based on the characteristics of distribution of electric and magnetic fields of multi-conductor lines has been provided the method of calculation of the matrix of own and mutual capacitances and inductivities the calculated values of per unit length parameters of compact 110 kV electric line which is in concordance with one of basic physical constant – the speed of light.

  17. A novel graphene nanoribbon FET with an extra peak electric field (EFP-GNRFET) for enhancing the electrical performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari Eshkalak, Maedeh [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anvarifard, Mohammad K., E-mail: m.anvarifard@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, East of Guilan, University of Guilan, Rudsar-Vajargah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-25

    This work has provided an efficient technique to improve the electrical performance for the Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNRFETs) successfully. The physical gate length is divided into two gates named as the original gate and the other one as the virtual gate. We have applied a voltage source between these gates to control the channel of the GNRFETs. This technique has created an extra peak electric field in the middle of the channel resulting in the redistribution of surface potential profile. The proposed structure named as EFP-GNRFET has been compared with a simple GNRFET and has shown many improvements in terms of the critical parameters such as short channel effects, leakage current, subthreshold swing, ON-state to OFF-state current ratio, transconductance, output conductance and voltage gain. The structures under the study in this paper benefits from the Non-Equilibrium Green Function (NEGF) approach for solving Schrödinger equation coupled with the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation in a self-consistent manner. - Highlights: • Proposal of a novel graphene nanoribbon FET. • Creation of an extra peak in electric field. • Modification of the channel potential with the help of virtual gate. • Considerable improvement on electrical performances.

  18. Surface engineering of ferroelectric polymer for the enhanced electrical performance of organic transistor memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Lee, Gyu-Jeong; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Min-Hoi; Bae, Jin-Hyuk

    2018-05-01

    We suggest a viable surface control method to improve the electrical properties of organic nonvolatile memory transistors. For viable surface control, the surface of the ferroelectric insulator in the memory field-effect transistors was modified using a smooth-contact-curing process. For the modification of the ferroelectric polymer, during the curing of the ferroelectric insulators, the smooth surface of a soft elastomer contacts intimately with the ferroelectric surface. This smooth-contact-curing process reduced the surface roughness of the ferroelectric insulator without degrading its ferroelectric properties. The reduced roughness of the ferroelectric insulator increases the mobility of the organic field-effect transistor by approximately eight times, which results in a high memory on–off ratio and a low-voltage reading operation.

  19. Fluorescence excitation studies of molecular photoionization in external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliakoff, E.D.; Dehmer, J.L.; Parr, A.C.; Leroi, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Using molecular nitrogen as an example, we show that fluorescence excitation spectroscopy can be used to measure partial photoionization cross sections of free molecules in external electric fields. The production of the N 2 + (B 2 Σ/sub u/ + ) state was studied and the threshold for this process was found to shift linearly with the square root of the applied field. This behavior is compared with the hydrogenic case and with previously studied systems

  20. Modeling electric fields in two dimensions using computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, D.W.; Giovanetti, D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a method for analyzing static electric fields in two dimensions using AutoCAD. The algorithm is coded in LISP and is modeled after Coloumb's Law. The software platform allows for facile graphical manipulations of field renderings and supports a wide range of hardcopy-output and data-storage formats. More generally, this application is representative of the ability to analyze data that is the solution to known mathematical functions with computer aided design (CAD)