WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface drip lateral

  1. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  2. Transformations accompanying a shift from surface to drip irrigation in the Cànyoles Watershed, Valencia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sese-Minguez, Saioa; Boesveld, Harm; Asins-Velis, Sabina; Kooij, van der Saskia; Maroulis, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is widely promoted in Spain to increase agricultural production and to save water. In the Cànyoles watershed, Valencia, we analysed the consequences of change from surface irrigation to drip irrigation over the past 25 years. There were a number of transformations resulting from,

  3. Use of Clay Deposits in Water Management of Calcareous Sandy Soils Under-surface and Sub-surface Drip Irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omran, A.; Falatah, A.; Sheta, A.; Al-Harbi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation (levels and methods) and type of clay deposits on lettuce yield, water use efficiency WUE and the distributions of soil moisture and salts in the root zone of sandy calcareous soils. A field experiment was conducted at the college experimental station in 2002-2003. It consists of three clay deposits, three rates (0, 1.0 and 2.0%), and four total irrigation applied water levels, 360 mm (T1), 520 mm (T2), 635 mm (T3) and 822 mm (T4), using surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Results indicated that yield was significantly increased with the increase of irrigation level, whereas WUE significantly decreased with increase of irrigation level. The average yield increased by 9.30% in a high irrigation level compared to a moderate irrigation level, and decreased by 14.2% at the more stressed irrigation level. WUE decreased by 49.0% at a moderate irrigation level and yield was significantly affected by amendment rates. The difference between surface and subsurface drip on yields and WUE were also significant. Results indicated that the moisture content of the subsurface treated layer increased dramatically, while salts were accumulated at the surface and away from the emitters in subsurface drip irrigation. The advantages of surface drip irrigation were related to the relative decrease in salt accumulation in the root zone area where the plant roots were active and the water content was relatively high. (author)

  4. Sorption of pathogens during sub-surface drip irrigation with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Laillach; Gillerman Gillerman, Leonid; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Oron, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity continues to be one of the major threats to human survival in many regions worldwide, such as Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the State of California in the US. Due to a mixture of factors such as population growth, reduction in water resources availability and higher demand for high quality waters in these regions these countries face water shortage issues that stem from overuse, extensive extraction of groundwater, and frequent drought events. In addition, there are increases in environmental and health awareness that have led to intensive efforts in the treatment and reuse of nonconventional water sources, mainly wastewater and greywater. One approach to water shortages issues is to use wastewater as means to close the gap between supply and demand. However, the need to treat wastewater and to disinfect it forces additional economic burden on the users, primarily for agricultural irrigation. A possible solution might be to use the soil as a sorbent for the contained pathogens. Under sub-surface drip irrigation, not allowing the wastewater to reach the soil surface, the pathogens will remain in the soil. It was as well shown in field experiments that the opening size of roots will not allow pathogens to penetrate into the plants. Additional advantages such as water saving, protection of the pipe systems and others are also important. Field experiments in commercial fields just emphasize the main advantages of sub-surface drip irrigation.

  5. Drip and Surface Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop Using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellouli, H.J.; Askri, H.; Mougou, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nations in the arid and semi-arid regions, especially the Arab countries, will have to take up an important challenge at the beginning of the 21 st century: increasing food production in order to realise food security for growing population, wile optimising the use of limited water resources. Using and adapting management techniques like the drip irrigation system could obtain the later. This would allow reduction in water losses by bare soil evaporation and deep percolation. Consequently improved water use efficiency could be realised. In this way, this work was conducted as a contribution on the Tunisian national programs on the optimisation of the water use. By mean a field study at Cherfech Experimental Station (30 km from Tunis), the effect of the irrigation system on the water use efficiency (WUE)-by a season tomato crop-was monitored by comparing three treatments receiving equivalent quantities of fertiliser: Fertigation, Drip irrigation and Furrow irrigation. Irrigation was scheduled by mean calculation of the water requirement based on the agro meteorological data, the plant physiological stage and the soil water characteristics (Clay Loam). The plant water consumption (ETR) was determined by using soil water balance method, where rainfall and amount of irrigation water readily measured

  6. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Wolery

    2005-01-01

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks

  7. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  8. Surface Drainage and Mulching Drip-Irrigated Tomatoes Reduces Soil Salinity and Improves Fruit Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Maomao; Zhu, Lvdan; Jin, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    A study on the effects of mulched drip irrigation combined with surface drainage on saline soil and tomatoes was conducted in coastal areas of eastern China, where the crops are subjected to excessive salt. The treatments contained three irrigation rates-200, 250 and 300 m3/ha-and three drain ditch depths-10, 20 and 30 cm. The contents of soil salinity, organic matter and available nutrient were observed, and the tomato plant height, stem diameter and leaf area index during different growth periods were recorded. Results showed that the total removal rate of salt from soil at a 0-1 m depth was 8.7-13.2% for the three drainages. Compared with the control, the treatments increased the content of available N (by 12.1-47.1%) and available K (by 5.0-21.9%) in the soils inside the mulch and decreased the content of available N (by 3.4-22.1%) and available K (by 7.5-16.4%) in the soils outside the mulch. For tomatoes, the plant height and the stem diameter was increased significantly by the irrigations but was not significantly affected by the drainages, and the leaf area index was increased by 0.39~1.76, 1.10~2.90 and 2.80~6.86 respectively in corresponding to the seedling, flowering and fruit-set stage. Moreover, yield-increase rates of 7.9-27.6% were found for the treatments compared to the control with a similar amount of applied water.

  9. Using Hydrus 2-D to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplants under surface and subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Autovino, Dario; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdel Hamid; Provenznao, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the work is to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplant crop (Solanum melongena L.) in a sandy loam soil irrigated with surface or subsurface drip irrigation systems, by means of field measurements and simulations carried out with Hydrus-2D model. Initially, the performance of the model is evaluated on the basis of the comparison between simulated soil water contents (SWC) and the corresponding measured in two plots, in which laterals with coextruded emitters are laid on the soil surface (T0) and at 20 cm depth (T20), respectively. In order to choose the best position of the lateral, the results of different simulation runs, carried out by changing the installation depth of the lateral (5 cm, 15 cm and 45 cm) were compared in terms of ratio between actual transpiration and total amount of water provided during the entire growing season (WUE). Experiments were carried out, from April to June 2007, at Institut Supérieur Agronomique de Chott Mériem (Sousse, Tunisia). In the two plots, plants were spaced 0.40 m along the row and 1.2 m between the rows. Each plot was irrigated by means of laterals with coextruded emitters spaced 0.40 m and discharging a flow rate equal to 4.0 l h-1 at a nominal pressure of 100 kPa. In each plot, spatial and temporal variability of SWCs were acquired with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe (Trime-FM3), on a total of four 70 cm long access tubes, installed along the direction perpendicular to the plant row, at distances of 0, 20, 40 and 60 cm from the emitter. Irrigation water was supplied, accounting for the rainfall, every 7-10 days at the beginning of the crop cycle (March-April) and approximately once a week during the following stages till the harvesting (May-June), for a total of 15 one-hour watering. To run the model, soil evaporation, Ep, and crop transpiration, Tp were determined according to the modified FAO Penman-Monteith equation and the dual crop coefficient approach, whereas soil hydraulics

  10. Performance of cotton crop grown under surface irrigation and drip fertigation. I. seed cotton yield, dry matter production, and lint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Drip fertigation is a key factor in modern irrigated agriculture, where water and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs for this irrigation method. Drip fertigation experiments were carried out a Hama, north of Syria (Tezeen's Irrigation Research Station), for four consecutive years 1995 - 1998. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutim L.) variety Aleppo 33/1 was planted after unfertilized maize in order to deplete as much as possible the available N and reduce the field variability on the corresponding experimental units and irrigated thereafter. Treatments consisted of two irrigation methods (Surface irrigation and drip fertigation) and five N rates within drip fertigated cotton, including the control (N 0 = 0, N 1 = 60, N 2 = 120, N 3 = 180, N 4 240 kg N ha -1 ). The N fertilizer treatment for surface irrigated cotton was 180 kg N ha -1 in accordance with the recommended rate of ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The experimental design was randomized block design with six replicates. Fertigation resulted in large water saving, and highly improved field water-use efficiency. Further, increasing N application rates under drip fertigation increased dry matter yield. The principal benefit of drip fertigation was the achievement of higher field water-use efficiencies, which were increased more than three-fold for both dry matter and seed cotton yield, relative to surface irrigation. The highest water-use efficiencies were obtained with the addition of 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 in 1995 and 1996 and 120 kg N ha -1 in 1997 and 1998. Dry matter production and partitioning among different plant parts at physiological maturity stage varied due to N input and irrigation methods. The overall dry matter distribution among different plant structures for drip fertigated-treatments was: Stems, 20.3 - 21.3%; leaves 26.3 - 28.7%; and fruiting forms, 50 - 53.2%. For the surface-irrigated treatment, the partitioning was stems, 23.1%; leaves, 28.3%; and fruiting form, 48.6%. The

  11. Drip-Water Temperatures in Caves: Surface Signals or Cave Processes? - Implications for Speleothem Deposits and Paleoclimate Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M. S.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Baker, A.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C.; Markowska, M.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.

    2013-12-01

    Caves offer a unique opportunity to enter the subsurface to study vadose zone hydrological processes. Limestone caves, with their speleothem deposits, offer additional advantages as archives of past climate. As such they can serve as observatories for past and present hydrological observations. Correct interpretation of past climates using speleothem deposits requires a systematic understanding of karst physico-chemical processes. With the aim of studying near surface flow and heat transport processes, a series of controlled recharge experiments were carried out above Wellington Caves, located in the temperate semi-arid zone of NSW, Australia. Variable amounts of cooled water were irrigated onto the land surface on four consecutive days in January 2013. The applied recharge rates varied from 40 to 70 mm/d and are comparable to mid-sized recharge events. The temperature of the applied water was varied from 0.3 °C to 24.2 °C using ice. Miniature self-contained temperature loggers (DST micro-T, Star Oddi, Iceland) were deployed to measure the soil temperature and strapped directly on to stalactite features inside the cave located about 2 m below the surface. The stalactites have previously activated regularly by mid-sized precipitation events. Below on the cave floor, drip-loggers (Stalagmate, Driptych, UK) were aligned with the stalactites to capture onset of flow as well as drip rates. Three events of inflow were observed in the initially dry cave. The first irrigation did not produce any inflow since the amount of water applied was not large enough to overcome the soil moisture deficit. Subsequently, each inflow had a higher peak drip rate and duration than the previous event. Surprisingly the stalagmite temperature results showed no discernible effect of the cool water applied to the land surface, despite large changes in the soil temperature caused by the irrigation water. Considering the shallow location of the studied cave this highlights that the temperature

  12. Erosion and lateral surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Erosion can cause serious agricultural and environmental hazards. It can generate severe damage to the landscape, lead to significant loss of agricultural land and consequently to reduction in agricultural productivity, induce surface water pollution due to the transport of sediments and suspende...

  13. On farm evaluation of the effect of low cost drip irrigation on water and crop productivity compared to conventional surface irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisiri, N.; Senzanje, A.; Rockstrom, J.; Twomlow, S. J.

    This on-farm research study was carried out at Zholube irrigation scheme in a semi-arid agro tropical climate of Zimbabwe to determine how low cost drip irrigation technologies compare with conventional surface irrigation systems in terms of water and crop productivity. A total of nine farmers who were practicing surface irrigation were chosen to participate in the study. The vegetable English giant rape ( Brassica napus) was grown under the two irrigation systems with three fertilizer treatments in each system: ordinary granular fertilizer, liquid fertilizer (fertigation) and the last treatment with no fertilizer. These trials were replicated three times in a randomized block design. Biometric parameters of leaf area index (LAI) and fresh weight of the produce, water use efficiency (WUE) were used to compare the performance of the two irrigation systems. A water balance of the inflows and outflows was kept for analysis of WUE. The economic profitability and the operation, maintenance and management requirements of the different systems were also evaluated. There was no significant difference in vegetable yield between the irrigation systems at 8.5 ton/ha for drip compared to 7.8 ton/ha in surface irrigation. There were significant increases in yields due to use of fertilizers. Drip irrigation used about 35% of the water used by the surface irrigation systems thus giving much higher water use efficiencies. The leaf area indices were comparable in both systems with the same fertilizer treatment ranging between 0.05 for surface without fertilizer to 6.8 for low cost drip with fertigation. Low cost drip systems did not reflect any labour saving especially when manually lifting the water into the drum compared to the use of siphons in surface irrigation systems. The gross margin level for surface irrigation was lower than for low cost drip irrigation but the gross margin to total variable cost ratio was higher in surface irrigation systems, which meant that surface

  14. Water and nitrogen requirements of subsurface drip irrigated pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface drip irrigation is a well-developed practice for both annual and perennial crops. The use of subsurface drip is a well-established practice in many annual row crops, e.g. tomatoes, strawberries, lettuce. However, the use of subsurface drip on perennial crops has been slow to develop. With th...

  15. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  16. Assessing the Viability of Sub-Surface Drip Irrigation for Resource-Efficient Alfalfa Production in Central and Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Zaccaria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In California, alfalfa is grown on a large area ranging between 325,000 and 410,000 hectares and ranks among the thirstiest crops. While the hay production industry is often scrutinized for the large usage of the state’s agricultural water, alfalfa is a crucial feed-supplier for the livestock and dairy sectors, which rank among the most profitable commodity groups in the state. Sub-surface drip irrigation (SDI, although only practiced on approximately 2% of the alfalfa production area in California, is claimed to have the potential to significantly increase hay yield (HY and water productivity (WP compared with surface irrigation (SI. In 2014–2016 we interviewed a number of growers pioneering SDI for alfalfa production in Central and Southern California who reported that yield improvements in the order of 10–30% and water saving of about 20–30% are achievable in SDI-irrigated fields compared with SI, according to their records and perceptions collected over few years of experience. Results from our research on SDI at the University of California, Davis, revealed significantly smaller yield gain (~5% and a slight increase of water use (~2–3% that are similar to findings from earlier research studies. We found that most of the interviewed alfalfa producers are generally satisfied with their SDI systems, yet face some challenges that call for additional research and educational efforts. Key limitations of SDI include high investment costs, use of energy to pressurize water, the need for more advanced irrigation management skills, and better understanding of soil-water dynamics by farm personnel. SDI-irrigated fields also need accurate water monitoring and control, attentive prevention and repair of rodent damages, and careful salinity management in the root zone. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the viability of the SDI technology for alfalfa production on the basis of preliminary results of our research and extension activities, with

  17. Assessing the performance of surface and subsurface drip systems on irrigation water use efficiency of citrus orchards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo Martinez-Gimeno, Maria; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Bonet, Luis; Intrigliolo, Diego S.; Badal, Eduardo; Ballestrer, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, water scarcity represents a real environmental concern at present and, according to the current climate change models predictions, the problem will be amplified in the future. In order to deal with this issue, application of strategies aimed to optimize the water resources in agriculture and to increase water use efficiency have become essential. On the one hand, it is important the election of the appropriate irrigation system for each particular case. On the other hand, identify the best management options for that specific irrigation system is crucial to optimize the available water resources without affecting yield. When using water saving strategies, however, it is a must to monitor the soil and/or crop water status in order to know the level of stress reached by the plants and to avoid levels that could lead to detrimental effects on yield. Stem water potential, ψstem, expressing the instantaneous condition of crop water stress, is considered a robust indicator of crop water status. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of a surface (DI) and subsurface (SDI) drip irrigation system in a citrus orchard with 7 (DI7, SDI7) or 14 emitters (DI14, SDI14) per plant, in terms of irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and possible amount of water saving. The experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in Alberique, Spain, (39˚ 7'31" N, 0˚ 33'17" W), in a commercial orchard (Citrus clementina, Hort. ex Tan. 'Arrufatina') in which four different treatments with three replications (12 sub-plots) were prepared according to a complete randomized block design. Irrigation doses and timing were scheduled based on the estimated maximum crop evapotranspiration corrected according to measurements of ψstem and soil water content, and weather forecasts. In order to limit the maximum crop water stress, the thresholds of ψstem were assumed in the range between -0.8 and -1.0 MPa from January to June and between -1.0 and -1

  18. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  19. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  20. Effects of surface and subsurface drip irrigation regimes with saline water on yield and water use efficiency of potato in arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia El Mokh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on a sandy soil during spring of 2009 and autumn of 2010 in southern Tunisia for evaluating the effects of two drip irrigation methods and three irrigation regimes on soil moisture and salinity, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. The surface drip (SDI and subsurface drip (SSDI irrigation methods were used. Irrigation regimes consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI100, 60% (DI60 and 30% (DI30. FI100 was considered as full irrigation while DI60 and DI30 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Well water with an ECi of 7.0 dS/m was used for irrigation. Findings are globally consistent between the two experiments. Results show that soil moisture content and salinity were significantly affected by irrigation treatments and methods. Higher soil moisture content and lower soil salinity were maintained with SSDI than SDI for all irrigation treatments. For both irrigation methods, higher salinity and lower moisture content in the root zone are observed under DI60 and DI30 treatments compared to FI100. Potato yields were highest over two cropping periods for the SSDI method although no significant differences were observed with the SDI. Irrigation regimes resulted in significant difference in both irrigation methods on yield and its components. Yields were highest under FI100. Compared to FI100, considerable reductions in potato yields were observed under DI60 and DI30 deficit treatments resulting from a reduction in tubers number/m² and average tuber weight and size. Water use efficiency (WUE was found to vary significantly among irrigation methods and treatments and varied between 5.9 and 20.5 kg/m3. WUE of SSDI method had generally higher values than SDI. The lowest WUE values were observed for the FI100 treatment, while the highest values were obtained under DI30 treatment for both methods. SSDI method provides

  1. Cell Microencapsulation: Dripping Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoret, A; Martins, E; De Smet, B Poncelet; Poncelet, D

    2017-01-01

    Microencapsulation processes may be divided into three steps, namely: incorporation of the bioactive substance in the matrix, dispersion of the matrix in droplets, and conversion in microcapsules. This contribution is focused on the second step and more specifically using the dripping approach to form droplets by extrusion of liquid through a nozzle. Different technologies of dripping are described, using as an example the production of alginate beads.

  2. Preface for DRIP X proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman (Chairman), Jean-Pierre; Montgomery (Co-Chairman), Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    methods, with an invited paper by R. Balboni on strain mapping in deep sub-micron Si devices using convergent beam electron diffraction in STEM. Session 9 was a specific session on the issue of defect mapping over large area wafers, a new idea to the DRIP series, for investigating the possibilities of implementing different kinds of techniques having a potential for high lateral resolution over the very large areas required nowadays for semiconductor substrates and materials. This session was introduced by an invited talk by S. Ostapenko on defect mapping in multi-crystalline Si as well as SiC wafers. Session 10 on multi-techniques investigation, also new to the DRIP series, showed the importance of having access to a wide variety of techniques and managing such a “strategy” in an optimal way for solving certain defect problems present in today's semiconductor materials. The session was introduced by an invited talk by I. De Wolf, showing the importance of this approach to failure analysis in microelectronics. Session 11 was on X-ray based techniques, with an invited paper by U. Zeimer on the use of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray spectroscopy (in the scanning or transmission electron microscope) for the study of epitaxial layers grown after lateral patterning at the nanometer scale of underlying layers. Session 12 was on defects in semiconductor lasers and other devices, with an invited paper by J. Jiménez on the use of spectroscopic techniques (cathodo-luminescence, micro-Raman...) for the assessment of defects in relation to aging behavior in high-power AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes. Session 13, the final session, was on electronic properties through contactless characterization. We would like to thank all those involved in the local Organizing Committee, the International Steering Committee and the Scientific Committee for their hard work in helping with the organization of DRIP X, as well as all those who participated in the conference as delegates

  3. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  4. Application of near-surface geophysics as part of a hydrologic study of a subsurface drip irrigation system along the Powder River floodplain near Arvada, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, James I.; Veloski, Garret; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Engle, Mark A.; Lipinski, Brian A.; Hammack, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming has occurred since 1997. National attention related to CBNG development has focused on produced water management, which is the single largest cost for on-shore domestic producers. Low-cost treatment technologies allow operators to reduce their disposal costs, provide treated water for beneficial use, and stimulate oil and gas production by small operators. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems are one potential treatment option that allows for increased CBNG production by providing a beneficial use for the produced water in farmland irrigation.Water management practices in the development of CBNG in Wyoming have been aided by integrated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic studies of both the disposal and utilization of water. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have utilized multi-frequency airborne, ground, and borehole electromagnetic (EM) and ground resistivity methods to characterize the near-surface hydrogeology in areas of produced water disposal. These surveys provide near-surface EM data that can be compared with results of previous surveys to monitor changes in soils and local hydrology over time as the produced water is discharged through SDI.The focus of this investigation is the Headgate Draw SDI site, situated adjacent to the Powder River near the confluence of a major tributary, Crazy Woman Creek, in Johnson County, Wyoming. The SDI system was installed during the summer of 2008 and began operation in October of 2008. Ground, borehole, and helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) conductivity surveys were conducted at the site prior to the installation of the SDI system. After the installation of the subsurface drip irrigation system, ground EM surveys have been performed quarterly (weather permitting). The geophysical surveys map the heterogeneity of the near-surface

  5. A comparison of precision mobile drip irrigation, LESA and LEPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision mobile drip irrigation (PMDI) is a surface drip irrigation system fitted onto moving sprinkler systems that applies water through the driplines as they are dragged across the field. This application method can conserve water by limiting runoff, and reducing evaporative losses since the wat...

  6. Do Lateral Flows Matter for the Hyperresolution Land Surface Modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Yuan, Xing; Liang, Xin-Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Hyperresolution land surface modeling provides an unprecedented opportunity to simulate locally relevant water and energy cycle, but lateral surface and/or subsurface flows that are essential at fine scale are often neglected by most one-dimensional land surface models (LSMs). To analyze effects of lateral flows across scales, a Conjunctive Surface-Subsurface Process model, which considers soil moisture-surface flow interaction and quasi-three-dimensional subsurface flow, is implemented over a mountainous HyperHydro test bed in southwestern USA at different resolutions. Validation over more than 70 International Soil Moisture Network stations shows that there are significant improvements in soil moisture simulations from 30 km to 4 km as finer soil property and precipitation data are used, with correlation increased by 5%-16% and error decreased by 5%. Lateral surface flow has a significant influence on surface soil moisture and ground evaporation even at coarse resolution. Effect of lateral subsurface flow on soil moisture is nontrivial at 1 km or finer resolution especially over wet areas. At 100 m resolution, topography-induced lateral subsurface flow causes drier peaks and wetter valleys, decreases latent heat by 8% at peaks, while increases it by 12% at valleys. Furthermore, influences of lateral subsurface flow on ground evaporation and vegetation transpiration are more significant during dry season due to a stronger coupling between soil moisture and evapotranspiration. Therefore, it is worthy to incorporate lateral flow processes in hyperresolution LSMs to better represent water and energy heterogeneity even with limited hyperresolution meteorological and surface data.

  7. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated

  8. AUTOMATIC INTRAVENOUS DRIP CONTROLLER*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the nursing staff shortage and the need for precise control in the administration of dangerous drugs intra- venously have led to the development of various devices to achieve an automatic system. The continuous automatic control of the drip rate eliminates errors due to any physical effect such as movement of the ...

  9. Increase globe artichoke cropping sustainability using sub-surface drip-irrigation systems in a Mediterranean coastal area for reducing groundwater withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantino, Alberto; Marchina, Chiara; Bonari, Enrico; Fabbrizzi, Alessandro; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin, human growth posed severe stresses on freshwater resources due to increasing demand by agricultural, industrial and civil activities, in particular on groundwater. This in turn led to worsening of water quality, loss/reduction of wetlands, up to soil salinization and abandonment of agricultural areas. Within the EU LIFE REWAT project a number of demonstration measures will take place in the lower Cornia valley (Livorno, Italy), both structural (pilot) and non-structural (education, dissemination and capacity building), aiming at achieving sustainable and participated water management. In particular, the five demonstration actions are related to: (1) set up of a managed aquifer recharge facility, (2) restoration of a Cornia river reach, (3) water saving in the civil water supply sector, (4) water saving in agriculture, (5) reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes. Thus, the REWAT project general objective is to develop a new model of governance for sustainable development of the lower Cornia valley based on the water asset at its core. As per water use in agriculture, the lower Cornia valley is well known for the horticultural production. In this regard, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)) crops, a perennial cool-season vegetable, cover a surface of about 600 ha. In order to increase stability and productivity of the crop, about 2000 - 4000 m3 ha-1 yr-1 of irrigation water is required. Recent studies demonstrated that yield of different crops increases using Sub-surface Drip-Irrigation (SDI) system under high frequency irrigation management enhancing water use efficiency. In the SDI systems, the irrigation water is delivered to the plant root zone, below the soil surface by buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. Within the LIFE REWAT, the specific objectives of the pilot on irrigation efficiency is to (i) demonstrate the

  10. Lateral posterior fossa venous sinus relationships to surface landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Emel; Kocaogullar, Yalcin; Fossett, Damirez; Caputy, Anthony

    2003-05-01

    Knowing the location of the venous sinuses in the combined lateral posterior fossa and lateral cranial base approach is important to prevent their inadvertent injury. The identification of surface landmarks related to these structures is useful in planning such surgical approaches. Twelve injected adult cadaver specimens and 10 dried skulls were used to study the relationship of the venous sinuses to various surface anatomic structures. The asterion was not clearly seen in 60% of the studied cadaver sides. The asterion was always clearly seen in the dry skull preparations. The upper margin of the superior nuchal line was found to range from 1.5 mm to 14 mm inferior to the lower margin of the lateral transverse sinus. In 85% of our specimens, the mastoid groove was found to completely overlie the sigmoid sinus. The asterion was found to be variable in its anatomic relations to other identifiable structures. This variability in relation to other posterior fossa bony landmarks limits its overall usefulness as a consistently stable marker for intracranial structures. The first and most superolateral burr hole for lateral posterior fossa procedures can be safely placed 1 cm below the superior nuchal line and 1 cm medial to the top of the mastoid groove. A burr hole in this location will avoid the transverse and sigmoid sinuses, as well as the transverse-sigmoid junction, yet will be high enough and lateral enough to provide easy exposure of these venous sinuses for all lateral posterior fossa procedures.

  11. Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A.; Cron, J.

    2000-01-01

    This design analysis has shown that, on a conceptual level, the emplacement of drip shields is feasible with current technology and equipment. A plan for drip shield emplacement was presented using a Drip Shield Transporter, a Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry, a locomotive, and a Drip Shield Gantry Carrier. The use of a Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry as an emplacement concept results in a system that is simple, reliable, and interfaces with the numerous other exising repository systems. Using the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System design as a basis for the drip shield emplacement concept proved to simplify the system by using existing equipment, such as the gantry carrier, locomotive, Electrical and Control systems, and many other systems, structures, and components. Restricted working envelopes for the Drip Shield Emplacement System require further consideration and must be addressed to show that the emplacement operations can be performed as the repository design evolves. Section 6.1 describes how the Drip Shield Emplacement System may use existing equipment. Depending on the length of time between the conclusion of waste emplacement and the commencement of drip shield emplacement, this equipment could include the locomotives, the gantry carrier, and the electrical, control, and rail systems. If the exisiting equipment is selected for use in the Drip Shield Emplacement System, then the length of time after the final stages of waste emplacement and start of drip shield emplacement may pose a concern for the life cycle of the system (e.g., reliability, maintainability, availability, etc.). Further investigation should be performed to consider the use of existing equipment for drip shield emplacement operations. Further investigation will also be needed regarding the interfaces and heat transfer and thermal effects aspects. The conceptual design also requires further design development. Although the findings of this analysis are accurate for the assumptions made

  12. Dynamic Surface Control and Its Application to Lateral Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsob Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the design and analysis methodology of dynamic surface control (DSC in Song and Hedrick, 2011, for a more general class of nonlinear systems. When rotational mechanical systems such as lateral vehicle control and robot control are considered for applications, sinusoidal functions are easily included in the equation of motions. If such a sinusoidal function is used as a forcing term for DSC, the stability analysis faces the difficulty due to highly nonlinear functions resulting from the low-pass filter dynamics. With modification of input variables to the filter dynamics, the burden of mathematical analysis can be reduced and stability conditions in linear matrix inequality form to guarantee the quadratic stability via DSC are derived for the given class of nonlinear systems. Finally, the proposed design and analysis approach are applied to lateral vehicle control for forward automated driving and backward parallel parking at a low speed as well as an illustrative example.

  13. LATERAL FLOODING ASSOCIATED TO WAVE FLOOD GENERATION ON RIVER SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramírez-Núñez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  14. Lateral Flooding Associated to Wave Flood Generation on River Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Núñez, C.; Parrot, J.-F.

    2016-06-01

    This research provides a wave flood simulation using a high resolution LiDAR Digital Terrain Model. The simulation is based on the generation of waves of different amplitudes that modify the river level in such a way that water invades the adjacent areas. The proposed algorithm firstly reconstitutes the original river surface of the studied river section and then defines the percentage of water loss when the wave floods move downstream. This procedure was applied to a gently slope area in the lower basin of Coatzacoalcos river, Veracruz (Mexico) defining the successive areas where lateral flooding occurs on its downstream movement.

  15. Distribuição de água no solo aplicado por gotejamento enterrado e superficial Soil water distribution for subsurface and surface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de estudos sobre o movimento da água quando aplicada abaixo da superfície, realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição de água aplicada pelo sistema de gotejamento enterrado e convencional. O experimento de campo foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da ESALQ/USP - Piracicaba, SP. Para o estudo, trincheiras foram abertas e instaladas sondas de TDR, dispostas a 0,05; 0,15; 0,25; 0,35 e 0,45 m profundidade, e a 0,05; 0,15; 0,25; 0,35 m comprimento, totalizando 17 sondas por trincheira. Os tratamentos foram baseados na profundidade de aplicação (0,0 e 0,10 m e vazão aplicada (2 e 4 L h-1: ENT2; ENT4; SUP2 e SUP4. A cada hora era aplicado 1 L de água (total de 10 L, seguida de leituras com o TDR. Medições do disco úmido e saturado foram feitas com régua milimetrada; além disso, estabeleceu-se um volume controle onde foi avaliada a uniformidade de aplicação; assim, foi possível verificar, em relação aos sistemas superficiais, que os sistemas enterrados apresentaram menor área superficial molhada e atingiram maior largura e profundidade; já as maiores concentrações foram obtidas próximas ao ponto de emissão.Studies of sub-surface water movement is an interesting topic in irrigation but, in spite of the its importance, there is little literature. One of the purposes of this study was to contribute to this subject and evaluate the distribution of water applied by both subsurface drip irrigation (SDI and conventional irrigation. Experiments were conducted at the Department of Rural Engineering (ESALQ/USP, located at Piracicaba, SP. Trenches were opened and 17 three-rod TDR probes were installed, placed at 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 m depths, and to 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 m intervals. This procedure was repeated using a dripper buried at 0 and 0.10 m for each discharge rate of 2 and 4 L h-1 tested. Wetted soil volume was observed with 1 L of water

  16. Effect of Long-term Drip Fertigation on Root Growth of Lychee and Soil PH

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Lan-sheng; Tu, Pan-feng; Zhang, Cheng-lin; Li, Zhong-hua

    2012-01-01

    Through field experiment, we explore the impact of long-term drip fertigation on growth and distribution of lychee root and changes of soil PH in different layers of soil in lychee garden. The results show that drip fertigation can significantly promote the growth of lychee roots, and increase the contact area of root and soil; if it experiences six years of drip fertigation successively, the dry weight of root, root length and surface area of root in soil in drip fertigation area, will be 2....

  17. Lateral interactions and non-equilibrium in surface kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Dietrich

    2016-08-01

    Work modelling reactions between surface species frequently use Langmuir kinetics, assuming that the layer is in internal equilibrium, and that the chemical potential of adsorbates corresponds to that of an ideal gas. Coverage dependences of reacting species and of site blocking are usually treated with simple power law coverage dependences (linear in the simplest case), neglecting that lateral interactions are strong in adsorbate and co-adsorbate layers which may influence kinetics considerably. My research group has in the past investigated many co-adsorbate systems and simple reactions in them. We have collected a number of examples where strong deviations from simple coverage dependences exist, in blocking, promoting, and selecting reactions. Interactions can range from those between next neighbors to larger distances, and can be quite complex. In addition, internal equilibrium in the layer as well as equilibrium distributions over product degrees of freedom can be violated. The latter effect leads to non-equipartition of energy over molecular degrees of freedom (for products) or non-equal response to those of reactants. While such behavior can usually be described by dynamic or kinetic models, the deeper reasons require detailed theoretical analysis. Here, a selection of such cases is reviewed to exemplify these points.

  18. Lateral surface superlattices in strained InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.

    2000-08-01

    Lateral Surface Superlattices were fabricated by etching in strained InGaAs layers above a GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG channel. These were etched both by dry plasma wet chemical etching to produce periods of 100nm, 200nm and 300nm. These superlattices were fabricated on Hall bars to allow four terminal measurement and a blanket gate was placed on top, to allow variations in the carrier concentration. The magnetoresistance effects of these superlattices were studied at varying values of gate voltage, which varies the carrier concentration and the electrostatic periodic potential and at temperatures down to 45mK in a dilution refrigerator. From the oscillations observed in the magnetoresistance trace's it is possible to calculate the magnitude of the periodic potential. This showed that the etched, strained InGaAs was producing an anisotropic piezoelectric potential, along with an isotropic electrostatic potential. The variation in period allowed a study of the change of this piezoelectric potential with the period as well as a study of the interactions between the electrostatic and piezoelectric potentials. Further, at the lowest temperatures a strong interaction was observed between the Commensurability Oscillations, caused by the periodic potential, and the Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations due to the Landau. Levels. This interaction was studied as it varied with temperature and carrier concentration. (author)

  19. Profundidade de instalação da linha de gotejadores em tomateiro para processamento industrial Drip line placement depth for processing tomatoes crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Marouelli

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta do tomateiro para processamento industrial, irrigado por gotejamento, a diferentes profundidades de instalação da linha lateral de gotejadores (0; 20 e 40 cm. Um tratamento irrigado por aspersão foi utilizado como controle. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Hortaliças, nas condições edafoclimáticas da região de cerrados do Brasil Central. Maior crescimento vegetativo de plantas foi observado nos tratamentos irrigados por aspersão e gotejamento superficial, enquanto que menor crescimento ocorreu no gotejamento a 40 cm. A produtividade comercial do tratamento irrigado por gotejamento superficial (124 t.ha-1 foi 32% maior que no tratamento por gotejamento subterrâneo a 40 cm, 15% maior que no tratamento irrigado por aspersão, não diferindo (p>0,05 do tratamento por gotejamento a 20 cm. Incrementos de produtividade foram devidos, principalmente, ao maior número de frutos por planta, uma vez que o estande final e a massa média de frutos não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. A incidência de frutos podres na irrigação por aspersão foi 112 e 453% maior que nos tratamentos irrigados por gotejamento superficial e subterrâneo, respectivamente.A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças under soil and climate conditions of Central Brazil "cerrado" region, aiming to evaluate the response of drip-irrigated processing tomatoes to different drip line placement depths (0; 20 and 40 cm. A control treatment was irrigated by sprinkle system. Larger plant vegetative growth was observed for the sprinkle and surface drip treatments, while smaller growth occurred for the 40 cm-depth drip treatment. Marketable yield of the surface drip irrigated treatment (124 t.ha-1 was 32% larger than the 40 cm-depth drip treatment, 15% larger than the sprinkle treatment, but did not differ (p>0,05 from the 20 cm-depth drip treatment. Yield increments were basically due to a larger number of fruits per plant, since final

  20. Application of sand and geotextile envelope in subsurface drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Subsurface drip irrigation is a technology used for better management of irrigation water. This technique is more desirable in arid and semi-arid region, because of decreasing soil surface evaporation and more efficiency of irrigation system in comparison with the other irrigation systems. In addition, this ...

  1. Application of sand and geotextile envelope in subsurface drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsurface drip irrigation is a technology used for better management of irrigation water. This technique is more desirable in arid and semi-arid region, because of decreasing soil surface evaporation and more efficiency of irrigation system in comparison with the other irrigation systems. Inaddition, this system is a safer way ...

  2. Comparison of different lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of three lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile: three-loop conventional acceleration autopilot, and gamma-dot and three-loop acceleration autopilot based upon the inverse-dynamic control. The surface-to-surface missile motion is described by nonlinear differential equations whose parameters change rapidly over a very wide range due to variable velocity and altitude. The requirement for the accurate controlling of the missile in such an environment represents a challenge for the autopilot designer. The brief review of the calculation of the autopilot gains is given using the concept of the 'point' stability for the linear time-varying system with 'frozen' dynamic coefficients. The method of the inverse-dynamic control is presented in the next section for two types of the autopilots: gamma-dot and acceleration autopilot. Both of them require the design of the estimators for the variables used as inputs to the control law. Finally, six-degree-of-freedom simulation results of the missile response to the demanded command on the typical ballistic trajectory are presented. The comparison of three autopilots considers the steady state errors and the sensitivity of the response to the highly variable environment. It was shown that the inverse-dynamic control can be very effective in the controlling of the surface-to-surface missile.

  3. Field Comparison of Fertigation Vs. Surface Irrigation of Cotton Crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on previous results of the same nature, one nitrogen rate 180 kg N ha -1 was tested under two-irrigation methods, surface irrigation and drip fertigation of cotton (Cultivar Rakka-5) for two consecutive seasons 2000 and 2001. The study aimed to answer various questions regarding the applicability of drip fertigation at farm level and the effect of its employment on yield and growth parameters, compared to surface irrigation. Nitrogen fertilizer was either injected in eight equally split applications for the drip fertigated cotton or divided in four unequally split applications as recommend by Ministry of Agriculture (20% before planting, 40% at thinning, 20% after 60 days from planting and 20% after 75 days after planting). 15 N labeled urea was used to evaluate nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The experimental design was randomized block design with seven replicates. Results showed that drip fertigation led to water saving exceeding 50% in some cases. Field germination percentage was highly increased under drip- fertigated cotton relative to surface-irrigated cotton. Dry matter and seed cotton yield of surface-irrigated cotton was slightly higher than that of drip-fertigated cotton in the first growing season. The reason for that was due to the hot spill that occurred in the region, which exposed the cotton crop to water stress and consequently pushed the cotton into early flowering. Lint properties were not affected by the introduction of drip-fertigation. Actually some properties were improved relative to the standard properties identified by the cotton Bureau.Nitrogen uptake was slightly increased under drip fertigation whereas nitrogen use efficiencies were not constant along the growing seasons. The reason for that could be lateral leaching and root proliferation into the labeled and unlabeled subplots. Field water use efficiency was highly increased for both growing seasons under drip fertigation practice. The rate of field water use efficiencies

  4. Parameterization of the Satellite-Based Model (METRIC for the Estimation of Instantaneous Surface Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco-Benavides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to parameterize the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration model for estimating instantaneous values of albedo (shortwave albedo (αi, net radiation (Rni and soil heat flux (Gi, sensible (Hi and latent heat (LEi over a drip-irrigated Merlot vineyard (location: 35°25′ LS; 71°32′ LW; 125 m.a.s. (l. The experiment was carried out in a plot of 4.25 ha, processing 15 Landsat images, which were acquired from 2006 to 2009. An automatic weather station was placed inside the experimental plot to measure αi, Rni and Gi. In the same tower an Eddy Covariance (EC system was mounted to measure Hi and LEi. Specific sub-models to estimate Gi, leaf area index (LAI and aerodynamic roughness length for momentum transfer (zom were calibrated for the Merlot vineyard as an improvement to the original METRIC model. Results indicated that LAI, zom and Gi were estimated using the calibrated functions with errors of 4%, 2% and 17%, while those were computed using the original functions with errors of 58%, 81%, and 5%, respectively. At the time of satellite overpass, comparisons between measured and estimated values indicated that METRIC overestimated αi in 21% and Rni in 11%. Also, METRIC using the calibrated functions overestimated Hi and LEi with errors of 16% and 17%, respectively while it using the original functions overestimated Hi and LEi with errors of 13% and 15%, respectively. Finally, LEi was estimated with root mean square error (RMSE between 43 and 60 W∙m−2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 35 and 48 W∙m−2 for both calibrated and original functions, respectively. These results suggested that biases observed for instantaneous pixel-by-pixel values of Rni, Gi and other intermediate components of the algorithm were presumably absorbed into the computation of sensible heat flux as a result of the internal self-calibration of METRIC.

  5. Technical and economical evaluation of tape drip and drip line irrigation systems in a strawberry greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra HOSSEINIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in a strawberry greenhouse to examine the technical and the economical evaluation of two drip irrigation systems including the tape and the drip line in the northern part of Iran. The result showed that all of the technical indices with tape were higher than drip line, and due to statistical analysis reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05. Yield and water productivity (WP with tape were higher than drip line (P < 0.05. Benefit per drop (BPD and net benefit per drop (NBPD with tape were higher than drip line. Net present value, internal rate of capital return and benefit to cost ratio in drip line were higher than tape. In general, regarding technical evaluation tape was better than drip line, besides according to the economical evaluation the drip ­lines were better than tape.

  6. [Simulation of soil water dynamics in triploid Populus tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ben-Ye; Jia, Li-Ming; Wang, Ye; Li, Guang-De

    2011-01-01

    Based on the observed data of triploid Populus tomentosa root distribution, a one-dimensional root water uptake model was proposed. Taking the root water uptake into account, the soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation was simulated by using HYDRUS model, and the results were validated with field experiment. Besides, the HYDRUS model was used to study the effects of various irrigation technique parameters on soil wetting patterns. The RMAE for the simulated soil water content by the end of irrigation and approximately 24 h later was 7.8% and 6.0%, and the RMSE was 0.036 and 0.026 cm3 x cm(-3), respectively, illustrating that the HYDRUS model performed well in simulating the short-term soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under drip irrigation, and the root water uptake model was reasonable. Comparing with 2 and 4 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and continuous irrigation, both the 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and the pulsed irrigation with water applied intermittently in 30 min periods could increase the volume of wetted soil and reduce deep percolation. It was concluded that the combination of 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and pulsed irrigation should be the first choice when applying drip irrigation to triploid P. tomentosa root zone at the experiment site.

  7. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  8. Spatially dense drip hydrological monitoring and infiltration behaviour at the Wellington Caves, South East Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jex Catherine N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that karst regions are recognised as significant groundwater resources, the nature of groundwater flow paths in the unsaturated zone of such fractured rock is at present poorly understood. Many traditional methods for constraining groundwater flow regimes in karst aquifers are focussed on the faster drainage components and are unable to inform on the smaller fracture or matrix-flow components of the system. Caves however, offer a natural inception point to observe both the long term storage and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such fractured carbonate rock by monitoring of drip rates of stalactites, soda straws and seepage from fractures/micro fissures that emerge in the cave ceiling. Here we present the largest spatial survey of automated cave drip rate monitoring published to date with the aim of better understanding both karst drip water hydrogeology and the relationship between drip hydrology and surface climate. By the application of cross correlation functions and multi-dimensional scaling, clustered by k-means technique, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between drip behaviour and initial surface infiltration and similarity amongst the drip rate time series themselves that may be interpreted in terms of flow regimes and cave chamber morphology and lithology.

  9. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Elnesr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%; the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10% and the WUE (~14%, but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability.

  10. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnesr, M.N.; Alazba, A.A.

    2015-07-01

    Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods) that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%); the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10%) and the WUE (~14%), but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability. (Author)

  11. Remote-Sensing-Based Evaluation of Relative Consumptive Use Between Flood- and Drip-Irrigated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Jordan, D. L.; Whittaker, A. T.; Allen, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Governments and water authorities are compelled to evaluate the impacts of agricultural irrigation on economic development and sustainability as water supply shortages continue to increase in many communities. One of the strategies commonly used to reduce such impacts is the conversion of traditional irrigation methods towards more water-efficient practices. As part of a larger effort by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission to understand the environmental and economic impact of converting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, this study evaluates the water-saving effectiveness of drip irrigation in Deming, New Mexico, using a remote-sensing-based technique combined with ground data collection. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Temperature analysis showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler than flood-irrigated fields, indicating higher water use. The higher consumption of water by drip-irrigated fields was supported by a determination of evapotranspiration (ET) from all fields using the METRIC Landsat-based surface energy balance model. METRIC analysis yielded higher instantaneous ET for drip-irrigated fields when compared to flood-irrigated fields and confirmed that drip-irrigated fields consumed more water than flood-irrigated fields planted with the same crop. More water use generally results in more biomass and hence higher crop yield, and this too was confirmed by greater relative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the drip irrigated fields. Results from this study confirm previous estimates regarding the impacts of increased efficiency of drip irrigation on higher water consumption in the area (Ward and Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). The higher water consumption occurs with drip because, with the limited water supplies and regulated maximum limits on pumping amounts, the

  12. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Ikegami, Koji; Marumo, Satoshi; Tanabe, Naoya; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Kamei, Junzo; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough. PMID:26581078

  13. Bony surface registration of navigation system in the lateral or prone position: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Aoyama, Tatsuro; Nagm, Alhusain; Yamamoto, Yasunaga; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Navigation systems have become essential tools in neurosurgery. Precise registration is indispensable for the accuracy of navigation. The rapid and precise registration by surface matching on the facial skin is possible using the landmarks of the face in the supine position. On the other hand, incomplete registration often occurs in the lateral or prone position due to the direction of the face and displacement of the skin by headpins and obscuring of the skin by the bispectral index monitor and many electrodes on the forehead as well as the eye patch. Surface matching on the occipital scalp is not suitable for registration because the shape of the occipital scalp is flat and it is compressed in the supine position when obtaining preoperative neuroimaging. To overcome this problem, the authors have developed a new method of registration designated as "bony surface registration" in which surface matching is achieved using the bony surface of the skull after exposure. Between June and December 2014, this technique was used in 23 patients and its effectiveness was examined. Registration time was markedly shortened and useful navigation was achieved due to accurate registration in all patients. This is the first report of a registration methodology for a navigation system in the lateral or prone position. This bony surface registration method is useful for navigation system image-guided surgery in the lateral or prone position.

  14. Defining and measuring the mean residence time of lateral surface transient storage zones in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Jackson; R. Haggerty; S.V. Apte; A. Coleman; K.J. Drost

    2012-01-01

    Surface transient storage (STS) has functional significance in stream ecosystems because it increases solute interaction with sediments. After volume, mean residence time is the most important metric of STS, but it is unclear how this can be measured accurately or related to other timescales and field-measureable parameters. We studied mean residence time of lateral...

  15. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  16. "More drop per crop" when moving from gravitational to drip irrigated agriculture? Experiences from a North Moroccan case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, N.; Gaspart, F.; Vanclooster, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to save agricultural water, the famous FAO's "more crop per drop" has been taken literally in many arid or semi-arid places around the world and policies that aim improving "efficiencies" (irrigation efficiency…) have been implemented, often leading to the promotion of water saving technologies. In 1865, studying coal consumption, W.S. Jevons highlighted that improving coal use efficiency could, as a paradox, lead to higher global coal use. Many economists later extended this idea to resource saving technologies in general, showing that, due to the "rebound effect", the adoption of more efficient technologies, in terms of use of resources, could lead to a higher global consumption of this resource if this adoption didn't go with adjustment measures. Regarding these considerations, the emerging question is to which extent water saving technologies (i.e. that aim improving water related efficiencies) are appropriate to save water at large scale. Our study addresses this question through the analysis of the conversion from surface to drip irrigation in Triffa's irrigated perimeter (Morocco). We aim addressing this question using the detailed analysis of two data sets. First, available data were collected for every farm within the study area from the local administrations. Second, interviews were conducted with farmers to complete the dataset and to characterize their behavior. This allowed assessing water related efficiencies at farm scale. Subsequently, models were implemented to link efficiencies with general attributes and thereby identify the main drivers of water related efficiencies in the study area. Finally, these models were used to upscale farm-scale assessment to the perimeter scale. Our results show that, under current conditions, moving from surface to drip irrigation leads to higher global water withdrawal. However, the aforementioned "rebound effect" does not allow explaining the higher pressure because of contextual specificities. Deeper

  17. Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. De

    2003-02-24

    One potential failure mechanism for titanium and its alloys under repository conditions is via the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. The resulting decreased ductility and fracture toughness may lead to brittle mechanical fracture called hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen embrittlement. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, HIC may be a problem since the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this scientific analysis and modeling activity is to evaluate whether the drip shield will fail by HIC or not under repository conditions within 10,000 years of emplacement. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) addresses features, events, and processes related to hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield. REV 00 of this AMR served as a feed to ''Waste Package Degradation Process Model Report'' and was developed in accordance with the activity section ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' of the development plan entitled ''Analysis and Model Reports to Support Waste Package PMR'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This AMR, prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Materials Data Analyses and Modeling'' (BSC 2002), is to feed the License Application.

  18. Hydrological characterization of cave drip waters in a porous limestone: Golgotha Cave, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mahmud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip

  19. Hydrological characterization of cave drip waters in a porous limestone: Golgotha Cave, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Kashif; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Baker, Andy; Treble, Pauline C.

    2018-02-01

    Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV) between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS) and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip types based on time series

  20. Lateral phase separation in polymer-blend thin films: surface bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveney, Sam; Clarke, Nigel

    2014-06-01

    We use simulations of a binary polymer blend confined between selectively attracting walls to identify and explain the mechanism of lateral phase separation via a transient wetting layer. We first show that equilibrium phases in the film are described by one-dimensional phase equilibria in the vertical (depth) dimension, and demonstrate that effective boundary conditions imposed by the film walls pin the film profile at the walls. We then show that, prior to lateral phase separation, distortion of the interface in a transient wetting layer is coupled to lateral phase separation at the walls. Using Hamiltonian phase portraits, we explain a "surface bifurcation mechanism" whereby the volume fraction at the walls evolves and controls the dynamics of the phase separation. We suggest how solvent evaporation may assist our mechanism.

  1. Effective wave tilt and surface impedance over a laterally inhomogeneous two-layer earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.J.; Wait, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Using a perturbation method, the effect of a simple two-dimensional model on the electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Earth is considered for a postulated downcoming plane wave. The calculated change in the surface impedance and wave tilt due to lateral inhomogeneities is examined. It is found that the magnetic wave tilt (H/sub z//H/sub x/) is most seriously affected by such anomalies. This may have important consequences on electromagnetic probing of nonuniform portions of the Earth's crust

  2. Lateral propagation of fast electrons at the laser-irradiated target surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y T; Lin, X X; Liu, B C; Du, F; Wang, S J; Li, C; Zhou, M L; Zhang, L; Liu, X; Wang, J; Liu, X L; Chen, L M; Wang, Z H; Ma, J L; Wei, Z Y; Zhang, J; Liu, F; Liu, F

    2010-01-01

    Lateral propagation of fast electrons at the target surfaces irradiated by femtosecond intense laser pulses is measured by k α x-ray imaging technique when a preplasma is presented. An annular halo surrounding a bright spot is observed in the x-ray images when the scale length of the electron density is large. For an incidence angle of 70 0 the x-ray images show a non-symmetrical distribution peaked to the laser propagation direction. The x-ray photons in the halo are mainly excited by the fast electrons that flow in the preplasma when their paths intersect the high density regions near the target surface.

  3. Lateral phase separation of mixed polymer brushes on planar and spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    A mixed polymer brush consists of two (or more) polymer species grafted to a surface at a high density, inducing the polymers to highly stretch to maximize favorable solvent interactions while minimizing polymer overlap. The enthalpic and entropic interactions between the different polymers give rise to lateral phase behavior on the surface. Understanding this phase separation behavior is interesting for applications in nanotemplating and controlled protein adsorption. In this work, we present a novel theoretical model to quickly predict lateral phase separated morphologies of mixed polymer brushes on planar, cylindrical and spherical surfaces. The model combines a Flory-Huggins model for enthalpic interactions between the polymer components with an Alexander-de Gennes model for the entropy of the brush layers. When there is a length difference between the polymer components, these two interactions along with the conformational entropy of the system lead to a range of morphologies including stripes, dimples, mixing, and complete phase separation. The computational efficiency of this model allows for phase diagrams to be generated with great accuracy. The results of our model thus allow for the fast prediction of lateral morphologies on different geometries.

  4. Dependence of Ideality Factor in Lateral PNP Transistors on Surface Carrier Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingji; Yang, Jianqun; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Galloway, Kenneth F.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Liu, Chaoming

    2017-06-01

    The influence of surface carrier concentration on the ideality factor of excess base current (ΔIB) in gated lateral PNP (GLPNP) bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) induced by 1-MeV electrons is investigated. ΔIB in LPNP BJTs is impacted by the surface carrier density and radiation-induced interface traps. In GLPNP BJTs, the surface carrier concentration can be controlled by the voltage applied to a gate over the base region. The ideality factor changes after irradiation, and its dependence on emitter-base voltage (VEB) is a function of gate voltage. For the irradiated devices, as the gate voltage decreases from +20 to -5 V, the ideality factor for excess base current changes from a single slope to two-slope behavior. The majority carrier concentration at the surface of the base, controlled by the gate voltage, impacts the excess base current and its ideality factor.

  5. Micro-pressure drip irrigation technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... 1National Engineering Research Center for Water-saving Irrigation at Yangling, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,. Chinese Academy of ... Key words: Irrigation, drip irrigation, micro-pressure systems, agricultural and environmental biotechnology, ..... Based on an analysis of polyethylene (PE) plastic.

  6. Temperature effects on neutron drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, M.; Aggarwal, Mamta

    1996-01-01

    Extremely neutron rich hot nuclei formed in high energy collisions having high thermal excitation energies are investigated in the framework of statistical theory and the effect of level density parameter a = U/T 2 , on the drip line is analysed

  7. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  8. Cascaded exciton energy transfer in a monolayer semiconductor lateral heterostructure assisted by surface plasmon polariton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, I-Tung; Mohammadi Estakhri, Nasim; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alù, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr

    2017-06-26

    Atomically thin lateral heterostructures based on transition metal dichalcogenides have recently been demonstrated. In monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, exciton energy transfer is typically limited to a short range (~1 μm), and additional losses may be incurred at the interfacial regions of a lateral heterostructure. To overcome these challenges, here we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor structure by placing a WS 2 /MoS 2 monolayer heterostructure on top of an Al 2 O 3 -capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We find that the exciton energy transfer range can be extended to tens of microns in the hybrid structure mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, allowing cascaded exciton energy transfer from one transition metal dichalcogenides region supporting high-energy exciton resonance to a different transition metal dichalcogenides region in the lateral heterostructure with low-energy exciton resonance. The realized planar hybrid structure combines two-dimensional light-emitting materials with planar plasmonic waveguides and offers great potential for developing integrated photonic and plasmonic devices.Exciton energy transfer in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides is limited to short distances. Here, Shi et al. fabricate a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor structure and show that exciton energy transfer can be extended to tens of microns, mediated by an exciton-surface-plasmon-polariton-exciton conversion mechanism.

  9. Molecular dynamics for lateral surface adhesion and peeling behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Pei-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adhesion and peeling behaviors of SWCNTs are investigated by detailed, fully atomistic MD simulations. ► Adhesion energy of SWCNTs are discussed. ► Dynamical behaviors of SWCNTs in low temperature adhesion are analyzed. ► Adhesion strengths of SWCNTs obtained from MD simulations are compared with the predictions of Hamaker theory and JKR model. - Abstract: Functional gecko-inspired adhesives have attracted a lot of research attention in the last decade. In this work, the lateral surface adhesion and normal peeling-off behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on gold substrates are investigated by performing detailed, fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effects of the diameter and adhered length of CNTs on the adhesive properties were systematically examined. The simulation results indicate that adhesion energies between the SWCNTs and the Au surface varied from 220 to 320 mJ m −2 over the reported chirality range. The adhesion forces on the lateral surface and the tip of the nanotubes obtained from MD simulations agree very well with the predictions of Hamaker theory and Johnson–Kendall–Roberts (JKR) model. The analyses of covalent bonds indicate that the SWCNTs exhibited excellent flexibility and extensibility when adhering at low temperatures (∼100 K). This mechanism substantially increases adhesion time compared to that obtained at higher temperatures (300–700 K), which makes SWCNTs promising for biomimetic adhesives in ultra-low temperature surroundings.

  10. A surface-based analysis of language lateralization and cortical asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N; Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Stufflebeam, Steven; Sabuncu, Mert R; Fischl, Bruce; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Among brain functions, language is one of the most lateralized. Cortical language areas are also some of the most asymmetrical in the brain. An open question is whether the asymmetry in function is linked to the asymmetry in anatomy. To address this question, we measured anatomical asymmetry in 34 participants shown with fMRI to have language dominance of the left hemisphere (LLD) and 21 participants shown to have atypical right hemisphere dominance (RLD). All participants were healthy and left-handed, and most (80%) were female. Gray matter (GM) volume asymmetry was measured using an automated surface-based technique in both ROIs and exploratory analyses. In the ROI analysis, a significant difference between LLD and RLD was found in the insula. No differences were found in planum temporale (PT), pars opercularis (POp), pars triangularis (PTr), or Heschl's gyrus (HG). The PT, POp, insula, and HG were all significantly left lateralized in both LLD and RLD participants. Both the positive and negative ROI findings replicate a previous study using manually labeled ROIs in a different cohort [Keller, S. S., Roberts, N., Garcia-Finana, M., Mohammadi, S., Ringelstein, E. B., Knecht, S., et al. Can the language-dominant hemisphere be predicted by brain anatomy? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2013-2029, 2011]. The exploratory analysis was accomplished using a new surface-based registration that aligns cortical folding patterns across both subject and hemisphere. A small but significant cluster was found in the superior temporal gyrus that overlapped with the PT. A cluster was also found in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex corresponding to the visual word recognition area. The surface-based analysis also makes it possible to disentangle the effects of GM volume, thickness, and surface area while removing the effects of curvature. For both the ROI and exploratory analyses, the difference between LLD and RLD volume laterality was most strongly driven by differences

  11. A Surface-based Analysis of Language Lateralization and Cortical Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N.; Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Stufflebeam, Steven; Sabuncu, Mert R.; Fischl, Bruce; Bysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Among brain functions, language is one of the most lateralized. Cortical language areas are also some of the most asymmetrical in the brain. An open question is whether the asymmetry in function is linked to the asymmetry in anatomy. To address this question, we measured anatomical asymmetry in 34 participants shown with fMRI to have language dominance of the left hemisphere (LLD) and 21 participants shown to have atypical right hemisphere dominance (RLD). All participants were healthy and left-handed, and most (80%) were female. Gray matter (GM) volume asymmetry was measured using an automated surface-based technique in both ROIs and exploratory analyses. In the ROI analysis, a significant difference between LLD and RLD was found in the insula. No differences were found in planum temporale (PT), pars opercularis (POp), pars triangularis (PTr), or Heschl’s gyrus (HG). The PT, POp, insula, and HG were all significantly left lateralized in both LLD and RLD participants. Both the positive and negative ROI findings replicate a previous study using manually labeled ROIs in a different cohort [Keller, S. S., Roberts, N., Garcia-Finana, M., Mohammadi, S., Ringelstein, E. B., Knecht, S., et al. Can the language-dominant hemisphere be predicted by brain anatomy? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 2013–2029, 2011]. The exploratory analysis was accomplished using a new surface-based registration that aligns cortical folding patterns across both subject and hemisphere. A small but significant cluster was found in the superior temporal gyrus that overlapped with the PT. A cluster was also found in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex corresponding to the visual word recognition area. The surface-based analysis also makes it possible to disentangle the effects of GM volume, thickness, and surface area while removing the effects of curvature. For both the ROI and exploratory analyses, the difference between LLD and RLD volume laterality was most strongly driven by

  12. Obstruction and uniformity in drip irrigation systems by applying treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of wastewater in agriculture is an alternative to control surface water pollution, and helps to promote the rational use of water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the obstruction and uniformity of application of treated wastewater in drip irrigation systems. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. The treatments were composed by the factorial combination of two factors: three types of water (supply water-ABAST, effluent of a constructed wetland system -WETLAND and upflow of anaerobic reactor effluent followed by constructed wetland system -UASB + WETLAND, and two drip irrigation systems (surface and subsurface, set in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The results indicated that the pH, suspended solids, total iron and coliforms of the WETLAND and UASB + WETLAND treatments represented a severe risk of clogging of drippers; the flow of the emitters increased as the service pressure was increased; values of CUC and CUD in surface and subsurface drip were classified as excellent in ABAST and WETLAND treatments. The degree of clogging reduced as pressure under surface and subsurface drip was increased.

  13. Lateral Trunk Surface as a new parameter to estimate live body weight by Visual Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Terramoccia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Live weight of 74 milking Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis L. have been estimated by Visual Image Analysis. The total surface of lateral profile, tested in previous researches with viable result, was substituted by the measurement of the Lateral Trunk Surface (LTrS. The measurements were recorded by a camera equipped by a laser distance recorder and data were elaborated by a specific software. This parameter, eliminating the surface of neck, head and legs, that are less easily measurable, simplified and accelerated the procedure. Correlation between LTrS and live weight was r = 0.90 (P < 0.01. A significant equation (P < 0.01 was obtained from the recorded data of a random sample of 38 buffaloes. When the validation of the equation was tested on the other 36 subjects, the estimated live weight had a mean of 691.74 kg ± 68.55. This was corresponding to a 1.08% overestimation of the real weight.

  14. Surface Wave Mode Conversion due to Lateral Heterogeneity and its Impact on Waveform Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Priestley, K. F.; Chapman, C. H.; Roecker, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Surface wave tomography based on great circle ray theory has certain limitations which become increasingly significant with increasing frequency. One such limitation is the assumption of different surface wave modes propagating independently from source to receiver, valid only in case of smoothly varying media. In the real Earth, strong lateral gradients can cause significant interconversion among modes, thus potentially wreaking havoc with ray theory based tomographic inversions that make use of multimode information. The issue of mode coupling (with either normal modes or surface wave modes) for accurate modelling and inversion of body wave data has received significant attention in the seismological literature, but its impact on inversion of surface waveforms themselves remains much less understood.We present an empirical study with synthetic data, to investigate this problem with a two-fold approach. In the first part, 2D forward modelling using a new finite difference method that allows modelling a single mode at a time, is used to build a general picture of energy transfer among modes as a function of size, strength and sharpness of lateral heterogeneities. In the second part, we use the example of a multimode waveform inversion technique based on the Cara and Leveque (1987) approach of secondary observables, to invert our synthetic data and assess how mode conversion can affect the process of imaging the Earth. We pay special attention to ensuring that any biases or artefacts in the resulting inversions can be unambiguously attributed to mode conversion effects. This study helps pave the way towards the next generation of (non-numerical) surface wave tomography techniques geared to exploit higher frequencies and mode numbers than are typically used today.

  15. Lateral traction of laminar flow between sliding pair with heterogeneous slip/no-slip surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenpeng Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of shaft axial motion which significantly affects the lubrication performance has been a common phenomenon in journal bearing systems. The existing work involved in the solution of shaft axial motion is also very rare. In this study, we choose to examine the flow between sliding pair in which regard we present a unique heterogeneous surface consisting of a slip zone and a no-slip zone. The results reveal the following points: 1 By appropriately arranging the slip zone to change the angle between the borderline and the moving direction of the upper plate, it is possible to control the direction of the lateral traction in which the liquid film acts on the upper plate. 2 Exponent of the power function of the borderline and aspect ratio of the computational domain are large or small are not conducive to increasing the effect of lateral traction. For the object of this study, the final results of the optimization are shown that the lateral traction can account for 20% of the resistance.

  16. Lateral traction of laminar flow between sliding pair with heterogeneous slip/no-slip surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenpeng; Zeng, Liangcai; Chen, Xiaolan; Chen, Keying; Ding, Xianzhong

    2017-11-01

    The problem of shaft axial motion which significantly affects the lubrication performance has been a common phenomenon in journal bearing systems. The existing work involved in the solution of shaft axial motion is also very rare. In this study, we choose to examine the flow between sliding pair in which regard we present a unique heterogeneous surface consisting of a slip zone and a no-slip zone. The results reveal the following points: 1) By appropriately arranging the slip zone to change the angle between the borderline and the moving direction of the upper plate, it is possible to control the direction of the lateral traction in which the liquid film acts on the upper plate. 2) Exponent of the power function of the borderline and aspect ratio of the computational domain are large or small are not conducive to increasing the effect of lateral traction. For the object of this study, the final results of the optimization are shown that the lateral traction can account for 20% of the resistance.

  17. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  18. Hydrologic and geochemical dynamics of vadose zone recharge in a mantled karst aquifer: Results of monitoring drip waters in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Alexander, E. Calvin; Jameson, Roy A.; Alexander, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Caves provide direct access to flows through the vadose zone that recharge karst aquifers. Although many recent studies have documented the highly dynamic processes associated with vadose zone flows in karst settings, few have been conducted in mantled karst settings, such as that of southeastern Minnesota. Here we present some results of a long-term program of cave drip monitoring conducted within Mystery Cave, Minnesota. In this study, two perennial ceiling drip sites were monitored between 1997 and 2001. The sites were located about 90 m (300 ft) apart along the same cave passage approximately 18 m (60 ft) below the surface; 7 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft) of loess and 12 m (40 ft) of flat-lying carbonate bedrock strata overlie the cave. Records of drip rate, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were obtained at 15 minute intervals, and supplemented with periodic sampling for major ion chemistry and water stable isotopes. Patterns in flow and geochemistry emerged at each of the two drip sites that were repeated year after year. Although one site responded relatively quickly (within 2-7 hours) to surface recharge events while the other responded more slowly (within 2-5 days), thresholds of antecedent moisture needed to be overcome in order to produce a discharge response at both sites. The greatest amount of flow was observed at both sites during the spring snowmelt period. Rainfall events less than 10 mm (0.4 in) during the summer months generally did not produce a drip discharge response, yet rapid drip responses were observed following intense storm events after periods of prolonged rainfall. The chemical data from both sites indicate that reservoirs of vadose zone water with distinct chemical signatures mixed during recharge events, and drip chemistry returned to a baseline composition during low flow periods. A reservoir with elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations impacts the slow-response drip site with each recharge event, but does not similarly

  19. Adhesion strength and spreading characteristics of EPS on membrane surfaces during lateral and central growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Tansel, Derya Z

    2013-11-01

    Deposition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on membrane surfaces is a precursor step for bacterial attachment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the morphological changes on a clean polysulfone ultrafilration membrane after exposure to effluent from a membrane bioreactor. The effluent was filtered to remove bacteria before exposing the membrane. The morphological characterization was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The lateral (2D) and central growth characteristics (3D) of the EPS deposits were evaluated by section and topographical analyses of the height images. The contact angle of single EPS units was 9.07 ± 0.50° which increased to 24.41 ± 1.00° for large clusters (over 10 units) and decreased to 18.68 ± 1.00° for the multilayered clusters. The surface tension of the single EPS units was 49.34 ± 1.70 mNm(-1). The surface tension of single layered small and large EPS clusters were 51.26 ± 2.05 and 53.48 ± 2.01 mNm(-1), respectively. For the multilayered clusters, the surface tension was 51.43 ± 2.05 mNm(-1). The spreading values were negative for all deposits on the polysulfone membrane indicating that the EPS clusters did not have tendency to spread but preferred to retain their shapes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Application of Drip Irrigation System on Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningrum, Diah Ayu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the performance of drip irrigation systems, determine performance of tomato treated under the irrigation systems.Field research was conducted at the Laboratory of Land and Water Resources Engineering; and at the Laboratory ofintegrated field, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung in August 2013 to December 2013.Irrigation systems consisted of main componens: water supplies, Polythilene lateral tube, and emitters. Emitter on every pot, were made of Polythile...

  1. Surface Plasmon Polariton-Assisted Long-Range Exciton Transport in Monolayer Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Tong; Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi; Tseng, Guo-Wei; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alã¹, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures, i.e., atomically thin lateral heterostructures (LHSs) based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated. In an optically excited LHS, exciton transport is typically limited to a rather short spatial range ( 1 micron). Furthermore, additional losses may occur at the lateral interfacial regions. Here, to overcome these challenges, we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure by placing a monolayer of WS2/MoS2 LHS on top of an Al2O3 capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We found that the exciton transport range can be extended to tens of microns. The process of long-range exciton transport in the MOS structure is confirmed to be mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, which allows a cascaded energy transfer process. Thus, the planar MOS structure provides a platform seamlessly combining 2D light-emitting materials with plasmonic planar waveguides, offering great potential for developing integrated photonic/plasmonic functionalities.

  2. Magnetotransport properties of lateral-surface superlattices by molecular-dynamics Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Ferry, D. K.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetotransport properties of a lateral-surface superlattice, a two-dimensional (2D) electron system in a 2D periodic potential, are studied with use of a Monte Carlo technique, where the effect of the magnetic field is included through a Lorentz force and the interparticle Coulomb interaction is included with a molecular-dynamics method. Excellent numerical energy conservation is achieved by adopting a predictor-corrector algorithm to integrate the equations of motion. The simulation shows that the diffusion constant, as a function of the magnetic field, is not a simple monotone function but has a structure with multiple minima. This structure is attributed to the correlated circular electron motion, and this is reminiscent of classical pinning orbits in a 2D antidot array, even in the presence of the Coulomb interaction. The radial-distribution function shows no significant dependence upon the magnetic field up to ten flux quanta per unit cell.

  3. Stark effect of excitons in corrugated lateral surface superlattices: effect of centre-of-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Sun

    1998-11-01

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of excitons in GaAs/AlAs corrugated lateral surface superlattices (CLSSLs) is calculated. Blue and red shifts in the exciton energies are predicted for the heavy- and light-excitons in the CLSSLs, respectively, comparing with those in the unmodulated quantum well due to the different effective hole masses in the parallel direction. Sensitive dependence of the QCSE on the hole effective mass in the parallel direction is expected because of the ''centre-of-mass'' quantization (CMQ) induced by the periodic corrugated interfaces of the CLSSLs. The effect of the CMQ on the exciton mini-bands and the localization of the excitons in the CLSSLs is discussed. (author)

  4. Impact of chemical lateral boundary conditions in a regional air quality forecast model on surface ozone predictions during stratospheric intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, Diane; Gravel, Sylvie; Moran, Michael D.; Lupu, Alexandru

    2018-02-01

    A regional air quality forecast model, GEM-MACH, is used to examine the conditions under which a limited-area air quality model can accurately forecast near-surface ozone concentrations during stratospheric intrusions. Periods in 2010 and 2014 with known stratospheric intrusions over North America were modelled using four different ozone lateral boundary conditions obtained from a seasonal climatology, a dynamically-interpolated monthly climatology, global air quality forecasts, and global air quality reanalyses. It is shown that the mean bias and correlation in surface ozone over the course of a season can be improved by using time-varying ozone lateral boundary conditions, particularly through the correct assignment of stratospheric vs. tropospheric ozone along the western lateral boundary (for North America). Part of the improvement in surface ozone forecasts results from improvements in the characterization of near-surface ozone along the lateral boundaries that then directly impact surface locations near the boundaries. However, there is an additional benefit from the correct characterization of the location of the tropopause along the western lateral boundary such that the model can correctly simulate stratospheric intrusions and their associated exchange of ozone from stratosphere to troposphere. Over a three-month period in spring 2010, the mean bias was seen to improve by as much as 5 ppbv and the correlation by 0.1 depending on location, and on the form of the chemical lateral boundary condition.

  5. The New Water Moderator of the IBR-2 Reactor with a Canyon on the Lateral Surface. Design and Physical Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Korneev, D A; Bodnarchuk, V I; Peresedov, V F; Rogov, A D; Shabalin, E P; Yaradaikin, S P

    2003-01-01

    An element of the new cold methane moderator of the reactor IBR-2, the water premoderator, serves as a thermal moderator for the 9th and 1st channels. Neutron radiation in the direction of the 9th channel comes from the lateral surface of the moderator. A specific feature of the reflectometer REFLEX located on the 9th channel is that it only "sees" neutrons emitted from a limited region of the moderator surface. This region is a rectangular extended along a vertical with a horizontal dimension of about 7 mm. To increase the flux on the sample, a groove-like pocket (canyon) with a depth of 80 mm by the width 15 mm and height 200 mm was cut in the premoderator on its lateral surface. The design of the moderator and the results of measurements of the neutron flux distribution on the lateral surface of the moderator are presented.

  6. Drip Planner Chart: a simple irrigation scheduling tool for smallholder drip farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, H.; Zisengwe, L.S.; Yakami, S.

    2012-01-01

    Drip irrigation is widely recognized as potentially one of the most efficient irrigation methods. However, this efficiency is often not achieved because systems are not always well designed or maintained and many farmers lack the tools to assess the crop water requirements and to monitor the soil

  7. Water movement through a shallow unsaturated zone in an inland arid region: Field drip irrigation experiment under matrix potential control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Han, D.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is vital to study soil water movement in unsaturated zone for evaluating and improving current irrigation mode for prevention and control of soil secondary salinization, especially in inland arid area, where is characterized by strong evaporation, poor drainage system and shallow water table depth. In this study, we investigated the applicability of drip irrigation under matrix potential control during cotton growth seasons in an inland arid region of northwest China. Combined physical observation with stable isotopes tracing method, we studied soil water flow system and recharge sources of shallow groundwater in heavy (Pilot 1) and light (Pilot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. Evaporation depths (about 50-60 cm) are about the same for both pilots, but infiltration depths (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 150 cm for Pilot 2) are very different due to different soil texture, soil structure and soil salt content. Middle layer (about 100 cm thick) is a critical barrier for water exchange between surface and deep layer. Irrigation water is the major source (about 79.6% for Pilot 1 and 81.6% for Pilot 2), while evapotranspiration is the major sink (about 80.7% for Pilot 1 and 83.1% for Pilot 2) of unsaturated zone. The increase of soil water storage is not enough to make up the water shortage of middle layer and thus drip irrigation water doesn't recharge into groundwater for both pilots. Water table rise (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 50 cm for Pilot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. This irrigation mode could retard the water table rise in this region. However, improving horizontal drainage system may be indispensable for sustainable agriculture development. The study can provide important basis for soil secondary salinization prevention and agricultural water management in inland arid areas.

  8. Lateral variation in crustal and mantle structure in Bay of Bengal based on surface wave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Mukhopadhyay, Sagarika; Kumar, Naresh; Baidya, P. R.

    2018-01-01

    Surface waves generated by earthquakes that occurred near Sumatra, Andaman-Nicobar Island chain and Sunda arc are used to estimate crustal and upper mantle S wave velocity structure of Bay of Bengal. Records of these seismic events at various stations located along the eastern coast of India and a few stations in the north eastern part of India are selected for such analysis. These stations lie within regional distance of the selected earthquakes. The selected events are shallow focused with magnitude greater than 5.5. Data of 65, 37, 36, 53 and 36 events recorded at Shillong, Bokaro, Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Trivandrum stations respectively are used for this purpose. The ray paths from the earthquake source to the recording stations cover different parts of the Bay of Bengal. Multiple Filtering Technique (MFT) is applied to compute the group velocities of surface waves from the available data. The dispersion curves thus obtained for this data set are within the period range of 15-120 s. Joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity is carried out to obtain the subsurface information in terms of variation of S wave velocity with depth. The estimated S wave velocity at a given depth and layer thickness can be considered to be an average value for the entire path covered by the corresponding ray paths. However, we observe variation in the value of S wave velocity and layer thickness from data recorded at different stations, indicating lateral variation in these two parameters. Thick deposition of sediments is observed along the paths followed by surface waves to Shillong and Bokaro stations. Sediment thickness keeps on decreasing as the surface wave paths move further south. Based on velocity variation the sedimentary layer is further divided in to three parts; on top lay unconsolidated sediment, underlain by consolidated sediment. Below this lies a layer which we consider as meta-sediments. The thickness and velocity of these layers decrease from north

  9. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Hua

    2004-01-01

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847])

  10. A new drip infusion monitoring system - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2010-01-01

    A new drip infusion solution monitoring system has been developed for hospital and care facility use. The system detects and counts the fall of each drip chamber drop of fluid. Two non-contacting copper foil electrodes are used; one wrapped around the infusion supply polyvinyl-chloride tube under the solution bag and another around the drip chamber, forming two capacitors. Drip infusion fluids have electrical conductivity, so the capacitors are a series-connected electrical impedance. A thirty kHz sine wave is applied to the infusion tube electrode and the capacity-coupled signal on the drip chamber electrode is the transducer output. When an infusion fluid drop is forming, its diameter, and therefore drip chamber capacitance, are increasing, causing change in the output signal. When the drop reaches sufficient diameter to fall, the drip chamber capacitance decreases, which briefly returns the output signal to baseline. Therefore, the growth, fall, and drip rate of each drop of fluid can be detected from the output signal waveform. The system also has advantages of being insensitive to ambient light type and intensity, and detects when the infusion bag is empty.

  11. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua

    2004-09-16

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847]).

  12. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  13. Transport Properties of Lateral Surface Superlattices Studied by Molecular Dynamics Monte Carlo Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    The transport properties of a lateral surface superlattice, a two-dimensional (2D) electron system with a superposed 2D periodic potential, are studied with a molecular dynamics Monte Carlo technique. Excellent numerical energy conservation is achieved by adopting a predictor -corrector algorithm to integrate the equations of motion. With increasing 2D potential amplitude, electrons show a transition from a mobile phase to an immobile phase where the radial distribution function has characteristic peaks, indicating the beginning of the long-range ordering of the electrons in the potential minima. The velocity autocorrelation function shows a 2D plasma oscillation in the mobile phase, while in the immobile phase the classical oscillation at the bottom of the potential well is observed. Raising the temperature improves the transport since electrons are released from the constraint of the 2D potential and Coulomb potential. The conductance as a function of the magnetic field is not a simple decreasing function but has a structure with several local conductance minima. This structure is attributed to the correlated circular electron motion, and the reminiscence of the classical pinning orbits in the pinball machine model for a 2D antidot array.

  14. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, V.; Nihtianov, S.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, LB, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition(CVD) using diborane (B2H6) is reported. The value of LB is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and

  15. A remote drip infusion monitoring system employing Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hikaru; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Maki, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a remote drip infusion monitoring system for use in hospitals. The system consists of several infusion monitoring devices and a central monitor. The infusion monitoring device employing a Bluetooth module can detect the drip infusion rate and an empty infusion solution bag, and then these data are sent to the central monitor placed at the nurses' station via the Bluetooth. The central monitor receives the data from several infusion monitoring devices and then displays graphically them. Therefore, the developed system can monitor intensively the drip infusion situation of the several patients at the nurses' station.

  16. Impact of fog-drip versus fog immersion on leaf-level function of Bishop pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguskas, S. A.; Still, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Fog-water is known to be an important water source to plants in coastal, Mediterranean climates because it augments plant available water several months after the last winter rain, when conditions are otherwise warm and dry. While fog-drip to the soil surface is the most obvious contribution of fog to the water budget of an ecosystem, recent studies provide convincing evidence that foliar absorption of fog water is also possible. The focus of our research was to assess the relative importance of fog-drip and fog immersion on the photosynthetic capacity and gas exchange rates of a coastal pine species, Bishop pine (Pinus muricata, D.Don), a drought sensitive species restricted to the fogbelt of coastal California and offshore islands. We conducted a greenhouse study where we manipulated fog water inputs to potted Bishop pine saplings during a three-week dry-down period. Fifteen saplings were randomly assigned one of three treatments: 1) fog-drip and fog-immersion, 2) fog immersion alone, and 3) no fog water inputs. We artificially generated nighttime fog events using an ultrasonic device, which produces fog droplets. Given that the canopy architecture varied between saplings, we standardized the amount of fog-drip plants received by preventing direct fog drip from the canopy, and instead added the average amount of fog water that would have fallen from each canopy. To detect changes in soil moisture, we installed volumetric soil moisture probes in each pot at 2 and 10 cm depth. The plant response variables measured were photosynthetic capacity and maximum gas exchange rates of sapling trees. Our results show that plants which received both fog-drip and fog immersion sustained higher gas exchange rates and photosynthetic capacity through the dry-down period compared to trees in other treatment groups. Trees that received only fog immersion had lower rates of gas exchange and lower photosynthetic capacity relative to trees that received both fog-drip and fog immersion

  17. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Carleton R; Breit, George N; Healy, Richard W; Zupancic, John W; Hammack, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300–480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  18. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  19. Effect of prepulse on fast electron lateral transport at the target surface irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X. X.; Li, Y. T.; Liu, B. C.; Liu, F.; Du, F.; Wang, S. J.; Lu, X.; Chen, L. M.; Zhang, L.; Liu, X.; Wang, J.; Liu, F.; Liu, X. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Ma, J. L.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of preplasma on lateral fast electron transport at front target surface, irradiated by ultraintense (>10 18 W/cm 2 ) laser pulses, are investigated by Kα imaging technique. A large annular Kα halo with a diameter of ∼560 μm surrounding a central spot is observed. A specially designed steplike target is used to identify the possible mechanisms. It is believed that the halos are mainly generated by the lateral diffusion of fast electrons due to the electrostatic and magnetic fields in the preplasma. This is illustrated by simulated electron trajectories using a numerical model.

  20. Hot rotating fp shell Fe isotopes near proton drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2003-01-01

    F p shell 44-58 Fe nuclei have been investigated in highly excited state using the statistical theory of hot rotating nucleus. Effects of thermal and rotational excitation at drip line nuclei are studied

  1. Proton magnetic spectroscopy agreed better with magnetic resonance image to lateralization of epileptogenic zone than with surface electroencephalography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andre Amorim Leite

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the agreement rate of proton magnetic spectroscopy with magnetic resonance image (MRI and surface electroence-phalography (EEG in extratemporal neocortical epilepsies. Methods A cross-sectional study, type series of cases included 33 patients, age range 13–59 years old, of both gender, presenting structural alteration identified by MRI (75.8% or by neurophysiologic techniques (72.7%. The variables were alterations of N-acetyl-aspartate/choline, N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine, choline/creatine, and N-acetyl-aspartate/cho-line+creatine coefficient of asymmetry. Results Agreement rates of lateralization by coefficient of asymmetry of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Co/Cr, and NAA/Cho+Cr with MRI, independent of alteration of surface EEG, were equal to 93.3, 57.9, 15.4, and 93.3%, respectively, modifying to 100, 33.3, 0, and 100%, in 16 patients, with lateralization agreement of MRI and surface EEG. Conclusion Proton magnetic spectroscopy agreed better with MRI to lateralization of epileptogenic zone than with surface EEG.

  2. Steady-state characteristics of lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, V.; Tsutsui, N.; Khmyrova, I.; Ikegami, T.; Vaccaro, P. O.; Taniyama, H.; Aida, T.

    2001-09-01

    We developed an analytical device model for lateral p-n junction vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (LJVCSELs) with a quantum well active region. The model takes into account the features of the carrier injection, transport, and recombination in LJVCSELs as well as the features of the photon propagation in the cavity. This model is used for the calculation and analysis of the LJVCSEL steady-state characteristics. It is shown that the localization of the injected electrons primarily near the p-n junction and the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons significantly effects the LJVCSELs performance, in particular, the LJVCSEL threshold current and power-current characteristics. The reincarnation of electrons and holes due to the reabsorption of lateral propagating photons can substantially decrease the threshold current.

  3. 2003 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference Breached Drip Shield Test and Validation of a TSPA Sub-Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, Z.P.; Kam, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) represents the system of human engineered barriers in the isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. It is designed to complement and enhance the natural barriers to isolate and prevent the transport of radionuclides into the surrounding environment. The transport mechanism most frequently postulated for radionuclides is liquid water flux that has penetrated the EBS through corrosion breaches in the drip shield and waste packages (WP). A water flux-splitting model is used to predict flow through WP and drip shield breaches and is documented in the ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction''. A future revision of the ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' will be one component of the total system performance assessment--license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The flux-splitting model is conservative based on the following assumptions: (1) Drip impact occurs without a loss of water mass. (2) Dripping flux falls exactly at the crown of the drip shield as opposed to different locations on the curved surface, which will effect splashing and flow patterns. (3) The flux passing through a drip shield patch is proportional to the ratio of the length of the penetration in the axial direction to the total axial length of the drip shield. In this assumption all fluid that drips and flows from the drip shield crown toward a penetration will be collected if the axial locations of the source and patch coincide. (4) The potential for evaporation is ignored. Because of these conservatisms, the current version of the flux-splitting model is incapable of accounting for water that has been splashed from the impact location, the deviation of water paths (rivulets) from the axis of impact, and water loss due to evaporation. This paper will present the results of a series of breached drip shield tests used to collect empirical data for the initial validation and further

  4. Abstraction of Models for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2001-08-29

    This analyses and models report (AMR) was conducted in response to written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). The purpose and scope of this AMR is to review and analyze upstream process-level models (CRWMS M and O 2000a and CRWMS M and O 2000b) and information relevant to pitting and crevice corrosion degradation of waste package outer barrier (Alloy 22) and drip shield (Titanium Grade 7) materials, and to develop abstractions of the important processes in a form that is suitable for input to the WAPDEG analysis for long-term degradation of waste package outer barrier and drip shield in the repository. The abstraction is developed in a manner that ensures consistency with the process-level models and information and captures the essential behavior of the processes represented. Also considered in the model abstraction are the probably range of exposure conditions in emplacement drifts and local exposure conditions on drip shield and waste package surfaces. The approach, method, and assumptions that are employed in the model abstraction are documented and justified.

  5. Partitioning of Cotton Field Evapotranspiration under Mulched Drip Irrigation Based on a Dual Crop Coefficient Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Tian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of field crop evapotranspiration (ETc and its partitioning into evaporation and transpiration, are of great importance in hydrological modeling and agricultural water management. In this study, we used a dual crop coefficient model SIMDualKc to estimate the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc act and the basal crop coefficients over a cotton field in Northwestern China. A two-year field experiment was implemented in the cotton field under mulched drip irrigation. The simulated ETc act is consistent with observed ETc act as derived based on the eddy covariance system in the field. Basal crop coefficients of cotton for the initial, mid-season, and end-season are 0.20, 0.90, and 0.50, respectively. The transpiration components of ETc  act are 96% (77% and 94% (74% in 2012 and 2013 with (without plastic mulch, respectively. The impact of plastic mulch cover on soil evaporation is significant during drip irrigation ranging from crop development stage to mid-season stage. The extent of the impact depends on the variation of soil moisture, available energy of the soil surface, and the growth of the cotton leaves. Our results show that the SIMDualKc is capable of providing accurate estimation of ETc act for cotton field under mulched drip irrigation, and could be used as a valuable tool to establish irrigation schedule for cotton fields in arid regions as Northwestern China.

  6. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  7. [Studies on the metabolic fate of isepamicin sulfate (HAPA-B). III. Intramuscular, intravenous and drip intravenous administration of HAPA-B in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Somiya, Y; Shirai, M; Sakai, A; Iwasaki, M; Morishita, M

    1987-01-01

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of isepamicin sulfate (HAPA-B) were studied following intramuscular, intravenous and drip intravenous administration at doses of 6.25, 25 and 100 mg/kg to rabbits. Plasma concentrations of HAPA-B following intramuscular, intravenous and drip intravenous administration depended on dose levels. Biological half-lives (T1/2), body clearance (Clt) and areas under plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) for different routes of administration were similar in all 3 routes. A theoretical curve for drug concentrations vs. time was obtained using pharmacokinetic parameters calculated from drug concentrations in plasma following a 45-minute drip intravenous administration. From the curve, it was estimated that 60 to 90 minutes would be required to achieve a similar maximum drug concentration in plasma by drip intravenous administration to that obtained by intramuscular administration. Thus, drug concentration patterns obtained following intramuscular administration could be duplicated in drip intravenous administration by regulating the length of time for infusion. The concentration of HAPA-B in tissues obtained following a 15-minute drip intravenous administration reached maximum after 15 minutes at a level higher than that achieved by intramuscular administration, but an hour later, concentrations in tissues including the kidney decreased to similar levels obtained following intramuscular administration and patterns of concentration decrease for drip intravenous administration and intramuscular administration were quite similar to each other thereafter. The drug was rapidly excreted into the urine following any of the 3 routes, and urinary recoveries in 24 hours were 75 approximately 92% of dose amounts for all dose levels tested. Bioautograms on thin-layer chromatographs of 0 approximately 6 hours urine samples obtained following an intramuscular administration of the drug showed a single biologically active bands with

  8. Surface enhanced Raman scattering by organic and inorganic semiconductors formed on laterally ordered arrays of Au nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milekhin, Alexander G., E-mail: milekhin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentiev av. 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Yeryukov, Nikolay A., E-mail: yeryukov@isp.nsc.ru [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentiev av. 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sveshnikova, Larisa L.; Duda, Tatyana A.; Rodyakina, Ekaterina E. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentiev av. 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sheremet, Evgeniya S.; Ludemann, Michael; Gordan, Ovidiu D. [Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107, Chemnitz (Germany); Latyshev, Alexander V. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Lavrentiev av. 13, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-09-30

    This work is devoted to the investigation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering by vibrational modes of cobalt phthalocyanine ultrathin films and CuS nanocrystals prepared using by organic molecular beam vapor deposition and the Langmuir–Blodgett technique, respectively, on laterally ordered arrays of Au nanoclusters formed by electron beam lithography on Si and GaAs substrates. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of cobalt phthalocyanine films demonstrates the strong dependence of Raman intensity of vibrational modes in cobalt phthalocyanine on the laser excitation wavelength as well as on the size and period of Au nanoclusters. By tuning the optical resonance conditions a maximal enhancement factor of 2 × 10{sup 4} is achieved. The investigation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering by cobalt phthalocyanine deposited on laterally ordered arrays of paired Au nanoclusters (dimers) reveals anisotropic enhancement with respect to polarization of the scattered light parallel or perpendicular to the dimer axis. - Highlights: • Controllable and reproducible Au nanocluster and dimer arrays were fabricated. • Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by CuS nanocrystals was observed. • SERS by ultrathin cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) films was observed. • Dependence of SERS enhancement factor on the size of Au nanoclusters is resonant. • SERS by ultrathin CoPc films formed on Au dimer arrays is polarization dependent.

  9. Opalski syndrome caused by vertebral artery compression of the lateral surface of the medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Tomohisa; Tanahashi, Norio

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with vertigo, nystagmus, and gait ataxia followed by left hemiparesis (Opalski syndrome). T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed vascular compression of the left lateral side of the medulla oblongata by the left vertebral artery. On diffusion tensor imaging, the level of fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left corticospinal fibers caudal to the pyramidal decussation was lower than that observed in the right corticospinal fibers. Opalski syndrome caused by vascular compression is very rare. This is the first reported case of Opalski syndrome that was imaged on FA.

  10. Surface electromyography in diagnosis of lateral dominance in children: psychomotor aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Jordy, Ceme Ferreira [UNIFESP

    1995-01-01

    A dominância lateral foi verificada pelo eletromiograma de superfície em 100 crianças neurologicamente normais. Foram usados estímulos verbais durante os registros eletromiográficos. Em comparação com o diagnóstico clínico, a eletromiografia se revelou mais precisa, excluindo influências subjetivas nos resultados. Destrismo foi diagnosticado em 90 pacientes, canhotismo em 3 e dominância indefinida em 7. Mecanismos de ordem psicomotora são sugeridos para justificar as respostas motoras provoca...

  11. Drip irrigation and fertigation of potato under light-textured soils of cappadocia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitgil, M. B.; Onaran, H.; Munsuz, N.; Kislal, H.; Akin, A.; Unlenen, A. L.; Cayci, G.; Kutuk, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate potato response to drip irrigation and N fertigation; and also to improve nitrogen and water use efficiencies of potato and eventually to obtain less nitrogen polluted surface and water, 10 field experiments were carried out at three different locations in Cappadocia Region of Turkey in 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. Nitrogen as ammonium sulphate ((NH 4 ) 2 So 4 ), was supplied by drip irrigation water (fertigation) at rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/da. Also, soil N application treatment equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 60kg N/da was included. These five treatments were investigated in a completely randomized block design with four replicants. Agria potato variety was used in all experiments and potato was planted in mid May and harvested at the end of October.''1''5N-labelled ammonium sulphate fertilizer were applied in isotope-sub plots within the macroplots for each treatment, in order to determine the amount of nitrogen taken up by the plant, nitrogen use efficiency and the distribution of residual nitrogen at different depths in the soil profile. Each year, during the growth period, total 12 irrigations were done and 50 mm of water was applied at each irrigation. At harvest, plant samples (tuber and leaf+vein) and soil samples were taken from each plot and N%, ''1''5N% atom excess (''1''5N% a.e.) and Ndff% determinations were done. Soil water contents at differrent soil depths were determined by soil moisture neutron probe at plantingand at harvest period so that water contents at different soil layers and water use efficiencies were calculated for each treatment. The results obtained showed that 3350 kg/da mean total marketable tuber yield was obtained with application of 600 mm irrigation water. Also,it was found that water did not move below 90 cm of soil layer in drip irrigation-fertigation system, which showed clearly that no nitrogen movement occured beyond 90 cm soil depth. Tuber yields and %Ndff increased when

  12. Lateral conductance parallel to membrane surfaces: effects of anesthetics and electrolytes at pre-transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, A; Yoshida, T; Okabayashi, H; Kamaya, H; Ueda, I

    1992-06-11

    The effects of dilute salts and anesthetics were studied on the impedance dispersion in the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes. Below the pre-transition temperature, the apparent activation energy for conductance in DPPC-H2O without salts was equivalent to pure water, 18.2 kJ mol-1. This suggests that the mobile ions (H3O+ and OH-) interact negligibly with the lipid surface below the pre-transition temperature. At pre-transition temperature, the apparent activation energy of the conductance decreased by the increase in the DPPC concentrations. The effects of various salts (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, KBr, and KI) on the apparent activation energy of the conductance were studied. Changes in anions, but not in cations, affected the activation energy. The order of the effect was Cl- less than Br- less than I-. Cations appear to be highly immobilized by hydrogen bonding to the phosphate moiety of DPPC. The smaller the ionic radius, the more ions are fixed on the surface at the expense of the free-moving species. The apparent activation energy of the transfer of ions at the vesicle surface was estimated from the temperature-dependence of the dielectric constant, and was 61.0 kJ mol-1 in the absence of electrolytes. In the presence of electrolytes, the order of the activation energy was F- greater than Cl- greater than Br- greater than I-. When the ionic radius is smaller, these anions interact with the hydration layer at the vesicle surface and the ionic transfer may become sluggish. In the absence of electrolytes, the apparent activation energy of the dielectric constant decreased by the increase in halothane concentrations. In the presence of electrolytes, however, the addition of halothane increased the apparent activation energy. We propose that the adsorption of halothane on the vesicle surface produces two effects: (1) destruction of the hydration shell, and (2) increase in the binding of electrolytes to the vesicle surface. In the absence of electrolytes, the

  13. Prediction of lateral surface, volume and sphericity of pomegranate using MLP artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rohani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fast and accurate determination of geometrical properties of agricultural products has many applications in agricultural operations like planting, cultivating, harvesting and post-harvesting. Calculations related to storing, shipping and storage-coating materials as well as peeling time and surface-microbial concentrations are some applications of estimating product volume and surface area. Sphericity is also a parameter by which the shape differences between fruits, vegetables, grains and seeds can be quantified. This parameter is important in grading systems and inspecting rolling capability of agricultural products. Bayram presented a new dimensional method and equation to calculate the sphericity of certain shapesand some granular food materials (Bayram, 2005. Kumar and Mathew proposed atheoretically soundmethod for estimating the surface area of ellipsoidal food materials (Kumar and Mathew, 2003. Clayton et al. used non-linear regression models for calculation of apple surface area using the fruit mass or volume (Clayton et al., 1995. Humeida and Hobani predicted surface area and volume of pomegranates based on the weight and geometrical diametermean (Humeida and Hobani, 1993. Wang and Nguang designeda low cost sensor system to automatically compute the volume and surface area of axi-symmetricagricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes and tamarillos (Wang and Nguang, 2007. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique as an alternative method to predict the volume, surface area and sphericity of pomegranates. Materials and methods: The water displacement method (WDM was used for measuring the actual volume of pomegranates. Also, the sphericity and surface area are computed by using analytical methods. In this study, the neural MLP models were designed based upon the three nominal diameters of pomegranatesas variable inputs, while the output model consisted

  14. Properties of surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (ferrofluid) conjugated antibody for lateral flow immunoassay application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, Noorhashimah Mohamad [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Razak, Khairunisak, E-mail: khairunisak@eng.usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); NanoBiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Tan, Soo Choon; Noordin, Rahmah [NanoBiotechnology Research and Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of acid functionalization and biocompatible polymer on iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) ferrofluid were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IONPs functionalized using citric acid (IONPs-CA) is the most stable ferrofluid with zeta potential value of -49 mV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IONPs-CA can be directly conjugated with antibody without biocompatible polymer coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IONPs-CA had optimum detection efficiency of 15 min assay time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IONPs-CA showed the highest colour intensity in labelling lateral flow immunoassay. - Abstract: In this study, colloidal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) with several acid functionalizations and biocompatible polymer coating were compared for use as labelling agent in lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). IONPs were synthesized using the precipitation method and peptized using perchloric acid (PA), nitric acid (NA) and citric acid (CA) to form a stable IONPs ferrofluid. Steric stabilization of IONPs using silane polyethelene glycol (SiPEG) was developed to improve biocompatibility and provide spaces for subsequent conjugation process. From the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, the sizes of IONPs obtained with different acids peptization were in range of 11-17 nm. The IONPs peptized using citric acid showed the most stable ferrofluid condition at physiological condition with zeta potential value of -49 mV. The LFIA was also developed to examine the conjugation properties of IONPs to mouse anti-human IgG{sub 4} antibody (M{alpha}HIgG{sub 4}). IONPs functionalized with citric acid can be directly conjugated with the M{alpha}HIgG{sub 4} without the need of SiPEG addition. This is due to the presence of the carboxylic group that acted as a ligand to the extended bond formation with the antibody. Moreover, the conjugation of IONPs with M{alpha}HIgG{sub 4} was also tested in a LFIA to detect brugian

  15. A comparative study on drip and furrow irrigation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, M.M.; Shaikh, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted at Field Laboratory of the IIDE-MUET (Institute of lrrigation and Drainage Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), Jamshoro in April 2007 and completed in October 2007. The soil was out-wash of the surrounding hilly tracts. Thus, the texture of the soil was sandy loam mixed with various sizes of gravels. Consequently, its water holding capacity was low and drainability high. The field capacity, wilting point and available moisture of the soil were found to be 10.35, 5.56 and 4.79%, respectively. The soil was moderate (ECe 8-16 dS/m) to strongly saline (ECe> 16 dS/m) and slightly sodic in nature in drip and furrow irrigated plots under study before start of vegetable crops. Three summer vegetables, i.e. okra, long gourd and ridge gourd were cultivated under drip and furrow systems of irrigation. Tap water was used for irrigation, which was class-I quality water i.e. nonsaline and non-sodic. Yields of the three respective vegetables were 25, 16.5 and 7.9% higher than the yields obtained from furrow method. Likewise, WUE (Water Use Efficiency) was higher in drip at 1.27, 3.19 and 2.28 Kg/m/sup 3/ against 0.59, 1.46 and 1.16 Kg/m/sup 3/ in furrow for the respective vegetables. The water saving in drip over furrow method for okra, long gourd and ridge gourd was estimated at 42.2, 46.9 and 45.0%, respectively. The soil salinity and sodicity decreased and did not develop within wetted zone under drip irrigation method and at furrow beds. However the same increased at the wetted periphery and at tops of the ridges under drip and furrow methods of irrigation respectively. (author)

  16. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  17. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  18. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  19. Effects of Timber Harvest on Fog Drip and Streamflow, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Keppeler

    2007-01-01

    Within the second-growth redwood forest of the Caspar Creek watershed, fog drip was measured in 1998 at 12 sites where heavy fog drip was expected. The following year, two one-ha plots were each instrumented with six randomly sited 1.35 m2 fog-drip collectors and one additional collector in a nearby clearcut. Fog-drip totals were highly variable...

  20. Tribological properties investigation of the thermoplastic elastomers surface with the AFM lateral forces mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T. A.; Zubar, T. I.; Lapitskaya, V. A.; Sudzilouskaya, K. A.; Chizhik, S. A.; Didenko, A. L.; Svetlichnyi, V. M.; Vylegzhanina, M. E.; Kudryavtsev, V. V.; Sukhanova, T. E.

    2017-10-01

    The series of new thermoplastic elastomer films based on copoly(urethane-imide)s (coPUI)s and nanocomposites containing from 1 to 10 wt. % carbon nanofillers of different morphology (single-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene) as well as WS2 and WSe2 nanoparticles, were prepared and investigated by atomic force microscopy in contact mode. The friction coefficient (Cfr) on the films surfaces under conditions of true slip was determined both in one scan field and with multiple scans (200-400) in one place. The measurements were carried out at room temperature and at a heating up to 120°C. It is shown that at heating up to 75-85°C, the friction coefficient of some coPUI decreases significantly. The same effect can be achieved also after 100 scans during multi-scan testing at 20°C.

  1. Evaluation of different methods of measuring evapotranspiration as a scheduling guide for drip-irrigated cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.; Marani, A.; Mahrer, Y.; Berkovich, D.

    1983-01-01

    Evapotranspiration in a drip-irrigated cotton field was estimated by the energy balance method, net radiation, standard evaporation pan, evaporation pan in the field at canopy height, and by the Penman equation, and the results were compared with the soil-water balance based on neutron meter and tensiometer data from seven observation sites. Evapotranspiration according to the soil-water balance was only about 85% of that determined by the energy balance method, and this is attributed to the fact that irrigation laterals were placed every second row, and the soil-water balance was determined in the irrigated rows. The crop also utilized moisture stored from winter rains in the unirrigated inter-row spaces, which was detected by the energy balance method. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was 96% of potential ET (Penman), and the latter equalled 98% of net radiation energy. The actual ET equalled 90% of free water evaporation from the pan in the field at canopy height, and 88% of net radiation. The high-frequency drip regime maintained ET very close to potential ET, and under these conditions the field-installed evaporation pan, or the net radiometer, are good indicators of crop water use, with the latter being adaptable to computer-controlled irrigation. (author)

  2. Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moniem, M.; El-Gendy, R.W.; Gadalla, A.M.; Hamdy, A.; Zeedan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

  3. Validated Analytical Model of a Pressure Compensation Drip Irrigation Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Taylor, Katherine; Tran, Davis; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    This work is focused on analytically characterizing the behavior of pressure-compensating drip emitters in order to design low-cost, low-power irrigation solutions appropriate for off-grid communities in developing countries. There are 2.5 billion small acreage farmers worldwide who rely solely on their land for sustenance. Drip, compared to flood, irrigation leads to up to 70% reduction in water consumption while increasing yields by 90% - important in countries like India which are quickly running out of water. To design a low-power drip system, there is a need to decrease the pumping pressure requirement at the emitters, as pumping power is the product of pressure and flow rate. To efficiently design such an emitter, the relationship between the fluid-structure interactions that occur in an emitter need to be understood. In this study, a 2D analytical model that captures the behavior of a common drip emitter was developed and validated through experiments. The effects of independently changing the channel depth, channel width, channel length and land height on the performance were studied. The model and the key parametric insights presented have the potential to be optimized in order to guide the design of low-pressure, clog-resistant, pressure-compensating emitters.

  4. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- grove that had been drip irrigated for 10 years. .... evaluated human risk of the organic contaminants in reclaimed wastewater used for ... of our study was to evaluate the effects of treated waste- water irrigation, of 10 years' ...

  5. Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Using Sweet Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravitational drip irrigation system was developed using available materials. The system consisting of 4.0 l/hr Netafim pressure-compensating emitters was used to irrigate 0.0015 ha of land where sweet corn was planted under variable water applications in a randomised complete block design with three treatments.

  6. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system's low cost of N15, 870 ($79) gives it an edge over existing locally developed drip systems, the low technology and the use of locally available materials coupled with the water savings will enable famers to adapt to the impact of climate change in sub-Saharan Africa through the production of high value crops in ...

  7. APPLICATION OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON COTTON PLANT GROWTH (Gossypium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahruni Thamrin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The condition of cotton planting in South Sulawesi is always constrained in the fulfillment of water. All plant growth stages are not optimal to increase production, so it is necessary to introduce good water management technology, such as through water supply with drip irrigation system. This study aims to analyze the strategy of irrigation management in cotton plants using drip irrigation system. Model of application by designing drip irrigation system and cotton planting on land prepared as demonstration plot. Observations were made in the germination phase and the vegetative phase of the early plants. Based on the result of drip irrigation design, the emitter droplet rate (EDR was 34.266 mm/hour with an operational time of 4.08 min/day. From the observation of cotton growth, it is known that germination time lasted from 6 to 13 days after planting, the average plant height reached 119.66 cm, with the number of leaves averaging 141.93 pieces and the number of bolls averaging 57.16 boll.

  8. A field performance evaluation of drip emitters: pressure versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field evaluation of irrigation systems (drip) can form a basis for decision making as to whether the irrigation system needs rehabilitation, overhaul or even dismantling if found to be very uneconomical. A comprehensive field evaluation of irrigation systems involves determining the overall efficiency of the system, for example, ...

  9. Potassium and calcium nutrition improves potato production in drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Spunta potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to different rates of potassium (60 and 120 kg Fed-1 ) in presence or absence of Ca nutrition was studied. The study was performed in sandy-loam soil under a drip-irrigation system during fall seasons of 1996 and 1997 years. Plants fertilised with high rate of K ...

  10. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  11. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No negative effects of treated wastewater drip irrigation treatment were observed on the measured soil parameters (pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). A slight increase in the concentration of soil enteric bacteria and soil fungal densities was recorded in the wastewater plot reaching a maximum value in the ...

  12. Effect of rain water harvesting and drip irrigation on crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainwater harvesting and drip irrigation are possible interventions to enhance crop performance in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL). Work was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of rainwater harvesting for bean production under an ASAL environment in Kaiti Watershed, Makueni District, Kenya. Treatments comprised ...

  13. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Schroeder, K.T.; Zupancic, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (∼3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (∼24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  14. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-10-04

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (~3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO{sub 4} salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  15. Calibration Curve of Neutron Moisture Meter for Sandy Soil under Drip Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abd El- Moniem M.; Gendy, R. W.; Bedaiwy, M. N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a neutron calibration curve in order to be able to use the neutron probe in sandy soils under drip irrigation systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Soil and Water Department of the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority. Three replicates were used along the lateral lines of the drip irrigation system. For each dripper, ten neutron access tubes were installed to 100-cm depth at distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm from the dripper location around the drippers on the lateral line, as well as between lateral lines. The neutron calibrations were determined at 30, 45, and 60-cm depths. Determining coefficients as well as t-test in pairs were employed to detect the accuracy of the calibrations. Results indicated that in order for the neutron calibration curve to express the whole wet area around the emitter; three-access tubes must be installed at distances of 5, 15, and 25 cm from the emitter. This calibration curve will be correlating the average count ratio (CR) at the studied soil depth of the three locations (5, 15, and 25-cm distances from the emitter) to the average moisture content (θ) for this soil depth of the entire wetted area. This procedure should be repeated at different times in order to obtain different θ and C.R values, so that the regression equation of calibration curve at this soil depth can be obtained. To determine the soil moisture content, the average CR of the three locations must be taken and substituted into the regression equation representing the neutron calibration curve. Results taken from access tubes placed at distances of 15 cm from the emitter, showed good agreement with the average calibration curve both for the 45- and the 60-cm depths, suggesting that the 15-cm distance may provide a suitable substitute for the simultaneous use of the three different distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm. However, the obtained results show also that the neutron calibration curves of the 30-cm depth for

  16. SU-D-209-05: Sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to Procedural Factors in Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pasciak, A [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wagner, L [UT Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: A series of clinical and factorial Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the shape of the scattered X-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios. Two clinical evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affected the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effects on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in interventional cardiology, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusion: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy, and therefore the DRIP, is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle. These results will help determine an appropriate set of SMPB to be used for measuring the DRIP.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong Ho [Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyung Nationol University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation.

  19. Lateral-torsional response of base-isolated buildings with curved surface sliding system subjected to near-fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The curved surface sliding (CSS) system is one of the most in-demand techniques for the seismic isolation of buildings; yet there are still important aspects of its behaviour that need further attention. The CSS system presents variation of friction coefficient, depending on the sliding velocity of the CSS bearings, while friction force and lateral stiffness during the sliding phase are proportional to the axial load. Lateral-torsional response needs to be better understood for base-isolated structures located in near-fault areas, where fling-step and forward-directivity effects can produce long-period (horizontal) velocity pulses. To analyse these aspects, a six-storey reinforced concrete (r.c.) office framed building, with an L-shaped plan and setbacks in elevation, is designed assuming three values of the radius of curvature for the CSS system. Seven in-plan distributions of dynamic-fast friction coefficient for the CSS bearings, ranging from a constant value for all isolators to a different value for each, are considered in the case of low- and medium-type friction properties. The seismic analysis of the test structures is carried out considering an elastic-linear behaviour of the superstructure, while a nonlinear force-displacement law of the CSS bearings is considered in the horizontal direction, depending on sliding velocity and axial load. Given the lack of knowledge of the horizontal direction at which near-fault ground motions occur, the maximum torsional effects and residual displacements are evaluated with reference to different incidence angles, while the orientation of the strongest observed pulses is considered to obtain average values.

  20. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  1. Ultrastructural features of supraspinal muscles in rabbits after long-term transcutaneous lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Majewski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Lateral electrical surface stimulation is one of methods used in the therapy of the progressive form of idiopathic scoliosis (IS in children and youth. However, there are data suggesting that this method may lead to serious adverse side effects, when used for a too long period of time per day. To clarify this issue, the present study was aimed at disclosing possible changes in the ultrastructural appearance of rabbit supraspinal muscles undergoing long-term stimulation (9 h per day, 3 months, an animal model successfully used to mimic the situation in humans. In comparison to the control animals, muscles of "overstimulated" rabbits exhibited clear signs of microscopical lesions, including depletion and disintegration of myofilaments, proliferation, dilatation and, sometimes, swelling of sarcoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria, as well as signs of destruction of the Z line. The above-mentioned abnormalities, especially the signs of degenerative processes associated with the Z line and the observed microlesions strongly suggest that the failure of the long-term LESS therapy of the IS may be attributable to these ultrastructural lesions.

  2. Early diagnosis of influenza virus a using surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Choo, Jae Bum [Dept. of Bionano Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Chul [School of Architectural Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) kit for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus A. Influenza virus A is highly infectious and causes acute respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the virus early to prevent a pandemic and to provide appropriate treatment to the patient and vaccination of high-risk individuals. Conventional diagnostic tests, including virus cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction, take longer than 1 day to confirm the disease. In contrast, a commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic test can detect the infection within 30 min, but it is hard to confirm viral infection using only this test because of its low sensitivity. Therefore, the development of a rapid and simple test for the early diagnosis of influenza infection is urgently needed. To resolve these problems, we developed a SERS-based LFA kit in which the gold nanoparticles in the commercial rapid kit were replaced with SERS-active nano tags. It is possible to quantitatively detect the influenza virus A with high sensitivity by measuring the enhanced Raman signal of these SERS nano tags on the LFA strip. The limit of detection (LOD) using our proposed SERS-based LFA kit was estimated to be 1.9 × 10{sup 4} PFU/mL, which is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than the LOD determined from the colorimetric LFA kit.

  3. Characteristics of lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS) and its effect on the degree of spinal deformity in idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Palko, Tadeusz; Pasniczek, Roman; Szarek, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Clinical studies were carried out in the period of 2003-2006 at the Provincial Children's Rehabilitation Hospital in Ameryka near Olsztyn (Poland). The study involved a group of children and youth exhibiting spinal deformity progression in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) of more than 5° per year according to the Cobb scale. Four hundred and fifty patients between 4 and 15 years of age were divided into three groups (n = 150). Group I and group II received 2-hour and 9-hour lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS), respectively, whereas group III (control) was treated only with corrective exercises for 30 minutes twice a day. LESS was performed with the use of a battery-operated SCOL-2 stimulator manufactured by Elmech, Warsaw, Poland. The effectiveness of this method was confirmed in the treatment of spinal IS in children and youth, especially when the initial spinal deformity did not exceed 20° according to the Cobb scale. A short-duration electrostimulation (2 hours daily) was found to produce results similar to those obtained after overnight (9 h) electrostimulation. Moreover, the analysis of the Harrington prognostic index F confirms the positive effect of LESS in both groups of patients (2 h and 9 h of LESS).

  4. Early diagnosis of influenza virus a using surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based lateral flow assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Choo, Jae Bum; Yang, Sung Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based lateral flow assay (LFA) kit for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus A. Influenza virus A is highly infectious and causes acute respiratory diseases. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the virus early to prevent a pandemic and to provide appropriate treatment to the patient and vaccination of high-risk individuals. Conventional diagnostic tests, including virus cell culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction, take longer than 1 day to confirm the disease. In contrast, a commercially available rapid influenza diagnostic test can detect the infection within 30 min, but it is hard to confirm viral infection using only this test because of its low sensitivity. Therefore, the development of a rapid and simple test for the early diagnosis of influenza infection is urgently needed. To resolve these problems, we developed a SERS-based LFA kit in which the gold nanoparticles in the commercial rapid kit were replaced with SERS-active nano tags. It is possible to quantitatively detect the influenza virus A with high sensitivity by measuring the enhanced Raman signal of these SERS nano tags on the LFA strip. The limit of detection (LOD) using our proposed SERS-based LFA kit was estimated to be 1.9 × 10 4 PFU/mL, which is approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than the LOD determined from the colorimetric LFA kit

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Irrigation Levels of Drip Irrigation (Tape on Yield and Yield Components of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the serious problems in the further development of maize cultivation is increasing irrigation efficiency. Using conventional irrigation causes a shortage of water resources to increase the acreage of the crop. With regard to the development of maize cultivation, agronomic and executable methods must be studied to reduce water consumption. Using drip irrigation system is most suitable for row crops. Hamedi et al. (2005 compared drip (tape and surface irrigation systems on yield of maize in different levels of water requirement and indicated that drip irrigation increases the amount of yield to 2015 kg/ha and water use efficiency to 3 time. Kohi et al. (2005 investigated the effects of deficit irrigation use of drip (tape irrigation on water use efficiency on maize in planting of one and two rows. The results showed that maximum water use efficiency related to crop density, water requirement and planting pattern 85000, 125% and two rows, respectively with 1.46 kg/m3. Jafari and Ashrafi (2011 studied the effects of irrigation levels, plant density and planting pattern in drip irrigation (tape on corn. The results showed that the amount of irrigation water and crop density on the level of 1% and their interactions and method of planting were significant at the 5 and 10% on water use efficiency, respectively. The yield was measured under different levels of irrigation, crop density and method of planting and the difference was significant on the level of 1%. Lamm et al. (1995 studied water requirement of maize in field with silt loam texture under sub drip irrigation and reported that water use reduced to 75%; but yield of maize remained at maximum amount of 12.5 t/ha. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drip (tape irrigation method for corn production practices in the Qazvin province in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, yield and yield components of corn (SC 704 were investigated under different levels of

  6. Genotoxicological safety of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Hee Sub; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Hyuk [Dept. of Food Nutrion and Food Science, Woosong University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Although seafood cooking drips were the byproducts from the fishery industry it was known that the cooking drips had many nutrients and could be used as functional materials. Previously, the physiological properties of cooking drips were shown to be increased by a gamma irradiation. But, there was no report on the safe for the genotoxicity on the irradiation. In this study, the genotoxicity of the cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleni and Thunnus thynnus was evaluated by the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay) and the SOS chromotest. The results from all samples were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100. No mutagenicity was detected in the assay, both with and without metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest also indicated that the gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips did not show any mutagenicity. Therefore, this study indicated that gamma irradiation could be used for the hygiene, functional properties and processibility of seafood cooking drips.

  7. WAPDEG Analysis of Waste Package and Drip shield Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Mon

    2004-01-01

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), an analysis of the degradation of the engineered barrier system (EBS) drip shields and waste packages at the Yucca Mountain repository is developed. The purpose of this activity is to provide the TSPA with inputs and methodologies used to evaluate waste package and drip shield degradation as a function of exposure time under exposure conditions anticipated in the repository. This analysis provides information useful to satisfy ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) requirements. Several features, events, and processes (FEPs) are also discussed (Section 6.2, Table 15). The previous revision of this report was prepared as a model report in accordance with AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Due to changes in the role of this report since the site recommendation, it no longer contains model development. This revision is prepared as a scientific analysis in accordance with AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses'' and uses models previously validated in (1) ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]); (2) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169984]); and (3) ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169845]). The integrated waste package degradation (IWPD) analysis presented in this report treats several implementation-related issues, such as defining the number and size of patches per waste package that undergo stress corrosion cracking; recasting the weld flaw analysis in a form as implemented in the Closure Weld Defects (CWD) software; and, general corrosion rate manipulations (e.g., change of scale in Section 6.3.4). The weld flaw portion of this report takes input from an engineering calculation (BSC 2004

  8. Drip bloodstain appearance on inclined apparel fabrics: Effect of prior-laundering, fibre content and fabric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Therese C; Carr, Debra J; Taylor, Michael C; Kieser, Jules A; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of blood and fabrics is currently a 'hot topic', since the understanding and interpretation of these stains is still in its infancy. A recent simplified perpendicular impact experimental programme considering bloodstains generated on fabrics laid the foundations for understanding more complex scenarios. Blood rarely impacts apparel fabrics perpendicular; therefore a systematic study was conducted to characterise the appearance of drip stains on inclined fabrics. The final drip stain appearance for 45° and 15° impact angles on torso apparel fabrics (100% cotton plain woven, 100% polyester plain woven, a blend of polyester and cotton plain woven and 100% cotton single jersey knit) that had been laundered for six, 26 and 52 cycles prior to testing was investigated. The relationship between drop parameters (height and volume), angle and the stain characteristics (parent stain area, axis 1 and 2 and number of satellite stains) for each fabric was examined using analysis of variance. The appearance of the drip stains on these fabrics was distorted, in comparison to drip stains on hard-smooth surface. Examining the parent stain allowed for classification of stains occurring at an angle, however the same could not be said for the satellite stains produced. All of the dried stains visible on the surface of the fabric were larger than just after the impacting event, indicating within fabric spreading of blood due to capillary force (wicking). The cotton-containing fabrics spread the blood within the fabrics in all directions along the stain's circumference, while spreading within the polyester plain woven fabric occurred in only the weft (width of the fabric) and warp (length) directions. Laundering affected the formation of bloodstain on the blend plain woven fabric at both impact angles, although not all characteristics were significantly affected for the three impact conditions considered. The bloodstain characteristics varied due to the fibre content

  9. Assessment of a New Approach for Systematic Subsurface Drip Irrigation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hédi Ben Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the reliability of a new approach that provides systematic irrigation management based on fixed water suction in the vadose zone. Trials were carried out in the experimental farm of IRA Gabès on subsurface drip irrigated (SDI tomato plot. The SDI system was designed so that the soil water content is to be maintained within prescribed interval ascertaining the best plant growth. Irrigation management was systematically monitored by water suction evolution in the vadose zone. Recorded results showed that all-over irrigation season lateral pressure head ranged within 93.3 ± 20.0; 119.95 ± 53.35 and 106.6 ± 40.0 mb, respectively, at the upstream, middle, and downstream. The correspondent lateral pressure head distribution uniformity ranged within 97.1% and 99.6%. Soil water content varied within 0.2175 ± 0.0165; 0.206 ± 0.0195 and 0.284 ± 0.100 beneath the inlet, the behalf, and the lateral end tip. The correspondent soil water distribution uniformity was higher than 80.7% all-over irrigation season. Based on the recorded results, the proposed approach could be a helpful tool for accurate SDI systems design and best water supplies management. Nevertheless, further trials are needed to assess the approach reliability in different cropping conditions.

  10. An optimization model to design and manage subsurface drip irrigation system for alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelous, M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J. A.; Simunek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods for watering alfalfa plants. Lateral installation depth and distance, emitter discharge, and irrigation time and frequency of SDI, in addition to soil and climatic conditions affect alfalfa’s root water uptake and yield. Here we use a multi-objective optimization approach to find optimal SDI strategies. Our approach uses the AMALGAM evolutionary search method, in combination with the HYDRUS-2D unsaturated flow model to maximize water uptake by alfalfa’s plant roots, and minimize loss of irrigation and drainage water to the atmosphere or groundwater. We use a variety of different objective functions to analyze SDI. These criteria include the lateral installation depth and distance, the lateral discharge, irrigation duration, and irrigation frequency. Our framework includes explicit recognition of the soil moisture status during the simulation period to make sure that the top soil is dry for harvesting during the growing season. Initial results show a wide spectrum of optimized SDI strategies for different root distributions, soil textures and climate conditions. The developed tool should be useful in helping farmers optimize their irrigation strategy and design.

  11. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  12. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of Alloy 22

  13. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the

  14. Isabella Anomaly: Lithospheric drip, delamination or fragment of the Farallon plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. W.; Rau, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Isabella Anomaly or Central Valley Anomaly in California is perhaps the best known example of a high seismic velocity anomaly that has been interpreted as a lithospheric instability. High P and S velocities extend to a depth of at least 150 km and perhaps to several hundred km in a nearly cylindrical region 100-150 km across. The amplitude of the anomaly in the upper 200 km is similar to that of the subducted Gorda plate. This anomaly has been variously interpreted as a convective drip or as a remnant of the lithosphere delaminated from beneath the eastern Sierra Nevada. We suggest instead that the Isabella anomaly may represent a fragment of the subducted Farallon plate that is still attached to the Pacific lithosphere. Directly seaward of the anomaly is the fossil Monterrey microplate, which is a remnant of the Farallon plate that was left when subduction ceased before the spreading center itself subducted. The microplate was then incorporated into the Pacific plate, but it is not clear how much of the subducting slab remained attached to the surface microplate. New Rayleigh wave tomographic images of Baja California show that there are still fragments of the Farallon plate remaining attached to the unsubducted Guadelupe and Magdelena microplate remnants, with anomalies extending down to at least 150 km. The geometry of these anomalies in relationship to the microplates is very similar to that of the Isabella anomaly. A major question with this interpretation is whether a bit of oceanic lithosphere extending down into the asthenosphere could be dragged along with the surface microplate/Pacific plate for 20 Ma since subduction ceased. Another anomaly similar to the Isabella anomaly begins in the shallow mantle beneath the northern end of San Francisco bay and dips to the west - another candidate for a lithospheric drip or convective instability?

  15. Optimization for Decocting Later of Menthae Herba in Eungyo-San, a Herbal Formula, Using Response Surface Methodology with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Woo-Ram; Park, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    "Decocting later" is important procedure for the extraction of herbal medicines containing volatile compounds. This study was performed to investigate optimal conditions for "Decocting later" of Menthae herba in Eungyo-san (EGS) and correlation between extraction variables and the yields of d/l-menthol, a marker compound of Menthae herba. The decocting temperature, total decocting time, and decocting later time were chosen as individual variables, and the yield of d/l-menthol was set as the response value which were calculated by using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The amount of d/l-menthol was quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to predict optimal conditions for decocting later of Menthae herba into the formula. Optimal conditions for "Decocting later" from RSM were as follows: 100.63°C of decocting temperature; 82.95 min of total decocting time; 19.11 min of decocting later time. Both decocting temperature and total decocting time showed significant correlation with the yield of d/l-menthol. These results suggest that the decocting temperature and total decocting time were influential factors, and RSM can be applied for optimizing the conditions of "Decocting later" of Menthae herba in EGS. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method developed was applied to quantify the d/l-menthol, a volatile compound in Menthae Herba, in Eungyo-san decoction (EGS)d/l-Menthol was extracted in the chloroform layer of the partition between EGS decoction and chloroformA Box-Behnken design produced the predicted response values (yield of d/l-menthol in EGS) from the actual response values with individual variables including decocting temperature, total decocting time, and decocting later timeOptimal conditions for "Decocting later" of Menthae Herba in EGS obtained from the response surface methodology were 100.63°C of decocting temperature, 82.95 min of total decocting time, and 19.11 min of decocting later time

  16. Quantifying the short- and long-term controls exerted by the basal and lateral boundaries of the Slumgullion Landslide from creepmeters and 3-D surface deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbridge, B. G.; Bilham, R. G.; Wang, T.; Fielding, E. J.; Burgmann, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Slumgullion landslide is 3.9 km long, moves persistently with peak rates of up to 2 cm/day, and exhibits daily, seasonal, and decadal accelerations. In this study, we provide geodetic observations needed to test whether the short- and long-term variations are governed by the same physical mechanisms. Specific focus is placed on disentangling the roles played by the lateral and basal landslide surfaces. In order to provide surface geodetic measurements with dense spatial resolution (pixel spacing parallel to- (azimuth) the along-track direction of flight. To examine deformation rates spanning minutes to days we have installed a surface creepmeter, similar to those currently monitoring actively creeping faults such as the Hayward Fault. A tensioned flexible wire is fastened obliquely across the lateral bounding fault and wrapped around a 100 mm wheel wheel whose angular position is monitored by a Hall effect sensor, resulting in resolution of 8 microns and with a 5 m range.

  17. Performance of precision mobile drip irrigation in the Texas High Plains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile drip irrigation (MDI) technology adapts driplines to the drop hoses of moving sprinkler systems to apply water as the drip lines are pulled across the field. There is interest in this technology among farmers in the Texas High Plains region to help sustain irrigated agriculture. However, info...

  18. 40 CFR 270.26 - Special part B information requirements for drip pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... residuals. (14) A description of how each drip pad, including appurtenances for control of run-on and run..., detailed plans and an engineering report describing how the requirements of § 264.90(b)(2) of this chapter will be met. (c) Detailed plans and an engineering report describing how the drip pad is or will be...

  19. Drip-and-ship thrombolytic treatment paradigm among acute ischemic stroke patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Wondwossen G; Chaudhry, Saqib A; Hassan, Ameer E; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Suri, M Fareed K; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2012-07-01

    To provide a national assessment of thrombolytic administration using drip-and-ship treatment paradigm. Patients treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm among all acute ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombolytic treatment were identified within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Thrombolytic utilization, patterns of referral, comparative in-hospital outcomes, and hospitalization charges related to drip-and-ship paradigm were determined. All the in-hospital outcomes were analyzed after adjusting for potential confounders using multivariate analysis. Of the 22 243 ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolytic treatment, 4474 patients (17%) were treated using drip-and-ship paradigm. Of these 4474 patients, 81% were referred to urban teaching hospitals for additional care, and 7% of them received follow-up endovascular treatment. States with a higher proportion of patients treated using the drip-and-ship paradigm had higher rates of overall thrombolytic utilization (5.4% versus 3.3%; Pcare was significantly higher in patients treated with drip-and-ship paradigm compared with those who received thrombolytics through primary emergency department arrival in the multivariate analysis (OR, 1.198; 95% CI, 1.019-1.409; P=0.0286). One of every 6 thrombolytic-treated patients in United States is treated using drip-and-ship paradigm. States with the highest proportion of drip-and-ship cases were also the states with the highest thrombolytic utilization.

  20. Hydrogeochemical processes as environmental indicators in drip water: Study of the Cueva del Agua (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Martos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Karst caves exhibit a wide range of hydrological and hydrochemical responses to infiltration events, due to their physical heterogeneity space and dynamic variability over time, and due to non-Gaussian inputs (rain and outputs (discharge. This paper reviews different approaches of studying seepage water in caves, in order to understand the infiltration regimen in the non-saturated zone of karst areas. As an illustration, we describe a four-year study of the active carbonate-water system the Cueva del Agua (Granada, southern Spain that automatically logs the discharge from a stalactite. The results indicate that: (1 the drip water regime is not seasonal, but is linked instead to slow infiltration. Sudden changes in drip water regime occur due to infiltration along preferential flow paths and the draining of water of supersaturated water from reserves in the microfissure and pore system; (2 the drip rate is not linear over time. When dripping is constant, barometric oscillation of the air is the principal factor causing a chaotic a drip flow regime. Over a short period of two to three days, a mean variation in air pressure inside the cave of 10 (±3.7 mbar causes a oscillation the drip rate of 0.5 (±0.2 mm/h. The increase air translates into an the relative thickness of the gaseous phase of the drip water at the cost of the aqueous phase, so leading to a reduction the drip rate from the stalactite.

  1. Farmers’ Logics in Engaging With Projects Promoting Drip Irrigation Kits in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, J.-P.; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not to

  2. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security,

  3. Farmers’ Logics in Engaging With Projects Promoting Drip Irrigation Kits in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, Jonas; Venot, Jean Philippe; Zwarteveen, Margreet; Fraiture, de Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not

  4. Soil salinity under deficit drip irrigation of potato and millet in in an arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of deficit irrigation (DI with saline water on soil salinity in a drip-irrigated potato and millet fields was investigated. We had compared proportional soil salinity developed under Full and DI under drip irrigation. For both experiments, the treatments were (1 Full, control treatment where rooting zone soil water content was increased to field capacity at each irrigation; (2 DI80; (3 DI60 and DI40; 20, 40 and 60% deficit irrigation compared to Full treatment were applied, respectively. Soil salinity was assessed using the isosalinity maps constructed with grid soil sampling of plant root zone at harvest. Results show that high spatial variability was observed in salinity along soil profiles when applying saline water with drip irrigation for potato. For the DI40 and DI60 treatments, high soil salinity was recorded in the upper soil layer close to the emitter. Increase of soil salinity within soil depths of 30 cm or below was also observed under DI60 and DI40 treatments. The lowest increase was noted under the full treatment. Surface soil salinity was somewhat higher under DI60 and DI40 compared with that of full and DI80 irrigation treatments. The distribution of salts around the dripper changes during the crop season according to applied irrigation treatments, with overall higher concentrations between the drippers and towards the margin of wetted band. Iso-salinity maps at harvest of potato showed that the surface layer of 30 cm depth had the lowest salinity which gradually increased at deeper zones irrespective of the treatment. Salt accumulation essentially occurred at wetting front between the drippers and the plant row. Although salt accumulation was relatively highest along the row under DI treatments, the area of accumulation was relatively shifted toward the center between the rows and the drip line. The results also show the importance of the potato cropping season to benefit from the leaching of soluble salts with the

  5. A Hybrid Computational and Analytical Model of Irrigation Drip emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jaya; Winter, V., Amos

    2017-11-01

    This paper details a hybrid computational and analytical model to predict the performance of inline pressure-compensating drip irrigation emitters, devices used to accurately meter water to crops. Flow rate is controlled in the emitter by directing the water through a tortuous path, and then through a variable resistor composed of a flexible membrane that deflects under changes in pressure, restricting the flow path. An experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics model was used to derive a resistance factor that characterizes flow behavior through a tortuous path. Expressions describing the bending mechanics of the membrane were combined with analytical fluid flow models to iteratively predict flow behavior through the variable resistor. The hybrid model reduces the computational time as compared to purely computational methods, lowering the time required to iterate and select optimal designs. The model was validated using three commercially available drip emitters, rated at 1.1, 2, and 3.8 L/hr. For each, the model accurately predicted flow rate versus pressure behavior within a 95% confidence interval of experimental data and accurately replicated the performance stated by the manufacturer. Jain Irrigation, NSF GRFP.

  6. Study on the physiological activities of gamma-irradiated seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eu Ri; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Sung, Nak Yun; Jung, Pil Moon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Yeoun [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lost of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the biological activities of seafood cooking drips. When the cooking drips of Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini and Thunnus thynnus were irradiated, the antioxidant activities, whitening effect, and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition activity of the ethanol extract from seafood cooking drips were all increased by gamma irradiation. This was because of the increased extraction efficiency of available compounds by irradiation. These results suggested that the seafood cooking drips, wasted as by-products, can be used as functional compounds with gamma irradiation treatment.

  7. MORPHOMETRY OF THE ARTICULAR FACETS ON THE SUPERIOR, MEDIAL AND LATERAL SURFACES OF THE BODY OF TALUS AND ITS CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goda Jatin B, Patel Shailesh M, Parmar Ajay M, Agarwal GC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the formation of Ankle joint, tibio-fibular mortice receives superior, medial and lateral articular surfaces of body of Talus. Because of very limited availability of the data on the Morphometry of the articular facets on the Body of the dry human tali, this study was undertaken. Aims: To prepare the database on the articular facets on the superior, medial and lateral surfaces of body of talus, to find if there is statistically significant difference between both the sides of measurements and to compare the results with the previous studies. Methods and Material: 40 Dry Human Tali (20 Right and 20 Left were measured with Digital vernier caliper for the following Measurements: On the Trochlear surface: Medial length, Central length, Lateral length, Anterior width, Central width, Posterior width. On the lateral triangular articular facet: Central height, Central width. On the coma shaped medial articular facet: Central height, Central width. Results: Mean values of Medial, Central and Lateral lengths were 31.02, 30.39 and 29.63mm on Right side and 31.79, 30.65 and 29.45mm on Left side. Mean Anterior, Central and Posterior widths were 28.87, 28.16 and 21.59mm on right side and 29.08, 27.54 and 21.78mm on left side. On the medial articular surface, mean central height was 11.93mm on the right side and 11.29mm on the left side, Mean central width was 27.94mm on the right side and 28.29mm on the left side. On the lateral articular surface, mean central height was 22.14mm on the right side and 22.63mm on the left side. Mean central width was 18.93mm on the right side and 18.99mm on the left side. There is no significant difference between right and left sides of measurements. Conclusion: The trochlear articular surface is wider in front, measurements of opposite talus bone can be used as a control during talus bone replacement surgery, it may help surgeons to plan pre-operatively the complex talar fracture surgeries, to design accurate

  8. Effects of Lateral Heterogeneity and Power Law Rheology on Glacially Induced Surface Motion and Gravity Rate of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P.; Wang, H.; van der Wal, W.

    2006-12-01

    Modern geodetic measurements from GPS, satellite altimetry, tide-gauges, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and space-borne gravimetry (such as GRACE) have been used to monitor global change. Since these measurements contain contributions from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and other tectonic processes, they must be modeled and removed in order to observe current climate change. In the past, most GIA models assumed that the earth is laterally homogeneous and the rheology is linear. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of lateral heterogeneity and Power-Law rheology on GIA induced land uplift rate, horizontal velocities, relative sealevels, J-dot and the secular gravity rate of change in the southern part of Hudson Bay, which is detected by the GRACE mission. Here, GIA is modeled with a spherical, self-gravitating, compressible viscoelastic, laterally heterogeneous earth using the Finite-Element Method. The effect of gravitationally self-consistent sea levels in realistic oceans is also included. Lateral variations in mantle viscosities and lithospheric thickness are inferred from the seismic tomography model S20A using well known scaling relationships. Power-Law rheologies in the whole mantle or in combination with linear rheologies in the upper or lower mantle are also investigated. Both ICE-5G and ICE-4G deglaciation models are used to investigate their effect on the pattern of rebound. Preliminary results show that both lateral heterogeneity and power-law rheology have strong effects on the direction and magnitude of horizontal velocities. The effects of lateral heterogeneity and power-law rheology are also large enough to be detected in land uplift rate, relative sealevels, J-dot and gravity rate of change. Their implication on observing the effects of global warming will also be discussed.

  9. Reliable lateral and vertical manipulations of a single Cu adatom on a Cu(111) surface with multi-atom apex tip: semiempirical and first-principles simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yiqun; Liu Qingwei; Zhang Peng; Wang Songyou; Li Yufen; Gan Fuxi; Zhuang Jun; Zhang Wenqing; Zhuang Min

    2008-01-01

    We study the reliability of the lateral manipulation of a single Cu adatom on a Cu(111) surface with single-atom, dimer and trimer apex tips using both semiempirical and first-principles simulations. The dependence of the manipulation reliability on tip height is investigated. For the single-atom apex tip the manipulation reliability increases monotonically with decreasing tip height. For the dimer and trimer apex tips the manipulation reliability is greatly improved compared to that for the single-atom apex tip over a certain tip-height range. Two kinds of mechanism are found responsible for this improvement. One is the so-called enhanced interaction mechanism in which the lateral tip-adatom interaction in the manipulation direction is improved. The other is the suspended atom mechanism in which the relative lateral trapping ability of the tip is improved due to the strong vertical attraction of the tip on the adatom. Both mechanisms occur in the manipulations with the trimer apex tip, while in those with the dimer apex tip only the former is effective. Moreover, we present a method to realize reversible vertical manipulation of a single atom on a Cu(111) surface with the trimer apex tip, based on its strong vertical and lateral attraction on the adatom

  10. Thermal lensing effects on lateral leakage in GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Johan; Calciati, Marco; Goano, Michele; Haglund, Åsa

    2017-05-01

    Lateral leakage of light has been identified as a detrimental loss source in many suggested and experimentally realized GaN-based VCSELs. In the present work we include thermal effects to realistically account for the substantial Joule heating in these devices. In contrast to what could be expected from the previous results, the induced thermal lensing does not make antiguided cavities more positively guided, so that they approach the unguided regime with extremely high lateral leakage. Rather, thermal lensing strongly suppresses lateral leakage for both antiguided and guided cavities. This is explained in terms of lowered launch of power from the central part of the cavity and/or lower total internal reflection in the peripheral part; the former effect is active in all cavities whereas the latter only contributes to the very strongly reduced leakage in weakly antiguided cavities. Thermal lensing suppresses lateral leakage both for the fundamental and the first higher order mode, but a strong modal discrimination is still achieved for the antiguided cavities. Thus, strongly antiguided cavities could be used to achieve single-mode devices, but at the cost of slightly higher threshold gain and stronger temperature dependent performance characteristics.

  11. A lateral flow immunoassay for rapid evaluation of vitellogenin levels in plasma and surface mucus of the copper redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Domynick; Roy, Robert L

    2007-08-01

    We tested a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for detecting vitellogenin (VTG) in plasma and surface mucus of copper redhorse, Moxostoma hubbsi, a threatened fish species. The LFIA detected VTG in samples from estradiol-induced fish, though there was no reaction in samples from noninduced individuals. The minimum detection range was 0.08 to 0.60 microg VTG/ml, comparable to other methods. The LFIA has the potential to detect exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

  12. Lateral and vertical manipulations of single atoms on the Ag(1 1 1) surface with the copper single-atom and trimer-apex tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yiqun; Yang Tianxing; Ye Xiang; Huang Lei

    2011-01-01

    We study the lateral and vertical manipulations of single Ag and Cu atoms on the Ag(1 1 1) surface with the Cu single-atom and trimer-apex tips using molecular statics simulations. The reliability of the lateral manipulation with the Cu single-atom tip is investigated, and compared with that for the Ag tips. We find that overall the manipulation reliability (MR) increases with the decreasing tip height, and in a wide tip-height range the MR is better than those for both the Ag single-atom and trimer-apex tips. This is due to the stronger attractive force of the Cu tip and its better stability against the interactions with the Ag surface. With the Cu trimer-apex tip, the single Ag and Cu adatoms can be picked up from the flat Ag(1 1 1) surface, and moreover a reversible vertical manipulation of single Ag atoms on the stepped Ag(1 1 1) surface is possible, suggesting a method to modify two-dimensional Ag nanostructures on the Ag(1 1 1) surface with the Cu trimer-apex tip.

  13. Trace Phosphorus Variation in Cave Drip Water and Its Paleo-environmental Implication: A Case Study in HeShang Cave, qingjiang river, Hubei province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Trace elements demonstrate apparent seasonal variation in the lamina of speleothems in recent years, providing the possibility of studying the changing seasonality of the earth's climate in the past and attracting much extensive attention. As one of the most significant biological elements, the utilization of biology for phosphorus has a direct impact on the growth of animals and plants on the earth surface. The research revolves around standard recovery test of P drip water samples at HS4 drop site in different periods (four periods in total), and the quantitative analysis of phosphates in drip water samples of HS4 drop site within HeShang Cave, qingjiang river, Hubei province was made, recognizing the orthophosphate seasonal changes in karst system and its response to the environment of the earth's surface. The results manifest that the maximum concentration value of phosphorus in drip water samples from 2005 to 2012 is 12.1μg/L(2007-8-14), and the minimum concentration value is 0.1μg/L(2009-3-16), with the average value of 4.55μg/L. The P concentration in HeShang Cave is in accordance with the exclusively reported P data in Ernesto cave in Italy at present. The phosphorus concentration fluctuates seasonally by and large: high in summer and autumn while low in winter and spring, which has common in similar seasonal cycles with synchronous temperatures and drip water rates, also conforming to local temperature and precipitation changes. Plant productivity (determines the organic quality supplied to soil), microbiological effects (relate to temperature and humidity) and underground water permeability (relate to the precipitation and surrounding rock structure) can have an impact on the concentration of phosphorus in drip water. In winter and spring, organic phosphorus decomposition is slow and the phosphorus entering into the karst water is less as low temperature and less rainfall and weak biological process influence, resulting in the phosphorus concentration

  14. Identification of near-drip line Pm nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gross, C. J.; Batchelder, J. C.; Baktash, C.; Radford, D. C.; Yu, C.-H.; Fuentes, B.; Hartley, D. J.; Riedinger, L.; Zeidan, O.

    2001-04-01

    Motivated by the recent identification of ^126Pr (D.J. Hartley et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. C. (Rap. Comm.)), the combination of the CLARION Ge array, the HyBall charged-particle array, and the RMS at the HRIBF facility has been used to extend our study of nuclei near the proton drip line towards heavier masses. The reaction ^40Ca + ^96Ru at a beam energy of 193 MeV was used to populate excited states in neutron-deficient Pm and Sm nuclei. Positive identification of the nuclei ^132Sm and ^132Pm, has been accomplished and a search for the first observation of ^130Pm is ongoing. Results will be discussed in the framework of systematic behavior in the mass 130 region.

  15. Clustering and correlations at the neutron drip-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, N.A.; Marques, F.M

    2003-03-01

    Some recent experimental studies of clustering and correlations within very neutron-rich light nuclei are reviewed. In particular, the development of the novel probes of neutron-neutron interferometry and Dalitz-plot analyses is presented through the example of the dissociation of the two-neutron halo system {sup 14}Be. The utility of high-energy proton radiative capture is illustrated using a study of the {sup 6}He(p,{gamma}) reaction. A new approach to the production and detection of bound neutron clusters is also described, and the observation of events with the characteristics expected for tetraneutrons ({sup 4}n) liberated in the breakup of {sup 14}Be is discussed. The prospects for future work, including systems beyond the neutron drip-line, are briefly outlined. (authors)

  16. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkit Shamshery

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  17. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Tran, Davis V; Winter V, Amos G

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  18. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  19. Patient Selection for Drip and Ship Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Michael J; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Donnelly, John P; Houston, James T; Rawal, Pawan V; Kapoor, Niren; Alvi, Muhammad; Sisson, April; Alexandrov, Anne W; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2015-07-01

    The drip and ship model is a method used to deliver thrombolysis to acute stroke patients in facilities lacking onsite neurology coverage. We sought to determine whether our drip and ship population differs from patients treated directly at our stroke center (direct presenters). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who received thrombolysis at an outside facility with subsequent transfer to our center between 2009 and 2011. Patients received thrombolysis after telephone consultation with a stroke specialist. We examined demographics, vascular risk factors, laboratory values, and stroke severity in drip and ship patients compared with direct presenters. Ninety-six patients were identified who received thrombolysis by drip and ship compared with 212 direct presenters. The two groups did not differ with respect to sex, ethnicity, vascular risk factors, or admission glucose. The odds ratio (OR) of arriving at our hospital as a drip and ship for someone 80 years or older was 0.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.61, P < 0.001). Only 21% of drip and ship patients were black versus 38% of direct presenters (OR 0.434, 95% CI 0.25-0.76, P = 0.004). Even after stratifying by age (<80 vs ≥80), a smaller proportion of drip and ship patients were black (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.81, P = 0.008). Furthermore, we found that fewer black patients with severe strokes arrived by drip and ship (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.98, P = 0.0028). Our study showed that a smaller proportion of blacks and older adults arrived at our center by the drip and ship model. This may reflect differences in how patients are selected for thrombolysis and transfer to a higher level of care.

  20. [Effects of drip irrigation under mulching on cotton root and shoot biomass and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying-Yu; Zhao, Cheng-Yi; Sheng, Yu; Li, Ju-Yan; Peng, Dong-Mei; Li, Zi-Liang; Feng, Sheng-Li

    2009-04-01

    By using bidirectional sampling method with soil drill, the effects of different amounts of drip irrigation (2618, 2947, 3600 and 4265 m3 x hm(-2)) under mulching on the root distribution, aboveground growth, and yield of cotton was studied in field. The results indicated that irrigation amount affected the root and shoot growth significantly. In all irrigation treatments, cotton root was mainly distributed in mulched area, occupying 60.65%-73.45% of total root biomass, while only 39.35%-26.55% was distributed in bare area. Water stress increased rooting depth, root biomass, and the extent of lateral rooting. Significant differences were observed in the biological characteristics and the biomass accumulation and allocation of cotton plant among different irrigation treatments. Over-irrigation (4265 m3 x hm(-2)) increased plant height, width of inverse fourth leaf, and amounts of branch and bud, and thus, accelerated biomass accumulation rate. Over-irrigation also increased the root/shoot ratio and the proportion of biomass allocated to vegetative organs, but increased the fruit abscission rate and therefore reduced the economic yield. It was suggested that both excessive soil moisture content and water stress could affect the biomass accumulation and allocation in different cotton organs and at various life stages. Under the conditions of our experiment, 3600 m3 x hm(-2) was the optimal irrigation amount.

  1. Eletromiografia de superfície no diagnóstico da dominância lateral em crianças: aspectos psicomotores Surface electromyography in diagnosis of lateral dominance in children: psychomotor aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceme Ferreira Jordy

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A dominância lateral foi verificada pelo eletromiograma de superfície em 100 crianças neurologicamente normais. Foram usados estímulos verbais durante os registros eletromiográficos. Em comparação com o diagnóstico clínico, a eletromiografia se revelou mais precisa, excluindo influências subjetivas nos resultados. Destrismo foi diagnosticado em 90 pacientes, canhotismo em 3 e dominância indefinida em 7. Mecanismos de ordem psicomotora são sugeridos para justificar as respostas motoras provocadas por estímulos verbais com conteúdo afetivo.Surface electromyography was used to verify the lateral dominance in 100 six to fourteen years old normal children. Electromyographic records were obtained during verbal stimulation. Dexterity was found in 90, sinistrality in 3 and indefinite dominance in 7 patients. Comparing with results from clinical examination, the electromyography seems more accurate and easy to perform. The responses obtained after verbal stimulations were attributed to a psychomotor phenomenon. Mechanisms involved in the production of muscle contractions after verbal stimulation, were not proved. Pharmacologic action of cathecolamines on the central motor neural subsystems is advanced.

  2. Evaluation of surface smoothness by a laser displacement sensor II: comparison of lateral effect photodiode and multielement array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandak, J.; Tanaka, C.; Ohtani, T.

    2004-01-01

    Development of accurate surface assessment technology is of vital interest to modern wood industries. In this experiment we investigated new and fast noncontacting sensors to determine their usefulness for wood surface evaluation and to verify their accuracy. Two types of laser displacement sensors [equipped with a position sensitive detector (PSD) and a charge coupled device (CCD) detector] are compared with a conventional stylus and with theoretical profiles. Hornbeam workpieces with triangular profiles of differing slope and height were used for the evaluation. The results show that resolution of both sensors decreases as the height of the profile decreases. The error ratio of the laser-scanned profiles changes as a function of profile height, in the range 5%–33%. The CCD method is superior for accurate surface roughness evaluation, although the PSD approach can still be used for monitoring the error of form in most applications

  3. Role of surface and subsurface lateral water flows on summer precipitation in a complex terrain region: A WRF-Hydro case-study for Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummler, Thomas; Arnault, Joel; Gochis, David; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments in hydrometeorological modeling aim towards more sophisticated treatment of terrestrial hydrologic processes. The standard version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model describes terrestrial water transport as a purely vertical process. The hydrologically enhanced version of WRF, namely WRF-Hydro, does account for lateral terrestrial water flows, which allows for a more comprehensive process description of the interdependencies between water- and energy fluxes at the land-atmosphere interface. In this study, WRF and WRF-Hydro are applied to the Bavarian Alpine region in southern Germany, a complex terrain landscape in a relatively humid, mid-latitude climate. Simulation results are validated with gridded and station observation of precipitation, temperature and river discharge. Differences between WRF and WRF-Hydro results are investigated with a joint atmospheric-terrestrial water budget analysis. Changes in the partitioning in (near-) surface runoff and percolation are prominent. However, values for evapotranspiration ET feature only marginal variations, suggesting that soil moisture content is not a limiting factor of ET in this specific region. Simulated precipitation fields during isolated summertime events still show appreciable differences, while differences in large-scale, multi-day rainy periods are less substantial. These differences are mainly related to differences in the moisture in- and outflow terms of the atmospheric water budget induced by the surface and sub-surface lateral redistribution of soil moisture in WRF-Hydro.

  4. Reliable lateral manipulation of a single Ag adatom on a Ag(1 1 1) surface with a trimer-apex tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yiqun; Shi Wangzhou; Du Guoping

    2009-01-01

    We study the reliability of the lateral manipulation of a single Ag adatom on a Ag(1 1 1) surface with the single-atom and trimer-apex tips based on molecular statics simulations using surface embedded-atom-method potential. The dependence of the manipulation reliability on tip height and orientation is investigated. For the single-atom tip the manipulation reliability increases monotonically with decreasing tip height, which is owing to the strengthened lateral tip-adatom interaction as the tip height lowers. For the trimer-apex tip, the manipulation reliability is sensitive to the tip orientation in the lower tip-height range, while in the higher tip-height range the manipulation reliability is independent of the tip orientation and moreover can be greatly improved due to the strong vertical attraction of the tip on the adatom as compared to the single-atom tip. We also compare these results to those for manipulating single Cu adatoms on the Cu(1 1 1) surface, reveal the underlying physics, and propose the method to improve the manipulation reliability for different systems.

  5. Study on the changes in phyicochemical properties of seafood cooking drips by gamma ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Byung Soo; Ahn, Dong Hyun [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Yeoun [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Cooking drips which were obtained as by-product after seafood processing in the food industries, still contain lots of proteins, carbohydrates, and other functional materials. But, the seafood cooking drips are easily contaminated because of its rich nutrients, and their color are very dark. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of seafood cooking drips including Hizikia fusiformis, Enteroctopus dofleini, and Thunnus thynnus. The Hunter's color values (L, Brightness) of H. fusiformis, and T.thynnus, were increased with increasing irradiation doses, showing becoming bright. The crude protein content and crude lipid content were increased by gamma irradiation. These results indicated that gamma irradiation increased extraction efficiency of available compounds in cooking drips.

  6. Simulation of Salinity Distribution in Soil Under Drip Irrigation Tape with Saline Water Using SWAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The to be limited available water amount from one side and to be increased needs of world population from the other side have caused increase of cultivation for products. For this reason, employing new irrigation ways and using new water resources like using the uncommon water (salty water, water drainage are two main strategies for regulating water shortage conditions. On the other side, accumulation of salts on the soil surface in dry regions having low rainfall and much evaporation, i.e. an avoidable case. As doing experiment for determining moisture distribution form demands needs a lot of time and conducting desert experiments are costly, stimulator models are suitable alternatives in answering the problem concerning moving and saltiness distribution. Materials and Methods: In this research, simulation of soil saltiness under drip irrigation was done by the SWAP model and potency of the above model was done in comparison with evaluated relevant results. SWAP model was performed based on measured data in a corn field equipped with drip irrigation system in the farming year 1391-92 in the number one research field in the engineering faculty of water science, ShahidChamran university of Ahvaz and hydraulic parameters of soil obtained from RETC . Statistical model in the form of a random full base plan with four attendants for irrigating water saltiness including salinity S1 (Karoon River water with salinity 3 ds/m as a control treatment, S2 (S1 +0/5, S3 (S1 +1 and S4 (S1 +1/5 dS/m, in 3 repetition and in 3 intervals of 10 cm emitter, 20 cm emitters on the stack, at a depth of 0-90 cm (instead of each 30 cm from soil surface and intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days after modeling cultiviation was done. The cultivation way was done handheld in plots including four rows of 3 m in distance of 75 cm rows and with denseness of 80 bushes in a hectar. Drip irrigation system was of type strip with space of 20 cm pores. Results and Discussion

  7. Leaf miner incidence in coffee plants under different drip irrigation regimes and planting densities

    OpenAIRE

    Assis,Gleice Aparecida; Assis,Franscinely Aparecida; Scalco,Myriane Stella; Parolin,Francisco José Toloza; Fidelis,Iraci; Moraes,Jair Campos; Guimarães,Rubens José

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different drip irrigation regimes and planting densities on the incidence of the leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella, in arabica coffee plants for one year. The experiment was carried out in 2008, in a complete randomized block design, in a split-plot in time arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of four drip irrigation regimes - soil water balance, irrigations at 20 and 60 kPa soil tensions, and a nonirrigated treatm...

  8. Effects of Irrigation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Wheat under Drip Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenhua Wang; Guojun Jiang; Xurong Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In arid areas, wheat Growth and yield is extremely significant affected by irrigation, under different study of drip irrigation, the irrigation amount has impact on the physiological indicators of wheat, in order to help improve the efficiency of irrigation water use. In order to reveal the effects of irrigation on photosynthetic characteristics of the Wheat Under Drip Irrigation (WUDI), we designed four different irrigation treatments as W1 (315 mm), W2 (360 mm), W3 (405 mm) and W4 (450 mm) ...

  9. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  10. Farmers' logics in engaging with projects promoting drip irrigation kits in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, Jean-Philippe; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not to be interested in their water and labor-saving attributes. We combine practice-based theories of innovation with insights from the anthropology of development to explain that in development project ...

  11. Usage of drip drops as stimuli in an auditory P300 BCI paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minqiang; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Dewen; Wang, Xingyu

    2018-02-01

    Recently, many auditory BCIs are using beeps as auditory stimuli, while beeps sound unnatural and unpleasant for some people. It is proved that natural sounds make people feel comfortable, decrease fatigue, and improve the performance of auditory BCI systems. Drip drop is a kind of natural sounds that makes humans feel relaxed and comfortable. In this work, three kinds of drip drops were used as stimuli in an auditory-based BCI system to improve the user-friendness of the system. This study explored whether drip drops could be used as stimuli in the auditory BCI system. The auditory BCI paradigm with drip-drop stimuli, which was called the drip-drop paradigm (DP), was compared with the auditory paradigm with beep stimuli, also known as the beep paradigm (BP), in items of event-related potential amplitudes, online accuracies and scores on the likability and difficulty to demonstrate the advantages of DP. DP obtained significantly higher online accuracy and information transfer rate than the BP ( p  < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed test; p  < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed test). Besides, DP obtained higher scores on the likability with no significant difference on the difficulty ( p  < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed test). The results showed that the drip drops were reliable acoustic materials as stimuli in an auditory BCI system.

  12. Molecular characterization of five porcine candidate genes for drip loss in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, Agnieszka; Drögemuller, Cord; Wimmers, Klaus; Schellander, Karl; Leeb, Tosso

    2010-04-01

    Drip loss is the loss of fluid from a piece of meat without mechanical force and represents an important meat quality trait. Previous work revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for drip loss in pork in an experimental Duroc x Pietrain (DUPI) F2 family on SSC 5. Based on functional data indicating their possible involvement in water holding capacity and their expression in skeletal muscle, we selected five positional candidates (ACO2, ADSL, CBY1, KCNJ4, PLA2AG6) out of 130 predicted genes in the QTL interval for further analysis. We performed a mutation analysis of all coding exons and discovered 204 polymorphisms. We genotyped 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 192 Pietrain pigs with extreme drip loss phenotypes and detected a possible association with drip loss for one non-coding SNP in the ADSL gene (ss107793818, p(raw) = 0.021). Correspondingly, ADSL diplotypes were associated with drip loss and pH1 of M. longissimus dorsi. However, after correction for multiple testing, none of the tested SNPs were significantly associated with drip loss. One possible explanation for these results is that one of the QTL-alleles from the experimental DUPI family may be fixed or nearly fixed in the tested Pietrain population.

  13. Organic characterisation of cave drip water by LC-OCD and fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, Helen; Andersen, Martin S.; Baker, Andy; Chinu, Khorshed J.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Jex, Catherine N.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Markowska, Monika; Rau, Gabriel C.

    2015-10-01

    Cathedral Cave, Wellington, Australia, is a natural laboratory for studying water movement and geochemical processes in the unsaturated zone by using artificial irrigation to activate drip sites within the cave. Water sampled from two drip sites activated by irrigations carried out in summer 2014 was analysed for dissolved inorganic ions and fluorescent organic matter. The analysis allowed the development of a conceptual flow path model for each drip site. DOM analysis was further complemented by liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), applied for the first time to karst drip waters, allowing the characterisation of six organic matter fractions. The differences in organic matter fractions at each drip site are interpreted as a signature of the proposed flow paths. LC-OCD was also compared with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the fluorescence and good correlations were observed for high molecular weight organic matter. Strong positive correlations were also observed for high molecular weight matter and Cu and Ni. This is suggestive of colloidal transport of Cu and Ni by organic matter with high molecular weight, while small molecular weight colloids were not efficient transporters. LC-OCD uniquely provides information on non-fluorescent organic matter and can be used to further quantify drip water organic matter composition.

  14. Lateral canthal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications.

  15. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon

    2003-06-24

    The recommended waste package (WP) design is described in BSC (2001a). The design includes a double-wall WP underneath a protective drip shield (DS) (BSC 2003a). The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation (DOX), general corrosion (GC) and localized corrosion (LC) of the DS plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. The DS design also includes structural supports fabricated from Ti Grade 24. Degradation of Ti Grade 24 is not considered in this report. The DS provides protection for the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. This Model Report (MR) serves as a feed to the Integrated Waste Package Degradation Model (IWPD) analyses, and was developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (BSC 2002a). The models contained in this report serve as a basis to determine whether or not the performance requirements for the DS can be met.

  16. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, F.; Mon, K.

    2003-01-01

    The recommended waste package (WP) design is described in BSC (2001a). The design includes a double-wall WP underneath a protective drip shield (DS) (BSC 2003a). The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation (DOX), general corrosion (GC) and localized corrosion (LC) of the DS plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. The DS design also includes structural supports fabricated from Ti Grade 24. Degradation of Ti Grade 24 is not considered in this report. The DS provides protection for the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. This Model Report (MR) serves as a feed to the Integrated Waste Package Degradation Model (IWPD) analyses, and was developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (BSC 2002a). The models contained in this report serve as a basis to determine whether or not the performance requirements for the DS can be met

  17. Propofol drip infusion anesthesia for MRI scanning: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao-Takano, Mami; Misumi, Kan; Suzuki, Masayuki; Kamiya, Yoko; Noguchi, Izumi; Kawahara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) room is a special environment. The required intense magnetic fields create unique problems with the use of standard anesthesia machines, syringe pumps, and physiologic monitors. We have recently experienced 2 oral maxillofacial surgery cases requiring MRI: a 15-year-old boy with developmental disability and a healthy 5-year-old boy. The patients required complete immobilization during the scanning for obtaining high-quality images for the best diagnosis. Anesthesia was started in the MRI scanning room. An endotracheal intubation was performed after induction with intravenous administration of muscle relaxant. Total intravenous anesthesia via propofol drip infusion (4-7 mg/kg/h) was used during the scanning. Standard physiologic monitors were used during scan pauses, but special monitors were used during scanning. In MRI scanning for oral maxillofacial surgery, general anesthesia, with the added advantage of having a secured airway, is recommended as a safe alternative to sedation especially in cases of patients with disability and precooperative chidren.

  18. FEATURES OF MINERAL NUTRITION FOR TOMATO PLANTS WITH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN OPEN FIELD CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Akhmetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dagestan is the largest region with irrigation system of agriculture in Russia. Irrigated lands provide 70% of total plant production. The field cultivation is carried on arable land in plain region of the republic. The drip irrigation as an ecologically safe technology for watering is regarded as major means for vegetable production farming. This approach maintains the propitious level of water and air in the soil without surface and deep drainage of irrigating water. These irrigated lands are expected to be used first of all for valuable and profitable crops such as tomato that is a leading crop in Dagestan. The experimental work was carried out at OOO ‘Dagagrocomplex’, Aleksandro-Nevskoye, in Tarumovskiy region. The aim of the study was to determinate the optimal dose of mineral fertilizers and the way of their application to improve the productivity without quality loss. The complex analysis of the technology for tomato production under drip irrigation through nontransplanting culture showed its high efficiency, because volume and quality of yield directly depended on soil moisture and precise supporting of mineral nutrition rates. The maximal yield of tomato fruits, 88.7-94.5 t/ha was observed with once mineral fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60 with soil humidity 70-80% (field moisture capacity, and also at the dose of N180P135K60 with basic application of N100 in nutrition rate. The result of the study showed that the optimization of two factors, namely soil water rate and mineral nutrition, enabled to produce additionally 39.2 t/ha. It was shown the tight connection between yielding and its quality; when yielding 95 t/ha, the increased contents of dry matter to 7.01%, sugar to 3.8% vitamin C to 18.46% were noticed. The high quality of produced output was supported by pre-watering threshold of moisture at 75-80% (field moisture capacity, when once fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60. 

  19. ENSO–cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Tadros

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Speleothems (cave deposits, used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO. During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform

  20. Blood haematology, muscle pH and serum cortisol changes in pigs with different levels of drip loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomkrong, Nunyarat; Boonkaewwan, Chaiwat; Laenoi, Watchara; Kayan, Autchara

    2017-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the blood haematology, muscle pH, and serum cortisol changes in pigs with different levels of drip loss. Two groups (low and high) of 20 animals were selected from 100 pigs based on drip loss. All [Duroc× (Large White×Landrace)] pigs were slaughtered according to standard slaughtering procedures. At exsanguinations, blood samples were taken for the haematological parameters and serum cortisol analysis. The muscle samples were taken from longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate the muscle pH and drip loss. Haematological parameters of low drip loss group showed higher content of white blood cells and monocytes than high drip loss group (ppH at 45 min (plevels (p>0.05). Drip loss is mainly affected by the muscle pH decline after slaughter and also might be affected by white blood cells and monocytes.

  1. Lateral manipulation of small clusters on the Cu and Ag(1 1 1) surfaces with the single-atom and trimer-apex tips: Reliability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yiqun; Liu Fen; Huang Lei

    2010-01-01

    We study the reliability of the lateral manipulation of small Cu clusters (dimer and trimer) on the flat Cu(1 1 1) surface with both the single-atom and trimer-apex tips and that for the Ag/Ag(1 1 1) system, and compare the results between the two systems as well as with the single-atom manipulation on these surfaces. Manipulations are simulated using molecular statics method with semi-empirical potentials. The dependence of the manipulation reliability on the tip height and tip orientation are investigated. Overall, the manipulation reliability increases with decreasing tip height although it depends obviously on the tip orientation. For the Cu/Cu(1 1 1) system, the manipulation of the dimmer and trimer can be successful with both tips. The manipulation reliability can be improved by the trimer-apex tip, and the tip-height range for the successful manipulation is also broader, as compared to the single-atom apex tip. Differently from the single-atom manipulation, the tip orientation has a noticeable influence on the manipulation reliability even for the single-atom tip due to the stronger tip-cluster and surface-adatom interactions in cluster manipulation. For the Ag/Ag(1 1 1) system, successful manipulations only be achieved with the trimer-apex tip, and the manipulation reliability is worse than that of the Cu/Cu(1 1 1) system, indicating the difference in mechanic properties between the two surfaces at the atomic level.

  2. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  3. Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šimůnek, J.

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus reticulata) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake

  4. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  5. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  6. Pinch-off dynamics, dripping-onto-substrate rheometry and printability of dilute and semi-dilute polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinic, Jelena; Jimenez, Leidy Nallely; Biagioli, Madeleine; Sharma, Vivek

    Many advanced manufacturing technologies like inkjet and 3D printing, nano-fiber spinning involve complex free-surface flows, where both shear and extensional rheology affect processability. In applications that involve progressive thinning and break-up of a fluid column or sheet into drops, the dominant flow within the filament is extensional in nature. Polymeric fluids exhibit a much larger resistance to flow in an elongational flow field than Newtonian fluids with same shear viscosity. We use dripping-onto-substrate (DoS) extensional rheometry technique for examining the influence of extensibility, flexibility and concentration on pinch-off dynamics and extensional rheology response of aqueous polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions, aqueous polyacrylamide (PAM) solutions and aqueous 2-Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) solutions. Both extensional relaxation time and the transient extensional viscosity of dilute and semi-dilute solutions display concentration-dependent behavior that is strikingly different from the response observed in typical shear rheology measurements.

  7. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject’s deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS, median frequency (MDF, and sample entropy (SampEn, were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant (p0.05. In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p<0.001 and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p<0.001.

  8. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liu; Wang, Ying; Hao, Dongmei; Rong, Yao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Song; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG) signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body) with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects). The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject's deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and sample entropy (SampEn), were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant ( p 0.05). In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p < 0.001) and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p < 0.001).

  9. A novel multi-level IC-compatible surface microfabrication technology for MEMS with independently controlled lateral and vertical submicron transduction gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Elsayed, Mohannad; Nabki, Frederic; El-Gamal, Mourad

    2017-11-01

    An above-IC compatible multi-level MEMS surface microfabrication technology based on a silicon carbide structural layer is presented. The fabrication process flow provides optimal electrostatic transduction by allowing the creation of independently controlled submicron vertical and lateral gaps without the need for high resolution lithography. Adopting silicon carbide as the structural material, the technology ensures material, chemical and thermal compatibility with modern semiconductor nodes, reporting the lowest peak processing temperature (i.e. 200 °C) of all comparable works. This makes this process ideally suited for integrating capacitive-based MEMS directly above standard CMOS substrates. Process flow design and optimization are presented in the context of bulk-mode disk resonators, devices that are shown to exhibit improved performance with respect to previous generation flexural beam resonators, and that represent relatively complex MEMS structures. The impact of impending improvements to the fabrication technology is discussed.

  10. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  11. Seasonal variation of fatty acids from drip water in Heshang Cave, central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiuli; Wang Canfa; Huang Junhua; Hu Chaoyong; Xie Shucheng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A 2-year monitoring to investigate the seasonal variation of fatty acids in cave drip water. → Microbes are the dominant source for fatty acids in drip water. → The relative abundance of mono-unsaturated responds negatively with external air temperature. - Abstract: In order to investigate how lipids in cave water respond to seasonal climate change, drip water samples were collected from 2006 to 2008 in Heshang Cave, central China for fatty acid analysis. These lipids are abundant in the drip water. Their compositions are dominated by lower-molecular-weight nC16:0, nC18:0 and nC14:0 acids, together with mono-unsaturated nC18:1, nC16:1 and nC14:1. Analysis of one water sample revealed marked differences between the dissolved and particulate fractions. The dissolved fraction contains total fatty acids one order of magnitude higher than that of the particulate fraction. The distributional patterns of the fatty acids suggest that microbes living in the overlying soils and/or groundwater system contribute most fatty acids to the drip water. This 2-a monitoring experiment reveals that the abundance of mono-unsaturated fatty acids relative to the saturated homologues (nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0) relate inversely to the changes of synchronous external air temperature. Higher values occur under cold conditions (winter/spring), while lower values appear in warm intervals (summer). Further studies are needed to elucidate the dynamic processes by which the external temperature affects fatty acids in drip water and to confirm the potential application of fatty acid ratios such as nC16:1/nC16:0 and nC18:1/nC18:0 in paleotemperature reconstructions.

  12. User's manual and technical description of the intelligent rain-gauge `DRIP1'; software version 1.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsen, van den H.G.M.; Lopez Fernandez, M.

    1995-01-01

    DRIP1 is an instrument for measuring and storing rainfall, air pressure and temperature data, which can be retrieved using a portable PC. DRIP1 can be used stand-alone or can be integrated in a measuring network thus allowing the measuring frequency of other network devices to depend on rainfall

  13. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abalos, D.; Sanchez-Martin, L.; Garcia-Torres, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Vallejo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors

  14. Nuclear vorticity and the low-energy nuclear response. Towards the neutron drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papakonstantinou, P.; Athens Univ.; Wambach, J.; Ponomarev, V.Y.; Mavrommatis, E.

    2004-01-01

    The transition density and current provide valuable insight into the nature of nuclear vibrations. Nuclear vorticity is a quantity related to the transverse transition current. In this work, we study the evolution of the strength distribution, related to density fluctuations, and the vorticity strength distribution, as the neutron drip line is approached. Our results on the isoscalar, natural-parity multipole response of Ni isotopes, obtained by using a self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+continuum RPA model, indicate that, close to the drip line, the low-energy response is dominated by L > 1 vortical transitions. (orig.)

  15. Multi-component Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the hydrodynamics in drip emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcucci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient numerical technique based on the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM to model the flow through a reference drip emitter geometry. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBM as a reliable simulation tool for the hydraulic optimisation of irrigation systems. Results for the water flow through a rectangular drip emitter are in good agreement with literature numerical and experimental data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model to simulate a multi-component flow that could be used to simulate the presence of additives, contaminants, and suspended particles.

  16. Propranolol decreases retention of fear memory by modulating the stability of surface glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits in the lateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Jie-Ting; Li, Ming-Xing; Wang, Can-Ming; Guan, Xin-Lei; Wu, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Jin, You; Ni, Lan; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder with enhanced retention of fear memory and has profound impact on quality of life for millions of people worldwide. The β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol has been used in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of PTSD, but the mechanisms underlying its potential efficacy on fear memory retention remain to be elucidated. We investigated the action of propranolol on the retention of conditioned fear memory, the surface expression of glutamate receptor GluA1 subunits of AMPA receptors and synaptic adaptation in the lateral amygdala (LA) of rats. Propranolol attenuated reactivation-induced strengthening of fear retention while reducing enhanced surface expression of GluA1 subunits and restoring the impaired long-term depression in LA. These effects of propranolol were mediated by antagonizing reactivation-induced enhancement of adrenergic signalling, which activates PKA and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and then regulates the trafficking of AMPA receptors via phosphorylation of GluA1 subunits at the C-terminus. Both i.p. injection and intra-amygdala infusion of propranolol attenuated reactivation-induced enhancement of fear retention. Reactivation strengthens fear retention by increasing the level of noradrenaline and promotes the surface expression of GluA1 subunits and the excitatory synaptic transmission in LA. These findings uncover one mechanism underlying the efficiency of propranolol on retention of fear memories and suggest that β-adrenoceptor antagonists, which act centrally, may be more suitable for the treatment of PTSD. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Low cost drip irrigation: Impact on sugarcane yield, water and energy saving in semiarid tropical agro ecosystem in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, U; Jayakumar, M; Marimuthu, S

    2016-12-15

    Low cost drip irrigation (LCDI) has been a recent introduction to India and it may be an inexpensive means of expanding irrigation into uncultivated areas, thereby increasing land productivity. This paper is structured into two phases. The first phase, presents an assessment of different irrigation methods (LCDI, conventional drip irrigation (CDI) with single row and paired row, siphon and flood irrigation) on sugarcane production. The results showed that cane yield and water productivity was significantly increased in both plant and ratoon crop of sugarcane owing to the methods of irrigation. Among the methods, LCDI recorded 118.6tha -1 of cane yield and it was on par with the single row CDI, which recorded the highest mean yield of 120.4tha -1 and both are found to be significantly superior to the rest of the treatments. The lowest yield was recorded in the treatment of flood irrigation (94.40tha -1 ). Benefit Cost Ratio analysis confirmed that LCDI performed better compared to other irrigation methods. The second phase deals with the farmer participatory research demonstrations at multi location on evaluation of LCDI with flood irrigation. LCDI out performed flood irrigation under all the locations in terms of sugarcane yield, soil moisture content, postharvest soil fertility, reduction in nutrient transport to surface and ground water, water and energy saving. These results suggest that LCDI is a feasible option to increase the sugarcane production in water scarcity areas of semiarid agro ecosystems, and have long-term sustained economic benefits than flood irrigation in terms of water productivity, energy saving and environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of three semi-empirical approaches to estimate the net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael López-Olivari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of actual evapotranspiration (ETα models requires an appropriate parameterization of the available energy, where the net radiation (Rn is the most important component. Thus, a study was carried out to calibrate and evaluate three semi-empirical approaches to estimate net radiation (Rn over a drip-irrigated olive (Olea europaea L. 'Arbequina' orchard during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons. The orchard was planted in 2005 at high density in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The evaluated models were calculated using the balance between long and short wave radiation. To achieve this objective it was assumed that Ts = Tα for Model 1, Ts = Tv for Model 2 and Ts = Tr for Model 3 (Ts is surface temperature; Tα is air temperature; and Tv is temperature inside of the tree canopy; Tr is radiometric temperature. For the three models, the Brutsaert's empirical coefficient (Φ was calibrated using incoming long wave radiation equation with the database of 2009/2010 season. Thus, the calibration indicated that Φ was equal to 1.75. Using the database from 2010/2011 season, the validation indicated that the three models were able to predict the Rn at a 30-min interval with errors lower than 6%, root mean square error (RMSE between 26 and 39 W m-2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 20 and 31 W m-2. On daily time intervals, validation indicated that models presented errors, RMSE and MAE between 2% and 3%, 1.22-1.54 and 1.04-1.35 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. The three R„-Models would be evaluated and used in others Mediterranean conditions according to the availability of data to estimate net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard planted at high density.

  19. Mechanical Assessment of the Drip Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.C. Quittmeyer

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion

  20. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  1. Comparison of Decision Rules for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Practices Using a Nonlinear Mathematical Programming Model

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Juma K.; Dillon, Carl R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.; Kanakasabai, Murali

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of decision rules has been made for case studies of corn production using subsurface drip irrigation under three agricultural management practices (no irrigation, uniform irrigation, and variable rate irrigation). The uniform irrigation strategy appeared to perform the best than the other two management practices under different risk scenarios.

  2. The effects of drip line depths and irrigation levels on yield, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sefer bozkurt

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... water use efficiency (WUE) and the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) increased as the irrigation was reduced. Key words: Subsurface drip irrigation, irrigation level, water use efficiency. INTRODUCTION. Lettuce is the most popular vegetable with the highest consumption rate and economic importance ...

  3. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  4. Simplified Equations to Estimate Flushline Diameter for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A formulation of the Hazen-Williams equation is typically used to determine the diameter of the common flushline that is often used at the distal end of subsurface drip irrigation systems to aid in joint flushing of a group of driplines. Although this method is accurate, its usage is not intuitive a...

  5. The effects of drip line depths and irrigation levels on yield, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different drip irrigation methods and different irrigation levels on yield, quality and water use characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia cv. Lital) cultivated in a solar greenhouse from 07 October 2009 to 03 December 2009 in the Eastern Mediterranean region ...

  6. Cotton, tomato, corn, and onion production with subsurface drip irrigation – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The usage of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) has increased by 89% in the USA during the last ten years according to USDA NASS estimates and over 93% of the SDI land area is located in just ten states. Combining public entity and private industry perceptions of SDI in these ten states, the major cro...

  7. The crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton grown on a heavy clay texture soil (Palexerollic Chromoxerert) under semi-arid climatic condition of East Mediterranean region for three years (2005 to 2007) in Adana, Turkey. Four irrigation treatments designated as full ...

  8. Drip irrigation emitter clogging in Dutch greenhouses as affected by methane and organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.; Burg, van der A.M.M.; Runia, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the serious clogging of drip irrigation emitters in the Dutch greenhouse industry is caused by methane-oxidising bacteria and/or organic acids used as anti-clogging agents. In this study greenhouses with moderate to severe emitter clogging have been examined. High methane

  9. Performing the success of an innovation: the case of smallholder drip irrigation in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.; Venot, J.P.J.N.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, smallholder drip irrigation has gained almost unanimous popularity as an effective tool to achieve the combined goals of sustainable water use, food security and poverty alleviation in the developing world. Based on a study in Sub-Saharan Africa, this article shows that this

  10. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Fiedler, Benjamin; Bauer, Oliver; Marele, Antonela; Sokolowski, Moritz M

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100)] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2)R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100) reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770-11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100). Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100) superstructure on Cu(100), PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  11. Estimation of deep infiltration in unsaturated limestone environments using cave lidar and drip count data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Baker, A.; Treble, P. C.; Markowska, M.; McGuire, E.

    2016-01-01

    Limestone aeolianites constitute karstic aquifers covering much of the western and southern Australian coastal fringe. They are a key groundwater resource for a range of industries such as winery and tourism, and provide important ecosystem services such as habitat for stygofauna. Moreover, recharge estimation is important for understanding the water cycle, for contaminant transport, for water management, and for stalagmite-based paleoclimate reconstructions. Caves offer a natural inception point to observe both the long-term groundwater recharge and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such limestone. With the availability of automated drip rate logging systems and remote sensing techniques, it is now possible to deploy the combination of these methods for larger-scale studies of infiltration processes within a cave. In this study, we utilize a spatial survey of automated cave drip monitoring in two large chambers of Golgotha Cave, south-western Western Australia (SWWA), with the aim of better understanding infiltration water movement and the relationship between infiltration, stalactite morphology, and unsaturated zone recharge. By applying morphological analysis of ceiling features from Terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) data, coupled with drip time series and climate data from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between infiltration through fractures in the limestone and unsaturated zone recharge. Similarities between drip rate time series are interpreted in terms of flow patterns, cave chamber morphology, and lithology. Moreover, we develop a new technique to estimate recharge in large-scale caves, engaging flow classification to determine the cave ceiling area covered by each flow category and drip data for the entire observation period, to calculate the total volume of cave discharge. This new technique can be applied to other cave sites to identify highly focussed areas of recharge and can help to better

  12. FEPs Screening of Processes and Issues in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2004-10-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to drip shield and waste package modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Thirty-three FEPs associated with the waste package and drip shield performance have been identified (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). A screening decision, either ''included'' or ''excluded,'' has been assigned to each FEP, with the technical bases for screening decisions, as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs analyses in this report address issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the drip shield and waste package over the post closure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For included FEPs, this report summarizes the disposition of the FEP in TSPA-LA. For excluded FEPs, this report provides the technical bases for the screening arguments for exclusion from TSPA-LA. The analyses are for the TSPA-LA base-case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]), where a drip shield is placed over the waste package without backfill over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP includes one or more specific issues, collectively described by a FEP name and description. The FEP description encompasses a single feature, event, or process, or a few closely related or coupled processes, provided the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs were assigned to associated Project reports, so the screening decisions reside with the relevant subject-matter experts.

  13. Solar-forced diurnal regulation of cave drip rates via phreatophyte evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Coleborn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present results of a detailed study of drip rate variations at 12 drip discharge sites in Glory Hole Cave, New South Wales, Australia. Our novel time series analysis, using the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, reveals pronounced oscillations at daily and sub-daily frequencies occurring in 8 out of the 12 monitored sites. These oscillations were not spatially or temporally homogenous, with different drip sites exhibiting such behaviour at different times of year in different parts of the cave. We test several hypotheses for the cause of the oscillations, including variations in pressure gradients between karst and cave due to cave breathing effects or atmospheric and earth tides, variations in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in viscosity of water with daily temperature oscillations, and solar-driven daily cycles of vegetative (phreatophytic transpiration. We conclude that the only hypothesis consistent with the data and hydrologic theory is that daily oscillations are caused by solar-driven pumping by phreatophytic trees which are abundant at the site. The daily oscillations are not continuous and occur sporadically in short bursts (2–14 days throughout the year due to non-linear modification of the solar signal via complex karst architecture. This is the first indirect observation leading to the hypothesis of tree water use in cave drip water. It has important implications for karst hydrology in regards to developing a new protocol to determine the relative importance of trends in drip rate, such as diurnal oscillations, and how these trends change over timescales of weeks to years. This information can also be used to infer karst architecture. This study demonstrates the importance of vegetation on recharge dynamics, information that will inform both process-based karst models and empirical estimation approaches. Our findings support a growing body of research exploring the impact of trees on speleothem paleoclimate proxies.

  14. Development of a physiologically relevant dripping analytical method using simulated nasal mucus for nasal spray formulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Masiuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for nasal spray formulations have been elementary evaluating the dripping characteristics of a formulation and have not assessed the behavior of the nasal formulation in the presence of varying types of mucus depending on the indication or diseased state. This research investigated the effects of nasal mucus on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and focused on developing an improved in vitro analytical test method that is more physiologically relevant in characterizing nasal formulation dripping behavior. Method development was performed using simulated nasal mucus preparations for both healthy and diseased states as coatings for the dripping experiment representing a wide range of viscosity. Factors evaluated during development of this in vitro test method included amount of mucus, application of mucus, drying times, and compatibility of the mucus on a C18 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC substrate. The dripping behavior of nasal formulations containing a range of 1% Avicel to 3.5% Avicel was assessed by actuating the nasal spray on a perpendicular TLC plate coated with either healthy or diseased simulated nasal mucus. After actuation of the nasal spray, the dripping of the formulation on the coated TLC plate was measured after the plate was repositioned vertically. The method that was developed generated reproducible results on the dripping behavior of nasal formulations and provided critical information about the compatibility of the formulation with the nasal mucus for different diseased states, aiding in nasal spray formulation development and physical characterization of the nasal spray.

  15. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  16. Advantages of Using Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture over Gridded Precipitation Products and Land Surface Model Output in Assessing Regional Vegetation Water Availability and Growth Dynamics for a Lateral Inflow Receiving Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; McVicar, T.R.; Wang, G.J.; Chen, X.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Liu, Y.; Shen, H.; Zhang, F.; Dolman, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the understanding of water-vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow

  17. Evaluation of tacrolimus sorption to PVC- and non-PVC-based tubes in administration sets: Pump method vs. drip method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Eon; Jeon, Seungho; Byon, Hyo-Jin; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2017-08-07

    Tacrolimus sorption to tubes was evaluated using pump and drip methods For tubes, polyvinylchloride (PVC)- and non-PVC-based (polyurethane [PU] and polyolefin [PO]) tubes were used. First, inner surface properties of tubes were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Tacrolimus was quantitatively analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. For kinetic sorption analysis, diluted tacrolimus to 10μg/mL was passed through 1-m-long tubes at 10mL/h. Samples were collected at 1-4h. The inner surface of PO-based tubes was relatively smooth and soft compared with those of PVC- and PU-based tubes. Atomic compositions of tubes matched chemical formulas of polymers excluding low-level impurity in PVC-based tubes. Tacrolimus was successfully analyzed and linearly determined at 2.5-20μg/mL. From both methods, PVC- and PO-based tubes exhibited the highest and the lowest (<10%) sorption levels to tacrolimus, respectively. Tacrolimus was stably delivered using the pump method. Results suggested that the pump method can estimate tacrolimus sorption in administration set tubes and evaluate other sorptional drugs used at low concentrations. PO-based tubes also have promising potential as an alternative for administration set tubes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The conundrum of low-cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : Why development interventions that have little to show continue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, J.-P.; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.; Venot, J.-P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Research and development efforts concerning drip irrigation have traditionally been oriented toward intensive commercial farming in developed economies, focusing on ways to improve efficiencies and productivities. From the mid-1990s onward, an increasing number of research institutes and

  19. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  20. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Kennedy, C. M.; Rein, Arno

    2011-01-01

    irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. RESULTS: The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging......BACKGROUND: Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip....... CONCLUSION: Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between...

  1. Continuum and symmetry-conserving effects in drip-line nuclei using finite-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunck, N.; Egido, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first calculations of nuclear properties near the drip lines using the spherical Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory with a finite-range force supplemented by continuum and particle-number projection effects. Calculations were carried out in a basis made of the eigenstates of a Woods-Saxon potential computed in a box, thereby guaranteeing that continuum effects were properly taken into account. Projection of the self-consistent solutions on good particle number was carried out after variation, and an approximation of the variation after projection result was used. We give the position of the drip lines and examine neutron densities in neutron-rich nuclei. We discuss the sensitivity of nuclear observables upon continuum and particle-number restoration effects

  2. Study of capillary experiments and hydrologic factors under subsurface drip irrigation with fractal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Cao, L

    2012-01-01

    Soil spatial variability is one of the primary environmental factors that influences the hydraulic factors and technical indicators of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), whose emitters are buried in the soil. This paper aimed at evaluating these effects of soil spatial variability on hydrologic factors under SDI. And some SDI emitter and capillary experiments were designed to obtain test data and distribution of pressure and emitter discharge. First, The results of labyrinth non-turbulent mosaic drip emitter test and fractal theory were used to research the fractal and quantitative relationship between single emitter hydrologic factors and soil physical parameters; and then, the capillary experiments and the relationship among hydrologic factors of capillary were used to analyze the fractal and quantitative relationship between hydrologic factors of capillary and soil physical parameters, which explained the inner relationship between spatial variability of soil and hydrologic factors of filed pipeline network under SDI, and provide theory support for the plan, design, management and production of SDI.

  3. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano-Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-02-02

    Meeting the food needs of Africa's growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies.

  4. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies. PMID:20080616

  5. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Drip irrigation can be an effective way to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency in soil and hence to reduce the environmental pollution. In the EU project SAFIR ( http://www.safir4eu.org/ ) a potato experiment was carried out in lysimeters on three different soil types: coarse sand, loamy sand...... and sandy loam. An automatic roof was used to exclude the lysimeters from natural precipitation. The potatoes were drip irrigated following different strategies: Fully irrigated (FI), deficit irrigation (65% FI), and partial root zone drying (PRD). Gas exchange measurements were carried as well as sampling...... of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...

  6. Evolution of the spherical cavity radius generated around a subsurface drip emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emitter discharge in subsurface drip irrigation can be affected by soil properties. A positive pressure develops at the emitter outlet where a spherical cavity is assumed to form. In steady-state conditions, the pressure in the soil relates to soil hydraulic properties, the emitter discharge, and the cavity radius. This pressure in the soil is very sensitive to the cavity radius. In this paper, the development of the cavity around the emitter outlet was measured for various emitter discharges in laboratory tests carried out in containers with uniform loamy soils. A trend between soil pressure and emitter discharge was established that illustrates the performance of buried emitters in the field. Its application to the prediction of water distribution in subsurface drip irrigation units and its effect on the estimation of irrigation performance are also shown.

  7. Theoretical Basis and Application for Measuring Pork Loin Drip Loss Using Microwave Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mason

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During cutting and processing of meat, the loss of water is critical in determining both product quality and value. From the point of slaughter until packaging, water is lost due to the hanging, movement, handling, and cutting of the carcass, with every 1% of lost water having the potential to cost a large meat processing plant somewhere in the region of €50,000 per day. Currently the options for monitoring the loss of water from meat, or determining its drip loss, are limited to destructive tests which take 24–72 h to complete. This paper presents results from work which has led to the development of a novel microwave cavity sensor capable of providing an indication of drip loss within 6 min, while demonstrating good correlation with the well-known EZ-Driploss method (R2 = 0.896.

  8. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  9. Control of soil moisture with radio frequency in a photovoltaic-powered drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; ÖZDEN, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Solar-powered irrigation systems are becoming increasingly widespread. However, the initial setup costs of these systems are very high. To reduce these costs, both the energy usage and the prevention of losses from irrigation systems are very important. In this study, a drip irrigation control system of 1000 dwarf cherry trees was controlled using soil moisture sensors in order to prevent excessive water consumption and energy losses in a solar-powered irrigation system. The control sys...

  10. Drip, Ship, and On-Demand Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Seok Park

    Full Text Available The "drip and ship" approach can facilitate an early initiation of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT for acute ischemic stroke (AIS at community hospitals. New endovascular treatment modalities, such as stent retrieval, have further improved the rate of safe and successful recanalization. We assessed the clinical outcomes of on-demand endovascular therapy in patients with AIS who were transported to a comprehensive stroke center under the "drip and ship" paradigm.This retrospective study evaluated prospectively registered patients with acute large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation who underwent endovascular recanalization after IVT at our regional comprehensive stroke center between January 2011 and April 2014. Clinical outcomes and neuroradiological findings were compared between patients who received IVT at the center (direct visit, DV and at a community hospital (drip and ship, DS.Baseline characteristics such as age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score, and risk factors for stroke were similar, and most patients underwent endovascular therapy with a Solitaire stent (81.9% vs. 89.3% for DV and DS, respectively, P = 0.55. The average initial NIHSS score was 12.15 ± 4.1 (12.06 vs. 12.39 for DV and DS, respectively, P = 0.719. The proportions of long-term favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at 90 days and successful recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia score ≥ 2b were not significantly different (P = 0.828 and 0.158, respectively. The mortality rates and occurrences of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were not significantly different (P = 0.999 and 0.267, respectively.The "drip and ship" approach with subsequent endovascular therapy is a feasible treatment concept for patients with acute large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation that could help improve clinical outcomes in patients with AIS.

  11. low cost constant low cost constant – head drip irrigation emitter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    constant – head drip system on the other hand for a 25 m2 plot size was N 15, 870 ($79) at a current exchange rate of N210 to $1(US), further evaluation also revealed that the system can be extended to irrigate up to 100 m2 by raising the barrel to a height of 1 m above the ground, this will serve 560 maize crop stands. This.

  12. Recent Studies of Proton Drip-Line Nuclei Using the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.W.; Batchelder, J.C.; Ninov, V.; Gregorich, K.E.; Toth, K.S.; Bingham, C.R.; Piechaczek, A.; Xu, X.J.; Powell, J.; Joosten, R.; Cerny, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Berkeley Gas-filled Separator provides new research opportunities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's X-Inch Cyclotron. The use of this apparatus for the study of proton drip-line nuclides is discussed. Preliminary results of 78 Kr bombardments of 102 Pd targets at mid-target energies of 360, 375 and 385 MeV are presented. Improvements planned partially as a result of this measurement are also discussed

  13. Recent studies of proton drip-line nuclei using the Berkeley gas-filled separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.W.; Batchelder, J.C.; Ninov, V.; Gregorich, K.E.; Toth, K.S.; Bingham, C.R.; Piechaczek, A.; Xu, X.J.; Powell, J.; Joosten, R.; Cerny, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    The Berkeley Gas-filled Separator provides new research opportunities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The use of this apparatus for the study of proton drip-line nuclides is discussed. Preliminary results of 78 Kr bombardments of 102 Pd targets at mid-target energies of 360, 375 and 385 MeV are presented. Improvements planned partially as a result of this measurement are also discussed

  14. A Respiratory Airway-Inspired Low-Pressure, Self-Regulating Valve for Drip Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo-Qian; Winter, Amos G.; GEAR Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant barriers to achieving large-scale dissemination of drip irrigation is the cost of the pump and power system. An effective means of reducing power consumption is by reducing pumping pressure. The principle source of pressure drop in a drip system is the high flow resistance in the self-regulating flow resistors installed at the outlets of the pips, which evenly distribute water over a field. Traditional architectures require a minimum pressure of ~1 bar to maintain a constant flow rate; our aim is to reduce this pressure by 90% and correspondingly lower pumping power to facilitate the creation of low-cost, off-grid drip irrigation systems. This study presents a new Starling resistor architecture that enables the adjustment of flow rate with a fixed minimum pressure demand of ~0.1 bar. A Starling resistor is a flexible tube subjected to a transmural pressure, which collapses the tube to restrict flow. Our design uses a single pressure source to drive flow through the flexible tube and apply a transmural pressure. Flow into the flexible tube is restricted with a needle valve, to increase the transmural pressure. Using this device, a series of experiments were conducted with different flexible tube diameters, lengths and wall thickness. We found that the resistance of the needle valve changes flow rate but not the minimum transmural pressure required to collapse the tube. A lumped-parameter model was developed to capture the relationships between valve openings, pressure, and flow rates.

  15. Hydraulic performance evaluation of pressure compensating (pc) emitters and micro-tubing for drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrio, A.G.; Asif, M.; Jahangir, I.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation system is necessary for those areas, where the water scarcity issues are present. The present study was conducted at the field station of Climate Change, Alternate Energy and Water Resources Institute (CAEWRI), National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, during 2013, regarding drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation system depends on uniform emitter application flow. All the emitters were tested and replicated thrice at pressure head (34 to 207Kpa) with an increment of 34 Kpa. The minimum and maximum discharges were 1.32 - 3.52, 3.36 - 5.42, and 43.22 - 100.99 Lph, with an average of 2.42, 4.63 and 73.66 Lph, for Bow Smith, RIS and Micro-tubing, respectively. It indicates that more than 90% of emission uniformity (EU) and uniformity coefficient (CU) for all Emitters, which shows excellent water application with least standard deviation, ranging 0.12 to 2.37, throughout the operating pressure heads in all emitters. An average coefficient of variation (CV) of all emitters were behaving less than 0.07, indicating an excellent class at all operating pressure heads between 34 to 207 Kpa. Moreover, the relationship of discharge and pressure of emitters indicates that discharge increased with the increase of pressure head. The Q-H curve plays key role in the selection of emitters. (author)

  16. FEPs Screening of Processes and Issues in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.G. Mon; L.A. Rottinghaus

    2004-01-01

    As directed by a written development plan (BSC 2002 [DIRS 161132]), the primary purpose of this scientific analysis is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) affecting the waste package and drip shield performance in the repository. Thirty-three FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste package and drip shield performance. This scientific analysis has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The scope of this scientific analysis is to identify the treatment of the FEPs affecting postclosure waste package and drip shield performance. It should be noted that seismic effects are not treated within this report. A full discussion of seismic effects is contained in the ''Engineered Barrier System Features, Events, and Processes'' report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167253]). The FEPs that are deemed potentially important to repository postclosure performance are evaluated, either as components of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) or as a separate discussion in a scientific analysis report. The scope for this activity involves two tasks, namely: Task 1: Identify which FEPs are to be considered explicitly in the TSPA (called included FEPs) and in which scientific analyses these FEPs are addressed. Task 2: Identify FEPs not to be included in the TSPA (called excluded FEPs) and provide justification for why these FEPs do not need to be a part of the TSPA model. The analyses documented in this scientific analysis are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167040]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167040]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name, a FEP description, and descriptor phrases. The FEP Description may encompass a single feature, process or event, or a few

  17. FEPs Screening of Processes and Issues in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; L.A. Rottinghaus

    2004-03-26

    As directed by a written development plan (BSC 2002 [DIRS 161132]), the primary purpose of this scientific analysis is to identify and document the analyses and resolution of the features, events, and processes (FEPs) affecting the waste package and drip shield performance in the repository. Thirty-three FEPs were identified that are associated with the waste package and drip shield performance. This scientific analysis has been prepared to document the screening methodology used in the process of FEP inclusion and exclusion. The scope of this scientific analysis is to identify the treatment of the FEPs affecting postclosure waste package and drip shield performance. It should be noted that seismic effects are not treated within this report. A full discussion of seismic effects is contained in the ''Engineered Barrier System Features, Events, and Processes'' report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167253]). The FEPs that are deemed potentially important to repository postclosure performance are evaluated, either as components of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) or as a separate discussion in a scientific analysis report. The scope for this activity involves two tasks, namely: Task 1: Identify which FEPs are to be considered explicitly in the TSPA (called included FEPs) and in which scientific analyses these FEPs are addressed. Task 2: Identify FEPs not to be included in the TSPA (called excluded FEPs) and provide justification for why these FEPs do not need to be a part of the TSPA model. The analyses documented in this scientific analysis are for the license application (LA) base case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167040]). In this design, a drip shield is placed over the waste package and no backfill is placed over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167040]). Each FEP may include one or more specific issues that are collectively described by a FEP name, a FEP description, and descriptor phrases. The FEP Description may encompass a single feature, process

  18. Outcome of the 'Drip-and-Ship' Paradigm among Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: Results of a Statewide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Chaudhry, Saqib A; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Suri, M Fareed K; Lakshminarayan, Kamakshi; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 'drip-and-ship' paradigm denotes a treatment regimen in patients in whom intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is initiated at the emergency department (ED) of a community hospital, followed by transfer within 24 h to a comprehensive stroke center. Although the drip-and-ship paradigm has the potential to increase the number of patients who receive IV rt-PA, comparative outcomes have not been assessed at a population-based level. METHODS: Statewide estimates of thrombolysis, associated in-hospital outcomes, and hospitalization charges were obtained from 2008-2009 Minnesota Hospital Association data for all patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Patients who were assigned the drip-and-ship code [International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) V45.88] were classified under the drip-and-ship paradigm. Patients who underwent thrombolysis (ICD-9-CM code 99.10) without drip-and-ship code were classified as primary ED arrival. Patient outcomes were analyzed after stratification into patients treated with IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival or drip-and-ship paradigm. RESULTS: Of the 21,024 admissions, 602 (2.86%) received IV rt-PA either through primary ED arrival (n = 473) or the drip-and-ship paradigm (n = 129). IV rt-PA was administered in 30 hospitals, of which 13 hospitals used the drip-and-ship paradigm; the number of patients treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm varied from 1 to 40 between the 13 hospitals. The rates of secondary intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage were higher in patients treated with IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival compared with those treated with the drip-and-ship paradigm (8.5 vs. 3.1%, respectively; p = 0.038). The in-hospital mortality rate was similar among ischemic stroke patients receiving IV rt-PA through primary ED arrival or the drip-and-ship paradigm (5.9 vs. 7.0%, respectively). The mean hospital charges were USD

  19. Water saving in chufa cultivation using flat raised beds and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, N.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Maroto, J. V.; Pascual, B.

    2012-04-01

    Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), also known as tiger nut, is a typical crop in the Region of Valencia (Spain). Its tubers are used to produce a beverage called horchata. Chufa has been cultivated traditionally in ridges and furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of water used is acceptable, there are no limitations on supply, and water is not expensive; therefore, large amounts of water are used. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 is based on the precautionary principle, considering preventive action for measures to be taken; thus, water use is an issue to improve. Moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. In this two year study (2007-2008), we analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) are affected by two cultivation factors: planting strategy and irrigation system. Three planting strategies were analysed: ridges (R) and flat raised beds, with two (B2) and three (B3) plant rows along them, while two irrigation systems were compared, furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI). Within the beds, the effect of the position of the plant row was considered, differing among plants grown in the north (n), central (c), and south (s) rows. Distances between ridge and bed axes were 60, 80 and 120 cm for R, B2 and B3, respectively. Irrigation was based on the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC), which was continuously monitored with capacitance sensors (ECH2O EC-5 in FI and multidepth capacitance sensors C-Probe in DI). Each irrigation session started when the VSWC in R dropped to 60% and 80% of field capacity in FI and DI, respectively. Each DI session lasted 60 min in 2007; while in 2008 the installation was automated, stopping each session when the sum of the VSWC at 10, 20, and 30 cm soil depth reached its corresponding field capacity value. With both irrigation systems, beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. Plants from

  20. [Effects of irrigation threshold on soil temperature in blossom and fruit-set periods of muskmelon under mulching-drip irrigation in greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue-Wen; Liu, Hao; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Cui, Jia-Xin

    2014-10-01

    It is very significant for muskmelon growth and production to maintain optimal conditions of soil moisture and temperature, especially during blossom and fruit-bearing periods. The object of this study was to analyze the effects of different soil water thresholds (T1: 55% of the field capacity, T2: 65% of the field capacity, T3: 75% of the field capacity, CK: 85% of the field capacity) on soil temperature under mulching-drip irrigation in greenhouse. Moreover, effects of the ratio of soil moisture to heat in the plough layer (0-20 cm) on muskmelon growth and fruit setting were investigated. Results indicated that during the flowering and fruit bearing periods, the order of mean soil temperature in the plough layer for the different treatments was T1 > T2 > T3 > CK. There was an inverse correlation between soil temperature in the plough layer and moisture. The maximum one-day variations for soil temperature on sunny day, rainy day and after irrigation were observed in the soil surface under the plastic film mulch, while the minimum happened in the soil layer of 20 cm outside the mulch. The soil temperature extreme was closely related with soil depth, and the difference in the extreme soil temperature between the soil surface and the soil layers of 10 and 20 cm was significant. The treatment T3, with the fastest plant growth rate, the minimum duration of fruit bearing and the maximum fruit setting rate, could be selected as the optimal treatment, and the ratio of soil moisture to heat in T3 was 1.62 mm · °C(-1). Therefore, taking into consideration the relationship between soil moisture and temperature during flowering and fruit bearing periods of muskmelon under mulching-drip irrigation, the ratio of soil water to heat in the plough layer should be kept at 1.62 mm · C(-1). The result would be very meaningful for drip-irrigated muskmelon production and management in greenhouse in North China.

  1. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Vallejo, Antonio

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH4(+) and NO3(-)) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N2O, CO2 and CH4) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N2O, NO, CH4 and CO2 were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N2O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (Pfertigation with a NO3(-)-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  3. Rice performance and water use efficiency under plastic mulching with drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Yang, Ru; Chen, Lin; Jia, Biao; Cui, Jing; Fan, Hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Li

    2013-01-01

    Plastic mulching with drip irrigation is a new water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its productivity and water-saving capacity. This study aimed to assess the production potential, performance, and water use efficiency (WUE) of rice under plastic mulching with drip irrigation. Field experiments were conducted over 2 years with two rice cultivars under different cultivation systems: conventional flooding (CF), non-flooded irrigation incorporating plastic mulching with furrow irrigation (FIM), non-mulching with furrow irrigation (FIN), and plastic mulching with drip irrigation (DI). Compared with the CF treatment, grain yields were reduced by 31.76-52.19% under the DI treatment, by 57.16-61.02% under the FIM treatment, by 74.40-75.73% under the FIN treatment, which were mainly from source limitation, especially a low dry matter accumulation during post-anthesis, in non-flooded irrigation. WUE was the highest in the DI treatment, being 1.52-2.12 times higher than with the CF treatment, 1.35-1.89 times higher than with the FIM treatment, and 2.37-3.78 times higher than with the FIN treatment. The yield contribution from tillers (YCFTs) was 50.65-62.47% for the CF treatment and 12.07-20.62% for the non-flooded irrigation treatments. These low YCFTs values were attributed to the poor performance in tiller panicles rather than the total tiller number. Under non-flooded irrigation, root length was significantly reduced with more roots distributed in deep soil layers compared with the CF treatment; the DI treatment had more roots in the topsoil layer than the FIM and FIN treatments. The experiment demonstrates that the DI treatment has greater water saving capacity and lower yield and economic benefit gaps than the FIM and FIN treatments compared with the CF treatment, and would therefore be a better water-saving technology in areas of water scarcity.

  4. Design and application of a drip-type rainfall simulator adapted to steep topography and low intensity-rainfall characteristics in the Coastal Range of Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Anton, Huber

    2010-05-01

    Besides being adaptable for measuring infiltration, overland flow and sediment transport simultaneously, rainfall simulator systems allow the observation of the processes of runoff generation and soil erosion, too. This enables the assimilation of additional qualitative data and makes a rainfall simulator system a very valid method in the investigation of soil-hydrological response to precipitation events. In the present study a cheap, handy, transportable and easy to set up rainfall simulator applicable for the steep terrain conditions of the Southern Chilean Coastal range was designed based on Bowyer-Bower & Burt (1989). The used drip-type rainfall simulator had to fulfill two main requirements: adaptive to steep topography and little in water consumption. The used simulator is set up by a dismountable rectangular metal rack of 0.5x1.0m basal surface and 2.5m height. The metallic structure enables the attachment of plastic boards for wind protection. Fixable telescopic extensions allow a firm adjustment to slopes up to 45°. Horizontal metallic frames at different heights increase the stability of the structure and carry the devices of the rainfall simulator. On the uppermost frame, two containers provided with calibrated scales spend the water to a fast reacting receptacle assuring constant water supply and pressure by the Mariotte's principle. The rainfall intensity is adjusted by a control-panel according to the Bernoulli principle. This guarantees a constant water flow which was verified by the water-volume leaving the calibrated containers on top. Interchangeable glass-tubes of different diameters in the control-panel permit the generation of various precipitation intensities (4-60 mm/h; SD =0.16mm). The frame beneath carries an acrylic glass box with approx. 600 drop-formers (fishing line inside a 0.76mm Tygon-tube) at its bottom. 20 cm below, a framed 5mm-spacing-mesh serves as a raindrop randomizer. At the base of the simulator sheet metals avoid lateral

  5. Tracking solutes and water from subsurface drip irrigation application of coalbed methane-produced waters, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, M.A.; Bern, C.R.; Healy, R.W.; Sams, J.I.; Zupancic, J.W.; Schroeder, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    One method to beneficially use water produced from coalbed methane (CBM) extraction is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) of croplands. In SDI systems, treated CBMwater (injectate) is supplied to the soil at depth, with the purpose of preventing the buildup of detrimental salts near the surface. The technology is expanding within the Powder River Basin, but little research has been published on its environmental impacts. This article reports on initial results from tracking water and solutes from the injected CBM-produced waters at an SDI system in Johnson County, Wyoming. In the first year of SDI operation, soil moisture significantly increased in the SDI areas, but well water levels increased only modestly, suggesting that most of the water added was stored in the vadose zone or lost to evapotranspiration. The injectate has lower concentrations of most inorganic constituents relative to ambient groundwater at the site but exhibits a high sodium adsorption ratio. Changes in groundwater chemistry during the same period of SDI operation were small; the increase in groundwater-specific conductance relative to pre-SDI conditions was observed in a single well. Conversely, groundwater samples collected beneath another SDI field showed decreased concentrations of several constituents since the SDI operation.Groundwater-specific conductance at the 12 other wells showed no significant changes. Major controls on and compositional variability of groundwater, surface water, and soil water chemistry are discussed in detail. Findings from this research provide an understanding of water and salt dynamics associated with SDI systems using CBM-produced water. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  6. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  7. Water use and crop coefficient of subsurface drip-irrigated lettuce in Central Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Aureo S. de; Martin,Edward C.; Slack,Donald C.; Pegelow,Edward J.; Folta,Allen D.

    2005-01-01

    A two year field study (1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons) was carried out at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W) of the University of Arizona, USA, to investigate the water use and to derive Kc's for subsurface drip-irrigated head lettuce grown in small weighable lysimeters. Measurement periods ranged from 480 to 1100 ºC-day (96/97) and from 439 to 1098 ºC-day (97/98). These intervals corresponded essentially to the second half of the crop cycle which amounted to a...

  8. Simulated oxygen isotopes in cave drip water and speleothem calcite in European caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wackerbarth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting stable oxygen isotope (δ18O records from stalagmites is still one of the complex tasks in speleothem research. Here, we present a novel model-based approach, where we force a model describing the processes and modifications of δ18O from rain water to speleothem calcite (Oxygen isotope Drip water and Stalagmite Model – ODSM with the results of a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model enhanced by explicit isotope diagnostics (ECHAM5-wiso. The approach is neither climate nor cave-specific and allows an integrated assessment of the influence of different varying climate variables, e.g. temperature and precipitation amount, on the isotopic composition of drip water and speleothem calcite.

    First, we apply and evaluate this new approach under present-day climate conditions using observational data from seven caves from different geographical regions in Europe. Each of these caves provides measured δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite to which we compare our simulated isotope values. For six of the seven caves modeled δ18O values of drip water and speleothem calcite are in good agreement with observed values. The mismatch of the remaining caves might be caused by the complexity of the cave system, beyond the parameterizations included in our cave model.

    We then examine the response of the cave system to mid-Holocene (6000 yr before present, 6 ka climate conditions by forcing the ODSM with ECHAM5-wiso results from 6 ka simulations. For a set of twelve European caves, we compare the modeled mid-Holocene-to-modern difference in speleothem calcite δ18O to available measurements. We show that the general European changes are simulated well. However, local discrepancies are found, and might be explained either by a too low model resolution, complex local soil-atmosphere interactions affecting evapotranspiration or by cave specific factors

  9. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  10. A novel high-throughput drip-flow system to grow autotrophic biofilms of contrasting diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    oxidizing bacteria are cultivated on the beads using a drip-flow assembly by feeding a mineral medium containing ammonium-N as sole energy source. Biofilm thickness is controlled by setting the surficial loading rate to 0.168 g NH4- N/m2/day or 1.678 g NH4-N /m2/day, which should theoretically result....... In conclusion, we hope to demonstrate a high-replicate biofilm cultivation systems that allow us, by altering the loading rate, to engineer biofilms towards prescribed differences in composition, opening new opportunities to explore community assembly processes and their link to ecosystem function....

  11. Surface electromyographic evaluation of jaw muscles in children with unilateral crossbite and lateral shift in the early mixed dentition. Sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenguas, Leticia; Alarcón, José-Antonio; Venancio, Filipa; Kassem, Marta; Martín, Conchita

    2012-11-01

    To examine the activity of jaw muscles at rest and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC) in children with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB) and functional lateral shift in the early mixed dentition and to evaluate sex differences. The sample included 30 children (15 males, 15 females) aged 6 to 10 years old, with UPXB and functional mandibular lateral shift (≥1.5 mm) in the early mixed dentition. sEMG activity coming from the muscle areas (anterior temporalis [AT], posterior temporalis [PT], masseter [MA] and suprahyoid [SH]) were obtained from both the crossbite (XB) and noncrossbite (NONXB) sides at mandibular rest position. sEMG activity of the bilateral AT and MA muscles sides was obtained during MVC. Asymmetry and activity indexes were calculated for each muscle area at rest and during MVC; the MA/TA ratio during MVC was also determined. At rest, no differences were found between sexes for any muscle areas or asymmetry and activity indexes. No differences were found between XB and NONXB sides. During MVC, however, significant sex differences were found in AT and MA activity, with higher sEMG values in males than in females, on both XB and NONXB sides. Asymmetry indexes, activity indexes and MA/AT ratios did not show significant differences between the sexes. Activity was symmetric both in males and in females. At rest, no sex differences were found, but during MVC males showed higher activity than did females in both XB and NONXB AT and MA muscle areas. Muscular activity was symmetrical at rest and during MVC in both sexes. Sexual dimorphism should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of UPXB and lateral shift in the early mixed dentition.

  12. Continuous wave operation of high power GaN-based blue vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using epitaxial lateral overgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Tatsushi; Fuutagawa, Noriyuki; Izumi, Shouichiro; Murayama, Masahiro; Narui, Hironobu

    2016-02-01

    We have succeeded in achieving continuous-wave operation of gallium nitride (GaN) based vertical-cavity surfaceemitting lasers (VCSELs), which was fabricated by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) using dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors(DBRs) as masks for selective growth. The device exhibited CW operation at a wavelength of 453.9nm. The maximum output power was 1.1 mW, which is the highest value reported in previously published articles. The ELO process used for this study represents a breakthrough for challenges which were indicated by other former reports for GaN-based VCSELs and is suitable for mass production.

  13. Effects of organic wastes on structural characterizations of humic acid in semiarid soil under plastic mulched drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juan; Wu, Jinggui; Qu, Xiaojing; Li, Jianming

    2018-02-22

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the variation in the amount and structure of humic acid (HA) after the application of organic wastes (OWs) in semiarid soil under plastic mulched drip irrigation, measured by elemental composition, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence, and carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C CPMAS NMR). The experiment involved chemical fertilizer combined with chicken manure (CM), sheep manure (SM), maize straw (MS), fodder grass (FG), and tree leaves (TL), while chemical fertilizer only was used as control (CK). The highest cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC), and HA contents (P plastic mulched drip irrigation conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Novel Pressure Compensating Valve for Low-Cost Drip Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Amos; Wiens, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Nearly one billion people are currently living as subsistence farmers in the developing world. Irrigation could drastically increase quality of life for these individuals by enabling them to grow more and higher value crops. However, current irrigation technologies are too costly for this economic sector, particularly in off-grid applications. The cost of an off-grid irrigation system is primarily driven by the power required to pump the water at a relatively high pressure (>1 bar). We propose a novel pressure compensating drip emitter design which allows these systems to operate at 1/10 the pressure of current products, making them economically viable in developing markets. Our proposed solution is inspired by the resonating nozzle of a deflating balloon. We use a reduced order model to understand the physical principles which drive the cyclic collapse of the balloon nozzle. This knowledge is applied to propose a pressure compensating drip emitter consisting of a simple compliant tube in series with a rigid conical diffuser. A scaling analysis is performed to determine the ideal geometry of the system and the model is applied to demonstrate that the proposed design is capable of pressure compensation in the required operation range. Preliminary experiments are presented.

  15. Reactions and single-particle structure of nuclei near the drip lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.G.; Sherrill, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The techniques that have allowed the study of reactions of nuclei situated at or near the neutron or proton drip line are described. Nuclei situated just inside the drip line have low nucleon separation energies and, at most, a few bound states. If the angular momentum in addition is small, large halo states are formed where the wave function of the valency nucleon extends far beyond the nuclear radius. We begin with examples of the properties of nuclear halos and of their study in radioactive-beam experiments. We then turn to the continuum states existing above the particle threshold and also discuss the possibility of exciting them from the halo states in processes that may be thought of as 'collateral damage'. Finally, we show that the experience from studies of halo states has pointed to knockout reactions as a new way to perform spectroscopic studies of more deeply bound non-halo states. Examples are given of measurements of l values and spectroscopic factors

  16. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  17. Performance of Precision Mobile Drip Irrigation in the Texas High Plains Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. O’Shaughnessy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile drip irrigation (MDI technology adapts driplines to the drop hoses of moving sprinkler systems to apply water as the drip lines are pulled across the field. There is interest in this technology among farmers in the Texas High Plains region to help sustain irrigated agriculture. However, information on the performance of this system and its benefits relative to common sprinkler application technologies in the region are limited. A two-year study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to compare grain yields, crop water use (ETc and water use efficiency (WUE of corn (Zea Mays L. irrigated with MDI, low elevation spray application (LESA and low energy precision application (LEPA methods. Irrigation amounts for each application method were based on weekly neutron probe readings. In both years, grain yield and yield components were similar among application treatment methods. Although WUE was similar for the MDI treatment plots compared with LEPA and LESA during the wet growing season (2015, MDI demonstrated improved WUE during the drier year of 2016. Additional studies using crops with less than full canopy cover at maturity (sorghum and cotton are needed to document the performance of MDI in the Texas High Plains region.

  18. A Wireless Low Power Valve Controller for Drip Irrigation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Tai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation control systems in fields generally include a large number of sensors and valves; controlling these devices efficiently can be achieved by using distributed irrigation control (DIC, which has the advantages of reduced wiring and piping costs and easier installation and maintenance. In this study, a wireless low power valve controller for drip irrigation control systems was developed and tested. The specific tasks included the controller design (hardware and software, energy consumption tests, and field tests. The controller uses the highly integrated JN5139 module, which is based on IEEE802.15.4, for hardware design; low power consumption sleep algorithms for software design; and two alkaline batteries for supply of power to the valve controller. Results of laboratory and field tests show continuous working days of the valve controller powered by two alkaline batteries are at least 3 months under different sleep periods and frequencies of valve control. The controller described here is characterized as reliable, low cost, easy to install, and having low power consumption.

  19. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  20. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legind, Charlotte N; Kennedy, Coleen M; Rein, Arno; Snyder, Nathan; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw(-1). Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw(-1). Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates. Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between applications and before harvest, through the integrated accounting of soil, plant and environmental influences. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Leaf miner incidence in coffee plants under different drip irrigation regimes and planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Aparecida Assis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different drip irrigation regimes and planting densities on the incidence of the leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella, in arabica coffee plants for one year. The experiment was carried out in 2008, in a complete randomized block design, in a split-plot in time arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of four drip irrigation regimes - soil water balance, irrigations at 20 and 60 kPa soil tensions, and a nonirrigated treatment -, which were distributed at three plant densities: 2, 500, 5, 000, and 10, 000 plants per hectare. The evaluations were made on a monthly basis between January and December 2008. The highest pest occurrence period was from August to November, a season with low-air relative humidity preceded by a drought period. Irrigated coffee plants showed an incidence of intact mines 2.2 times lower than that of nonirrigated plants. Irrigation and increasing of plant density contribute to the reduction of coffee leaf miner occurrence.

  2. Distribution of the root system of peach palm under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Silva Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of technologies has resulted in increased productivity and the more rational management of peach palm, with irrigation being an important tool for certain regions. Thus, studies leading to proper crop management are extremely important, such as the estimate of the effective depth of the root system, which is indispensable for proper irrigation management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths, as applied by drip irrigation, on the distribution of the root system of peach palm. This experiment was conducted in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Brazil, with drip irrigation, with the two systems (flow of 0.0023 m3 h-1 consisting of four irrigation treatments corresponding to 0, 50, 100 and 150% of Class ‘A’ pan evaporation. After five years, an analysis of the Bactris gasipaes root system was performed at a distance of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 meters from the trunk, collecting sampling at two depths (0.0 to 0.3 m and 0.3 to 0.6 m via the auger method (volumetric analysis. We concluded that the effective depth of the root system used for irrigation management should be a maximum of 0.3 meters.

  3. Fate of nitrogen for subsurface drip dispersal of effluent from small wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, R. A.; Hills, D. J.; Tchobanoglous, G.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2011-09-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation systems apply effluent from onsite wastewater systems in a more uniform manner at a lower rate than has been possible with other effluent dispersal methods. The effluent is dispersed in a biologically active part of the soil profile for optimal treatment and where the water and nutrients can be utilized by landscape plants. Container tests were performed to determine the fate of water and nitrogen compounds applied to packed loamy sand, sandy loam, and silt loam soils. Nitrogen removal rates measured in the container tests ranged from 63 to 95% despite relatively low levels of available carbon. A Hydrus 2D vadose zone model with nitrification and denitrification rate coefficients calculated as a function of soil moisture content fit the container test results reasonably well. Model results were sensitive to the denitrification rate moisture content function. Two-phase transport parameters were needed to model the preferential flow conditions in the finer soils. Applying the model to generic soil types, the greatest nitrogen losses (30 to 70%) were predicted for medium to fine texture soils and soils with restrictive layers or capillary breaks. The slow transport with subsurface drip irrigation enhanced total nitrogen losses and plant nitrogen uptake opportunity.

  4. Development, yield and quality attributes of sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. de O. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the development, yield and quality of four sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip system. The experiment was carried out in Campinas-SP, Brazil, from January 2012 to November 2013, with the cultivars SP79-1011, IACSP94-2101, IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000 subjected to daily irrigations. The irrigations depths were applied to bring soil moisture to field capacity. Soil moisture was monitored using soil moisture probes. Samples were collected along the crop cycle in order to evaluate crop development and yield, at the end of the first and second ratoons. Stalk height showed good correlation for the estimation of crop yield, with R2 equal to or higher than 0.96. The cultivar IACSP95-5000 showed the highest yield in the first ratoon. In the second ratoon the highest yield was observed in IACSP94-2101, followed by IACSP95-5000 and SP79-1011. Considering the yield results associated with the technological analysis, such as soluble solids content and apparent sucrose, the cultivar IACSP95-5000 excelled the others in the cultivation under subsurface drip irrigation.

  5. Fog-drip contributions to soil moisture as determined through passive fog collector measurements, leaf wetness data, and soil moisture at Pepperwood Preserve, Sonoma County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, L.; Dodge, C.; Fernandez, D.; Weiss, P. L.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Torregrosa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Summertime coastal fog advects from the ocean and transports water inland in the form of fog droplets to forests and grasslands. The amount of fog water delivered to the soil through fog drip from foliage and other surfaces that have captured and accumulated the droplets is often difficult to quantify due to many challenges including the difficulty of measuring the relatively small variations in soil moisture that accompany fog events. This study details summer season records collected from 4 sites at the Pepperwood Preserve in Santa Rosa, CA. Fog drip volumes were measured using 1 m2 standard fog collectors located at a grassland site for the past three summers. Soil moisture measurements were collected for portions of the three summer seasons from three sites: two oak woodland understory sites and a grassland site on the edge of a forest. One oak woodland site was within 400 m of the standard fog collector grassland site. Leaf wetness sensors (LWS) were co-located at all soil moisture sites. We observe a much higher frequency of wet periods at the grassland site than at the nearby oak woodland site during the summer fog season. One hypothesis is that the oak canopy acts to protect the LWS at the oak woodland site from nocturnal radiative cooling, thereby reducing condensation and dew formation. Another hypothesis is that the oak woodland canopy tends sheltered the understory during light fog events, resulting in edge effects that may tend to reduce fog deposition within the canopy. Leaf and soil moisture measurements both during fog events and during periods without fog but when dew point is reached may provide a more complete picture of non-rain mechanisms of moisture delivery to the foliage and the soil. Investigations are on-going to include corresponding meteorological data (wind speed and direction, relative humidity and temperature) to understand relative contributions to the soil associated with both fog and dew and to better distinguish between fog and

  6. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  7. Comparative study on the lateral run-out of friction surfaces measurement of brake discs using a brake roller tester and a dial gauge

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Marius; Andreescu Cristian; Micu Dan

    2017-01-01

    Brake system diagnosis is one of the most common and necessary technical operations applied to the car, regardless of its type and operating phases. Measuring the diagnostic parameters on a roller brake tester is a fast operation with no disassembly necessary. Measuring the run-out of friction surfaces of brake discs with a dial gauge is an action that requires more extensive preparatory operations but it offers a high accuracy of the results. The paper aims to analyze the correlation between...

  8. Quantitative determination of the lateral density and intermolecular correlation between proteins anchored on the membrane surfaces using grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuillan, Wasim; Vorobiev, Alexei; Hartel, Andreas; Jones, Nicola G; Engstler, Markus; Tanaka, Motomu

    2012-11-28

    As a physical model of the surface of cells coated with densely packed, non-crystalline proteins coupled to lipid anchors, we functionalized the surface of phospholipid membranes by coupling of neutravidin to biotinylated lipid anchors. After the characterization of fine structures perpendicular to the plane of membrane using specular X-ray reflectivity, the same membrane was characterized by grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Within the framework of distorted wave Born approximation and two-dimensional Percus-Yevick function, we can analyze the form and structure factors of the non-crystalline, membrane-anchored proteins for the first time. As a new experimental technique to quantify the surface density of proteins on the membrane surface, we utilized grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF). Here, the mean intermolecular distance between proteins from the sulfur peak intensities can be calculated by applying Abelé's matrix formalism. The characteristic correlation distance between non-crystalline neutravidin obtained by the GISAXS analysis agrees well with the intermolecular distance calculated by GIXF, suggesting a large potential of the combination of GISAXS and GIXF in probing the lateral density and correlation of non-crystalline proteins displayed on the membrane surface.

  9. Reduced lateral prefrontal cortical volume is associated with performance on the modified Iowa Gambling Task: A surface based morphometric analysis of previously deployed veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogleman, Nicholas D; Naaz, Farah; Knight, Lindsay K; Stoica, Teodora; Patton, Samantha C; Olson-Madden, Jennifer H; Barnhart, Meghan C; Hostetter, Trisha A; Forster, Jeri; Brenner, Lisa A; Banich, Marie T; Depue, Brendan E

    2017-09-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are two of the most common consequences of combat deployment. Estimates of comorbidity of PTSD and mTBI are as high as 42% in combat exposed Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) Veterans. Combat deployed Veterans with PTSD and/or mTBI exhibit deficits in classic executive function (EF) tasks. Similarly, the extant neuroimaging literature consistently indicates abnormalities of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and amygdala/hippocampal complex in these individuals. While studies examining deficits in classical EF constructs and aberrant neural circuitry have been widely replicated, it is surprising that little research examining reward processing and decision-making has been conducted in these individuals, specifically, because the vmPFC has long been implicated in underlying such processes. Therefore, the current study employed the modified Iowa Gambling Task (mIGT) and structural neuroimaging to assess whether behavioral measures related to reward processing and decision-making were compromised and related to cortical morphometric features of OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with PTSD, mTBI, or co-occurring PTSD/mTBI. Results indicated that gray matter morphometry in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) predicted performance on the mIGT among all three groups and was significantly reduced, as compared to the control group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contáctenos Contact Us About Tourette Blog Later in Life Later in Life There are plenty of challenges for those still coping with Tourette Syndrome in later life — and plenty of ways to deal with them. ...

  11. Comparative study on the lateral run-out of friction surfaces measurement of brake discs using a brake roller tester and a dial gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Marius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brake system diagnosis is one of the most common and necessary technical operations applied to the car, regardless of its type and operating phases. Measuring the diagnostic parameters on a roller brake tester is a fast operation with no disassembly necessary. Measuring the run-out of friction surfaces of brake discs with a dial gauge is an action that requires more extensive preparatory operations but it offers a high accuracy of the results. The paper aims to analyze the correlation between the dial gauge measured values and the diagnostic obtained using the brake roller tester.

  12. Seasonal variations of {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C for cave drip waters in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Masayo, E-mail: minami@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kato, Tomomi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Horikawa, Keiji [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemistry, Toyama University, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Speleothem {sup 14}C has recently emerged as a potentially powerful proxy for hydrology changes in comparison with atmospheric {sup 14}C calibration curve, rather than as a direct dating tool, apart from a time marker using bomb peak of {sup 14}C. Some possible causes for the relationship between speleothem {sup 14}C content (or dead carbon fraction: DCF) and karst hydrology have been proposed, such as changes in temperature, precipitation, drip water flow dynamics, cave air ventilation, soil air pCO{sub 2}. In this study, we investigated seasonal variation in {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip water in Ryugashi Cave, Shizuoka Prefecture, central Japan, to examine the causes of the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C variations in a speleothem. The results show that different {sup 14}C concentrations and δ{sup 13}C values of drip water from the Ryugashi Cave, were exhibited at different sites of the Caves No. 1, No. 3, and No. 4, which have different temperature, air pCO{sub 2}, and flow paths. Further, the {sup 14}C and δ{sup 13}C of drip waters showed seasonal variations at all sites, which were lower in fall and winter, and higher in spring and summer, though the extent of the variations was different among the sites. The {sup 14}C in drip waters tended to be correlated with the drip rates: {sup 14}C tended to be higher in drip waters with higher drip rates, and also correlated with rainfall amount around the Ryugashi Cave, especially for the drip waters in Cave No. 3, which are considered to have simpler flow paths. The increase in rainfall amount could bring the increase in drip rate of drip water, and then the decrease in interaction between solution and karst, resulting in {sup 14}C increase (DCF decrease) in drip water. Accordingly, the reconstruction of precipitation could be performed using {sup 14}C variation in a speleothem formed by drip water with simple flow dynamics.

  13. The usefulness of levin tube inserted drip infusion spiral CT: comparison with conventional method in subtotal gastrectomy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Yoon, Jung Hee; Cha, Soon Joo; Kim, Jeong Sook; Kim, Sung Rok; Hur, Gham; Rhim, Hyun Chul

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to access the usefulness of newly designed Levin tube inserted drip infusion spiral CT for the evaluation of remnant stomach and anastomosis site in patients who have undergone subtotal gastrectomy for stomach cancer. A new technique named Levin tube inserted drip infusion spiral CT was used to prospectively study 23 patients. A 16Fr Levin tube was inserted into the remnant stomach; 500 ml of tap water was drip infused just before CT scanning and an additional 500 ml of water was infused during IV contrast injection. Water was infused by gravity, using a water bottle suspended at a height of 90 cm (Group A). The 31 patients who underwent conventional spiral CT scanning immediately after the divided ingestion of 900 ml diluted gastrografin were selected as a control group (Group B). The anatomic delineation of the anastomosis site was graded by two radiologists as excellent (3), good(2), fair (1) or poor (0). To evaluate the degree of distension, the maximal diameters of remnant stomach and the anastomosis site, and the thickness of the stomach wall, were also measured. In patients who had undergone subtobal gastrectomy, Levin tube inserted drip infusion spiral CT showed excellent anatomic delineation of the site of anastomosis and remnant stomach. We found that because it increases the distension of remnant stomach and the anastomosis site, this technique is effective for the evaluation of postoperative stomach. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  14. assessment of injection of liquid rhizobial inoculum and traditional inoculation of soybean under furrow and drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Kurdali, F.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean in naturally N 2 -fixing legume, but it needs artificial inoculation with appropriate strains of rhizobia when introduced to land not previously cultivated to the crop. As soybean is being introduced to Syria, inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum is essential to ensure effective biological nitrogen fixation by the crop. The question is: what is the most effective mean of inoculation?. As Syria is a water-short country, we examined the possibility of applying the rhizobial inoculant in irrigation system (Biofertigation) in contrast with the conventional seed pelleting application. In a 2 year experiment at a research station near Damascus, we compared seed pelleting of the inoculant under furrow and drip irrigation, with repeated inoculation by injection of a liquid culture rhizobial inoculum through the drip system. Drip irrigation enhanced N 2 fixation by soybean regardless of inoculation technique ad repeated inoculation. Injection of the liquid rhizobial inoculum through drip irrigation system was shown to enhances the acquisition of atmospheric N 2 and improve N 2 fixation by soybean.(author)

  15. Development of fine and coarse roots of Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant' in non-irrigated and drip irrigated field plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Willigen, de P.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aboveground dry mass, total root dry mass and root length density of the fine roots of Thuja occidentalis `Brabant' were determined under non- and drip-irrigated field conditions. Two-dimensional diffusion parameters for dynamic root growth were estimated based on dry mass production of the fine

  16. Canopy Reflectance-Based Nitrogen Management Strategies for Subsurface Drip Irrigated Cotton in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) can be very efficient when N is injected with the irrigation water (fertigated) on a daily basis. However, the daily rates and total amounts of N fertigation are uncertain. Normalized diffe...

  17. The distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Barros de Oliveira Silva, André Luiz; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to reach high yield and to increase longevity of plants. The SDI allows improving the water use efficiency, due to the application of water and nutrients in the root zone plants. It is necessary knowledge of soil and plant parameters, such as root system to improve irrigation system use efficiency. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system. The mentioned equipment enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars root system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars. The irrigation was performed by subsurface drip system and the soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. Three access tubes with 1.05 m-length were used for each cultivar. The images were caught with Root Scanner CI-600™ in two dates, 38 and 58 days after harvest (DAH) of cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon) in five depths and were analyzed by the software RootSnap! ™. The results show that, except for cultivar IACSP94-2094, more than 80% of root length was found in the first 0.40 m of soil profile. Until 38 DAH the root growth of cultivar IACSP94-2101 were approximately fourfold higher than other three ones in the 0 to 0.20 m layer, sevenfold higher to 0.20 to 0.40 m layer and threefold to 0.40 to 0.60 m soil profile layer. However, between 38 and 58 DAH the cultivar SP79-1011 presented higher growth taxes, being almost twofold higher than IACSP94-2101 at 0 to

  18. Net melon performance as affected by the drip irrigation depth and mulching Desempenho do melão rendilhado em função da profundidade de gotejo e utilização de mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo OC Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern techniques of water supply through irrigation can substantially reduce water waste, which contributes to attend the enlarging water demand. The objective of this work was to study the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching over melon yield and quality characteristics, in a sandy soil (Typic Hapludox. The experimental design was blocks at random, with four replications. Treatments were displayed in a 2 x 3 factorial (with and without mulching x surface and 0.20 and 0.40 depth subsurface drip irrigation. Mulching using double-sided silver/black film increased fruit average mass, plant production, yield, daily growth rate for plant height and crown diameter, fruit distal diameter, and pulp thickness. The subsurface drip irrigation at 0.20 m depth resulted in larger fruit average mass, plant production, and yield than surface and 0.40 m depth drip irrigation.As atuais técnicas de aplicação de água pelos sistemas de irrigação podem reduzir substancialmente os desperdícios de água, o que contribui para atender a crescente demanda por esse recurso natural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos produtivos e de qualidade de frutos de melão rendilhado em sistema de gotejo subterrâneo e cobertura plástica (mulching, em solo arenoso (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos, com o arranjo dos tratamentos em fatorial 2 x 3 (com e sem mulching x gotejo superficial e subsuperficial, a 0,20 e 0,40 m de profundidade. O mulching utilizando filme dupla-face prateado/preto incrementou a massa média de fruto, a produção por planta, a produtividade, a taxa de crescimento diário da altura de planta e do diâmetro do colo da planta, o diâmetro longitudinal do fruto e a espessura de polpa. A profundidade de gotejo a 0,20 m resultou em maior massa média de fruto, produção por planta e produtividade quando comparado ao gotejo superficial ou em subsuperfície, a 0

  19. Biophysical response of young pomegranate trees to surface and sub-surface drip irrigation and deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to recurring agricultural water shortages, many farmers are looking for crops that have both some degree of drought resistance and a higher economic value. Pomegranate has been identified as a crop with potential drought tolerance, and high economic values. To manage limited water effectively, i...

  20. Lithospheric drip magmatism and magma-assisted rifting: a case study in the Western Rift, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcavage, E.; Furman, T.; Nelson, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) is earth's largest continental divergent boundary and an unparalleled natural laboratory for understanding magmatism related to successful continental rifting. Classic views of continental rifting suggest that faulting and extension are facilitated by ascending magmas that weaken the lithosphere thermally and structurally within basin-bounding accommodation zones. In the EARS Western Rift (WR), many volcanic fields are not aligned along rift-bounding faults, and magma compositions lack evidence for asthenospheric inputs expected along lithosphere-penetrating fault systems. We note that compositional input from the Cenozoic Afar mantle plume is not recognized convincingly in WR mafic alkaline lavas1. Rather, magma compositions demonstrate significant input from anciently metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Destabilization and foundering of metasomatized SCLM has an increasingly recognized role in continental magmatism worldwide, producing volatile-rich, alkaline volcanics when drips of foundered SCLM devolatilize and melt on descent. This magmatism can lead to faulting: the lithospheric thinning that results from this process may play a role in physical aspects of rifting, contrasting with faulting facilitated by asthenospheric melts. Geochemical and geophysical evidence indicates that drip magmatism has occurred in several EARS provinces, including Turkana, Chyulu Hills, and in Afar2 where it is geographically coincident with successful rifting. We present bulk geochemical data that suggest drip melting of metasomatized SCLM is occurring in several WR volcanic fields. We focus on Bufumbira (Uganda), where mafic lavas are derived from garnet+phlogopite+amphibole+zircon-bearing pyroxenite, indicating a deep metasomatized SCLM source. Isotopic and trace element data suggest that extent of melting increased with depth of melting, a signature of lithospheric drip. We propose that drip magmatism is an important

  1. Nuclear spectroscopy in the rare earth region near the proton drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.; Nitschke, J.M.; Wilmarth, P.A.; Vierinen, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have used the isotope separator facility OASIS, on-line at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC, to investigate rare earth nuclei close to the proton drip line. Single-particle states near the 82-neutron shell have been examined and their excitation energies determined. Numerous new isotopes, isomers, and β-delayed proton emitters have been discovered. In addition, the α-decay properties of nuclides with N ≥ 84 have been reexamined; this has led to the discovery of several previously unobserved α transitions. The overall experimental program is summarized and some recently obtained results on 145 Dy, 147 Er, 147 Tm, 153 Lu, 155 Lu, and 157 Lu are discussed. 20 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  2. Spectroscopy of N approximately 82 nuclei near the proton drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    The yrast spectroscopy of Z>64 nuclei close to the proton drip line is discussed. This is a region of shell model nuclei in which high-spin excitations are accessible with heavy ion beams, and the occurrence of many isomers will facilitate future spectroscopic study of these nuclei to much higher spins that were observed in these investigations. The study of πhsub(11/2)sup(n) excitations in n=82 nuclei above 146 Gd provided particularly interesting results, since in certain respects their properties match shell model predictions better than those of jsup(n) states near traditional doubly magic nuclei. First results for N=81 nuclei above Z=64 were also reported, but much work remains to be done in the Z>64, N<82 quadrant

  3. Dripping and jetting in microfluidic multiphase flows applied to particle and fiber synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J K; Tsai, S S H; Wan, J; Stone, H A

    2013-01-01

    Dripping and jetting regimes in microfluidic multiphase flows have been investigated extensively, and this review summarizes the main observations and physical understandings in this field to date for three common device geometries: coaxial, flow-focusing and T-junction. The format of the presentation allows for simple and direct comparison of the different conditions for drop and jet formation, as well as the relative ease and utility of forming either drops or jets among the three geometries. The emphasis is on the use of drops and jets as templates for microparticle and microfiber syntheses, and a description is given of the more common methods of solidification and strategies for achieving complex multicomponent microparticles and microfibers. PMID:23626378

  4. Spectroscopy at the two-proton drip line: Excited states in 158W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Joss

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Excited states have been identified in the heaviest known even-Z N=84 isotone 158W, which lies in a region of one-proton emitters and the two-proton drip line. The observation of γ-ray transitions feeding the ground state establishes the excitation energy of the yrast 6+ state confirming the spin-gap nature of the α-decaying 8+ isomer. The 8+ isomer is also expected to be unbound to two-proton emission but no evidence for this decay mode was observed. An upper limit for the two-proton decay branch has been deduced as b2p≤ 0.17% at the 90% confidence level. The possibility of observing two-proton emission from multiparticle isomers in nearby nuclides is considered.

  5. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections.

  6. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Shenfu Injection in beagle dogs after intravenous drip administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Shenfu Injection (SFI is a well-defined Chinese herbal formulation that is obtained from red ginseng and processed aconite root. The main active constituents in SFI are ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids. In this work, ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Rb1 and ginsenoside Rc and aconitum alkaloids (benzoylmesaconine and fuziline were used as the index components to explore the pharmacokinetic behavior of SFI. A selective and sensitive HPLC–MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of ginsenosides and aconitum alkaloids in dog plasma and was used to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the five index components after intravenous drip of three different dosages of SFI in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic properties of the index components were linear over the dose range of 2–8 mL/kg.

  7. Effect of ionizing radiation on the physiological activities of ethanol extract from hizikia fusiformis cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duk-Jin [Division of Food Engineering and Nutrition, Daegu University, Daegu, 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Sun Yook, Hong [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Jung [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Anyang University, Kyunggi-do 430-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Myung-Gon [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Although the byproduct from Hizikia fusiformis industry had many nutrients, it is being wasted. In this study, the physiological activities of cooking drip extracts from H. fusiformis (CDHF) were determined to investigate the effect of a gamma and an electron beam irradiations. DPPH radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase and ACE inhibition effects of the gamma and electron beam irradiated CDHF extracts were increased with increasing irradiation dose. These were reasoned by the increase in the content of the total polyphenolic compound of CDHF by the gamma and electron beam irradiation. There were no differences for the radiation types. These results show that ionizing radiation could be used for enhancing the functional activity of CDHF which is a major by-product in Hizikia fusiformis processing, in various applications.

  8. The design of liquid drip speed monitoring device system based on MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyong; Li, Zhao; Li, Biqing

    2017-08-01

    This page proposed an intelligent transfusion control and monitoring system which designed by using AT89S52 micro controller as the core, using the keyboard and photoelectric sensor as the input module, digital tube and motor as the output module. The keyboard is independent and photoelectric sensor can offer reliable detection for liquid drop speed and the transfusion bottle page. When the liquid amount is less than the warning value, the system sounded the alarm, you can remove the alert by hand movement. With the advantages of speed controllable and input pulse power can be maintained of the motor, the system can control the bottle through the upper and lower slow-moving liquid drip to control the speed of intelligent purpose.

  9. Spectroscopy at the two-proton drip line: Excited states in 158W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joss, D. T.; Page, R. D.; Herzán, A.; Donosa, L.; Uusitalo, J.; Carroll, R. J.; Darby, I. G.; Andgren, K.; Cederwall, B.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hadinia, B.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Leino, M.; Leppanen, A.-P.; Nyman, M.; O'Donnell, D.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Seweryniak, D.; Simpson, J.; Sorri, J.

    2017-09-01

    Excited states have been identified in the heaviest known even-Z N = 84 isotone 158W, which lies in a region of one-proton emitters and the two-proton drip line. The observation of γ-ray transitions feeding the ground state establishes the excitation energy of the yrast 6+ state confirming the spin-gap nature of the α-decaying 8+ isomer. The 8+ isomer is also expected to be unbound to two-proton emission but no evidence for this decay mode was observed. An upper limit for the two-proton decay branch has been deduced as b2p ≤ 0.17% at the 90% confidence level. The possibility of observing two-proton emission from multiparticle isomers in nearby nuclides is considered.

  10. Low salinity hydrocarbon water disposal through deep subsurface drip irrigation: leaching of native selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Engle, Mark A.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Zupancic, John W.; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A subsurface drip irrigation system is being used in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin that treats high sodium, low salinity, coal bed methane (CBM) produced water with sulfuric acid and injects it into cropped fields at a depth of 0.92 m. Dissolution of native gypsum releases calcium that combats soil degradation that would otherwise result from high sodium water. Native selenium is leached from soil by application of the CBM water and traces native salt mobilization to groundwater. Resulting selenium concentrations in groundwater at this alluvial site were generally low (0.5–23 μg/L) compared to Wyoming’s agricultural use suitability standard (20 μg/L).

  11. Stalk yield of sugarcane cultivars under different water regimes by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the stalk yield of ten sugarcane cultivars (RB962962, RB931011, RB931530, RB98710, RB92579, RB867515, RB863129, SP791011, RB72545 and VAT90212 subjected to water deficit, full irrigation and water surplus by subsurface drip irrigation, during three cropping seasons (2011-2014. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, in dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol. The cultivars RB962962 (162.3 Mg ha-1 and RB867515 (158.5 Mg ha-1 have better stalk yield compared with other cultivars in all water regimes and cropping seasons.

  12. Influence of the impact energy on the pattern of blood drip stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. R.; Nicloux, C.; Brutin, D.

    2018-01-01

    The maximum spreading diameter of complex fluid droplets has been extensively studied and explained by numerous physical models. This research focuses therefore on a different aspect, the bulging outer rim observed after evaporation on the final dried pattern of blood droplets. A correlation is found between the inner diameter, the maximum outer diameter, and the impact speed. This shows how the drying mechanism of a blood drip stain is influenced by the impact energy, which induces a larger spreading diameter and thus a different redistribution of red blood cells inside the droplet. An empirical relation is established between the final dried pattern of a passive bloodstain and its impact speed, yielding a possible forensic application. Indeed, being able to relate accurately the energy of the drop with its final pattern would give a clue to investigators, as currently no such simple and accurate tool exists.

  13. Effect of soil properties on Hydraulic characteristics under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wangtao; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a technique that has a high potential in application because of its high efficiency in water-saving. The hydraulic characteristics of SDI sub-unit pipe network can be affected by soil physical properties as the emitters are buried in soils. The related research, however, is not fully explored. The laboratory tests were carried out in the present study to determine the effects of hydraulic factors including operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density on flow rate and its sensitivity to each hydraulic factor for two types of SDI emitters (PLASSIM emitter and Heping emitter). For this purpose, three soils with contrasting textures (i.e., light sand, silt loam, and light clay) were repacked with two soil bulk density (1.25 and1.40 g cm-3) with two initial soil water content (12% and 18%) in plexiglass columns with 40 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. Drip emitters were buried at depth of 20 cm to measure the flow rates under seven operating pressures (60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 370 kPa). We found that the operating pressure was the dominating factor of flow rate of the SDI emitter, and flow rate increased with the increase of operating pressure. The initial soil water content and bulk density also affected the flow rate, and their effects were the most notable in the light sand soil. The sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor was dependent on soil texture, and followed a descending order of light sand>silt loam>light clay for both types of emitters. Further, the sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor decreased with the increase of operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density. This study may be used to guide the soil specific-design of SDI emitters for optimal water use and management.

  14. Imaging the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, central Chile using magnetotellurics: Evidence for crustal melt regions laterally-offset from surface vents and lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Darcy; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Díaz, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected at the Laguna del Maule volcanic field (LdMVF), located in central Chile (36°S, 70.5°W), which has been experiencing unprecedented upward ground deformation since 2007. These data were used to create the first detailed three-dimensional electrical resistivity model of the LdMVF and surrounding area. The resulting model was spatially complex with several major conductive features imaged at different depths and locations around Laguna del Maule (LdM). A near-surface conductor (C1; 0.5 Ωm) approximately 100 m beneath the lake is interpreted as a conductive smectite clay cap related to a shallow hydrothermal reservoir. At 4 km depth, a strong conductor (C3; 0.3 Ωm) is located beneath the western edge of LdM. The proximity of C3 to the recent Pleistocene-to-Holocene vents in the northwest LdMVF and nearby hot springs suggests that C3 is a hydrous (>5 wt% H2O), rhyolitic partial melt with melt fraction >35% and a free-water hydrothermal component. C3 dips towards, and is connected to, a deeper conductor (C4; 1 Ωm). C4 is located to the north of LdM at >8 km depth below surface and is interpreted as a long-lived, rhyolitic-to-andesitic magma reservoir with melt fractions less than 35%. It is hypothesized that the deeper magma reservoir (C4) is providing melt and hydrothermal fluids to the shallower magma reservoir (C3). A large conductor directly beneath the LdMVF is not imaged with MT suggesting that any mush volume beneath LdM must be anhydrous (10 km) as it moves from the deep magma reservoir (C4) to create small, ephemeral volumes of eruptible melt (C3). It is hypothesized that there may be a north-south contrast in physical processes affecting the growth of melt-rich zones since major conductors are imaged in the northern LdMVF while no major conductors are detected beneath the southern vents. The analysis and interpretation of features directly beneath the lake is complicated by the surface conductor C1 which attenuates

  15. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Who ... Where can I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of ...

  16. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalos@upm.es [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Groenigen, Jan Willem van [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Vallejo, Antonio [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N{sub 2}O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO{sub 3}{sup −}-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO

  17. Flame spread over electrical wire with AC electric fields: Internal circulation, fuel vapor-jet, spread rate acceleration, and molten insulator dripping

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seungjae

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electric field on the characteristics of flame spread along a polyethylene (PE) insulated electrical wire was investigated experimentally by varying the AC frequency and voltage applied to the wire. The results showed that the flame spread rate was accelerated due to the convergence of electric flux near the end of wire, having three distinct regimes depending on applied voltage. In each regime, several subregimes could be identified depending on AC frequency. Flame shape (height and width) and slanted direction of the spreading flame were influenced differently. Fuel-vapor jets were ejected from the molten PE surface even for the baseline case without the application of an electric field; this could be attributed to the bursting of fuel vapor bubbles generated from internal boiling at the molten PE surface. An internal circulation of molten-PE was also observed as a result of non-uniform heating by the spreading flame. In the high voltage regime with a high AC frequency, excessive dripping of molten PE led to flame extinction.

  18. Application of drip irrigation technology for producing fruit of Salak ‘Gula Pasir’ (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir off season on dry land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Naturally, Salak Gula Pasir (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir is flowering every three months or four times a year, but only one or two flowering seasons that the flowers can develop into fruit. The condition causes Salak Gula Pasir is available in the market in a short period (only 2-3 months i.e. at the time of harvest (on-season from December to February. This seasonal nature of Salak Gula Pasir occurs because Salak Gula Pasir is planted on dry land where irrigation depends only on rainfall, and drought occurs when water is shortage so that the plant internal water content is low that causes a high failure development rate of flower to become fruit (fruit-set failure. This study was aimed to overcome the fruit-set failure by providing drip irrigation. Two treatments (with drip irrigation and without drip irrigation/control with sixteen replicates were tested at Salak Gula Pasir production centre (at Sibetan village, Bebandem District, of Karangasem Regency, Bali at two harvest seasons, i.e. Gadu (July and Sela II (October. The results showed that the plant provided with drip irrigation significantly yielded fruit-set percentage higher that that without drip irrigation, both in Gadu and Sela II seasons. The percentages of fruit-set in Gadu and Sela II seasons provided with drip irrigation were 75.30% and 93.13%, respectively, while those without drip irrigation were only 59.94% and 61.67%, respectively. The increase of fruit-set observed for drip irrigation treatment associated with the increase of leaf chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC of leaves, and leaf N, P, and K contents. The increase of fruit-set led to higher number of fruits and fruit weight per plant under drip irrigation than that without drip irrigation. Based on the results of this study, drip irrigation can be applied to produce Salak Gula Pasir planted out of season on dry land.

  19. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  20. HYDRUS simulations of the effects of dual-drip subsurface irrigation and a physical barrier on water movement and solute transport in soils

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nesr, MN; Alazba, AA; Šimůnek, J

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation systems, compared to other irrigation systems, enhance the delivery of water and nutrients directly into the root zone. However, in light-textured soils, certain quantities of water may percolate below the root zone due to the subsurface position of drip lines and/or poor management of irrigation systems. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate three technologies to enhance a spatial distribution of water and solutes in the root zone and to limit downward le...

  1. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  2. Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while

  3. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Huijin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, w...

  4. Greenhouse and field-based studies on the distribution of dimethoate in cotton and its effect on Tetranychus urticae by drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Zhou, Lijuan; Yao, Qiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Hanhong; Huang, Jiguang

    2018-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton. We investigated the efficacy of dimethoate in controlling T. urticae by drip irrigation. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae and the absorption and distribution of dimethoate in cotton. Greenhouse results showed that cotton leaves received higher amounts of dimethoate compared with cotton roots and stems, with higher amounts in young leaves compared with old leaves and cotyledon having the lowest amounts among leaves. Field results showed the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae by drip irrigation varied by volume of dripping water, soil pH and dimethoate dosage. Dimethoate applied at 3.00 kg ha -1 with 200 m 3  ha -1 water at weak acidic soil pH (5.70-6.70) through drip irrigation can obtain satisfactory control efficacy (81.49%, 7 days) to T. urticae, without negatively impacting on its natural enemy Neoseiulus cucumeris. The residue of dimethoate in all cotton seed samples were not detectable. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying dimethoate by drip irrigation for control of T. urticae on cotton. This knowledge could aid in the applicability of dimethoate by drip irrigation for field management of T. urticae populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Huijin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, which was more than that in cotton cropland without plastic film mulching and drip-irrigation. Moreover, when time is scaled up from a half-hour to a month, the correlations of gross primary production (GPP) to air temperature (Tair), net solar radiation (Rn) and soil water content (SWC) gradually become stronger due to ecosystem resistance and resilience as well as the protection of plastic film mulching. The GPP is more strongly correlated with Rn than Tair at time scales from minutes to days, while it reverses at time scales from days to weeks. This outcome is largely determined by the biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis. SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at all time scales are weakly correlated with GPP because plastic film mulching and regularly drip-irrigation allow soil to maintain sufficient water. PMID:29415018

  6. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    Full Text Available Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, which was more than that in cotton cropland without plastic film mulching and drip-irrigation. Moreover, when time is scaled up from a half-hour to a month, the correlations of gross primary production (GPP to air temperature (Tair, net solar radiation (Rn and soil water content (SWC gradually become stronger due to ecosystem resistance and resilience as well as the protection of plastic film mulching. The GPP is more strongly correlated with Rn than Tair at time scales from minutes to days, while it reverses at time scales from days to weeks. This outcome is largely determined by the biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis. SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD at all time scales are weakly correlated with GPP because plastic film mulching and regularly drip-irrigation allow soil to maintain sufficient water.

  7. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Huijin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, which was more than that in cotton cropland without plastic film mulching and drip-irrigation. Moreover, when time is scaled up from a half-hour to a month, the correlations of gross primary production (GPP) to air temperature (Tair), net solar radiation (Rn) and soil water content (SWC) gradually become stronger due to ecosystem resistance and resilience as well as the protection of plastic film mulching. The GPP is more strongly correlated with Rn than Tair at time scales from minutes to days, while it reverses at time scales from days to weeks. This outcome is largely determined by the biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis. SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at all time scales are weakly correlated with GPP because plastic film mulching and regularly drip-irrigation allow soil to maintain sufficient water.

  8. Paintable Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cells with Engineered Perovskite/Carbon Interface Using Carbon Nanotubes Dripping Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaehoon; Lee, Kisu; Yun, Juyoung; Yu, Haejun; Lee, Jungsup; Jang, Jyongsik

    2017-10-01

    Paintable carbon electrode-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are of particular interest due to their material and fabrication process costs, as well as their moisture stability. However, printing the carbon paste on the perovskite layer limits the quality of the interface between the perovskite layer and carbon electrode. Herein, an attempt to enhance the performance of the paintable carbon-based PSCs is made using a modified solvent dripping method that involves dripping of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which is dispersed in chlorobenzene solution. This method allows CNTs to penetrate into both the perovskite film and carbon electrode, facilitating fast hole transport between the two layers. Furthermore, this method is results in increased open circuit voltage (V oc ) and fill factor (FF), providing better contact at the perovskite/carbon interfaces. The best devices made with CNT dripping show 13.57% power conversion efficiency and hysteresis-free performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Localization of a Drosophila DRIP-like aquaporin in the Malpighian tubules of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Jeffrey H; Robichaux, S Renee; Kaufmann, Nancy; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2007-09-01

    Malpighian tubules (Mt) are the primary excretory and osmoregulatory organs of insects, capable of rapidly transporting extraordinary volumes of fluid when stimulated by diuretic factors. In the house cricket, Acheta domesticus, the Mt are composed of three morphologically distinct regions (proximal, mid, and distal). Unlike the dipteran Mt, which have both primary and stellate cells, each region of the Acheta Mt consists of a morphologically uniform cell type. The mid and distal regions are both secretory in function and increase secretion rate in response to dibutyryl cAMP (cAMP). Achetakinin-2, while acting synergistically with cAMP on the mid-Mt, inhibits secretion by the distal Mt, and the effects can be reversed by cAMP. Using an antibody to the water-specific Drosophila aquaporin (DRIP), we demonstrated that DRIP-like immunoreactivity was found in both the distal and mid-Mt. The distribution of the aquaporin altered in response to stimulation and was consistent with the secretory data. The regulation of secretion in Acheta Mt is quite different from that of Drosophila, with both cation and anion/water transport occurring in the same cells. This is the first demonstration of the presence of an insect aquaporin, namely DRIP, in the Mt of an order other than the Diptera.

  10. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  11. Sarcoplasmic Protein Profile from Drip Loss in Relation to Pork Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Wiesław; Kaczor, Damian; Żelechowska, Elżbieta; Jaworska, Danuta; Kajak-Siemaszko, Katarzyna; Boruszewska, Kinga; Jankiewicz, Urszula

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to correlate the sarcoplasmic protein profile of the natural drip loss of muscle with the technological and sensory quality of pork meat. Material for analysis was taken from 14 PenArLan pigs. Simple analysis of relationships between the test protein and meat quality traits showed that they adopt a range of from -0.58 to 0.72. It has been shown that the significance of glycolysis expressed as level of glycogen and lactic acid may be 86% (coefficient of correlations, C R = 0.93), explained by the amount of certain enzymes. The higher relation has been obtained between studied enzymes and value of pH 24 , L * and b * parameters of raw meat (98%; C R = 0.99). By contrast, L * and a * parameters, sour flavor, and tenderness of grilled meat in 79% can be explained based on the content of the enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate mutase (C R = 0.89). The results of the multiple regression showed that amount of lactic acid was related to the quantity of the 3 enzymes: phosphofructokinase, AMP deaminase, phosphorylase b/phosphorylase b kinase (r = 0.88). © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Drip irrigation with treated wastewater from cashew nut industry under service pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketson Bruno da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of wastewater generated in the processing of cashew nuts enables the rationalization of water use, as well as the minimization of pollution and environmental degradation. The study aimed to analyze the effect of service pressures in the distribution uniformity of drip irrigation units applying treated wastewater from cashew nut industry. The experiment was conducted in split-split plots scheme having the service pressures (70, 140, 210 and 280 kPa on parcels, the emitters models (G1, G2 and G3 on subplots and the evaluation periods (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 h of operation of the irrigation units on subsubplots. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The coefficient of uniformity of distribution of irrigation units, as well as the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the effluent were determined every 20 hours of operation the irrigation units to totalize 160 h. The combination of dripper G3 and service pressure of 140 kPa provided excellent levels of distribution uniformity of effluent on irrigation units operating with treated wastewater of cashew nut industry. For application of treated wastewater from cashew nut it is not recommended the use of drippers with low flow rate (? 1.6 L h-1 and labyrinth of greater length (? 58 mm.

  13. Water flow and multicomponent solute transport in drip-irrigated lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Iael; Šimůnek, Jiří; Ben-Gal, Alon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2016-08-01

    Controlled experiments and modeling are crucial components in the evaluation of the fate of water and solutes in environmental and agricultural research. Lysimeters are commonly used to determine water and solute balances and assist in making sustainable decisions with respect to soil reclamation, fertilization, or irrigation with low-quality water. While models are cost-effective tools for estimating and preventing environmental damage by agricultural activities, their value is highly dependent on the accuracy of their parameterization, often determined by calibration. The main objective of this study was to use measured major ion concentrations collected from drip-irrigated lysimeters to calibrate the variably saturated water flow model HYDRUS (2D/3D) coupled with the reactive transport model UNSATCHEM. Irrigation alternated between desalinated and brackish waters. Lysimeter drainage and soil solution samples were collected for chemical analysis and used to calibrate the model. A second objective was to demonstrate the potential use of the calibrated model to evaluate lower boundary design options of lysimeters with respect to leaching fractions determined using drainage water fluxes, chloride concentrations, and overall salinity of drainage water, and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) in the profile. The model showed that, in the long term, leaching fractions calculated with electrical conductivity values would be affected by the lower boundary condition pressure head, while those calculated with chloride concentrations and water fluxes would not be affected. In addition, clear dissimilarities in ESP profiles were found between lysimeters with different lower boundary conditions, suggesting a potential influence on hydraulic conductivities and flow patterns.

  14. The value of drip infusion cholangiography using multidetector-row helical CT in patients with choledocholithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Masahiro; Fukada, Jun-ichi; Toya, Kazuhito; Ito, Reiko; Ohashi, Toshio; Yorozu, Atsunori [Tokyo Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the feasibility of drip infusion cholangiography computed tomography (CTCh) for choledocholithiasis and to compare the detection of the stone on CTCh with that of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). CTCh examinations were performed after infusion of intravenous biliary contrast material (iotroxic acid meglumine, 100 ml) for patients with suspected biliary diseases and were reconstructed to maximum intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reformation (MPR). Of 432 patients who underwent CTCh, we identified 15 who underwent surgery or cholangioscopic removal for choledocholithiasis and 32 patients who underwent cholecystectomy due to cholecystolithiasis. Their MRCP images were compared with the CTCh images. The sensitivity and specificity of CTCh for detecting choledochal stones were 87% and 96% whereas those of MRCP were 80% and 88%. The sensitivity and specificity of CTCh for detecting gallstones were 78% and 100% whereas those of MRCP were 94% and 88%. CTCh allowed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting choledochal stones but diminished the detection for cholecystolithiasis compared with MRCP. (orig.)

  15. The value of drip infusion cholangiography using multidetector-row helical CT in patients with choledocholithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Fukada, Jun-ichi; Toya, Kazuhito; Ito, Reiko; Ohashi, Toshio; Yorozu, Atsunori

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the feasibility of drip infusion cholangiography computed tomography (CTCh) for choledocholithiasis and to compare the detection of the stone on CTCh with that of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). CTCh examinations were performed after infusion of intravenous biliary contrast material (iotroxic acid meglumine, 100 ml) for patients with suspected biliary diseases and were reconstructed to maximum intensity projection (MIP) and multiplanar reformation (MPR). Of 432 patients who underwent CTCh, we identified 15 who underwent surgery or cholangioscopic removal for choledocholithiasis and 32 patients who underwent cholecystectomy due to cholecystolithiasis. Their MRCP images were compared with the CTCh images. The sensitivity and specificity of CTCh for detecting choledochal stones were 87% and 96% whereas those of MRCP were 80% and 88%. The sensitivity and specificity of CTCh for detecting gallstones were 78% and 100% whereas those of MRCP were 94% and 88%. CTCh allowed high sensitivity and specificity for detecting choledochal stones but diminished the detection for cholecystolithiasis compared with MRCP. (orig.)

  16. Double row spacing and drip irrigation as technical options in energy sorghum management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Roncucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two row spacing configurations and four water supply levels was investigated on sweet and fibre sorghum in Central Italy for two consecutive years. Results highlighted the influence of both irrigation and row spatial configuration on crop productivity. Indeed, several studies have pointed out the positive response of sorghum to irrigation in Mediterranean climate, as in this environment water stress represents one of the main limiting factors on crop productivity. On the other hand, few attempts have been made to explore the role of row spacing on energy sorghum productivity. Results outlined an average increase in sorghum dry biomass yield ranging from +23% to +79% at variable rates of water supply as compared to rainfed control. The positive effect of irrigation was also observed on leaf area index and radiation use efficiency. Moreover, we observed a crop yield increase, from 9% to 20%, under double row spacing compared to the standard planting pattern (i.e. single row spacing. Finally, it was confirmed the efficient use of water by sorghum and the great ability of sorghum to increase its biomass yield in response to increasing volumes of water supplied. Therefore, this work suggests how row spacing configuration and drip irrigation could be feasible technical options to increase sorghum biomass yields in Mediterranean environments. These techniques should be experienced by farmers towards a sustainable intensification of current cropping systems.

  17. Water dephts and macronutrients accumulation in 'pérola' pineapple irrigated by drip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uirá do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the largest pineapple producers worldwide, and those fruits are for the juice industry and the in natura market. Its cultivation requires high technology investment by using irrigation and balanced fertilization. However, little is known about the influence of drip irrigation on nutrient uptake by pineapple plants. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different irrigation depths on nutrients accumulation by 'Pérola' pineapples grown in northern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with five treatments referring to: 30% of Class A Evaporation Pan (ECA; 50% of ECA; 70% of ECA; 100% of ECA; and 150% of ECA. To determine the levels of macronutrients and dry matter, the plants were separated in root, stem, leaves, 'D' leaf, crown, fruit and whole plant. The sequence of macronutrients accumulated in the whole plant was K>N>Ca>P>Mg. The fruits exported from the cultivated area the following amounts of macronutrients: 17.52 kg ha-1 of K (12.8%; 16.91 kg ha-1 of N (20.7%; 10.77 kg ha-1 of Ca (15.9%, 1.29 kg ha-1 of P (12.4% and 1.04 kg ha-1 of Mg (20.5%. The irrigation depths that provided the maximum N, P, K and Ca accumulation in the whole plant are 53.6, 61.6, 54.5 and 60.2% of ECA, respectively.

  18. Water-Yield Relations of Drip Irrigated Watermelon in Temperate Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study, conducted in Vojvodina a northern part of the Serbia Republic, was to analyse the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of watermelon (Cirullus lanatus Thunb. grown with plasticulture. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration was computed using the reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient. The yield of watermelon in irrigation conditions (37,28 t/ha was significantly higher compared to non irrigated (9,98 t/ha. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions was 398 mm and 117 mm on non irrigated variant. The crop yield response factor of 1,04 for the whole growing season reveals that relative yield decrease was nearly equal to the rate of evapotranspiration deficit. The values of irrigation water use efficiency and evapotranspiration water use efficiency were 9,93 kg/m3 and 10,29 kg/m3 respectively. The determined results could be used as a good platform for watermelon growers in the region, in terms of improvement of the optimum utilization of irrigation water.

  19. Numerical simulation of the formation and the dripping of droplet in the Electroslag Remelting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the magnetohydrodynamic module of the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT, a 3-D mathematical model was developed to describe the multi-field coupling phenomenon in the electroslag remelting process. The model predicted value is in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The simulation results show that, during the melt dripping process, the resistance of the electroslag remelting system is decreasing while the current density and velocity, as well as the temperature are increasing gradually. The maximum value of current density, electromagnetic force, and velocity appears when the melt droplet detaches and the quality of large droplets fall into the slag-metal interface. The maximum value of the current density is increased by almost one order of magnitude. The maximum value of the electromagnetic force and velocity increased by 2.5 and 4.7 times, respectively. The maximum value of Joule heating and temperature appears when the droplets fall into the slag-metal interface. The maximum value of the Joule heating and temperature increased for about 174.7% and 26.8%, respectively, when compared with the moment of the melt droplet formation.

  20. Irrigation and fertigation scheduling under drip irrigation for maize crop in sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; El-Baroudy, Ahmed A.; Taha, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments was conducted to determine the best irrigation scheduling and the proper period for injecting fertilizers through drip irrigation water in a sandy soil to optimize maize yield and water productivity. Four irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2) of the crop evapotranspiration and two fertigation periods (applying the recommended fertilizer dose in 60 and 80% of the irrigation time) were applied in a split-plot design, in addition to a control treatment which represented conventional irrigation and fertilization of maize in the studied area. The results showed that increasing the irrigation water amount and the fertilizer application period increased vegetative growth and yield. The highest grain yield and the lowest one were obtained under the treatment at 1.2 and of 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, respectively. The treatment at 0.8 crop evapotranspiration with fertilizer application in 80% of the irrigation time gave the highest water productivity (1.631 kg m-3) and saved 27% of the irrigation water compared to the control treatment. Therefore, this treatment is recommended to irrigate maize crops because of the water scarcity conditions of the studied area.

  1. The Effect of Water Stress on Yield of New Cotton Variety-Sepid (Gossipiumhirsutum L. in Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    borhan sohrabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is a vast country with limited water resources. Iran is located in arid areas and average precipitation is estimated to be 250 mm. In recent years, water shortage has created many problems for Iranian farmers. In these conditions, surface and ground water use is excessive. High consumption, low irrigation efficiency, bad time and geographical distribution of precipitation, population growth and increasing agricultural land are one of the main reasons for the irrigation water crisis. Therefore, the main problem of drought and water shortages still remains. The area of agricultural land in Golestan province is high, but most of them are rain-fed cultivation or left fallow. Due to the loss of irrigation water in traditional agriculture, development of pressurized irrigation as a solution to increase productivity and reduction of strain on water resources was raised. With government support, the use of pressurized irrigation systems is increasing. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of different amounts of water on new variety of cotton-Sepid, a two-year study was conducted using drip irrigation at Hashemabad Cotton Research Station, Gorgan, Iran.The Hashemabad Cotton Research Station is located in north of Iran at 36° 51' N latitude and 54° 16' E longitude at the south-east corner of Caspian Sea and its height from sea level is 13.3 meters. That station has a Mediterranean climate with relatively mild winters and relatively dry summers. The station's annual evaporation, precipitation and relative humidity are 1311mm, 525 mm and 71%, respectively. Soil texture of Hashem Abad station is silty clay loam. In this study, four levels of irrigation water: 0%, 40%, 70% and 100% evaporation of class A pan were studied in a randomized complete block design. Land was plowed in autumn last year and was ready for planting in April with the disc. During tillage, manure fertilizer on the soil surface was sprayed based on the soil

  2. Estimation of Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Olive Orchard Using Thermal and Multispectral Cameras Placed on a Helicopter-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ortega-Farías

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to implement a remote sensing energy balance (RSEB algorithm for estimating the incoming solar radiation (Rsi, net radiation (Rn, sensible heat flux (H, soil heat flux (G and latent heat flux (LE over a drip-irrigated olive (cv. Arbequina orchard located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile (35°25′S; 71°44′W; 90 m above sea level. For this study, a helicopter-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was equipped with multispectral and infrared thermal cameras to obtain simultaneously the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and surface temperature (Tsurface at very high resolution (6 cm × 6 cm. Meteorological variables and surface energy balance components were measured at the time of the UAV overpass (near solar noon. The performance of the RSEB algorithm was evaluated using measurements of H and LE obtained from an eddy correlation system. In addition, estimated values of Rsi and Rn were compared with ground-truth measurements from a four-way net radiometer while those of G were compared with soil heat flux based on flux plates. Results indicated that RSEB algorithm estimated LE and H with errors of 7% and 5%, respectively. Values of the root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE for LE were 50 and 43 W m−2 while those for H were 56 and 46 W m−2, respectively. Finally, the RSEB algorithm computed Rsi, Rn and G with error less than 5% and with values of RMSE and MAE less than 38 W m−2. Results demonstrated that multispectral and thermal cameras placed on an UAV could provide an excellent tool to evaluate the intra-orchard spatial variability of Rn, G, H, LE, NDVI and Tsurface over the tree canopy and soil surface between rows.

  3. Optimized solar-wind-powered drip irrigation for farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carolina M.

    The two billion people produce 80% of all food consumed in the developing world and 1.3 billion lack access to electricity. Agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% worldwide by 2050 and to achieve this about 50% more primary energy has to be made available by 2035. Energy-smart agri-food systems can improve productivity in the food sector, reduce energy poverty in rural areas and contribute to achieving food security and sustainable development. Agriculture can help reduce poverty for 75% of the world's poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The costs associated with irrigation pumping are directly affected by energy prices and have a strong impact on farmer income. Solar-wind (SW) drip irrigation (DI) is a sustainable method to meet these challenges. This dissertation shows with onsite data the low cost of SW pumping technologies correlating the water consumption (evapotranspiration) and the water production (SW pumping). The author designed, installed, and collected operating data from the six SWDI systems in Peru and in the Tohono O'odham Nation in AZ. The author developed, tested, and a simplified model for solar engineers to size SWDI systems. The author developed a business concept to scale up the SWDI technology. The outcome was a simplified design approach for a DI system powered by low cost SW pumping systems optimized based on the logged on site data. The optimization showed that the SWDI system is an income generating technology and that by increasing the crop production per unit area, it allowed small farmers to pay for the system. The efficient system resulted in increased yields, sometimes three to four fold. The system is a model for smallholder agriculture in developing countries and can increase nutrition and greater incomes for the world's poor.

  4. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  5. Simulation of lateral flow with SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calibration of the SWAT model for the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) showed that percolation through the restrictive claypan layer, lateral flow above that layer, and redistribution of excess moisture up to the ground surface were not correctly simulated. In addition, surface runoff a...

  6. Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fenghao; Uebaba, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroko; Tatsuse, Takeshi; Wang, Bing-Hong; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Venkatraman, Sonia

    2008-10-01

    Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment, Shirodhara, involves the use of medicated herbal sesame oils. In our previous reports, we found that Shirodhara with plain sesame oil induced anxiolysis and an altered state of consciousness (ASC) in healthy subjects. We studied the pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Shirodhara with medicated sesame oil including an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia (lavender) in the present study. Sixteen (16) healthy females (38 +/- 8 years old) were assigned at random to three treatments applied by a robotic oil-dripping system: plain sesame oil (plain Shirodhara), medicated sesame oil with a 0.3 volume % of lavender essential oil (lavender Shirodhara), or the control supine position. Psychophysiologic parameters including the heart rate, skin temperature of the dorsum of hands and feet, as well as anxiety and ASC were monitored, and the rates of change of these items were calculated to assess the psychophysiologic changes brought about by Shirodhara. Lavender Shirodhara showed potent anxiolytic and ASC-inducing or promoting effects, and induced the largest increase in foot skin temperature. The correlation between anxiolysis and ASC, as well as the correlation between these psychologic effects and the elevated foot skin temperature were larger in the lavender Shirodhara than in the other two conditions. It was speculated that the psycho-physiologic effects of lavender Shirodhara would be brought about by three mechanisms: (1) the well-known relaxing action of essential oils from L. angustifolia mediated by olfactory nerves, (2) the pharmacologic action of substances absorbed through the skin or mucosa in the sesame oil or lavender essential oil, and (3) the physiologic effect of sesame oil dripped on the forehead induced by the somato-autonomic reflex through thermosensors or pressure sensors in the skin or hair follicles via the trigeminal cranial nerve. The complicated pharmaco-physio-psychologic action of Ayurvedic oil treatment

  7. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  8. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  9. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus...... for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted...

  10. Pathways of lateral spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2011-01-01

    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Lithospheric drips beneath the SE edge of the Tibetan Plateau Imaged by finite frequency tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Niu, F.; Liu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Using traveltimes of teleseismic S waves, we investigated the upper mantle structure beneath the SE Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas to understand lithosphere deformation process associated with the uplift of the plateau. We applied the finite frequency tomography method to the S waves data recorded by 390 broadband stations in the area, from earthquakes occurring between July of 2007 and July of 2010. We used differential travel times between pairs of stations in the inversion to eliminate traveltime anomalies resulting from heterogeneities outside the study area. To ensure the above assumption to be valid for a large-scale study area, we have paid special attention in selecting proper station pairs. We also honored proper weight of each station when we selected station pairs. Our results are consistent with previous tomography in terms large-scale seismic anomalies, such as a high velocity anomaly beneath the Sichuan basin in the uppermost mantle and a high velocity anomaly in the transition zone that may be associated with the subducted Paleo-Pacific plate beneath the Yangtze craton. In addition to these known structures, we found relatively small-scale high velocity bodies inside the upper mantle beneath the SE margin of the Tibetan Plateau, along with the longitude 102o from the south to north. In particular, our images show two high velocity anomalies at ~94 km deep at latitude 26oN and ~300 km at latitude 28oN, respectively. Further to the north, at around 31.5oN, we can see another high velocity body at ~350 km, right below a large low velocity anomaly. Although other seismic observations are required to better constrain the nature of these high velocity structure, one possible scenario is that they may be drips or delaminated pieces of the continental lithosphere, as the consequence of the progressive uplift of the plateau. Such an interpretation is consistent with our previous observations of a thin lithosphere (Niu, 2011) and a vertical mantle

  12. Use of a furosemide drip does not improve earlier primary fascial closure in the open abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland H Webb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The furosemide drip (FD, in addition to improving volume overload respiratory failure, has been used to decrease fluid in attempts to decrease intra-abdominal and abdominal wall volumes to facilitate fascial closure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the FD and the associated rate of primary fascial closure following trauma damage control laparotomy (DCL. Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to September 2008, a retrospective review from a single institution Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons dataset was performed. All DCLs greater than 24 h who had a length of stay for 3 or more days were identified. The study group (FD+ and control group (FD- were compared. Demographic data including age, sex, probability of survival, red blood cell transfusions, initial lactate, and mortality were collected. Primary outcomes included primary fascial closure and primary fascial closure within 7 days. Secondary outcomes included total ventilator days and LOS. Results: A total of 139 patients met inclusion criteria: 25 FD+ and 114 FD-. The 25 FD+ patients received the drug at a median 4 days post DCL. Demographic differences between the groups were not significantly different, except that initial lactate was higher for FD- (1.7 vs 4.0; P=0.03. No differences were noted between groups regarding successful primary fascial closure (FD+ 68.4% vs FD- 64.0%; P=0.669, or closure within 7 days (FD+13.2% vs FD- 28.0%; P=0.066 of original DCL. FD+ patients suffered more open abdomen days (4 [2-7] vs 2 [1-4]; P=0.001. FD+ did not demonstrate an association with primary fascial closure [Odds ratio (OR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.260-8.307; P=0.663]. FD+ patients had more ventilator days and longer Intensive Care Unit (ICU/hospital LOS (P<0.01. Conclusion: FD use may remove excess volume; however, forced diuresis with an FD is not associated with an increased rate of primary closure after DCL. Further studies are warranted to

  13. Drip-and-ship stroke thrombolysis in the emergency department of a healthcare center - a possibility for those fallen ill in rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, Joonas H; Raatiniemi, Lasse; Isokangas, Juha-Matti; Martikainen, Matti; Piironen, Katja

    Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator is the mainstay in the treatment of acute stroke. Reducing the delay of thrombolysis treatment improves patient prognosis and reduces the incidence of complications. Variable telestroke regimens have improved the availability of stroke thrombolysis, especially in rural settings, where neurologists are not readily available. In the drip-and-ship strategy, stroke thrombolysis is initiated in a peripheral hospital and the patient is then transferred to a tertiary care unit. We report the first case of drip-and-ship stroke thrombolysis in a rural health care center in Northeastern Finland.

  14. Therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Xiong, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy, 19 patients with early diabetic retinopathy were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. The TaiYang, YangBai, YuYao and ZanZhu acupoints of patients in the treatment group were irradiated with a semiconductor laser combined with the oral compound Danshen dropping pills, while those in the control group only used the oral compound Danshen dropping pills. The indicators of vision, mean defect of light sensitivity in the visual field, renal function and fasting blood glucose, were examined to evaluate the efficacy. After treatment, the above indicators of patients in the two groups were significantly improved and there was a significant difference between the two groups. This showed that the compound Danshen dripping pills combined with the laser acupoint irradiation can improve the ischemic and anoxic state of early diabetic retinopathy and improve the visual field.

  15. Two year measurement of nitrous oxide emission from high frequency surface and subsurface drip irrigations in pomegranate orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building resiliency in California agriculture means utilizing adaptive farming practices that will produce better yields while overcoming the State’s current challenges, such as diminishing water supply and deteriorating water quality. In addition, California agriculture also needs to take proactive...

  16. Laterality of amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, Michael; Simons, Kurt; Kraker, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    To determine the frequency of unilateral amblyopia in right versus left eyes among children younger than 18 years. Analysis of data collected in randomized clinical trials conducted by the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. The laterality of the amblyopic eye was analyzed in 2635 subjects younger than 18 years who participated in 9 multicenter prospective, randomized treatment trials. Eligibility criteria for these clinical trials included unilateral amblyopia associated with strabismus, anisometropia, or both, with visual acuity between 20/40 and 20/400. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of baseline and demographic factors with the laterality of amblyopia. Among subjects with anisometropic amblyopia (with or without strabismus), amblyopia was present more often in left than right eyes, with a relative prevalence of 59% in left eyes (95% confidence interval, 57% to 62%; P amblyopia, there was no laterality predilection (relative prevalence of 50% in left eyes; 95% confidence interval, 47% to 54%; P = .94). Anisometropic amblyopia, with or without strabismus, occurs more often in left eyes than right eyes. This finding of amblyopia laterality may be related to microtropia, sighting dominance, or other forms of ocular dominance; developmental or neurological factors; laterality in the development of refractive error; or a combination thereof. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  18. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2010-01-01

    . The treetop buds remaining after bud excision experienced an immediate decrease in most cytokinins, followed, however, by a large surplus later in the season. The following spring this high level persisted in the leader bud of destipitated trees, but not in whorl buds of decapitated trees. Conspicuous growth...... pattern changes followed from destipitation, but few from decapitation. Growth reactions suggest that resource allocation to main branch buds inhibits leader growth in normal trees, a kind of “lateral control.” Auxin and ABA content in buds and stems was largely unaffected by treatments. Data suggest...

  19. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss

    2013-01-01

    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  20. Adsorption kinetics of laterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio.

    OpenAIRE

    Belas, M R; Colwell, R R

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of laterally and polarly flagellated bacteria to chitin was measured, and from the data obtained, a modified Langmuir adsorption isotherm was derived. Results indicated that the adsorption of laterally flagellated Vibrio parahaemolyticus follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, a type of adsorption referred to as surface saturation kinetics, when conditions are favorable for the production of lateral flagella. When conditions were not favorable for the production of lateral fl...

  1. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a validation study of a previously published method of sex determination from the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle method for the internal acoustic canal for accurately determining the sex of human skeletal remains usi...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  2. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Shashiraj

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile amytrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) is a type of motor neuron disease presenting before 25 years of age. It is characterized by a combination of upper and lower motor signs. It may be familial or sporadic. We are reporting a sporadic case of JALS with onset of symptoms at 4 years of age. Diagnostic criteria and a brief review of literature are presented.

  3. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  4. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  5. Prototype of a subsurface drip irrigation emitter: Manufacturing, hydraulic evaluation and experimental analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wanderley De Jesus; Rodrigues Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez, Raúl; Arriel Botrel, Tarlei; Duarte Coelho, Rubens

    2013-04-01

    Root and soil intrusion into the conventional emitters is one of the major disadvantages to obtain a good uniformity of water application in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). In the last years, there have been different approaches to reduce these problems such as the impregnation of emitters with herbicide, and the search for an emitter geometry impairing the intrusion of small roots. Within the last this study, has developed and evaluated an emitter model which geometry shows specific physical features to prevent emitter clogging. This work was developed at the Biosystems Engineering Department at ESALQ-USP/Brazil, and it is a part of a research in which an innovated emitteŕs model for SDI has been developed to prevent root and soil particles intrusion. An emitter with a mechanical-hydraulic mechanism (opening and closing the water outlet) for SDI was developed and manufactured using a mechanical lathe process. It was composed by a silicon elastic membrane a polyethylene tube and a Vnyl Polychloride membrane protector system. In this study the performance of the developed prototype was assessed in the laboratory and in the field conditions. In the laboratory, uniformity of water application was calculated by the water emission uniformity coefficient (CUE), and the manufacturer's coefficient of variation (CVm). In addition, variation in the membrane diameter submitted to internal pressures; head losses along the membrane, using the energy equation; and, precision and accuracy of the equation model, analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and by Willmott's concordance index (d) were also calculated with samples of the developed emitters. In the field, the emitters were installed in pots with and without sugar cane culture from October 2010 to January 2012. During this time, flow rate in 20 emitters were measured periodically, and the aspects of them about clogging at the end of the experiment. Emitters flow rates were measured quarterly to calculate

  6. Effect of Nitrogen and Irrigation Application on Water Movement and Nitrogen Transport for a Wheat Crop under Drip Irrigation in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For improving water scarcity and groundwater pollution from agriculture, two-year experiments (2011–2013 with three water levels (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 evaporation (E in 20-cm-diameter pans and four nitrogen (N levels (120, 140 and 190 kg·ha−1 in 2012 and 120, 190 and 290 kg·ha−1 in 2013 were conducted to study effects of water and N availability on water movement and N transport for a wheat crop under drip irrigation in the North China Plain. The results indicated that under drip irrigation, deep percolation at 1-m depth was stable at 0.5–0.8 E with the same N rate for winter wheat. At 0.5–0.8 E, deep percolation was also relatively stable with increasing N rate from 120 to 140 kg·ha−1 or from 190 to 290 kg·ha−1. The irrigation schedule and N rates only affected N leaching below the root zone of winter wheat (60-cm depth, while the N residual in the soil layer presented more risk to the environment than N leaching. In general, the 290-kg-ha−1 N level was not recommended using drip fertigation for winter wheat in the North China Plain. The empirical equation given by the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources was also not recommended for estimating the drainage under drip irrigation.

  7. Rational Water and Nitrogen Management Improves Root Growth, Increases Yield and Maintains Water Use Efficiency of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1, deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2, pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3, pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha-1 in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1, 2:8 (N2] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production. Previous investigations have shown a strong correlation between root activity and water consumption in the 40–120 cm soil layer. The W3 and especially W4 treatments significantly increased root length density (RLD, root volume density (RVD, root mass density (RMD, and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer. Cotton RLD, RVD, RMD was decreased by 13.1, 13.3, and 20.8%, respectively, in N2 compared with N1 at 70 days after planting (DAP in the 0–40 cm soil layer. However, root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer at 140 DAP was 31.6% higher in N2 than that in N1. Total RMD, RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil were significantly and positively correlated with shoot dry weight. RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer was highest in the W4N2 treatments. Therefore increased water consumption in the deep soil layers resulted in increased shoot dry weight, seed cotton yield and WUE. Our data can be used to develop a water-N management strategy for optimal cotton yield and high WUE.

  8. Lateral flow assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea

    2016-06-30

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Lateral flow assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  10. Nitrapyrin addition mitigates nitrous oxide emissions and raises nitrogen use efficiency in plastic-film-mulched drip-fertigated cotton field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Liang, Yongchao; Chu, Guixin

    2017-01-01

    Nitrification inhibitors (NIs) have been used extensively to reduce nitrogen losses and increase crop nitrogen nutrition. However, information is still scant regarding the influence of NIs on nitrogen transformation, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and nitrogen utilization in plastic-film-mulched calcareous soil under high frequency drip-fertigated condition. Therefore, a field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrapyrin (2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine) on soil mineral nitrogen (N) transformation, N2O emission and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a drip-fertigated cotton-growing calcareous field. Three treatments were established: control (no N fertilizer), urea (225 kg N ha-1) and urea+nitrapyrin (225 kg N ha-1+2.25 kg nitrapyrin ha-1). Compared with urea alone, urea plus nitrapyrin decreased the average N2O emission fluxes by 6.6-21.8% in June, July and August significantly in a drip-fertigation cycle. Urea application increased the seasonal cumulative N2O emission by 2.4 kg N ha-1 compared with control, and nitrapyrin addition significantly mitigated the seasonal N2O emission by 14.3% compared with urea only. During the main growing season, the average soil ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration was 28.0% greater and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) concentration was 13.8% less in the urea+nitrapyrin treatment than in the urea treatment. Soil NO3--N and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were more closely correlated than soil NH4+-N with soil N2O fluxes under drip-fertigated condition (Pemission factor (EF) by 32.4% while increasing nitrogen use efficiency by 10.7%. The results demonstrated that nitrapyrin addition significantly inhibited soil nitrification and maintained more NH4+-N in soil, mitigated N2O losses and improved nitrogen use efficiency in plastic-film-mulched calcareous soil under high frequency drip-fertigated condition.

  11. Reconstruction of drip-water δ18O based on calcite oxygen and clumped isotopes of speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical signature of many speleothems used for reconstruction of past continental climates is affected by kinetic isotope fractionation. This limits quantitative paleoclimate reconstruction and, in cases where the kinetic fractionation varies with time, also affects relative paleoclimate interpretations. In carbonate archive research, clumped isotope thermometry is typically used as proxy for absolute temperatures. In the case of speleothems, however, clumped isotopes provide a sensitive indicator for disequilibrium effects. The extent of kinetic fractionation co-varies in Δ47 and δ18O so that it can be used to account for disequilibrium in δ18O and to extract the past drip-water composition. Here we apply this approach to stalagmites from Bunker Cave (Germany and calculate drip-water δ18Ow values for the Eemian, MIS3, and the Holocene, relying on independent temperature estimates and accounting for disequilibrium. Applying the co-variation method to modern calcite precipitates yields drip-water δ18Ow values in agreement with modern cave drip-water δ18Ow of −7.9 ± 0.3‰, despite large and variable disequilibrium effects in both calcite δ18Oc and Δ47. Reconstructed paleo-drip-water δ18Ow values are lower during colder periods (e.g., MIS3: −8.6 ± 0.4‰ and the early Holocene at 11 ka: −9.7 ± 0.2‰ and show higher values during warmer climatic periods (e.g., the Eemian: −7.6 ± 0.2‰ and the Holocene Climatic Optimum: −7.2 ± 0.3‰. This new approach offers a unique possibility for quantitative climate reconstruction including the assessment of past hydrological conditions while accounting for disequilibrium effects.

  12. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  13. The lateral atlantooccipital ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Stetler, William; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Hansasuta, Ake; Liechty, Peter; Acakpo-Satchivi, Leslie; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2007-04-01

    Stability of the atlantooccipital joint is of vital importance. The ligaments of this region, for the most part, have been thoroughly investigated, except for the lateral atlantooccipital ligament (LAO), which is not described in most modern texts. The authors examined 20 adult cadaveric specimens to observe the morphology of the LAO. All specimens were found to have an LAO, bilaterally, immediately posterior to the rectus capitis lateralis muscle with a fiber direction more or less opposite to this muscle. The LAO was found in intimate contact with the vertebral artery posteriorly and with the contents of the jugular foramen anteriorly. In all specimens, the origin of this ligament was from the anterolateral aspect of the transverse process of the atlas and the insertion onto the jugular process of the occipital bone. The fibers of the LAO had a mean angle of 26 degrees from the midline. The mean length and width of this ligament was 2.2 and 0.5 cm, respectively. The mean thickness of the LAO was 2 mm. The average tensile strength of this band was 37.5 degrees N. The LAO remained lax with flexion and extension of the craniocervical junction. With contralateral lateral flexion of the craniocervical junction, the LAO became fully taut at a mean of 8 degrees . Partial, but never complete, tautness was observed with rotation of the occipital on the atlas bilaterally. Following sectioning of the LAO, approximately an additional 3 degrees -5 degrees of contralateral lateral flexion was observed. The LAO is a constant anatomical structure of the craniocervical junction that might be of concern to the clinician. This ligament inhibits lateral flexion of the atlantooccipital joint and its disruption appears to add to instability at this articulation.

  14. Identification of new nuclei at and beyond the proton drip-line near the doubly-magic nucleus 100Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, R.; Auger, G.; Bazin, D.; Corre, J.M.; Hue, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Rykaczewski, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Pfuetzner, M.; Zylicz, J.; Borrel, V.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Mueller, A.C.; Pougheon, F.; Sorlin, O.; Fomichov, A.; Penionzhkevich, Y.; Lukyanov, S.; Tarasov, O.; Huyse, M.; Szerypo, J.; Wauters, J.

    1994-01-01

    The new neutron-deficient nuclei 103 Sb, 104 Sb, 98 In, 91 Pd, 89 Rh and 87 Ru have been identified among the quasi-fragmentation products of a 112 Sn beam (63 MeV/nucleon). The fragment identification based on energy-loss, total kinetic energy and time-of-flight measurements has been independently confirmed via observation of γ-radiation following the decay of known short-lived isomers. The region of known isotopes is extended to the predicted proton drip-line for indium and silver, and beyond it for antimony and rhodium. Tentative evidence for the existence of 105 Te, 99 Sn and 93 Ag is also presented. (authors). 28 refs., 2 figs

  15. γ-ray Spectroscopy of Proton Drip-Line Nuclei in the A˜130 Region using SPIRAL beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stézowski, O.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Rossé, B.; Schmitt, Ch.; Nolan, P. J.; Boston, A. J.; Cooper, R.; Dimmock, M.; Gros, S.; McGuirck, B.; Paul, E. S.; Petri, M.; Scraggs, H.; Turk, G.; De France, G.; Bhattachasyya, S.; Mukherjee, G.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Savajols, H.; Scheurer, J. N.; Nyakó, B. M.; Gál, J.; Molnár, J.; Timár, J.; Zolnai, L.; Astier, A.; Deloncle, I.; Porquet, M. G.; Prévost, A.; Juhasz, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Joshi, P.; La Rana, G.; Moro, R.; Trotta, M.; Vardaci, E.; Hackman, G.; Ball, G.

    2008-11-01

    A fusion-evaporation experiment has been performed with a SPIRAL 76Kr radioactive beam in order to study the deformation of rare-earth nuclei near the proton drip-line. The experimental setup consisted in the EXOGAM γ-array, coupled to the light-charged particles (LCP) DIAMANT detector and to the VAMOS heavy-ion spectrometer. The difficulties inherent to such measurements are enlightened. The coupling between EXOGAM and DIAMANT has been used to decrease the huge background caused by the radioactivity of the beam. It further permits assigning new γ-ray transitions to specific residual nuclei. A γ-ray belonging to the 130Pm level scheme has thus been observed for the first time.

  16. The use of EXOGAM for in-beam spectroscopy of proton drip-line nuclei with radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, M.; Paul, E. S.; Nolan, P. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cooper, R. J.; Dimmock, M. R.; Gros, S.; McGuirk, B. M.; Turk, G.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Redon, N.; Rossé, B.; Schmitt, Ch.; Stézowski, O.; Bhattacharyya, S.; De France, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Rejmund, F.; Savajols, H.; Scheurer, J. N.; Gál, J.; Molnár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Timár, J.; Zolnai, L.; Juhász, K.; Astier, A.; Deloncle, I.; Porquet, M. G.; Prévost, A.; Pucknell, V. F. E.; Wadsworth, R.; Joshi, P.; La Rana, G.; Moro, R.; Trotta, M.; Vardaci, E.; Hackman, G.; Ball, G. C.

    2009-08-01

    One of the first fusion-evaporation experiments using radioactive ion beams was performed at GANIL in order to study proton-rich nuclei of the light rare-earth region. The low production cross-section of the exotic species of interest, in combination with the low intensity of the beam and its induced background, demanded the use of a highly efficient experimental setup. This consisted of the EXOGAM γ-ray spectrometer coupled for the first time with both the DIAMANT charged-particle array and the VAMOS recoil spectrometer. In this report the experimental challenges of such studies will be discussed and the experimental achievements of the in-beam spectroscopy of proton drip-line nuclei using EXOGAM will be presented.

  17. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  18. Uniformidade de distribuição em sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento utilizando água residuária da despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro = Distribution uniformity of coffee wastewater application using drip systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando França da Cunha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou se avaliar a uniformidade de distribuição em sistemas de aplicação, por gotejamento do tipo fita, de água residuária bruta e tratada da despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC. A água residuária tratada foi obtida com a passagem por filtros orgânicos constituídospor pergaminho de grãos de café. A plataforma de testes constou de três unidades de aplicação da ARC, cada uma com quatro linhas laterais. As avaliações da uniformidade de aplicação da ARC foram realizadas a cada 36 horas de funcionamento. A ARC bruta proporcionou mais rápido entupimento dos emissores, porém a filtrada também apresentou elevado potencial de entupimento. O entupimento dos gotejadores afetou drasticamente a uniformidade de aplicação da ARC. No caso da ARC bruta, valores de CUC e CUD foram reduzidos a zeroapós 36 horas de operação do sistema. No caso da ARC filtrada, foram obtidas reduções de 76% e 100%, após 144 horas de funcionamento.This article aims to evaluate the uniformity of distribution in systems of application by drip tape of crude and treated wastewater from coffee fruit pulping. A platform of tests was set up, consisting of three units of drip wastewater application, each one with four lateral lines. The evaluations for uniformity of water application were done every 36h of operation. Crude wastewater caused faster emitter clogging but treated wastewater also presented high potential of dripper clogging. Dripper clogging affected the uniformity of wastewater application drastically. In the case of crude wastewater, the values for CUC and CUD were reduced to zero after 36 hours of system operation and, in the case of filtered wastewater, reductions of 76 and 100% were obtained after 144 hours of system operation.

  19. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  20. Brainmining emotive lateral solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Scaltsas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BrainMining is a theory of creative thinking that shows how we should exploit the mind’s spontaneous natural disposition to use old solutions to address new problems – our Anchoring Cognitive Bias. BrainMining develops a simple and straightforward method to transform recalcitrant problems into types of problems which we have solved before, and then apply an old type of solution to them. The transformation makes the thinking lateral by matching up disparate types of problem and solution. It emphasises the role of emotive judgements that the agent makes, when she discerns whether a change of the values or the emotions and feelings in a situation, which would expand the space of solutions available for the problem at hand, would be acceptable or appropriate in the situation. A lateral solution for an intractable problem is thus spontaneously brainmined from the agent’s old solutions, to solve a transformed version of the intractable problem, possibly involving changes in the value system or the emotional profile of the situation, which the agent judges, emotively, will be acceptable, and even appropriate in the circumstances.

  1. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with a review of relevant anatomy, assessment and treatment. Also included is a discussion of the efficacy of manual therapy in the treatment of ankle sprain. Discussion: A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the ankle as well as the early recognition of factors that may delay the rate of healing are important considerations when developing a management plan for inversion sprains of the ankle. This area appears to be under-researched however it was found that movement therapy and its various forms appear to be the most efficient and most effective method of treating uncomplicated ankle injury. Future investigations should involve a study to determine the effect chiropractic treatment (manipulation) may have on the injured ankle. PMID:17987171

  2. Analisis Tekuk Lateral Pipa Gas Bawah Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrotul Laeli Hidayaturrohmah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To prevent solidification on the pipeline, hydrocarbon is transferred in high temperature and high pressure. High presure and temperature lead to axial tension appearence along the pipeline. Interaction between soil and the surface of pipeline trigering frictional resistance which holding axial force on the pipeline and could cause the occurence of global buckling. According to DNV RP F110, global buckling may occur in several directions which one of them is in the lateral direction. Lateral buckling usually occurs only in the exposed pipe which occurs when the compressive force on the pipe imperfection released at one point so that the excess force in the slip zone turn into buckling. According to DNV RP F 110, there are three methods of analysis that can be used to perform the analysis of lateral buckling the pipe. Those are methods of Hobbs, Van GAF, and Spinazle. In this paper, lateral buckling analysis performed on a 7.67 km subsea gas pipeline by using Hobbs method which concluded that the pipeline has the potential to lateral buckling. Analysis by using software ABAQUS was also carried out to determine the location of the lateral buckling which is the location where overstressed occur.

  3. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration of the unde......This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...... of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  4. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration of the unde......This paper investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. The vibrations are a consequence of human-structure interaction, in which the forces generated by the pedestrians depend strongly on the vibration...... of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  5. Definição do posicionamento de sensores para monitoramento da água no solo em bananeira irrigada por diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada Sensor placement for soil water monitoring in banana crop irrigated by drip irrigation systens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio F. Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente da água na irrigação localizada dependerá, além de outros fatores, também do correto monitoramento da água no solo. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar as zonas efetivas de comprimento de raízes e de extração de água, bem como indicar o correto posicionamento de sensores de água no solo para o manejo da irrigação por gotejamento na bananeira em fase de produção. No experimento, conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, foram estudados diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada, diante dos seguintes tratamentos: T1 - dois emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em uma lateral por fileira de plantas; T2 - quatro emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em uma lateral por fileira de plantas; T3 - cinco emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em faixa contínua com uma lateral por fileira. Pelos resultados obtidos, pode-se observar que as regiões mais adequadas para a instalação de sensores de umidade no solo nos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3 são as limitadas pelas distâncias e profundidades de 0,2 m e 0,4 m; 0,5 m e 0,35 m; 0,55 m e 0,35 m, respectivamente.The efficient use of water for drip irrigation will depend, among other factors, the correct monitoring of water in the soil profile. This work aimed to characterize root zones of effective root length and effective root water uptake and also to indicate the correct sensors location in the soil profile for drip irrigation management in banana crop during the production stage of the first cycle. The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits, under different systems: T1 - one lateral per plant row with two 4 L h-1 emitters per plant; T2 - one lateral per plant row with four 4 L h-1 emitters per plant; T3 - one lateral per plant row as line source, with five 4 L h-1 emitters per plant. The results showed that the more appropriate regions for soil water sensor placement in treatments T1, T2 and T3, should correspond to zones limited

  6. Estimating water application efficiency for drip irrigation emitter patterns on banana Estimativa da eficiência de aplicação de água em bananeira com diferentes sistemas de gotejamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate root and water distribution in irrigated banana (Musa sp., in order to determine the water application efficiency for different drip irrigation emitter patterns. Three drip emitter patterns were studied: two 4-L h-1 emitters per plant (T1, four 4-L h-1 emitters per plant (T2, and five 4-L h-1 emitters per plant (T3. The emitters were placed in a lateral line. In the treatment T3, the emitters formed a continuous strip. The cultivated area used was planted with banana cultivar BRS Tropical, with a 3-m spacing between rows and a 2.5-m spacing between plants. Soil moisture and root length data were collected during the first production cycle at five radial distances and depths, in a 0.20x0.20 m vertical grid. The experiment was carried out in a sandy clay loam Xanthic Hapludox. Soil moisture data were collected every 10 min for a period of five days using TDR probes. Water application efficiency was of 83, 88 and 92% for the systems with two, four and five emitters per plant, respectively. It was verified that an increase in the number of emitters in the lateral line promoted better root distribution, higher water extraction, and less deep percolation losses.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de água e raízes de bananeira (Musa sp. irrigada, para determinar a eficiência de aplicação de água por diferentes sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento. Foram estudados três sistemas de gotejamento: T1, dois emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta; T2, quatro emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta; e T3, cinco emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta. Os emissores foram dispostos em uma linha lateral. No tratamento T3, os emissores formaram uma faixa contínua. A área de cultivo foi plantada com bananeira cultivar BRS Tropical com espaçamento de 3 m entre fileiras e de 2,5 m entre plantas. Dados de umidade e comprimento de raízes foram coletados durante o primeiro ciclo da cultura, em cinco dist

  7. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  8. Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described.

  9. Distribuição de fertilizantes em um sistema de fertirrigação por gotejamento Fertilizer distribution in a drip fertigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemício F. de Sousa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a uniformidade de distribuição temporal e espacial de fertilizantes em um sistema de fertirrigação por gotejamento, instalado numa área cultivada com maracujazeiro amarelo, em Piracicaba, SP. O sistema de irrigação utilizado foi por gotejamento, com emissores de vazão de 2,4 L h-1. A fertirrigação foi realizada com uma bomba injetora de fertilizante de acionamento hidráulico e o tempo de injeção da solução no sistema foi de 1,0 h. Para se avaliar a uniformidade de distribuição de nutrientes nas linhas de irrigação, coletaram-se amostras da solução nas linhas laterais aos 2, 12, 22, 32, 42 e 52 min após o início da aplicação dos fertilizantes, nos gotejadores da primeira planta (2 m, e nos das plantas localizadas a 1/3 (10 m, 2/3 (22 m e da última planta (34 m. A concentração de fertilizantes nas amostras foi determinada através da condutividade elétrica e a uniformidade de distribuição de fertilizantes avaliada pela relação entre os seus menores valores de condutividade elétrica e a média das amostras. Nas linhas lavadas antes da fertirrigação, os índices de uniformidade apresentaram-se maiores e se observou que a uniformidade de distribuição de fertilizantes aumentou com o tempo até os 42 min e se manteve constante a partir desse instante.The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal fertilizer distribution uniformity in a drip fertigation system, installed in an experimental area with passion fruit crop in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The discharge of emitter was 2.4 L h-1 and a fertilizer injector pump of hydraulic action was used. The injection time of solution was of one hour. To evaluate the uniformity of nutrients distribution samples of solution were collected 2, 12, 22, 32, 42, and 52 min after the start of fertigation in the emitters from the first plant (2 m and in the emitters localized at 1/3 (10 m and 2/3 (22 m distance of lateral line

  10. Systematic investigation of drip stains on apparel fabrics: The effects of prior-laundering, fibre content and fabric structure on final stain appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Therese C; Taylor, Michael C; Kieser, Jules A; Carr, Debra J; Duncan, W

    2015-05-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis is the investigation of blood deposited at crime scenes and the interpretation of that pattern. The surface that the blood gets deposited onto could distort the appearance of the bloodstain. The interaction of blood and apparel fabrics is in its infancy, but the interaction of liquids and apparel fabrics has been well documented and investigated in the field of textile science (e.g. the processes of wetting and wicking of fluids on fibres, yarns and fabrics). A systematic study on the final appearance of drip stains on torso apparel fabrics (100% cotton plain woven, 100% polyester plain woven, blend of polyester and cotton plain woven and 100% cotton single jersey knit) that had been laundered for six, 26 and 52 cycles prior to testing was investigated in the paper. The relationship between drop velocity (1.66±0.50m/s, 4.07±0.03m/s, 5.34±0.18m/s) and the stain characteristics (parent stain area, axes 1 and 2 and number of satellite stains) for each fabric was examined using analysis of variance. The experimental design and effect of storing blood were investigated on a reference sample, which indicated that the day (up to five days) at which the drops were generated did not affect the bloodstain. The effect of prior-laundering (six, 26 and 52 laundering cycles), fibre content (cotton vs. polyester vs. blend) and fabric structure (plain woven vs. single jersey knit) on the final appearance of the bloodstain were investigated. Distortion in the bloodstains produced on non-laundered fabrics indicated the importance of laundering fabrics to remove finishing treatments before conducting bloodstain experiments. For laundered fabrics, both the cotton fabrics and the blend had a circular to oval stain appearance, while the polyester fabric had a circular appearance with evidence of spread along the warp and weft yarns, which resulted in square-like stains at the lowest drop velocity. A significant (pfibre content (pfibres/yarns, while for the

  11. Technical Work Plan For: Calculation of Waste Package and Drip Shield Response to Vibratory Ground Motion and Revision of the Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Gross

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  12. Technical Work Plan For: Calculation of Waste Packave and Drip Shield Response to Vibratory Ground Motion and Revision of the Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2006-12-08

    The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  13. Impact and sustainability of low-head drip irrigation kits, in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge Districts, Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Richard; Love, David; Mul, Marloes; Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve

    Resource-poor smallholder farmers in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge districts face food insecurity on an annual basis due to a combination of poor and erratic rainfall (average 500 mm/a and 345 mm/a, respectively, for the period 1970-2003) and technologies inappropriate to their resource status. This impacts on both household livelihoods and food security. In an attempt to improve food security in the catchment a number of drip kit distribution programmes have been initiated since 2003 as part of an on-going global initiative aimed at 2 million poor households per year. A number of recent studies have assessed the technical performance of the drip kits in-lab and in-field. In early 2005 a study was undertaken to assess the impacts and sustainability of the drip kit programme. Representatives of the NGOs, local government, traditional leadership and agricultural extension officers were interviewed. Focus group discussions with beneficiaries and other villagers were held at village level. A survey of 114 households was then conducted in two districts, using a questionnaire developed from the output of the interviews and focus group discussions. The results from the study showed that the NGOs did not specifically target the distribution of the drip kits to poor members of the community (defined for the purpose of the study as those not owning cattle). Poor households made up 54% of the beneficiaries. This poor targeting of vulnerable households could have been a result of conditions set by some implementing NGOs that beneficiaries must have an assured water source. On the other hand, only 2% of the beneficiaries had used the kit to produce the expected 5 harvests over the 2 years, owing to problems related to water shortage, access to water and also pests and diseases. About 51% of the respondents had produced at least 3 harvests and 86% produced at least 2 harvests. Due to water shortages during the dry season 61% of production with the drip kit occurred during

  14. Continuous measurement of soil evaporation in a drip-irrigated wine vineyard in a desert area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation from the soil surface (E) can be a significant source of water loss in arid areas. In sparsely vegetated systems, E is expected to be a function of soil, climate, irrigation regime, precipitation patterns, and plant canopy development, and will therefore change dynamically at both daily ...

  15. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  16. Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, G.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest ChinaGuanghui Ming1, Fuqiang Tian1*, Hongchang Hu11State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Abstracts: Agricultural ecosystems have the potential to offset rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere but the potential is often altered by agricultural management. Plastic film mulching and drip irrigation (PMDI) have been widespread for saving water and improving crop yield worldwide. To comprehensively assess the carbon balance and to detect the controlling factors of the carbon flux in a PMDI cotton field, experiments combining eddy covariance (EC) system, chamber method and crop sampling were implemented in an arid oasis of Xinjiang from the year 2012 to 2016. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was -250.18 ± 80.41 g C m-2 in the five years, which indicated that the filed was a much stronger carbon sink. After removal of the harvest of cotton as seed oil (Ch) of 108.81±7.57 g C m-2, the field was still a moderate carbon sink with net biome productivity (NBP) of 141.37±73.7 g C m-2. Soil temperature can explain 82% of seasonal variation of nighttime NEE while PAR can explain 36-81% of daytime NEE varying with crop development and photosynthetic activity. NEE was separated into total ecosystem respiration (Reco, 1214.20±144.42 g C m-2) and gross primary productivity (GPP, 1464.38±122.78 g C m-2). Interannual Reco changed more drastically than GPP and respiration may be the main determinant of carbon balance in the PMDI field. Seasonal NPP measured by cop sampling method (NPPCS) agreed well with NPP calculated with EC (NPPEC), with the annual NPP of 708.86 ± 52.26 g C m-2, which indicated that our carbon flux measurements and separating methods reasonable. The PMDI cotton field induced more GPP and Reco than other croplands with larger light use efficiency (LUE) but relatively

  17. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waks, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  18. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of the advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures. The first conceptual model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the 'failed' waste package, and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second conceptual model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the 'failed' waste package (because of the presence of corrosion products plugging the perforations) and dripping water is prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to transport through the perforations by diffusion, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. The second model was to incorporate more realism into the EBS release calculations. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had significantly lower peak EBS release rates (from at least one to several orders of magnitude) than with the first EBS release model. The impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with a low solubility (or solubility-limited radionuclides) than for the radionuclides with a high solubility (or waste form dissolution-limited radionuclides). The analyses indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a 'failed' waste package (the first EBS release model) may be too conservative in predicting the EBS performance. One major implication from this sensitivity study was that a 'failed' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be able to perform effectively as an important barrier to radionuclide release. (author)

  19. Effect of Compound Danshen Dripping Pill on circadian blood pressure, high sensitive C reactive protein and cardiac function in patients with non dipper hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-wei HE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of Compound Danshen Dripping Pill on circadian blood pressure, high sensitive C reactive protein and cardiac function in patients with non dipper hypertension. Methods: According to ABPM nocturnal blood pressure decline rate < 10%, select 178 patients whose systolic pressure and diastolic pressure meet the standards, 88 cases were divided into treatment group, and the rest 90 cases were in control group. All patients were having the levoamlodipine maleate 2.5mg, 1 time a day, the blood pressure still > 140 / 90mmHg, the addition of Stan. The treatment group were treated with 10 Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, 3 times a day, June. ABPM and hs-CRP, ultrasonic Beckoning figure was examined before and after treatment.Results: All the patients completed the study in June, by antihypertensive drugs and compound Danshen dripping pills after treatment, consulting room (CSBP and CDBP and BP are parameters of ABPM increased significantly (P < 0.01. Partial parameters compared with the control group after treatment were significantly different (P < 0.05. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, circadian variation rate level, variation rate and high sensitive C reactive protein of the treatment group after treatment were significantly improved compared with the control group (P < 0.05. The treatment group after treatment of diastolic function improved significantly (P < 0.05, the control group after treatment had no obvious improvement. Systolic function of two groups before treatment increased slightly, no statistical significance (P > 0.05.Conclusion: Long-term use of Compound Danshen dripping pill can improve the circadian rhythm of blood pressure in patients with non dipper hypertension, reduce the high sensitive C reactive protein level, improve cardiac diastolic function.

  20. Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP)—A map-based resource linking scientific studies and associated geospatial information about dam removals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Bristol, R. Sky; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Vittum, Katherine M.; Craig, Laura; Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2016-08-18

    The removal of dams has recently increased over historical levels due to aging infrastructure, changing societal needs, and modern safety standards rendering some dams obsolete. Where possibilities for river restoration, or improved safety, exceed the benefits of retaining a dam, removal is more often being considered as a viable option. Yet, as this is a relatively new development in the history of river management, science is just beginning to guide our understanding of the physical and ecological implications of dam removal. Ultimately, the “lessons learned” from previous scientific studies on the outcomes dam removal could inform future scientific understanding of ecosystem outcomes, as well as aid in decision-making by stakeholders. We created a database visualization tool, the Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP), to display map-based, interactive information about the scientific studies associated with dam removals. Serving both as a bibliographic source as well as a link to other existing databases like the National Hydrography Dataset, the derived National Dam Removal Science Database serves as the foundation for a Web-based application that synthesizes the existing scientific studies associated with dam removals. Thus, using the DRIP application, users can explore information about completed dam removal projects (for example, their location, height, and date removed), as well as discover sources and details of associated of scientific studies. As such, DRIP is intended to be a dynamic collection of scientific information related to dams that have been removed in the United States and elsewhere. This report describes the architecture and concepts of this “metaknowledge” database and the DRIP visualization tool.

  1. Rapid and non-destructive determination of drip loss and pH distribution in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets using visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Ju; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-08-01

    Drip loss and pH are important indices in quality assessment of salmon products. This work was carried out for rapid and non-destructive determination of drip loss and pH distribution in salmon fillets using near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging. Hyperspectral images were acquired for salmon fillet samples and their spectral signatures in the 400-1700nm range were extracted. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to correlate the spectra with reference drip loss and pH values. Important wavelengths were selected using the regression coefficients method to develop new PLSR models, leading to a correlation coefficient of cross-validation (rCV) of 0.834 with root-mean-square errors by cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.067 for drip loss and a rCV of 0.877 with RMSECV of 0.046 for pH, respectively. Distribution maps of drip loss and pH were generated based on the new PLSR models using image processing algorithms. The results showed that Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging technique combined with PLSR calibration analysis offers an effective quantitative capability for determining the spatial distribution of drip loss and pH in salmon fillets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oil encapsulation in core-shell alginate capsules by inverse gelation II: comparison between dripping techniques using W/O or O/W emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Poncelet, Denis; Rodrigues, Ramila Cristiane; Renard, Denis

    2017-09-01

    In the first part of this article, it was described an innovative method of oil encapsulation from dripping-inverse gelation using water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. It was noticed that the method of oil encapsulation was quite different depending on the emulsion type (W/O or oil-in-water (O/W)) used and that the emulsion structure (W/O or O/W) had a high impact on the dripping technique and the capsules characteristics. The objective of this article was to elucidate the differences between the dripping techniques using both emulsions and compare the capsule properties (mechanical resistance and release of actives). The oil encapsulation using O/W emulsions was easier to perform and did not require the use of emulsion destabilisers. However, capsules produced from W/O emulsions were more resistant to compression and showed the slower release of actives over time. The findings detailed here widened the knowledge of the inverse gelation and gave opportunities to develop new techniques of oil encapsulation.

  3. Comparison of drip, pipe and surge spring root irrigation for Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. fruit quality in the Loess plateau of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Han Gao

    Full Text Available Loess Plateau is a typical rain-fed farming region, facing the threat of drought. Irrigation method is among the most important factors affecting jujube quality. This study investigated the response of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lizao quality to three different irrigation methods (drip-, pipe- and surge spring root irrigation combining two water levels (20 m(3/hm(2 and 120 m(3/hm(2. The effects of the trials were evaluated by taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of jujubes and the antioxidant activity. Concomitant to this, the concentration of some taste-related (viz. glucose, fructose, TSS and malic acid and health-related compounds/parameters (viz. catechin and epicatechin were generally much greater in jujube fruit treated with drip irrigation (120 m(3/hm(2. Different irrigation treatments had no significant effects on antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and proanthocyanidins (except for pipe irrigation 20 m(3/hm(2. The best compromise between quality and irrigation of jujube fruit was achieved with drip irrigation (120 m(3/hm(2.

  4. Alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation improves water- and nitrogen- use efficiencies of sweet-waxy maize with nitrogen fertigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fengbei; Li, Fusheng; Kang, Shaozhong

    2017-12-08

    Alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI) or fertigation has favorable effect on crop water- and nitrogen- use efficiencies (WUE and NUE). However, the advantage of combined application of ADI and nitrogen fertigation on crop WUE and NUE remains unclear. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of three irrigation methods (CDI conventional drip irrigation (both halves of pot irrigated), ADI (both halves of pot alternatively irrigated) and FDI fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation (fixed half of pot irrigated)) and five nitrogen treatments (F0 no N supplied, F1-F4 0.2, 0.18, 0.16 and 0.14 g N per kg soil via fertigation) on sweet-waxy maize. Compared with CDI, ADI reduced water consumption by 19.9%, but increased water use efficiency based on dry seed yield (WUEs) by 32.3%, and also enhanced nitrogen apparent recovery fraction (Nrf) and nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE). F1-F4 augmented dry mass accumulation, dry seed yield and total nitrogen uptake if compared to F0. Moreover, F2-ADI had higher shoot and total dry masses, WUEs, total nitrogen uptake, Nrf and NAE. Thus ADI increased nitrogen uptake, WUE and NUE of sweet-waxy maize with nitrogen fertigation of 0.18 g N per kg soil in this study.

  5. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  6. Comparison of water distribution mechanisms under two localized irrigation techniques (Drip Irrigation & Buried Diffuser) for one week irrigation period in a sandy soil of southeastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Ines; Kodešová, Radka; Mechergui, Mohamed; Nikodem, Antonín; Moussa, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The majority of agricultural ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin of northern Africa suffer from water shortage and positions these regions in a highly vulnerable to climate change. In arid regions of Tunisia and exactly in the Southeastern part, during each growing season, plant productivity in sandy-loamy soils is dramatically reduced by limited availability of soil water and nutrients. Thus, highly permeable soils are unable to retain adequate water and nutrient resource in the plant root zone. Moreover, the investments of supplemental irrigation and agricultural amendments of additional fertilization are not sustainable due to the leaching of water supplies and nutrients, which severely limit agricultural productivity. In addition, inadequate soil water distribution, costly irrigation and fertilization leads to negative responses to plant nutrients added to highly permeable soils. That's why we should use irrigation techniques with high water use efficiency. This paper focuses on the comparison between two localized irrigation techniques which are the Drip Irrigation (DI) and the Buried Diffuser (BD) that has the same flow rates (4 l/h). The BD is buried at 15 cm depths. Experimental data was obtained from Smar-Médenine located in South-East of Tunisia. The water distribution at the soil surface for BD is very important about 195 cm2 while for the DI is about 25.12 cm2. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model helped to evaluate the water distribution and compare the water balance obtained with those two irrigation techniques for one week irrigation period. There is a rapid kinetic which has a duration of 3 hours (irrigation time) and a slow kinetic which is the result of the water distribution in the soil, the plant uptake and the effect of climatic condition. There are two mechanisms that affect the two irrigation techniques: the water distribution and the position of irrigation system. As a result, irrigation with BD goes dipper in the soil. The transmission zone for this

  7. Drip, ship, and grip, then slice and dice: Comprehensive stroke center management of cervical and intracranial emboli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Hinman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tandem acute thrombotic emboli in the cervical and intracranial arteries are an unusual case of stroke presenting unique management challenges. In regional systems of acute stroke care anchored by Comprehensive Stroke Centers, combined fibrinolytic, endovascular, and open surgical intervention is a new therapeutic option. SUMMARY OF CASE: A 28 year old male underwent retinal surgery, including post-operative neck compression and the next day presented to a primary stroke center with aphasia and right hemiplegia. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy was initiated and the patient was transferred to a comprehensive stroke center (CSC for higher level of care (drip and ship. Imaging at the CSC demonstrated tandem thrombi: a near occlusive lesion at the origin of the left cervical internal carotid artery and a total occlusion of the M1 segment of the left middle cerebral artery. Endovascular thrombectomy with the Solitaire stent retriever resulted in intracranial recanalization (grip. Immediately after the endovascular procedure, open carotid thrombectomy was performed to achieve cervical carotid revascularization without systemic heparinization (slice. Both cervical carotid and intracranial thrombi were processed for proteomic analysis via mass spectrometry (dice. CONCLUSION: Combined fibrinolytic, endovascular, and open surgical intervention can yield revascularization and good clinical outcome in cases of tandem lesions.

  8. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Jadoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  9. Metabonomic Strategy to the Evaluation of Chinese Medicine Compound Danshen Dripping Pills Interfering Myocardial Ischemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is one of the highest mortality diseases in the world. Traditional Chinese medicine compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDPs have currently made a great achievement in treating CHD. However, the therapeutic mechanism of CDDP is often poorly interpreted. In this study, a GC-MS-based metabonomic study was conducted to assess the holistic efficacy of CDDP for myocardial infarction in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the control group, the sham group, the model group, the control + CDDP group, and the model + CDDP, with CDDP at a dose of 107 mg/kg·d (equal to 1.8 mL/kg·d. The metabonomic findings demonstrated great differences of metabolic pattern among sham, model, and the model + CDDP in the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA models, which coordinated well with the assessment of plasma biochemistry and histopathological assay. Differentially expressed metabolites suggested that energy metabolism, glycolysis, and lipid metabolism might be disrupted by myocardial infarction. Both the potential metabolic biomarkers and the biochemical histopathological indices were regulated effectively by CDDP.

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, The Waste Package Outer Barrier and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stephen

    2000-04-17

    One of the potential failure modes of the drip shield (DS), the waste package (WP) outer barrier, and the stainless structural material is the initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced by the WP environment and various types of stresses that can develop in the DSs or the WPs. For the current design of the DS and WP, however, the DS will be excluded from the SCC evaluation because stresses that are relevant to SCC are insignificant in the DS. The major sources of stresses in the DS are loadings due to backfill and earthquakes. These stresses will not induce SCC because the stress caused by backfill is generally compressive stress and the stress caused by earthquakes is temporary in nature. The 316NG stainless steel inner barrier of the WP will also be excluded from the SCC evaluation because the SCC performance assessment will not take credit from the inner barrier. Therefore, the purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of the material (i.e., Alloy 22) used for the WP outer barrier subjected to the effects of SCC. As already mentioned in the development plan for the WP PMR (CRWMS M and O 1999e), this Analyses and Models Report (AMR) is to serve as a feed to the Waste Package Degradation (WPD) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) and Process Model Report (PMR).

  11. Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

    2013-12-15

    A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)).

  12. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2017-10-26

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes\\' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  13. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  14. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  15. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  16. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  18. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  19. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  20. Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

    2010-12-01

    Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrous oxide emission and denitrifier communities in drip-irrigated calcareous soil as affected by chemical and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui; Wakelin, Steven A; Liang, Yongchao; Hu, Baowei; Chu, Guixin

    2018-01-15

    The effects of consecutive application of chemical fertilizer with or without organic fertilizer on soil N 2 O emissions and denitrifying community structure in a drip-irrigated field were determined. The four fertilizer treatments were (i) unfertilized, (ii) chemical fertilizer, (iii) 60% chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure, and (iv) 60% chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. The treatments with organic amendments (i.e. cattle manure and biofertilizer) reduced cumulative N 2 O emissions by 4.9-9.9%, reduced the N 2 O emission factor by 1.3-42%, and increased denitrifying enzyme activities by 14.3-56.2%. The nirK gene copy numbers were greatest in soil which received only chemical fertilizer. In contrast, nirS- and nosZ-copy numbers were greatest in soil amended with chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. Chemical fertilizer application with or without organic fertilizer significantly changed the community structure of nirK-type denitrifiers relative to the unfertilized soil. In comparison, the nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifier genotypes varied in treatments receiving organic fertilizer but not chemical fertilizer alone. The changes in the denitrifier communities were closely associated with soil organic carbon (SOC), NO 3 - , NH 4 + , water holding capacity, and soil pH. Modeling indicated that N 2 O emissions in this soil were primarily associated with the abundance of nirS type denitrifying bacteria, SOC, and NO 3 - . Overall, our findings indicate that (i) the organic fertilizers increased denitrifying enzyme activity, increased denitrifying-bacteria gene copy numbers, but reduced N 2 O emissions, and (ii) nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifiers were more sensitive than nirK-type denitrifiers to the organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Reuse of municipal effluent with drip irrigation and evaluation the effect on soil properties in a semi-arid area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanli, Ali M; Javan, Mahmood; Saadat, Yusof

    2008-09-01

    Irrigation with municipal effluent was evaluated during 25 months in Southern Iran from 2003 to 2005 in which 14 tree species were irrigated with effluent and borehole water at an annual supply rate of 3,940 and 5,395 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. To mitigate the environmental effects, a drip irrigation system was designed and the amount of applied water based on pan evaporation was measured by flow meters and soil properties were monitored. The statistical results showed that the applied effluent had no adverse effect on soil properties. The soil salinity was reduced from 8.2, 6.8 and 7.0 dSm(-1) to 1.07, 1.12 and 3.5 dSm(-1 )in the soil layers 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm, respectively. The SAR decreased significantly, while soil pH increased by 0.8 and 0.6 units in the layers 0-30 and 30-60 cm. A total application of 9,335 m(3)ha(-1 )of effluent with a nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of 7.9 and 10.3 mg l(-1), added 73 and 101 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen and phosphorus to the soil. Organic carbon also increased significantly. Twenty-five months irrigation with effluent caused a slight increase in soil bulk density and a slight decrease in mean permeability. Because of an efficient filtration and high discharge rate of bubblers (drippers), no considerable sign of clogging was observed.

  3. Direct mass measurements of Ga, Ge, As, Se and Br isotopes close to the proton drip line.+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.F.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthaler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The masses of proton-rich nuclei close to the proton drip line are an important input for the determination of the path and of the 'termination point' of the rapid proton capture process (rp) above the 56 Ni. The direct measurement of the masses of these proton rich nuclei was undertaken at GANIL using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique. This technique has been used previously in a series of measurements for lighter neutron-rich nuclei with a resolution of ∼ 3x0 -4 . In the present experiment the radioactive nuclei were produced by the fragmentation of the 73 A.MeV 78 Kr beam on a nat Ni target, placed between the two solenoids of SISSI. Their TOF was measured on a 82 m long flight path between the beam analysis -spectrometer and the high resolution magnetic spectrometer SPEG, where their magnetic rigidity was measured event by event. A purification technique based on the charge stripping in the -spectrometer strongly reduced the number of simultaneously transmitted nuclides, but the number of reference masses transmitted was still sufficient for a precise mass determination. The final uncertainties for nuclei produced with many thousand of events, not very far from the stability line as 63 Ga, 65 , 66 Ge, 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 As, 70 , 71 Se, 72 , 73 Br range from 60-200 keV (1-3x0 -6 ). The masses of very exotic nuclides as 61 Ga, 63 Ge, 66 As, 67 ,6 8S e and 70 , 71 Br are reported for the first time and present final uncertainties of 1 - 4x10 -5 . The mass values in most cases agree well with the Audi-Wapstra predictions. (author)

  4. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Irrigation and Fertilization by Drip Fertigation on Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiukang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water shortage in China, particularly in Northwest China, is very serious. There is, therefore, great potential for improving the water use efficiency (WUE in agriculture, particularly in areas where the need for water is greatest. A two-season (2012 and 2013 study evaluated the effects of irrigation and fertilizer rate on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., cv. “Jinpeng 10” growth, yield, and WUE. The fertilizer treatment significantly influenced plant height and stem diameter at 23 and 20 days after transplanting in 2012 and 2013, respectively. As individual factors, irrigation and fertilizer significantly affected the leaf expansion rate, but irrigation × fertilizer had no statistically significant effect on the leaf growth rate at 23 days after transplanting in 2012. Dry biomass accumulation was significantly influenced by fertilizer in both years, but there was no significant difference in irrigation treatment in 2012. Our study showed that an increased irrigation level increased the fruit yield of tomatoes and decreased the WUE. The fruit yield and WUE increased with the increased fertilizer rate. WUE was more sensitive to irrigation than to fertilization. An irrigation amount of 151 to 208 mm and a fertilizer amount of 454 to 461 kg·ha−1 (nitrogen fertilizer, 213.5–217 kg·ha−1; phosphate fertilizer, 106.7–108 kg·ha−1; and potassium fertilizer, 133.4–135.6 kg·ha−1 were recommended for the drip fertigation of tomatoes in greenhouse.

  6. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2015-05-12

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract – ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  7. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  8. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  9. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Potato in Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jolaini; mohammad karimi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: After wheat, rice and corn, potato is the fourth most important food plant in the world. In comparison with other species, potato is very sensitive to water stress because of its shallow root system: approximately 85% of the root length is concentrated in the upper 0.3-0.4 m of the soil. Several studies showed that drip irrigation is an effective method for enhancing potato yield. Fabeiro et al. (2001) concluded that tuber bulking and ripening stages were found to be the most se...

  11. Lateral patellar luxation: magnetic resonance findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, V.; Pulpeiro, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the magnetic resonance (MR) findings associated with lateral patellar luxation. The series consisted of eight patients, all of whom presented joint effusion, damage to the medical retinaculum and cortical contusion or fracture of medical aspect of the patella or of anterolateral surface of the outer condyle. Five patients also presented patellar sub luxation. Diagnosis depends on the technique employed, with axial planes being very useful. Thus, it is recommended that they be used as the standard plane, especially in pathologies that are clinically unsuspicious as in this case. MR can also provide information that leads to surgical treatment rather than the standard conservative treatment. (Author)

  12. Effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments showing the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were conducted at the experimental field of the Alternative Crops Department, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of the water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration (ETd was computed from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo and crop coefficient (kc in May, June, July and August of 0.5, 0.6, 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. ETo was calculated using Hargreaves equation. The irrigation depth was restricted to the soil depth of 0.3 m. In other words, irrigation started when readily available water in the soil layer of 0.3 m was completely depleted by plants. The irrigation rate was 30 mm (30 l m-2 while the amount of water added by irrigation during the season was 140 mm. Basil sensitivity to water stress was determined using a yield response factor (Ky. According to the results, the yield of fresh herb of basil under irrigation (32.015 t ha-1 was higher by 9% compared to non-irrigated, control variant (29.364 t ha-1. Worthy of note, basil essential oil yield was significantly affected by irrigation (35.329/28.766 kg ha-1. The content of essential oil was significantly higher in irrigated (6.45 g kg-1 than in non-irrigated variant (5.33 g kg-1 in the first harvest, while no significant difference between irrigated and non-irrigated variants was obtained in the second harvest (6.83 and 6.62 g kg-1 , respectively. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions (ETm was 431 mm and 270 mm in non-irrigated, control variant (ETa. The values of irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue and evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue were 1.89 kg m-3 and 1.65 kg m-3 respectively. Ky value (0.22 exhibits all essential characteristics of climate conditions of 2016 rainy year. These preliminary results could be used as a good platform for basil growers in the

  13. Nitrogen use efficiencies of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as affected by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.; Besiroglu, A.

    1996-01-01

    This greenhouse study conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an unheated plastic greenhouse was designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and peppers (Capsicum annum) to four nitrogen levels continually applied with irrigation stream. Water containing 0,67,134 or 201 mgN/l and uniformly supplied with 80 and 240 mg/l of P and K, respectively, were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N 15 labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). For each plant the amount of water, P, K and the N 15 applied through the bottles was to that amount applied through a single dripper. In addition to the fertigation soil application of 400 kgN/ha was included with three adjacent plants in each plot were fertilized receiving N 15 labeled (3.3 % a.e. enrichment) The total amount of water applied was 392 mm and the resulting N application totals ranged from 200 to 600 kgN/ha. According to the results obtained, the maximum yield of tomatoes and peppers were achieved with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha) treatment. The percentage fertilizer utilization by tomatoes was highest with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha), which was followed by 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) .The percentage fertilizer utilization was the lowest with 201 mgN/l (600 kgN/ha) or soil application (400 kgN/ha). The results indicated that the percentage fertilizer utilization of tomatoes was significantly greater by the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha). The fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) than the other applications. The results indicated that although the percentage fertilizer utilization was the same, the fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha)

  14. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  15. Lateral angle: a method for sexing using the petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, Anna; Lynnerup, Niels; Czarnetzki, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    We report on the results of applying the so-called lateral angle method for sex determination on skeletal remains. The lateral angle denotes the angle of the internal auditory canal in relation to the medial surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone. The method involves making a small cast...... and females (mean angle size of males, 39.3 degrees ; mean angle size of females, 48.2 degrees ; P lateral angle method against an archaeological skeletal...... sample. True sex was not known for this sample; instead, sexing had been carried out by assessing pelvic and cranial morphology in independent trials. We found a higher concordance between the lateral angle and "pelvic" sex than for lateral angle and "cranial" sex. Finally, we note that subadult sexing...

  16. Contributions to lateral balance control in ambulatory older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Newman, A B; Simonsick, E M; Caserotti, P; Strotmeyer, E S; Kritchevsky, S B; Yaffe, K; Rosano, C

    2017-08-23

    In older adults, impaired control of standing balance in the lateral direction is associated with the increased risk of falling. Assessing the factors that contribute to impaired standing balance control may identify areas to address to reduce falls risk. To investigate the contributions of physiological factors to standing lateral balance control. Two hundred twenty-two participants from the Pittsburgh site of the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study had lateral balance control assessed using a clinical sensory integration balance test (standing on level and foam surface with eyes open and closed) and a lateral center of pressure tracking test using visual feedback. The center of pressure was recorded from a force platform. Multiple linear regression models examined contributors of lateral control of balance performance, including concurrently measured tests of lower extremity sensation, knee extensor strength, executive function, and clinical balance tests. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, and sex. Larger lateral sway during the sensory integration test performed on foam was associated with longer repeated chair stands time. During the lateral center of pressure tracking task, the error in tracking increased at higher frequencies; greater error was associated with worse executive function. The relationship between sway performance and physical and cognitive function differed between women and men. Contributors to control of lateral balance were task-dependent. Lateral standing performance on an unstable surface may be more dependent upon general lower extremity strength, whereas visual tracking performance may be more dependent upon cognitive factors. Lateral balance control in ambulatory older adults is associated with deficits in strength and executive function.

  17. Prolonged shelf life and reduced drip loss of chicken filets by the use of carbon dioxide emitters and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Askild L; Pettersen, Marit K; Moen, Marie H; Sørheim, Oddvin

    2014-07-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging containing CO2 is widely used for extending the shelf life of chicken meat. Active packaging by adding CO2 emitter sachets to packages of meat is an alternative to traditional modified atmosphere packaging. The purpose of the study was to investigate the shelf life of chicken filets under different CO2 concentrations at 4°C storage. The inhibition of microbial growth was proportional to the CO2 concentration. Storage in 100% CO2 both with and without a CO2 emitter sachet gave a microbiological shelf-life extension of 7 days compared with 60% CO2. Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium sp., and Lactococcus sp. were the dominating species at the end of the storage period. During storage in pure CO2, the carbon dioxide dissolved in the meat and caused the collapse of the packages. The resulting squeeze of the meat lead to a severe increase in drip loss. The drip loss was reduced profoundly by using the CO2 emitting sachet in the packages. The addition of CO2 emitters can easily be implemented at industrial packaging lines without reduction in production efficiency.

  18. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  19. Post-Nasal Drip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inquiries Find an ENT News About Us Our Campaigns Foundation Governance Diversity Honorary Awards & Lectures Employment Opportunities Renting Space Advocacy Medicare Advocacy Legislative & Political Affairs ENT PAC foundation Guidelines Patient Health Quality ...

  20. Key pipeline drips dry

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Venemaa kütusefirma Transneft lõpetas naftaekspordi läbi Ventspilsi sadama, kuna Läti kütusefirma Vetspils Oil polnud nõus neile oma aktsiaid müüma. EL sekkub Venemaa ja Läti kütusefirmade vahelisse vaidlusse

  1. Mechanisms of ionizing-radiation-induced gain degradation in lateral PNP BJTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.M.; Wu, A.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Pease, R.L.; Combs, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    The physical mechanisms for gain degradation in laterals PNP bipolar transistors are examined experimentally and through simulation. The effect of increased surface recombination velocity at the base surface is moderated by positive oxide charge

  2. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  4. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    ’ is to be understood according to the interpretations available in different knowledge perspectives in order to discipline the future knowledge production of ageing and control the processes of subjectification in later life as the disciplining of ‘Population Ageing’: Becoming a subject to active ageing. Dominant...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....

  5. Transfer of environmental signals from the surface to the underground at Ascunsă Cave, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drăguşin, Virgil; Balan, Sorin; Blamart, Dominique; Lázár Forray, Ferenc; Marin, Constantin; Mirea, Ionuţ; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Orăşeanu, Iancu; Perşoiu, Aurel; Tîrlă, Laura; Tudorache, Alin; Vlaicu, Marius

    2017-10-01

    We present here the results of a 4-year environmental monitoring program at Ascunsă Cave (southwestern Romania) designed to help us understand how climate information is transferred through the karst system and archived by speleothems. The air temperature inside the cave is around 7 °C, with slight differences between the upper and lower parts of the main passage. CO2 concentrations in cave air have a seasonal signal, with summer minima and winter maxima. These might indicate the existence of an organic matter reservoir deep within the epikarst that continues to decompose over the winter, and CO2 concentrations are possibly modulated by seasonal differences in cave ventilation. The maximum values of CO2 show a rise after the summer of 2014, from around 2000 to about 3500 ppm, following a rise in surface temperature. Using two newly designed types of water-air equilibrators, we were able to determine the concentration of CO2 dissolved in drip water by measuring its concentration in the equilibrator headspace and then using Henry's law to calculate its concentration in water. This method opens the possibility of continuous data logging using infrared technology, without the need for costly and less reliable chemical determinations. The local meteoric water line (δ2H = 7.7 δ18O + 10.1), constructed using monthly aggregated rainfall samples, is similar to the global one, revealing the Atlantic as the strongly dominant vapor source. The deuterium excess values, as high as 17 ‰, indicate that precipitation has an important evaporative component, possibly given by moisture recycling over the European continent. The variability of stable isotopes in drip water is similar at all points inside the cave, suggesting that the monitored drip sites are draining a homogenous reservoir. Drip rates, as well as stable isotopes, indicate that the transfer time of water from the surface is on the order of a few days.

  6. Transfer of environmental signals from the surface to the underground at Ascunsă Cave, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Drăguşin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here the results of a 4-year environmental monitoring program at Ascunsă Cave (southwestern Romania designed to help us understand how climate information is transferred through the karst system and archived by speleothems. The air temperature inside the cave is around 7 °C, with slight differences between the upper and lower parts of the main passage. CO2 concentrations in cave air have a seasonal signal, with summer minima and winter maxima. These might indicate the existence of an organic matter reservoir deep within the epikarst that continues to decompose over the winter, and CO2 concentrations are possibly modulated by seasonal differences in cave ventilation. The maximum values of CO2 show a rise after the summer of 2014, from around 2000 to about 3500 ppm, following a rise in surface temperature. Using two newly designed types of water–air equilibrators, we were able to determine the concentration of CO2 dissolved in drip water by measuring its concentration in the equilibrator headspace and then using Henry's law to calculate its concentration in water. This method opens the possibility of continuous data logging using infrared technology, without the need for costly and less reliable chemical determinations. The local meteoric water line (δ2H  =  7.7 δ18O + 10.1, constructed using monthly aggregated rainfall samples, is similar to the global one, revealing the Atlantic as the strongly dominant vapor source. The deuterium excess values, as high as 17 ‰, indicate that precipitation has an important evaporative component, possibly given by moisture recycling over the European continent. The variability of stable isotopes in drip water is similar at all points inside the cave, suggesting that the monitored drip sites are draining a homogenous reservoir. Drip rates, as well as stable isotopes, indicate that the transfer time of water from the surface is on the order of a few days.

  7. Development of Methods For Determining The Lateral Surface of Tank

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring the security and life of civil engineering structures is paramount to the designer, the users and the environment. To this end, it is necessary to ... The approach divides the storage tank with diameter of 76.2m and 22m high into circular cross section with points distributed to cover the perimeter of the cross section.

  8. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  9. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  10. Lateral Learning for Science Reporters

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Lateral Learning for. Science Reporters. An IDRC-supported peer-to-peer mentoring program helps bring science journalists in the Middle East and Africa closer to the professional mainstream. “The way we see the world ... understands science and technology. This is a .... languages, and even pick up tips on operating.

  11. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests in the labor...

  12. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ootani, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tomoda, Kaname; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Mitomo, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  13. Lateral atlantooccipital dislocation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watridge, C B; Orrison, W W; Arnold, H; Woods, G A

    1985-08-01

    A case of lateral atlantooccipital dislocation is presented, and its successful management is outlined, demonstrating the importance of the physical examination and the utilization of computed tomography. Open reduction and stabilization with direct visualization of the spinal axis is the preferred method of treatment.

  14. Effects of deficit drip-irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on pepper yield, water productivity and soil salinity under arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in order to assess the effects of different irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of pepper under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Pepper was grown on a sandy soil and drip-irrigated with water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. Irrigation treatments consisted in water replacements of accumulated ETc at levels of 100% (FI, full irrigation, 80% (DI-80, 60% (DI-60, when the readily available water in the control treatment (FI is depleted, deficit irrigation during ripening stage (FI-MDI60 and farmer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers (FM. Results on pepper yield and soil salinity are globally consistent between the two-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity was maintained over the two seasons, 2008 and 2009, with DI-60 and FM treatments than FI. FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments resulted also in low ECe values. Highest yields for both years were obtained under FI (22.3 and 24.4 t/ha although we didn’t find significant differences with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (FI-DI60. However, the DI-80 and DI-60 treatments caused significant reductions in pepper yields through a reduction in fruits number/m² and average fruit weight in comparison with FI treatment. The FM increased soil salinity and caused significant reductions in yield with 14 to 43%, 12 to 39% more irrigation water use than FI, FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments, respectively, in 2008 and 2009. Yields for all irrigation treatments were higher in the second year compared to the first year. Water productivity (WP values reflected this difference and varied between 2.31 and 5.49 kg/m3. The WP was found to vary significantly among treatments, where the highest and the lowest values were observed for DI-60 treatment and FM, respectively. FI treatment provides

  15. Congenital lateral abdominal wall hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Tapia, Fernando; Cura-Esquivel, Idalia; Gutiérrez, Susana; Rodríguez-Balderrama, Isaías; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Congenital abdominal wall defects that are located outside of the anterior wall are extremely rare and difficult to classify because there are no well accepted guidelines. There are two regions outside of the anterior wall: the flank or lateral wall; and the lumbar region. We report the case of a patient with an oval 3 cm-diameter hernia defect located above the anterior axillary line, which affects all layers of the muscular wall. An anorectal malformation consisting of a recto-vestibular fistula was also identified, and chest X-ray showed dextrocardia. The suggested treatment is repair of the defect before 1 year of age. Given that the anomalies described may accompany lateral abdominal wall hernia, it is important to diagnose and treat the associated defects. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  17. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright,; Karen, E [Idaho Falls, ID; Cooper, David C [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Demmer, Ricky L [Idaho Falls, ID; Tripp, Julia L [Pocatello, ID; Hull, Laurence C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-03-29

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  18. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...waves, mixing, stirring 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Craig

  19. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  20. The Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Potato in Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jolaini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After wheat, rice and corn, potato is the fourth most important food plant in the world. In comparison with other species, potato is very sensitive to water stress because of its shallow root system: approximately 85% of the root length is concentrated in the upper 0.3-0.4 m of the soil. Several studies showed that drip irrigation is an effective method for enhancing potato yield. Fabeiro et al. (2001 concluded that tuber bulking and ripening stages were found to be the most sensitive stages of water stress with drip irrigation. Water deficit occurring in these two growth stages could result in yield reductions. Wang et al. (2006 investigated the effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil wetting pattern and potato yield. The results indicated that potato roots were not limited in wetted soil volume even when the crop was irrigated at the highest frequency while high frequency irrigation enhanced potato tuber growth and water use efficiency (WUE. Though information about irrigation and N management of this crop is often conflicting in the literature, it is accepted generally that production and quality are highly influenced by both N and irrigation amounts and these requirements are related to the cropping technique. Researches revealed that nitrogen fertilizers play a special role in the growth, production and quality of potatoes. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out during two growing seasons. Studied factors were irrigation frequency (I1:2 and I2:4 days interval and nitrogen fertilizer levels (applying 100 (N1, 75 (N2 and 50 (N3 % of the recommended amount. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied through irrigation water. In each plot two rows with within-and between-row spacing of 45 and 105 cm and 20 m length. The amount of nitrogen fertilizer for the control treatment was determined by soil analysis (N1. In all treatments, nitrogen fertilizer

  1. Origin and shaping of the laterality organ in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteíza, Pablo; Köppen, Mathias; Concha, Miguel L; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2008-08-01

    Handedness of the vertebrate body plan critically depends on transient embryonic structures/organs that generate cilia-dependent leftward fluid flow within constrained extracellular environments. Although the function of ciliated organs in laterality determination has been extensively studied, how they are formed during embryogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we show that Kupffer's vesicle (KV), the zebrafish organ of laterality, arises from a surface epithelium previously thought to adopt exclusively extra-embryonic fates. Live multi-photon confocal imaging reveals that surface epithelial cells undergo Nodal/TGFbeta signalling-dependent ingression at the dorsal germ ring margin prior to gastrulation, to give rise to dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs), the precursors of KV. DFCs then migrate attached to the overlying surface epithelium and rearrange into rosette-like epithelial structures at the end of gastrulation. During early somitogenesis, these epithelial rosettes coalesce into a single rosette that differentiates into the KV with a ciliated lumen at its apical centre. Our results provide novel insights into the morphogenetic transformations that shape the laterality organ in zebrafish and suggest a conserved progenitor role of the surface epithelium during laterality organ formation in vertebrates.

  2. Halifax Lateral Pipeline Project : comprehensive study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The National Energy Board has requested the preparation of a comprehensive study report (CSR) for the proposed Halifax Lateral Pipeline Project in support of Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Company's proposal to construct the lateral pipeline to transport natural gas produced in offshore Nova Scotia to the Tufts Cove electric generating station in the Halifax Regional Municipality. The project will also enhance the access of natural gas to potential markets located along the pipeline route. This CSR was prepared according to guidelines of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency. The report presents: (1) an overview of the project, (2) a summary of the regulatory requirements for assessment, (3) a description of the environmental assessment and regulatory process to date, (4) a summary of the predicted residual environmental and socio-economic effects associated with the project, and (5) a summary of the public consultation process. The environmental and socio-economic assessment focused on these eleven issues: groundwater resources, surface water resources, wetlands, soils, air quality, fish habitat, rare herpetiles, mammals, avifauna, rare plants and archaeological heritage resources. The report identified potential interactions between the project and valued socio-economic and environmental components. These were addressed in combination with recommended mitigative measures to reduce potential adverse effects. It was concluded that the overall environmental effects from the proposed project are likely to be minimal and can be effectively managed with good environmental management methods. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices

  3. Lateral Distribution Functions of Extensive Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranios, A.; Fokitis, E.; Maltezos, S.; Koutsokosta, D.; Antoniadou, I.; Malandraki, O.; Mastichiadis, A.; Antonopoulou, E.; Gika, V.; Dimitrakoudis, S.

    The energy is among the characteristics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>5 x 1019 eV) which could be estimated experimentally. The following paper attempts to estimate the energy of an UHECR proton by applying a Monte Carlo simulation code. A number of extensive air showers, vertical and inclined, is simulated to derive the Lateral Distribution Functions of the shower muons. The scenario of simulations is adopted to the Cerenkov surface detector of the P. AUGER Observatory. Due to the fact that the Lateral Distribution Functions show minimal fluctuations of the muon density at a distance larger than 800 m from the core of the showers, and due to the fact that at a distance of 900 m the distribution functions for inclined showers coincide (which means that it does not change with the zenith angle of the showers), we select the muon density at 900 m to derive the energy of the primary protons. (The project is co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS II.)

  4. Sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy for lateral force gradient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabak, Mehrdad; Unverdi, Ozhan; Ozer, H. Ozguer; Oral, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We report the first results from novel sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy developed for lateral force gradient measurements. Quantitative lateral force gradients between a tungsten tip and Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface can be measured using this microscope. Simultaneous lateral force gradient and scanning tunnelling microscope images of single and multi atomic steps are obtained. In our measurement, tunnel current is used as feedback. The lateral stiffness contrast has been observed to be 2.5 N/m at single atomic step, in contrast to 13 N/m at multi atomic step on Si(1 1 1) surface. We also carried out a series of lateral stiffness-distance spectroscopy. We observed lateral stiffness-distance curves exhibit sharp increase in the stiffness as the sample is approached towards the surface. We usually observed positive stiffness and sometimes going into slightly negative region.

  5. Lateral translation of covalently bound fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphry, M J; Beton, P H; Keeling, D L; Fawcett, R H J; Moriarty, P; Butcher, M J; Birkett, P R; Walton, D R M; Taylor, R; Kroto, H W

    2006-01-01

    Lateral manipulation of fullerenes on clean silicon surfaces may be induced by either an attractive or repulsive interaction between adsorbed molecules and the tip of a scanning probe microscope, and can result in a complex response arising from molecular rolling. The model for rolling is supported by new results which show that manipulation is suppressed for adsorbed functionalized fullerenes due to the presence of phenyl sidegroups. The influence of varying the dwell time of the tip during manipulation is also reported. By reducing this time to a value which is less than the response time of the feedback control loop it is possible to induce manipulation in a quasi-constant height mode which is accompanied by large increases/decreases in current

  6. EAS-BUAP: Lateral Distribution and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Aguilar, S.; Villaseñor, L.

    2003-07-01

    We describe the operation and performance of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays (Eo > 1014eV) after one year of operation. The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University, 2200 m above sea level. It consists of 10 liquid scintillator detectors, each with an active surface of 1 m2 and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. One Auger Water Cherenkov detector is also included as part of the array. In this report we discuss the stability, the calibration and lateral distribution function reconstruction capabilities of the detector array. We also present the analysis of the shower size spectrum. In addition, the main characteristics of this array allow us to use it as an educational and training facility.

  7. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  8. Diagnosis of laterality in the school environment

    OpenAIRE

    Šnajdrová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains theoretical principals of expressions of the dominance of the brain hemispheres - laterality. It solves the development of laterality, its genotype and phenotype, levels, laterality types and species, refers to the educational consequences of the improper educational influence on genotype laterality and subsequent corrections. It also deals with the diagnosis of laterality, especially from a position of a teacher. The basic idea of this work is to support the nat...

  9. Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  11. Current Perspectives in Cardiac Laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campione

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo and onset of dextral looping is the first indication of this event. Looping is a complex process that progresses concomitantly to cardiac chamber differentiation and ultimately leads to the alignment of the cardiac regions in their final topology. Generation of cardiac asymmetry is crucial to ensuring proper form and consequent functionality of the heart, and therefore it is a highly regulated process. It has long been known that molecular left/right signals originate far before morphological asymmetry and therefore can direct it. The use of several animal models has led to the characterization of a complex regulatory network, which invariably converges on the Tgf-β signaling molecule Nodal and its downstream target, the homeobox transcription factor Pitx2. Here, we review current data on the cellular and molecular bases of cardiac looping and laterality, and discuss the contribution of Nodal and Pitx2 to these processes. A special emphasis will be given to the morphogenetic role of Pitx2 and to its modulation of transcriptional and functional properties, which have also linked laterality to atrial fibrillation.

  12. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  13. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  14. Electron refraction at lateral atomic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, Z. M.; Kher-Elden, M. A.; Yassin, O.; El-Okr, M. M.; Ortega, J. E.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2017-11-01

    We present theoretical simulations of electron refraction at the lateral atomic interface between a "homogeneous" Cu(111) surface and the "nanostructured" one-monolayer (ML) Ag/Cu(111) dislocation lattice. Calculations are performed for electron binding energies barely below the 1 ML Ag/Cu(111) M ¯ -point gap (binding energy EB = 53 meV, below the Fermi level) and slightly above its Γ ¯ -point energy (EB = 160 meV), both characterized by isotropic/circular constant energy surfaces. Using plane-wave-expansion and boundary-element methods, we show that electron refraction occurs at the interface, the Snell law is obeyed, and a total internal reflection occurs beyond the critical angle. Additionally, a weak negative refraction is observed for EB = 53 meV electron energy at beam incidence higher than the critical angle. Such an interesting observation stems from the interface phase-matching and momentum conservation with the umklapp bands at the second Brillouin zone of the dislocation lattice. The present analysis is not restricted to our Cu-Ag/Cu model system but can be readily extended to technologically relevant interfaces with spin-polarized, highly featured, and anisotropic constant energy contours, such as those characteristic for Rashba systems and topological insulators.

  15. Research on primary mirror lateral support structure of large-aperture telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang

    2010-05-01

    The primary mirror of large-aperture telescope is an important component of telescope system. The surface figure error of the primary mirror is a critical factor affecting the imaging quality of telescope system. With the augment of primary mirror aperture, the surface figure error of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as gravity, thermal deformation and so on. The factors that influence the surface figure error of the primary mirror are considered and analyzed roundly according to technical requirements of optical system. So the feasible project is researched on the lateral support structure of large-aperture telescope primary mirror. The primary mirror support system of large-aperture telescope is composed of axial support and lateral support. In traditional telescope, the contribution of lateral support to surface distortion is less than axial support. With increase of diameter to thickness ratio, lateral support is becoming more complicated and important than before. Lateral support is a key technology the same as axial support for the large-aperture telescope primary mirror. With the foundation of analysis, comparison and conclusion of related literature and monograph, according to primary mirror supporting principle of the large-aperture telescope. Lateral support methods, the influence of the primary mirror surface figure error due to primary mirror lateral support and lateral support structure of primary mirror are analyzed.

  16. Lateral cephalometry changes after SARPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhiz, A; Schepers, S; Lambrichts, I; Vrielinck, L; Sun, Y; Politis, C

    2011-07-01

    Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE) is associated with postoperative cephalometric changes. In this study we analyse these changes in the sagittal plane in orthognathic patients undergoing SARPE followed by orthodontic treatment and Le Fort I, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. This is a retrospective review of 50 patients (20 males, 30 females) undergoing orthognathic treatment with SARPE to correct transversal deficiency of the maxilla as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. PP-SN, SNA, and ANB angles were increased and U1-SN and U1-PP angles were decreased. All changes were statistically significant. Changes of SNB, PP-Mand plane angle, and SN-Mand. plane angle were not statistically significant. Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion using a bone-borne appliance as a preparative step for later orthognathic surgery results in clockwise rotation of the maxilla. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lateral Penetration of a Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, James; Bless, Stephan; Subramanian, Ravi

    2002-03-01

    Penetration of yawed rods remains one of the outstanding problems in terminal ballistics. An essential feature of yawed rod penetration is the interaction of the shank of the projectile with the side of the penetration cavity. A two-dimensional finite difference code was used to solve this problem for the case of a projectile with a circular cross section penetrating armor steel. This case is particularly relevant for the problem of a high velocity high density rod penetrating a finite plate. The force exerted by the target on the projectile was determined as a function of embedment depth and lateral velocity. The solution was verified by checking the centerline pressure against the closed form solution for cylindrical cavity expansion

  18. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Kamran; Najafi, Payam; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2014-05-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater for irrigation over long periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants, animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of treated wastewater on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of using a deep emitter installation on lowering the potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub treatments (0, 15 and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam soil, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m a.s.l.. A two-crop rotation of wheat [Triticum spp.] and corn [Zea mays]) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting (initial value) and after harvesting (final value) for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were also collected. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. The results showed no significant difference (P>0.05) of soil heavy metal content between different depths of emitters. A pollution load index PLI showed that there was not substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils compared to

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Kamran; Cornelis, Wim M

    2015-07-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation over prolonged periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants and animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of TWW on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of deep emitters on limiting potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub-treatments (0, 15, and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam Calcic Argigypsids, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m above sea level. A two-crop rotation of wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting and after harvesting for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were collected at harvest. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P > 0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in heavy metal content in soil between different depths of emitters was found. A pollution load index (PLI) showed that there was no substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils

  20. Later adults' cultural life scripts of middle and later adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Dimakis, Sarah

    2017-04-20

    The cultural life script (CLS) refers to expected prototypical life events, often including life transitions overwhelmingly occurring at ages 11-30. This study outlined CLS events at ages after the majority of these events typically occur. Participants, age 38-76, nominated events they expected a person of their age to experience in the future. Participants rated each event's valence, importance, prevalence, and expected age of occurrence. Events were coded into three categories: the normative CLS for events listed by previous CLS studies, offspring's CLS for experiencing CLS events of offspring, and later adulthood CLS for other events nominated by at least 4% of participants. Results suggest scripted events highlighting positivity and change. Offspring's CLS was more positive and occurred earlier than others. Correlations emerged between event characteristics and well-being. Results affirm the prominence of transitions in memory, and suggest ways that older adults maintain well-being despite a cultural narrative that emphasizes decline.

  1. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  2. Electric current precedes emergence of a lateral root in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S; Ezaki, S; Hayashi, K; Toko, K; Yamafuji, K

    1992-10-01

    Stable electrochemical patterns appear spontaneously around roots of higher plants and are closely related to growth. An electric potential pattern accompanied by lateral root emergence was measured along the surface of the primary root of adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) over 21 h using a microelectrode manipulated by a newly developed apparatus. The electric potential became lower at the point where a lateral root emerged. This change preceded the emergence of the lateral root by about 10 h. A theory is presented for calculating two-dimensional patterns of electric potential and electric current density around the primary root (and a lateral root) using only data on the one-dimensional electric potential measured near the surface of the primary root. The development of the lateral root inside the primary root is associated with the influx of electric current of about 0.7 muA.cm(-2) at the surface.

  3. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, R; Skandarajah, A; Gerver, RE; Neira, HD; Fletcher, DA; Herr, AE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to ...

  4. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2007-01-01

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex ta...

  5. Influence of Coulomb screening on lateral lasing in VECSELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengao; Malloy, Kevin; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-12-14

    Parasitic lateral lasing in certain optically pumped semiconductor disc lasers drains the gain of the vertical mode and thus causes power scaling degradation and premature rollover in surface emitting operation. We have observed this effect in both multiple quantum wells (MQW) (GaInAs/GaAs) and double heterostructures (DHS) (GaInP/GaAs/GaInP) under pulsed excitation even when the gain chip lateral dimensions are much larger than the diameter of the pump laser. Lateral lasing occurs persistently between cleaved facets at a band-tail wavelength much longer than the peak of the gain. We show that the effect of bandgap renormalization due to Coulomb screening explains this phenomena. Exploiting the simple analytical plasma theory of bulk semiconductors (Banyai & Koch, 1986), we can account for such an effect in double heterostructures.

  6. Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E

    2015-01-01

    Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point.

  7. Produtividade da cana-de-açúcar fertirrigada com N e K via gotejamento subsuperficial Productivity of sugarcane fertigation with NK by subsurface drip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr B. Dalri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu no estudo da fertirrigação por gotejamento subsuperficial na produtividade da cana-de-açúcar, no segundo e terceiro ciclos de cultivo, e os efeitos nos índices tecnológicos na cultura. O experimento foi desenvolvido na área experimental da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, FCA/UNESP - Botucatu. O tubo gotejador foi instalado a 30 cm de profundidade e sob a fileira de plantio da cana-de-açúcar. A variedade cultivada foi a RB 72454. O tratamento com a aplicação da maior dose de NK via fertirrigação foi o que respondeu melhor, apresentando produtividade de colmos de 190,01 t ha-1 e 168,80 t ha-1 para o segundo e terceiro ciclos, respectivamente. A fertirrigação não alterou a qualidade tecnológica da cana-de-açúcar nos dois ciclos estudados e proporcionou incrementos na produção de colmos em relação à testemunha, de 43,5% e 67,2%, para o segundo e terceiro cortes, respectivamente.The objective of this work consisted in the study of the fertigation and subsurface drip irrigation in the sugarcane productivity, in the second and the third seasons and technological effects in the growth. The experiment was developed in the experimental area of the Agronomical Sciences Faculty, FCA/UNESP - Botucatu, Brazil. The drip pipe was installed at 30 cm of depth and under the plantation line of sugar cane RB 72454 variety. The fertigation treatment with the biggest dose presented the better yield, with 190.01 t ha-1 and 168.80 t ha-1 to the second and the third harvest, respectively. The fertigation did not modify the technological qualities of the sugarcane in the two studied seasons, and the irrigation provided 43.5% and 67.2% of increments in the production of stem, to the second and third cut, respectively.

  8. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  9. STABILITY MATRICES FOR LATERAL BUCKLING ANALYSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    ABSTRACT. In the present work, a new formulation for lateral buckling of beams comprising bi- symmetric sections has been proposed. The formulation employs a coupled lateral buckling functional to investigate the lateral buckling behaviour of a class of beams comprising bi- symmetric sections. While retaining the ...

  10. Incidência de murcha-bacteriana em tomate para processamento industrial sob irrigação por gotejamento e aspersão Incidence of bacterial wilt on processing tomato under drip and sprinkle irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Marouelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF, com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de murcha-bacteriana em tomateiro para processamento industrial irrigado por gotejamento e por aspersão, cultivado em solo naturalmente infestado com a raça 1, biovar I de Ralstonia solanacearum, nas condições edafoclimáticas do Cerrado brasileiro. Para gotejamento foram também avaliados os regimes hídricos com turnos de rega de 0,5; 1; 2; 4 e 8 dias. A irrigação por gotejamento favoreceu significativamente a ocorrência da doença, apresentando em média, aos 65 dias após o transplante de mudas, 42,5% de plantas com sintoma contra 5% de casos ocorridos na irrigação por aspersão. A incidência da doença no gotejamento não foi afetada (p>0,05 pelo regime hídrico adotado.A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasilia, Brazil, with the objective of assessing the incidence of bacterial wilt on processing tomatoes irrigated by drip and sprinkle systems, under soil and climate conditions of the Brazilian "Cerrado". The trial was performed in a field naturally infested with race 1, biovar I of Ralstonia solanacearum. Different irrigation frequencies (0.5; 1; 2; 4; and 8 days were further evaluated for drip irrigation. Disease incidence was significantly higher when the crop was drip irrigated, with an average of 42.5% of wilted plants in comparison with 5.0% incidence for sprinkle irrigation, 65 days after transplanting. Frequencies of drip irrigation did not affect (p>0.05 bacterial wilt incidence.

  11. Repair of Lateral Wall Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezeafshar, Reza; Moubayed, Sami P; Most, Sam P

    2018-03-01

    Lateral wall insufficiency (LWI) is classified by the zone in which it occurs. Multiple techniques for treating LWI are described in the literature and are used, but no treatment approach has been widely adopted. To establish an algorithm for treatment of LWI by evaluating subjective and objective outcomes of patients who underwent LWI repair and comparing these results with those of a control group who received no specific LWI repair. This case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. In group 1, there were 44 patients who underwent septorhinoplasty to repair LWI between February 1, 2014, and May 31, 2016. In group 2, there were 44 age- and sex-matched patients who underwent cosmetic septorhinoplasty without LWI repair. Data analysis was conducted from February 1, 2014, to May 31, 2016. Open septorhinoplasty. Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores and LWI grades. Forty-four patients (8 men and 36 women, with a mean [SD] age of 46 [16] years) who underwent open septorhinoplasty to repair LWI and 44 age- and sex-matched patients (composed of 8 men and 36 women, with a mean [SD] age of 41 [12] years) were included in the study. The mean (SD) preoperative NOSE scores were 69.4 (22) in group 1 and 20.5 (20.8) in group 2 (P system enables surgeons to localize LWI, tailor the surgical treatment to the patient, and monitor improvements in the postoperative period. 3.

  12. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  13. Depression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATASSI, NAZEM; COOK, AMANDA; PINEDA, CRISTIANA M. E.; YERRAMILLI-RAO, PADMAJA; PULLEY, DARLENE; CUDKOWICZ, MERIT

    2011-01-01

    Depression is an under-recognized comorbidity associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The goals of this study were to prospectively estimate the prevalence of depression and other ALS related symptoms and to study the impact of depression on enrollment in research studies. One hundred and twenty-seven people with ALS completed the ALS Depression Inventory (ADI-12) and answered questions about ALS related symptoms and research study enrollment preferences. Demographics, ALS symptoms, medications, functional status, and research enrollment were compared between depressed and non-depressed patients. Results showed that the prevalence of mild and severe depression was 29% and 6%, respectively. More than one-third of our ALS patients were receiving anti-depressants to treat depression, sialorrhea, and pseudobulbar affect. Depression prevalence was not correlated with disease duration or progression. Except for anxiety, none of the ALS related symptoms predicted depression. The presence of depression did not have an effect on the decision to enroll in research studies. In conclusion, major depression is less common in our ALS cohort than in the general population. The diagnosis of depression can be masked by some ALS related symptoms and it has no impact on enrollment in ALS clinical trials. PMID:21091399

  14. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  15. Metrics and clinical relevance of percutaneous penetration and lateral spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieille-Petit, Aline; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Coman, Garrett; Maibach, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous penetration of urea in vivo in man has been documented. If urea can penetrate the skin, it may also move laterally. Lateral spreading of topical substances leads to unpredictable penetration dynamics and increased skin surface area exposure. The ability of urea, a low molecular-weight hydrophilic model, to penetrate the stratum corneum (SC) and spread outside the application site was investigated in vitro using tape stripping with spectroscopy. The parameters investigated were the following: time between urea application and tape stripping, formulations containing urea and use of a petrolatum-covered ring barrier around the marked application area. The percentage of urea was determined in and around the application site. The spreading of topically applied urea to neighboring areas occurred and was time but not formulation dependent. A significant difference between protocols with and without the petrolatum ring was observed. These results suggest the clinical importance of lateral spreading, occurring predominately on the skin surface. SC thickness varies between anatomical sites, predisposing areas such as the face and scalp margins to increased percutaneous penetration of topical products. The use of a protective petrolatum ring can inhibit lateral spreading of hair dye in individuals allergic to hair dye, limit systemic absorption and increase accuracy when assessing penetration dynamics. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Probabilistic pseudostatic analysis of pile in laterally spreading ground: Two layer soil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Farag

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coupling the finite element model of pile under lateral spread with the Monte Carlo Simulation is frequently prohibited by excessive lengthily computations. In the present paper, a simplified pseudostatic method is integrated with an improved response surface scheme to evaluate the reliability of pile subjected to lateral spread. The pseudostatic model takes both geometric and soil nonlinearities into account, while, the response surface formulation takes; load, geometry, material and model uncertainties into consideration. First; the improved response surface scheme is suggested and validated with the help of a simple example. Then, the pseudostatic model of a full size pile under lateral spread is integrated with the improved response surface scheme in order to assess the pile reliability. In the considered example, for both operational and structural possible modes of failure, it has been found that the most influential random variables are lateral displacement, and pile radius, respectively.

  17. Lateral temporal encephaloceles: case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Kato, Mihoko; Chu, Jonsu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Lateral temporal encephalocele is an extremely rare clinical condition, with only 18 cases presented in the literature to date. No review articles have examined lateral temporal encephalocele in depth. We therefore reviewed past cases of lateral encephalocele to clarify the clinical characteristics of this extremely rare deformity. We also present a case of lateral encephalocele with arachnoid cyst which has never been reported in past reports. We identified 8 reports describing 18 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele. We therefore reviewed 19 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele, including our own experience, and discussed the clinical characteristics of this pathology. All the cases with lateral temporal encephalocele were detected at birth except for an occult case. The majority occurred at the pterion, and occurrence at the asterion appears much rarer. Due to the preference for the pterion, the ipsilateral orbital wall was also distorted in some cases. Lateral temporal encephalocele seems to have fewer associated malformations: only 3 cases of lateral temporal encephalocele had associated malformations, including our case which was associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst. The only case of lateral temporal encephalocele to have shown hydrocephalus was our own case. Patients with this deformity have relatively good prognoses: only 3 of the 19 cases showed delayed psychomotor development during follow-up. Provision of adequate treatment is likely to achieve a good prognosis in patients with lateral temporal encephalocele, so we should keep in mind this deformity when encountering pediatric patients with mass lesions on the temporal cranium.

  18. Characterization of bacterial diversity associated with calcareous deposits and drip-waters, and isolation of calcifying bacteria from two Colombian mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García G, Mariandrea; Márquez G, Marco Antonio; Moreno H, Claudia Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial carbonate precipitation has implications in geological processes and important biotechnological applications. Bacteria capable of precipitating carbonates have been isolated from different calcium carbonate deposits (speleothems) in caves, soil, freshwater and seawater around the world. However, the diversity of bacteria from calcareous deposits in Colombia, and their ability to precipitate carbonates, remains unknown. In this study, conventional microbiological methods and molecular tools, such as temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE), were used to assess the composition of bacterial communities associated with carbonate deposits and drip-waters from two Colombian mines. A genetic analysis of these bacterial communities revealed a similar level of diversity, based on the number of bands detected using TTGE. The dominant phylogenetic affiliations of the bacteria, determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were grouped into two phyla: Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Within these phyla, seven genera were capable of precipitating calcium carbonates: Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, Strenotophomonas, Brevibacillus, Methylobacterium, Aeromicrobium and Acinetobacter. FTIR and SEM/EDX were used to analyze calcium carbonate crystals produced by isolated Acinetobacter gyllenbergii. The results showed that rhombohedral and angular calcite crystals with sizes of 90μm were precipitated. This research provides information regarding the presence of complex bacterial communities in secondary carbonate deposits from mines and their ability to precipitate calcium carbonate from calcareous deposits of Colombian mines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclic use of saline and non-saline water to increase water use efficiency and soil sustainability on drip irrigated maize in a semi-arid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanli, M.; Ebrahimian, H.

    2016-07-01

    Use of saline water for irrigation is a strategy to mitigate water shortage. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the cyclic and constant use of saline and non-saline water on drip irrigated maize yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). Nine field treatments were laid out based on alternative irrigation management of non-saline and saline water combinations. The treatments were: two salinity levels of 3.5 and 5.7 dS/m and freshwater (0.4 dS/m) application in every one, three and five saline water application (1:1, 3:1 and 5:1, respectively). Results showed that the 1:1 combination management was the best in terms of crop yield and IWUE. In this treatment, salt concentration at the end of growing season was not significantly changed compared to its initial condition. If off-season precipitation or leaching was available, the 3:1 and 5:1 treatments were appropriated. Highest and lowest values of IWUE were 15.3 and 8.7 kg/m3 for the 1:1 management using water salinity of 3.5 dS/m and the treatment of constant irrigation with water salinity of 5.7 dS/m, respectively. Under low off-season precipitations, artificial leaching is essential for land sustainability in most treatments.

  20. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.