WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface drip irrigation

  1. Transformations accompanying a shift from surface to drip irrigation in the Cànyoles Watershed, Valencia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sese-Minguez, Saioa; Boesveld, Harm; Asins-Velis, Sabina; Kooij, van der Saskia; Maroulis, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is widely promoted in Spain to increase agricultural production and to save water. In the Cànyoles watershed, Valencia, we analysed the consequences of change from surface irrigation to drip irrigation over the past 25 years. There were a number of transformations resulting from,

  2. Use of Clay Deposits in Water Management of Calcareous Sandy Soils Under-surface and Sub-surface Drip Irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omran, A.; Falatah, A.; Sheta, A.; Al-Harbi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation (levels and methods) and type of clay deposits on lettuce yield, water use efficiency WUE and the distributions of soil moisture and salts in the root zone of sandy calcareous soils. A field experiment was conducted at the college experimental station in 2002-2003. It consists of three clay deposits, three rates (0, 1.0 and 2.0%), and four total irrigation applied water levels, 360 mm (T1), 520 mm (T2), 635 mm (T3) and 822 mm (T4), using surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Results indicated that yield was significantly increased with the increase of irrigation level, whereas WUE significantly decreased with increase of irrigation level. The average yield increased by 9.30% in a high irrigation level compared to a moderate irrigation level, and decreased by 14.2% at the more stressed irrigation level. WUE decreased by 49.0% at a moderate irrigation level and yield was significantly affected by amendment rates. The difference between surface and subsurface drip on yields and WUE were also significant. Results indicated that the moisture content of the subsurface treated layer increased dramatically, while salts were accumulated at the surface and away from the emitters in subsurface drip irrigation. The advantages of surface drip irrigation were related to the relative decrease in salt accumulation in the root zone area where the plant roots were active and the water content was relatively high. (author)

  3. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  4. Sorption of pathogens during sub-surface drip irrigation with wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Laillach; Gillerman Gillerman, Leonid; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Oron, Gideon

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity continues to be one of the major threats to human survival in many regions worldwide, such as Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the State of California in the US. Due to a mixture of factors such as population growth, reduction in water resources availability and higher demand for high quality waters in these regions these countries face water shortage issues that stem from overuse, extensive extraction of groundwater, and frequent drought events. In addition, there are increases in environmental and health awareness that have led to intensive efforts in the treatment and reuse of nonconventional water sources, mainly wastewater and greywater. One approach to water shortages issues is to use wastewater as means to close the gap between supply and demand. However, the need to treat wastewater and to disinfect it forces additional economic burden on the users, primarily for agricultural irrigation. A possible solution might be to use the soil as a sorbent for the contained pathogens. Under sub-surface drip irrigation, not allowing the wastewater to reach the soil surface, the pathogens will remain in the soil. It was as well shown in field experiments that the opening size of roots will not allow pathogens to penetrate into the plants. Additional advantages such as water saving, protection of the pipe systems and others are also important. Field experiments in commercial fields just emphasize the main advantages of sub-surface drip irrigation.

  5. On farm evaluation of the effect of low cost drip irrigation on water and crop productivity compared to conventional surface irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisiri, N.; Senzanje, A.; Rockstrom, J.; Twomlow, S. J.

    This on-farm research study was carried out at Zholube irrigation scheme in a semi-arid agro tropical climate of Zimbabwe to determine how low cost drip irrigation technologies compare with conventional surface irrigation systems in terms of water and crop productivity. A total of nine farmers who were practicing surface irrigation were chosen to participate in the study. The vegetable English giant rape ( Brassica napus) was grown under the two irrigation systems with three fertilizer treatments in each system: ordinary granular fertilizer, liquid fertilizer (fertigation) and the last treatment with no fertilizer. These trials were replicated three times in a randomized block design. Biometric parameters of leaf area index (LAI) and fresh weight of the produce, water use efficiency (WUE) were used to compare the performance of the two irrigation systems. A water balance of the inflows and outflows was kept for analysis of WUE. The economic profitability and the operation, maintenance and management requirements of the different systems were also evaluated. There was no significant difference in vegetable yield between the irrigation systems at 8.5 ton/ha for drip compared to 7.8 ton/ha in surface irrigation. There were significant increases in yields due to use of fertilizers. Drip irrigation used about 35% of the water used by the surface irrigation systems thus giving much higher water use efficiencies. The leaf area indices were comparable in both systems with the same fertilizer treatment ranging between 0.05 for surface without fertilizer to 6.8 for low cost drip with fertigation. Low cost drip systems did not reflect any labour saving especially when manually lifting the water into the drum compared to the use of siphons in surface irrigation systems. The gross margin level for surface irrigation was lower than for low cost drip irrigation but the gross margin to total variable cost ratio was higher in surface irrigation systems, which meant that surface

  6. Surface Drainage and Mulching Drip-Irrigated Tomatoes Reduces Soil Salinity and Improves Fruit Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Maomao; Zhu, Lvdan; Jin, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    A study on the effects of mulched drip irrigation combined with surface drainage on saline soil and tomatoes was conducted in coastal areas of eastern China, where the crops are subjected to excessive salt. The treatments contained three irrigation rates-200, 250 and 300 m3/ha-and three drain ditch depths-10, 20 and 30 cm. The contents of soil salinity, organic matter and available nutrient were observed, and the tomato plant height, stem diameter and leaf area index during different growth periods were recorded. Results showed that the total removal rate of salt from soil at a 0-1 m depth was 8.7-13.2% for the three drainages. Compared with the control, the treatments increased the content of available N (by 12.1-47.1%) and available K (by 5.0-21.9%) in the soils inside the mulch and decreased the content of available N (by 3.4-22.1%) and available K (by 7.5-16.4%) in the soils outside the mulch. For tomatoes, the plant height and the stem diameter was increased significantly by the irrigations but was not significantly affected by the drainages, and the leaf area index was increased by 0.39~1.76, 1.10~2.90 and 2.80~6.86 respectively in corresponding to the seedling, flowering and fruit-set stage. Moreover, yield-increase rates of 7.9-27.6% were found for the treatments compared to the control with a similar amount of applied water.

  7. Water and nitrogen requirements of subsurface drip irrigated pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface drip irrigation is a well-developed practice for both annual and perennial crops. The use of subsurface drip is a well-established practice in many annual row crops, e.g. tomatoes, strawberries, lettuce. However, the use of subsurface drip on perennial crops has been slow to develop. With th...

  8. Drip and Surface Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop Using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellouli, H.J.; Askri, H.; Mougou, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nations in the arid and semi-arid regions, especially the Arab countries, will have to take up an important challenge at the beginning of the 21 st century: increasing food production in order to realise food security for growing population, wile optimising the use of limited water resources. Using and adapting management techniques like the drip irrigation system could obtain the later. This would allow reduction in water losses by bare soil evaporation and deep percolation. Consequently improved water use efficiency could be realised. In this way, this work was conducted as a contribution on the Tunisian national programs on the optimisation of the water use. By mean a field study at Cherfech Experimental Station (30 km from Tunis), the effect of the irrigation system on the water use efficiency (WUE)-by a season tomato crop-was monitored by comparing three treatments receiving equivalent quantities of fertiliser: Fertigation, Drip irrigation and Furrow irrigation. Irrigation was scheduled by mean calculation of the water requirement based on the agro meteorological data, the plant physiological stage and the soil water characteristics (Clay Loam). The plant water consumption (ETR) was determined by using soil water balance method, where rainfall and amount of irrigation water readily measured

  9. A comparison of precision mobile drip irrigation, LESA and LEPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision mobile drip irrigation (PMDI) is a surface drip irrigation system fitted onto moving sprinkler systems that applies water through the driplines as they are dragged across the field. This application method can conserve water by limiting runoff, and reducing evaporative losses since the wat...

  10. Performance of cotton crop grown under surface irrigation and drip fertigation. I. seed cotton yield, dry matter production, and lint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Drip fertigation is a key factor in modern irrigated agriculture, where water and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs for this irrigation method. Drip fertigation experiments were carried out a Hama, north of Syria (Tezeen's Irrigation Research Station), for four consecutive years 1995 - 1998. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutim L.) variety Aleppo 33/1 was planted after unfertilized maize in order to deplete as much as possible the available N and reduce the field variability on the corresponding experimental units and irrigated thereafter. Treatments consisted of two irrigation methods (Surface irrigation and drip fertigation) and five N rates within drip fertigated cotton, including the control (N 0 = 0, N 1 = 60, N 2 = 120, N 3 = 180, N 4 240 kg N ha -1 ). The N fertilizer treatment for surface irrigated cotton was 180 kg N ha -1 in accordance with the recommended rate of ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The experimental design was randomized block design with six replicates. Fertigation resulted in large water saving, and highly improved field water-use efficiency. Further, increasing N application rates under drip fertigation increased dry matter yield. The principal benefit of drip fertigation was the achievement of higher field water-use efficiencies, which were increased more than three-fold for both dry matter and seed cotton yield, relative to surface irrigation. The highest water-use efficiencies were obtained with the addition of 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 in 1995 and 1996 and 120 kg N ha -1 in 1997 and 1998. Dry matter production and partitioning among different plant parts at physiological maturity stage varied due to N input and irrigation methods. The overall dry matter distribution among different plant structures for drip fertigated-treatments was: Stems, 20.3 - 21.3%; leaves 26.3 - 28.7%; and fruiting forms, 50 - 53.2%. For the surface-irrigated treatment, the partitioning was stems, 23.1%; leaves, 28.3%; and fruiting form, 48.6%. The

  11. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  12. Micro-pressure drip irrigation technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... 1National Engineering Research Center for Water-saving Irrigation at Yangling, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation,. Chinese Academy of ... Key words: Irrigation, drip irrigation, micro-pressure systems, agricultural and environmental biotechnology, ..... Based on an analysis of polyethylene (PE) plastic.

  13. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  14. Assessing the Viability of Sub-Surface Drip Irrigation for Resource-Efficient Alfalfa Production in Central and Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Zaccaria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In California, alfalfa is grown on a large area ranging between 325,000 and 410,000 hectares and ranks among the thirstiest crops. While the hay production industry is often scrutinized for the large usage of the state’s agricultural water, alfalfa is a crucial feed-supplier for the livestock and dairy sectors, which rank among the most profitable commodity groups in the state. Sub-surface drip irrigation (SDI, although only practiced on approximately 2% of the alfalfa production area in California, is claimed to have the potential to significantly increase hay yield (HY and water productivity (WP compared with surface irrigation (SI. In 2014–2016 we interviewed a number of growers pioneering SDI for alfalfa production in Central and Southern California who reported that yield improvements in the order of 10–30% and water saving of about 20–30% are achievable in SDI-irrigated fields compared with SI, according to their records and perceptions collected over few years of experience. Results from our research on SDI at the University of California, Davis, revealed significantly smaller yield gain (~5% and a slight increase of water use (~2–3% that are similar to findings from earlier research studies. We found that most of the interviewed alfalfa producers are generally satisfied with their SDI systems, yet face some challenges that call for additional research and educational efforts. Key limitations of SDI include high investment costs, use of energy to pressurize water, the need for more advanced irrigation management skills, and better understanding of soil-water dynamics by farm personnel. SDI-irrigated fields also need accurate water monitoring and control, attentive prevention and repair of rodent damages, and careful salinity management in the root zone. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the viability of the SDI technology for alfalfa production on the basis of preliminary results of our research and extension activities, with

  15. Effects of surface and subsurface drip irrigation regimes with saline water on yield and water use efficiency of potato in arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia El Mokh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted on a sandy soil during spring of 2009 and autumn of 2010 in southern Tunisia for evaluating the effects of two drip irrigation methods and three irrigation regimes on soil moisture and salinity, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. The surface drip (SDI and subsurface drip (SSDI irrigation methods were used. Irrigation regimes consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI100, 60% (DI60 and 30% (DI30. FI100 was considered as full irrigation while DI60 and DI30 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Well water with an ECi of 7.0 dS/m was used for irrigation. Findings are globally consistent between the two experiments. Results show that soil moisture content and salinity were significantly affected by irrigation treatments and methods. Higher soil moisture content and lower soil salinity were maintained with SSDI than SDI for all irrigation treatments. For both irrigation methods, higher salinity and lower moisture content in the root zone are observed under DI60 and DI30 treatments compared to FI100. Potato yields were highest over two cropping periods for the SSDI method although no significant differences were observed with the SDI. Irrigation regimes resulted in significant difference in both irrigation methods on yield and its components. Yields were highest under FI100. Compared to FI100, considerable reductions in potato yields were observed under DI60 and DI30 deficit treatments resulting from a reduction in tubers number/m² and average tuber weight and size. Water use efficiency (WUE was found to vary significantly among irrigation methods and treatments and varied between 5.9 and 20.5 kg/m3. WUE of SSDI method had generally higher values than SDI. The lowest WUE values were observed for the FI100 treatment, while the highest values were obtained under DI30 treatment for both methods. SSDI method provides

  16. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  17. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  18. Assessing the performance of surface and subsurface drip systems on irrigation water use efficiency of citrus orchards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo Martinez-Gimeno, Maria; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Bonet, Luis; Intrigliolo, Diego S.; Badal, Eduardo; Ballestrer, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, water scarcity represents a real environmental concern at present and, according to the current climate change models predictions, the problem will be amplified in the future. In order to deal with this issue, application of strategies aimed to optimize the water resources in agriculture and to increase water use efficiency have become essential. On the one hand, it is important the election of the appropriate irrigation system for each particular case. On the other hand, identify the best management options for that specific irrigation system is crucial to optimize the available water resources without affecting yield. When using water saving strategies, however, it is a must to monitor the soil and/or crop water status in order to know the level of stress reached by the plants and to avoid levels that could lead to detrimental effects on yield. Stem water potential, ψstem, expressing the instantaneous condition of crop water stress, is considered a robust indicator of crop water status. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of a surface (DI) and subsurface (SDI) drip irrigation system in a citrus orchard with 7 (DI7, SDI7) or 14 emitters (DI14, SDI14) per plant, in terms of irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and possible amount of water saving. The experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in Alberique, Spain, (39˚ 7'31" N, 0˚ 33'17" W), in a commercial orchard (Citrus clementina, Hort. ex Tan. 'Arrufatina') in which four different treatments with three replications (12 sub-plots) were prepared according to a complete randomized block design. Irrigation doses and timing were scheduled based on the estimated maximum crop evapotranspiration corrected according to measurements of ψstem and soil water content, and weather forecasts. In order to limit the maximum crop water stress, the thresholds of ψstem were assumed in the range between -0.8 and -1.0 MPa from January to June and between -1.0 and -1

  19. Using Hydrus 2-D to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplants under surface and subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Autovino, Dario; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdel Hamid; Provenznao, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the work is to assess the emitters optimal position for Eggplant crop (Solanum melongena L.) in a sandy loam soil irrigated with surface or subsurface drip irrigation systems, by means of field measurements and simulations carried out with Hydrus-2D model. Initially, the performance of the model is evaluated on the basis of the comparison between simulated soil water contents (SWC) and the corresponding measured in two plots, in which laterals with coextruded emitters are laid on the soil surface (T0) and at 20 cm depth (T20), respectively. In order to choose the best position of the lateral, the results of different simulation runs, carried out by changing the installation depth of the lateral (5 cm, 15 cm and 45 cm) were compared in terms of ratio between actual transpiration and total amount of water provided during the entire growing season (WUE). Experiments were carried out, from April to June 2007, at Institut Supérieur Agronomique de Chott Mériem (Sousse, Tunisia). In the two plots, plants were spaced 0.40 m along the row and 1.2 m between the rows. Each plot was irrigated by means of laterals with coextruded emitters spaced 0.40 m and discharging a flow rate equal to 4.0 l h-1 at a nominal pressure of 100 kPa. In each plot, spatial and temporal variability of SWCs were acquired with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe (Trime-FM3), on a total of four 70 cm long access tubes, installed along the direction perpendicular to the plant row, at distances of 0, 20, 40 and 60 cm from the emitter. Irrigation water was supplied, accounting for the rainfall, every 7-10 days at the beginning of the crop cycle (March-April) and approximately once a week during the following stages till the harvesting (May-June), for a total of 15 one-hour watering. To run the model, soil evaporation, Ep, and crop transpiration, Tp were determined according to the modified FAO Penman-Monteith equation and the dual crop coefficient approach, whereas soil hydraulics

  20. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  1. Technical and economical evaluation of tape drip and drip line irrigation systems in a strawberry greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra HOSSEINIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in a strawberry greenhouse to examine the technical and the economical evaluation of two drip irrigation systems including the tape and the drip line in the northern part of Iran. The result showed that all of the technical indices with tape were higher than drip line, and due to statistical analysis reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05. Yield and water productivity (WP with tape were higher than drip line (P < 0.05. Benefit per drop (BPD and net benefit per drop (NBPD with tape were higher than drip line. Net present value, internal rate of capital return and benefit to cost ratio in drip line were higher than tape. In general, regarding technical evaluation tape was better than drip line, besides according to the economical evaluation the drip ­lines were better than tape.

  2. Remote-Sensing-Based Evaluation of Relative Consumptive Use Between Flood- and Drip-Irrigated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Jordan, D. L.; Whittaker, A. T.; Allen, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Governments and water authorities are compelled to evaluate the impacts of agricultural irrigation on economic development and sustainability as water supply shortages continue to increase in many communities. One of the strategies commonly used to reduce such impacts is the conversion of traditional irrigation methods towards more water-efficient practices. As part of a larger effort by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission to understand the environmental and economic impact of converting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, this study evaluates the water-saving effectiveness of drip irrigation in Deming, New Mexico, using a remote-sensing-based technique combined with ground data collection. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Temperature analysis showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler than flood-irrigated fields, indicating higher water use. The higher consumption of water by drip-irrigated fields was supported by a determination of evapotranspiration (ET) from all fields using the METRIC Landsat-based surface energy balance model. METRIC analysis yielded higher instantaneous ET for drip-irrigated fields when compared to flood-irrigated fields and confirmed that drip-irrigated fields consumed more water than flood-irrigated fields planted with the same crop. More water use generally results in more biomass and hence higher crop yield, and this too was confirmed by greater relative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the drip irrigated fields. Results from this study confirm previous estimates regarding the impacts of increased efficiency of drip irrigation on higher water consumption in the area (Ward and Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). The higher water consumption occurs with drip because, with the limited water supplies and regulated maximum limits on pumping amounts, the

  3. Effects of Irrigation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Wheat under Drip Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenhua Wang; Guojun Jiang; Xurong Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In arid areas, wheat Growth and yield is extremely significant affected by irrigation, under different study of drip irrigation, the irrigation amount has impact on the physiological indicators of wheat, in order to help improve the efficiency of irrigation water use. In order to reveal the effects of irrigation on photosynthetic characteristics of the Wheat Under Drip Irrigation (WUDI), we designed four different irrigation treatments as W1 (315 mm), W2 (360 mm), W3 (405 mm) and W4 (450 mm) ...

  4. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  5. Increase globe artichoke cropping sustainability using sub-surface drip-irrigation systems in a Mediterranean coastal area for reducing groundwater withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantino, Alberto; Marchina, Chiara; Bonari, Enrico; Fabbrizzi, Alessandro; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin, human growth posed severe stresses on freshwater resources due to increasing demand by agricultural, industrial and civil activities, in particular on groundwater. This in turn led to worsening of water quality, loss/reduction of wetlands, up to soil salinization and abandonment of agricultural areas. Within the EU LIFE REWAT project a number of demonstration measures will take place in the lower Cornia valley (Livorno, Italy), both structural (pilot) and non-structural (education, dissemination and capacity building), aiming at achieving sustainable and participated water management. In particular, the five demonstration actions are related to: (1) set up of a managed aquifer recharge facility, (2) restoration of a Cornia river reach, (3) water saving in the civil water supply sector, (4) water saving in agriculture, (5) reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes. Thus, the REWAT project general objective is to develop a new model of governance for sustainable development of the lower Cornia valley based on the water asset at its core. As per water use in agriculture, the lower Cornia valley is well known for the horticultural production. In this regard, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)) crops, a perennial cool-season vegetable, cover a surface of about 600 ha. In order to increase stability and productivity of the crop, about 2000 - 4000 m3 ha-1 yr-1 of irrigation water is required. Recent studies demonstrated that yield of different crops increases using Sub-surface Drip-Irrigation (SDI) system under high frequency irrigation management enhancing water use efficiency. In the SDI systems, the irrigation water is delivered to the plant root zone, below the soil surface by buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. Within the LIFE REWAT, the specific objectives of the pilot on irrigation efficiency is to (i) demonstrate the

  6. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  7. Irrigation and fertigation with drip and alternative micro irrigation systems in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation using conventional drip and alternative micro irrigation systems were evaluated in six cultivars of northern highbush blueberry. The drip system consisted of two laterals of drip tubing, with 2 L/h in-line emitters (point source) spaced every 0.45 m, on each s...

  8. Application of near-surface geophysics as part of a hydrologic study of a subsurface drip irrigation system along the Powder River floodplain near Arvada, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, James I.; Veloski, Garret; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Engle, Mark A.; Lipinski, Brian A.; Hammack, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development of coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming has occurred since 1997. National attention related to CBNG development has focused on produced water management, which is the single largest cost for on-shore domestic producers. Low-cost treatment technologies allow operators to reduce their disposal costs, provide treated water for beneficial use, and stimulate oil and gas production by small operators. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems are one potential treatment option that allows for increased CBNG production by providing a beneficial use for the produced water in farmland irrigation.Water management practices in the development of CBNG in Wyoming have been aided by integrated geophysical, geochemical, and hydrologic studies of both the disposal and utilization of water. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have utilized multi-frequency airborne, ground, and borehole electromagnetic (EM) and ground resistivity methods to characterize the near-surface hydrogeology in areas of produced water disposal. These surveys provide near-surface EM data that can be compared with results of previous surveys to monitor changes in soils and local hydrology over time as the produced water is discharged through SDI.The focus of this investigation is the Headgate Draw SDI site, situated adjacent to the Powder River near the confluence of a major tributary, Crazy Woman Creek, in Johnson County, Wyoming. The SDI system was installed during the summer of 2008 and began operation in October of 2008. Ground, borehole, and helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) conductivity surveys were conducted at the site prior to the installation of the SDI system. After the installation of the subsurface drip irrigation system, ground EM surveys have been performed quarterly (weather permitting). The geophysical surveys map the heterogeneity of the near-surface

  9. Drip Planner Chart: a simple irrigation scheduling tool for smallholder drip farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, H.; Zisengwe, L.S.; Yakami, S.

    2012-01-01

    Drip irrigation is widely recognized as potentially one of the most efficient irrigation methods. However, this efficiency is often not achieved because systems are not always well designed or maintained and many farmers lack the tools to assess the crop water requirements and to monitor the soil

  10. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    soil contamination and the cumulative impact of wastewater, we compared two plots, all under orange- grove that had been drip irrigated for 10 years. .... evaluated human risk of the organic contaminants in reclaimed wastewater used for ... of our study was to evaluate the effects of treated waste- water irrigation, of 10 years' ...

  11. Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System Using Sweet Corn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravitational drip irrigation system was developed using available materials. The system consisting of 4.0 l/hr Netafim pressure-compensating emitters was used to irrigate 0.0015 ha of land where sweet corn was planted under variable water applications in a randomised complete block design with three treatments.

  12. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  13. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  14. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  15. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkit Shamshery

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  16. Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Tran, Davis V; Winter V, Amos G

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters-which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field-have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

  17. APPLICATION OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON COTTON PLANT GROWTH (Gossypium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahruni Thamrin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The condition of cotton planting in South Sulawesi is always constrained in the fulfillment of water. All plant growth stages are not optimal to increase production, so it is necessary to introduce good water management technology, such as through water supply with drip irrigation system. This study aims to analyze the strategy of irrigation management in cotton plants using drip irrigation system. Model of application by designing drip irrigation system and cotton planting on land prepared as demonstration plot. Observations were made in the germination phase and the vegetative phase of the early plants. Based on the result of drip irrigation design, the emitter droplet rate (EDR was 34.266 mm/hour with an operational time of 4.08 min/day. From the observation of cotton growth, it is known that germination time lasted from 6 to 13 days after planting, the average plant height reached 119.66 cm, with the number of leaves averaging 141.93 pieces and the number of bolls averaging 57.16 boll.

  18. A comparative study on drip and furrow irrigation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, M.M.; Shaikh, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted at Field Laboratory of the IIDE-MUET (Institute of lrrigation and Drainage Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), Jamshoro in April 2007 and completed in October 2007. The soil was out-wash of the surrounding hilly tracts. Thus, the texture of the soil was sandy loam mixed with various sizes of gravels. Consequently, its water holding capacity was low and drainability high. The field capacity, wilting point and available moisture of the soil were found to be 10.35, 5.56 and 4.79%, respectively. The soil was moderate (ECe 8-16 dS/m) to strongly saline (ECe> 16 dS/m) and slightly sodic in nature in drip and furrow irrigated plots under study before start of vegetable crops. Three summer vegetables, i.e. okra, long gourd and ridge gourd were cultivated under drip and furrow systems of irrigation. Tap water was used for irrigation, which was class-I quality water i.e. nonsaline and non-sodic. Yields of the three respective vegetables were 25, 16.5 and 7.9% higher than the yields obtained from furrow method. Likewise, WUE (Water Use Efficiency) was higher in drip at 1.27, 3.19 and 2.28 Kg/m/sup 3/ against 0.59, 1.46 and 1.16 Kg/m/sup 3/ in furrow for the respective vegetables. The water saving in drip over furrow method for okra, long gourd and ridge gourd was estimated at 42.2, 46.9 and 45.0%, respectively. The soil salinity and sodicity decreased and did not develop within wetted zone under drip irrigation method and at furrow beds. However the same increased at the wetted periphery and at tops of the ridges under drip and furrow methods of irrigation respectively. (author)

  19. Effects of ten years treated wastewater drip irrigation on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No negative effects of treated wastewater drip irrigation treatment were observed on the measured soil parameters (pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). A slight increase in the concentration of soil enteric bacteria and soil fungal densities was recorded in the wastewater plot reaching a maximum value in the ...

  20. Effect of rain water harvesting and drip irrigation on crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainwater harvesting and drip irrigation are possible interventions to enhance crop performance in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL). Work was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of rainwater harvesting for bean production under an ASAL environment in Kaiti Watershed, Makueni District, Kenya. Treatments comprised ...

  1. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  2. Distribuição de água no solo aplicado por gotejamento enterrado e superficial Soil water distribution for subsurface and surface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido à falta de estudos sobre o movimento da água quando aplicada abaixo da superfície, realizou-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a distribuição de água aplicada pelo sistema de gotejamento enterrado e convencional. O experimento de campo foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da ESALQ/USP - Piracicaba, SP. Para o estudo, trincheiras foram abertas e instaladas sondas de TDR, dispostas a 0,05; 0,15; 0,25; 0,35 e 0,45 m profundidade, e a 0,05; 0,15; 0,25; 0,35 m comprimento, totalizando 17 sondas por trincheira. Os tratamentos foram baseados na profundidade de aplicação (0,0 e 0,10 m e vazão aplicada (2 e 4 L h-1: ENT2; ENT4; SUP2 e SUP4. A cada hora era aplicado 1 L de água (total de 10 L, seguida de leituras com o TDR. Medições do disco úmido e saturado foram feitas com régua milimetrada; além disso, estabeleceu-se um volume controle onde foi avaliada a uniformidade de aplicação; assim, foi possível verificar, em relação aos sistemas superficiais, que os sistemas enterrados apresentaram menor área superficial molhada e atingiram maior largura e profundidade; já as maiores concentrações foram obtidas próximas ao ponto de emissão.Studies of sub-surface water movement is an interesting topic in irrigation but, in spite of the its importance, there is little literature. One of the purposes of this study was to contribute to this subject and evaluate the distribution of water applied by both subsurface drip irrigation (SDI and conventional irrigation. Experiments were conducted at the Department of Rural Engineering (ESALQ/USP, located at Piracicaba, SP. Trenches were opened and 17 three-rod TDR probes were installed, placed at 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 m depths, and to 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 m intervals. This procedure was repeated using a dripper buried at 0 and 0.10 m for each discharge rate of 2 and 4 L h-1 tested. Wetted soil volume was observed with 1 L of water

  3. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Irrigation Levels of Drip Irrigation (Tape on Yield and Yield Components of Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the serious problems in the further development of maize cultivation is increasing irrigation efficiency. Using conventional irrigation causes a shortage of water resources to increase the acreage of the crop. With regard to the development of maize cultivation, agronomic and executable methods must be studied to reduce water consumption. Using drip irrigation system is most suitable for row crops. Hamedi et al. (2005 compared drip (tape and surface irrigation systems on yield of maize in different levels of water requirement and indicated that drip irrigation increases the amount of yield to 2015 kg/ha and water use efficiency to 3 time. Kohi et al. (2005 investigated the effects of deficit irrigation use of drip (tape irrigation on water use efficiency on maize in planting of one and two rows. The results showed that maximum water use efficiency related to crop density, water requirement and planting pattern 85000, 125% and two rows, respectively with 1.46 kg/m3. Jafari and Ashrafi (2011 studied the effects of irrigation levels, plant density and planting pattern in drip irrigation (tape on corn. The results showed that the amount of irrigation water and crop density on the level of 1% and their interactions and method of planting were significant at the 5 and 10% on water use efficiency, respectively. The yield was measured under different levels of irrigation, crop density and method of planting and the difference was significant on the level of 1%. Lamm et al. (1995 studied water requirement of maize in field with silt loam texture under sub drip irrigation and reported that water use reduced to 75%; but yield of maize remained at maximum amount of 12.5 t/ha. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drip (tape irrigation method for corn production practices in the Qazvin province in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, yield and yield components of corn (SC 704 were investigated under different levels of

  4. Validated Analytical Model of a Pressure Compensation Drip Irrigation Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshery, Pulkit; Wang, Ruo-Qian; Taylor, Katherine; Tran, Davis; Winter, Amos

    2015-11-01

    This work is focused on analytically characterizing the behavior of pressure-compensating drip emitters in order to design low-cost, low-power irrigation solutions appropriate for off-grid communities in developing countries. There are 2.5 billion small acreage farmers worldwide who rely solely on their land for sustenance. Drip, compared to flood, irrigation leads to up to 70% reduction in water consumption while increasing yields by 90% - important in countries like India which are quickly running out of water. To design a low-power drip system, there is a need to decrease the pumping pressure requirement at the emitters, as pumping power is the product of pressure and flow rate. To efficiently design such an emitter, the relationship between the fluid-structure interactions that occur in an emitter need to be understood. In this study, a 2D analytical model that captures the behavior of a common drip emitter was developed and validated through experiments. The effects of independently changing the channel depth, channel width, channel length and land height on the performance were studied. The model and the key parametric insights presented have the potential to be optimized in order to guide the design of low-pressure, clog-resistant, pressure-compensating emitters.

  5. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  6. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  7. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  8. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  9. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security,

  10. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Carleton R; Breit, George N; Healy, Richard W; Zupancic, John W; Hammack, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300–480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  11. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  12. Obstruction and uniformity in drip irrigation systems by applying treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of wastewater in agriculture is an alternative to control surface water pollution, and helps to promote the rational use of water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the obstruction and uniformity of application of treated wastewater in drip irrigation systems. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. The treatments were composed by the factorial combination of two factors: three types of water (supply water-ABAST, effluent of a constructed wetland system -WETLAND and upflow of anaerobic reactor effluent followed by constructed wetland system -UASB + WETLAND, and two drip irrigation systems (surface and subsurface, set in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The results indicated that the pH, suspended solids, total iron and coliforms of the WETLAND and UASB + WETLAND treatments represented a severe risk of clogging of drippers; the flow of the emitters increased as the service pressure was increased; values of CUC and CUD in surface and subsurface drip were classified as excellent in ABAST and WETLAND treatments. The degree of clogging reduced as pressure under surface and subsurface drip was increased.

  13. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  14. Partitioning of Cotton Field Evapotranspiration under Mulched Drip Irrigation Based on a Dual Crop Coefficient Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Tian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of field crop evapotranspiration (ETc and its partitioning into evaporation and transpiration, are of great importance in hydrological modeling and agricultural water management. In this study, we used a dual crop coefficient model SIMDualKc to estimate the actual crop evapotranspiration (ETc act and the basal crop coefficients over a cotton field in Northwestern China. A two-year field experiment was implemented in the cotton field under mulched drip irrigation. The simulated ETc act is consistent with observed ETc act as derived based on the eddy covariance system in the field. Basal crop coefficients of cotton for the initial, mid-season, and end-season are 0.20, 0.90, and 0.50, respectively. The transpiration components of ETc  act are 96% (77% and 94% (74% in 2012 and 2013 with (without plastic mulch, respectively. The impact of plastic mulch cover on soil evaporation is significant during drip irrigation ranging from crop development stage to mid-season stage. The extent of the impact depends on the variation of soil moisture, available energy of the soil surface, and the growth of the cotton leaves. Our results show that the SIMDualKc is capable of providing accurate estimation of ETc act for cotton field under mulched drip irrigation, and could be used as a valuable tool to establish irrigation schedule for cotton fields in arid regions as Northwestern China.

  15. Comparison of Decision Rules for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Practices Using a Nonlinear Mathematical Programming Model

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Juma K.; Dillon, Carl R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.; Kanakasabai, Murali

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of decision rules has been made for case studies of corn production using subsurface drip irrigation under three agricultural management practices (no irrigation, uniform irrigation, and variable rate irrigation). The uniform irrigation strategy appeared to perform the best than the other two management practices under different risk scenarios.

  16. Drip irrigation and fertigation of potato under light-textured soils of cappadocia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitgil, M. B.; Onaran, H.; Munsuz, N.; Kislal, H.; Akin, A.; Unlenen, A. L.; Cayci, G.; Kutuk, C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to evaluate potato response to drip irrigation and N fertigation; and also to improve nitrogen and water use efficiencies of potato and eventually to obtain less nitrogen polluted surface and water, 10 field experiments were carried out at three different locations in Cappadocia Region of Turkey in 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000 growing seasons. Nitrogen as ammonium sulphate ((NH 4 ) 2 So 4 ), was supplied by drip irrigation water (fertigation) at rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N/da. Also, soil N application treatment equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 60kg N/da was included. These five treatments were investigated in a completely randomized block design with four replicants. Agria potato variety was used in all experiments and potato was planted in mid May and harvested at the end of October.''1''5N-labelled ammonium sulphate fertilizer were applied in isotope-sub plots within the macroplots for each treatment, in order to determine the amount of nitrogen taken up by the plant, nitrogen use efficiency and the distribution of residual nitrogen at different depths in the soil profile. Each year, during the growth period, total 12 irrigations were done and 50 mm of water was applied at each irrigation. At harvest, plant samples (tuber and leaf+vein) and soil samples were taken from each plot and N%, ''1''5N% atom excess (''1''5N% a.e.) and Ndff% determinations were done. Soil water contents at differrent soil depths were determined by soil moisture neutron probe at plantingand at harvest period so that water contents at different soil layers and water use efficiencies were calculated for each treatment. The results obtained showed that 3350 kg/da mean total marketable tuber yield was obtained with application of 600 mm irrigation water. Also,it was found that water did not move below 90 cm of soil layer in drip irrigation-fertigation system, which showed clearly that no nitrogen movement occured beyond 90 cm soil depth. Tuber yields and %Ndff increased when

  17. Performance of precision mobile drip irrigation in the Texas High Plains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobile drip irrigation (MDI) technology adapts driplines to the drop hoses of moving sprinkler systems to apply water as the drip lines are pulled across the field. There is interest in this technology among farmers in the Texas High Plains region to help sustain irrigated agriculture. However, info...

  18. Farmers’ Logics in Engaging With Projects Promoting Drip Irrigation Kits in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, J.-P.; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not to

  19. Farmers’ Logics in Engaging With Projects Promoting Drip Irrigation Kits in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, Jonas; Venot, Jean Philippe; Zwarteveen, Margreet; Fraiture, de Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not

  20. A Hybrid Computational and Analytical Model of Irrigation Drip emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jaya; Winter, V., Amos

    2017-11-01

    This paper details a hybrid computational and analytical model to predict the performance of inline pressure-compensating drip irrigation emitters, devices used to accurately meter water to crops. Flow rate is controlled in the emitter by directing the water through a tortuous path, and then through a variable resistor composed of a flexible membrane that deflects under changes in pressure, restricting the flow path. An experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics model was used to derive a resistance factor that characterizes flow behavior through a tortuous path. Expressions describing the bending mechanics of the membrane were combined with analytical fluid flow models to iteratively predict flow behavior through the variable resistor. The hybrid model reduces the computational time as compared to purely computational methods, lowering the time required to iterate and select optimal designs. The model was validated using three commercially available drip emitters, rated at 1.1, 2, and 3.8 L/hr. For each, the model accurately predicted flow rate versus pressure behavior within a 95% confidence interval of experimental data and accurately replicated the performance stated by the manufacturer. Jain Irrigation, NSF GRFP.

  1. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  2. The effects of drip line depths and irrigation levels on yield, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sefer bozkurt

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... water use efficiency (WUE) and the irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) increased as the irrigation was reduced. Key words: Subsurface drip irrigation, irrigation level, water use efficiency. INTRODUCTION. Lettuce is the most popular vegetable with the highest consumption rate and economic importance ...

  3. Leaf miner incidence in coffee plants under different drip irrigation regimes and planting densities

    OpenAIRE

    Assis,Gleice Aparecida; Assis,Franscinely Aparecida; Scalco,Myriane Stella; Parolin,Francisco José Toloza; Fidelis,Iraci; Moraes,Jair Campos; Guimarães,Rubens José

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different drip irrigation regimes and planting densities on the incidence of the leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella, in arabica coffee plants for one year. The experiment was carried out in 2008, in a complete randomized block design, in a split-plot in time arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of four drip irrigation regimes - soil water balance, irrigations at 20 and 60 kPa soil tensions, and a nonirrigated treatm...

  4. Soil salinity under deficit drip irrigation of potato and millet in in an arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of deficit irrigation (DI with saline water on soil salinity in a drip-irrigated potato and millet fields was investigated. We had compared proportional soil salinity developed under Full and DI under drip irrigation. For both experiments, the treatments were (1 Full, control treatment where rooting zone soil water content was increased to field capacity at each irrigation; (2 DI80; (3 DI60 and DI40; 20, 40 and 60% deficit irrigation compared to Full treatment were applied, respectively. Soil salinity was assessed using the isosalinity maps constructed with grid soil sampling of plant root zone at harvest. Results show that high spatial variability was observed in salinity along soil profiles when applying saline water with drip irrigation for potato. For the DI40 and DI60 treatments, high soil salinity was recorded in the upper soil layer close to the emitter. Increase of soil salinity within soil depths of 30 cm or below was also observed under DI60 and DI40 treatments. The lowest increase was noted under the full treatment. Surface soil salinity was somewhat higher under DI60 and DI40 compared with that of full and DI80 irrigation treatments. The distribution of salts around the dripper changes during the crop season according to applied irrigation treatments, with overall higher concentrations between the drippers and towards the margin of wetted band. Iso-salinity maps at harvest of potato showed that the surface layer of 30 cm depth had the lowest salinity which gradually increased at deeper zones irrespective of the treatment. Salt accumulation essentially occurred at wetting front between the drippers and the plant row. Although salt accumulation was relatively highest along the row under DI treatments, the area of accumulation was relatively shifted toward the center between the rows and the drip line. The results also show the importance of the potato cropping season to benefit from the leaching of soluble salts with the

  5. Irrigation and fertigation scheduling under drip irrigation for maize crop in sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; El-Baroudy, Ahmed A.; Taha, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments was conducted to determine the best irrigation scheduling and the proper period for injecting fertilizers through drip irrigation water in a sandy soil to optimize maize yield and water productivity. Four irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2) of the crop evapotranspiration and two fertigation periods (applying the recommended fertilizer dose in 60 and 80% of the irrigation time) were applied in a split-plot design, in addition to a control treatment which represented conventional irrigation and fertilization of maize in the studied area. The results showed that increasing the irrigation water amount and the fertilizer application period increased vegetative growth and yield. The highest grain yield and the lowest one were obtained under the treatment at 1.2 and of 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, respectively. The treatment at 0.8 crop evapotranspiration with fertilizer application in 80% of the irrigation time gave the highest water productivity (1.631 kg m-3) and saved 27% of the irrigation water compared to the control treatment. Therefore, this treatment is recommended to irrigate maize crops because of the water scarcity conditions of the studied area.

  6. [Simulation of soil water dynamics in triploid Populus tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ben-Ye; Jia, Li-Ming; Wang, Ye; Li, Guang-De

    2011-01-01

    Based on the observed data of triploid Populus tomentosa root distribution, a one-dimensional root water uptake model was proposed. Taking the root water uptake into account, the soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under subsurface drip irrigation was simulated by using HYDRUS model, and the results were validated with field experiment. Besides, the HYDRUS model was used to study the effects of various irrigation technique parameters on soil wetting patterns. The RMAE for the simulated soil water content by the end of irrigation and approximately 24 h later was 7.8% and 6.0%, and the RMSE was 0.036 and 0.026 cm3 x cm(-3), respectively, illustrating that the HYDRUS model performed well in simulating the short-term soil water dynamics in triploid P. tomentosa root zone under drip irrigation, and the root water uptake model was reasonable. Comparing with 2 and 4 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and continuous irrigation, both the 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and the pulsed irrigation with water applied intermittently in 30 min periods could increase the volume of wetted soil and reduce deep percolation. It was concluded that the combination of 1 L x h(-1) of drip discharge and pulsed irrigation should be the first choice when applying drip irrigation to triploid P. tomentosa root zone at the experiment site.

  7. Parameterization of the Satellite-Based Model (METRIC for the Estimation of Instantaneous Surface Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco-Benavides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to parameterize the METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration model for estimating instantaneous values of albedo (shortwave albedo (αi, net radiation (Rni and soil heat flux (Gi, sensible (Hi and latent heat (LEi over a drip-irrigated Merlot vineyard (location: 35°25′ LS; 71°32′ LW; 125 m.a.s. (l. The experiment was carried out in a plot of 4.25 ha, processing 15 Landsat images, which were acquired from 2006 to 2009. An automatic weather station was placed inside the experimental plot to measure αi, Rni and Gi. In the same tower an Eddy Covariance (EC system was mounted to measure Hi and LEi. Specific sub-models to estimate Gi, leaf area index (LAI and aerodynamic roughness length for momentum transfer (zom were calibrated for the Merlot vineyard as an improvement to the original METRIC model. Results indicated that LAI, zom and Gi were estimated using the calibrated functions with errors of 4%, 2% and 17%, while those were computed using the original functions with errors of 58%, 81%, and 5%, respectively. At the time of satellite overpass, comparisons between measured and estimated values indicated that METRIC overestimated αi in 21% and Rni in 11%. Also, METRIC using the calibrated functions overestimated Hi and LEi with errors of 16% and 17%, respectively while it using the original functions overestimated Hi and LEi with errors of 13% and 15%, respectively. Finally, LEi was estimated with root mean square error (RMSE between 43 and 60 W∙m−2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 35 and 48 W∙m−2 for both calibrated and original functions, respectively. These results suggested that biases observed for instantaneous pixel-by-pixel values of Rni, Gi and other intermediate components of the algorithm were presumably absorbed into the computation of sensible heat flux as a result of the internal self-calibration of METRIC.

  8. Farmers' logics in engaging with projects promoting drip irrigation kits in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, Jean-Philippe; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.

    2016-01-01

    Development agencies enthusiastically promote micro-drip irrigation as an affordable water and labor-saving device, yet most farmers stop using it as soon as development projects end. This article analyzes why farmers engage in projects promoting drip irrigation kits, even though they appear not to be interested in their water and labor-saving attributes. We combine practice-based theories of innovation with insights from the anthropology of development to explain that in development project ...

  9. Control of soil moisture with radio frequency in a photovoltaic-powered drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; ÖZDEN, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Solar-powered irrigation systems are becoming increasingly widespread. However, the initial setup costs of these systems are very high. To reduce these costs, both the energy usage and the prevention of losses from irrigation systems are very important. In this study, a drip irrigation control system of 1000 dwarf cherry trees was controlled using soil moisture sensors in order to prevent excessive water consumption and energy losses in a solar-powered irrigation system. The control sys...

  10. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  11. The effects of drip line depths and irrigation levels on yield, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different drip irrigation methods and different irrigation levels on yield, quality and water use characteristics of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia cv. Lital) cultivated in a solar greenhouse from 07 October 2009 to 03 December 2009 in the Eastern Mediterranean region ...

  12. The crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton grown on a heavy clay texture soil (Palexerollic Chromoxerert) under semi-arid climatic condition of East Mediterranean region for three years (2005 to 2007) in Adana, Turkey. Four irrigation treatments designated as full ...

  13. Low cost drip irrigation: Impact on sugarcane yield, water and energy saving in semiarid tropical agro ecosystem in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, U; Jayakumar, M; Marimuthu, S

    2016-12-15

    Low cost drip irrigation (LCDI) has been a recent introduction to India and it may be an inexpensive means of expanding irrigation into uncultivated areas, thereby increasing land productivity. This paper is structured into two phases. The first phase, presents an assessment of different irrigation methods (LCDI, conventional drip irrigation (CDI) with single row and paired row, siphon and flood irrigation) on sugarcane production. The results showed that cane yield and water productivity was significantly increased in both plant and ratoon crop of sugarcane owing to the methods of irrigation. Among the methods, LCDI recorded 118.6tha -1 of cane yield and it was on par with the single row CDI, which recorded the highest mean yield of 120.4tha -1 and both are found to be significantly superior to the rest of the treatments. The lowest yield was recorded in the treatment of flood irrigation (94.40tha -1 ). Benefit Cost Ratio analysis confirmed that LCDI performed better compared to other irrigation methods. The second phase deals with the farmer participatory research demonstrations at multi location on evaluation of LCDI with flood irrigation. LCDI out performed flood irrigation under all the locations in terms of sugarcane yield, soil moisture content, postharvest soil fertility, reduction in nutrient transport to surface and ground water, water and energy saving. These results suggest that LCDI is a feasible option to increase the sugarcane production in water scarcity areas of semiarid agro ecosystems, and have long-term sustained economic benefits than flood irrigation in terms of water productivity, energy saving and environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Application of Drip Irrigation System on Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningrum, Diah Ayu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the performance of drip irrigation systems, determine performance of tomato treated under the irrigation systems.Field research was conducted at the Laboratory of Land and Water Resources Engineering; and at the Laboratory ofintegrated field, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung in August 2013 to December 2013.Irrigation systems consisted of main componens: water supplies, Polythilene lateral tube, and emitters. Emitter on every pot, were made of Polythile...

  15. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Engle, Mark A.; Geboy, Nicholas J.; Schroeder, K.T.; Zupancic, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (∼3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (∼24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  16. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-10-04

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (~3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na–Mg–SO{sub 4} salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  17. FEATURES OF MINERAL NUTRITION FOR TOMATO PLANTS WITH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN OPEN FIELD CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Akhmetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dagestan is the largest region with irrigation system of agriculture in Russia. Irrigated lands provide 70% of total plant production. The field cultivation is carried on arable land in plain region of the republic. The drip irrigation as an ecologically safe technology for watering is regarded as major means for vegetable production farming. This approach maintains the propitious level of water and air in the soil without surface and deep drainage of irrigating water. These irrigated lands are expected to be used first of all for valuable and profitable crops such as tomato that is a leading crop in Dagestan. The experimental work was carried out at OOO ‘Dagagrocomplex’, Aleksandro-Nevskoye, in Tarumovskiy region. The aim of the study was to determinate the optimal dose of mineral fertilizers and the way of their application to improve the productivity without quality loss. The complex analysis of the technology for tomato production under drip irrigation through nontransplanting culture showed its high efficiency, because volume and quality of yield directly depended on soil moisture and precise supporting of mineral nutrition rates. The maximal yield of tomato fruits, 88.7-94.5 t/ha was observed with once mineral fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60 with soil humidity 70-80% (field moisture capacity, and also at the dose of N180P135K60 with basic application of N100 in nutrition rate. The result of the study showed that the optimization of two factors, namely soil water rate and mineral nutrition, enabled to produce additionally 39.2 t/ha. It was shown the tight connection between yielding and its quality; when yielding 95 t/ha, the increased contents of dry matter to 7.01%, sugar to 3.8% vitamin C to 18.46% were noticed. The high quality of produced output was supported by pre-watering threshold of moisture at 75-80% (field moisture capacity, when once fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60. 

  18. Yield and quality response of drip-irrigated pepper under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant linear relations were found between the pepper yield and the total water use for each irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals resulted in similar water use in the treatments with the same irrigation level. Water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) values were significantly influenced by the ...

  19. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  20. Field Comparison of Fertigation Vs. Surface Irrigation of Cotton Crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on previous results of the same nature, one nitrogen rate 180 kg N ha -1 was tested under two-irrigation methods, surface irrigation and drip fertigation of cotton (Cultivar Rakka-5) for two consecutive seasons 2000 and 2001. The study aimed to answer various questions regarding the applicability of drip fertigation at farm level and the effect of its employment on yield and growth parameters, compared to surface irrigation. Nitrogen fertilizer was either injected in eight equally split applications for the drip fertigated cotton or divided in four unequally split applications as recommend by Ministry of Agriculture (20% before planting, 40% at thinning, 20% after 60 days from planting and 20% after 75 days after planting). 15 N labeled urea was used to evaluate nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The experimental design was randomized block design with seven replicates. Results showed that drip fertigation led to water saving exceeding 50% in some cases. Field germination percentage was highly increased under drip- fertigated cotton relative to surface-irrigated cotton. Dry matter and seed cotton yield of surface-irrigated cotton was slightly higher than that of drip-fertigated cotton in the first growing season. The reason for that was due to the hot spill that occurred in the region, which exposed the cotton crop to water stress and consequently pushed the cotton into early flowering. Lint properties were not affected by the introduction of drip-fertigation. Actually some properties were improved relative to the standard properties identified by the cotton Bureau.Nitrogen uptake was slightly increased under drip fertigation whereas nitrogen use efficiencies were not constant along the growing seasons. The reason for that could be lateral leaching and root proliferation into the labeled and unlabeled subplots. Field water use efficiency was highly increased for both growing seasons under drip fertigation practice. The rate of field water use efficiencies

  1. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abalos, D.; Sanchez-Martin, L.; Garcia-Torres, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Vallejo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors

  2. Development of fine and coarse roots of Thuja occidentalis 'Brabant' in non-irrigated and drip irrigated field plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Willigen, de P.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aboveground dry mass, total root dry mass and root length density of the fine roots of Thuja occidentalis `Brabant' were determined under non- and drip-irrigated field conditions. Two-dimensional diffusion parameters for dynamic root growth were estimated based on dry mass production of the fine

  3. Crop growth and two dimensional modeling of soil water transport in drip irrigated potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Drip irrigation can be an effective way to improve water and nitrogen use efficiency in soil and hence to reduce the environmental pollution. In the EU project SAFIR ( http://www.safir4eu.org/ ) a potato experiment was carried out in lysimeters on three different soil types: coarse sand, loamy sand...... and sandy loam. An automatic roof was used to exclude the lysimeters from natural precipitation. The potatoes were drip irrigated following different strategies: Fully irrigated (FI), deficit irrigation (65% FI), and partial root zone drying (PRD). Gas exchange measurements were carried as well as sampling...... of abscisic acid (ABA). Model outputs from the mechanistic simulation model Daisy, in SAFIR developed to include 2D soil processes and gas exchange processes based on Ball et al. and Farquhar were compared with measured crop dynamics, final DM yield and volumetric water content in the soil measured by TDR...

  4. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system's low cost of N15, 870 ($79) gives it an edge over existing locally developed drip systems, the low technology and the use of locally available materials coupled with the water savings will enable famers to adapt to the impact of climate change in sub-Saharan Africa through the production of high value crops in ...

  5. Simplified Equations to Estimate Flushline Diameter for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A formulation of the Hazen-Williams equation is typically used to determine the diameter of the common flushline that is often used at the distal end of subsurface drip irrigation systems to aid in joint flushing of a group of driplines. Although this method is accurate, its usage is not intuitive a...

  6. Cotton, tomato, corn, and onion production with subsurface drip irrigation – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The usage of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) has increased by 89% in the USA during the last ten years according to USDA NASS estimates and over 93% of the SDI land area is located in just ten states. Combining public entity and private industry perceptions of SDI in these ten states, the major cro...

  7. Drip irrigation emitter clogging in Dutch greenhouses as affected by methane and organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.; Burg, van der A.M.M.; Runia, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the serious clogging of drip irrigation emitters in the Dutch greenhouse industry is caused by methane-oxidising bacteria and/or organic acids used as anti-clogging agents. In this study greenhouses with moderate to severe emitter clogging have been examined. High methane

  8. Performing the success of an innovation: the case of smallholder drip irrigation in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.; Venot, J.P.J.N.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, smallholder drip irrigation has gained almost unanimous popularity as an effective tool to achieve the combined goals of sustainable water use, food security and poverty alleviation in the developing world. Based on a study in Sub-Saharan Africa, this article shows that this

  9. Comparison of water distribution mechanisms under two localized irrigation techniques (Drip Irrigation & Buried Diffuser) for one week irrigation period in a sandy soil of southeastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Ines; Kodešová, Radka; Mechergui, Mohamed; Nikodem, Antonín; Moussa, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    The majority of agricultural ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin of northern Africa suffer from water shortage and positions these regions in a highly vulnerable to climate change. In arid regions of Tunisia and exactly in the Southeastern part, during each growing season, plant productivity in sandy-loamy soils is dramatically reduced by limited availability of soil water and nutrients. Thus, highly permeable soils are unable to retain adequate water and nutrient resource in the plant root zone. Moreover, the investments of supplemental irrigation and agricultural amendments of additional fertilization are not sustainable due to the leaching of water supplies and nutrients, which severely limit agricultural productivity. In addition, inadequate soil water distribution, costly irrigation and fertilization leads to negative responses to plant nutrients added to highly permeable soils. That's why we should use irrigation techniques with high water use efficiency. This paper focuses on the comparison between two localized irrigation techniques which are the Drip Irrigation (DI) and the Buried Diffuser (BD) that has the same flow rates (4 l/h). The BD is buried at 15 cm depths. Experimental data was obtained from Smar-Médenine located in South-East of Tunisia. The water distribution at the soil surface for BD is very important about 195 cm2 while for the DI is about 25.12 cm2. The HYDRUS 2D/3D model helped to evaluate the water distribution and compare the water balance obtained with those two irrigation techniques for one week irrigation period. There is a rapid kinetic which has a duration of 3 hours (irrigation time) and a slow kinetic which is the result of the water distribution in the soil, the plant uptake and the effect of climatic condition. There are two mechanisms that affect the two irrigation techniques: the water distribution and the position of irrigation system. As a result, irrigation with BD goes dipper in the soil. The transmission zone for this

  10. Rice performance and water use efficiency under plastic mulching with drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haibing; Ma, Fuyu; Yang, Ru; Chen, Lin; Jia, Biao; Cui, Jing; Fan, Hua; Wang, Xin; Li, Li

    2013-01-01

    Plastic mulching with drip irrigation is a new water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its productivity and water-saving capacity. This study aimed to assess the production potential, performance, and water use efficiency (WUE) of rice under plastic mulching with drip irrigation. Field experiments were conducted over 2 years with two rice cultivars under different cultivation systems: conventional flooding (CF), non-flooded irrigation incorporating plastic mulching with furrow irrigation (FIM), non-mulching with furrow irrigation (FIN), and plastic mulching with drip irrigation (DI). Compared with the CF treatment, grain yields were reduced by 31.76-52.19% under the DI treatment, by 57.16-61.02% under the FIM treatment, by 74.40-75.73% under the FIN treatment, which were mainly from source limitation, especially a low dry matter accumulation during post-anthesis, in non-flooded irrigation. WUE was the highest in the DI treatment, being 1.52-2.12 times higher than with the CF treatment, 1.35-1.89 times higher than with the FIM treatment, and 2.37-3.78 times higher than with the FIN treatment. The yield contribution from tillers (YCFTs) was 50.65-62.47% for the CF treatment and 12.07-20.62% for the non-flooded irrigation treatments. These low YCFTs values were attributed to the poor performance in tiller panicles rather than the total tiller number. Under non-flooded irrigation, root length was significantly reduced with more roots distributed in deep soil layers compared with the CF treatment; the DI treatment had more roots in the topsoil layer than the FIM and FIN treatments. The experiment demonstrates that the DI treatment has greater water saving capacity and lower yield and economic benefit gaps than the FIM and FIN treatments compared with the CF treatment, and would therefore be a better water-saving technology in areas of water scarcity.

  11. "More drop per crop" when moving from gravitational to drip irrigated agriculture? Experiences from a North Moroccan case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, N.; Gaspart, F.; Vanclooster, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to save agricultural water, the famous FAO's "more crop per drop" has been taken literally in many arid or semi-arid places around the world and policies that aim improving "efficiencies" (irrigation efficiency…) have been implemented, often leading to the promotion of water saving technologies. In 1865, studying coal consumption, W.S. Jevons highlighted that improving coal use efficiency could, as a paradox, lead to higher global coal use. Many economists later extended this idea to resource saving technologies in general, showing that, due to the "rebound effect", the adoption of more efficient technologies, in terms of use of resources, could lead to a higher global consumption of this resource if this adoption didn't go with adjustment measures. Regarding these considerations, the emerging question is to which extent water saving technologies (i.e. that aim improving water related efficiencies) are appropriate to save water at large scale. Our study addresses this question through the analysis of the conversion from surface to drip irrigation in Triffa's irrigated perimeter (Morocco). We aim addressing this question using the detailed analysis of two data sets. First, available data were collected for every farm within the study area from the local administrations. Second, interviews were conducted with farmers to complete the dataset and to characterize their behavior. This allowed assessing water related efficiencies at farm scale. Subsequently, models were implemented to link efficiencies with general attributes and thereby identify the main drivers of water related efficiencies in the study area. Finally, these models were used to upscale farm-scale assessment to the perimeter scale. Our results show that, under current conditions, moving from surface to drip irrigation leads to higher global water withdrawal. However, the aforementioned "rebound effect" does not allow explaining the higher pressure because of contextual specificities. Deeper

  12. Simulation of Salinity Distribution in Soil Under Drip Irrigation Tape with Saline Water Using SWAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The to be limited available water amount from one side and to be increased needs of world population from the other side have caused increase of cultivation for products. For this reason, employing new irrigation ways and using new water resources like using the uncommon water (salty water, water drainage are two main strategies for regulating water shortage conditions. On the other side, accumulation of salts on the soil surface in dry regions having low rainfall and much evaporation, i.e. an avoidable case. As doing experiment for determining moisture distribution form demands needs a lot of time and conducting desert experiments are costly, stimulator models are suitable alternatives in answering the problem concerning moving and saltiness distribution. Materials and Methods: In this research, simulation of soil saltiness under drip irrigation was done by the SWAP model and potency of the above model was done in comparison with evaluated relevant results. SWAP model was performed based on measured data in a corn field equipped with drip irrigation system in the farming year 1391-92 in the number one research field in the engineering faculty of water science, ShahidChamran university of Ahvaz and hydraulic parameters of soil obtained from RETC . Statistical model in the form of a random full base plan with four attendants for irrigating water saltiness including salinity S1 (Karoon River water with salinity 3 ds/m as a control treatment, S2 (S1 +0/5, S3 (S1 +1 and S4 (S1 +1/5 dS/m, in 3 repetition and in 3 intervals of 10 cm emitter, 20 cm emitters on the stack, at a depth of 0-90 cm (instead of each 30 cm from soil surface and intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days after modeling cultiviation was done. The cultivation way was done handheld in plots including four rows of 3 m in distance of 75 cm rows and with denseness of 80 bushes in a hectar. Drip irrigation system was of type strip with space of 20 cm pores. Results and Discussion

  13. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  14. Distribution of the root system of peach palm under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Silva Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of technologies has resulted in increased productivity and the more rational management of peach palm, with irrigation being an important tool for certain regions. Thus, studies leading to proper crop management are extremely important, such as the estimate of the effective depth of the root system, which is indispensable for proper irrigation management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths, as applied by drip irrigation, on the distribution of the root system of peach palm. This experiment was conducted in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Brazil, with drip irrigation, with the two systems (flow of 0.0023 m3 h-1 consisting of four irrigation treatments corresponding to 0, 50, 100 and 150% of Class ‘A’ pan evaporation. After five years, an analysis of the Bactris gasipaes root system was performed at a distance of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 meters from the trunk, collecting sampling at two depths (0.0 to 0.3 m and 0.3 to 0.6 m via the auger method (volumetric analysis. We concluded that the effective depth of the root system used for irrigation management should be a maximum of 0.3 meters.

  15. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  16. The conundrum of low-cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : Why development interventions that have little to show continue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, J.; Venot, J.-P.; Zwarteveen, M.; de Fraiture, C.; Venot, J.-P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Research and development efforts concerning drip irrigation have traditionally been oriented toward intensive commercial farming in developed economies, focusing on ways to improve efficiencies and productivities. From the mid-1990s onward, an increasing number of research institutes and

  17. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Elnesr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%; the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10% and the WUE (~14%, but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability.

  18. The effects of three techniques that change the wetting patterns over subsurface drip-irrigated potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnesr, M.N.; Alazba, A.A.

    2015-07-01

    Wetting pattern enhancement is one of the goals of irrigation designers and researchers. In this study, we addressed three techniques (dual-lateral drip, intermittent flow and physical barrier methods) that change the wetting pattern of subsurface drip irrigation. To study their effect on the yield and water-use efficiency (WUE) of potatoes, field experiments were conducted for four seasons, during which the soil-water balance was continuously monitored using a set of capacitance probes. The results of the soil water patterns showed that both the dual-lateral and intermittent techniques increased lateral water movement and eliminated deep percolation, whereas the physical barrier had a limited effect on the top soil layer. The crop results indicated that the yield and WUE increased significantly in response to the application of the dual-lateral drip (up to 30%); the intermittent application also positively affected the yield (~10%) and the WUE (~14%), but these effects were not statistically significant according to the statistical model. The physical barrier showed a non-significant negative effect on the yield and WUE. These findings suggest the following recommended practices: the use of dual-lateral drip technique due to its beneficial results and its potential for increasing yields and reducing water consumption; the application of intermittent flow with more than three surges; and restricting the use of physical barriers to soils with high permeability. (Author)

  19. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano-Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-02-02

    Meeting the food needs of Africa's growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies.

  20. Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano–Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer; Woltering, Lennart; Burke, Marshall; Naylor, Rosamond; Pasternak, Dov

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the food needs of Africa’s growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano–Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies. PMID:20080616

  1. low cost constant low cost constant – head drip irrigation emitter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    constant – head drip system on the other hand for a 25 m2 plot size was N 15, 870 ($79) at a current exchange rate of N210 to $1(US), further evaluation also revealed that the system can be extended to irrigate up to 100 m2 by raising the barrel to a height of 1 m above the ground, this will serve 560 maize crop stands. This.

  2. Hydraulic performance evaluation of pressure compensating (pc) emitters and micro-tubing for drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrio, A.G.; Asif, M.; Jahangir, I.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation system is necessary for those areas, where the water scarcity issues are present. The present study was conducted at the field station of Climate Change, Alternate Energy and Water Resources Institute (CAEWRI), National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, during 2013, regarding drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation system depends on uniform emitter application flow. All the emitters were tested and replicated thrice at pressure head (34 to 207Kpa) with an increment of 34 Kpa. The minimum and maximum discharges were 1.32 - 3.52, 3.36 - 5.42, and 43.22 - 100.99 Lph, with an average of 2.42, 4.63 and 73.66 Lph, for Bow Smith, RIS and Micro-tubing, respectively. It indicates that more than 90% of emission uniformity (EU) and uniformity coefficient (CU) for all Emitters, which shows excellent water application with least standard deviation, ranging 0.12 to 2.37, throughout the operating pressure heads in all emitters. An average coefficient of variation (CV) of all emitters were behaving less than 0.07, indicating an excellent class at all operating pressure heads between 34 to 207 Kpa. Moreover, the relationship of discharge and pressure of emitters indicates that discharge increased with the increase of pressure head. The Q-H curve plays key role in the selection of emitters. (author)

  3. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  4. Leaf miner incidence in coffee plants under different drip irrigation regimes and planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Aparecida Assis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different drip irrigation regimes and planting densities on the incidence of the leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella, in arabica coffee plants for one year. The experiment was carried out in 2008, in a complete randomized block design, in a split-plot in time arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of four drip irrigation regimes - soil water balance, irrigations at 20 and 60 kPa soil tensions, and a nonirrigated treatment -, which were distributed at three plant densities: 2, 500, 5, 000, and 10, 000 plants per hectare. The evaluations were made on a monthly basis between January and December 2008. The highest pest occurrence period was from August to November, a season with low-air relative humidity preceded by a drought period. Irrigated coffee plants showed an incidence of intact mines 2.2 times lower than that of nonirrigated plants. Irrigation and increasing of plant density contribute to the reduction of coffee leaf miner occurrence.

  5. Water movement through a shallow unsaturated zone in an inland arid region: Field drip irrigation experiment under matrix potential control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Han, D.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is vital to study soil water movement in unsaturated zone for evaluating and improving current irrigation mode for prevention and control of soil secondary salinization, especially in inland arid area, where is characterized by strong evaporation, poor drainage system and shallow water table depth. In this study, we investigated the applicability of drip irrigation under matrix potential control during cotton growth seasons in an inland arid region of northwest China. Combined physical observation with stable isotopes tracing method, we studied soil water flow system and recharge sources of shallow groundwater in heavy (Pilot 1) and light (Pilot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. Evaporation depths (about 50-60 cm) are about the same for both pilots, but infiltration depths (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 150 cm for Pilot 2) are very different due to different soil texture, soil structure and soil salt content. Middle layer (about 100 cm thick) is a critical barrier for water exchange between surface and deep layer. Irrigation water is the major source (about 79.6% for Pilot 1 and 81.6% for Pilot 2), while evapotranspiration is the major sink (about 80.7% for Pilot 1 and 83.1% for Pilot 2) of unsaturated zone. The increase of soil water storage is not enough to make up the water shortage of middle layer and thus drip irrigation water doesn't recharge into groundwater for both pilots. Water table rise (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 50 cm for Pilot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. This irrigation mode could retard the water table rise in this region. However, improving horizontal drainage system may be indispensable for sustainable agriculture development. The study can provide important basis for soil secondary salinization prevention and agricultural water management in inland arid areas.

  6. Water-Yield Relations of Drip Irrigated Watermelon in Temperate Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study, conducted in Vojvodina a northern part of the Serbia Republic, was to analyse the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of watermelon (Cirullus lanatus Thunb. grown with plasticulture. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration was computed using the reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient. The yield of watermelon in irrigation conditions (37,28 t/ha was significantly higher compared to non irrigated (9,98 t/ha. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions was 398 mm and 117 mm on non irrigated variant. The crop yield response factor of 1,04 for the whole growing season reveals that relative yield decrease was nearly equal to the rate of evapotranspiration deficit. The values of irrigation water use efficiency and evapotranspiration water use efficiency were 9,93 kg/m3 and 10,29 kg/m3 respectively. The determined results could be used as a good platform for watermelon growers in the region, in terms of improvement of the optimum utilization of irrigation water.

  7. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  8. Evaluation of different methods of measuring evapotranspiration as a scheduling guide for drip-irrigated cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.; Marani, A.; Mahrer, Y.; Berkovich, D.

    1983-01-01

    Evapotranspiration in a drip-irrigated cotton field was estimated by the energy balance method, net radiation, standard evaporation pan, evaporation pan in the field at canopy height, and by the Penman equation, and the results were compared with the soil-water balance based on neutron meter and tensiometer data from seven observation sites. Evapotranspiration according to the soil-water balance was only about 85% of that determined by the energy balance method, and this is attributed to the fact that irrigation laterals were placed every second row, and the soil-water balance was determined in the irrigated rows. The crop also utilized moisture stored from winter rains in the unirrigated inter-row spaces, which was detected by the energy balance method. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was 96% of potential ET (Penman), and the latter equalled 98% of net radiation energy. The actual ET equalled 90% of free water evaporation from the pan in the field at canopy height, and 88% of net radiation. The high-frequency drip regime maintained ET very close to potential ET, and under these conditions the field-installed evaporation pan, or the net radiometer, are good indicators of crop water use, with the latter being adaptable to computer-controlled irrigation. (author)

  9. Performance of Precision Mobile Drip Irrigation in the Texas High Plains Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. O’Shaughnessy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile drip irrigation (MDI technology adapts driplines to the drop hoses of moving sprinkler systems to apply water as the drip lines are pulled across the field. There is interest in this technology among farmers in the Texas High Plains region to help sustain irrigated agriculture. However, information on the performance of this system and its benefits relative to common sprinkler application technologies in the region are limited. A two-year study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 to compare grain yields, crop water use (ETc and water use efficiency (WUE of corn (Zea Mays L. irrigated with MDI, low elevation spray application (LESA and low energy precision application (LEPA methods. Irrigation amounts for each application method were based on weekly neutron probe readings. In both years, grain yield and yield components were similar among application treatment methods. Although WUE was similar for the MDI treatment plots compared with LEPA and LESA during the wet growing season (2015, MDI demonstrated improved WUE during the drier year of 2016. Additional studies using crops with less than full canopy cover at maturity (sorghum and cotton are needed to document the performance of MDI in the Texas High Plains region.

  10. A Respiratory Airway-Inspired Low-Pressure, Self-Regulating Valve for Drip Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo-Qian; Winter, Amos G.; GEAR Lab Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant barriers to achieving large-scale dissemination of drip irrigation is the cost of the pump and power system. An effective means of reducing power consumption is by reducing pumping pressure. The principle source of pressure drop in a drip system is the high flow resistance in the self-regulating flow resistors installed at the outlets of the pips, which evenly distribute water over a field. Traditional architectures require a minimum pressure of ~1 bar to maintain a constant flow rate; our aim is to reduce this pressure by 90% and correspondingly lower pumping power to facilitate the creation of low-cost, off-grid drip irrigation systems. This study presents a new Starling resistor architecture that enables the adjustment of flow rate with a fixed minimum pressure demand of ~0.1 bar. A Starling resistor is a flexible tube subjected to a transmural pressure, which collapses the tube to restrict flow. Our design uses a single pressure source to drive flow through the flexible tube and apply a transmural pressure. Flow into the flexible tube is restricted with a needle valve, to increase the transmural pressure. Using this device, a series of experiments were conducted with different flexible tube diameters, lengths and wall thickness. We found that the resistance of the needle valve changes flow rate but not the minimum transmural pressure required to collapse the tube. A lumped-parameter model was developed to capture the relationships between valve openings, pressure, and flow rates.

  11. [Effects of drip irrigation under mulching on cotton root and shoot biomass and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying-Yu; Zhao, Cheng-Yi; Sheng, Yu; Li, Ju-Yan; Peng, Dong-Mei; Li, Zi-Liang; Feng, Sheng-Li

    2009-04-01

    By using bidirectional sampling method with soil drill, the effects of different amounts of drip irrigation (2618, 2947, 3600 and 4265 m3 x hm(-2)) under mulching on the root distribution, aboveground growth, and yield of cotton was studied in field. The results indicated that irrigation amount affected the root and shoot growth significantly. In all irrigation treatments, cotton root was mainly distributed in mulched area, occupying 60.65%-73.45% of total root biomass, while only 39.35%-26.55% was distributed in bare area. Water stress increased rooting depth, root biomass, and the extent of lateral rooting. Significant differences were observed in the biological characteristics and the biomass accumulation and allocation of cotton plant among different irrigation treatments. Over-irrigation (4265 m3 x hm(-2)) increased plant height, width of inverse fourth leaf, and amounts of branch and bud, and thus, accelerated biomass accumulation rate. Over-irrigation also increased the root/shoot ratio and the proportion of biomass allocated to vegetative organs, but increased the fruit abscission rate and therefore reduced the economic yield. It was suggested that both excessive soil moisture content and water stress could affect the biomass accumulation and allocation in different cotton organs and at various life stages. Under the conditions of our experiment, 3600 m3 x hm(-2) was the optimal irrigation amount.

  12. Canopy Reflectance-Based Nitrogen Management Strategies for Subsurface Drip Irrigated Cotton in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) can be very efficient when N is injected with the irrigation water (fertigated) on a daily basis. However, the daily rates and total amounts of N fertigation are uncertain. Normalized diffe...

  13. The distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Barros de Oliveira Silva, André Luiz; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to reach high yield and to increase longevity of plants. The SDI allows improving the water use efficiency, due to the application of water and nutrients in the root zone plants. It is necessary knowledge of soil and plant parameters, such as root system to improve irrigation system use efficiency. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system. The mentioned equipment enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars root system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars. The irrigation was performed by subsurface drip system and the soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. Three access tubes with 1.05 m-length were used for each cultivar. The images were caught with Root Scanner CI-600™ in two dates, 38 and 58 days after harvest (DAH) of cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon) in five depths and were analyzed by the software RootSnap! ™. The results show that, except for cultivar IACSP94-2094, more than 80% of root length was found in the first 0.40 m of soil profile. Until 38 DAH the root growth of cultivar IACSP94-2101 were approximately fourfold higher than other three ones in the 0 to 0.20 m layer, sevenfold higher to 0.20 to 0.40 m layer and threefold to 0.40 to 0.60 m soil profile layer. However, between 38 and 58 DAH the cultivar SP79-1011 presented higher growth taxes, being almost twofold higher than IACSP94-2101 at 0 to

  14. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Kennedy, C. M.; Rein, Arno

    2011-01-01

    irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. RESULTS: The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging......BACKGROUND: Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip....... CONCLUSION: Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between...

  15. Study of capillary experiments and hydrologic factors under subsurface drip irrigation with fractal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W; Cao, L

    2012-01-01

    Soil spatial variability is one of the primary environmental factors that influences the hydraulic factors and technical indicators of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), whose emitters are buried in the soil. This paper aimed at evaluating these effects of soil spatial variability on hydrologic factors under SDI. And some SDI emitter and capillary experiments were designed to obtain test data and distribution of pressure and emitter discharge. First, The results of labyrinth non-turbulent mosaic drip emitter test and fractal theory were used to research the fractal and quantitative relationship between single emitter hydrologic factors and soil physical parameters; and then, the capillary experiments and the relationship among hydrologic factors of capillary were used to analyze the fractal and quantitative relationship between hydrologic factors of capillary and soil physical parameters, which explained the inner relationship between spatial variability of soil and hydrologic factors of filed pipeline network under SDI, and provide theory support for the plan, design, management and production of SDI.

  16. An optimization model to design and manage subsurface drip irrigation system for alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelous, M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J. A.; Simunek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods for watering alfalfa plants. Lateral installation depth and distance, emitter discharge, and irrigation time and frequency of SDI, in addition to soil and climatic conditions affect alfalfa’s root water uptake and yield. Here we use a multi-objective optimization approach to find optimal SDI strategies. Our approach uses the AMALGAM evolutionary search method, in combination with the HYDRUS-2D unsaturated flow model to maximize water uptake by alfalfa’s plant roots, and minimize loss of irrigation and drainage water to the atmosphere or groundwater. We use a variety of different objective functions to analyze SDI. These criteria include the lateral installation depth and distance, the lateral discharge, irrigation duration, and irrigation frequency. Our framework includes explicit recognition of the soil moisture status during the simulation period to make sure that the top soil is dry for harvesting during the growing season. Initial results show a wide spectrum of optimized SDI strategies for different root distributions, soil textures and climate conditions. The developed tool should be useful in helping farmers optimize their irrigation strategy and design.

  17. A Novel Pressure Compensating Valve for Low-Cost Drip Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Amos; Wiens, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Nearly one billion people are currently living as subsistence farmers in the developing world. Irrigation could drastically increase quality of life for these individuals by enabling them to grow more and higher value crops. However, current irrigation technologies are too costly for this economic sector, particularly in off-grid applications. The cost of an off-grid irrigation system is primarily driven by the power required to pump the water at a relatively high pressure (>1 bar). We propose a novel pressure compensating drip emitter design which allows these systems to operate at 1/10 the pressure of current products, making them economically viable in developing markets. Our proposed solution is inspired by the resonating nozzle of a deflating balloon. We use a reduced order model to understand the physical principles which drive the cyclic collapse of the balloon nozzle. This knowledge is applied to propose a pressure compensating drip emitter consisting of a simple compliant tube in series with a rigid conical diffuser. A scaling analysis is performed to determine the ideal geometry of the system and the model is applied to demonstrate that the proposed design is capable of pressure compensation in the required operation range. Preliminary experiments are presented.

  18. A Wireless Low Power Valve Controller for Drip Irrigation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Tai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation control systems in fields generally include a large number of sensors and valves; controlling these devices efficiently can be achieved by using distributed irrigation control (DIC, which has the advantages of reduced wiring and piping costs and easier installation and maintenance. In this study, a wireless low power valve controller for drip irrigation control systems was developed and tested. The specific tasks included the controller design (hardware and software, energy consumption tests, and field tests. The controller uses the highly integrated JN5139 module, which is based on IEEE802.15.4, for hardware design; low power consumption sleep algorithms for software design; and two alkaline batteries for supply of power to the valve controller. Results of laboratory and field tests show continuous working days of the valve controller powered by two alkaline batteries are at least 3 months under different sleep periods and frequencies of valve control. The controller described here is characterized as reliable, low cost, easy to install, and having low power consumption.

  19. Development, yield and quality attributes of sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. de O. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the development, yield and quality of four sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip system. The experiment was carried out in Campinas-SP, Brazil, from January 2012 to November 2013, with the cultivars SP79-1011, IACSP94-2101, IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000 subjected to daily irrigations. The irrigations depths were applied to bring soil moisture to field capacity. Soil moisture was monitored using soil moisture probes. Samples were collected along the crop cycle in order to evaluate crop development and yield, at the end of the first and second ratoons. Stalk height showed good correlation for the estimation of crop yield, with R2 equal to or higher than 0.96. The cultivar IACSP95-5000 showed the highest yield in the first ratoon. In the second ratoon the highest yield was observed in IACSP94-2101, followed by IACSP95-5000 and SP79-1011. Considering the yield results associated with the technological analysis, such as soluble solids content and apparent sucrose, the cultivar IACSP95-5000 excelled the others in the cultivation under subsurface drip irrigation.

  20. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  1. Water use and crop coefficient of subsurface drip-irrigated lettuce in Central Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Aureo S. de; Martin,Edward C.; Slack,Donald C.; Pegelow,Edward J.; Folta,Allen D.

    2005-01-01

    A two year field study (1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons) was carried out at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W) of the University of Arizona, USA, to investigate the water use and to derive Kc's for subsurface drip-irrigated head lettuce grown in small weighable lysimeters. Measurement periods ranged from 480 to 1100 ºC-day (96/97) and from 439 to 1098 ºC-day (97/98). These intervals corresponded essentially to the second half of the crop cycle which amounted to a...

  2. [Effects of irrigation threshold on soil temperature in blossom and fruit-set periods of muskmelon under mulching-drip irrigation in greenhouse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue-Wen; Liu, Hao; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Cui, Jia-Xin

    2014-10-01

    It is very significant for muskmelon growth and production to maintain optimal conditions of soil moisture and temperature, especially during blossom and fruit-bearing periods. The object of this study was to analyze the effects of different soil water thresholds (T1: 55% of the field capacity, T2: 65% of the field capacity, T3: 75% of the field capacity, CK: 85% of the field capacity) on soil temperature under mulching-drip irrigation in greenhouse. Moreover, effects of the ratio of soil moisture to heat in the plough layer (0-20 cm) on muskmelon growth and fruit setting were investigated. Results indicated that during the flowering and fruit bearing periods, the order of mean soil temperature in the plough layer for the different treatments was T1 > T2 > T3 > CK. There was an inverse correlation between soil temperature in the plough layer and moisture. The maximum one-day variations for soil temperature on sunny day, rainy day and after irrigation were observed in the soil surface under the plastic film mulch, while the minimum happened in the soil layer of 20 cm outside the mulch. The soil temperature extreme was closely related with soil depth, and the difference in the extreme soil temperature between the soil surface and the soil layers of 10 and 20 cm was significant. The treatment T3, with the fastest plant growth rate, the minimum duration of fruit bearing and the maximum fruit setting rate, could be selected as the optimal treatment, and the ratio of soil moisture to heat in T3 was 1.62 mm · °C(-1). Therefore, taking into consideration the relationship between soil moisture and temperature during flowering and fruit bearing periods of muskmelon under mulching-drip irrigation, the ratio of soil water to heat in the plough layer should be kept at 1.62 mm · C(-1). The result would be very meaningful for drip-irrigated muskmelon production and management in greenhouse in North China.

  3. Assessment of a New Approach for Systematic Subsurface Drip Irrigation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hédi Ben Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess the reliability of a new approach that provides systematic irrigation management based on fixed water suction in the vadose zone. Trials were carried out in the experimental farm of IRA Gabès on subsurface drip irrigated (SDI tomato plot. The SDI system was designed so that the soil water content is to be maintained within prescribed interval ascertaining the best plant growth. Irrigation management was systematically monitored by water suction evolution in the vadose zone. Recorded results showed that all-over irrigation season lateral pressure head ranged within 93.3 ± 20.0; 119.95 ± 53.35 and 106.6 ± 40.0 mb, respectively, at the upstream, middle, and downstream. The correspondent lateral pressure head distribution uniformity ranged within 97.1% and 99.6%. Soil water content varied within 0.2175 ± 0.0165; 0.206 ± 0.0195 and 0.284 ± 0.100 beneath the inlet, the behalf, and the lateral end tip. The correspondent soil water distribution uniformity was higher than 80.7% all-over irrigation season. Based on the recorded results, the proposed approach could be a helpful tool for accurate SDI systems design and best water supplies management. Nevertheless, further trials are needed to assess the approach reliability in different cropping conditions.

  4. Drip irrigation with treated wastewater from cashew nut industry under service pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketson Bruno da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of wastewater generated in the processing of cashew nuts enables the rationalization of water use, as well as the minimization of pollution and environmental degradation. The study aimed to analyze the effect of service pressures in the distribution uniformity of drip irrigation units applying treated wastewater from cashew nut industry. The experiment was conducted in split-split plots scheme having the service pressures (70, 140, 210 and 280 kPa on parcels, the emitters models (G1, G2 and G3 on subplots and the evaluation periods (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 h of operation of the irrigation units on subsubplots. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The coefficient of uniformity of distribution of irrigation units, as well as the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the effluent were determined every 20 hours of operation the irrigation units to totalize 160 h. The combination of dripper G3 and service pressure of 140 kPa provided excellent levels of distribution uniformity of effluent on irrigation units operating with treated wastewater of cashew nut industry. For application of treated wastewater from cashew nut it is not recommended the use of drippers with low flow rate (? 1.6 L h-1 and labyrinth of greater length (? 58 mm.

  5. Stalk yield of sugarcane cultivars under different water regimes by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the stalk yield of ten sugarcane cultivars (RB962962, RB931011, RB931530, RB98710, RB92579, RB867515, RB863129, SP791011, RB72545 and VAT90212 subjected to water deficit, full irrigation and water surplus by subsurface drip irrigation, during three cropping seasons (2011-2014. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, in dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol. The cultivars RB962962 (162.3 Mg ha-1 and RB867515 (158.5 Mg ha-1 have better stalk yield compared with other cultivars in all water regimes and cropping seasons.

  6. Effects of organic wastes on structural characterizations of humic acid in semiarid soil under plastic mulched drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Juan; Wu, Jinggui; Qu, Xiaojing; Li, Jianming

    2018-02-22

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the variation in the amount and structure of humic acid (HA) after the application of organic wastes (OWs) in semiarid soil under plastic mulched drip irrigation, measured by elemental composition, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence, and carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C CPMAS NMR). The experiment involved chemical fertilizer combined with chicken manure (CM), sheep manure (SM), maize straw (MS), fodder grass (FG), and tree leaves (TL), while chemical fertilizer only was used as control (CK). The highest cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC), and HA contents (P plastic mulched drip irrigation conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic feasibility of converting center pivot irrigation to subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancements in irrigation technology have increased water use efficiency. However, producers can be reluctant to convert to a more efficient irrigation system when the initial investment costs are high. This study examines the economic feasibility of replacing low energy precision application (LEPA...

  8. Double row spacing and drip irrigation as technical options in energy sorghum management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Roncucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two row spacing configurations and four water supply levels was investigated on sweet and fibre sorghum in Central Italy for two consecutive years. Results highlighted the influence of both irrigation and row spatial configuration on crop productivity. Indeed, several studies have pointed out the positive response of sorghum to irrigation in Mediterranean climate, as in this environment water stress represents one of the main limiting factors on crop productivity. On the other hand, few attempts have been made to explore the role of row spacing on energy sorghum productivity. Results outlined an average increase in sorghum dry biomass yield ranging from +23% to +79% at variable rates of water supply as compared to rainfed control. The positive effect of irrigation was also observed on leaf area index and radiation use efficiency. Moreover, we observed a crop yield increase, from 9% to 20%, under double row spacing compared to the standard planting pattern (i.e. single row spacing. Finally, it was confirmed the efficient use of water by sorghum and the great ability of sorghum to increase its biomass yield in response to increasing volumes of water supplied. Therefore, this work suggests how row spacing configuration and drip irrigation could be feasible technical options to increase sorghum biomass yields in Mediterranean environments. These techniques should be experienced by farmers towards a sustainable intensification of current cropping systems.

  9. Water dephts and macronutrients accumulation in 'pérola' pineapple irrigated by drip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uirá do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the largest pineapple producers worldwide, and those fruits are for the juice industry and the in natura market. Its cultivation requires high technology investment by using irrigation and balanced fertilization. However, little is known about the influence of drip irrigation on nutrient uptake by pineapple plants. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different irrigation depths on nutrients accumulation by 'Pérola' pineapples grown in northern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with five treatments referring to: 30% of Class A Evaporation Pan (ECA; 50% of ECA; 70% of ECA; 100% of ECA; and 150% of ECA. To determine the levels of macronutrients and dry matter, the plants were separated in root, stem, leaves, 'D' leaf, crown, fruit and whole plant. The sequence of macronutrients accumulated in the whole plant was K>N>Ca>P>Mg. The fruits exported from the cultivated area the following amounts of macronutrients: 17.52 kg ha-1 of K (12.8%; 16.91 kg ha-1 of N (20.7%; 10.77 kg ha-1 of Ca (15.9%, 1.29 kg ha-1 of P (12.4% and 1.04 kg ha-1 of Mg (20.5%. The irrigation depths that provided the maximum N, P, K and Ca accumulation in the whole plant are 53.6, 61.6, 54.5 and 60.2% of ECA, respectively.

  10. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, Diego; Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Vallejo, Antonio

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH4(+) and NO3(-)) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N2O, CO2 and CH4) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N2O, NO, CH4 and CO2 were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N2O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (Pfertigation with a NO3(-)-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of three semi-empirical approaches to estimate the net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael López-Olivari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of actual evapotranspiration (ETα models requires an appropriate parameterization of the available energy, where the net radiation (Rn is the most important component. Thus, a study was carried out to calibrate and evaluate three semi-empirical approaches to estimate net radiation (Rn over a drip-irrigated olive (Olea europaea L. 'Arbequina' orchard during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons. The orchard was planted in 2005 at high density in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The evaluated models were calculated using the balance between long and short wave radiation. To achieve this objective it was assumed that Ts = Tα for Model 1, Ts = Tv for Model 2 and Ts = Tr for Model 3 (Ts is surface temperature; Tα is air temperature; and Tv is temperature inside of the tree canopy; Tr is radiometric temperature. For the three models, the Brutsaert's empirical coefficient (Φ was calibrated using incoming long wave radiation equation with the database of 2009/2010 season. Thus, the calibration indicated that Φ was equal to 1.75. Using the database from 2010/2011 season, the validation indicated that the three models were able to predict the Rn at a 30-min interval with errors lower than 6%, root mean square error (RMSE between 26 and 39 W m-2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 20 and 31 W m-2. On daily time intervals, validation indicated that models presented errors, RMSE and MAE between 2% and 3%, 1.22-1.54 and 1.04-1.35 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. The three R„-Models would be evaluated and used in others Mediterranean conditions according to the availability of data to estimate net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard planted at high density.

  12. Calibration Curve of Neutron Moisture Meter for Sandy Soil under Drip Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abd El- Moniem M.; Gendy, R. W.; Bedaiwy, M. N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a neutron calibration curve in order to be able to use the neutron probe in sandy soils under drip irrigation systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Soil and Water Department of the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority. Three replicates were used along the lateral lines of the drip irrigation system. For each dripper, ten neutron access tubes were installed to 100-cm depth at distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm from the dripper location around the drippers on the lateral line, as well as between lateral lines. The neutron calibrations were determined at 30, 45, and 60-cm depths. Determining coefficients as well as t-test in pairs were employed to detect the accuracy of the calibrations. Results indicated that in order for the neutron calibration curve to express the whole wet area around the emitter; three-access tubes must be installed at distances of 5, 15, and 25 cm from the emitter. This calibration curve will be correlating the average count ratio (CR) at the studied soil depth of the three locations (5, 15, and 25-cm distances from the emitter) to the average moisture content (θ) for this soil depth of the entire wetted area. This procedure should be repeated at different times in order to obtain different θ and C.R values, so that the regression equation of calibration curve at this soil depth can be obtained. To determine the soil moisture content, the average CR of the three locations must be taken and substituted into the regression equation representing the neutron calibration curve. Results taken from access tubes placed at distances of 15 cm from the emitter, showed good agreement with the average calibration curve both for the 45- and the 60-cm depths, suggesting that the 15-cm distance may provide a suitable substitute for the simultaneous use of the three different distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm. However, the obtained results show also that the neutron calibration curves of the 30-cm depth for

  13. assessment of injection of liquid rhizobial inoculum and traditional inoculation of soybean under furrow and drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Kurdali, F.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean in naturally N 2 -fixing legume, but it needs artificial inoculation with appropriate strains of rhizobia when introduced to land not previously cultivated to the crop. As soybean is being introduced to Syria, inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum is essential to ensure effective biological nitrogen fixation by the crop. The question is: what is the most effective mean of inoculation?. As Syria is a water-short country, we examined the possibility of applying the rhizobial inoculant in irrigation system (Biofertigation) in contrast with the conventional seed pelleting application. In a 2 year experiment at a research station near Damascus, we compared seed pelleting of the inoculant under furrow and drip irrigation, with repeated inoculation by injection of a liquid culture rhizobial inoculum through the drip system. Drip irrigation enhanced N 2 fixation by soybean regardless of inoculation technique ad repeated inoculation. Injection of the liquid rhizobial inoculum through drip irrigation system was shown to enhances the acquisition of atmospheric N 2 and improve N 2 fixation by soybean.(author)

  14. HYDRUS simulations of the effects of dual-drip subsurface irrigation and a physical barrier on water movement and solute transport in soils

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nesr, MN; Alazba, AA; Šimůnek, J

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation systems, compared to other irrigation systems, enhance the delivery of water and nutrients directly into the root zone. However, in light-textured soils, certain quantities of water may percolate below the root zone due to the subsurface position of drip lines and/or poor management of irrigation systems. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate three technologies to enhance a spatial distribution of water and solutes in the root zone and to limit downward le...

  15. Water flow and multicomponent solute transport in drip-irrigated lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Iael; Šimůnek, Jiří; Ben-Gal, Alon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2016-08-01

    Controlled experiments and modeling are crucial components in the evaluation of the fate of water and solutes in environmental and agricultural research. Lysimeters are commonly used to determine water and solute balances and assist in making sustainable decisions with respect to soil reclamation, fertilization, or irrigation with low-quality water. While models are cost-effective tools for estimating and preventing environmental damage by agricultural activities, their value is highly dependent on the accuracy of their parameterization, often determined by calibration. The main objective of this study was to use measured major ion concentrations collected from drip-irrigated lysimeters to calibrate the variably saturated water flow model HYDRUS (2D/3D) coupled with the reactive transport model UNSATCHEM. Irrigation alternated between desalinated and brackish waters. Lysimeter drainage and soil solution samples were collected for chemical analysis and used to calibrate the model. A second objective was to demonstrate the potential use of the calibrated model to evaluate lower boundary design options of lysimeters with respect to leaching fractions determined using drainage water fluxes, chloride concentrations, and overall salinity of drainage water, and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) in the profile. The model showed that, in the long term, leaching fractions calculated with electrical conductivity values would be affected by the lower boundary condition pressure head, while those calculated with chloride concentrations and water fluxes would not be affected. In addition, clear dissimilarities in ESP profiles were found between lysimeters with different lower boundary conditions, suggesting a potential influence on hydraulic conductivities and flow patterns.

  16. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legind, Charlotte N; Kennedy, Coleen M; Rein, Arno; Snyder, Nathan; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw(-1). Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw(-1). Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates. Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between applications and before harvest, through the integrated accounting of soil, plant and environmental influences. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Low salinity hydrocarbon water disposal through deep subsurface drip irrigation: leaching of native selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Engle, Mark A.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Zupancic, John W.; Brown, Adrian; Figueroa, Linda; Wolkersdorfer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A subsurface drip irrigation system is being used in Wyoming’s Powder River Basin that treats high sodium, low salinity, coal bed methane (CBM) produced water with sulfuric acid and injects it into cropped fields at a depth of 0.92 m. Dissolution of native gypsum releases calcium that combats soil degradation that would otherwise result from high sodium water. Native selenium is leached from soil by application of the CBM water and traces native salt mobilization to groundwater. Resulting selenium concentrations in groundwater at this alluvial site were generally low (0.5–23 μg/L) compared to Wyoming’s agricultural use suitability standard (20 μg/L).

  18. Effect of Nitrogen and Irrigation Application on Water Movement and Nitrogen Transport for a Wheat Crop under Drip Irrigation in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For improving water scarcity and groundwater pollution from agriculture, two-year experiments (2011–2013 with three water levels (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 evaporation (E in 20-cm-diameter pans and four nitrogen (N levels (120, 140 and 190 kg·ha−1 in 2012 and 120, 190 and 290 kg·ha−1 in 2013 were conducted to study effects of water and N availability on water movement and N transport for a wheat crop under drip irrigation in the North China Plain. The results indicated that under drip irrigation, deep percolation at 1-m depth was stable at 0.5–0.8 E with the same N rate for winter wheat. At 0.5–0.8 E, deep percolation was also relatively stable with increasing N rate from 120 to 140 kg·ha−1 or from 190 to 290 kg·ha−1. The irrigation schedule and N rates only affected N leaching below the root zone of winter wheat (60-cm depth, while the N residual in the soil layer presented more risk to the environment than N leaching. In general, the 290-kg-ha−1 N level was not recommended using drip fertigation for winter wheat in the North China Plain. The empirical equation given by the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources was also not recommended for estimating the drainage under drip irrigation.

  19. Small Acreage Irrigation Management

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Field irrigation application methods include surface (wild flooding, border, furrow, basins), sprinkler (hand line, wheel move, solid set, center pivot), low flow or micro-irrigation (drip, trickle, micro-spray), and subirrigation (water table manipulation under special conditions).

  20. Effect of Post-Infiltration Soil Aeration at Different Growth Stages on Growth and Fruit Quality of Drip-Irrigated Potted Tomato Plants (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    Full Text Available Soil hydraulic principles suggest that post-infiltration hypoxic conditions would be induced in the plant root-zone for drip-irrigated tomato production in small pots filled with natural soil. No previous study specifically examined the response of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum at different growth stages to low soil aeration under these conditions. A 2 × 6 factorial experiment was conducted to quantify effects of no post-infiltration soil aeration versus aeration during 5 different periods (namely 27-33, 34-57, 58-85, 86-99, and 27-99 days after sowing, on growth and fruit quality of potted single tomato plants that were sub-surface trickle-irrigated every 2 days at 2 levels. Soil was aerated by injecting 2.5 liters of air into each pot through the drip tubing immediately after irrigation. Results showed that post-infiltration aeration, especially during the fruit setting (34-57 DAS and enlargement (58-85 DAS growth stages, can positively influence the yield, root dry weight and activity, and the nutritional (soluble solids and vitamin C content, taste (titratable acidity, and market quality (shape and firmness of the tomato fruits. Interactions between irrigation level and post-infiltration aeration on some of these fruit quality parameters indicated a need for further study on the dynamic interplay of air and water in the root zone of the plants under the conditions of this experiment.

  1. Water saving in chufa cultivation using flat raised beds and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Seva, N.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Maroto, J. V.; Pascual, B.

    2012-04-01

    Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus), also known as tiger nut, is a typical crop in the Region of Valencia (Spain). Its tubers are used to produce a beverage called horchata. Chufa has been cultivated traditionally in ridges and furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of water used is acceptable, there are no limitations on supply, and water is not expensive; therefore, large amounts of water are used. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60 is based on the precautionary principle, considering preventive action for measures to be taken; thus, water use is an issue to improve. Moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. In this two year study (2007-2008), we analysed how yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) are affected by two cultivation factors: planting strategy and irrigation system. Three planting strategies were analysed: ridges (R) and flat raised beds, with two (B2) and three (B3) plant rows along them, while two irrigation systems were compared, furrow (FI) and drip irrigation (DI). Within the beds, the effect of the position of the plant row was considered, differing among plants grown in the north (n), central (c), and south (s) rows. Distances between ridge and bed axes were 60, 80 and 120 cm for R, B2 and B3, respectively. Irrigation was based on the Volumetric Soil Water Content (VSWC), which was continuously monitored with capacitance sensors (ECH2O EC-5 in FI and multidepth capacitance sensors C-Probe in DI). Each irrigation session started when the VSWC in R dropped to 60% and 80% of field capacity in FI and DI, respectively. Each DI session lasted 60 min in 2007; while in 2008 the installation was automated, stopping each session when the sum of the VSWC at 10, 20, and 30 cm soil depth reached its corresponding field capacity value. With both irrigation systems, beds were irrigated simultaneously with ridges and with the same irrigation duration. Plants from

  2. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalos@upm.es [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Groenigen, Jan Willem van [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Vallejo, Antonio [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N{sub 2}O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO{sub 3}{sup −}-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO

  3. Growth, Yield and WUE of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigated Okra Grown On Sandy Soil Under Semi-Arid Conditions in Southeast Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn

    Vegetable production systems at the Keta sand spit, Southeast Ghana, are typically managed with excessive amounts of irrigation water and fertilizers on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities. The shallow groundwater which is the primary irrigation water resource...... is prone to salinization from the Keta lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean and brackish water underneath (Kortatsi and Agyeku, 1999). To ensure the sustainability of vegetable production at the Keta spit, introduction of water saving irrigation systems and improved irrigation management schemes are important. Thus...... for the drip irrigated okra crop was 269 mm compared to 379 mm for sprinkler. By adopting drip irrigation to okra, the seasonal crop water use could be reduced close to 30 %. From the results it is concluded that on rough textured sandy soil drip irrigation with frequent weekly fertigation resulted...

  4. The Effect of Water Stress on Yield of New Cotton Variety-Sepid (Gossipiumhirsutum L. in Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    borhan sohrabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is a vast country with limited water resources. Iran is located in arid areas and average precipitation is estimated to be 250 mm. In recent years, water shortage has created many problems for Iranian farmers. In these conditions, surface and ground water use is excessive. High consumption, low irrigation efficiency, bad time and geographical distribution of precipitation, population growth and increasing agricultural land are one of the main reasons for the irrigation water crisis. Therefore, the main problem of drought and water shortages still remains. The area of agricultural land in Golestan province is high, but most of them are rain-fed cultivation or left fallow. Due to the loss of irrigation water in traditional agriculture, development of pressurized irrigation as a solution to increase productivity and reduction of strain on water resources was raised. With government support, the use of pressurized irrigation systems is increasing. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of different amounts of water on new variety of cotton-Sepid, a two-year study was conducted using drip irrigation at Hashemabad Cotton Research Station, Gorgan, Iran.The Hashemabad Cotton Research Station is located in north of Iran at 36° 51' N latitude and 54° 16' E longitude at the south-east corner of Caspian Sea and its height from sea level is 13.3 meters. That station has a Mediterranean climate with relatively mild winters and relatively dry summers. The station's annual evaporation, precipitation and relative humidity are 1311mm, 525 mm and 71%, respectively. Soil texture of Hashem Abad station is silty clay loam. In this study, four levels of irrigation water: 0%, 40%, 70% and 100% evaporation of class A pan were studied in a randomized complete block design. Land was plowed in autumn last year and was ready for planting in April with the disc. During tillage, manure fertilizer on the soil surface was sprayed based on the soil

  5. Application of drip irrigation technology for producing fruit of Salak ‘Gula Pasir’ (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir off season on dry land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Naturally, Salak Gula Pasir (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir is flowering every three months or four times a year, but only one or two flowering seasons that the flowers can develop into fruit. The condition causes Salak Gula Pasir is available in the market in a short period (only 2-3 months i.e. at the time of harvest (on-season from December to February. This seasonal nature of Salak Gula Pasir occurs because Salak Gula Pasir is planted on dry land where irrigation depends only on rainfall, and drought occurs when water is shortage so that the plant internal water content is low that causes a high failure development rate of flower to become fruit (fruit-set failure. This study was aimed to overcome the fruit-set failure by providing drip irrigation. Two treatments (with drip irrigation and without drip irrigation/control with sixteen replicates were tested at Salak Gula Pasir production centre (at Sibetan village, Bebandem District, of Karangasem Regency, Bali at two harvest seasons, i.e. Gadu (July and Sela II (October. The results showed that the plant provided with drip irrigation significantly yielded fruit-set percentage higher that that without drip irrigation, both in Gadu and Sela II seasons. The percentages of fruit-set in Gadu and Sela II seasons provided with drip irrigation were 75.30% and 93.13%, respectively, while those without drip irrigation were only 59.94% and 61.67%, respectively. The increase of fruit-set observed for drip irrigation treatment associated with the increase of leaf chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC of leaves, and leaf N, P, and K contents. The increase of fruit-set led to higher number of fruits and fruit weight per plant under drip irrigation than that without drip irrigation. Based on the results of this study, drip irrigation can be applied to produce Salak Gula Pasir planted out of season on dry land.

  6. Evaluation of an operational real-time irrigation scheduling scheme for drip irrigated citrus fields in Picassent, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dazhi; Hendricks-Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Jiménez Bello, Miguel Angel; Martínez Alzamora, Fernando; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    Irrigated agriculture accounts worldwide for 40% of food production and 70% of fresh water withdrawals. Irrigation scheduling aims to minimize water use while maintaining the agricultural production. In this study we were concerned with the real-time automatic control of irrigation, which calculates daily water allocation by combining information from soil moisture sensors and a land surface model. The combination of soil moisture measurements and predictions by the Community Land Model (CLM) using sequential data assimilation (DA) is a promising alternative to improve the estimate of soil and plant water status. The LETKF (Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter) was chosen to assimilate soil water content measured by FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) into CLM and improve the initial (soil moisture) conditions for the next model run. In addition, predictions by the GFS (Global Forecast System) atmospheric simulation model were used as atmospheric input data for CLM to predict an ensemble of possible soil moisture evolutions for the next days. The difference between predicted and target soil water content is defined as the water deficit, and the irrigation amount was calculated by the integrated water deficit over the root zone. The corresponding irrigation time to apply the required water was introduced in SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition system) for each citrus field. In total 6 fields were irrigated according our optimization approach including data assimilation (CLM-DA) and there were also 2 fields following the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) water balance method and 4 fields controlled by farmers as reference. During the real-time irrigation campaign in Valencia from July to October in 2015 and June to October in 2016, the applied irrigation amount, stem water potential and soil moisture content were recorded. The data indicated that 5% 20% less irrigation water was needed for the CLM-DA scheduled fields than for the other fields

  7. Effect of soil properties on Hydraulic characteristics under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wangtao; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a technique that has a high potential in application because of its high efficiency in water-saving. The hydraulic characteristics of SDI sub-unit pipe network can be affected by soil physical properties as the emitters are buried in soils. The related research, however, is not fully explored. The laboratory tests were carried out in the present study to determine the effects of hydraulic factors including operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density on flow rate and its sensitivity to each hydraulic factor for two types of SDI emitters (PLASSIM emitter and Heping emitter). For this purpose, three soils with contrasting textures (i.e., light sand, silt loam, and light clay) were repacked with two soil bulk density (1.25 and1.40 g cm-3) with two initial soil water content (12% and 18%) in plexiglass columns with 40 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. Drip emitters were buried at depth of 20 cm to measure the flow rates under seven operating pressures (60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 370 kPa). We found that the operating pressure was the dominating factor of flow rate of the SDI emitter, and flow rate increased with the increase of operating pressure. The initial soil water content and bulk density also affected the flow rate, and their effects were the most notable in the light sand soil. The sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor was dependent on soil texture, and followed a descending order of light sand>silt loam>light clay for both types of emitters. Further, the sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor decreased with the increase of operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density. This study may be used to guide the soil specific-design of SDI emitters for optimal water use and management.

  8. Water and nutrient productivity in melon crop by fertigation under subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in contrasting soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Câmara Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping intensification and technical, economic and environmental issues require efficient application of production factors to maintain the soil productive capacity and produce good quality fruits and vegetables. The production factors, water and NPK nutrients, are the most frequent limiting factors to higher melon yields. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching in a protected environment on the water and NPK nutrients productivity in melon cropped in two soil types: sandy loam and clay. The melon crop cultivated under environmental conditions with underground drip irrigation at 0.20m depth, with mulching on sandy loam soil increased water and N, P2O5 and K use efficiency.

  9. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Huijin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, w...

  10. Application of sand and geotextile envelope in subsurface drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Subsurface drip irrigation is a technology used for better management of irrigation water. This technique is more desirable in arid and semi-arid region, because of decreasing soil surface evaporation and more efficiency of irrigation system in comparison with the other irrigation systems. In addition, this ...

  11. Application of sand and geotextile envelope in subsurface drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsurface drip irrigation is a technology used for better management of irrigation water. This technique is more desirable in arid and semi-arid region, because of decreasing soil surface evaporation and more efficiency of irrigation system in comparison with the other irrigation systems. Inaddition, this system is a safer way ...

  12. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Huijin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, which was more than that in cotton cropland without plastic film mulching and drip-irrigation. Moreover, when time is scaled up from a half-hour to a month, the correlations of gross primary production (GPP) to air temperature (Tair), net solar radiation (Rn) and soil water content (SWC) gradually become stronger due to ecosystem resistance and resilience as well as the protection of plastic film mulching. The GPP is more strongly correlated with Rn than Tair at time scales from minutes to days, while it reverses at time scales from days to weeks. This outcome is largely determined by the biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis. SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at all time scales are weakly correlated with GPP because plastic film mulching and regularly drip-irrigation allow soil to maintain sufficient water. PMID:29415018

  13. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    Full Text Available Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, which was more than that in cotton cropland without plastic film mulching and drip-irrigation. Moreover, when time is scaled up from a half-hour to a month, the correlations of gross primary production (GPP to air temperature (Tair, net solar radiation (Rn and soil water content (SWC gradually become stronger due to ecosystem resistance and resilience as well as the protection of plastic film mulching. The GPP is more strongly correlated with Rn than Tair at time scales from minutes to days, while it reverses at time scales from days to weeks. This outcome is largely determined by the biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis. SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD at all time scales are weakly correlated with GPP because plastic film mulching and regularly drip-irrigation allow soil to maintain sufficient water.

  14. Relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field in arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Huijin; Li, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Environmental factors and human activities play important roles in carbon fixation and emissions generated from croplands. Eddy covariance measurements in a drip-irrigated, film-mulched cotton field were used to analyze the relationships between carbon fluxes and environmental factors in Wulanwusu, northern Xinjiang, an arid region of Northwest China. Our results showed that the cumulative net carbon flux (NEE) was -304.8 g C m-2 (a strong sink) over the whole cotton growing season in 2012, which was more than that in cotton cropland without plastic film mulching and drip-irrigation. Moreover, when time is scaled up from a half-hour to a month, the correlations of gross primary production (GPP) to air temperature (Tair), net solar radiation (Rn) and soil water content (SWC) gradually become stronger due to ecosystem resistance and resilience as well as the protection of plastic film mulching. The GPP is more strongly correlated with Rn than Tair at time scales from minutes to days, while it reverses at time scales from days to weeks. This outcome is largely determined by the biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis. SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at all time scales are weakly correlated with GPP because plastic film mulching and regularly drip-irrigation allow soil to maintain sufficient water.

  15. Optimized solar-wind-powered drip irrigation for farming in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carolina M.

    The two billion people produce 80% of all food consumed in the developing world and 1.3 billion lack access to electricity. Agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% worldwide by 2050 and to achieve this about 50% more primary energy has to be made available by 2035. Energy-smart agri-food systems can improve productivity in the food sector, reduce energy poverty in rural areas and contribute to achieving food security and sustainable development. Agriculture can help reduce poverty for 75% of the world's poor, who live in rural areas and work mainly in farming. The costs associated with irrigation pumping are directly affected by energy prices and have a strong impact on farmer income. Solar-wind (SW) drip irrigation (DI) is a sustainable method to meet these challenges. This dissertation shows with onsite data the low cost of SW pumping technologies correlating the water consumption (evapotranspiration) and the water production (SW pumping). The author designed, installed, and collected operating data from the six SWDI systems in Peru and in the Tohono O'odham Nation in AZ. The author developed, tested, and a simplified model for solar engineers to size SWDI systems. The author developed a business concept to scale up the SWDI technology. The outcome was a simplified design approach for a DI system powered by low cost SW pumping systems optimized based on the logged on site data. The optimization showed that the SWDI system is an income generating technology and that by increasing the crop production per unit area, it allowed small farmers to pay for the system. The efficient system resulted in increased yields, sometimes three to four fold. The system is a model for smallholder agriculture in developing countries and can increase nutrition and greater incomes for the world's poor.

  16. Continuous measurement of soil evaporation in a drip-irrigated wine vineyard in a desert area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation from the soil surface (E) can be a significant source of water loss in arid areas. In sparsely vegetated systems, E is expected to be a function of soil, climate, irrigation regime, precipitation patterns, and plant canopy development, and will therefore change dynamically at both daily ...

  17. Greenhouse and field-based studies on the distribution of dimethoate in cotton and its effect on Tetranychus urticae by drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Zhou, Lijuan; Yao, Qiang; Liu, Bo; Xu, Hanhong; Huang, Jiguang

    2018-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest of cotton. We investigated the efficacy of dimethoate in controlling T. urticae by drip irrigation. Greenhouse and field experiments were carried out to determine the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae and the absorption and distribution of dimethoate in cotton. Greenhouse results showed that cotton leaves received higher amounts of dimethoate compared with cotton roots and stems, with higher amounts in young leaves compared with old leaves and cotyledon having the lowest amounts among leaves. Field results showed the efficacy of dimethoate to T. urticae by drip irrigation varied by volume of dripping water, soil pH and dimethoate dosage. Dimethoate applied at 3.00 kg ha -1 with 200 m 3  ha -1 water at weak acidic soil pH (5.70-6.70) through drip irrigation can obtain satisfactory control efficacy (81.49%, 7 days) to T. urticae, without negatively impacting on its natural enemy Neoseiulus cucumeris. The residue of dimethoate in all cotton seed samples were not detectable. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of applying dimethoate by drip irrigation for control of T. urticae on cotton. This knowledge could aid in the applicability of dimethoate by drip irrigation for field management of T. urticae populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Seasonal simulation of water, salinity and nitrate dynamics under drip irrigated mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and assessing management options for drainage and nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phogat, V.; Skewes, M. A.; Cox, J. W.; Sanderson, G.; Alam, J.; Šimůnek, J.

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of all water fluxes temporally and spatially within and out of the crop root zone, and evaluation of issues like salinity and nutrient leaching, are necessary to fully appraise the efficiency of irrigation systems. Simulation models can be used to investigate these issues over several seasons when the cost of long term monitoring is prohibitive. Model results can be used to advise growers if improvements are required to various aspects of irrigation system operations. In this study, HYDRUS-2D was used to evaluate data measured during one season in a young mandarin (Citrus reticulata) orchard, irrigated with an intensive surface drip fertigation system. Water contents, salinities, and nitrate concentrations measured weekly in the field were compared with model predictions. The temporal mean absolute error (MAE) values between weekly measured and simulated water contents ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 cm3 cm-3. However, modelling error (MAE) was slightly larger at 10 cm depth (0.04 cm3 cm-3), as compared to greater depths (0.02-0.03 cm3 cm-3). Similarly, the errors were larger in the surface soil layer (25 cm depth) for nitrate-nitrogen, NO3--N (1.52 mmol(c) L-1), as compared to greater depths. The spatial and temporal soil solution salinity (ECsw) and NO3--N data showed accumulation of salts and nitrate within the soil up until day 150 of the simulation (December, 2006), followed by leaching due to high precipitation and over irrigation at later times. Only 49% of applied water was used by the mandarin trees, while 33.5% was leached. On the other hand, the simulation revealed that a significant amount of applied nitrogen (85%) was taken up by the mandarin trees, and the remaining 15% was leached. The results indicate that the irrigation and fertigation schedule needs modifying as there was overwatering from December onwards. Different permutations and combinations of irrigation and fertigation scheduling were evaluated to optimise the water and nitrogen uptake

  19. Effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Pejić Borivoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments showing the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were conducted at the experimental field of the Alternative Crops Department, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of the water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration (ETd was computed from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo and crop coefficient (kc in May, June, July and August of 0.5, 0.6, 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. ETo was calculated using Hargreaves equation. The irrigation depth was restricted to the soil depth of 0.3 m. In other words, irrigation started when readily available water in the soil layer of 0.3 m was completely depleted by plants. The irrigation rate was 30 mm (30 l m-2 while the amount of water added by irrigation during the season was 140 mm. Basil sensitivity to water stress was determined using a yield response factor (Ky. According to the results, the yield of fresh herb of basil under irrigation (32.015 t ha-1 was higher by 9% compared to non-irrigated, control variant (29.364 t ha-1. Worthy of note, basil essential oil yield was significantly affected by irrigation (35.329/28.766 kg ha-1. The content of essential oil was significantly higher in irrigated (6.45 g kg-1 than in non-irrigated variant (5.33 g kg-1 in the first harvest, while no significant difference between irrigated and non-irrigated variants was obtained in the second harvest (6.83 and 6.62 g kg-1 , respectively. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions (ETm was 431 mm and 270 mm in non-irrigated, control variant (ETa. The values of irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue and evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue were 1.89 kg m-3 and 1.65 kg m-3 respectively. Ky value (0.22 exhibits all essential characteristics of climate conditions of 2016 rainy year. These preliminary results could be used as a good platform for basil growers in the

  20. The Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Potato in Subsurface Drip Irrigation

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    Mohammad Jolaini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After wheat, rice and corn, potato is the fourth most important food plant in the world. In comparison with other species, potato is very sensitive to water stress because of its shallow root system: approximately 85% of the root length is concentrated in the upper 0.3-0.4 m of the soil. Several studies showed that drip irrigation is an effective method for enhancing potato yield. Fabeiro et al. (2001 concluded that tuber bulking and ripening stages were found to be the most sensitive stages of water stress with drip irrigation. Water deficit occurring in these two growth stages could result in yield reductions. Wang et al. (2006 investigated the effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil wetting pattern and potato yield. The results indicated that potato roots were not limited in wetted soil volume even when the crop was irrigated at the highest frequency while high frequency irrigation enhanced potato tuber growth and water use efficiency (WUE. Though information about irrigation and N management of this crop is often conflicting in the literature, it is accepted generally that production and quality are highly influenced by both N and irrigation amounts and these requirements are related to the cropping technique. Researches revealed that nitrogen fertilizers play a special role in the growth, production and quality of potatoes. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out during two growing seasons. Studied factors were irrigation frequency (I1:2 and I2:4 days interval and nitrogen fertilizer levels (applying 100 (N1, 75 (N2 and 50 (N3 % of the recommended amount. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied through irrigation water. In each plot two rows with within-and between-row spacing of 45 and 105 cm and 20 m length. The amount of nitrogen fertilizer for the control treatment was determined by soil analysis (N1. In all treatments, nitrogen fertilizer

  1. Tracking solutes and water from subsurface drip irrigation application of coalbed methane-produced waters, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, M.A.; Bern, C.R.; Healy, R.W.; Sams, J.I.; Zupancic, J.W.; Schroeder, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    One method to beneficially use water produced from coalbed methane (CBM) extraction is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) of croplands. In SDI systems, treated CBMwater (injectate) is supplied to the soil at depth, with the purpose of preventing the buildup of detrimental salts near the surface. The technology is expanding within the Powder River Basin, but little research has been published on its environmental impacts. This article reports on initial results from tracking water and solutes from the injected CBM-produced waters at an SDI system in Johnson County, Wyoming. In the first year of SDI operation, soil moisture significantly increased in the SDI areas, but well water levels increased only modestly, suggesting that most of the water added was stored in the vadose zone or lost to evapotranspiration. The injectate has lower concentrations of most inorganic constituents relative to ambient groundwater at the site but exhibits a high sodium adsorption ratio. Changes in groundwater chemistry during the same period of SDI operation were small; the increase in groundwater-specific conductance relative to pre-SDI conditions was observed in a single well. Conversely, groundwater samples collected beneath another SDI field showed decreased concentrations of several constituents since the SDI operation.Groundwater-specific conductance at the 12 other wells showed no significant changes. Major controls on and compositional variability of groundwater, surface water, and soil water chemistry are discussed in detail. Findings from this research provide an understanding of water and salt dynamics associated with SDI systems using CBM-produced water. Copyright ??2011. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Potato in Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jolaini; mohammad karimi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: After wheat, rice and corn, potato is the fourth most important food plant in the world. In comparison with other species, potato is very sensitive to water stress because of its shallow root system: approximately 85% of the root length is concentrated in the upper 0.3-0.4 m of the soil. Several studies showed that drip irrigation is an effective method for enhancing potato yield. Fabeiro et al. (2001) concluded that tuber bulking and ripening stages were found to be the most se...

  3. Comparison of drip, pipe and surge spring root irrigation for Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. fruit quality in the Loess plateau of China.

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    Qing-Han Gao

    Full Text Available Loess Plateau is a typical rain-fed farming region, facing the threat of drought. Irrigation method is among the most important factors affecting jujube quality. This study investigated the response of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lizao quality to three different irrigation methods (drip-, pipe- and surge spring root irrigation combining two water levels (20 m(3/hm(2 and 120 m(3/hm(2. The effects of the trials were evaluated by taking into account the physical-chemical characteristics of jujubes and the antioxidant activity. Concomitant to this, the concentration of some taste-related (viz. glucose, fructose, TSS and malic acid and health-related compounds/parameters (viz. catechin and epicatechin were generally much greater in jujube fruit treated with drip irrigation (120 m(3/hm(2. Different irrigation treatments had no significant effects on antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and proanthocyanidins (except for pipe irrigation 20 m(3/hm(2. The best compromise between quality and irrigation of jujube fruit was achieved with drip irrigation (120 m(3/hm(2.

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Irrigation and Fertilization by Drip Fertigation on Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Greenhouse

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    Wang Xiukang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water shortage in China, particularly in Northwest China, is very serious. There is, therefore, great potential for improving the water use efficiency (WUE in agriculture, particularly in areas where the need for water is greatest. A two-season (2012 and 2013 study evaluated the effects of irrigation and fertilizer rate on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., cv. “Jinpeng 10” growth, yield, and WUE. The fertilizer treatment significantly influenced plant height and stem diameter at 23 and 20 days after transplanting in 2012 and 2013, respectively. As individual factors, irrigation and fertilizer significantly affected the leaf expansion rate, but irrigation × fertilizer had no statistically significant effect on the leaf growth rate at 23 days after transplanting in 2012. Dry biomass accumulation was significantly influenced by fertilizer in both years, but there was no significant difference in irrigation treatment in 2012. Our study showed that an increased irrigation level increased the fruit yield of tomatoes and decreased the WUE. The fruit yield and WUE increased with the increased fertilizer rate. WUE was more sensitive to irrigation than to fertilization. An irrigation amount of 151 to 208 mm and a fertilizer amount of 454 to 461 kg·ha−1 (nitrogen fertilizer, 213.5–217 kg·ha−1; phosphate fertilizer, 106.7–108 kg·ha−1; and potassium fertilizer, 133.4–135.6 kg·ha−1 were recommended for the drip fertigation of tomatoes in greenhouse.

  5. Alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation improves water- and nitrogen- use efficiencies of sweet-waxy maize with nitrogen fertigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fengbei; Li, Fusheng; Kang, Shaozhong

    2017-12-08

    Alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation (ADI) or fertigation has favorable effect on crop water- and nitrogen- use efficiencies (WUE and NUE). However, the advantage of combined application of ADI and nitrogen fertigation on crop WUE and NUE remains unclear. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of three irrigation methods (CDI conventional drip irrigation (both halves of pot irrigated), ADI (both halves of pot alternatively irrigated) and FDI fixed partial root-zone drip irrigation (fixed half of pot irrigated)) and five nitrogen treatments (F0 no N supplied, F1-F4 0.2, 0.18, 0.16 and 0.14 g N per kg soil via fertigation) on sweet-waxy maize. Compared with CDI, ADI reduced water consumption by 19.9%, but increased water use efficiency based on dry seed yield (WUEs) by 32.3%, and also enhanced nitrogen apparent recovery fraction (Nrf) and nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE). F1-F4 augmented dry mass accumulation, dry seed yield and total nitrogen uptake if compared to F0. Moreover, F2-ADI had higher shoot and total dry masses, WUEs, total nitrogen uptake, Nrf and NAE. Thus ADI increased nitrogen uptake, WUE and NUE of sweet-waxy maize with nitrogen fertigation of 0.18 g N per kg soil in this study.

  6. Remote sensing based water-use efficiency evaluation in sub-surface irrigated wine grape vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Carlos Espinoza; Khot, Lav R.; Jacoby, Pete; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-01

    Increased water demands have forced agriculture industry to investigate better irrigation management strategies in crop production. Efficient irrigation systems, improved irrigation scheduling, and selection of crop varieties with better water-use efficiencies can aid towards conserving water. In an ongoing experiment carried on in Red Mountain American Viticulture area near Benton City, Washington, subsurface drip irrigation treatments at 30, 60 and 90 cm depth, and 15, 30 and 60% irrigation were applied to satisfy evapotranspiration demand using pulse and continuous irrigation. These treatments were compared to continuous surface irrigation applied at 100% evapotranspiration demand. Thermal infrared and multispectral images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle during the growing season. Obtained results indicated no difference in yield among treatments (p<0.05), however there was statistical difference in leaf temperature comparing surface and subsurface irrigation (p<0.05). Normalized vegetation index obtained from the analysis of multispectral images showed statistical difference among treatments when surface and subsurface irrigation methods were compared. Similar differences in vegetation index values were observed, when irrigation rates were compared. Obtained results show the applicability of aerial thermal infrared and multispectral images to characterize plant responses to different irrigation treatments and use of such information in irrigation scheduling or high-throughput selection of water-use efficient crop varieties in plant breeding.

  7. Drip irrigation in coffee crop under different planting densities: Growth and yield in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Assis,Gleice A. de; Scalco,Myriane S.; Guimarães,Rubens J.; Colombo,Alberto; Dominghetti,Anderson W.; Matos,Nagla M. S. de

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation associated to reduction on planting spaces between rows and between coffee plants has been a featured practice in coffee cultivation. The objective of the present study was to assess, over a period of five consecutive years, influence of different irrigation management regimes and planting densities on growth and bean yield of Coffea arabica L.. The treatments consisted of four irrigation regimes: climatologic water balance, irrigation when the soil water tension reached values clo...

  8. Prototype of a subsurface drip irrigation emitter: Manufacturing, hydraulic evaluation and experimental analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wanderley De Jesus; Rodrigues Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez, Raúl; Arriel Botrel, Tarlei; Duarte Coelho, Rubens

    2013-04-01

    Root and soil intrusion into the conventional emitters is one of the major disadvantages to obtain a good uniformity of water application in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). In the last years, there have been different approaches to reduce these problems such as the impregnation of emitters with herbicide, and the search for an emitter geometry impairing the intrusion of small roots. Within the last this study, has developed and evaluated an emitter model which geometry shows specific physical features to prevent emitter clogging. This work was developed at the Biosystems Engineering Department at ESALQ-USP/Brazil, and it is a part of a research in which an innovated emitteŕs model for SDI has been developed to prevent root and soil particles intrusion. An emitter with a mechanical-hydraulic mechanism (opening and closing the water outlet) for SDI was developed and manufactured using a mechanical lathe process. It was composed by a silicon elastic membrane a polyethylene tube and a Vnyl Polychloride membrane protector system. In this study the performance of the developed prototype was assessed in the laboratory and in the field conditions. In the laboratory, uniformity of water application was calculated by the water emission uniformity coefficient (CUE), and the manufacturer's coefficient of variation (CVm). In addition, variation in the membrane diameter submitted to internal pressures; head losses along the membrane, using the energy equation; and, precision and accuracy of the equation model, analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and by Willmott's concordance index (d) were also calculated with samples of the developed emitters. In the field, the emitters were installed in pots with and without sugar cane culture from October 2010 to January 2012. During this time, flow rate in 20 emitters were measured periodically, and the aspects of them about clogging at the end of the experiment. Emitters flow rates were measured quarterly to calculate

  9. Rational Water and Nitrogen Management Improves Root Growth, Increases Yield and Maintains Water Use Efficiency of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation

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    Hongzhi Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1, deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2, pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3, pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha-1 in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1, 2:8 (N2] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production. Previous investigations have shown a strong correlation between root activity and water consumption in the 40–120 cm soil layer. The W3 and especially W4 treatments significantly increased root length density (RLD, root volume density (RVD, root mass density (RMD, and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer. Cotton RLD, RVD, RMD was decreased by 13.1, 13.3, and 20.8%, respectively, in N2 compared with N1 at 70 days after planting (DAP in the 0–40 cm soil layer. However, root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer at 140 DAP was 31.6% higher in N2 than that in N1. Total RMD, RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil were significantly and positively correlated with shoot dry weight. RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer was highest in the W4N2 treatments. Therefore increased water consumption in the deep soil layers resulted in increased shoot dry weight, seed cotton yield and WUE. Our data can be used to develop a water-N management strategy for optimal cotton yield and high WUE.

  10. Drip-Water Temperatures in Caves: Surface Signals or Cave Processes? - Implications for Speleothem Deposits and Paleoclimate Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M. S.; Cuthbert, M. O.; Rau, G. C.; Baker, A.; Roshan, H.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C.; Markowska, M.; Graham, P. W.; Mariethoz, G.

    2013-12-01

    Caves offer a unique opportunity to enter the subsurface to study vadose zone hydrological processes. Limestone caves, with their speleothem deposits, offer additional advantages as archives of past climate. As such they can serve as observatories for past and present hydrological observations. Correct interpretation of past climates using speleothem deposits requires a systematic understanding of karst physico-chemical processes. With the aim of studying near surface flow and heat transport processes, a series of controlled recharge experiments were carried out above Wellington Caves, located in the temperate semi-arid zone of NSW, Australia. Variable amounts of cooled water were irrigated onto the land surface on four consecutive days in January 2013. The applied recharge rates varied from 40 to 70 mm/d and are comparable to mid-sized recharge events. The temperature of the applied water was varied from 0.3 °C to 24.2 °C using ice. Miniature self-contained temperature loggers (DST micro-T, Star Oddi, Iceland) were deployed to measure the soil temperature and strapped directly on to stalactite features inside the cave located about 2 m below the surface. The stalactites have previously activated regularly by mid-sized precipitation events. Below on the cave floor, drip-loggers (Stalagmate, Driptych, UK) were aligned with the stalactites to capture onset of flow as well as drip rates. Three events of inflow were observed in the initially dry cave. The first irrigation did not produce any inflow since the amount of water applied was not large enough to overcome the soil moisture deficit. Subsequently, each inflow had a higher peak drip rate and duration than the previous event. Surprisingly the stalagmite temperature results showed no discernible effect of the cool water applied to the land surface, despite large changes in the soil temperature caused by the irrigation water. Considering the shallow location of the studied cave this highlights that the temperature

  11. Effects of deficit drip-irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on pepper yield, water productivity and soil salinity under arid conditions of Tunisia

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    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in order to assess the effects of different irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of pepper under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Pepper was grown on a sandy soil and drip-irrigated with water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. Irrigation treatments consisted in water replacements of accumulated ETc at levels of 100% (FI, full irrigation, 80% (DI-80, 60% (DI-60, when the readily available water in the control treatment (FI is depleted, deficit irrigation during ripening stage (FI-MDI60 and farmer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers (FM. Results on pepper yield and soil salinity are globally consistent between the two-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity was maintained over the two seasons, 2008 and 2009, with DI-60 and FM treatments than FI. FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments resulted also in low ECe values. Highest yields for both years were obtained under FI (22.3 and 24.4 t/ha although we didn’t find significant differences with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (FI-DI60. However, the DI-80 and DI-60 treatments caused significant reductions in pepper yields through a reduction in fruits number/m² and average fruit weight in comparison with FI treatment. The FM increased soil salinity and caused significant reductions in yield with 14 to 43%, 12 to 39% more irrigation water use than FI, FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments, respectively, in 2008 and 2009. Yields for all irrigation treatments were higher in the second year compared to the first year. Water productivity (WP values reflected this difference and varied between 2.31 and 5.49 kg/m3. The WP was found to vary significantly among treatments, where the highest and the lowest values were observed for DI-60 treatment and FM, respectively. FI treatment provides

  12. Drip irrigation in coffee crop under different planting densities: Growth and yield in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice A. de Assis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation associated to reduction on planting spaces between rows and between coffee plants has been a featured practice in coffee cultivation. The objective of the present study was to assess, over a period of five consecutive years, influence of different irrigation management regimes and planting densities on growth and bean yield of Coffea arabica L.. The treatments consisted of four irrigation regimes: climatologic water balance, irrigation when the soil water tension reached values close to 20 and 60 kPa; and a control that was not irrigated. The treatments were distributed randomly in five planting densities: 2,500, 3,333, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 plants ha-1. A split-plot in randomized block design was used with four replications. Irrigation promoted better growth of coffee plants and increased yield that varied in function of the plant density per area. For densities from 10,000 to 20,000 plants ha-1, regardless of the used irrigation management, mean yield increases were over 49.6% compared to the non-irrigated crop.

  13. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  14. Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moniem, M.; El-Gendy, R.W.; Gadalla, A.M.; Hamdy, A.; Zeedan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

  15. Reuse of municipal effluent with drip irrigation and evaluation the effect on soil properties in a semi-arid area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanli, Ali M; Javan, Mahmood; Saadat, Yusof

    2008-09-01

    Irrigation with municipal effluent was evaluated during 25 months in Southern Iran from 2003 to 2005 in which 14 tree species were irrigated with effluent and borehole water at an annual supply rate of 3,940 and 5,395 m(3) ha(-1), respectively. To mitigate the environmental effects, a drip irrigation system was designed and the amount of applied water based on pan evaporation was measured by flow meters and soil properties were monitored. The statistical results showed that the applied effluent had no adverse effect on soil properties. The soil salinity was reduced from 8.2, 6.8 and 7.0 dSm(-1) to 1.07, 1.12 and 3.5 dSm(-1 )in the soil layers 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm, respectively. The SAR decreased significantly, while soil pH increased by 0.8 and 0.6 units in the layers 0-30 and 30-60 cm. A total application of 9,335 m(3)ha(-1 )of effluent with a nitrogen and phosphorus concentration of 7.9 and 10.3 mg l(-1), added 73 and 101 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen and phosphorus to the soil. Organic carbon also increased significantly. Twenty-five months irrigation with effluent caused a slight increase in soil bulk density and a slight decrease in mean permeability. Because of an efficient filtration and high discharge rate of bubblers (drippers), no considerable sign of clogging was observed.

  16. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  17. Net melon performance as affected by the drip irrigation depth and mulching Desempenho do melão rendilhado em função da profundidade de gotejo e utilização de mulching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo OC Monteiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern techniques of water supply through irrigation can substantially reduce water waste, which contributes to attend the enlarging water demand. The objective of this work was to study the influence of subsurface drip irrigation and mulching over melon yield and quality characteristics, in a sandy soil (Typic Hapludox. The experimental design was blocks at random, with four replications. Treatments were displayed in a 2 x 3 factorial (with and without mulching x surface and 0.20 and 0.40 depth subsurface drip irrigation. Mulching using double-sided silver/black film increased fruit average mass, plant production, yield, daily growth rate for plant height and crown diameter, fruit distal diameter, and pulp thickness. The subsurface drip irrigation at 0.20 m depth resulted in larger fruit average mass, plant production, and yield than surface and 0.40 m depth drip irrigation.As atuais técnicas de aplicação de água pelos sistemas de irrigação podem reduzir substancialmente os desperdícios de água, o que contribui para atender a crescente demanda por esse recurso natural. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar aspectos produtivos e de qualidade de frutos de melão rendilhado em sistema de gotejo subterrâneo e cobertura plástica (mulching, em solo arenoso (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos, com o arranjo dos tratamentos em fatorial 2 x 3 (com e sem mulching x gotejo superficial e subsuperficial, a 0,20 e 0,40 m de profundidade. O mulching utilizando filme dupla-face prateado/preto incrementou a massa média de fruto, a produção por planta, a produtividade, a taxa de crescimento diário da altura de planta e do diâmetro do colo da planta, o diâmetro longitudinal do fruto e a espessura de polpa. A profundidade de gotejo a 0,20 m resultou em maior massa média de fruto, produção por planta e produtividade quando comparado ao gotejo superficial ou em subsuperfície, a 0

  18. Effect of Limited Drip Irrigation Regime on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame under Mediterranean Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota PAPASTYLIANOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Irrigation is of great importance to sesame production due to its positive effect on growth parameters. Although sesame has good drought tolerance compared with many other crops, it is particularly susceptible to drought damage during the seedling, flowering and seed filling stages and this can lead to yield loss. The aim of this study was to determine the response of sesame landraces to different irrigation applications during the 2015 growing season. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replicates, four main plots (irrigation treatments, designated as 100%, 75% 50% and 0 of the daily crop evapotranspiration and two sub-plots (sesame landraces, Limnos and Evros. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of seeds per capsule, and number of capsules per plant, seed yield, 1000-seed weight and % capsules without seeds, were recorded. The results indicated that all traits except 1000-seed weight were significantly affected by irrigation regimes. Plant height, shattering losses and number of capsules per plant decreased with increasing water shortage. Seed yield and number of seeds per capsule were less affected by irrigation level and showed higher values in the 50% of the daily crop evapotranspiration treatment. Limnos produced higher seed yield and number of seeds per capsule under all irrigation regimes. Evros showed higher plant height and shattering losses than Limnos. The results of this study suggest that sesame landraces can use water efficiently, are locally adapted and associated with traditional farming systems.

  19. Evaluation of subsurface drip irrigation design and management parameters for alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandelous, M.M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J.A.; Šimůnek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most cultivated crops in the US, and is being used as livestock feed for the dairy, beef, and horse industries. About nine percent of that is grown in California, yet there is an increasing concern about the large amounts of irrigation water required to attain maximum yield. We

  20. A comparison of E. coli persistence on basil plants and soil using drip and overhead irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: It is estimated that each year in the US there are 63,153 cases of foodborne illnesses caused by E.coli O157 serotypes and 112,752 illnesses caused by non-O157 shiga-toxin producing E.coli. Irrigation water is recognized as a pre-harvest contamination source and has been linked with o...

  1. Root growth and uptake dynamics under different drip-irrigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, A.; Assouline, S.

    2009-04-01

    Root uptake of water and nutrients is a dominant and crucial component in the design of efficient irrigation and fertigation practices for applications ranging from conventional irrigation to highly-advanced high frequency irrigation practices, as well towards other unique uses of land and water resources. Nevertheless, root water and nutrient uptake is often ignored or oversimplified when simulating soil water flow and solute transport. This is primarily so because of the a-priori unknown dynamic processes of root uptake, especially when coupled with spatially heterogeneous soil water and nutrient distributions. In this research we investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of root water uptake, and the way these patterns are influenced by environmental conditions. We consider the soil-root system as continuum. Our greenhouse setup includes sweet bell pepper grown in sand under three different irrigation schemes, differing in the rate at which water is applied (high rate, small rate, and pulses). For each scheme we have two cylindrical growing chambers equipped with 96 ERT electrodes (one with and one without a plant), similar chambers with TDR probes, continuous weighting of chambers and of drainage, and 12 equal dimensions sacks for bi-weekly mapping of root presence. The experimental set-up enables the quantification of the dynamics of the root system, the total water uptake, the water regime within the growing medium, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the uptake function within the root zone by means of the ERT data.

  2. Root Growth and Uptake Dynamics Under Different Drip-irrigation Strategies: New Insights Using ERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, S.; Furman, A.

    2008-12-01

    Root uptake of water and nutrients is a dominant and crucial component in the design of efficient irrigation and fertigation practices for applications ranging from conventional irrigation to highly-advanced high frequency irrigation practices, as well towards other unique uses of land and water resources. Nevertheless, root water and nutrient uptake is often ignored or oversimplified when simulating soil water flow and solute transport. This is primarily so because of the a-priori unknown dynamic processes of root uptake, especially when coupled with spatially heterogeneous soil water and nutrient distributions. In this research we investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of root water uptake, and the way these patterns are influenced by environmental conditions. We consider the soil-root system as continuum. Our greenhouse setup includes bell pepper grown in sand under three different irrigation schemes, differing in the rate at which water is applied (high rate, small rate, and pulses). For each scheme we have two cylindrical growing chambers equipped with 96 ERT electrodes (one with and one without a plant), similar chambers with TDR probes, continuous weighting of chambers and of drainage, and 12 equal dimensions sacks for bi- weekly mapping of root presence. The experimental set-up enables the quantification of the dynamics of the root system, the total water uptake, the water regime within the growing medium, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the uptake function within the root zone by means of the ERT data, for each of the irrigation schemes. Preliminary results indicate significant difference in the root development and functionality for the different environmental conditions applied, up to 100 percents difference in uptake.

  3. Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, G.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest ChinaGuanghui Ming1, Fuqiang Tian1*, Hongchang Hu11State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Abstracts: Agricultural ecosystems have the potential to offset rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere but the potential is often altered by agricultural management. Plastic film mulching and drip irrigation (PMDI) have been widespread for saving water and improving crop yield worldwide. To comprehensively assess the carbon balance and to detect the controlling factors of the carbon flux in a PMDI cotton field, experiments combining eddy covariance (EC) system, chamber method and crop sampling were implemented in an arid oasis of Xinjiang from the year 2012 to 2016. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was -250.18 ± 80.41 g C m-2 in the five years, which indicated that the filed was a much stronger carbon sink. After removal of the harvest of cotton as seed oil (Ch) of 108.81±7.57 g C m-2, the field was still a moderate carbon sink with net biome productivity (NBP) of 141.37±73.7 g C m-2. Soil temperature can explain 82% of seasonal variation of nighttime NEE while PAR can explain 36-81% of daytime NEE varying with crop development and photosynthetic activity. NEE was separated into total ecosystem respiration (Reco, 1214.20±144.42 g C m-2) and gross primary productivity (GPP, 1464.38±122.78 g C m-2). Interannual Reco changed more drastically than GPP and respiration may be the main determinant of carbon balance in the PMDI field. Seasonal NPP measured by cop sampling method (NPPCS) agreed well with NPP calculated with EC (NPPEC), with the annual NPP of 708.86 ± 52.26 g C m-2, which indicated that our carbon flux measurements and separating methods reasonable. The PMDI cotton field induced more GPP and Reco than other croplands with larger light use efficiency (LUE) but relatively

  4. Distribution Of 15N Fertilizer Added To Sandy Soil Under Drip Irrigation System As Affected By Irrigation Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; EL-GENDY, R.W.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL-DEGWY, S.M.; KASSAB, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron moisture meter and stable nitrogen isotope ( 15 N) were used to follow horizontal and vertical water movement and N-fertilizer added to soil before and after irrigation. The data indicated that soil moisture distribution and values of total hydraulic potential depend on soil moisture content. Characterization of nitrogen in soil for all sites around the emitter indicated spatial variability with different soil depths due to leaching and volatilization processes. Moreover, water movement and flow direction greatly were characterized by active evaporation depth which was 30 cm.

  5. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  6. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2015-05-12

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract – ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  7. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Jadoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  8. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2017-10-26

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes\\' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  9. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mailapalli, Damodhara R.; Raghuwanshi, Narendra S.; Singh, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in fur...

  10. Nitrous oxide emission and denitrifier communities in drip-irrigated calcareous soil as affected by chemical and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui; Wakelin, Steven A; Liang, Yongchao; Hu, Baowei; Chu, Guixin

    2018-01-15

    The effects of consecutive application of chemical fertilizer with or without organic fertilizer on soil N 2 O emissions and denitrifying community structure in a drip-irrigated field were determined. The four fertilizer treatments were (i) unfertilized, (ii) chemical fertilizer, (iii) 60% chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure, and (iv) 60% chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. The treatments with organic amendments (i.e. cattle manure and biofertilizer) reduced cumulative N 2 O emissions by 4.9-9.9%, reduced the N 2 O emission factor by 1.3-42%, and increased denitrifying enzyme activities by 14.3-56.2%. The nirK gene copy numbers were greatest in soil which received only chemical fertilizer. In contrast, nirS- and nosZ-copy numbers were greatest in soil amended with chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. Chemical fertilizer application with or without organic fertilizer significantly changed the community structure of nirK-type denitrifiers relative to the unfertilized soil. In comparison, the nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifier genotypes varied in treatments receiving organic fertilizer but not chemical fertilizer alone. The changes in the denitrifier communities were closely associated with soil organic carbon (SOC), NO 3 - , NH 4 + , water holding capacity, and soil pH. Modeling indicated that N 2 O emissions in this soil were primarily associated with the abundance of nirS type denitrifying bacteria, SOC, and NO 3 - . Overall, our findings indicate that (i) the organic fertilizers increased denitrifying enzyme activity, increased denitrifying-bacteria gene copy numbers, but reduced N 2 O emissions, and (ii) nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifiers were more sensitive than nirK-type denitrifiers to the organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Estimation of Energy Balance Components over a Drip-Irrigated Olive Orchard Using Thermal and Multispectral Cameras Placed on a Helicopter-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ortega-Farías

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out to implement a remote sensing energy balance (RSEB algorithm for estimating the incoming solar radiation (Rsi, net radiation (Rn, sensible heat flux (H, soil heat flux (G and latent heat flux (LE over a drip-irrigated olive (cv. Arbequina orchard located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile (35°25′S; 71°44′W; 90 m above sea level. For this study, a helicopter-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV was equipped with multispectral and infrared thermal cameras to obtain simultaneously the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and surface temperature (Tsurface at very high resolution (6 cm × 6 cm. Meteorological variables and surface energy balance components were measured at the time of the UAV overpass (near solar noon. The performance of the RSEB algorithm was evaluated using measurements of H and LE obtained from an eddy correlation system. In addition, estimated values of Rsi and Rn were compared with ground-truth measurements from a four-way net radiometer while those of G were compared with soil heat flux based on flux plates. Results indicated that RSEB algorithm estimated LE and H with errors of 7% and 5%, respectively. Values of the root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE for LE were 50 and 43 W m−2 while those for H were 56 and 46 W m−2, respectively. Finally, the RSEB algorithm computed Rsi, Rn and G with error less than 5% and with values of RMSE and MAE less than 38 W m−2. Results demonstrated that multispectral and thermal cameras placed on an UAV could provide an excellent tool to evaluate the intra-orchard spatial variability of Rn, G, H, LE, NDVI and Tsurface over the tree canopy and soil surface between rows.

  12. Nitrogen use efficiencies of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as affected by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.; Besiroglu, A.

    1996-01-01

    This greenhouse study conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an unheated plastic greenhouse was designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and peppers (Capsicum annum) to four nitrogen levels continually applied with irrigation stream. Water containing 0,67,134 or 201 mgN/l and uniformly supplied with 80 and 240 mg/l of P and K, respectively, were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N 15 labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). For each plant the amount of water, P, K and the N 15 applied through the bottles was to that amount applied through a single dripper. In addition to the fertigation soil application of 400 kgN/ha was included with three adjacent plants in each plot were fertilized receiving N 15 labeled (3.3 % a.e. enrichment) The total amount of water applied was 392 mm and the resulting N application totals ranged from 200 to 600 kgN/ha. According to the results obtained, the maximum yield of tomatoes and peppers were achieved with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha) treatment. The percentage fertilizer utilization by tomatoes was highest with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha), which was followed by 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) .The percentage fertilizer utilization was the lowest with 201 mgN/l (600 kgN/ha) or soil application (400 kgN/ha). The results indicated that the percentage fertilizer utilization of tomatoes was significantly greater by the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha). The fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) than the other applications. The results indicated that although the percentage fertilizer utilization was the same, the fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha)

  13. Hydraulic performance of locally made LDPE-Pipes for drip irrigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Mangrio, A.G.; Ibrar, S.U.

    2007-01-01

    LDPE pipes give controlled and efficient irrigation practices for plant-water requirement. All five sizes of pipes i.e. 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm with wall thicknesses of 1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mm respectively in 100 and 200 m lengths were selected for determination of pressure-discharge relationships, manufacturing coefficient of variation and friction coefficient. The pipes were operated at pressure ranging from 10 to 50 psi (7.00 -35.00 meter head) with an increment of 5 psi. The discharge of different sizes of LDPE pipes was measured under various pressures. The average discharge of the pipes with 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm pipe sizes between 10 to 50 psi pressure heads were 0.058, 0.301, 0.402, 0.909 and 2.076 lps respectively for 100 meter pipe length and 0.056, 0.10, 0.13, 0.45 and 1.993 lps respectively for 200 meter pipe length. The average friction head loss of the pipes with 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm pipe sizes between 10 to 50 psi pressure heads were 3.21, 2.51, 1.66, 3.99 and 3.64 meter per 100 meter pipe length and 6.44, 5.03, 3.15, 6.79 and 6.85 meter per 200 meter pipe length respectively. The average C-value of all sizes of selected pipes for both lengths between 10-50 psi was indicated 18% less than the recommend value. Results indicated that the discharge, friction head losses and friction coefficient increased with the increase in pressure. This study helped describe the optimal pressure requirement to achieve the desirable discharge low friction head losses and minimum friction coefficients. (author)

  14. SURDEV: surface irrigation software; design, operation, and evaluation of basin, border, and furrow irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriëns, M.; Zerihun, D.; Boonstra, J.; Feyen, J.

    2001-01-01

    SURDEV is a computer package for the design, operation, and evaluation of surface irrigation. SURDEV combines three sub-programs: BASDEV (for basin irrigation), FURDEV (for furrow irrigation), and BORDEV for (border irrigation). This combination enables the user to simulate many of the problems

  15. Cyclic use of saline and non-saline water to increase water use efficiency and soil sustainability on drip irrigated maize in a semi-arid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanli, M.; Ebrahimian, H.

    2016-07-01

    Use of saline water for irrigation is a strategy to mitigate water shortage. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the cyclic and constant use of saline and non-saline water on drip irrigated maize yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). Nine field treatments were laid out based on alternative irrigation management of non-saline and saline water combinations. The treatments were: two salinity levels of 3.5 and 5.7 dS/m and freshwater (0.4 dS/m) application in every one, three and five saline water application (1:1, 3:1 and 5:1, respectively). Results showed that the 1:1 combination management was the best in terms of crop yield and IWUE. In this treatment, salt concentration at the end of growing season was not significantly changed compared to its initial condition. If off-season precipitation or leaching was available, the 3:1 and 5:1 treatments were appropriated. Highest and lowest values of IWUE were 15.3 and 8.7 kg/m3 for the 1:1 management using water salinity of 3.5 dS/m and the treatment of constant irrigation with water salinity of 5.7 dS/m, respectively. Under low off-season precipitations, artificial leaching is essential for land sustainability in most treatments.

  16. Cyclic use of saline and non-saline water to increase water use efficiency and soil sustainability on drip irrigated maize in a semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanli, M.; Ebrahimian, H.

    2016-01-01

    Use of saline water for irrigation is a strategy to mitigate water shortage. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the cyclic and constant use of saline and non-saline water on drip irrigated maize yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). Nine field treatments were laid out based on alternative irrigation management of non-saline and saline water combinations. The treatments were: two salinity levels of 3.5 and 5.7 dS/m and freshwater (0.4 dS/m) application in every one, three and five saline water application (1:1, 3:1 and 5:1, respectively). Results showed that the 1:1 combination management was the best in terms of crop yield and IWUE. In this treatment, salt concentration at the end of growing season was not significantly changed compared to its initial condition. If off-season precipitation or leaching was available, the 3:1 and 5:1 treatments were appropriated. Highest and lowest values of IWUE were 15.3 and 8.7 kg/m3 for the 1:1 management using water salinity of 3.5 dS/m and the treatment of constant irrigation with water salinity of 5.7 dS/m, respectively. Under low off-season precipitations, artificial leaching is essential for land sustainability in most treatments.

  17. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Kamran; Najafi, Payam; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2014-05-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater for irrigation over long periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants, animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of treated wastewater on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of using a deep emitter installation on lowering the potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub treatments (0, 15 and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam soil, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m a.s.l.. A two-crop rotation of wheat [Triticum spp.] and corn [Zea mays]) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting (initial value) and after harvesting (final value) for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were also collected. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P>0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. The results showed no significant difference (P>0.05) of soil heavy metal content between different depths of emitters. A pollution load index PLI showed that there was not substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils compared to

  18. Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Kamran; Cornelis, Wim M

    2015-07-01

    Constant use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation over prolonged periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants and animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of TWW on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of deep emitters on limiting potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub-treatments (0, 15, and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam Calcic Argigypsids, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m above sea level. A two-crop rotation of wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting and after harvesting for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were collected at harvest. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P > 0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in heavy metal content in soil between different depths of emitters was found. A pollution load index (PLI) showed that there was no substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils

  19. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Wolery

    2005-01-01

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks

  20. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  1. Impact and sustainability of low-head drip irrigation kits, in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge Districts, Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Richard; Love, David; Mul, Marloes; Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve

    the wet season. This suggests that most households use the drip kits as supplementary irrigation. Conflicts between beneficiaries and water point committees or other water users developed in some areas especially during the dry season. The main finding from this study was that low cost drip kit programs can only be a sustainable intervention if implemented as an integral part of a long-term development program, not short-term relief programs and the programme should involve a broad range of stakeholders. A first step in any such program, especially in water scarce areas such as Gwanda and Beitbridge, is a detailed analysis of the existing water resources to assess availability and potential conflicts, prior to distribution of drip kits.

  2. [Response of water coupling with N supply on maize nitrogen uptake, water and N use effi- ciency, and yield in drip irrigation condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bing-yu; Gao, Hui; Tang, Cheng; Liu, Tao; Chu, Gui-xin

    2015-12-01

    Water and nitrogen are two major limiting factors for upland crop growth and development in arid region. Optimizing regulation irrigation schedule, rates and coupling with N fertigation is an effective way for realizing crop production improvement as well as water and nutrient use efficiency enhancement. In the present study, a field trial was carried out to study the influence of water (4500, 6750, 9000 m³ · hm⁻²) coupling with N (0, 225, 330, 435, 540 kg · hm⁻²) supply on maize dry matter accumulation, N uptake, yield and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency in drip irrigated high cultivated density (≥ 105000 plant · hm⁻²) condition. There was an obvious tendency that the amounts of corn dry matter accumulated and plant N absorbed increased with levels of water and N supply, however, those decreased gradually when the N applied rate beyond 435 kg · hm⁻² and irrigation level above 9000 m³ · hm⁻². For instance, the effect of irrigation level on corn dry matter accumulation order exhibited W₆₇₅₀ (36359 kg · hm⁻²) > W₉₀₀₀ (35077 kg · hm⁻²) > W⁴⁵⁰⁰ (33451 kg · hm⁻²), the sequence of amount of N absorbed showed N₄₃₅ (462.0 kg · hm⁻²)> N₅₄₀ (459.4 kg · hm⁻²) > N₃₃₀ (423.4 kg · hm⁻²) > N₂₂₅ (348.1 kg · hm⁻²), the amount of N absorbed in N₄₃₅ treatment increased by 9.1% and 32.7%, respectively, in contrast with treatments of N₃₃₀ and N₂₂₀, whereas, the amount of N absorbed in N₅₄₀ decreased by 0.6% than that in N₄₃₅ treatment. The highest N absorption rate increased with N application rate increasing within N supply range of 0-435 kg · hm⁻², it reached peak value of 6.57 kg · hm⁻² · d⁻¹ at N application rate of 435 kg · hm⁻²,then had decline trend with increasing N rate. Both irrigation and N supply exerted a significant role on maize yield as well as yield component of kernel number per spike and kernel mass per spike. An obvious

  3. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  4. Incidência de murcha-bacteriana em tomate para processamento industrial sob irrigação por gotejamento e aspersão Incidence of bacterial wilt on processing tomato under drip and sprinkle irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Marouelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília (DF, com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de murcha-bacteriana em tomateiro para processamento industrial irrigado por gotejamento e por aspersão, cultivado em solo naturalmente infestado com a raça 1, biovar I de Ralstonia solanacearum, nas condições edafoclimáticas do Cerrado brasileiro. Para gotejamento foram também avaliados os regimes hídricos com turnos de rega de 0,5; 1; 2; 4 e 8 dias. A irrigação por gotejamento favoreceu significativamente a ocorrência da doença, apresentando em média, aos 65 dias após o transplante de mudas, 42,5% de plantas com sintoma contra 5% de casos ocorridos na irrigação por aspersão. A incidência da doença no gotejamento não foi afetada (p>0,05 pelo regime hídrico adotado.A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasilia, Brazil, with the objective of assessing the incidence of bacterial wilt on processing tomatoes irrigated by drip and sprinkle systems, under soil and climate conditions of the Brazilian "Cerrado". The trial was performed in a field naturally infested with race 1, biovar I of Ralstonia solanacearum. Different irrigation frequencies (0.5; 1; 2; 4; and 8 days were further evaluated for drip irrigation. Disease incidence was significantly higher when the crop was drip irrigated, with an average of 42.5% of wilted plants in comparison with 5.0% incidence for sprinkle irrigation, 65 days after transplanting. Frequencies of drip irrigation did not affect (p>0.05 bacterial wilt incidence.

  5. Effects of different on-farm management on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop cultivated in semiarid environments under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    In Tunisia the amount of water for irrigated agriculture is higher than about 80% of the total resource.The increasing population and the rising food demand, associated to the negative effects of climate change,make it crucial to adopt strategies aiming to improve water use efficiency (WUE). Moreover, the absence of an effective public policy for water management amplifies the imbalance between water supply and its demand. Despite improved irrigation technologies can enhance the efficiency of water distribution systems, to achieve environmental goals it is also necessaryto identify on-farm management strategies accounting for actual crop water requirement. The main objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm managementstrategies (irrigation scheduling and planting date) on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop (Solanumtuberosum L.) irrigated with a subsurface drip system, under the semi-arid climate of central Tunisia. Experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012, 2014 and 2015) at the High Agronomic Institute of ChottMariem in Sousse, by considering different planting dates and irrigation depths, the latter scheduled according to the climate observed during the season. All the considered treatments received the same pesticide and fertilizer management. Experiments evidenced that the climatic variability characterizing the examined seasons (photoperiod, solar radiation and average temperature) affects considerably the crop phenological stages, and the late sowing shortens the crop cycle.It has also been demonstrated that Leaf Area Index (LAI) and crop yield resulted relatively higher for those treatments receiving larger amounts of seasonal water. Crop yield varied between 16.3 t/ha and 39.1 t/ha, with a trend linearly related to the ratio between the seasonal amount of water supplied (Irrigation, I and Precipitation, P) and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETm). The maximum crop yield was in particular

  6. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  7. Performances du goutte à goutte enterré pour l’irrigation de jeunes palmiers dattiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BOURZIZA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In oasis areas, surface water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. Groundwater resources are often overexploited, and are of poor quality for their high salinity degree. Water conservation and economy have therefore become imperative for better oases durability. If localized irrigation is currently recommended in Morocco for saving water, its use in the sub-desert areas does not keep water safe from high evaporation rates. An alternative to this system would be the use of subsurface drip irrigation. This technique is defined as an application of water under soil surface through drippers, which discharge water at generally similar rates as the surface drip irrigation. As subsurface drip irrigation is a newly introduced technique in Morocco, a better understanding in local conditions of the infiltration process around a buried source, and its impact on plant growth is necessarily required. This study aims to contribute to improving the efficiency of water use by testing the performance of subsurface drip irrigation system, especially in areas where water is a limited resource. The objectives of this research are performance evaluation in arid conditions of the subsurface drip irrigation system for young date palms compared to the surface drip, as well as determining the appropriate method of flow measurement for a buried dripper. In this context, an experimental plot was installed on a farm in the region of Erfoud (Errachidia Province, Southeast Morocco to characterize the respective performances of surface and subsurface drip irrigation on young date palm. Flow measurement to calculate the uniformity of the application of water was done through two methods: a flow measurement of drippers above the surface and another one underground. The latter method has also helped us to estimate losses through evaporation for both irrigation techniques. In addition, in order to compare the effect of two irrigation modes, plants were identified at random

  8. Effectiveness of inorganic and organic mulching for soil salinity and sodicity control in a grapevine orchard drip-irrigated with moderately saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Aragüés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil mulching is a sensible strategy to reduce evaporation, accelerate crop development, reduce erosion and assist in weed control, but its efficiency for soil salinity control is not as well documented. The benefits of inorganic (plastic and organic (grapevine pruning residues mulching for soil salinity and sodicity control were quantified in a grapevine orchard (cultivars ‘Autumn’ Royal and ‘Crimson’ drip-irrigated with moderately saline waters. Soil samples were taken at the beginning and end of the 2008 and 2009 irrigation seasons in six vines of each cultivar and mulching treatment. Soil saturation extract electrical conductivity (ECe, chloride (Cle and sodium adsorption ratio (SARe values increased in all treatments of both grapevines along the irrigation seasons, but the increases were much lower in the mulched than in the bare soils due to reduced evaporation losses and concomitant decreases in salt evapo-concentration. The absolute salinity and sodicity daily increases in ‘Autumn’ and ‘Crimson’ 2008 and in ‘Crimson’ 2009 were on the average 44% lower in the plastic and 76% lower in the organic mulched soils than in the bare soil. The greater efficiency of the organic than the plastic mulch in ‘Crimson’ 2009 was attributed to the leaching of salts by a precipitation of 104 mm that infiltrated the organic mulch but was intercepted by the plastic mulch. Although further work is needed to substantiate these results, the conclusion is that the plastic mulch and, particularly, the organic mulch were more efficient than the bare soil for soil salinity and sodicity control.

  9. Simultaneous soil moisture and properties estimation for a drip irrigated field by assimilating cosmic-ray neutron intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xujun; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Jiménez Bello, Miguel Ángel; Rosolem, Rafael; Bogena, Heye; Alzamora, Fernando Martínez; Chanzy, André; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-08-01

    Neutron intensity measured by the aboveground cosmic-ray neutron intensity probe (CRP) allows estimating soil moisture content at the field scale. In this work, synthetic neutron intensities were used to remove the bias of simulated soil moisture content or update soil hydraulic properties (together with soil moisture) in the Community Land Model (CLM) using the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter. The cosmic-ray forward model COSMIC was used as the non-linear measurement operator which maps between neutron intensity and soil moisture. The novel aspect of this work is that synthetically measured neutron intensity was used for real time updating of soil states and soil properties (or soil moisture bias) and posterior use for the real time scheduling of irrigation (data assimilation based real-time control approach). Uncertainty of model forcing and soil properties (sand fraction, clay fraction and organic matter density) were considered in the ensemble predictions of the soil moisture profiles. Horizontal and vertical weighting of soil moisture was introduced in the data assimilation in order to handle the scale mismatch between the cosmic-ray footprint and the CLM grid cell. The approach was illustrated in a synthetic study with the real-time irrigation scheduling of fields of citrus trees. After adjusting soil moisture content by assimilating neutron intensity, the irrigation requirements were calculated based on the water deficit method. Model bias was introduced by using coarser soil texture in the data assimilation experiments than in reality. A series of experiments was done with different combinations of state, parameter and bias estimation in combination with irrigation scheduling. Assimilation of CRP neutron intensity improved soil moisture characterization. Irrigation requirement was overestimated if biased soil properties were used. The soil moisture bias was reduced by 35% after data assimilation. The scenario of joint state-parameter estimation

  10. Yield and quality responses of drip-irrigated spinach to different irrigation quantities in a semi-arid region with a high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin KUSLU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different irrigation quantities on the growth, marketable yield, crop quality (antioxidant activity, mineral and total phenolic content and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE of spinach grown in a semi-arid region of high altitude (1795 m a.s.l. was determined. Plants were irrigated with three different irrigation quantities which determined considering 100 (I1, 85 (I2 and 70% (I3 of the evaporation obtained from a Class A pan. Irrigation quantities in the I1, I2 and I3 treatments as two years average were 290, 264.3 and 238.6 mm, respectively. The I1 treatment provided the highest growth, marketable yield (28.06 t*ha-1 and IWUE (9.7 kg*m-3. However, mineral and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the leaves of spinach were significantly higher under lower water application conditions. The I2 treatment resulted with the highest antioxidant activity and content of N, K, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu and total phenolics. As a result of the study, I1 treatment in spinach production could be suitable for water sufficient regions due to higher yield and IWUE. However, I2 treatment may be more appropriate for water scarce semi-arid regions of high altitude for obtaining higher minerals and antioxidant activity.

  11. Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality of sugar beet Beta vulgaris irrigated with saline groundwater (fertigation and surface irrigation) and grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-07-01

    In a field experiment Sugar beet Beta vulgaris was grown as a spring crop during the growing seasons of 2004 and 2006, in salt affected soil, previously planted with sesbania and barley (2005 and 2003) to evaluate the response of sugar beet to two irrigation methods, (drip fertigation and surface irrigation), different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and its effect on yield and quality. Different rates of nitrogen fertilizers (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N/ ha) as urea (46% N) were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the surface-irrigated treatments in four equally split applications. The 15 N labelled urea was applied to sub-plots of 1.0 m 2 in each experimental unit in a manner similar to that of unlabeled urea. Irrigation scheduling was carried out using the direct method of neutron scattering technique. Sugar beet was irrigated when soil moisture in the upper 25 cm was 80% of the field capacity (FC) and such practice continued until the six leaf stage. From the latter stage until harvest, sugar beet was irrigated when soil moisture in the upper 50 cm reached 80% of the FC. The amount of irrigation water applied, electrical conductivity of the soil paste, dry matter and fresh roots yield, total nitrogen uptake and N derived from fertilizer were also determined. Furthermore, Nitrogen use as well as water use-efficiencies for dry matter and roots yield were also calculated. Results revealed that sugar beets and dry matter yield increased with increasing N input up to 100-150 kg N/ha which was indicated by the higher dry matter yield, and sugar beet yield. Sugar percentage was also increased relative to the average percentage recorded in Syria. Crop water use efficiencies, for both the drip-fertigated and surface-irrigated treatments were increased in most cases with increasing rate of nitrogen fertilizer. During the course of this study, small increases in soil salinity under both irrigation methods were observed. Higher increases in soil salinity was

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Irrigation and Fertilization by Drip Fertigation on Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Xiukang, Wang; Yingying, Xing

    2016-01-01

    The water shortage in China, particularly in Northwest China, is very serious. There is, therefore, great potential for improving the water use efficiency (WUE) in agriculture, particularly in areas where the need for water is greatest. A two-season (2012 and 2013) study evaluated the effects of irrigation and fertilizer rate on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., cv. “Jinpeng 10”) growth, yield, and WUE. The fertilizer treatment significantly influenced plant height and stem diameter at 2...

  13. Comparative Study of Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Potato Crop under Fertigation and Surface Irrigating Systems by Using Labeled Nitrogen (15N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah Haidara, H. M.; Amin Alkirshi, A. H.; Saleh Husien, A.

    2007-01-01

    This research activity was conducted at Central Highland Research Station Farm-Dhamar, on potato Crop (Diamant cv.), during three seasons of 2000, 2001, and 2003.The objective of this activity was to study the Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency (WUE) which applied in different dosages with irrigation water (fertigation) and one dosage to the soil under surface irrigation, by using Labeled nitrogen fertilizer ( 15N ), comparing the quantity of irrigation water applied through Drip irrigation method and surface irrigation and its effect on WUE and yield of potato crop. The basic experiment was planted in randomized completely block design (RCBD) with five replications during 2000 season and six replication in 2001.and five treatments were tested (N1= 50kg N/ha, N2 =100kg N/ha, N3=150kg N/ha and N4=200kgN/ha as fertigated treatments under drip irrigation and Ns = 150kg N/ha as surface Nitrogen Application under surface irrigation. While in the 2003 season Verification trial was conducted with two replications, two treatments and RCB design. Results indicated that using Drip irrigation method in application of water saved 38% of irrigation water as compared to Surface irrigation. Fertigated treatments (N1, N2, N3 and N4) were, significantly superior to Surface Nitrogen Application treatment (NS), fertigated treatment (N3) gave the highest values of WUE which were 5.3, 6.4 and 6.1 kg/m3 for the three seasons (2000, 2001, 2003 respectively) with an average of 5.9 kg/m3 comparing to the surface Nitrogen Application treatment (NS) which gave the less yield per unit of water which was 3.8, 3.6 and 3.9 kg /m3 for the three seasons 2000, 2001 and 2003 respectively with an average of 3.7 kg/m3.The Average yield of potato tubers for (N3) treatment in the three seasons was 30 .3 t/ha comparing to the (NS) treatment, which gave an average of 29,5t/ha.The fertigatetd treatment (N1) recorded the highest efficient use of nitrogen Fertilizer followed by (N3) compare to the surface

  14. Physic nut seed productivity (Jatropha curcas L.), in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages; Produtividade de sementes de pinhao-manso (Jatropha curcas L.), da estacao chuvosa, submetido a diferentes laminas de irrigacao e adubacao potassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, Fabio Ponciano de; Faria, Manoel Alves de; Portela, Jaqueline Damyane [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], E-mail: fpdagricola@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, Ednaldo Liberato de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Januaria, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this research was to value the Physic nut seed productivity, in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages, for 2008, 2009 and for the accumulated of theses years, in Lavras - MG, Brazil. The experimental design was the one of randomized blocks, in split plot design, with four replicates. The treatment levels were four water levels (plots) and four potassium dosages (subplots). The irrigation was applied based on the amount estimated by the water balance considering the class A pan evaporation (ECA) and rain depths - L{sub 0} (non irrigated), L{sub 40}, L{sub 80} and L{sub 120} (40, 80 and 120% of the balance respectively). The potassium dosages were K{sub 30}, K{sub 60}, K{sub 90} and K{sub 120} (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.ha{sup -1} respectively). It was used the drip irrigation system. It was used the Sisvar 4.0 software, for analysis of variance and the Tukey test at 5% level of probability to compare the means. However, it was possible to observe in rainy season, that the irrigation has not changed the Physic nut seed productivity. The potassium level 120 kg.ha{sup -1} in all significant situations was the treatment with higher productivity. (author)

  15. Biophysical response of young pomegranate trees to surface and sub-surface drip irrigation and deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to recurring agricultural water shortages, many farmers are looking for crops that have both some degree of drought resistance and a higher economic value. Pomegranate has been identified as a crop with potential drought tolerance, and high economic values. To manage limited water effectively, i...

  16. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  17. [Physiological responses of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to drought stress during vegetative development period under drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-yang; Geng, Qing-yun; Fei, Cong; Fan, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Beta 356) was subjected to drought stress during vegetative development by maintaining the soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil depth at 70%, 50% or 30% of field capacity to study the physiological traits of the leaves. Results showed that the compensation index was the highest in the 50% field capacity treatment. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, catalase (CAT) activity, and soluble sugar content began to increase 24 h after rehydration. Proline content began to increase 48 h after rehydration. In contrast, no compensation effect was observed in peroxidase (POD) activity after rehydration. Among the active oxygen scavenging enzymes, CAT was most sensitive to drought stress. Supplemental irrigation should be carried out promptly when the soil water content dropped to 50% of field capacity during vegetative development. Rehydration could promote self-repair functions in leaves, thus reducing the effects of drought on sugar beet yield and sugar content.

  18. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C

    2018-01-01

    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of the rice husk as an alternative substrate for growing media on green walls drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey Rivas-Sánchez, Yair; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán Cañas, José

    2017-04-01

    In the last years, we have been looking for alternatives to traditional growing mediums for green walls. Commercially available systems for green walls are commonly made with Sphagnum, rock wool or polymers that are unsustainable materials. In the design of the green wall, local components such as agricultural by-products should be considered more often. The objective of this research is to use alternative materials available in Andalusia that are suitable for use as a growing medium in green walls, using organic residues generated by agriculture as in this case the rice husk, compared to conventional and used materials as a growing media in green walls such as coconut fiber and rock wool. The physical-chemical characteristics of the water were analyzed through the collection of excess irrigation water, after passing through the prototypes of green walls, installed in the Rabanales Campus of the University of Córdoba between April and July 2016 and thus observe the feasibility of using rice husk as an alternative material. The 16 mm diameter irrigation pipes are at the top and middle of each module, with 12 adjustable drippers of 4 l / h for each module, 72 drippers in the whole experimental green wall prototype installed at every 15 centimeters of tube. Two different species of plant material (Lampranthus spectabilis) and (Lavandula stoechas), were selected, taking into account the solar exposition of the place of establishment of the prototype of the green wall and the easy acquisition of these plants in the region. Water samples were collected every day twice a day for 10 weeks of the experiment, taking a sample of the surplus runoff water from six green wall prototypes.PH 40 - pH - conductivity - TDS - temperature, CRISON. Differences in pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and total solids of the treatments were examined by ANOVA with the test of normality and homogeneity of variances. It was observed that the substrates used in the prototypes of the

  20. Constraining Agricultural Irrigation Surface Energy Budget Feedbacks in Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufforth, M. E.; Desai, A. R.; Suyker, A.

    2017-12-01

    The expansion and modernization of irrigation increased the relevance of knowing the effects it has on regional weather and climate feedbacks. We conducted a set of observationally-constrained simulations determining the result irrigation exhibits on the surface energy budget, the atmospheric boundary layer, and regional precipitation feedbacks. Eddy covariance flux tower observations were analyzed from two irrigated and one rain-fed corn/soybean rotation sites located near Mead, Nebraska. The evaluated time period covered the summer growing months of June, July, and August (JJA) during the years when corn grew at all three sites. As a product of higher continuous surface moisture availability, the irrigated crops had significantly higher amounts of energy partitioned towards latent heating than the non-irrigated site. The daily average peak of latent heating at the rain-fed site occurred before the irrigated sites and was approximately 45 W/m2 lower. Land surface models were evaluated on their ability to reproduce these effects, including those used in numerical weather prediction and those used in agricultural carbon cycle projection. Model structure, mechanisms, and parameters that best represent irrigation-surface energy impacts will be compared and discussed.

  1. [Effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching on the net primary productivity, soil heterotrophic respiration, and net CO2 exchange flux of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Run-Hua; Lai, Dong-Mei; Yan, Zheng-Yue; Jiang, Li; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2012-04-01

    In April-October, 2009, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of drip irrigation with plastic mulching (MD) on the net primary productivity (NPP), soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) , and net CO2 exchange flux (NEF(CO2)) of cotton field ecosystem in Xinjiang, taking the traditional flood irrigation with no mulching (NF) as the control. With the increasing time, the NPP, Rh, and NEF(CO2) in treatments MD and NF all presented a trend of increasing first and decreased then. As compared with NF, MD increased the aboveground and belowground biomass and the NPP of cotton, and decreased the Rh. Over the whole growth period, the Rh in treatment MD (214 g C x m(-2)) was smaller than that in treatment NF (317 g C x m(-2)), but the NEF(CO2) in treatment MD (1030 g C x m(-2)) was higher than that in treatment NF (649 g C x m(-2)). Treatment MD could fix the atmospheric CO2 approximately 479 g C x m(-2) higher than treatment NF. Drip irrigation with plastic mulching could promote crop productivity while decreasing soil CO2 emission, being an important agricultural measure for the carbon sequestration and emission reduction of cropland ecosystems in arid area.

  2. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  3. Development and experiences of photovoltaic water pumping for a drip irrigation in agriculture; Desarrollo y experiencias de sistemas de bombeo fotovoltaico para aplicaciones de riego tecnificado en la agricultura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Sapiain, Raul; Torres, Ariel; Loose, Dirk [Centro de Energias Renovables, Arica (Chile); Hahn, Andreas [Eschborn (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The following paper shows results and experiences from a pilot project of photovoltaic water pumping for drip irrigation in agriculture of rural areas. The project participants are local farmers in direct co-operation with the Renewable Energy Centre of the University of Tarapaca and the German Agency for Technical Co-operation, GTZ. Activities focus on the planification, design, implementation and evaluation of four different pilot installations for the small and medium scale agriculture in different locations of the desert area of northern Chile. In the first phase, photovoltaic pumping systems were installed with water storage tanks and a drip irrigation systems were installed with water storage tanks and a drip irrigation system working only by gravity at very low operating pressures. In the second phase, a new system configuration was developed with a direct driven photovoltaic pumping system without water storage tank, the drip irrigation system here is directly connected to the pump with variable water flow and system pressure conditions. Part of the pilot project is a monitoring system, which allows a complete short term and long term evaluation under technical, agricultural and economical aspects. The measured data and obtained experiences shown so far interesting result as for example the high system's reliability, a good performance of the low pressure irrigation, an adequate matching between the solar pump and the drip irrigation in the direct driven system and a simple irrigation management and operation, compared with conventional pumping systems. The project's results could offer a new alternative for photovoltaic pumping systems in the productive agricultural sector of desert rural areas. [Spanish] El presente trabajo muestra los resultados y experiencias obtenidas en un programa piloto de bombeo fotovoltaico para nuevas aplicaciones de riego tecnificado en la agricultura de zonas rurales. En este programa el Centro de Energias Renovables

  4. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  5. Desenvolvimento e produção de duas cultivares de cebola irrigadas por gotejamento Development and production of two onion cultivars irrigated by drip system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Vilas Boas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes tensões da água no solo sobre o desenvolvimento e produção de duas cultivares de cebola irrigadas por gotejamento. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do DAG/UFLA, no período de junho a outubro de 2008; o delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos se constituíram de duas cultivares de cebola, cultivar híbrida Optima F1 e cultivar não híbrida Alfa Tropical, além de seis tensões da água no solo, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 e 75 kPa. Concluiu-se que o híbrido Optima F1 apresentou melhores respostas com relação às seguintes características analisadas: produtividade total de bulbos, produtividade de bulbos comerciais e massa média de bulbos comerciais. A altura da planta e o diâmetro do colo apresentaram respostas lineares decrescentes, sempre que se aumentaram as tensões da água no solo, para ambas as cultivares. Referidas cultivares devem ser irrigadas no momento em que a tensão da água no solo estiver em torno de 15 kPa, na profundidade de 0,15 m, para obtenção de plantas mais altas, maiores produtividades de bulbos (total e comercial e maior massa média de bulbos comerciais.This work aimed to assess the effect of different water tensions in soil over the development and production of two onion cultivars irrigated by drip system. The experiment was carried in the experimental area of the DAG/UFLA, from June to October 2008. The experimental was conducted in randomized block design in 2 x 6 factorial scheme, with four repetitions. The treatments were two onion cultivars, the hybrid Optima F1 and the non hybrid Alfa Tropical and six soil water tensions, i.e., 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 and 75 kPa. It was verified that the hybrid Optima F1 presented the best responses regarding the following analyzed characteristics: total bulb yield, commercial bulb yield and average mass of

  6. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering c...

  7. Internal surface roughness of plastic pipes for irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes S. da Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Assuming that a roughness meter can be successfully employed to measure the roughness on the internal surface of irrigation pipes, this research had the purpose of defining parameters and procedures required to represent the internal surface roughness of plastic pipes used in irrigation. In 2013, the roughness parameter Ra, traditional for the representation of surface irregularities in most situations, and the parameters Rc, Rq, and Ry were estimated based on 350 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and low-density polyethylene (LDPE pipes. Pressure losses were determined from experiments carried out in laboratory. Estimations of pressure loss varied significantly according to the roughness parameters (Ra, Rc, Rq, and Ry and the corresponding pipe diameter. Therefore, specific values of roughness for each pipe diameter improves accuracy in pressure losses estimation. The average values of internal surface roughness were 3.334 and 8.116 μm for PVC and LDPE pipes, respectively.

  8. Produtividade de três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar sob manejos de sequeiro e irrigado por gotejamento Productivity of three sugarcane cultivars under dry and drip irrigated management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber J. de C. Gava

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da tecnologia de irrigação por gotejamento, em cultivares de cana-de-açúcar, em dois ciclos de produção (cana-planta e cana-soca. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, constituídos pela combinação de três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar: RB867515; RB855536 e SP80-3280, e dois manejos da cultura: sistema de irrigação por gotejamento subterrâneo e sistema de sequeiro, totalizando seis tratamentos. O primeiro ciclo teve duração de 336 dias, ocorrendo precipitação de 1.480 mm. O volume de água disponibilizado pelo sistema de irrigação por gotejamento foi de 400 mm, totalizando 1.880 mm. O segundo ciclo teve duração de 365 dias, cujo volume de água por meio de precipitação foi de 1.394 mm; somados aos 320 mm fornecidos pelo sistema de irrigação, totalizaram 1.714 mm. Ocorreu interação entre manejo e cultivar para as variáveis: produtividade de colmos (TCH e produtividade de açúcar (TPH em que a maior diferença foi observada para a cultivar SP80-3280. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciadas na eficiência de utilização da água. No manejo irrigado por gotejamento houve elevação de 24% na produtividade de colmos e de 23% na produtividade de açúcar, em relação ao manejo de sequeiro.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of drip irrigation technology in different sugarcane varieties in two crop cycles (plant cane and ratoon. The experimental design was in completly randomized blocks, in split-plot with four replications, constituted by three sugarcane genotypes: RB867515; RB855536 and SP80-3280 and two crop management: drip irrigation system and rainfed system, totalizing six treatments. The first cycle lasted for 336 days, with rainfall of 1,480 mm. The volume of water provided by the system of drip irrigation was 400 mm, totaling 1,880 mm. The second cycle lasted for 365 days, the volume of water through

  9. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  10. A field performance evaluation of drip emitters: pressure versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field evaluation of irrigation systems (drip) can form a basis for decision making as to whether the irrigation system needs rehabilitation, overhaul or even dismantling if found to be very uneconomical. A comprehensive field evaluation of irrigation systems involves determining the overall efficiency of the system, for example, ...

  11. Distribuição da água no solo para o dimensionamento da irrigação por gotejamento Water distribution in soil and drip irrigation design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei F. Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do dimensionamento de um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento é escolher adequadamente o "layout" e os componentes do sistema para promover a distribuição precisa da água (e fertilizante para todas as plantas, ao longo do campo. Com vistas a este propósito, avaliaram-se as contribuições capazes de fornecer elementos básicos para o dimensionamento da irrigação por gotejamento, utilizando-se sondas de TDR. Assim, o estudo experimental foi dividido em duas partes; na primeira, tem-se o efeito de irrigações sucessivas nas dimensões dos raios horizontal e vertical do bulbo molhado, analisado em condições de laboratório e, na segunda, o processo de distribuição da água na formação do bulbo molhado em campo. Com os resultados apresentados nesta pesquisa pôde-se concluir que: a umidade inicial do solo, o volume aplicado, a vazão do gotejador, o disco saturado e a condutividade hidráulica, são elementos importantes e devem ser conhecidos para o dimensionamento e o manejo adequado da irrigação.The principal objective of a drip irrigation system design is to choose the appropriate layout and components to obtain adequate distribution of water (and fertilizer throughout the field. Based on this the contributions which are capable of furmishing the basic elements for the design of drip irrigation were evaluated using the TDR probes. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, the effect of successive irrigations on the wetted volume (horizontal and vertical dimensions were analyzed under laboratory conditions; and in the second one, the water infiltration and distribution processes were evaluated with respect to formation of the wetted volume in the field. It was concluded that: initial soil water content, applied volume, discharge rate, saturated disk and hydraulic conductivity are important elements and these must be known for an appropriate irrigation design and management.

  12. Modulation of physiological hemostasis by irrigation solution: comparison of various irrigation solutions using a mouse brain surface bleeding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yasutaka; Doi, Kazuhisa; Harada, Daisuke; Kamikawa, Shuji

    2010-04-01

    Intraoperative bleeding often obscures the surgical field and may cause neurological damage. The irrigation fluids used during surgery might affect physiological hemostasis because they modulate the extracellular fluid composition of the bleeding area directly. The authors therefore investigated the influence of irrigation fluid on hemostasis in a mouse brain surface bleeding model. The cerebral cortices of ddY strain mice were exposed under irrigation with normal saline, lactated Ringer (LR) solution, or artificial CSF (ACF-95). To investigate the influence of electrolytes, calcium, potassium, or both were also added to the saline. After 10 minutes of irrigation at 100 ml/hour, sequential photographs of the surgical area were taken with a microscope, and the number of bleeding points was counted visually. Irrigation and counting were performed in a masked manner. There were significantly more bleeding points after irrigation with normal saline than with ACF-95; LR solution had a similar effect on physiological hemostasis as ACF-95. Saline augmented with calcium or potassium and calcium was superior to normal saline in terms of hemostasis. The authors demonstrated that the irrigation fluid used in neurosurgery affects bleeding at the surgical site. To avoid surgical site bleeding, ACF-95 and LR solution should be used as irrigation fluids instead of normal saline. The calcium and potassium content of irrigation solutions seems to be important in hemostasis.

  13. Movement of Irrigation Water in Soil from a Surface Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abbas Dawood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available rickle irrigation is one of the most conservative irrigation techniques since it implies supplying water directly on the soil through emitters. Emitters dissipate energy of water at the end of the trickle irrigation system and provide water at emission points. The area wetted by an emitter depends upon the discharge of emitter, soil texture, initial soil water content, and soil permeability. The objectives of this research were to predict water distribution profiles through different soils for different conditions and quantify the distribution profiles in terms of main characteristics of soil and emitter. The wetting patterns were simulated at the end of each hour for a total time of application of 12 hrs, emitter discharges of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lph, and five initial volumetric soil water contents. Simulation of water flow from a single surface emitter was carried out by using the numerically-based software Hydrus-2D/3D, Version 2.04. Two approaches were used in developing formulas to predict the domains of the wetted pattern. In order to verify the results obtained by implementing the software Hydrus-2D/3D a field experiment was conducted to measure the wetted diameter and compare measured values with simulated ones. The results of the research showed that the developed formulas to express the wetted diameter and depth in terms of emitter discharge, time of application, and initial soil water content are very general and can be used with very good accuracy.

  14. Viabilidade econômica do uso do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola Economic viability of the use of drip irrigation system on onion crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Carvalho Vilas Boas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a viabilidade econômica do uso do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola. O experimento foi conduzido em canteiros construídos a céu aberto, na área experimental do Departamento de Agricultura/ UFLA, no período de junho a outubro de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de duas cultivares de cebola, cultivar híbrida Optima F1 e cultivar não híbrida Alfa Tropical, e seis tensões da água no solo, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 e 75 kPa. A análise econômica da lavoura irrigada foi fundamentada na teoria dos custos de produção e, considerando-se a metodologia aplicada, conclui-se que as despesas com os recursos variáveis foram as que mais oneraram o custo final da cebola em todos os tratamentos estudados. Os custos totais médios foram, inversamente, proporcionais às produtividades dos tratamentos de tensão da água no solo, para ambas as cultivares, indicando uma resposta à escala de produção. Na condição do experimento, a recomendação é de que se adote, como momento de irrigar, a tensão da água no solo de 15 kPa e, como cultivar o híbrido Optima F1, para que se obtenha maior rentabilidade na atividade produtiva. A irrigação por gotejamento na cultura da cebola, adotando-se as tensões da água no solo e as cultivares estudadas neste trabalho, é uma técnica economicamente viável.The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of the use of drip irrigation system on onion crop. The experiment was set at open field beds in the experimental area of the Agricultural Department/UFLA, from June to October 2008. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replicates. Treatments consisted of two onion cultivars, the hybrid Optima F1 and the non hybrid Alfa Tropical and six soil water tension values, 15

  15. Avaliação da uniformidade de aplicação de água em um sistema de gotejamento para pequenas propriedades Uniformity of water application for a drip irrigation system to small farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva do Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento à baixa pressão tem como objetivo oferecer uma técnica de irrigação viável para pequenas propriedades. Foram dimensionados oito sistemas de irrigação, um com os seguintes acessórios: 210 metros de tubo gotejador com diâmetro interno (DI de 10,4 mm, sete conectores de 12 mm, e seis metros de tubo de polietileno, um adaptador para tubo de polietileno, uma curva de 90º e três metros de tubo de PVC com DI igual a 20,6 mm. Quatro sistemas foram montados com um filtro de tela de 130 μm e os demais com um filtro de disco de 200 μm. Em todos os sistemas foram utilizados um reservatório de 1 m³ localizado a 3 m acima do nível do solo. Irrigou-se 1296 m² de uma cultura de tomate, em canteiros com dimensões de 1,20 m por 60 m. Para avaliação técnica do projeto foi obtida a uniformidade de aplicação de água através do coeficiente de uniformidade de emissão (UE e coeficiente de uniformidade de distribuição (UD, durante um período de 90 dias. Os resultados indicaram que o UE e o UD foram excelentes e que os valores de grau de entupimento aumentaram com o uso da irrigação. Assim, de acordo com os resultados, comprova-se a viabilidade técnica da utilização de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento funcionando a baixa pressão para pequenas áreas.A low pressure drip irrigation gravity feed system may be a viable technique to small farms. So, according with it, eight irrigation systems with 10.4 mm internal diameter driptubing 210 m long, seven 12 mm adapters, 20.6 mm polyethylene pipe 6 m long, polyethylene adapter, 20.6 mm 90º elbow, 20.6 mm PVC pipe 3 m long and 1 m³ water reservoir at 3 m height, were designed and assembled to irrigate 1.296 m² with tomato cultivated in 0.8 x 60 m beds. One 130 mm screen filter was used to four systems and one 200 mm disc filter for the other ones. Emission uniformity coefficients (UE and distribution uniformity coefficients (UD were

  16. Crescimento inicial de duas cultivares de cafeeiro adensado influenciado por níveis de irrigação localizada Initial growth of two high-density coffee tree cultivars influenced by drip irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Santana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Água Limpa, Universidade de Brasília, tendo como objetivo avaliar o crescimento das cultivares de café IAPAR-59 e Obatã, submetidas a cinco níveis de irrigação por gotejamento durante o primeiro ano de formação e estudar formas de manejo da água do solo. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos completos ao acaso para o fator irrigação em parcelas, com o fator cultivar em subparcela e o fator tempo em dias após o transplante (dat em subsubparcela, com seis repetições. Os cinco níveis de irrigação foram tensões de 20; 40 e 60 kPa determinadas com o auxílio de tensiômetros, sistema Irrigas com tensão definida pelo próprio sensor e sem irrigação. As variáveis de crescimento avaliadas foram índice de área foliar, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, altura de plantas e número de ramos plagiotrópicos. Aos 316 dat, os tratamentos irrigados tiveram o mesmo comportamento de crescimento, mas foram significativamente maiores em relação ao tratamento não irrigado. O sistema Irrigas mostrou ser uma opção para o manejo adequado da água com manutenção nula. As cultivares IAPAR-59 e Obatã têm comportamento de crescimento diferenciado, com todas as variáveis avaliadas favorecendo esta última.The experiment was carried out at "Água Limpa" Farm, University of Brasilia. The objective was to evaluate growth of IAPAR-59 and Obatã cultivars using five drip irrigation levels, during the crop of the first year and to study soil water management. It was used a randomized complete block design for the irrigation factor, with the cultivar factor as a split plot on irrigation and the factor time in days after transplanting (dat as a split plot on cultivar. The five irrigation levels were 20; 40 and 60 kPa, established using tensiometers; Irrigas system with soil water tension defined by its sensor; and no irrigation. Growth variables evaluated were leaf area index, leaf number

  17. Número de ramos plagiotrópicos e produtividade de duas cultivares de cafeeiro utilizando irrigação por gotejamento Number of primary branches and productivity of two cultivars of coffee using drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ribeiro da Costa

    2010-12-01

    number of plagiotropic branches and in the productivity of the cultivars of coffee Obatã and IAPAR - 59. The seedlings were planted in the spacing of 2.0 meters between lines and 1.0 meter within lines, characterizing a dense system. In this experiment was used the system of localized irrigation by dripping. The experiment followed a design completely randomized in split plots with four replications. The plots and subplots were composed by percentages of doses of NPK and crops, respectively. The interaction between those factors influenced significantly the productivity and the number of plagiotropic branches allowing concluding which dose of fertilizer is indicated for each cultivation. The maximum yield to grow Obatã was achieved with doses of NPK percentages of 119.5%, 151.25% and 154.17% for non-irrigated crops, irrigated and fertilized, respectively. The maximum yield for IAPAR - 59 in nonirrigated crops, irrigated and fertilized was achieved with doses of NPK percentages of 137.83%, 162% and 151.75% respectively. Regarding the number of primary branches the best dose for cultivating crops in irrigated and Obatã fertirrigated corresponded to a percentage of 200%, while the percentage dose of 150% showed the most suitable for IAPAR - 59 for the irrigated crops. The best productive was obtained for the fertirrigated cultivations.

  18. Influence of Irrigation Scheduling Using Thermometry on Peach Tree Water Status and Yield under Different Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Remotely-sensed canopy temperature from infrared thermometer (IRT sensors has long been shown to be effective for detecting plant water stress. A field study was conducted to investigate peach tree responses to deficit irrigation which was controlled using canopy to air temperature difference (ΔT during the postharvest period at the USDA-ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center in Parlier, California, USA. The experimental site consisted of a 1.6 ha early maturing peach tree orchard. A total of 18 IRT sensors were used to control six irrigation treatments including furrow, micro-spray, and surface drip irrigation systems with and without postharvest deficit irrigation. During the postharvest period in the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons, ΔT threshold values at mid-day was tested to trigger irrigation in three irrigation systems. The results showed that mid-day stem water potentials (ψ for well irrigated trees were maintained at a range of −0.5 to −1.2 MPa while ψ of deficit irrigated trees dropped to lower values. Soil water content in deficit surface drip irrigation treatment was higher compared to deficit furrow and micro-spray irrigation treatments in 2012. The number of fruits and fruit weight from peach trees under postharvest deficit irrigation treatment were less than those well-watered trees; however, no statistically significant (at the p < 0.05 level reduction in fruit size or quality was found for trees irrigated by surface drip and micro-spray irrigation systems by deficit irrigation. Beside doubles, we found an increased number of fruits with deep sutures and dimples which may be a long-term (seven-year postharvest regulated deficit irrigation impact of deficit irrigation on this peach tree variety. Overall, deployment of IRT sensors provided real-time measurement of canopy water status and the information is valuable for making irrigation

  19. Variação de vazão de gotejadores de fluxo normal enterrados na irrigação de café Flow variation of regular flow emitters in subsurface drip irrigation in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Faria

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter informações sobre o desempenho de gotejadores enterrados (irrigação subsuperficial, quanto ao aspecto de variação de vazão em função da intrusão radicular da cultura do café. As mudas de café foram irrigadas por sete modelos diferentes de gotejadores de fluxo normal, instalados a duas profundidades (15 e 30 cm da superfície do solo e em dois níveis de depleção de água no solo (tratamentos úmido e seco. O trabalho foi conduzido em vasos e sob ambiente controlado, utilizando mudas de cafeeiro em estágio inicial de desenvolvimento. Concluiu-se que, até os 120 dias do início do experimento, não houve modelo de emissor que se destacasse quanto à penetração de raízes e, a partir daí, diferenças na suscetibilidade dos modelos foram observadas, podendo-se agrupar os modelos avaliados em função do grau de redução de vazão. Os níveis de irrigação não apresentaram resultados conclusivos até 120 dias do início do experimento, porém, considerando todo o período do experimento, observaram-se evidências de que o sistema radicular é mais agressivo na camada mais profunda de solo (30 cm e para o tratamento úmido.This work aimed to quantify drippers performance under subsurface drip irrigation (SDI, regarding the flow variation due to root intrusion under coffee crop. Coffee seedlings were irrigated by seven different models of commercial drippers, in two depths (15 and 30 cm and in two soil water depletion levels (Wet and Dry treatments. It was concluded that until 120 days from the beginning of the experiment there was not a dripper that highlighted regarding the relationship of the penetration of roots, and starting from there, differences in the susceptibility of the models were observed, and the models evaluated in function degree of flow reduction could be assemble. The irrigation levels didn't present conclusive results until 120 days from the beginning of the experiment

  20. Modeled effects of irrigation on surface climate in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xiong, Zhe; Tang, Qiuhong

    2017-08-01

    In Northwest China, water originates from the mountain area and is largely used for irrigation agriculture in the middle reaches. This study investigates the local and remote impact of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. An irrigation scheme was developed and incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-MP land surface scheme (WRF/Noah-MP). The effects of irrigation is assessed by comparing the model simulations with and without consideration of irrigation (hereafter, IRRG and NATU simulations, respectively) for five growth seasons (May to September) from 2009 to 2013. As consequences of irrigation, daily mean temperature decreased by 1.7°C and humidity increased by 2.3 g kg-1 (corresponding to 38.5%) over irrigated area. The temperature and humidity of IRRG simulation matched well with the observations, whereas NATU simulation overestimated temperature and underestimated humidity over irrigated area. The effects on temperature and humidity are generally small outside the irrigated area. The cooling and wetting effects have opposing impacts on convective precipitation, resulting in a negligible change in localized precipitation over irrigated area. However, irrigation may induce water vapor convergence and enhance precipitation remotely in the southeastern portion of the Heihe River Basin.

  1. Irrigation Induced Surface Cooling in the Context of Modern and Increased Greenhouse Gas Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Puma, Michael J.; Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that expected warming trends from increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing have been locally masked by irrigation induced cooling, and it is uncertain how the magnitude of this irrigation masking effect will change in the future. Using an irrigation dataset integrated into a global general circulation model, we investigate the equilibrium magnitude of irrigation induced cooling under modern (Year 2000) and increased (A1B Scenario, Year 2050) GHG forcing, using modern irrigation rates in both scenarios. For the modern scenario, the cooling is largest over North America, India, the Middle East, and East Asia. Under increased GHG forcing, this cooling effect largely disappears over North America, remains relatively unchanged over India, and intensifies over parts of China and the Middle East. For North America, irrigation significantly increases precipitation under modern GHG forcing; this precipitation enhancement largely disappears under A1B forcing, reducing total latent heat fluxes and the overall irrigation cooling effect. Over India, irrigation rates are high enough to keep pace with increased evaporative demand from the increased GHG forcing and the magnitude of the cooling is maintained. Over China, GHG forcing reduces precipitation and shifts the region to a drier evaporative regime, leading to a relatively increased impact of additional water from irrigation on the surface energy balance. Irrigation enhances precipitation in the Middle East under increased GHG forcing, increasing total latent heat fluxes and enhancing the irrigation cooling effect. Ultimately, the extent to which irrigation will continue to compensate for the warming from increased GHG forcing will primarily depend on changes in the background evaporative regime, secondary irrigation effects (e.g. clouds, precipitation), and the ability of societies to maintain (or increase) current irrigation rates.

  2. Effect of irrigation techniques and strategies on water footprint of growing crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of growing crops, the largest water user and a significant contributor to the WF of many consumer products, plays a significant role in integrated and sustainable water management. The water footprint for growing crop is accounted by relating the crop yield with the corresponding consumptive water use (CWU), which both can be adjusted by measures that affect the crop growth and root-zone soil water balance. This study explored the scope for reducing the water footprint of irrigated crops by experimenting set of field level technical and managerial measures: (i) irrigation technologies (Furrow, sprinkler, drip and sub-surface drip), (ii) irrigation strategies (full and a range of sustained and controlled deficit) and (iii) field management options (zero, organic and synthetic mulching). Ranges of cases were also considered: (a) Arid and semi-arid environment (b) Loam and Sandy-loam soil types and (c) for Potato, Wheat and Maize crops; under (c) wet, normal and dry years. AquaCrop, the water driven crop growth and soil water balance model, offered the opportunity to systematically experiment these measures on water consumption and yield. Further, the green and blue water footprints of growing crop corresponding to each measure were computed by separating the root zone fluxes of the AquaCrop output into the green and blue soil water stocks and their corresponding fluxes. Results showed that in arid environment reduction in irrigation supply, CWU and WF up to 300 mm, 80 mm and 75 m3/tonne respectively can be achieved for Maize by a combination of organic mulching and drip technology with controlled deficit irrigation strategies (10-20-30-40% deficit with reference to the full irrigation requirement). These reductions come with a yield drop of 0.54 tonne/ha. In the same environment under the absence of mulching practice, the sub-surface drip perform better in reducing CWU and WF of irrigated crops followed by drip and furrow irrigation

  3. Estimating water application efficiency for drip irrigation emitter patterns on banana Estimativa da eficiência de aplicação de água em bananeira com diferentes sistemas de gotejamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate root and water distribution in irrigated banana (Musa sp., in order to determine the water application efficiency for different drip irrigation emitter patterns. Three drip emitter patterns were studied: two 4-L h-1 emitters per plant (T1, four 4-L h-1 emitters per plant (T2, and five 4-L h-1 emitters per plant (T3. The emitters were placed in a lateral line. In the treatment T3, the emitters formed a continuous strip. The cultivated area used was planted with banana cultivar BRS Tropical, with a 3-m spacing between rows and a 2.5-m spacing between plants. Soil moisture and root length data were collected during the first production cycle at five radial distances and depths, in a 0.20x0.20 m vertical grid. The experiment was carried out in a sandy clay loam Xanthic Hapludox. Soil moisture data were collected every 10 min for a period of five days using TDR probes. Water application efficiency was of 83, 88 and 92% for the systems with two, four and five emitters per plant, respectively. It was verified that an increase in the number of emitters in the lateral line promoted better root distribution, higher water extraction, and less deep percolation losses.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição de água e raízes de bananeira (Musa sp. irrigada, para determinar a eficiência de aplicação de água por diferentes sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento. Foram estudados três sistemas de gotejamento: T1, dois emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta; T2, quatro emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta; e T3, cinco emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta. Os emissores foram dispostos em uma linha lateral. No tratamento T3, os emissores formaram uma faixa contínua. A área de cultivo foi plantada com bananeira cultivar BRS Tropical com espaçamento de 3 m entre fileiras e de 2,5 m entre plantas. Dados de umidade e comprimento de raízes foram coletados durante o primeiro ciclo da cultura, em cinco dist

  4. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Poblete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP and thermal infrared (TIR imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R2 increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE and standard error (SE decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  5. Automatic Coregistration Algorithm to Remove Canopy Shaded Pixels in UAV-Borne Thermal Images to Improve the Estimation of Crop Water Stress Index of a Drip-Irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2018-01-30

    Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status. Nevertheless, when aerial TIR images are captured over canopy, internal shadow canopy pixels cannot be detected, leading to mixed information that negatively impacts the relationship between CWSI and SWP. This study proposes a methodology for automatic coregistration of thermal and multispectral images (ranging between 490 and 900 nm) obtained from a UAV to remove shadow canopy pixels using a modified scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) computer vision algorithm and Kmeans++ clustering. Our results indicate that our proposed methodology improves the relationship between CWSI and SWP when shadow canopy pixels are removed from a drip-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. In particular, the coefficient of determination (R²) increased from 0.64 to 0.77. In addition, values of the root mean square error (RMSE) and standard error (SE) decreased from 0.2 to 0.1 MPa and 0.24 to 0.16 MPa, respectively. Finally, this study shows that the negative effect of shadow canopy pixels was higher in those vines with water stress compared with well-watered vines.

  6. Advances in Estimation of Parameters for Surface Irrigation Modeling and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical models of the surface irrigation process are becoming standard tools for analyzing the performance of irrigation systems and developing design and operational recommendations. A continuing challenge to the practical use of these tools is the difficulty in characterizing required model ...

  7. Profundidade de instalação da linha de gotejadores em tomateiro para processamento industrial Drip line placement depth for processing tomatoes crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Marouelli

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta do tomateiro para processamento industrial, irrigado por gotejamento, a diferentes profundidades de instalação da linha lateral de gotejadores (0; 20 e 40 cm. Um tratamento irrigado por aspersão foi utilizado como controle. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Hortaliças, nas condições edafoclimáticas da região de cerrados do Brasil Central. Maior crescimento vegetativo de plantas foi observado nos tratamentos irrigados por aspersão e gotejamento superficial, enquanto que menor crescimento ocorreu no gotejamento a 40 cm. A produtividade comercial do tratamento irrigado por gotejamento superficial (124 t.ha-1 foi 32% maior que no tratamento por gotejamento subterrâneo a 40 cm, 15% maior que no tratamento irrigado por aspersão, não diferindo (p>0,05 do tratamento por gotejamento a 20 cm. Incrementos de produtividade foram devidos, principalmente, ao maior número de frutos por planta, uma vez que o estande final e a massa média de frutos não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. A incidência de frutos podres na irrigação por aspersão foi 112 e 453% maior que nos tratamentos irrigados por gotejamento superficial e subterrâneo, respectivamente.A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças under soil and climate conditions of Central Brazil "cerrado" region, aiming to evaluate the response of drip-irrigated processing tomatoes to different drip line placement depths (0; 20 and 40 cm. A control treatment was irrigated by sprinkle system. Larger plant vegetative growth was observed for the sprinkle and surface drip treatments, while smaller growth occurred for the 40 cm-depth drip treatment. Marketable yield of the surface drip irrigated treatment (124 t.ha-1 was 32% larger than the 40 cm-depth drip treatment, 15% larger than the sprinkle treatment, but did not differ (p>0,05 from the 20 cm-depth drip treatment. Yield increments were basically due to a larger number of fruits per plant, since final

  8. Desempenho de famílias e híbridos comerciais de tomateiro para processamento industrial com irrigação por gotejamento Evaluation of tomato families and commercial hybrids for processing using drip irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O.M. Carvalho

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas e selecionadas as famílias provenientes do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro da UFU, com potencial para processamento industrial e comparados seus desempenhos com os híbridos mais utilizados pelos produtores na região de Patos de Minas. O ensaio foi conduzido na EE Fazenda Barreiro da Unilever Bestfoods Brasil, em Patos de Minas. Utilizaram-se 30 famílias de tomateiro e os híbridos Heinz 9553, Heinz 7155N2 e Hypeel 108. As Parcelas constituíram-se de linhas duplas espaçadas 0,5 m entre si, com 10 m de comprimento, irrigadas por gotejamento. O espaçamento entre as linhas duplas foi de 1,3 m e a população de 27 mil plantas por hectare. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A semeadura foi realizada em 19/05/01. O rendimento de polpa mostrou correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas positivas com a produção total, produção de frutos comerciais, % de sólidos solúveis totais, coloração do suco, número de frutos maduros por planta e pH e negativa com acidez total titulável. Destacaram-se a família UFU 06 e os três híbridos comerciais.Tomato families originated from the processing tomato breeding program of the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia were evaluated and selected and compared to the performance with the most planted hybrids in Patos de Minas, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the E. E. Barreiro, Unilever Bestfoods, in Patos de Minas. Thirty tomato families and the hybrids Heinz 9553, Heinz 7155N2 and Hypeel 108 were used. Experimental plots consisted of two lines, each one 10 m long, spaced 0,5 m from each other and irrigated with drip irrigation. The space between each double row was 1,3 m and the population of 27 thousand plants per hectare. The experimental design was a randomised complete block with four repetitions, installed on 05/19/01. The paste yield showed positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with total fruit yield, commercial fruit

  9. Assessing irrigated agriculture's surface water and groundwater consumption by combining satellite remote sensing and hydrologic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Arancibia, Jorge L; Mainuddin, Mohammed; Kirby, John M; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Vaze, Jai

    2016-01-15

    Globally, irrigation accounts for more than two thirds of freshwater demand. Recent regional and global assessments indicate that groundwater extraction (GWE) for irrigation has increased more rapidly than surface water extraction (SWE), potentially resulting in groundwater depletion. Irrigated agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions is usually from a combination of stored surface water and groundwater. This paper assesses the usefulness of remotely-sensed (RS) derived information on both irrigation dynamics and rates of actual evapotranspiration which are both input to a river-reach water balance model in order to quantify irrigation water use and water provenance (either surface water or groundwater). The assessment is implemented for the water-years 2004/05-2010/11 in five reaches of the Murray-Darling Basin (Australia); a heavily regulated basin with large irrigated areas and periodic droughts and floods. Irrigated area and water use are identified each water-year (from July to June) through a Random Forest model which uses RS vegetation phenology and actual evapotranspiration as predicting variables. Both irrigated areas and actual evapotranspiration from irrigated areas were compared against published estimates of irrigated areas and total water extraction (SWE+GWE).The river-reach model determines the irrigated area that can be serviced with stored surface water (SWE), and the remainder area (as determined by the Random Forest Model) is assumed to be supplemented by groundwater (GWE). Model results were evaluated against observed SWE and GWE. The modelled SWE generally captures the observed interannual patterns and to some extent the magnitudes, with Pearson's correlation coefficients >0.8 and normalised root-mean-square-error<30%. In terms of magnitude, the results were as accurate as or better than those of more traditional (i.e., using areas that fluctuate based on water resource availability and prescribed crop factors) irrigation modelling. The RS

  10. Viabilidade técnico-econômica do uso do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento na cultura do cafeeiro Technical and economical viability of the use of drip irrigation system in coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L. da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo geral do presente trabalho foi o estudo técnico e econômico do uso do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento, na cultura do café na região de Lavras, MG. Os dados analisados foram provenientes de um experimento usando-se a cultivar "Acaiá Cerrado"(MG 1474 implantada num espaçamento de 3,0 x 0,6 m. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em que os tratamentos de parcela correspondem a 5 lâminas de água (L0 - sem irrigação, L1 - 100%, L2 - 80%, L3 - 60% e L4 - 40% da Evaporação do Tanque Classe A - ECA e o tratamento de subparcela, a 3 parcelamentos de N e K (3, 6 e 9 vezes na época tradicional de aplicação de outubro a março dos anos avaliados (1998, 1999, 2000 e 2001. Para realização da análise econômica, utilizaram-se os dados de produção das três primeiras safras acumuladas, 1998/1999, 1999/2000 e 2000/2001. A análise dos custos da lavoura irrigada foi baseada na teoria dos custos de produção e, considerando-se a metodologia aplicada, conclui-se que as despesas com os recursos variáveis foram as que mais oneraram o custo final do café em todos os tratamentos de irrigação. Os itens que mais afetaram os custos de produção foram máquinas e implementos, no caso dos recursos fixos, e os gastos com insumos, no caso dos recursos variáveis. Houve boa eficiência técnica, uma vez que a produtividade média dos tratamentos foi de 54 sacas ha-1, sendo que a lâmina com 100% de reposição ECA, apresentou uma produtividade média de 68 sacas ha-1. Também, na situação econômica analisada, considerou-se o preço da saca de café a R$120,00 sendo, nestas condições, recomendável adotar-se o tratamento com reposição de 100% de ECA.Technical and economical evaluation of drip irrigation application in a coffee field located at Lavras - MG was the objective of this study. Data from an experiment carried out with the "Acaiá Cerrado"(MG 1474 cultivar

  11. Two year measurement of nitrous oxide emission from high frequency surface and subsurface drip irrigations in pomegranate orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building resiliency in California agriculture means utilizing adaptive farming practices that will produce better yields while overcoming the State’s current challenges, such as diminishing water supply and deteriorating water quality. In addition, California agriculture also needs to take proactive...

  12. Bower ratio-energy balance associated errors in vineyards under dripping irrigation Erros associados pela razão de bowen ao balanço de energia em parreirais sob irrigação por gotejamento

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    José Monteiro Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Bebedouro Experimental Station in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, to evaluate the errors associated to the application of the Bowen ratio-energy balance in a 3-years old vineyard (Vitis vinifera, L, grown in a trellis system, irrigated by dripping. The field measurements were taken during fruiting cycle (July to November, 2001, which was divided into eigth phenological stages. A micrometeorological tower was mounted in a grape-plants row in which sensors of net radiation, global solar radiation and wind speed were installed at about 1.0 m above the canopy. Also in the tower, two psicometers were installed at two levels (0.5 and 1.8 m above the vineyard canopy. Two soil heat flux plates were buried at 0.02 m beneath the soil surface. All these sensors were connected to a Data logger 21 X of Campbell Scientific Inc., programmed for collecting data once every 5 seconds and storage averages for every 15 minutes. A comparative analysis were made among four Bowen ratio accepting/rejecting rules, according to the methodology proposed by Spano et al. (2000: betar1 - values of beta calculated by Bowen (1926 equation; betar2 - values of beta as proposed by Verma et al. (1978 equation; betar3 - exclusion of the beta values obtained as recommended by Unland et al. (1996 and betar4 - exclusion of the beta values calculated as proposed by Bowen (1926, out of the interval (-0.7 Este estudo foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Bebedouro, Petrolina-PE, Brasil, para avaliar os erros associados com a aplicação do balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen em um parreiral (Vitis vinifera, L com três anos de idade, conduzido em latada, sob irrigação por gotejamento. As medições foram feitas durante o ciclo produtivo de julho a novembro de 2001, que foi dividido em oito estádios fenológicos. Numa torre micrometeorológica localizada no centro do parreiral, foram instalados a 1,00 m acima do dossel da videira, os seguintes

  13. Fate of plant protection products in soilless cultivations after drip irrigation: measured vs. modelled concentrations : Interpretation of the 2014 experiment with the Substance Emission Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden AMA; Hoogsteen MJJ; Boesten JJTA; van Os EA; Wipfler EL; MIL; LGW

    2017-01-01

    The Greenhouse Emission Model has recently been adopted as a model package for assessing emissions to and concentrations in groundwater and surface water after use of plant protection products in greenhouse crops. Stakeholders advised that the model be tested against experimental data. In

  14. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  15. Water application uniformity and fertigation in a dripping irrigation set Uniformidade de aplicação de água e fertirrigação em um conjunto de irrigação por gotejamento

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    Adilson L. Borssoi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uniformity of distribution coefficient (UDC and coefficient of variation (CV of a familiar set of irrigation, classifying it the ASAE standard. The irrigation and fertigation are determined by two methods the KELLER & KARMELI and DENÍCULI . The two experiments were subjected to varying pressures: 12, 14, 16 and 18 kPa, in a completely randomized design of twenty samples composed of flows with three replications. Urea, potassium chloride (KCl and ammonium phosphate (MAP were the elements used for fertigation. The system consisted of a 200 L tank, which supplied another container of 30 L, it was moved vertically to control the pressure. The data was statistically compared between treatments for each methodology. In fertigation the best pressure was 16 kPa and was classified as "excellent" for UDC (91.03% and "marginal" for C.V. (7.47%. For the irrigation treatment, the best pressure was 16 kPa rated "excellent" for UDC (91.2% and "marginal" for C.V. (7.68%. The DENÍCULI et al. (1980 methodology proved more reliable for the evaluation of drip systems. It was observed that this set has good uniformity of distribution, but with great variability in flows.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o coeficiente de uniformidade de distribuição (CUD e o coeficiente de variação (C.V. de um conjunto de irrigação familiar, classificando-o pela norma ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers, nos sistemas de irrigação e fertirrigação, sendo determinados por duas metodologias: a de KELLER & KARMELI, e a de DENÍCULI. Os dois experimentos foram submetidos a quatro pressões: 12; 14; 16 e 18 kPa, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado de vinte coletas de vazões, com três repetições. Para a fertirrigação, foram utilizados ureia, cloreto de potássio (KCl e fosfato monoamônico (MAP. O sistema era composto por um reservatório de 200 L, que abastecia outro recipiente de 30 L, este sendo

  16. The Effects of Great Plains Irrigation on the Surface Energy Balance, Regional Circulation, and Precipitation

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    David B. Huber

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation provides a needed source of water in regions of low precipitation. Adding water to a region that would otherwise see little natural precipitation alters the partitioning of surface energy fluxes, the evolution of the planetary boundary layer, and the atmospheric transport of water vapor. The effects of irrigation are investigated in this paper through the employment of the Advanced Research (ARW Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF using a pair of simulations representing the extremes of an irrigated and non-irrigated U.S. Great Plains region. In common with previous studies, irrigation in the Great Plains alters the radiation budget by increasing latent heat flux and cooling the surface temperatures. These effects increase the net radiation at the surface, channeling that energy into additional latent heat flux, which increases convective available potential energy and provides downstream convective systems with additional energy and moisture. Most noteworthy in this study is the substantial influence of irrigation on the structure of the Great Plains Low-level Jet (GPLLJ. The simulation employing irrigation is characterized by a positive 850-mb geopotential height anomaly, a result interpreted by quasi-geostrophic theory to be a response to low-level irrigation-induced cooling. The modulation of the regional-scale height pattern associated with the GPLLJ results in weaker flow southeast of the 850-mb anomaly and stronger flow to the northwest. Increased latent heat flux in the irrigated simulation is greater than the decrease in regional transport, resulting in a net increase in atmospheric moisture and a nearly 50% increase in July precipitation downstream of irrigated regions without any change to the number of precipitation events.

  17. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-04-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a dynamic representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a process-based bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded worldmap of dynamically retrieved irrigation efficiencies reflecting differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with lowest values (values (> 60%) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2396 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1212 km3, of which 511 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e. lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76%, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15%, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing

  18. Definição do posicionamento de sensores para monitoramento da água no solo em bananeira irrigada por diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada Sensor placement for soil water monitoring in banana crop irrigated by drip irrigation systens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio F. Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente da água na irrigação localizada dependerá, além de outros fatores, também do correto monitoramento da água no solo. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar as zonas efetivas de comprimento de raízes e de extração de água, bem como indicar o correto posicionamento de sensores de água no solo para o manejo da irrigação por gotejamento na bananeira em fase de produção. No experimento, conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, foram estudados diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada, diante dos seguintes tratamentos: T1 - dois emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em uma lateral por fileira de plantas; T2 - quatro emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em uma lateral por fileira de plantas; T3 - cinco emissores de 4 L h-1 por planta em faixa contínua com uma lateral por fileira. Pelos resultados obtidos, pode-se observar que as regiões mais adequadas para a instalação de sensores de umidade no solo nos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3 são as limitadas pelas distâncias e profundidades de 0,2 m e 0,4 m; 0,5 m e 0,35 m; 0,55 m e 0,35 m, respectivamente.The efficient use of water for drip irrigation will depend, among other factors, the correct monitoring of water in the soil profile. This work aimed to characterize root zones of effective root length and effective root water uptake and also to indicate the correct sensors location in the soil profile for drip irrigation management in banana crop during the production stage of the first cycle. The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits, under different systems: T1 - one lateral per plant row with two 4 L h-1 emitters per plant; T2 - one lateral per plant row with four 4 L h-1 emitters per plant; T3 - one lateral per plant row as line source, with five 4 L h-1 emitters per plant. The results showed that the more appropriate regions for soil water sensor placement in treatments T1, T2 and T3, should correspond to zones limited

  19. Cell Microencapsulation: Dripping Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoret, A; Martins, E; De Smet, B Poncelet; Poncelet, D

    2017-01-01

    Microencapsulation processes may be divided into three steps, namely: incorporation of the bioactive substance in the matrix, dispersion of the matrix in droplets, and conversion in microcapsules. This contribution is focused on the second step and more specifically using the dripping approach to form droplets by extrusion of liquid through a nozzle. Different technologies of dripping are described, using as an example the production of alginate beads.

  20. Spatial variability of leaf nutrient contents in a drip irrigated citrus orchard Variabilidade espacial dos teores foliares de nutrientes em um pomar de citros sob irrigação localizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson A. Armindo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of leaf content of macro and micronutrients. The citrus plants orchard with 5 years of age, planted at regular intervals of 8 x 7 m, was managed under drip irrigation. Leaf samples were collected from each plant to be analyzed in the laboratory. Data were analyzed using the software R, version 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, along with geostatistics package GeoR. All contents of macro and micronutrients studied were adjusted to normal distribution and showed spatial dependence.The best-fit models, based on the likelihood, for the macro and micronutrients were the spherical and matern. It is suggest for the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur the minimum distances between samples of 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 and 15 m respectively, while for the micronutrients boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc, the distances suggests are 29; 9; 113; 35 and 14 m, respectively.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a variabilidade espacial de macro e micronutrientes foliares. O pomar com plantas de 5 anos de idade, plantado com espaçamento regular de 8 x 7 m, foi manejado sob irrigação localizada. Foram coletadas amostras foliares de cada planta do pomar para serem analisadas em laboratório. Os dados foram analisados por meio do programa computacional R, versão 2.5.1 Copyright (C 2007, juntamente com o pacote GeoR. Todos os teores de macro e micronutrientes estudados ajustaram-se à distribuição normal e apresentaram dependência espacial. Os modelos de melhor ajuste, com base na verosimilhança, para os macro e micronutrientes, foram esférico e matern. Para os macronutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio e enxofre, sugerem-se distâncias mínimas entre amostras de 37; 58; 29; 63; 46 e 15 m, respectivamente, enquanto para os micronutrientes boro, cobre, ferro, manganês e zinco, essas distâncias são de 29; 9; 113; 35 e 14 m, respectivamente.

  1. Produção de pimenta tabasco com aplicação de CO2, utilizando-se irrigação por gotejamento = Tabasco pepper production with CO2 application using drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Luiza Matielo de Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação produz o rebaixamento do pH da solução do solo, causando variações na mobilidade dos nutrientes e consequentes efeitos na absorção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos de doses de dióxido de carbono (CO2, aplicadas via irrigação por gotejamento, na produção da pimenta Tabasco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. Os tratamentos foram quatro doses de CO2: 0 (T1, 451,95 (T2; 677,93 (T3 e 903,92 (T4 kg ha-1. Os frutos foram pesados e contados; o comprimento e o diâmetro de frutos foram obtidos com a média de 20 frutos por planta. Ocorreu efeito quadrático (p Application of CO2 through water reduces the soil solution pH, causing variations in nutrient mobility and consequent effects on the absorption. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of carbon dioxide rates supplied by drip irrigation in the production of Capsicum frutescens L. crop. A randomized block design with four treatments and eight replications was used. The treatments were four rates of CO2: 0 (T1, 451.95 (T2; 677.93 (T3 and 903.92 (T4 kg ha-1. The fruits were counted and weighed; the length and the diameter were obtained from an average of 20 fruits per plant, randomly taken, from each treatment in the plot. The quadratic effect (p < 0.01 occurred for CO2 on the yield and there was quadratic effect (p < 0.05 of the rates on the number of fruits. There were no effects of CO2 rates on the green matter, dry matter and fruit length and diameter. The T2 treatment provided greater yield and higher number of fruits per plant with an increase of 16 and 26%, respectively in relation to T1 (without CO2. CO2 application favored the increase in the yield because of the greater number of fruits per plant in the Tabasco pepper crop.

  2. Produção de tomateiro orgânico irrigado por aspersão e gotejamento, em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com coentro Production of organic tomatoes irrigated by sprinkler and drip systems, as single crop and intercropped with coriander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A Marouelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso eficiente da água e a diversificação ambiental são fundamentais para o equilíbrio e a sustentabilidade dos sistemas orgânicos de produção de tomate. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a produção de tomate de mesa em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com coentro com irrigação por aspersão e gotejamento, em sistema orgânico. O experimento foi conduzido em área de produção orgânica no Distrito Federal. O delineamento foi blocos ao acaso, com tratamentos dispostos num arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (dois sistemas de irrigação x dois sistemas de cultivo. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores avaliados, assim como não houve efeito do sistema de cultivo sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Embora o ciclo do tomateiro irrigado por gotejamento tenha diminuído, a produtividade de frutos não foi afetada pelos sistemas de irrigação. A maior redução de estande verificada na aspersão foi compensada por um aumento no número de frutos por planta, sem variação na massa por fruto. O menor volume de solo explorado pelas raízes do tomateiro associado à maior incidência de traça-do-tomateiro (Tuta absoluta e principalmente de oídio (Leveillula taurica pode ter limitado a produtividade do tomateiro irrigado por gotejamento. A taxa de frutos podres na aspersão foi o dobro da verificada no sistema por gotejamento.The efficient use of water and the environmental diversity are crucial to the balance and sustainability of the organic production system of tomatoes. The present study aimed to evaluate the organic production of tomato cultivated as a single crop and in consortium with coriander, under sprinkler and drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out at an organic production area on the Federal District of Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial (two irrigation systems x two cropping schemes. No significant interaction between the both factors occurred

  3. Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices

  4. Water use and crop coefficient of subsurface drip-irrigated lettuce in Central Arizona Demanda hídrica e coeficiente de cultura da alface irrigada por gotejamento sub-superficial na região central do Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S. de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A two year field study (1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons was carried out at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W of the University of Arizona, USA, to investigate the water use and to derive Kc's for subsurface drip-irrigated head lettuce grown in small weighable lysimeters. Measurement periods ranged from 480 to 1100 ºC-day (96/97 and from 439 to 1098 ºC-day (97/98. These intervals corresponded essentially to the second half of the crop cycle which amounted to a 1100 ºC-day, on average. The lysimeters were weighed periodically and the computation of the water balance revealed an average water use of 117 mm. Basal crop Kc was expressed as a function of cumulative growing degree days following a multiple linear regression procedure in which the data were fitted with a Fourier sine series model with up to six coefficients. Two-year Kc curves were obtained based on the Hargreaves, FAO Penman and FAO Penman-Monteith equations and compared to the AZSCHED (AriZona SCHEDuling irrigation package. Predicted Kc peaked 0.88, 0.80 and 0.81 with the Hargreaves, FAO Penman, FAO Penman-Monteith equations, respectively, in the range of 1000 to 1050 ºC-day, in contrast to AZSCHED which predicted the peak Kc to be 1.01 at 1150 ºC-day.Um estudo conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Maricopa (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W, pertencente à Universidade do Arizona, USA, nos anos agrícolas de 1996/97 e 1997/98, objetivou determinar o uso de água e derivar coeficientes de cultura (Kc da alface de cabeça irrigada por gotejamento subsuperficial e cultivada em lisímetros de pesagem intermitente. O período de medições, expresso em graus-dia acumulados, variou de 480 a 1100 ºC-dia em 96/97 e de 439 a 1098 ºC-dia em 97/98. Esses intervalos corresponderam à segunda metade do ciclo da cultura, sendo que até a colheita somou-se uma média de 1100 ºC-dia. Os lisímetros eram pesados periodicamente e o balanço hídrico revelou um consumo m

  5. Desempenho de cultivares de cebola em função do manejo da irrigação por gotejamento Performance of onion cultivars as a function of drip irrigation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C Vilas Boas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar o efeito de diferentes tensões da água no solo sobre a produção de duas cultivares de cebola irrigadas por gotejamento. O experimento foi conduzido em Lavras, Minas Gerais (21° 14' S, 45° 00' W e 918,8 m, no período de junho a outubro de 2008. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos se constituíram de duas cultivares de cebola, cultivar híbrida Optima F1 e cultivar não híbrida Alfa Tropical, e seis níveis críticos de tensões da água no solo, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60 e 75 kPa. Com os resultados, concluiu-se que o híbrido Optima F1 apresentou melhores respostas com relação às seguintes características analisadas: produtividade total de bulbos, produtividade de bulbos comerciais, massa média de bulbos comerciais e eficiência no uso da água. Visando à obtenção de maiores produtividades de bulbos (total e comercial e maior massa média de bulbos comerciais, em ambas as cultivares, deve-se irrigar no momento em que a tensão da água no solo estiver em torno de 15 kPa na profundidade de 0,15 m. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais apresentou resposta quadrática com relação às tensões da água no solo. A eficiência no uso da água aumentou linearmente em virtude do acréscimo da tensão da água no solo.Different soil water tension values were tested to evaluate the effects on onion yield of two drip irrigated onion cultivars. The experiment was carried out at Lavras, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (21° 14' S, 45° 00' W and 918.8 m, from June to October 2008. The statistical design used was randomized blocks with a factorial scheme 2 x 6, with four replications. The treatment levels were two onion cultivars (hybrid Optima F1 and the non hybrid Alfa tropical and six critical soil water tension levels (15, 25, 35, 45, 60 and 75 kPa. It can be concluded that the hybrid Optima F1 presented the

  6. Potassium and calcium nutrition improves potato production in drip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Spunta potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to different rates of potassium (60 and 120 kg Fed-1 ) in presence or absence of Ca nutrition was studied. The study was performed in sandy-loam soil under a drip-irrigation system during fall seasons of 1996 and 1997 years. Plants fertilised with high rate of K ...

  7. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated

  8. AUTOMATIC INTRAVENOUS DRIP CONTROLLER*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the nursing staff shortage and the need for precise control in the administration of dangerous drugs intra- venously have led to the development of various devices to achieve an automatic system. The continuous automatic control of the drip rate eliminates errors due to any physical effect such as movement of the ...

  9. Cana-de-açúcar fertirrigada com vinhaça e adubos minerais via irrigação por gotejamento subsuperficial: ciclo da cana-planta Sugarcane fertigated with stillage and mineral fertilizers under subsurface drip irrigation: cycle of cane-plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. A. Barbosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da irrigação, a aplicação de vinhaça e fertirrigação mineral via irrigação por gotejamento enterrado nos valores biométricos na fase de maturação, produção de colmos, qualidade do caldo da cana-de-açúcar e rendimento de açúcar teórico recuperável. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram: adubação mineral sem irrigação; irrigação e fertirrigação de NPK com adubos minerais; irrigação e fertirrigação com vinhaça, suprindo o K e complementação do NP com adubos minerais, além de irrigação e fertirrigação com vinhaça, suprindo o NK e complementação do P com adubos minerais. O sistema de irrigação utilizado foi o gotejamento subsuperficial. Os tratamentos irrigados promoveram alterações no número de perfilhos e índice de área foliar quando comparados com o cultivo de sequeiro, independente do manejo da fertirrigação. A fertirrigação com vinhaça suprindo o K proporcionou maior Brix e produção de colmos, quando comparada ao cultivo não irrigado. A irrigação e a fertirrigação com a vinhaça atendendo ao NK, proporcionaram maior rendimento teórico de açúcar recuperável, quando comparado com o do cultivo sem irrigação.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of subsurface drip irrigation and the application of stillage and nutrients in some agronomic parameters, stem yield, technological characteristics of sugarcane and yield of theoretical recoverable sugar. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were: mineral fertilizers without irrigation; irrigation and fertigation with NPK using mineral fertilizers; irrigation and fertigation with stillage supplying the K and complementation of N and P with mineral fertilizers; and irrigation and fertigation with stillage supplying the NK and

  10. Spray Irrigation Effects on Surface-Layer Stability in an Experimental Citrus Orchard during Winter Freezes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Martsolf, J. David

    1997-02-01

    Observations taken by two surface radiation and energy budget stations deployed in the University of Florida/Institute for Food and Agricultural Service experimental citrus orchard in Gainesville, Florida, have been analyzed to identify the effects of sprayer irrigation on thermal stability and circulation processes within the orchard during three 1992 winter freeze episodes. Lapse rates of temperature observed from a micrometeorological tower near the center of the orchard were also recorded during periods of irrigation for incorporation into the analysis. Comparisons of the near-surface temperature lapse rates observed with the two energy budget stations show consistency between the two sites and with the tower-based lapse rates taken over a vertical layer from 1.5 to 15 m above ground level. A theoretical framework was developed that demonstrates that turbulent-scale processes originating within the canopy, driven by latent heat release associated with condensation and freezing processes from water vapor and liquid water released from sprayer nozzles, can destabilize lapse rates and promote warm air mixing above the orchard canopy. The orchard data were then analyzed in the context of the theory for evidence of local overturning and displacement of surface-layer air, with warmer air from aloft driven by locally buoyant plumes generated by water vapor injected into the orchard during the irrigation periods. It was found that surface-layer lapse rates were lower during irrigation periods than under similar conditions when irrigation was not occurring, indicating a greater degree of vertical mixing of surface-layer air with air from above treetops, as a result of local convective overturning induced by the condensation heating of water vapor released at the nozzles of the sprinklers. This provides an additional explanation to the well-accepted heat of fusion release effect, of how undertree irrigation of a citrus orchard during a freeze period helps protect crops

  11. A flexible system for the estimation of infiltration and hydraulic resistance parameters in surface irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical to the use of modeling tools for the hydraulic analysis of surface irrigation systems is characterizing the infiltration and hydraulic resistance process. Since those processes are still not well understood, various formulations are currently used to represent them. A software component h...

  12. Water quality of surface runoff and lint yield in cotton under furrow irrigation in Northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of furrow irrigation in row crop production is a common practice through much of the Midsouth US. Problems with these systems arise when nutrients are transported off-site through surface runoff. A field study with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) was conducted to understand the impact of tillage...

  13. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  14. Surface irrigation reduces the emission of volatile 1,3-dichloropropene from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Yates, S R

    2007-04-01

    Low-cost, practicable techniques are required to limit the release of volatile organic compound-containing fumigants such as 1,3-D to the atmosphere. In this study, we aimed to quantify 1,3-D diffusion and emission from laboratory soil columns maintained under realistic conditions and thereby assess the efficacy of soil irrigation as a technique for reducing emissions. In two soils (one relatively high, and one relatively low, in organic matter), irrigation led to a limiting of upward diffusion of the fumigant and to the maintenance of higher soil gas concentrations. Therefore, rather than being emitted from the column, the 1,3-D was maintained in the soil where it was ultimately degraded. As a consequence, emission of 1,3-D from the irrigated columns was around half of thatfrom the nonirrigated columns. It is concluded that surface irrigation represents an effective, low-cost, and readily practicable approach to lessening the environmental impact of 1,3-D fumigant use. In addition, the higher organic matter soil exhibited emissions of around one-fifth of the lower organic matter soil in both irrigated and nonirrigated treatments, due to markedly enhanced degradation of the fumigant. Organic matter amendment of soils may, therefore, also represent an extremely effective, relatively low-cost approach to reducing 1,3-D emissions.

  15. Effect of Irrigation Methods, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Abudlkareem, J.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at a research station near Adlib. Two irrigation methods, sprinkler irrigation and drip fertigation, two phosphorus rates and four nitrogen rates 0, 70, 140 and 210 kg N/ha were tested. All N fertilizers were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the sprinkler-irrigated treatments in six equally split applications. Neutron probe Results revealed that the introduction of drip fertigation was not proved to be a water saving relative to sprinkler irrigation. Dry matter production was slightly increased for the drip-fertigated treatments relative to sprinkler irrigated treatments. Nitrogen use efficiency was not improved under drip fertigation relative to that of sprinkler irrigation. Application of phosphorus fertilizer improved sugar beet yield as well as N uptake. No significant differences in sugar beet yield were observed due to the application of N fertilizer under drip fertigation. On the other hand, there was a trend toward increasing sugar beet yield grown under sprinkler irrigation. Drip fertigation had no negative effects on sugar content and other related properties, furthermore some of those properties were enhanced due to the employment of drip fertigation. Field water-use efficiency followed a similar trend and was increased under sprinkler irrigation relative to drip-fertigation for sugar beet yield parameter.

  16. Evaluación de dos sistemas de riego por goteo en la producción y la calidad de la fruta de pera (Pyrus communis L. variedad Triunfo de Viena Evaluation of two drip irrigation systems in production and fruit quality of pear (Pyrus communis L. cv. Triunfo de Viena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Arenas-Bautista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la utilización del sistema de doble línea de riego versus el tradicional de una línea por hilera de plantas en la producción y calidad de la pera (Pyrus communis variedad Triunfo de Viena. La investigación se basó en la aplicación de dos tratamientos definidos, uno consistente en una línea de goteo por hilera de plantas con seis emisores de 8 lt/h y otro, con dos líneas de goteo por hilera de plantas con tres emisores de 8 lt/h cada uno Se utilizaron sensores Watermark para medir y controlar el potencial matricial del suelo. Se cubrió el 100% de la evapotranspiración potencial que fue de 55.5 mm/mes. Los resultados obtenidos de las variables hídricas del suelo permitieron programar el riego y garantizar el suministro de agua adecuado en el periodo de déficit hídrico. El tratamiento de doble línea no difirió significativamente del control, lo que indica que utilizar una línea de riego permite obtener una producción y calidad similares con un menor costo inicial del equipo.The rational use of water becomes every day ever more important in fruit production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of double drip line from a line by line plant in pear (Pyrus communis production, cv. Triunfo de Viena. The research was based on the application of two specific processes, one consisting of a drip line per row of plants with six emitters of 8 lt h-1 and another with two drip lines per row of plants with three emitters of 8 lt h-1 each. Watermark sensors were used to measure and control the soil matric potential. It covered 100% of potential evapotranspiration, which amounted to 55.5 mm month-1. The results of the variables permitted ground water irrigation scheduling and ensure adequate water supply during the period of water deficit. The double-line treatment did not differ significantly from the control in terms of production and fruit quality, which

  17. Converting Surface Irrigation to Pressurized Irrigation Systems and its Effecton Yield of OrangeTrees (Case Study:North of Khouzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorramian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: North of the Khouzestan is one of the most important citrus production center. Usually border irrigation is used to irrigate citrus in this area. This system has generally low application efficiency. Several investigations in other arid region have demonstrated in addition to improved irrigation efficiency with low-volume pressurized irrigation systems, citrus trees have adapted with these new irrigation systems. However limited information exists on the performance of mature orchards converted from border surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems. Therefore, the current research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of converting surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems on mature citrus trees in climate conditions of North Khouzestan. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during three years at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the yield of citrus trees and the quality of fruits for two Marss and Valencia varieties which grow 7 years previously with surface irrigation and converted to pressurized irrigation systems. The treatments consisted of six irrigation methods including Overhead sprinkle irrigation (OHSI, Under tree sprinkle irrigation(UTSI, Trickle irrigation(TI(six 8 L/h Netafim emitters, Microjet irrigation (MI(two 180 microjet were located under canopy near of the trunk at opposite sides of trunk,Bubbler irrigation(BI(a single located under the canopy of each treeandSurface irrigation(SI method.Soil texture was clay loam well drained without salinity(ECe=0.69ds m-1, with 1.25 percent organic carbon. The experimental design was completely randomized design. The trees were irrigated during spring and summer seasons. For calculating irrigation water depth in TI, MI and BI systems, daily evaporation from a class A evaporation pan of the Safiabad weather station (nearby the experimental field was collected, and evapotranspiration of the citrus trees was calculated applying a

  18. Re-Assessing Leaching Requirements for the Salinity Control under New Irrigation Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Laosheng; Yang, Ting; Šimůnek, Jirka

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation is essential to sustain agricultural production, but it adds dissolved salts (or salinity) to croplands. Leaching is thus necessary to keep the average rootzone salinity below the plant threshold EC levels in order to sustain crop production. Current leaching requirement (LR) calculation is based on steady-state, one-dimensional (1D), and water balance approaches, which often overestimates the LRs under transient field conditions. While in recent years, surface and sprinkler irrigated fields have been largely converted to drip or micro-spray systems and deficit irrigation has become more popular, currently accepted LRs may not be appropriate for these irrigation systems. Under point or line irrigation sources (e.g., drips or drip-lines), water and salts move both downwards and laterally, which may lead to highly saline areas on the edges of the wetted area. Under such circumstances, processes such as precipitation/dissolution of mineral phases and/or cation exchange may significantly affect the leaching requirement. The overall objective of this research was to use computer simulation models (i.e., Hydrus-2D and UnsatChem) to evaluate LRs under transient conditions and new irrigation regimes. Simulations were carried out using parameters for soils, climate zones, and major crops and their corresponding fertilization practices typical for California to: (1) Assess the effects of salt precipitation/dissolution on the leaching requirement (LR); (2) Evaluate localized water movement on average rootzone salinity and the leaching requirement (LR); (3) Evaluate leaching requirements for soils under deficit irrigation; and (4) Assess the effects of rainfall on the leaching requirement. Information from this research could significantly impact water management practices in irrigated croplands.

  19. Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A.; Cron, J.

    2000-01-01

    This design analysis has shown that, on a conceptual level, the emplacement of drip shields is feasible with current technology and equipment. A plan for drip shield emplacement was presented using a Drip Shield Transporter, a Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry, a locomotive, and a Drip Shield Gantry Carrier. The use of a Drip Shield Emplacement Gantry as an emplacement concept results in a system that is simple, reliable, and interfaces with the numerous other exising repository systems. Using the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System design as a basis for the drip shield emplacement concept proved to simplify the system by using existing equipment, such as the gantry carrier, locomotive, Electrical and Control systems, and many other systems, structures, and components. Restricted working envelopes for the Drip Shield Emplacement System require further consideration and must be addressed to show that the emplacement operations can be performed as the repository design evolves. Section 6.1 describes how the Drip Shield Emplacement System may use existing equipment. Depending on the length of time between the conclusion of waste emplacement and the commencement of drip shield emplacement, this equipment could include the locomotives, the gantry carrier, and the electrical, control, and rail systems. If the exisiting equipment is selected for use in the Drip Shield Emplacement System, then the length of time after the final stages of waste emplacement and start of drip shield emplacement may pose a concern for the life cycle of the system (e.g., reliability, maintainability, availability, etc.). Further investigation should be performed to consider the use of existing equipment for drip shield emplacement operations. Further investigation will also be needed regarding the interfaces and heat transfer and thermal effects aspects. The conceptual design also requires further design development. Although the findings of this analysis are accurate for the assumptions made

  20. Model to Design Drip Hose Lateral Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Rafael; Cury Saad, João Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Introduction The design criterion for non-pressure compensating drip hose is normally to have 10% of flow variation (Δq) in the lateral line, corresponding to 20% of head pressure variation (ΔH). Longer lateral lines in drip irrigation systems using conventional drippers provide cost reduction, but it is necessary to obtain to the uniformity of irrigation [1]. The use of Δq higher levels can provide longer lateral lines. [4] proposes the use of a 30% Δq and he found that this value resulted in distribution uniformity over 80%. [1] considered it is possible to extend the lateral line length using two emitters spacing in different section. He assumed that the spacing changing point would be at 40% of the total length, because this is approximately the location of the average flow according with [2]. [3] found that, for practical purposes, the average pressure is located at 40% of the length of the lateral line and that until this point it has already consumed 75% of total pressure head loss (hf ). In this case, the challenge for designers is getting longer lateral lines with high values of uniformity. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model to design longer lateral lines using non-pressure compensating drip hose. Using the developed model, the hypotheses to be evaluated were: a) the use of two different spacing between emitters in the same lateral line allows longer length; b) it is possible to get longer lateral lines using high values of pressure variation in the lateral lines since the distribution uniformity stays below allowable limits. Methodology A computer program was developed in Delphi® based on the model developed and it is able to design lateral lines in level using non-pressure compensating drip hose. The input data are: desired distribution uniformity (DU); initial and final pressure in the lateral line; coefficients of relationship between emitter discharge and pressure head; hose internal diameter; pipe cross-sectional area

  1. Geoflow: re-using non-toxic effluents by means of under ground drip irrigation systems; Geoflow: Reutilizacion de efluentes no toxicos mediante sistemas de riego por goteo subterraneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyck, B.

    2001-07-01

    Geoflow presents a state-of-the art technology for the reuse of urban and other wastewater, with secondary treatment characteristics and even lower quality. the subsurface drip application eliminates the need for disinfection, because there is no contact with the public. The effluents are applied directly into the biologically most active soil horizon, at low rates, in function of the soil characteristics, which maximizes nutrient absorption by the vegetative cover and minimizes deep percolation. The system incorporates a series of specific components which prevent of all types of clogging problems, like root intrusion or bacterial growth. (Author) 4 refs.

  2. Heavy metal input to agricultural soils from irrigation with treated wastewater: Insight from Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Cary, Lise; Psarras, Georgios; Surdyk, Nicolas; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Pettenati, Marie; Maton, Laure

    2010-05-01

    A major objective of the EU FP6 project SAFIR was to overcome certain drawbacks of wastewater reuse through the development of a new irrigation technology combining small-scale modular water treatment plants on farm level and improved irrigation hardware, in the aim to lower the risks related to low quality water and to increase water use efficiency. This innovative technology was tested in several hydro-climatic contexts (Crete, Italy, Serbia, China) on experimental irrigated tomato and potato fields. Here we present the heavy metal variations in soil after medium-term (3 irrigation seasons from 2006-2008) use of treated municipal wastewater with a special focus on lead and lead isotope signatures. The experimental site is located in Chania, Crete. A matrix of plots were irrigated, combining different water qualities (secondary, primary treated wastewater, tap water, partially spiked with heavy metals, going through newly developed tertiary treatment systems) with different irrigation strategies (surface and subsurface drip irrigation combined with full irrigation and partial root drying). In order to assess small scale heavy metal distribution around a drip emitter, Pb isotope tracing was used, combined with selective extraction. The sampling for Pb isotope fingerprinting was performed after the 3rd season of ww-irrigation on a lateral profile from a drip irrigator (half distance between drip lines, i.e. 50cm) and three depth intervals (0-10, 10-20, 20-40 cm). These samples were lixiviated through a 3 step selective extraction procedure giving rise to the bio-accessible, mobile and residual fraction: CaCl2/NaNO3 (bio-accessible fraction), DPTA (mobile fraction), total acid attack (residual fraction). Those samples were analysed for trace elements (including heavy metals) and major inorganic compounds by ICP-MS. The extracted fractions were then analysed by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for their lead isotope fingerprints (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  4. A Smart Irrigation Approach Aided by Monitoring Surface Soil Moisture using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienhold, K. J.; Li, D.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical component in the optimization of irrigation scheduling in water resources management. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) equipped with multispectral sensors represent an emerging technology capable of detecting and estimating soil moisture for irrigation and crop management. This study demonstrates a method of using a UAV as an optical and thermal remote sensing platform combined with genetic programming to derive high-resolution, surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates. The objective is to evaluate the feasibility of spatially-variable irrigation management for a golf course (about 50 acres) in North Central Texas. Multispectral data is collected over the course of one month in the visible, near infrared and longwave infrared spectrums using a UAV capable of rapid and safe deployment for daily estimates. The accuracy of the model predictions is quantified using a time domain reflectometry (TDR) soil moisture sensor and a holdout validation test set. The model produces reasonable estimates for SSM with an average coefficient of correlation (r) = 0.87 and coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.76. The study suggests that the derived SSM estimates be used to better inform irrigation scheduling decisions for lightly vegetated areas such as the turf or native roughs found on golf courses.

  5. Impacts of irrigation on land-atmosphere interactions in high-resolution model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawston, Patricia M.

    In the United States, irrigation represents the largest consumptive use of freshwater and accounts for approximately one-third of total water usage. Irrigation impacts soil moisture and can ultimately influence clouds and precipitation through land-planetary boundary layer (PBL) coupling processes. This dissertation is a collection of three studies that analyze the impact of irrigation on the atmosphere using NASA modeling tools the Land Information System (LIS) and the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting Model (NU-WRF) framework. The first study investigates the effects of drip, flood, and sprinkler irrigation methods on land-atmosphere interactions, including land-PBL coupling and feedbacks at the local scale. The offline and coupled simulation results show that regional irrigation impacts are sensitive to time, space, and method and that irrigation cools and moistens the surface over and downwind of irrigated areas, ultimately resulting in both positive and negative feedbacks on the PBL depending on the time of day and background climate conditions. The second study assesses the sprinkler irrigation scheme physics and model sensitivity to choice of irrigation intensity and greenness fraction over a small, high resolution domain in Nebraska and evaluates the model performance with Cosmic Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) observations. Results show that differences between experiments are small at the interannual scale, but become more apparent at seasonal and daily time scales. In addition, field-scale heterogeneity resulting from the individual actions of farmers is not captured by the model and the amount of irrigation applied by the model exceeds that applied at the two irrigated fields. However, the seasonal timing of irrigation and soil moisture contrasts between irrigated and non-irrigated areas are simulated well by the model. The third study assesses the individual and combined impacts of irrigation and wind turbines on surface fluxes, near surface

  6. Observations of flow path interactions with surface structures during initial soil development stage using irrigation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Steffen; Biemelt, Detlef; Badorreck, Annika; Gerke, Horst H.

    2010-05-01

    Structures and processes are dynamically linked especially during initial stages of soil and ecosystem development. Here we assume that soil pore structures and micro topography determine the flow paths and water fluxes as well as further structure changes. Reports about flow path developments at the soil surface are still limited because of an insufficient knowledge of the changing micro topography at the surface. The objective of this presentation is to evaluate methods for parameterisation of surface micro topography for analysing interactions between infiltration and surface runoff. Complex irrigation experiments were carried out at an experimental site in the neighbourhood of the artificially created water catchment "Chicken Creek". The irrigation rates between 160 mm/h and 250 mm/h were held constant over a time period of 20 minutes. The incoming intensities were measured as well as the raindrop-velocity and -size distributions. The surface runoff was continuously registered, soil samples were taken, and soil water potential heads were monitored using tensiometers. Surface and subsurface flow paths were identified using different tracers. The soil surface structures were recorded using a high resolution digital camera before, during, and after irrigation. Micro topography was surveyed using close-range photogrammetry. With this experimental design both, flow paths on the surface and in the soil as well as structure and texture changes could be observed simultaneously. In 2D vertical cross-sections, the effect of initial sediment deposition structure on infiltration and runoff was observed. Image analysis of surface pictures allowed identifying structural and soil textural changes during the runoff process. Similar structural changes related to surface flow paths were found with the photogrammetric surface analysis. We found evidence for the importance of the initial structures on the flow paths as well as a significant influence of the system development

  7. Interferometric microscopy study of the surface roughness of Portland cement under the action of different irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Palacios, Maria L; Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther M; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Some investigations suggested common Portland cement (PC) as a substitute material for MTA for endodontic use; both MTA and PC have a similar composition. The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness of common PC before and after the exposition to different endodontic irrigating solutions: 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Fifty PC samples in the form of cubes were prepared. PC was mixed with distilled water (powder/liquid ratio 3:1 by weight). The samples were immersed for one minute in 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% EDTA and 5% sodium hypochlorite. After gold coating, PC samples were examined using the New View 100 Zygo interferometric microscope. It was used to examine and register the surface roughness and the profile of two different areas of each sample. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and as the requirements were not met, use was made of the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of the results obtained, followed by contrasts using Tukey's contrast tests. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 5% significantly reduced the surface roughness of PC, while 20% citric acid significantly increased surface roughness. The other evaluated citric acid concentration (10%) slightly increased the surface roughness of PC, though statistical significance was not reached. EDTA at a concentration of 17% failed to modify PC surface roughness. Irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 20% citric acid lowered and raised the roughness values, respectively. The surface texture of PC is modified as the result of treatment with different irrigating solutions commonly used in endodontics, depending on their chemical composition and concentration.

  8. Irrigation effects on soil attributes and grapevine performance in a 'Godello' vineyard of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Martínez, Emma M.; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation systems are increasingly being used in Galician vineyards. However, a lack of information about irrigation management can cause a bad use of these systems and, consequently, reductions in berry quality and loss of water resources. In this context, experiences with Galician cultivars may provide useful information. A field experiment was carried out over two seasons (2012-2013) on Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. 'Godello' in order to assess the effects of irrigation on soil attributes, grapevine performance and berry composition. The field site was a commercial vineyard located in A Rúa (Ourense-NW Spain). Rain-fed vines (R) were compared with two irrigation systems: surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Physical and chemical characteristics of soil were analyzed after installing irrigation systems at the beginning of each season, in order to assess the effects that irrigation might have on soil attributes. Soil water content, leaf and stem water potentials and stomatal conductance were periodically measured over the two seasons. Yield components including number of clusters, yield per plant and cluster average weight were taken. Soluble solids, pH, total acidity and amino acids contents were measured on the grapes at harvest. Pruning weight was also recorded. Soil attributes did not significantly vary due to the irrigation treatments. Stem water potentials were significantly lower for R plants on certain dates through the season, whereas stomatal conductance was similar for the three treatments in 2013, while in 2012 SDI plants showed greater stomatal conductance values. SDI plants yielded more than those R due to both a greater number of clusters per plant and to heavier clusters. Pruning weight was significantly higher in SI plants. Berry composition was similar for the three treatments except for the amino acids content, which was higher under SDI conditions. These results may be helpful for a sustainable management of irrigation

  9. The Influence of Climate Change on Irrigated Water Demands and Surface Water Availability of the Yellow River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, T. J.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Balancing irrigated water demands and surface water availability is critical for sustainable water resources management. In China, irrigation is the largest water user, and there is concern that irrigated water demands will be affected by climate change. If the relationship between climate change, irrigated water demands and surface water availability is quantified, then effective measures can be developed to maintain food production while ensuring water sustainability. This research focuses on the Yellow River, the second longest in China, and analyzes the impact of historical and projected climate change on agricultural water demands and surface water availability. Corn and wheat are selected as representative crops to estimate the effect of temperature and precipitin changes on irrigated water demands. The VIC model is used to simulate daily streamflow throughout the Yellow River, providing estimates of surface water availability. Overall, results indicate the irrigated water need and surface water availability are impacted by climate change, with spatially varying impacts depending on spatial patterns of climate trends and river network position. This research provides insight into water security in the Yellow River basin, indicating where water efficiency measures are needed and where they are not.

  10. Effect of Subsurface Irrigation with Porous Clay Capsules on Quantitative and Quality of Grape Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani Vaghei

    2016-02-01

    characteristics showed that cluster weight, cluster length, solid solution and pH content has not significant different at 5% level in two system irrigation. Also, the foliar analysis showed that chlorophyll content and relative humidity of leaf has not been affected in two irrigation systems. Meanwhile, irrigation types were significantly effect on water consumption and water use efficiency. The average water consumption and yield production with buried clay capsules and drip irrigation methods on grapevine plant were 4050 and 6668 M3.ha-1 and 14.2 and 14.8 Ton.ha-1 respectively. The reducing water consumption with buried clay capsules irrigation method in related to drip irrigation was 39% on grapevine plants. Meanwhile, the average yield production with buried clay capsules and drip irrigation methods on grapevine plant was 14.2 and 14.8 Ton.ha-1 respectively. Also, the statistics analysis show that the yield and component yield have not significant different at 5% level in the surface and subsurface irrigation. According to the water consumption and yield production, using buried porous clay capsules created a better water use efficiency than drip irrigation method. In other words, Iran has been localized at arid and semi arid and have huge water consumption in agriculture, and therefore it is necessary to optimize water consumption especially in agriculture using new technology. According to the results of this research, using buried porous clay capsules is recommended in order to optimize water consumption for grape plants in different place in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Conclusion: The purpose of an efficient irrigation system is to apply the water in such a way that the largest fraction thereof is available for beneficial use by the plant. According to the experimental results reported here, it could be concluded that the reducing water consumption with buried clay capsules irrigation method in related to drip irrigation was 39% on grapevine plants. Meanwhile

  11. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new......Globally, agricultural irrigation is the number one user of freshwater. Agriculture consumes about 70% of all water withdrawn worldwide, and up to 95% in some developing countries. The SAFIR project contributes to solving this challenge, addressing two major public concerns at the same time...... irrigated as sub-surface drip irrigation. KU-Life and AaU-DJF are the major partners in SAFIR of important work packages covering development of new irrigation strategies, use of waste water for irrigation, modelling, risk assessment and economy. The Danish partners are now aiming at implementation...

  12. Towards Global Simulation of Irrigation in a Land Surface Model: Multiple Cropping and Rice Paddy in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Rodell, Matthew; Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land use significantly influences the surface water and energy balances. Effects of irrigation on land surface states and fluxes include repartitioning of latent and sensible heat fluxes, an increase in net radiation, and an increase in soil moisture and runoff. We are working on representing irrigation practices in continental- to global-scale land surface simulation in NASA's Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Because agricultural practices across the nations are diverse, and complex, we are attempting to capture the first-order reality of the regional practices before achieving a global implementation. This study focuses on two issues in Southeast Asia: multiple cropping and rice paddy irrigation systems. We first characterize agricultural practices in the region (i.e., crop types, growing seasons, and irrigation) using the Global data set of monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRCA2000) dataset. Rice paddy extent is identified using remote sensing products. Whether irrigated or rainfed, flooded fields need to be represented and treated explicitly. By incorporating these properties and processes into a physically based land surface model, we are able to quantify the impacts on the simulated states and fluxes.

  13. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality parameters of eggplant under greenhouse conditions, using Class A pan evaporation calculations and different plant-pan coefficients. Irrigation water was applied through drip irrigation method twice a week during the ...

  14. Limited irrigation research and infrared thermometry for detecting water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Limited Irrigation Research Farm, located outside of Greeley Colorado, is an experiment evaluating management perspectives of limited irrigation water. An overview of the farm systems is shown, including drip irrigation systems, water budgeting, and experimental design, as well as preli...

  15. Effects of changing irrigation practices on the ground-water hydrology of the Santa Isabel-Juana Diaz area, south central Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gines, Orlando

    1994-01-01

    Prior to 1930, the principal source of water for irrigation in the Santa Isabel-Juana Diaz area was surface water from outside the study area, which was delivered by a complex channel-pond system. Recharge from water applied to the fields, estimated to be 18.7 million of gallons per day, and discharge by ground-water flow to sea, estimated to be 17 million of gallons per day, were the major water- budget components prior to intensive development of the ground-water resources. Development of the ground-water resources after 1930 resulted in a substantial increase in irrigation, primarily furrow irrigation. The surface water supplied by the complex channel-pond system continued to be used and ground-water withdrawals increased sub- stantially. By 1966-68, ground-water recharge from irrigation water applied to the fields, estimated to be 37 million of gallons per day, and discharge by pumpage for irrigation, estimated to be 77 million of gallons per day, were the two major components of the ground-water budget. By 1987, drip irrigation had become the principal method of irrigation in the study area, and surface-water irrigation had, for the most part, been discontinued. The estimated aquifer recharge from irrigation water in 1987 was about 6.6 million of gallons per day, which occurred primarily in the remaining fields where furrow irrigation was still practiced. Although aquifer recharge had been reduced as a result of the conversion from furrow to drip irrigation, water levels in the aquifer were higher in 1987 than in 1968 because of the large reduction in ground-water withdrawals and subsequent recovery of ground-water levels.

  16. Organic characterisation of cave drip water by LC-OCD and fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, Helen; Andersen, Martin S.; Baker, Andy; Chinu, Khorshed J.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Jex, Catherine N.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Markowska, Monika; Rau, Gabriel C.

    2015-10-01

    Cathedral Cave, Wellington, Australia, is a natural laboratory for studying water movement and geochemical processes in the unsaturated zone by using artificial irrigation to activate drip sites within the cave. Water sampled from two drip sites activated by irrigations carried out in summer 2014 was analysed for dissolved inorganic ions and fluorescent organic matter. The analysis allowed the development of a conceptual flow path model for each drip site. DOM analysis was further complemented by liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), applied for the first time to karst drip waters, allowing the characterisation of six organic matter fractions. The differences in organic matter fractions at each drip site are interpreted as a signature of the proposed flow paths. LC-OCD was also compared with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the fluorescence and good correlations were observed for high molecular weight organic matter. Strong positive correlations were also observed for high molecular weight matter and Cu and Ni. This is suggestive of colloidal transport of Cu and Ni by organic matter with high molecular weight, while small molecular weight colloids were not efficient transporters. LC-OCD uniquely provides information on non-fluorescent organic matter and can be used to further quantify drip water organic matter composition.

  17. Effect of Long-term Drip Fertigation on Root Growth of Lychee and Soil PH

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Lan-sheng; Tu, Pan-feng; Zhang, Cheng-lin; Li, Zhong-hua

    2012-01-01

    Through field experiment, we explore the impact of long-term drip fertigation on growth and distribution of lychee root and changes of soil PH in different layers of soil in lychee garden. The results show that drip fertigation can significantly promote the growth of lychee roots, and increase the contact area of root and soil; if it experiences six years of drip fertigation successively, the dry weight of root, root length and surface area of root in soil in drip fertigation area, will be 2....

  18. Sustainable irrigation and nitrogen management of fertigated vegetable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.B.; Incrocci, L.; Voogt, W.; Pardossi, A.; Magán, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Fertigation in combination with drip irrigation is being increasingly used in vegetable crop production. From a nutrient management perspective, this combination provides the technical capacity for precise nitrogen (N) nutrition, both spatially and temporally. With these systems, N and other

  19. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected

  20. Etude comparative de l'irrigation au goutte-à-goutte et à la raie sur une culture de pomme de terre de saison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boujelben, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Study of the Drip and Furrow Irrigation on Seasonable Potato Crop. Under semi-arid climate conditions, use of furrow irrigation for potato is relatively low when compared to drip irrigation. An experimental trial was carried out at the Agricultural Research Station at Chott-Mariem located in the Center East of Tunisia. A drip irrigation system with three amounts (D, 0.75D and 0.5D was compared to blocked furrows (D on potato. The drip irrigation system (D = 210 mm produced best results for dry and fresh matter production in leaves and stems, and in tubers, percentage cover of soil and plant height. Lower amounts of water applied (0.75D and 0.5D with drip irrigation gives similar results to those obtained with furrow irrigation (D.

  1. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  2. Desenvolvimento vegetativo da pupunheira irrigada por gotejamento em função de níveis de depleção de água no solo Effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated peach palm plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da irrigação complementar por gotejamento no desenvolvimento vegetativo de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth com três anos de idade. Durante 94 dias (agosto a novembro/97 foram estabelecidos quatro níveis de irrigação, baseados nas porcentagens de 25% (T1, 50% (T2, 75% (T3 de água disponível consumida em função da evapotranspiração de referência, medida em um par de lisímetros de lençol freático constante, e a testemunha (T4, sem irrigação, com turnos de rega de 2, 4 e 6 dias respectivamente. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro tratamentos, oito repetições e dezesseis plantas úteis por parcela. A resposta das plantas aos diferentes tratamentos foi avaliada por meio da taxa absoluta de crescimento das características diâmetro do estipe na região do colo, altura da planta, comprimento de ráquis, número de perfilhos, número de folhas e emissão de folhas novas. As avaliações tiveram início quatro dias antes da imposição dos tratamentos e foram repetidas aos 34; 68; 83; 98; 133 e 168 dias. Houve diferenças entre os tratamentos para número de folhas emitidas, diâmetro e altura da planta. O tratamento 1 (25% foi superior aos demais para número de folhas emitidas (pThe effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated three-years-old peach palm plants were evaluated. Four irrigation levels were established for a 94-day period (August to November of 1997, based on 25% (T1, 50% (T2 and 75% (T3 of available water consumed in function of the evapotranspiration of measured reference in a lysimeter of constant water table, and the control (T4 without irrigation. A split randomized block design, with four treatments, eight replications and sixteen inner plants per plot was utilized. Peach palm response to the different treatments was evaluated throughout the absolute growth rate of the

  3. Manejo e viabilidade econômica da irrigação por gotejamento na cultura do cafeeiro acaiá considerando seis safras Economic viability and management of drip irrigation in "acaiá"coffee plants for six harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo L. de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar técnica e economicamente o efeito da irrigação por gotejamento na produção do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. Acaiá MG-1474. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: L0 = sem irrigação; L40 = 40%; L60 = 60%; L80 = 80% e L100 = 100% da Evaporação do Tanque Classe A (ECA. Para realizar a análise econômica, utilizou-se dos dados de produção acumulada das seis primeiras safras: 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 e 2004. A análise dos custos da lavoura irrigada foi baseada na teoria dos custos de produção. A produtividade média dos tratamentos foi de 52,88; 66,99; 70,00; 71,93 e 79,50 sacas por hectare, para L0, L40, L60, L80 e L100, respectivamente. Considerando o preço da saca de café a R$ 212,00, a situação econômica analisada mostrou que, neste nível de preço, é economicamente viável a produção de café, quer seja irrigado, quer não, sendo que, para os tratamentos irrigados, o manejo da irrigação, com a lâmina de reposição de 100% da Evaporação do Tanque Classe A, proporcionou maiores lucros.The objective of present work was study the effect of drip irrigation on production of coffee plant (Coffea arabica L Acaiá MG-1474. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five treatments and four replications. The treatments were: L0 = without irrigation, L40 = 40%, L60 = 60%, L80 = 80% and L100 = 100% of the evaporation from a Class A pan evaporation (ECA. An economic analysis was done for production of the years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004. The costs analysis of the irrigated treatments was based on the theory of the production costs. There was good technical efficiency, once the mean productivity of each treatment was 52.88, 66.99, 70.00, 71.93 and 79.50 bags of 60 kg per hectare, for the treatments L1, L2, L3, L4 and L0, respectively. Economic analysis showed that, for a

  4. Irrigation as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change: The Relative Influence of Groundwater and Canal Irrigation on Winter Crop Production and its Sensitivity to Weather Variability in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Fishman, R.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; Naeem, S.; Modi, V.; DeFries, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    India is a hotspot for food security issues over the upcoming decades, due to increasing population pressures, groundwater depletion, and climate change. Investing in additional irrigation infrastructure may bolster food security, however, the relative influence of different types of irrigation (e.g. groundwater versus canal) on agricultural production remains unclear. One reason that the relative impact of different irrigation strategies on agricultural production has not been analyzed across India is because national-scale data on crop production and the types of irrigation technologies used are typically available at too coarse of spatial and temporal resolutions to answer this question adequately. Thus, we develop a novel algorithm to map cropped area across India at a 1 x 1 km scale using MODIS satellite data, and link these high-resolution cropped area maps with village-level data (n = 600,000) on irrigation. This allowed us to assess the relative impact of groundwater (i.e. dug, shallow, and deep wells) and canal irrigation (i.e. surface lift and flow canals) on winter cropped area and its sensitivity to rainfall across India at the village-scale from 2000 to 2006. We find that deep well irrigation is both associated with the greatest amount of winter cropped area, and is also the least sensitive to monsoon and winter rainfall variability. However, the effectiveness of deep well irrigation varies across India, with the greatest benefits seen in the regions that are most at risk for losing groundwater as a possible source of irrigation over the upcoming decades (e.g. Northwest India). This work highlights the need to develop ways to use remaining groundwater more efficiently (e.g. drip irrigation, less water-intensive crops) given that canal irrigation is not an adequate substitute, particularly in the regions that are facing the greatest levels of groundwater depletion.

  5. Sistema com aeração, decantação e filtragem para a melhoria da qualidade de água em irrigação localizada System with aeration, sedimentation and filtering for the improving of water quality in drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. F. Lemos Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da água é muito importante para irrigação por gotejamento, pois ela escoa por pequenos bocais dos emissores, podendo ocorrer obstrução devido à deposição dos sólidos em suspensão. Portanto, antes da instalação do projeto, devem-se avaliar parâmetros de qualidade da água, para adotar medidas preventivas, evitando o risco de entupimento do sistema. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar um sistema composto por aeradores com aspersores, sobre leito de pedra, para a precipitação dos íons Fe+2e Mn+2 em tanque de decantação, e um conjunto de filtragem composto por três filtros de areia e um de disco, em sistema de irrigação localizada. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Alvorada, no município de Nova Granada - SP, no período de março a outubro de 2008. Foram realizadas determinações de variáveis físicas e químicas da água, ao longo do sistema de aeração, decantação e filtragem, o qual foi eficiente para a melhoria da qualidade de água, reduzindo os níveis de risco de entupimento de severo para médio e de médio para baixo. Oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica, pH, Fe+2e Fe+3 não diferenciaram a qualidade de água entre os pontos do sistema de tratamento, porém a turbidez, sólidos dissolvidos, sólidos em suspensão, ferro total e manganês total reduziram-se significativamente pelo uso do sistema proposto, melhorando a qualidade da água.Water quality is very important to drip irrigation, as it flows in small diameter holes, and may cause obstruction due to deposition of solid matter. Whence the water must be evaluated before installation of the project. Parameters related to water quality are essential to define conducting measures to avoid the risk of clogging the system. This study aimed to evaluate a system with sprinklers aeration on bedrock, for Fe+2and Mn total precipitation in sedimentation tank and a set of filtering consisting of three sand filters and a disk, installed in

  6. Area-Averaged Surface Fluxes in a Semiarid Region with Partly Irrigated Land: Lessons Learned from EFEDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochum, A.M.; Debruin, H.A.R.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Calera Belmonte, A.

    2006-01-01

    The European Field Experiment in a Desertification-Threatened Area (EFEDA) provides a comprehensive land surface dataset for a semiarid Mediterranean environment with natural vegetation and cultivated dry and irrigated land. This paper discusses the methods and practical aspects of deriving

  7. Evolution of the spherical cavity radius generated around a subsurface drip emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gil

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The emitter discharge in subsurface drip irrigation can be affected by soil properties. A positive pressure develops at the emitter outlet where a spherical cavity is assumed to form. In steady-state conditions, the pressure in the soil relates to soil hydraulic properties, the emitter discharge, and the cavity radius. This pressure in the soil is very sensitive to the cavity radius. In this paper, the development of the cavity around the emitter outlet was measured for various emitter discharges in laboratory tests carried out in containers with uniform loamy soils. A trend between soil pressure and emitter discharge was established that illustrates the performance of buried emitters in the field. Its application to the prediction of water distribution in subsurface drip irrigation units and its effect on the estimation of irrigation performance are also shown.

  8. Variação temporal da qualidade da água no desempenho de filtros utilizados na irrigação por gotejamento Temporal variation of water quality and the performance of the filters utilized in drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio A. P. Ribeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma investigação experimental para se comparar o desempenho dos meios filtrantes disco (130 microns e manta sintética não-tecida na filtração da água utilizada em um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento com tratamento químico, foi o que se objetivou através deste trabalho analisando-se, também, a variação temporal durante um ano, dos principais parâmetros da água que causam problemas de entupimento nos emissores. Utilizou-se a técnica da fertirrigação com um fertilizante organico-mineral e o tratamento químico foi feito através da cloração. A comparação dos dois meios filtrantes foi realizada através da análise da água afluente e efluente dos filtros. A água de irrigação mostrou que somente os parâmetros químicos pH e o ferro apresentaram médio risco de entupimento. Os demais parâmetros resultaram em valores que não apresentaram risco de entupimento dos gotejadores. A injeção da solução com fertilizante alterou a qualidade da água em relação à concentração de sólidos suspensos e turbidez. Não houve diferença no desempenho do filtro de manta e de disco com relação aos parâmetros físicos e biológicos de seus efluentes. A concentração de cloro livre foi maior no efluente do filtro de disco.An experimental investigation was accomplished in order to compare the performance of disc filters (130 microns and non-woven synthetic fabric in the filtration of water, used in trickle irrigation systems, with chemical treatment. The temporal variation of the principal parameters of the irrigation water that cause obstruction problems in the emitters were also analyzed during the year: the fertirrigation technique was utilized with organic mineral fertilizer, and the chemical treatment was done with chlorine. The comparison between the two filter elements was done through the analysis of affluent and effluent. The results showed that only the chemical parameters: pH and total iron presented medium risk to

  9. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Arbonés, A; Rufat, J

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50kgNha(-1)), and 50kgNha(-1)+nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N2O and N2O+N2 emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N2O+N2, but not N2O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N2O. The N2O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from -0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N2O+N2 losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space >60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO2 emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH4 sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N2O and N2O+N2 emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO2 emissions and significantly increased CH4 oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N2O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment was the best option combining productivity with keeping greenhouse gas emissions under control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-component Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the hydrodynamics in drip emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcucci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient numerical technique based on the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM to model the flow through a reference drip emitter geometry. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBM as a reliable simulation tool for the hydraulic optimisation of irrigation systems. Results for the water flow through a rectangular drip emitter are in good agreement with literature numerical and experimental data. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model to simulate a multi-component flow that could be used to simulate the presence of additives, contaminants, and suspended particles.

  11. Ocorrência de entupimento de origem biológica em sistema de irrigação por gotejamento Occurrence of cloging of biological origin in drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo S. Resende

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho consistiu de uma avaliação da uniformidade de distribuição de água em uma parcela de um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento para produção de flores em estufa, com 5 anos de uso, em uma propriedade no município de Atibaia, SP. Em uma amostra de 25 gotejadores retirados da parcela, determinou-se, em laboratório, a curva de vazão-pressão e o coeficiente de variação de fabricação, CV, para as pressões de 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 e 400 kPa. Análises química, física e de contagem bacteriológica da água foram realizadas em três pontos do sistema de irrigação: na fonte de água, após o sistema de filtragem e no final de uma linha de gotejadores no meio da parcela avaliada. O valor do CV foi de 8,2% e os valores de 73% para o coeficiente de uniformidade de aplicação de água, 97% para o coeficiente de uniformidade hidráulica e 26% para o coeficiente de performance do emissor, juntamente com os resultados das análises da água, permitiram evidenciar-se a ocorrência de entupimento de origem biológica afetando a uniformidade de aplicação de água do sistema.An irrigation system used for flower production during five years, in the municipality of Atibaia, SP, Brazil, was evaluated. A sample of 25 used emitters were evaluated in laboratory for discharge pressure curve and manufacturer's variation coefficient at 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 kPa. Chemical, physical and microbiological water analysis were performed at three different points: water source, after filtration unit and at lateral end. The manufacturer's coefficient was 8.2%. The statistical uniformity of the emitter discharge rates was 73%; the hydraulic uniformity based on pressure distribution was 97% and the emitter performance variation was 26%. Water analysis results along with performance evaluation showed occurrence of emitter cloging causing low statistical uniformity of emitter discharge.

  12. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  13. Preface for DRIP X proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman (Chairman), Jean-Pierre; Montgomery (Co-Chairman), Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    This issue of the “European Physical Journal Applied Physics” contains the papers presented at the Tenth International Conference on Defects: Recognition, Imaging and Physics in Semiconductors (DRIP X), held in Batz-sur-Mer, France, from 29th September to 2nd October, 2003. The conference gathered 150 scientists from academic institutions and industry of 20 countries from around the world, showing the pertinence of the biennial series of DRIP conferences. A much appreciated aspect of DRIP X was the variety of the different backgrounds of the participants, leading to much fruitful exchange and stimulating discussion. Following the spirit of previous DRIP conferences, the main concern of DRIP X was the methodology and the physics of measurement procedures, together with specific developments in instrumentation, and their relationship with the structural, optical and electrical properties of semiconductor defects. The topics covered related to the different methods and techniques used for the recognition and imaging of defects in semiconductor materials (Si, III-V's including nitrides, SiC, IV-IV's, II-VI's, organic compounds, ...) and in semiconductor devices ranging from defects in the raw materials at the wafer level, through process-induced defects and defects that appear during operation (burn-in, aging tests, ...). One of the highlights of the social events of DRIP X was the awards ceremony as part of the celebrations for the Tenth meeting of DRIP. The founders of the DRIP series, Professor Jean-Pierre Fillard and Professor Tomoya Ogawa were both invited to be permanent members of the International Steering Committee and awarded with appropriately engraved trophies to mark the occasion. With help form Tomoya Ogawa, Jean-Pierre Fillard organized the first DRIP conference in 1985 in La Grande Motte, France. The amusing and thought provoking slide presentation by Jean-Pierre Fillard went a great way to remind us of the history of this conference series and to

  14. A comparative analysis of the impacts of climate change and irrigation on land surface and subsurface hydrology in the North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong; Tang, Qiuhong; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-01

    The Community Land Model 4.0 (CLM4) was used to investigate and compare the effects of climate change and irrigation on terrestrial water cycle. Three climate change scenarios and one irrigation scenario (IRRIG) were simulated in the North China Plain (NCP), which is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change and human perturbations in China. The climate change scenarios consist of (1) HOT (i.e. temperature increase by 2oC); (2) HOTWET (same with HOT but with an increase of precipitation by 15%); (3) HOTDRY (same with HOT but with a decrease of precipitation by 15%). In the IRRIG scenario, the irrigation scheme was calibrated to simulate irrigation amounts that match the actual irrigation amounts and irrigation was divided between surface water and groundwater withdrawals based on census data. Our results show that the impacts of climate change were more widespread while those of irrigation were concentrated only over the agricultural regions. Specifically, the mean water table depth was simulated to decline persistently by over 1 m annually due to groundwater exploitation during the period of 1980-2000, while much smaller effects were induced by climate change. Although irrigation has comparable effects on surface fluxes and surface soil moisture as climate change, it has much greater effects on water table depth and groundwater storage. Moreover, irrigation has much larger effects on the top layer soil moisture whereas increase in precipitation associated with climate change exerts more influence on lower layer soil moisture. This study emphasizes the need to accurately account for irrigation impacts in adapting to climate change.

  15. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... “Judith”) plant grown in a plastic greenhouse and irrigated by a drip irrigation system under Mediterranean ... shorter internodes sections and reductions in flower number, size and quality (Cameron et al., 1999; .... Water use of carnation under plastic greenhouse conditions is computed using water balance ...

  16. Wireless sensor network effectively controls center pivot irrigation of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  17. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated whether electronic controllers in irrigation systems effectively save water. The study also assessed the effect of these controllers on crop yield using drip and sprinkler irrigation systems in severely arid climate conditions. Evapotranspiration (ET) controllers were installed in experimental fields of wheat ...

  18. Yield, irrigation production efficiency and economic returns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gross return, net return and benefit-cost ratio exhibited quadratic relationship which can be used for optimising economic return of broccoli under variable irrigation and lateral spacing. The results revealed that drip irrigation system is profitable for broccoli production inspite of high initial investment. Journal of Science and ...

  19. Loss of surface horizon of an irrigated soil detected by radiometric images of normalized difference vegetation index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The use of the soil in the Humid Pampa of Argentina has changed since the mid-1990s from agricultural-livestock production (that included pastures with direct grazing) to a purely agricultural production. Also, in recent years the area under irrigation by central pivot has been increased to 150%. The waters used for irrigation are sodium carbonates. The combination of irrigation and rain increases the sodium absorption ratio of soil (SARs), consequently raising the clay dispersion and reducing infiltration. This implies an increased risk of soil loss. A reduction in the development of white clover crop (Trifolium repens L.) was observed at an irrigation plot during 2015 campaign. The clover was planted in order to reduce the impact of two maize (Zea mays L.) campaigns under irrigation, which had increased soil SAR and deteriorated soil structure. SPOT-5 radiometric normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images were used to determine two zones of high and low production. In each zone, four random points were selected for further geo-referenced field sampling. Two geo-referenced measures of effective depth and surface soil sampling were carried out in each point. Texture of soil samples was determined by Pipette Method of Sedimentation Analysis. Data exploratory analysis showed that low production zone had a media effective depth = 80 cm and silty clay loam texture, while high production zone had a media effective depth > 140 cm and silt loam texture. The texture class of the low production zone did not correspond to prior soil studies carried out by the INTA (National Institute of Agricultural Technology), which showed that those soil textures were silt loam at surface and silty clay loam at sub-surface. The loss of the A horizon is proposed as a possible explanation, but further research is required. Besides, the need of a soil cartography actualization, which integrates new satellite imaging technologies and geo-referenced measurements with soil sensors is

  20. Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: global simulation of processes and linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägermeyr, J.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Schaphoff, S.; Kummu, M.; Lucht, W.

    2015-07-01

    Global agricultural production is heavily sustained by irrigation, but irrigation system efficiencies are often surprisingly low. However, our knowledge of irrigation efficiencies is mostly confined to rough indicative estimates for countries or regions that do not account for spatiotemporal heterogeneity due to climate and other biophysical dependencies. To allow for refined estimates of global agricultural water use, and of water saving and water productivity potentials constrained by biophysical processes and also non-trivial downstream effects, we incorporated a process-based representation of the three major irrigation systems (surface, sprinkler, and drip) into a bio- and agrosphere model, LPJmL. Based on this enhanced model we provide a gridded world map of irrigation efficiencies that are calculated in direct linkage to differences in system types, crop types, climatic and hydrologic conditions, and overall crop management. We find pronounced regional patterns in beneficial irrigation efficiency (a refined irrigation efficiency indicator accounting for crop-productive water consumption only), due to differences in these features, with the lowest values (values (> 60 %) in Europe and North America. We arrive at an estimate of global irrigation water withdrawal of 2469 km3 (2004-2009 average); irrigation water consumption is calculated to be 1257 km3, of which 608 km3 are non-beneficially consumed, i.e., lost through evaporation, interception, and conveyance. Replacing surface systems by sprinkler or drip systems could, on average across the world's river basins, reduce the non-beneficial consumption at river basin level by 54 and 76 %, respectively, while maintaining the current level of crop yields. Accordingly, crop water productivity would increase by 9 and 15 %, respectively, and by much more in specific regions such as in the Indus basin. This study significantly advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for

  1. Effect of long-term irrigation patterns on phosphorus forms and distribution in the brown soil zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Dang, Xiuli; Mayes, Melanie A; Chen, Leilei; Zhang, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Continuous application of P fertilizers under different irrigation patterns can change soil phosphorus (P) chemical behavior and increase soil P levels that are of environmental concern. To assess the effect of long-term different irrigation patterns on soil P fractions and availability, this study examined sequential changes in soil organic P and inorganic P from furrow irrigation (FI), surface drip irrigation (SUR), and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in the brown soil zone (0-60 cm) during 1998 to 2011. Analyses of soil P behavior showed that the levels of total P are frequently high on top soil layers. The total P (TP) contents of the entire soil profiles under three irrigation treatments were 830.2-3180.1 mg/kg. The contents of available P (AP) were 72.6-319.3 mg P/kg soil through soil profiles. The greatest TP and AP contents were obtained within the upper soil layers in FI. Results of Hedley's P fractionation indicate that HCl-P is a dominant form and the proportion to TP ranges from 29% to 43% in all three methods. The contents of various fractions of P were positively correlated with the levels of total carbon (TC), total inorganic carbon (TIC), and calcium (Ca), whereas the P fractions had negative correlation with pH in all soil samples. Regression models proved that NaHCO3-Po was an important factor in determining the amount of AP in FI. H2O-Po, NaHCO3-Po, and NaOH-Pi were related to available P values in SUR. NaHCO3-Po and NaOH-Po played important roles in SDI. The tomato yield under SUR was higher than SDI and FI. The difference of P availability was also controlled by the physicochemical soil properties under different irrigation schedule. SUR was a reasonable irrigation pattern to improve the utilization efficiency of water and fertilizer.

  2. The use of landscape fabric and supplemental irrigation to enhance survival and growth of woody perennials planted on reclaimed surface mine lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R .C. Musselman; F. W. Smith; W. D. Shepperd; L. A. Asherin; B. W. Gee

    2009-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of landscape fabric and supplemental irrigation in survival and growth of woody perennials planted on reclaimed surface coal mine lands. The study compared growth and survival of nursery grown potted aspen and serviceberry planted with or without landscape fabric, and with or without biweekly supplemental irrigation...

  3. Generic E. coli levels in surface and nontraditional irrigation water in the mid Atlantic in relation to FSMA water quality standards: A CONSERVE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of surface (pond and river) and nontraditional (reclaimed wastewater, produce wash water) irrigation water (SNIW) could reduce stress on ground water resources. However, it is essential to understand how these irrigation sources may influence the microbiological safety of fresh...

  4. Cana-de-açúcar fertirrigada com vinhaça via irrigação por gotejamento subsuperficial em três ciclos de cana-soca Sugarcane fertigated with vinasse under subsurface drip irrigation in three cycles of cane-ratoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. A. Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar o efeito da irrigação, da fertigação mineral e da vinhaça, aplicadas via irrigação por gotejamento subsuperficial, no número de perfilhos, produção de colmos, qualidade tecnológica e rendimento de açúcar recuperável, nos três primeiros ciclos de cana-soca. Os tratamentos foram: T1NI - Cultivo não irrigado com adubação mineral; T2I - Cultivo irrigado e fertirrigado com fertilizantes minerais; T3Iv - Cultivo irrigado e fertirrigado com a vinhaça suprindo o K e complementação do NP via fertilizantes minerais e T4IV - Cultivo irrigado e fertirrigado, com a vinhaça suprindo o NPK. No ciclo da primeira cana-soca não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis; já nos ciclos subsequentes o T2I e o T3Iv exibiram maiores números de perfilhos, 17,4 e 17,2 perfilhos m-1 na segunda cana-soca e 16,6 e 16,0 perfilhos m-1 na terceira cana-soca, respectivamente. A produção de colmo foi alterada com o T4Iv obtendo-se a maior produção, 179,6 Mg ha-1, na segunda cana-soca e T2I e T3Iv na terceira cana-soca, 151,5 e 151,0 Mg ha-1, respectivamente. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a qualidade tecnológica e no ciclo da segunda cana-soca os T3Iv e T4IV exibiram elevado rendimento de açúcar, 25 e 25,9 Mg ha-1, respectivamente.The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of irrigation and fertigation with mineral fertilizer and vinasse applied by subsurface drip irrigation, in the number of tiller, stem yield, technological quality of sugarcane and yield of recoverable sugar in first three cycles of ratoon cane. The treatments were: T1NI - cultivation without irrigation with mineral fertilization; T2I - cultivation fertigated with mineral fertilizers; T3Iv - cultivation fertigated with the vinasse supplying K and complementation of NP with mineral fertilizer; T4IV - cultivation fertigated with the vinasse supplying NPK. In the cycle of the first ratoon cane, there was no effect

  5. Column leaching experiments of a uranium ore by atomizing irrigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yingying; Lei Zeyong; Chen Haihui

    2007-01-01

    Column leaching experiments ora uranium ore were made by atomizing irrigation technique. The leaching results are compared with the results obtained by spray irrigation and drip irrigation techniques respectively under the same conditions of column leaching experiments. The results show that the atomizing irrigation technique has more uniform solution distribution, higher leaching rate, shorter leaching period, and less ratio of liquid to solid. Consequently, the atomizing irrigation technique is suitable to the ore. (authors)

  6. Comparison of positive-pressure, passive ultrasonic, and laser-activated irrigations on smear-layer removal from the root canal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar-Helft, Sharonit; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Stabholtz, Adam; Gutkin, Vitaly; Redenski, Idan; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three irrigation techniques for smear-layer removal with 17% EDTA. Cleaning and shaping the root canal system during endodontic treatment produces a smear layer and hard tissue debris. Three irrigation techniques were tested for solution infiltration of this layer: positive-pressure irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, and laser-activated irrigation. Sixty extracted teeth were divided into six equal groups; 17% EDTA was used for 60 sec irrigation of five of the groups. The groups were as follows: Group 1, treated only with ProTaper™ F3 Ni-Ti files; Group 2, positive-pressure irrigation, with a syringe; Group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; Group 4, passive ultrasonic irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root; Group 5, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted 1 mm short of the working length; and Group 6, Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation, inserted in the upper coronal third of the root. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the smear layer is removed most efficiently using laser-activated irrigation at low energy with 17% EDTA, inserted either at the working length or only in the coronal upper third of the root. Amounts of Ca, P, and O were not significantly different on all treated dentin surfaces. Smear-layer removal was most effective when the root canals were irrigated using Er:YAG laser at low energy with 17% EDTA solution. Interestingly, removal of the smear layer along the entire canal was similar when the laser was inserted in the upper coronal third and at 1 mm short of the working length of the root canal. This effect was not observed with the ultrasonic and positive-pressure techniques.

  7. Design and Season Influence Nitrogen Dynamics in Two Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands Treating Nursery Irrigation Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. White

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetlands (CWs are used to remediate runoff from a variety of agricultural, industrial, and urban sources. CW remediation performance is often evaluated at the laboratory scale over durations less than one year. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of CW design (cell depth and residence time on nitrogen (N speciation and fate across season and years in two free water surface wetlands receiving runoff from irrigated plant production areas at an ornamental plant nursery. Water quality (mg·L−1 of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, dissolved oxygen and oxidation reduction potential was monitored at five sites within each of two CWs each month over four years. Nitrate-N was the dominant form of ionic N present in both CWs. Within CW1, a deep cell to shallow cell design, nitrate comprised 86% of ionic N in effluent. Within CW2, designed with three sequential deep cells, nitrate comprised only 66% of total N and ammonium comprised 27% of total N in CW2 effluent. Differences in ionic N removal efficacies and shifts in N speciation in CW1 and CW2 were controlled by constructed wetland design (depth and hydraulic retention time, the concentration of nutrients entering the CW, and plant species richness.

  8. Effect of different irrigation water level on cotton yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different water level on yield and yield components of the drip irrigated cotton were evaluated in Amik Plain in the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Four levels of irrigation water were tested in 2003 and 2004. Treatments were 25 (I25), 50 (I50), 75% (I75) of the full irrigation treatment (I100) which received ...

  9. Modeling Change in Watershed Streamflow, Groundwater Recharge and Surface Water - Groundwater Interactions Due to Irrigation and Associated Diversions and Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.; Caldwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of irrigation and associated surface water (SW) diversions and groundwater (GW) pumping on instream flows, groundwater recharge and SW-GW interactions are being examined using a watershed-scale coupled SW-GW flow model. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model GSFLOW (Markstrom et al., 2008), an integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW), is being utilized for this effort. Processes represented in this model include daily rain, snowfall, snowmelt, streamflow, surface runoff, interflow, infiltration, soil-zone evapotranspiration, and subsurface unsaturated and groundwater flow and evapotranspiration. The Upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational area in west-central Montana, is being used as the basis for watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties as well as scenarios of irrigation and associated practices. The 640 square kilometer watershed area has been discretized into coincident 200 m by 200 m hydrologic response units (for climate and soil zone flow processes) and grid blocks (for unsaturated zone and GW flow processes). The subsurface GW system is discretized into 6 layers representing Quaternary alluvium, Tertiary sediments and bedrock. The model is being used to recreate natural, pre-development streamflows and GW conditions in the watershed. The results of this simulation are then compared to a simulation with flood and sprinkler irrigation supplied by SW diversion and GW pumping to examine the magnitude and timing of changes in streamflow, groundwater recharge and SW-GW interactions. Model results reproduce observed hydrologic responses to both natural climate variability and irrigation practices. Periodic irrigation creates increased evapotranspiration and GW recharge in cultivated areas of the watershed as well as SW-GW interactions that are more dynamic than under natural conditions.

  10. Assessing actual evapotranspiration via surface energy balance aiming to optimize water and energy consumption in large scale pressurized irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Maltese, A.; Moreno Hidalgo, M. A.; Provenzano, G.; Còrcoles, J. I.

    2017-10-01

    Satellite imagery provides a dependable basis for computational models that aimed to determine actual evapotranspiration (ET) by surface energy balance. Satellite-based models enables quantifying ET over large areas for a wide range of applications, such as monitoring water distribution, managing irrigation and assessing irrigation systems' performance. With the aim to evaluate the energy and water consumption of a large scale on-turn pressurized irrigation system in the district of Aguas Nuevas, Albacete, Spain, the satellite-based image-processing model SEBAL was used for calculating actual ET. The model has been applied to quantify instantaneous, daily, and seasonal actual ET over high- resolution Landsat images for the peak water demand season (May to September) and for the years 2006 - 2008. The model provided a direct estimation of the distribution of main energy fluxes, at the instant when the satellite overpassed over each field of the district. The image acquisition day Evapotranspiration (ET24) was obtained from instantaneous values by assuming a constant evaporative fraction (Λ) for the entire day of acquisition; then, monthly and seasonal ET were estimated from the daily evapotranspiration (ETdaily) assuming that ET24 varies in proportion to reference ET (ETr) at the meteorological station, thus accounting for day to day variation in meteorological forcing. The comparison between the hydrants water consumption and the actual evapotranspiration, considering an irrigation efficiency of 85%, showed that a considerable amount of water and energy can be saved at district level.

  11. Integrating Satellite and Surface Sensor Networks for Irrigation Management Applications in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, F. S.; Johnson, L.; Post, K. M.; Guzman, A.; Zaragoza, I.; Spellenberg, R.; Rosevelt, C.; Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.; Cahn, M.; Frame, K.; Temesgen, B.; Eching, S.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite mapping of evapotranspiration (ET) from irrigated agricultural lands can provide agricultural producers and water managers with information that can be used to optimize agricultural water use, especially in regions with limited water supplies. The timely delivery of information on agricultural crop water requirements has the potential to make irrigation scheduling more practical, convenient, and accurate. We present a system for irrigation scheduling and management support in California and describe lessons learned from the development and implementation of the system. The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) framework integrates satellite data with information from agricultural weather networks to map crop canopy development, basal crop coefficients (Kcb), and basal crop evapotranspiration (ETcb) at the scale of individual fields. Information is distributed to agricultural producers and water managers via a web-based irrigation management decision support system and web data services. SIMS also provides an application programming interface (API) that facilitates integration with other irrigation decision support tools, estimation of total crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and calculation of on-farm water use efficiency metrics. Accuracy assessments conducted in commercial fields for more than a dozen crop types to date have shown that SIMS seasonal ETcb estimates are within 10% mean absolute error (MAE) for well-watered crops and within 15% across all crop types studied, and closely track daily ETc and running totals of ETc measured in each field. Use of a soil water balance model to correct for soil evaporation and crop water stress reduces this error to less than 8% MAE across all crop types studied to date relative to field measurements of ETc. Results from irrigation trials conducted by the project for four vegetable crops have also demonstrated the potential for use of ET-based irrigation management strategies to reduce total applied water by

  12. Dicloroisocianurato in the prevention of the clogging due to the use of rusted waters in drip irrigationDicloroisocianurato na prevenção do entupimento devido ao uso de águas ferruginosas em sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a drip irrigation system applying water with high concentration of total iron, and to evaluate the efficiency of organic chlorine to prevent emitters clogging. The system consisted of four subunits receiving the following of dichlorine treatments: (N1 = 0, N2 = 15, N3 = 30 and N4 = 45 mg L-1 of free chlorine. The uniformity of application of water was evaluated using the coefficients of uniformity of Christiansen (CUC and of Distribution (CUD, every 100 hours of use, for 700 hours, before and after the chlorination. Also the discharge coefficient variation (CVq was evaluated. In the subunit with N1 there was a reduction in the values of CUC and CUD of 8,2 and 15,2%, respectively. The chlorination with dichlorine of sodium in the dosages of 15, 30 and 45 mg L-1 prevents the blockage of the dripper.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento, aplicando água com elevado teor de ferro total e, ainda, avaliar a eficiência da cloração orgânica na prevenção do entupimento. O sistema de irrigação foi constituído de quatro subunidades de irrigação, que receberam os seguintes tratamentos com dicloro: (N1 = 0, N2 = 15, N3 = 30 e N4 = 45 mg L-1 de cloro livre. A uniformidade de aplicação de água do sistema foi avaliada utilizando os coeficientes de uniformidade de Christiansen (CUC e de Distribuição (CUD, a cada 100 horas de uso, durante 700 horas, antes e após a cloração. Também foi determinado o coeficiente de variação de vazão (CVq. Verificou-se uma redução nos valores do CUC e do CUD de 8,2 e 15,2%, respectivamente, na subunidade N1, refletindo no aumento do CVq. A cloração com dicloroisocianurato de sódio nas dosagens de 15, 30 e 45 mg L-1 previne o entupimento dos gotejadores.

  13. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, S.C., E-mail: stefania@macs.udl.cat [University of Lleida, Environment and Soil Science Department, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Teira-Esmatges, M.R. [University of Lleida, Environment and Soil Science Department, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Arbonés, A.; Rufat, J. [Programa Ús Eficient de l’Aigua, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic Agroalimentari de Lleida (PCiTAL). Parc de Gardeny, Edifici Fruitcentre, E-2503 Lleida (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50 kg N ha{sup −1}), and 50 kg N ha{sup −1} + nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2}, but not N{sub 2}O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O. The N{sub 2}O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from − 0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50 kg N ha{sup −1} + drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space > 60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH{sub 4} sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO{sub 2} emissions and significantly increased CH{sub 4} oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50 kg N ha{sup −1

  14. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the major consumer of surface water in Brazil using over 70% of the total supply. Due to the growing competition for water among different sectors of the economy, sustainable water use can only be achieved by decreasing the portion of water used by the irrigated agriculture. Thus, in order to maintain yield, farmers need to irrigate more efficiently. There is little known on irrigation efficiency in Brazil. Therefore a study was carried out in the Buriti Vermelho basin to assess the irrigation performance of existing system. The experimental basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols. Several types of land use and crop cover are encountered in the basin. Conflicts among farmers for water are increasing. As water, in quality and quantity, is crucial to maintain the livelihood of the population in the basin, concern about risk of water lack due to climatic and land use change is in place. Once irrigation is the main water user in the basin, to increase water availability and reduce conflicts a water resource management plan has to be established. For this purpose, irrigation system performance has to be understood. The objective of this work was to assess the performance and the management of irrigation (small and big) that has been carried out by farmers in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed. A survey undertaken in 2007 was used to identify the irrigation systems in the basin. It was verified that irrigation is practiced by both small (area up to 6 hectare) and big farmers. Small farmers usually crop limes and vegetables and use micro-irrigation, drip, sprinkler, guns or furrow to irrigate them. Big farmers plant annual crops and use center pivot as irrigation system. In this first assessment 13 irrigation systems were evaluated: five conventional sprinklers, four drip

  15. Determining pomegranate water and nitrogen requirements with drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being an ancient crop there is limited knowledge on the water and nitrogen (N) requirements of pomegranate. We conducted research at the University of California, Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center (KARE) to determine the water and nitrogen requirements of a developing pomegr...

  16. Native wildflower seed production with limited subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clint C. Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont Saunders; Nancy Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Native wildflower seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native wildflower (forb) seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and...

  17. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops an soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). A work package in the EU FP5 project SAFIR is dedicated to study the impact of wastewater irrigation on the soil-water-plant-product system. Its monitoring program comprises pathogens and inorganic pollutants, including both geogenic and potentially anthropogenic trace elements in the aim to better understand soil-irrigation water interactions. The SAFIR field study sites are found in China, Italy, Crete, and Serbia. A performance evaluation of SAFIR-specific treatment technology through the monitoring of waste water and irrigation water quality was made through waste water chemical and microbiological qualities, which were investigated upstream and downstream of the SAFIR specific treatment three times per season. Irrigation water transits through the uppermost soil decimetres to the crop roots. The latter will become, in the course of the irrigation season, the major sink of percolating water, together with evaporation. The water saving irrigation techniques used in SAFIR are surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The investigation of the solid soil phase concentrates on the root zone as main transit and storage compartment for pollutants and, eventually, pathogens. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of the first year irrigation; the soil quality has been monitored throughout three years under cultivation of tomatoes or potatoes. The plot layout for each of the study sites

  18. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  19. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  20. Towards a smart automated surface irrigation management in rice-growing areas in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the leading rice producer in Europe, accounting for more than half of the total high-quality production of this crop. Rice is traditionally grown in fields that remain flooded starting with crop establishment until close to harvest, and this traditional irrigation technique (i.e., continuous submergence is recognised as an important water resource sink (almost 40% of the irrigation water available worldwide is used for paddy areas. Meanwhile, the water management in rice areas requires a high level of labour because it is based on maintaining a predetermined water height in paddy fields and because the regulation of input and output flow is typically operated manually by the farmer. This study reveals the hardware and software characteristics of an automated and remote controlled technology tested for the first time in a rice farm near Pavia (Italy, during the 2016 growing season, aiming at a more efficient and less burdensome irrigation management system for rice fields. A water level sensor in the field provides the data required to govern the inflow regulation gate in real-time, according to the precise time to cut off the flow rate. Using a dedicated web page, the farmer can control flows, volumes and water levels in the fields by operating directly on the gate if necessary or setting the irrigation program according to his agronomic practices.

  1. Suitability Evaluation of Surface Water for Irrigation: a Case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS T. NWAKUNOBI

    River Mu in Makurdi Area of Benue State, Nigeria, was evaluated for its suitability as irrigation water source. Both qualitative and quantitative studies of the river water were carried out. Results of laboratory analysis show that the concentration values of physical and chemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, pH ...

  2. Sustainable crop intensification through surface water irrigation in Bangladesh? A geospatial assessment of landscape-scale production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, Timothy J; Schulthess, Urs; Ahmed, Zia Uddin; McDonald, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Changing dietary preferences and population growth in South Asia have resulted in increasing demand for wheat and maize, along side high and sustained demand for rice. In the highly productive northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, farmers utilize groundwater irrigation to assure that at least two of these crops are sequenced on the same field within the same year. Such double cropping has had a significant and positive influence on regional agricultural productivity. But in the risk-prone and food insecure lower Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP), cropping is less intensive. During the dryer winter months, arable land is frequently fallowed or devoted to lower yielding rainfed legumes. Seeing opportunity to boost cereals production, particularly for rice, donors and land use policy makers have consequently reprioritized agricultural development investments in this impoverished region. Tapping groundwater for irrigation and intensified double cropping, however, is unlikely to be economically viable or environmentally sound in the EIGP. Constraints include saline shallow water tables and the prohibitively high installation and energetic extraction costs from deeper freshwater aquifers. The network of largely underutilized rivers and natural canals in the EIGP could conversely be tapped to provide less energetically and economically costly surface water irrigation (SWI). This approach is now championed by the Government of Bangladesh, which has requested USD 500 million from donors to implement land and water use policies to facilitate SWI and double cropping. Precise geospatial assessment of where freshwater flows are most prominent, or where viable fallow or low production intensity cropland is most common, however remains lacking. In response, we used remotely sensed data to identify agricultural land, detect the temporal availability of freshwater in rivers and canals, and assess crop production intensity over a three-year study period in a 33,750

  3. Effects of irrigation on the seasonal abundance of Empoasca vitis in north-Italian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Duso, C; Pozzebon, A; Tomasi, D; Gaiotti, F; Pavan, F

    2012-02-01

    The effect of irrigation on the abundance of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) populations was investigated in four vineyards located in northeastern Italy. In two experiments, we compared leafhopper population densities in plots irrigated (micro-spray irrigation system) or nonirrigated. In another experiment, we studied the effect of various irrigation systems on E. vitis populations over two successive seasons. In particular, five treatments were compared: control (not irrigated), traditional drip system, three types of subirrigation varying in distance from the row (40, 135, and 95 cm). In this vineyard, stem water potential was monitored with a pressure chamber. E. vitis population densities were affected by irrigation, with higher densities of this pest recorded on irrigated vines. Highest E. vitis densities were detected in drip irrigation plots compared with nonirrigated plots where water stress was highest. Moderate water stress (subirrigation plots) was associated with intermediate leafhopper densities. Implications for integrated pest management are discussed.

  4. Spatially dense drip hydrological monitoring and infiltration behaviour at the Wellington Caves, South East Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jex Catherine N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that karst regions are recognised as significant groundwater resources, the nature of groundwater flow paths in the unsaturated zone of such fractured rock is at present poorly understood. Many traditional methods for constraining groundwater flow regimes in karst aquifers are focussed on the faster drainage components and are unable to inform on the smaller fracture or matrix-flow components of the system. Caves however, offer a natural inception point to observe both the long term storage and the preferential movement of water through the unsaturated zone of such fractured carbonate rock by monitoring of drip rates of stalactites, soda straws and seepage from fractures/micro fissures that emerge in the cave ceiling. Here we present the largest spatial survey of automated cave drip rate monitoring published to date with the aim of better understanding both karst drip water hydrogeology and the relationship between drip hydrology and surface climate. By the application of cross correlation functions and multi-dimensional scaling, clustered by k-means technique, we demonstrate the nature of the relationships between drip behaviour and initial surface infiltration and similarity amongst the drip rate time series themselves that may be interpreted in terms of flow regimes and cave chamber morphology and lithology.

  5. Effects of different irrigation methods on pepper yield and soilborne diseases incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seral YÜCEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different irrigation strategies and irrigation methods on yields and the incidence of wilt (Fusarium oxysporum and root rot (Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina diseases causing significant yield losses on field grown processing red pepper is determined. Experiments were carried out at Topçu Station of the Soil and Water Resources Research Institute of Tarsus in 2010 and 2011. Karaisalı processing pepper (Capsicum annuum L. was used in the experiments. Three furrows and five drip irrigation treatments were used in the study. The disease incidence rates were found 8.0-18.2% in furrow irrigation plots and 4.5-10.0% in drip irrigation plots in 2010, while it was 3.4-9.7% in furrow irrigation plots and 2.2-4.5% in drip irrigation plots in 2011. Pepper yields ranged from 3 416 to 4 417 kg da-1 and 3 376 to 4 779 kg da-1 in drip irrigated plots in 2010 and 2011, respectively. However, yields varied between 3 172-3 559 kg da-1 and 2 932-4 150 kg da-1 in furrow irrigated plots in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.

  6. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Ikegami, Koji; Marumo, Satoshi; Tanabe, Naoya; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Kamei, Junzo; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough. PMID:26581078

  7. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32 m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... root per cm3 soil) compared with root development in fully irrigated (FI) potatoes. Highest RLD existed in the top 30–40 cm of the ridge below which it decreased sharply. The RLD was distributed homogenously along the ridge and furrow but heterogeneously across the ridge and furrow with highest root...

  8. Evaluating the use of sharpened land surface temperature for daily evapotranspiration estimation over irrigated crops in arid lands

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Land-surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. This study applies the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which sharpens the 1 km thermal data down to the resolution of the optical data (250-500 m) based on functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. The DMS approach adopted here has been enhanced/refined for application over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The sharpened LST data is input to an integrated modeling system that uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate daily estimates of evapotranspiration. Results are evaluated against available flux tower observations over irrigated maize near Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Successful monitoring of field-scale changes in surface fluxes are of importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly monitored. Gao, F.; Kustas, W.P.; Anderson, M.C. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 3287-3319.

  9. Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture in Irrigated Lands by Assimilation of Landsat Vegetation Indices, Surface Energy Balance Products, and Relevance Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso F. Torres-Rua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial surface soil moisture can be an important indicator of crop conditions on farmland, but its continuous estimation remains challenging due to coarse spatial and temporal resolution of existing remotely-sensed products. Furthermore, while preceding research on soil moisture using remote sensing (surface energy balance, weather parameters, and vegetation indices has demonstrated a relationship between these factors and soil moisture, practical continuous spatial quantification of the latter is still unavailable for use in water and agricultural management. In this study, a methodology is presented to estimate volumetric surface soil moisture by statistical selection from potential predictors that include vegetation indices and energy balance products derived from satellite (Landsat imagery and weather data as identified in scientific literature. This methodology employs a statistical learning machine called a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM to identify and relate the potential predictors to soil moisture by means of stratified cross-validation and forward variable selection. Surface soil moisture measurements from irrigated agricultural fields in Central Utah in the 2012 irrigation season were used, along with weather data, Landsat vegetation indices, and energy balance products. The methodology, data collection, processing, and estimation accuracy are presented and discussed.

  10. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  11. Simulating the Effects of Irrigation over the U.S. in a Land Surface Model Based on Satellite Derived Agricultural Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Mutlu; Rodell, Matthew; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Toll, David L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is introduced for integrating satellite derived irrigation data and high-resolution crop type information into a land surface model (LSM). The objective is to improve the simulation of land surface states and fluxes through better representation of agricultural land use. Ultimately, this scheme could enable numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to capture land-atmosphere feedbacks in managed lands more accurately and thus improve forecast skill. Here we show that application of the new irrigation scheme over the continental US significantly influences the surface water and energy balances by modulating the partitioning of water between the surface and the atmosphere. In our experiment, irrigation caused a 12% increase in evapotranspiration (QLE) and an equivalent reduction in the sensible heat flux (QH) averaged over all irrigated areas in the continental US during the 2003 growing season. Local effects were more extreme: irrigation shifted more than 100 W/m from QH to QLE in many locations in California, eastern Idaho, southern Washington, and southern Colorado during peak crop growth. In these cases, the changes in ground heat flux (QG), net radiation (RNET), evapotranspiration (ET), runoff (R), and soil moisture (SM) were more than 3 W/m(sup 2), 20 W/m(sup 2), 5 mm/day, 0.3 mm/day, and 100 mm, respectively. These results are highly relevant to continental- to global-scale water and energy cycle studies that, to date, have struggled to quantify the effects of agricultural management practices such as irrigation. Based on the results presented here, we expect that better representation of managed lands will lead to improved weather and climate forecasting skill when the new irrigation scheme is incorporated into NWP models such as NOAA's Global Forecast System (GFS).

  12. Irrigation method does not affect wild bee pollinators of hybrid sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Sardiñas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation method has the potential to directly or indirectly influence populations of wild bee crop pollinators nesting and foraging in irrigated crop fields. The majority of wild bee species nest in the ground, and their nests may be susceptible to flooding. In addition, their pollination of crops can be influenced by nectar quality and quantity, which are related to water availability. To determine whether different irrigation methods affect crop pollinators, we compared the number of ground-nesting bees nesting and foraging in drip- and furrow-irrigated hybrid sunflower fields in the Sacramento Valley. We found that irrigation method did not impact wild bee nesting rates or foraging bee abundance or bee species richness. These findings suggest that changing from furrow irrigation to drip irrigation to conserve water likely will not alter hybrid sunflower crop pollination.

  13. Performance of a wireless sensor network for crop monitoring and irrigation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  14. Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. De

    2003-02-24

    One potential failure mechanism for titanium and its alloys under repository conditions is via the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. The resulting decreased ductility and fracture toughness may lead to brittle mechanical fracture called hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen embrittlement. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, HIC may be a problem since the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this scientific analysis and modeling activity is to evaluate whether the drip shield will fail by HIC or not under repository conditions within 10,000 years of emplacement. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) addresses features, events, and processes related to hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield. REV 00 of this AMR served as a feed to ''Waste Package Degradation Process Model Report'' and was developed in accordance with the activity section ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' of the development plan entitled ''Analysis and Model Reports to Support Waste Package PMR'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This AMR, prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Materials Data Analyses and Modeling'' (BSC 2002), is to feed the License Application.

  15. Hydrological characterization of cave drip waters in a porous limestone: Golgotha Cave, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mahmud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip

  16. Hydrological characterization of cave drip waters in a porous limestone: Golgotha Cave, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Kashif; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Baker, Andy; Treble, Pauline C.

    2018-02-01

    Cave drip water response to surface meteorological conditions is complex due to the heterogeneity of water movement in the karst unsaturated zone. Previous studies have focused on the monitoring of fractured rock limestones that have little or no primary porosity. In this study, we aim to further understand infiltration water hydrology in the Tamala Limestone of SW Australia, which is Quaternary aeolianite with primary porosity. We build on our previous studies of the Golgotha Cave system and utilize the existing spatial survey of 29 automated cave drip loggers and a lidar-based flow classification scheme, conducted in the two main chambers of this cave. We find that a daily sampling frequency at our cave site optimizes the capture of drip variability with the least possible sampling artifacts. With the optimum sampling frequency, most of the drip sites show persistent autocorrelation for at least a month, typically much longer, indicating ample storage of water feeding all stalactites investigated. Drip discharge histograms are highly variable, showing sometimes multimodal distributions. Histogram skewness is shown to relate to the wetter-than-average 2013 hydrological year and modality is affected by seasonality. The hydrological classification scheme with respect to mean discharge and the flow variation can distinguish between groundwater flow types in limestones with primary porosity, and the technique could be used to characterize different karst flow paths when high-frequency automated drip logger data are available. We observe little difference in the coefficient of variation (COV) between flow classification types, probably reflecting the ample storage due to the dominance of primary porosity at this cave site. Moreover, we do not find any relationship between drip variability and discharge within similar flow type. Finally, a combination of multidimensional scaling (MDS) and clustering by k means is used to classify similar drip types based on time series

  17. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Polk County, Florida, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Berry, Darbi; Dixon, Joann F.

    2017-08-16

    An accurate inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to better estimate agricultural water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. A detailed digital map and summary of irrigated acreage was developed for Polk County, Florida, during the 2016 growing season. This cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Office of Agricultural Water Policy of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services is part of an effort to improve estimates of water use and projections of future demands across all counties in the State. The irrigated areas were delineated by using land-use data provided by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, along with information obtained from the South and Southwest Florida Water Management Districts consumptive water-use permits. Delineations were field verified between April and December 2016. Attribute data such as crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system were assigned to the irrigated areas.The results of this inventory and field verification indicate that during the 2016 growing seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter), an estimated 88,652 acres were irrigated within Polk County. Of the total field-verified crops, 83,995 acres were in citrus; 2,893 acres were in other non-citrus fruit crops (blueberries, grapes, peaches, and strawberries); 621 acres were in row crops (primarily beans and watermelons); 1,117 acres were in nursery (container and tree farms) and sod production; and 26 acres were in field crops including hay and pasture. Of the total inventoried irrigated acreage within Polk County, 98 percent (86,566 acres) was in the Southwest Florida Water Management District, and the remaining 2 percent (2,086 acres) was in the South Florida Water Management District.About 85,788 acres (96.8 percent of the acreage inventoried) were irrigated by a microirrigation system, including drip, bubblers, and

  18. Spatial variability of surface temperature as related to cropping practice with implications for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Millard, J. P.; Reginato, R. J.; Jackson, R. D.; Idso, S. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Goettelman, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Crop stress measured using thermal infrared emission is evaluated with the stress-degree-day (SDD) concept. Throughout the season, the accumulation of SDD during the reproductive stage of growth is inversely related to yield. This relationship is shown for durum wheat, hard red winter wheat, barley, grain sorghum and soybeans. It is noted that SDD can be used to schedule irrigations for maximizing yields and for applying remotely sensed data to management of water resources. An airborne flight with a thermal-IR scanner was used to examine the variability in temperature that may exist from one field to another and to determine realistic within-field temperature variations. It was found that the airborne and the ground-based data agreed very well and that there was less variability in the fields that were completely covered with crops than those of bare soil.

  19. Evaluating the effects of mulch and irrigation amount on soil water distribution and root zone water balance using HYDRUS-2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drip irrigation under mulch is a major water-saving irrigation method that has been widely practiced for cotton production. The performance of such irrigation systems should be evaluated for proper design, management, operation, and efficient water use. The modeling approach has been used as a commo...

  20. The effects of different irrigation methods on root distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drip, subsurface drip, surface and under-tree micro sprinkler) on the root distribution, intensity and effective root depth of “Williams Pride” and “Jersey Mac” apple cultivars budded on M9, rapidly grown in Isparta Region. The rootstocks were ...

  1. Leaf surface structures enable the endemic Namib desert grass Stipagrostis sabulicola to irrigate itself with fog water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Nebelsick, A; Ebner, M; Miranda, T; Gottschalk, V; Voigt, D; Gorb, S; Stegmaier, T; Sarsour, J; Linke, M; Konrad, W

    2012-08-07

    The Namib grass Stipagrostis sabulicola relies, to a large degree, upon fog for its water supply and is able to guide collected water towards the plant base. This directed irrigation of the plant base allows an efficient and rapid uptake of the fog water by the shallow roots. In this contribution, the mechanisms for this directed water flow are analysed. Stipagrostis sabulicola has a highly irregular surface. Advancing contact angle is 98° ± 5° and the receding angle is 56° ± 9°, with a mean of both values of approximately 77°. The surface is thus not hydrophobic, shows a substantial contact angle hysteresis and therefore, allows the development of pinned drops of a substantial size. The key factor for the water conduction is the presence of grooves within the leaf surface that run parallel to the long axis of the plant. These grooves provide a guided downslide of drops that have exceeded the maximum size for attachment. It also leads to a minimum of inefficient drop scattering around the plant. The combination of these surface traits together with the tall and upright stature of S. sabulicola contributes to a highly efficient natural fog-collecting system that enables this species to thrive in a hyperarid environment.

  2. Inter-comparison of four remote sensing based surface energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and water stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Fieuzal, R.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Bigeard, G.; Merlin, O.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Chehbouni, G.

    2013-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature can provide a good proxy for water stress level and is therefore particularly useful to estimate spatially distributed evapotranspiration. Instantaneous stress levels or instantaneous latent heat flux are deduced from the surface energy balance equation constrained by this equilibrium temperature. Pixel average surface temperature depends on two main factors: stress and vegetation fraction cover. Methods estimating stress vary according to the way they treat each factor. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixel methods which evaluate latent heat as the residual of the surface energy balance for one pixel independently from the others. Four models, two contextual (S-SEBI and a triangle method, inspired by Moran et al., 1994) and two single-pixel (TSEB, SEBS) are applied at seasonal scale over a four by four km irrigated agricultural area in semi-arid northern Mexico. Their performances, both at local and spatial standpoints, are compared relatively to energy balance data acquired at seven locations within the area, as well as a more complex soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model forced with true irrigation and rainfall data. Stress levels are not always well retrieved by most models, but S-SEBI as well as TSEB, although slightly biased, show good performances. Drop in model performances is observed when vegetation is senescent, mostly due to a poor partitioning both between turbulent fluxes and between the soil/plant components of the latent heat flux and the available energy. As expected, contextual methods perform well when extreme hydric and vegetation conditions are encountered in the same image (therefore, esp. in spring and early summer) while they tend to exaggerate the spread in water status in more homogeneous conditions (esp. in winter).

  3. Using SWAT-MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interactions in an intensively irrigated stream-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X.; Bailey, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural irrigated watersheds in semi-arid regions face challenges such as waterlogging, high soil salinity, reduced crop yield, and leaching of chemical species due to extreme shallow water tables resulting from long-term intensive irrigation. Hydrologic models can be used to evaluate the impact of land management practices on water yields and groundwater-surface water interactions in such regions. In this study, the newly developed SWAT-MODFLOW, a coupled surface/subsurface hydrologic model, is applied to a 950 km2 watershed in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (southeastern Colorado). The model accounts for the influence of canal diversions, irrigation applications, groundwater pumping, and earth canal seepage losses. The model provides a detailed description of surface and subsurface flow processes, thereby enabling detailed description of watershed processes such as runoff, infiltration, in-streamflow, three-dimensional groundwater flow in a heterogeneous aquifer system with sources and sinks (e.g. pumping, seepage to subsurface drains), and spatially-variable surface and groundwater exchange. The model was calibrated and tested against stream discharge from 5 stream gauges in the Arkansas River and its tributaries, groundwater levels from 70 observation wells, and evapotranspiration (ET) data estimated from satellite (ReSET) data during the 1999 to 2007 period. Since the water-use patterns within the study area are typical of many other irrigated river valleys in the United States and elsewhere, this modeling approach is transferable to other regions.

  4. Temperature effects on neutron drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, M.; Aggarwal, Mamta

    1996-01-01

    Extremely neutron rich hot nuclei formed in high energy collisions having high thermal excitation energies are investigated in the framework of statistical theory and the effect of level density parameter a = U/T 2 , on the drip line is analysed

  5. GSFLOW model simulations used to evaluate the impact of irrigated agriculture on surface water - groundwater interaction

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Watershed-scale coupled surface water (SW) – groundwater (GW) flow modeling was used to examine changes in streamflow and SW – GW interaction resulting from...

  6. Surface and internalized Escherichia coli O157:H7 on field-grown spinach and lettuce treated with spray-contaminated irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Webb, Cathy C; Diaz-Perez, Juan Carlos; Phatak, Sharad C; Silvoy, John J; Davey, Lindsey; Payton, Alison S; Liao, Jean; Ma, Li; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-06-01

    Numerous field studies have revealed that irrigation water can contaminate the surface of plants; however, the occurrence of pathogen internalization is unclear. This study was conducted to determine the sites of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and its survival when the bacteria were applied through spray irrigation water to either field-grown spinach or lettuce. To differentiate internalized and surface populations, leaves were treated with a surface disinfectant wash before the tissue was ground for analysis of E. coli O157:H7 by direct plate count or enrichment culture. Irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) CFU/ml was applied to spinach 48 and 69 days after transplantation of seedlings into fields. E. coli O157:H7 was initially detected after application on the surface of plants dosed at 10(4) CFU/ml (4 of 20 samples) and both on the surface (17 of 20 samples) and internally (5 of 20 samples) of plants dosed at 10(6) CFU/ml. Seven days postspraying, all spinach leaves tested negative for surface or internal contamination. In a subsequent study, irrigation water containing E. coli O157:H7 at 10(8) CFU/ml was sprayed onto either the abaxial (lower) or adaxial (upper) side of leaves of field-grown lettuce under sunny or shaded conditions. E. coli O157:H7 was detectable on the leaf surface 27 days postspraying, but survival was higher on leaves sprayed on the abaxial side than on leaves sprayed on the adaxial side. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce leaves also occurred with greater persistence in leaves sprayed on the abaxial side (up to 14 days) than in leaves sprayed on the adaxial side (2 days).

  7. Fruit yield and quality of drip-irrigated tomato under deficit irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, the economic return from a unit of water is the lowest for agricultural sector. Therefore, in the wake of dwindling water availability, it is becoming imperative to look for ways of maximizing yield and quality of produce per unit of water. This is especially important in countries like Ethiopia, where there is severe water ...

  8. Response of transplanted aspen to irrigation and weeding on a Colorado reclaimed surface coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Wayne D. Shepperd; Frederick W. Smith; Lance A. Asherin; Brian W. Gee

    2012-01-01

    Successful re-establishment of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) on surface-mined lands in the western United States is problematic because the species generally regenerates vegetatively by sprouting from parent roots in the soil; however, topsoil is removed in the mining process. Previous attempts to plant aspen on reclaimed mine sites have failed because...

  9. Hydrologic and geochemical dynamics of vadose zone recharge in a mantled karst aquifer: Results of monitoring drip waters in Mystery Cave, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Alexander, E. Calvin; Jameson, Roy A.; Alexander, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Caves provide direct access to flows through the vadose zone that recharge karst aquifers. Although many recent studies have documented the highly dynamic processes associated with vadose zone flows in karst settings, few have been conducted in mantled karst settings, such as that of southeastern Minnesota. Here we present some results of a long-term program of cave drip monitoring conducted within Mystery Cave, Minnesota. In this study, two perennial ceiling drip sites were monitored between 1997 and 2001. The sites were located about 90 m (300 ft) apart along the same cave passage approximately 18 m (60 ft) below the surface; 7 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft) of loess and 12 m (40 ft) of flat-lying carbonate bedrock strata overlie the cave. Records of drip rate, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were obtained at 15 minute intervals, and supplemented with periodic sampling for major ion chemistry and water stable isotopes. Patterns in flow and geochemistry emerged at each of the two drip sites that were repeated year after year. Although one site responded relatively quickly (within 2-7 hours) to surface recharge events while the other responded more slowly (within 2-5 days), thresholds of antecedent moisture needed to be overcome in order to produce a discharge response at both sites. The greatest amount of flow was observed at both sites during the spring snowmelt period. Rainfall events less than 10 mm (0.4 in) during the summer months generally did not produce a drip discharge response, yet rapid drip responses were observed following intense storm events after periods of prolonged rainfall. The chemical data from both sites indicate that reservoirs of vadose zone water with distinct chemical signatures mixed during recharge events, and drip chemistry returned to a baseline composition during low flow periods. A reservoir with elevated chloride and sulfate concentrations impacts the slow-response drip site with each recharge event, but does not similarly

  10. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.

    2017-12-01

    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  11. On the sensitivity of Land Surface Temperature estimates in arid irrigated lands using MODTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2015-11-29

    Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface moisture status. However, in order to retrieve the ET with an accuracy approaching 10%, LST should be retrieved to within 1 ◦C or better, disregarding other elements of uncertainty. The removal of atmospheric effects is key towards achieving a precise estimation of LST and it requires detailed information on water vapor. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) onboard Landsat 8 captures data in two long wave thermal bands with 100-meter resolution. However, the US Geological Survey has reported a calibration problem of TIRS bands caused by stray light, resulting in a higher bias in one of its two bands (4% in band 11, 2% in band 10). Therefore, split-window algorithms for the estimation of LST might not be reliable. Our work will focus on the impact of using different atmospheric profiles (e.g. weather prediction models, satellite) for the estimation of LST derived from MODTRAN by using one of the TIRS bands onboard Landsat 8 (band 10). Sites with in-situ measurements of LST are used as evaluation sources. Comparisons between the measured LST and LST derived based on different atmospheric profile inputs to MODTRAN are carried out from 2 Landsat-overpass days (DOY 153 and 160 2015). Preliminary results show a mean absolute error of around 3 ◦C between in-situ and estimated LST over two different crops (alfalfa and carrot) and bare soil.

  12. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  13. Fate of nitrogen for subsurface drip dispersal of effluent from small wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, R. A.; Hills, D. J.; Tchobanoglous, G.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2011-09-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation systems apply effluent from onsite wastewater systems in a more uniform manner at a lower rate than has been possible with other effluent dispersal methods. The effluent is dispersed in a biologically active part of the soil profile for optimal treatment and where the water and nutrients can be utilized by landscape plants. Container tests were performed to determine the fate of water and nitrogen compounds applied to packed loamy sand, sandy loam, and silt loam soils. Nitrogen removal rates measured in the container tests ranged from 63 to 95% despite relatively low levels of available carbon. A Hydrus 2D vadose zone model with nitrification and denitrification rate coefficients calculated as a function of soil moisture content fit the container test results reasonably well. Model results were sensitive to the denitrification rate moisture content function. Two-phase transport parameters were needed to model the preferential flow conditions in the finer soils. Applying the model to generic soil types, the greatest nitrogen losses (30 to 70%) were predicted for medium to fine texture soils and soils with restrictive layers or capillary breaks. The slow transport with subsurface drip irrigation enhanced total nitrogen losses and plant nitrogen uptake opportunity.

  14. Impact of Irrigation Method on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Jha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved irrigation use efficiency is an important tool for intensifying and diversifying agriculture in Nepal, resulting in higher economic yield from irrigated farmlands with a minimum input of water. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation method (furrow vs. drip on the productivity of nutritious fodder species during off-monsoon dry periods in different elevation zones of central Nepal. A split-block factorial design was used. The factors considered were treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation method. Commonly used local agronomical practices were followed in all respects except irrigation method. Results revealed that location effect was significant (p < 0.01 with highest fodder productivity seen for the middle elevation site, Syangja. Species effects were also significant, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Irrigation method impacted green biomass yield (higher with furrow irrigation but both methods yielded similar dry biomass, while water use was 73% less under drip irrigation. Our findings indicated that the controlled application of water through drip irrigation is able to produce acceptable yields of nutritionally dense fodder species during dry seasons, leading to more effective utilization and resource conservation of available land, fertilizer and water. Higher productivity of these nutritional fodders resulted in higher milk productivity for livestock smallholders. The ability to grow fodder crops year-round in lowland and hill regions of Nepal with limited water storages using low-cost, water-efficient drip irrigation may greatly increase livestock productivity and, hence, the economic security of smallholder farmers.

  15. Response of Cotton to Irrigation Methods and Nitrogen Fertilization: Yield Components, Water-Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Uptake, and Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient crop use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is critical from economic and environmental viewpoints, especially under irrigated conditions. Cotton yield parameters, fiber quality, water- and N-use efficiency responses to N, and irrigation methods in northern Syria were evaluated. Field trials were conducted for two growing seasons on a Chromoxerertic Rhodoxeralf soil. Treatments consisted of drip fertigation, furrow irrigation, and five different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg N /ha). Cotton was irrigated when soil moisture in the specified active root depth was 80% of the field capacity as indicated by the neutron probe. Seed cotton yield was higher than the national average (3,928 kg/ha) by at least 12% as compared to all treatments. Lint properties were not negatively affected by the irrigation method or N rates. Water savings under drip fertigation ranged between 25 and 50% of irrigation water relative to furrow irrigation. Crop water-use efficiencies of the drip-fertigated treatments were in most cases 100% higher than those of the corresponding furrow-irrigated treatments. The highest water demand was during the fruit-setting growth stage. It was also concluded that under drip fertigation, 100 -150 N kg/ha was adequate and comparable with the highest N rates tested under furrow irrigation regarding lint yield, N uptake, and recovery. Based on cotton seed yield and weight of stems, the overall amount of N removed from the field for the drip-fertigated treatments ranged between 101-118 kg and 116-188 N/ha for 2001 and 2002, respectively. The N removal ranged between 94-113 and 111-144 kg N/ha for the furrow-irrigated treatments for 2001 and 2002, respectively. (author)

  16. Nitrogen Management Affects Nitrous Oxide Emissions under Varying Cotton Irrigation Systems in the Desert Southwest, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Kevin F; Hunsaker, Doug J; Williams, Clinton F; Thorp, Kelly R; Rockholt, Sharette M; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Venterea, Rodney T; Barnes, Edward M

    2018-01-01

    Irrigation of food and fiber crops worldwide continues to increase. Nitrogen (N) from fertilizers is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) in irrigated cropping systems. Nitrous oxide emissions data are scarce for crops in the arid western United States. The objective of these studies was to assess the effect of N fertilizer management on NO emissions from furrow-irrigated, overhead sprinkler-irrigated, and subsurface drip-irrigated cotton ( L.) in Maricopa, AZ, on Trix and Casa Grande sandy clay loam soils. Soil test- and canopy-reflectance-based N fertilizer management were compared. In the furrow- and overhead sprinkler-irrigated fields, we also tested the enhanced efficiency N fertilizer additive Agrotain Plus as a NO mitigation tool. Nitrogen fertilizer rates as liquid urea ammonium nitrate ranged from 0 to 233 kg N ha. Two applications of N fertilizer were made with furrow irrigation, three applications under overhead sprinkler irrigation, and 24 fertigations with subsurface drip irrigation. Emissions were measured weekly from May through August with 1-L vented chambers. NO emissions were not agronomically significant, but increased as much as 16-fold following N fertilizer addition compared to zero-N controls. Emission factors ranged from 0.10 to 0.54% of added N fertilizer emitted as NO-N with furrow irrigation, 0.15 to 1.1% with overhead sprinkler irrigation, and emissions due to addition of Agrotain Plus to urea ammonium nitrate was inconsistent. This study provides unique data on NO emissions in arid-land irrigated cotton and illustrates the advantage of subsurface drip irrigation as a low NO source system. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  18. Long-term Effects of Different Irrigation Methods with Treated Wastewater on Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Najafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is increasing due to an increased demand for water resources in different parts of the world. Almost 70% of deviated water from rivers and pumped groundwater is used for agriculture. If wastewater is used for irrigation in agriculture, then the amount of discharged water from natural sources will be decreased and the flow of wastewater to the environment and its ensuing pollution will be prevented. Using wastewater in applications such as irrigation of agricultural lands has caused an increase of some exchangeable ions, salts and suspended solids (organic and mineral in the soil and has significantly affected physical, chemical and biological features. Therefore, paying attention to the soil health is important during use of wastewater when it is the source of irrigation water. In such cases, there will be some worries about pollution of harvested products, contact of farm workers with pathogenes and environmental issues in the farm. In these conditions, attention to irrigation methods along with consideration of environmental protection standards is important. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of treated wastewater (TW irrigation were tested on some chemical properties of soil for three years under five different irrigation treatments. The treatments were as follows: surface furrow irrigation (FI, surface drip irrigation (SDI, subsurface drip irrigation in 30 cm depth (SDI30, subsurface drip irrigation in 60 cm depth (SDI60 and bubbler irrigation (BI. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected from a depth of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm in order to measure the electrical conductivity (EC, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, organic matter (OM and calcium carbonate equivalent (CaCO3. Results and Discussion: According to the results of soil analysis, the soil became more saline than the beginning by applying the treatments. Generally, in two plots of urban and

  19. What is the Optimal Water Productivity Index for Irrigated Grapevines? Case of 'Godello' and 'Albariño' cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Martínez, Emma M.; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2015-04-01

    Different studies have tackled the conceptual and terminological study of crop water use indicators, mainly water use efficiency (WUE) and water productivity (WP) (Pereira et al., 2012; Scheierling et al., 2014). The high number of stakeholders, working about agricultural water use (hydrology and hydrogeology, civil and irrigation engineering, agronomy and crop physiology, economics), has hindered the real improvement thereof, from a multidisciplinary perspective. For example, Flexas et al. (2010) reviewed the future improvements in water use efficiency in grapevines, from a physiological approach. In this study, two grapevine cultivars, priority in Galicia (Spain): 'Godello' (DO Valdeorras) and 'Albariño' (DO Rías Baixas, two locations), was assessed in relation to four water productivity index, focus on irrigation systems, agronomy and crop physiology aspects, during a wet year (2012). All WP index was referred to farm yield level (kg ha-1); where the denominator applied to WPTWU, include all components of soil water balance; to WPTWUfarm, introduced rainfall and irrigation depth; to WPIrrig, only irrigation depth applied; and to WPT, crop transpiration was used. In the last index, SIMDualKc model was used to partitioning crop evapotranspiration and cover crop transpiration. Different ranges of values was obtained for both cultivars, WPTWUfarm was higher in cv 'Godello' than in cv 'Albariño', 3.8 and 0.9 kg m-3 respectively. Average value to WPIrrig has showed: 17.6 kg m-3 for cv 'Albariño' and 15.5 kg m-3 for cv 'Godello', due to a reduction of 60% of irrigation depth in DO Rías Baixas. However, for both locations, higher WPIrrig was obtained to drip irrigation system versus subsurface drip irrigation. WPT showed a different tendency, rain-fed 'Godello' and surface drip irrigation 'Albariño' treatments obtained higher values (6.8 and 3.6 kg m-3), with higher WPT to cv 'Godello' for all treatments versus 'Albariño'. Results had showed that water

  20. Using Cotton Model Simulations to Estimate Optimally Profitable Irrigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauget, S. A.; Leiker, G.; Sapkota, P.; Johnson, J.; Maas, S.

    2011-12-01

    In recent decades irrigation pumping from the Ogallala Aquifer has led to declines in saturated thickness that have not been compensated for by natural recharge, which has led to questions about the long-term viability of agriculture in the cotton producing areas of west Texas. Adopting irrigation management strategies that optimize profitability while reducing irrigation waste is one way of conserving the aquifer's water resource. Here, a database of modeled cotton yields generated under drip and center pivot irrigated and dryland production scenarios is used in a stochastic dominance analysis that identifies such strategies under varying commodity price and pumping cost conditions. This database and analysis approach will serve as the foundation for a web-based decision support tool that will help producers identify optimal irrigation treatments under specified cotton price, electricity cost, and depth to water table conditions.

  1. Optimizing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas: an integrated modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Yong; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid agricultural areas, groundwater (GW) is an important water source of irrigation, in addition to surface water (SW). Groundwater pumping would significantly alter the regional hydrological regime, and therefore complicate the water resources management process. This study explored how to optimize the conjunctive use of SW and GW for agricultural irrigation at a basin scale, based on integrated SW-GW modeling and global optimization methods. The improved GSFLOW model was applied to the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in China. Two surrogate-based global optimization approaches were implemented and compared, including the well-established DYCORS algorithm and a new approach we proposed named as SOIM, which takes radial basis function (RBF) and support vector machine (SVM) as the surrogate model, respectively. Both temporal and spatial optimizations were performed, aiming at maximizing saturated storage change of midstream part conditioned on non-reduction of irrigation demand, constrained by certain annual discharge for the downstream part. Several scenarios for different irrigation demand and discharge flow are designed. The main study results include the following. First, the integrated modeling not only provides sufficient flexibility to formulation of optimization problems, but also makes the optimization results more physically interpretable and managerially meaningful. Second, the surrogate-based optimization approach was proved to be effective and efficient for the complex, time-consuming modeling, and is quite promising for decision-making. Third, the strong and complicated SW-GW interactions in the study area allow significant water resources conservation, even if neither irrigation demand nor discharge for the downstream part decreases. Under the optimal strategy, considerable part of surface water division is replaced by 'Stream leakage-Pump' process to avoid non-beneficial evaporation via canals. Spatially

  2. Effects of Aquifer Development and Changes in Irrigation Practices on Ground-Water Availability in the Santa Isabel Area, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo

    2003-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer in the area of Santa Isabel is located within the South Coastal Plain aquifer of Puerto Rico. Variations in precipitation, changes in irrigation practices, and increasing public-supply water demand have been the primary factors controlling water-level fluctuations within the aquifer. Until the late 1970s, much of the land in the study area was irrigated using inefficient furrow flooding methods that required large volumes of both surface and ground water. A gradual shift in irrigation practices from furrow systems to more efficient micro-drip irrigation systems occurred between the late 1970s and the late 1980s. Irrigation return flow from the furrow-irrigation systems was a major component of recharge to the aquifer. By the early 1990s, furrow-type systems had been replaced by the micro-drip irrigation systems. Water levels declined about 20 feet in the aquifer from 1985 until present (February 2003). The main effect of the changes in agricultural practices is the reduction in recharge to the aquifer and total irrigation withdrawals. Increases in ground-water withdrawals for public supply offset the reduction in ground-water withdrawals for irrigation such that the total estimated pumping rate in 2003 was only 8 percent less than in 1987. Micro-drip irrigation resulted in the loss of irrigation return flow to the aquifer. These changes resulted in lowering the water table below sea level over most of the Santa Isabel area. By 2002, lowering of the water table reversed the natural discharge along the coast and resulted in the inland movement of seawater, which may result in increased salinity of the aquifer, as had occurred in other parts of the South Coastal Plain. Management alternatives for the South Coastal Plain aquifer in the vicinity of Santa Isabel include limiting groundwater withdrawals or implementing artificial recharge measures. Another alternative for the prevention of saltwater intrusion is to inject freshwater or treated sewage

  3. Root Development of Transplanted Cotton and Simulation of Soil Water Movement under Different Irrigation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat and cotton are the main crops grown on the North China Plain (NCP. Cotton is often transplanted after the winter wheat harvest to solve the competition for cultivated land between winter wheat and cotton, and to ensure that both crops can be harvested on the NCP. However, the root system of transplanted cotton is distorted due to the restrictions of the seedling aperture disk before transplanting. Therefore, the investigation of the deformed root distribution and water uptake in transplanted cotton is essential for simulating soil water movement under different irrigation methods. Thus, a field experiment and a simulation study were conducted during 2013–2015 to explore the deformed roots of transplanted cotton and soil water movement using border irrigation (BI and surface drip irrigation (SDI. The results showed that SDI was conducive to root growth in the shallow root zone (0–30 cm, and that BI was conducive to root growth in the deeper root zone (below 30 cm. SDI is well suited for producing the optimal soil water distribution pattern for the deformed root system of transplanted cotton, and the root system was more developed under SDI than under BI. Comparisons between experimental data and model simulations showed that the HYDRUS-2D model described the soil water content (SWC under different irrigation methods well, with root mean square errors (RMSEs of 0.023 and 0.029 cm3 cm−3 and model efficiencies (EFs of 0.68 and 0.59 for BI and SDI, respectively. Our findings will be very useful for designing an optimal irrigation plan for BI and SDI in transplanted cotton fields, and for promoting the wider use of this planting pattern for cotton transplantation.

  4. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  5. Sensitivity of Landsat 8 Surface Temperature Estimates to Atmospheric Profile Data: A Study Using MODTRAN in Dryland Irrigated Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2017-09-26

    its impact on the TIR bands. Days with high AOD content (AOD > 0.5) in the evaluation study seem to consistently underestimate in-situ LSTs by 1-2 K, suggesting that MODTRAN is unable to accurately simulate the aerosol conditions for the TIR bands. Comparisons between available in-situ and Landsat 8 derived LST illustrate a range of seasonal and land surface dynamics and provide an assessment of retrieval accuracy throughout the nine-month long study period. In terms of the choice of atmospheric profile, when excluding the in-situ data, results show a mean absolute range of between 1.2 K to 1.8 K over bare soil and 3.3 K to 3.8 K over alfalfa for the different meteorological forcing, with the AIRS profile providing the best reproduction over the studied arid land irrigation region.

  6. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  7. Nitrate pollution and its transfer in surface water and groundwater in irrigated areas: a case study of the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fadong; Liu, Qiang; Suzuki, Yoshimi

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation projects have diverted water from the lower reaches of the Yellow River in China for more than 50 years and are unique in the world. This study investigated the effect of irrigation practices on the transfer and regional migration mechanisms of nitrate (NO3(-)) in surface water and groundwater in a Yellow River alluvial fan. Hydrochemical indices (EC, pH, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), and HCO(3-)) and stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δD) were determined for samples. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were performed to identify the sources of water constituents. Kriging was employed to simulate the spatial diffusion of NO3(-) and stable isotopes. Our results demonstrated that the groundwater exhibited more complex saline conditions than the surface water, likely resulting from alkaline conditions and lixiviation. NO3(-) was detected in all samples, 87.0% of which were influenced by anthropogenic activity. The NO3(-) pollution in groundwater was more serious than the common groundwater irrigation areas in the North China Plain (NCP), and was also slightly higher than that in surface water in the study area, but this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In addition, the groundwater sites with higher NO3(-) concentrations did not overlap with the spatial distribution of fertilizer consumption, especially in the central and western parts of the study area. NO3(-) distributions along the hydrogeological cross-sections were related to the groundwater flow system. Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic evidences indicate that surface water-groundwater interactions influence the spatial distribution of NO3(-) in the Piedmont of South Taihang Mountains.

  8. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Hua

    2004-01-01

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847])

  9. A new drip infusion monitoring system - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2010-01-01

    A new drip infusion solution monitoring system has been developed for hospital and care facility use. The system detects and counts the fall of each drip chamber drop of fluid. Two non-contacting copper foil electrodes are used; one wrapped around the infusion supply polyvinyl-chloride tube under the solution bag and another around the drip chamber, forming two capacitors. Drip infusion fluids have electrical conductivity, so the capacitors are a series-connected electrical impedance. A thirty kHz sine wave is applied to the infusion tube electrode and the capacity-coupled signal on the drip chamber electrode is the transducer output. When an infusion fluid drop is forming, its diameter, and therefore drip chamber capacitance, are increasing, causing change in the output signal. When the drop reaches sufficient diameter to fall, the drip chamber capacitance decreases, which briefly returns the output signal to baseline. Therefore, the growth, fall, and drip rate of each drop of fluid can be detected from the output signal waveform. The system also has advantages of being insensitive to ambient light type and intensity, and detects when the infusion bag is empty.

  10. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of the Drip Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua

    2004-09-16

    The repository design includes a drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]) that provides protection for the waste package both as a barrier to seepage water contact and a physical barrier to potential rockfall. The purpose of the process-level models developed in this report is to model dry oxidation, general corrosion, and localized corrosion of the drip shield plate material, which is made of Ti Grade 7. This document is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The models developed in this report are used by the waste package degradation analyses for TSPA-LA and serve as a basis to determine the performance of the drip shield. The drip shield may suffer from other forms of failure such as the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or stress corrosion cracking (SCC), or both. Stress corrosion cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]). Hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield material is discussed in ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169847]).

  11. Multipurpose floating platform for hyperspectral imaging, sampling and sensing of surface water sources used in irrigation and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to design, construct, and test the self-propelled aquatic platform for imaging, multi-tier water sampling, water quality sensing, and depth profiling to document microbial content and environmental covariates in the interior of irrigation ponds and reservoirs. The plat...

  12. Representation of solid and nutrient concentrations in irrigation water from tailwater recovery systems by surface water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailwater recovery (TWR) systems are being implemented on agricultural landscapes to create an additional source of irrigation water. Existing studies have sampled TWR systems using grab samples; however, the applicability of solids and nutrient concentrations in these samples to water being irrigat...

  13. Correlation between E. coli levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens in surface irrigation water: Establishment of a sampling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Hernandez, Natalia; Gil, Maria I; Ivanek, Renata; Allende, Ana

    2018-01-01

    To establish the association between microbial indicators and the presence of foodborne pathogens in irrigation water, Escherichia coli was enumerated using two quantification methods (plate counts and PMA-qPCR) and presence/absence of pathogenic microorganisms, including five strains from the Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7, O26, O103, O111 and O145) and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. The results confirmed that surface water can be considered a microbial hazard when used for irrigation. The levels of viable E. coli were very similar to those of cultivable E. coli, except for irrigation water obtained from water reservoirs. Comparison between the E. coli counts in samples positive and negative for the presence of pathogenic bacteria for the evaluated water sources identified E. coli level of 2.35 log cfu/100 mL as a cut-off able to correctly predict positive and negative samples with 93% sensitivity and 66% specificity, respectively. Thus, for the samples with levels of E. coli under 2.35 log cfu/100 mL (e.g., 2.24 log cfu/100 mL) there was a 90% probability that the samples were not contaminated with pathogenic microorganism in locations with similar prevalence. E. coli levels in irrigation water were affected by the ambient temperature confirming that water source and climate conditions should be taken into account by growers when designing a sampling program and the frequency of the monitoring to make a better and more efficient use of their resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    enhanced photosynthetic assimilation rates and plant growth to a great extent. David et al. (2003 showed that subsurface drip irrigation versus other irrigation methods reduced evaporation and improved growth and production in peach trees. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the results from this research show that recycled water could be a promising resource for irrigation of olive trees and acted as a source of nutrients and irrigation water.In addition, SLI irrigation system is more efficient in irrigation of olive trees when compared to surface irrigation system and proved beneficial for olive growth.

  15. Hydrologic Analysis of Ungauged Catchments For The Supply of Water For Irrigation On Railway Embankment Batters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y.; Nissen, D.

    Water has been identified as a key component to the success of grass establishment on railway embankment batters (side slope) within Central Queensland, Australia, to control erosion. However, the region under study being semi-arid experiences less than 600 mm average annual rainfall occurring on about 60 days of the year. Culverts and bridges are integral part of railway embankments. They are used to cross water courses, be it an ephemeral creek or just a surface runoff path. Surface runoff through an ungauged railway embankment culvert is diverted to a temporary excavated pond located at the downstream side of the hydraulic structure. The temporary excavated pond water is used to feed an automated drip irrigation system, with solar as a source of energy to drive a pump. Railway embankment batter erosion remediation is timed in the wet season when irrigation is used to supplement natural rainfall. Hydrologic analysis of ungauged catchments for sizing the temporary excavated pond is presented. It is based on scenarios of runoff coefficient and curve number, and mass curve (Rippl diagram). Three years of continuous rainfall data (1997/1998 -1999/2000) were used to design a pond. The performance of the designed pond was evaluated in a field experiment during the next wet season (2000/2001). It supplied adequate water for irrigation as predicted by the hydrologic analysis during the grass establishment. This helped to achieve 100% grass cover on the railway embankment batter within 12 weeks. The proposed irrigation system has been demonstrated t o be feasible and cost effective.

  16. Dual permeability soil water dynamics and water uptake by roots in irrigated potato fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolezal, Frantisek; Zumr, David; Vacek, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Water movement and uptake by roots in a drip-irrigated potato field was studied by combining field experiments, outputs of numerical simulations and summary results of an EU project (www.fertorganic.org). Detailed measurements of soil suction and weather conditions in the Bohemo-Moravian highland...

  17. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  18. Enhancing the Productivity of High Value Crops and Income Generation with Small-Scale Irrigation Technologies in Kenya. Final Report 2009-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    The project was implemented by the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute in collaboration with key irrigation stakeholders including Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA), G North and Son limited, Kenya Irrigation and Drainage Association (KIDA), Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Greenbelt Movement and Ministry of Agriculture. The objective was to develop and pilot test appropriate irrigation systems (methods and related water/nutrient management practices) for small-scale farmers for increasing yield, quality of high value crops and farmers income to improved livelihood. The project built on earlier work on low head drip irrigation in Kenya involving KARI led promotion among the peri-urban and rural communities. The Equipment used include Neutron Probe Hydroprobe, Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizers (5% a.e), drip irrigation kits, MoneyMaker irrigation pumps, Pessl imetos weather station, SDEC tensimetre and tensiometers), Venturi injectors, among others.

  19. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority relevance in the management of surface waters for the irrigation purposes of the Rieti Plain (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Martarelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Rieti Plain is crowned by calcareous-marly reliefs (Rieti and Sabini Mountains and represents an intra-Apennine Plio- Quaternary alluvial and fluvial-lacustrine basin formed after multistage extensional tectonic processes. This territory presents huge amounts of water resources (Velino and Turano rivers; several springs; Lungo and Ripasottile lakes, relics of ancient Lacus Velinus. The aquifers occurring in the reliefs often have hydraulic continuity with the Rieti plain groundwater (detected at about 1-4 m below ground surface, which has general flow directions converging from the reliefs to the lake sector. Hydraulic exchanges between groundwater and surface waters are variable in space and time and play a relevant role for groundwater resource distribution. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority was instituted in 1929 by Royal Decree N. 34171-3835, and integrates eight former authorities, dating the end of 1800s. It contributes to maintain the reclamation actions in the Rieti Plain, which started with the realization of the Salto and Turano artificial reservoirs, along two left tributaries of Velino River. The hydroelectric energy production purposes struggle with the reclamation and flood mitigation activities in the plain. The Land Reclamation Authority actuated the Integrated Reclamation General Project through the realization of pumping stations, connection and drainage canals, forestry-hydraulic works, rural roads, movable dams along Velino River and irrigation ditches. The irrigation activities, granted by the derivation of 5 m3/s from the Velino River, are carried out through 194,000 hectares within the territory of 42 municipalities of the Rieti Province. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority contributes to the irrigation needs and to the environmental and hydrogeological protection and monitoring.

  20. Ring Irrigation System (RIS design through customer preference representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent days, analyzing water used or water permeation automatically through the soil moisture has been raised as the interesting topic. Proposed in this research is the ring irrigation system (RIS which is introduced as an alternative channel for emitters that drip water directly onto the soil at the plant’s root zone where the soil conditions before and after watering can be quickly detected by the sensors. This RIS can be used for the potted plant, green house, or other small farm fields. Product design and development (PDD is applied in this research for assisting the designer to understand and create the RIS prototype properly according to the customer’s requirements where the suggested functions obtained will be added and tested.

  1. A remote drip infusion monitoring system employing Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hikaru; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Maki, Hiromichi; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a remote drip infusion monitoring system for use in hospitals. The system consists of several infusion monitoring devices and a central monitor. The infusion monitoring device employing a Bluetooth module can detect the drip infusion rate and an empty infusion solution bag, and then these data are sent to the central monitor placed at the nurses' station via the Bluetooth. The central monitor receives the data from several infusion monitoring devices and then displays graphically them. Therefore, the developed system can monitor intensively the drip infusion situation of the several patients at the nurses' station.

  2. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  3. Study of the hydrological functionning of the irrigated crops in the southern mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabba, Said; Jarlan, Lionel; Er-Raki, Salah; Le Page, Michel; Merlin, Olivier; Ezzahar, Jamal; Kharrou, Mohamed H.

    2015-04-01

    In southern Mediterranean region water consumption has significantly increased over the last decades, while available water resources are becoming increasingly scarce. In Morocco, irrigation is highly water demanding: it is estimated that 83% of available resources is dedicated to agriculture with efficiency lower than 50% (Plan Bleu, 2009). In the semiarid region of Tensift Al-Haouz (center of Morocco), typical of southern Mediterranean basin, crop irrigation is inevitable for growth and development. In this situation, and to preserve water resources, the rational management of water irrigation is necessary. This objective is one of the priorities of the research program SudMed (Chehbouni et al., 2008) and the Joint Mixed Laboratory TREMA (Khabba et al. 2013), installed in Marrakech since 2002 and 2011, respectively. In these two programs, the scientific approach adopted, to monitor water transfers in soil-plant-atmosphere system, is based on the synergistic use of the mathematical modeling, the satellite observations and in situ data. Thus, during the decade 2002-2012, 17 experiments on dominant crops in the region (wheat, olive, orange, sugar beet, apricot) were performed. In these experiments, the different terms of water and heat balances exchanged between land surface and atmosphere are controlled with different devices. Results showed that the water losses by evaporation can reach 28% of water inputs for the flooding irrigation site and are obviously lower (about 18-20 % on average) for the drip irrigation sites. Concerning the deep percolation, results are surprising: water losses for the drip irrigation are in the range 29-41% of water input, whereas theses losses are between 26 and 31% for flooding irrigation. Concerning the modeling component, several models ranging from the most simple (FAO-56) to the most complex (i.e. SVAT: Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer) were implemented to estimate the spatio-temporal variability of ET. The results showed that

  4. Impact of fog-drip versus fog immersion on leaf-level function of Bishop pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguskas, S. A.; Still, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Fog-water is known to be an important water source to plants in coastal, Mediterranean climates because it augments plant available water several months after the last winter rain, when conditions are otherwise warm and dry. While fog-drip to the soil surface is the most obvious contribution of fog to the water budget of an ecosystem, recent studies provide convincing evidence that foliar absorption of fog water is also possible. The focus of our research was to assess the relative importance of fog-drip and fog immersion on the photosynthetic capacity and gas exchange rates of a coastal pine species, Bishop pine (Pinus muricata, D.Don), a drought sensitive species restricted to the fogbelt of coastal California and offshore islands. We conducted a greenhouse study where we manipulated fog water inputs to potted Bishop pine saplings during a three-week dry-down period. Fifteen saplings were randomly assigned one of three treatments: 1) fog-drip and fog-immersion, 2) fog immersion alone, and 3) no fog water inputs. We artificially generated nighttime fog events using an ultrasonic device, which produces fog droplets. Given that the canopy architecture varied between saplings, we standardized the amount of fog-drip plants received by preventing direct fog drip from the canopy, and instead added the average amount of fog water that would have fallen from each canopy. To detect changes in soil moisture, we installed volumetric soil moisture probes in each pot at 2 and 10 cm depth. The plant response variables measured were photosynthetic capacity and maximum gas exchange rates of sapling trees. Our results show that plants which received both fog-drip and fog immersion sustained higher gas exchange rates and photosynthetic capacity through the dry-down period compared to trees in other treatment groups. Trees that received only fog immersion had lower rates of gas exchange and lower photosynthetic capacity relative to trees that received both fog-drip and fog immersion

  5. Intercomparison of four remote-sensing-based energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and water stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, J.; Boulet, G.; Jarlan, L.; Fieuzal, R.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Ezzahar, J.; Er-Raki, S.; Bigeard, G.; Merlin, O.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Watts, C.; Chehbouni, G.

    2014-03-01

    Instantaneous evapotranspiration rates and surface water stress levels can be deduced from remotely sensed surface temperature data through the surface energy budget. Two families of methods can be defined: the contextual methods, where stress levels are scaled on a given image between hot/dry and cool/wet pixels for a particular vegetation cover, and single-pixel methods, which evaluate latent heat as the residual of the surface energy balance for one pixel independently from the others. Four models, two contextual (S-SEBI and a modified triangle method, named VIT) and two single-pixel (TSEB, SEBS) are applied over one growing season (December-May) for a 4 km × 4 km irrigated agricultural area in the semi-arid northern Mexico. Their performance, both at local and spatial standpoints, are compared relatively to energy balance data acquired at seven locations within the area, as well as an uncalibrated soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model forced with local in situ data including observed irrigation and rainfall amounts. Stress levels are not always well retrieved by most models, but S-SEBI as well as TSEB, although slightly biased, show good performance. The drop in model performance is observed for all models when vegetation is senescent, mostly due to a poor partitioning both between turbulent fluxes and between the soil/plant components of the latent heat flux and the available energy. As expected, contextual methods perform well when contrasted soil moisture and vegetation conditions are encountered in the same image (therefore, especially in spring and early summer) while they tend to exaggerate the spread in water status in more homogeneous conditions (especially in winter). Surface energy balance models run with available remotely sensed products prove to be nearly as accurate as the uncalibrated SVAT model forced with in situ data.

  6. Effect of irrigation and fertilization on the distribution and fate of nitrogen in greenhouse tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Xing, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. 'Jinpeng 10') was conducted to investigate the fate and transport of nitrogen using different methods of irrigation and fertilization. Three treatments were designed with two irrigation methods (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and two fertilizer application methods (fertigation and conventional fertilization). Tomato fruit yield and biomass in the fertigation treatment were significantly higher than those in the conventional fertilization treatment. The highest total uptake of nitrogen by tomato was obtained with drip fertigation and increased significantly in the conventional fertilization and CK treatments. With an increase in nitrate uptake by the fruit, the uptake of the leaf nitrogen also increased in both years of the study. The distribution of the soil nitrate-N concentration tended to be symmetrical along the center of the emitter for drip irrigation and the furrows. The nitrate-N concentration in the CK treatment was 2.85-fold higher than that in the drip fertigation treatment. The proportion of nitrogen uptake of the total nitrogen input varied from 25.38% and 53.73% in two consecutive years, and the residual nitrogen in the fertigation treatment was 48.20% and 44.64% lower than that in the CK treatment in the same two respective years. (author)

  7. Intelligent irrigation performance: evaluation and quantifying its ability for conserving water in arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghobari, Hussein M.; Mohammad, Fawzi S.

    2011-12-01

    Intelligent irrigation technologies have been developed in recent years to apply irrigation to turf and landscape plants. These technologies are an evapotranspiration (ET)-based irrigation controller, which calculates ET for local microclimate. Then, the controller creates a program for loading and communicating automatically with drip or sprinkler system controllers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the new ET sensors in ability to irrigate agricultural crops and to conserve water use for crop in arid climatic conditions. This paper presents the case for water conservation using intelligent irrigation system (IIS) application technology. The IIS for automating irrigation scheduling was implemented and tested with sprinkle and drip irrigation systems to irrigate wheat and tomato crops. Another irrigation scheduling system was also installed and operated as another treatment, which is based on weather data that retrieved from an automatic weather station. This irrigation control system was running in parallel to the former system (IIS) to be control experiments for comparison purposes. However, this article discusses the implementation of IIS, its installation, testing and calibration of various components. The experiments conducted for one growing season 2009-2010 and the results were represented and discussed herein. Data from all plots were analyzed, which were including soil water status, water consumption, and crop yield. The initial results indicate that up to 25% water saving by intelligent irrigation compared to control method, while maintaining competing yield. Results show that the crop evapotranspiration values for control experiments were higher than that of ET-System in consistent trend during whole growth season. The analysis points out that the values of the two treatments were somewhat close to each other's only in the initial development stages. Generally, the ET-System, with some modification was precise in

  8. Hot rotating fp shell Fe isotopes near proton drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2003-01-01

    F p shell 44-58 Fe nuclei have been investigated in highly excited state using the statistical theory of hot rotating nucleus. Effects of thermal and rotational excitation at drip line nuclei are studied

  9. 2003 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference Breached Drip Shield Test and Validation of a TSPA Sub-Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, Z.P.; Kam, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) represents the system of human engineered barriers in the isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. It is designed to complement and enhance the natural barriers to isolate and prevent the transport of radionuclides into the surrounding environment. The transport mechanism most frequently postulated for radionuclides is liquid water flux that has penetrated the EBS through corrosion breaches in the drip shield and waste packages (WP). A water flux-splitting model is used to predict flow through WP and drip shield breaches and is documented in the ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction''. A future revision of the ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' will be one component of the total system performance assessment--license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. The flux-splitting model is conservative based on the following assumptions: (1) Drip impact occurs without a loss of water mass. (2) Dripping flux falls exactly at the crown of the drip shield as opposed to different locations on the curved surface, which will effect splashing and flow patterns. (3) The flux passing through a drip shield patch is proportional to the ratio of the length of the penetration in the axial direction to the total axial length of the drip shield. In this assumption all fluid that drips and flows from the drip shield crown toward a penetration will be collected if the axial locations of the source and patch coincide. (4) The potential for evaporation is ignored. Because of these conservatisms, the current version of the flux-splitting model is incapable of accounting for water that has been splashed from the impact location, the deviation of water paths (rivulets) from the axis of impact, and water loss due to evaporation. This paper will present the results of a series of breached drip shield tests used to collect empirical data for the initial validation and further

  10. Abstraction of Models for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Mon

    2001-08-29

    This analyses and models report (AMR) was conducted in response to written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). The purpose and scope of this AMR is to review and analyze upstream process-level models (CRWMS M and O 2000a and CRWMS M and O 2000b) and information relevant to pitting and crevice corrosion degradation of waste package outer barrier (Alloy 22) and drip shield (Titanium Grade 7) materials, and to develop abstractions of the important processes in a form that is suitable for input to the WAPDEG analysis for long-term degradation of waste package outer barrier and drip shield in the repository. The abstraction is developed in a manner that ensures consistency with the process-level models and information and captures the essential behavior of the processes represented. Also considered in the model abstraction are the probably range of exposure conditions in emplacement drifts and local exposure conditions on drip shield and waste package surfaces. The approach, method, and assumptions that are employed in the model abstraction are documented and justified.

  11. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  12. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  13. Soil salinity and water productivity of carrot-millet system as influenced by irrigation regimes with saline water in arid regions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia - El Mokh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted for three years to determine the effects of irrigation regimes with saline water (3.6 dS/m on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of carrot and millet under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Carrot and millet were grown during fall-winter and summer seasons on a sandy soil and surface and drip-irrigated with well water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. For three years, a complete randomized block design with four replicates was used to evaluate five irrigation regimes. Irrigation regimes consisted in water replacements of cumulated ETc at levels of 100% (SWB100, full irrigation, 80% (DI-80, 60% (DI-60, when the readily available water in SWB100 treatment is depleted, deficit irrigation during ripening stage (SWB100-DI60 and farmer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers. The results showed that soil salinity was significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Higher soil salinity was maintained in the root zone with DI-60 and farmer irrigation treatments than full irrigation (SWB100. SWB100-DI60 and DI-80 treatments resulted also in low ECe values. Soil salinity was kept within acceptable limits for the growth of the crops grown in the rotation when SWB100, SWB100-DI60 and DI-80 strategies were employed. The rainfalls received during fall-winter and spring periods were effective in leaching salts from the soil profile. During the three year period, carrot and millet yield was highest for the SWB100 full treatment, (29.5, 28.7 and 26.8 t/ha for carrot and 27.2, 28.3 and 26.9 q/ha for millet although no significant differences were observed with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (SWB100-DI60. However, the DI-80 and DI-60 deficit irrigation treatments caused significant reductions in carrot and millet yields through a reduction in roots number and weight, panicle number, kernel number and weight in comparison with SWB100. The farmer

  14. Is irrigation with partial desalinated seawater a policy option for saving freshwater in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multsch, Sebastian; Alquwaizany, Abdulaziz S.; Lehnert, Karl-H.; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    12 dS m-1. Using sprinkler or drip irrigation systems the WFcrop decreases of about 20 % and 34 %, respectively. It can be shown that a salinity level larger than 9 dS m-1 increases leaching water requirement of wheat over proportional and that a salinity level of 9 dS m-1 reduces cost for irrigation water by about 11 % in comparison to the irrigation with nearly fresh water quality of 1 dS m-1. A trade-off analyses reveals that making desalinated seawater use profitable, cost need to be reduced below 0.2 m-3 for sprinkler and drip irrigation and even below 0.1 m-3 for widespread used surface irrigation systems. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia, for funding the research Project No. 33-900 entitled 'Technology for desalinated seawater use in agriculture'.

  15. Irrigation management of muskmelon with tensiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The production and consumption of muskmelon have been increasing (MELO et al., 2014, thus, information on techniques for higher field productions are necessary. The experiment described in the present work was conducted in the IFTM, Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the muskmelon yield under different soil water tensions. A randomized block experimental design was used with five treatments (soil water tensions of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kPa and four replications (plots of two rows of 14 plants. Two harvests were carried out and the fruit yield, stem diameter, number of fruits per plant and efficiency of water use were evaluated. Irrigation was performed with a drip irrigation system and managed with tensiometry. The cultivar Bonus n.2 was used with spacing of 1.0 x 0.6 m. The data of the variables were subjected to the F test and regression test. The treatments showed statistical differences in number of fruits per plant, fruit weight (fruit yield and stem diameter. The highest fruit yield found was 1.36 kg fruit-1 and the highest water use efficiency was 4.08 g mm-1 with irrigation for a soil water tension of 10 kPa. The lowest fruit yield was found with irrigation for a soil water tension of 50 kPa.

  16. Avaliação do uso de fertilizantes organominerais e químicos na fertirrigação do cafeeiro irrigado por gotejamento Evaluation of use of chemical and organic fertilizers through fertigation in drip irrigated coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. T. Fernandes

    2007-04-01

    amounts of N, P2O5 and K2O were maintained for the different treatments. Irrigation control was accomplished by using a automatic weather station. After four harvests, it may be concluded that the sources of fertilizers used, in fertigation and in conventional application in the soil, did not show significant effects in coffee yield. Regarding the final quality of the coffee, appraised by the sensorial test in different treatments. No significant differences were verified among the treatments.

  17. Regulated deficit irrigation effects on yield, fruit quality and vegetative growth of Navelina citrus trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasque, M.; Granero, B.; Turegano, J. V.; Gonzalez-Altozano, P.

    2010-07-01

    An experiment on regulated deficit irrigation (Redi) was performed during two growing seasons (2007 and 2008) in a drip-irrigated orchard of Navelina/Cleopatra in Senyera (Valencia, Spain). Two RDI treatments, where water application was reduced to 40% and 60% of the irrigation dose (ID), were carried out during the initial fruit enlargement phase (Stage II, 17th July to 2nd September). The rest of the year they were irrigated at 110% ID. These treatments were compared with a control, where irrigation was applied without restriction during the whole year at 110% ID. The ID was obtained from the evapotranspiration data, as well as from the characteristic variables of drip irrigation for the specific experimental orchard. The effects of the treatments on yield, fruit quality, and vegetative growth are discussed in relation to tree water status (midday stem water potential, ?st). Minimal ?st values reached in the treatment with the highest stress intensity were -1.71 and - 1.60 MPa in 2007 and 2008 respectively. These ?st values reached as a consequence of the water reduction in the RDI summer treatments applied in this study did not affect yield or fruit quality, allowing water savings between 16% and 23%. In conclusion, water restriction during summer, and once June drop has finished, favours the better use of water resources by Navelina citrus trees, achieving an increase of water use efficiency (between 14% and 27% in this case), provided that an appropriate irrigation in autumn allows for tree recovery. (Author) 39 refs.

  18. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy

    2017-05-01

    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  19. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  20. Assessment of large aperture scintillometry for large-area surface energy fluxes over an irrigated cropland in north India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danodia, Abhishek; Sehgal, V. K.; Patel, N. R.; Dhakar, R.; Mukherjee, J.; Saha, S. K.; Kumar, A. Senthil

    2017-07-01

    Amount of available net energy and its partitioning into sensible, latent and soil heat fluxes over an agricultural landscape are critical to improve estimation of evapotranspiration and modelling parse (ecosystem modelling, hydrological and meteorological modelling). Scintillometry is a peculiar and robust methodology to provide structure parameter of refractive index and energy balance. Scintillometer has proven for assessment of sensible and latent heat flux, which is based on the principle of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Scintillometer has been installed in the agricultural experimental farm of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, with a spatial covering path length of 990 m of irrigated and cultivable agricultural landscape. This paper discusses the patterns of energy flux as diurnal and seasonal basis at scintillometer path which was mainly covered by maize in Kharif and wheat in Rabi season during a crop growing seasons of 2014-2015. The biophysical parameters (leaf area, soil moisture, crop height) were recorded at a temporal resolution of fortnight basis along the path length at usual sampling distance. The Bowen ratio value for both Kharif and Rabi season was 0.76 and 0.88, respectively by scintillometer. Leaf area index had a significantly positive correlation with latent heat flux (R2 =0.80) while a significantly negative correlation with sensible heat flux (R2{=}-0.79). Soil moisture had a significant negative correlation with sensible heat flux (R2{=}-0.68). The average evapotranspiration from crop land was 1.58 mm d^{-1} and total evapotranspiration was 543 mm over the 12 months study period. This study defines that large aperture scintillometer is robust instrument which can evaluate energy flux over a large area with a long term series time domain. Moreover, further studied should be conducted to use in crop simulation modelling, developing of new model with calibration and validation of remote sensing energy balance

  1. Determination of optimal irrigation rates of agricultural crops under consideration of soil properties and climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakli Kruashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of increasing water shortage, further development of irrigated agriculture production is impossible without improving the methods of cultivation of agricultural crops, primarily irrigation technology. In 2015 the experiment have been conducted on the territory of irrigation farming area of village Tamarisi (Marneuli Municipality, according to which comprehensive study of local climatic and soil conditions were conducted. Received data were used for computation crop water requirements for tomato and melon under the different irrigation treatments. Obtained results have shown the possibility of water use efficiency and obtaining sufficiently high yields of crops that participated in the experiment that became possible in a case of usage of drip irrigation technology in combination with plastic mulch.

  2. Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Alakananda, T.; Apoorva, M. L.; Ramesh, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms” (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources’ (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

  3. Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato affected by different N fertigation and irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Three years of field experiments were carried out to explore the response of potato dry matter production, accumulated intercepted photosynthetic active radiation (Aipar) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) to five N levels providing 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 kg N ha−1 and three drip irrigation...... strategies, which were full, deficit and none irrigation. Results showed that, irrespective of years, dry matter production and Aipar were increased by prolonged N fertigation, even though N fertigation was carried out from middle to late growing season. The highest total and tuber dry matter and accumulated...... fertilization occurred when most N was applied early in the growing season and the latest N fertilization should be applied no later than 41–50 days after emergence. Deficit irrigation, which received ca.70% of irrigation applied to full irrigation, did not reduce radiation interception and radiation use...

  4. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  5. Effects of Timber Harvest on Fog Drip and Streamflow, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Keppeler

    2007-01-01

    Within the second-growth redwood forest of the Caspar Creek watershed, fog drip was measured in 1998 at 12 sites where heavy fog drip was expected. The following year, two one-ha plots were each instrumented with six randomly sited 1.35 m2 fog-drip collectors and one additional collector in a nearby clearcut. Fog-drip totals were highly variable...

  6. Near-surface distributions of soil water and water repellency under three effluent irrigation scemes in a blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thwaites, L.A.; Rooij, de G.H.; Salzman, S.; Allinson, G.; Stagnitti, F.; Carr, R.; Versace, V.; Struck, S.; March, T.

    2006-01-01

    Water repellent soils are difficult to irrigate and susceptible to preferential flow, which enhances the potential for accelerated leaching to groundwater of hazardous substances. Over 5 Mha of Australian soil is water repellent, while treated municipal sewage is increasingly used for irrigation.

  7. Field trials show the fertilizer value of nitrogen in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased regulatory activity designed to protect groundwater from degradation by nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N is focusing attention on the efficiency of agricultural use of nitrogen (N. One area drawing scrutiny is the way in which growers consider the NO3-N concentration of irrigation water when determining N fertilizer rates. Four drip-irrigated field studies were conducted in the Salinas Valley evaluating the impact of irrigation water NO3-N concentration and irrigation efficiency on the N uptake efficiency of lettuce and broccoli crops. Irrigation with water NO3-N concentrations from 2 to 45 milligrams per liter were compared with periodic fertigation of N fertilizer. The effect of irrigation efficiency was determined by comparing an efficient (110% to 120% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc and an inefficient (160% to 200% of ETc irrigation treatment. Across these trials, NO3-N from irrigation water was at least as efficiently used as fertilizer N; the uptake efficiency of irrigation water NO3-N averaged approximately 80%, and it was not affected by NO3-N concentration or irrigation efficiency.

  8. Effect of Deficit irrigation on the Productivity of Processing Potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.M.; Atallah, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    The area under potatoes in Lebanon has extended to over 15.000 ha to form 17% of irrigated arable land. More farmers rely on processing varieties for prices and marketing reasons. Studies focused so far on irrigation and fertilization of table potatoes. The current recommendations indicate excess N fertilizer input exceeding 600 kg N/ha in the form of compound fertilizers. Potato is irrigated with macro sprinklers with a water input reaching 850 mm/season. Water mismanagement and shortage eventually influence the yield quantity and quality of processing potatoes. Therefore, deficit irrigation is an important water saving tool regarding the increasing pressure on limited water resources in the dry areas. Information on potato response to water stress imposed at different crop stages is available. The aim of this paper is to study the impact of continuous deficit irrigation imposed from the stage of maximum plant development-flowering stage until physiological maturity on the performance of processing potato (Santana) and water and fertilizer use efficiency. Fertilizer placement and irrigation were done through fertigation using drip system. A neutron probe was used to assess water consumption from the soil. The 15 N methodology was used to follow the N recovery as affected by water deficit

  9. Irrigation Requirement Estimation using MODIS Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling; A Case Study for Oran, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, L.; Imhoff, M.L.; Franks, S.

    2008-01-01

    Human demand for food influences the water cycle through diversion and extraction of fresh water needed to support agriculture. Future population growth and economic development alone will substantially increase water demand and much of it for agricultural uses. For many semi-arid lands, socio-economic shifts are likely to exacerbate changes in climate as a driver of future water supply and demand. For these areas in particular, where the balance between water supply and demand is fragile, variations in regional climate can have potentially predictable effect on agricultural production. Satellite data and biophysically-based models provide a powerful method to quantify the interactions between local climate, plant growth and water resource requirements. In irrigated agricultural lands, satellite observations indicate high vegetation density while the precipitation amount indicates otherwise. This inconsistency between the observed precipitation and the observed canopy leaf density triggers the possibility that the observed high leaf density is due to an alternate source of water, irrigation. We explore an inverse process approach using observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), climatological data, and the NASA's Simple Biosphere model, SiB2, to quantitatively assess water demand in a semi-arid agricultural land by constraining the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium (balance between vegetation and prevailing local climate) and nonequilibrium (water added through irrigation) conditions. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated lands vary from equilibrium conditions is related to the amount of irrigation water used. We added water using two distribution methods: The first method adds water on top of the canopy and is a proxy for the traditional spray irrigation. The second method allows water to be applied directly into the soil layer and serves as proxy for drip irrigation. Our approach indicates that over

  10. Gas transfer between the atmosphere and irrigated sugarcane plantation sites under different rainfall in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Crow, S. E.; Mudd, R. G.; Youkhana, A.; Nullet, M.; Nakahata, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sugarcane plantation land cover is increasing in area in Brazil, South Asia and the Pacific Islands because of the growing demand for sugar and biofuel production. While a large portion of sugarcane cultivated in Brazil is rain-fed and experiences drought influences on gas exchange, sugarcane in Hawai'i is thought to be buffered from drought effects because it is drip irrigated. Knowledge about carbon sequestration and evapotranspiration rates is fundamental both for the prediction of sugar and biofuel production and for water resource management for the large plantations. To understand gas transfer under spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, we investigated the leaf- soil- and stand-scale gas transfer processes at two irrigated sugarcane plantation study sites in Hawai'i with contrasting rainfall. Gas and energy transfers were monitored using eddy covariance systems for a full- and later half- crop cycle. Leaf ecophysiological traits were measured for stands of different ages to evaluate the effects of stand age on gas transfer. Carbon sequestration rates (Fc) showed a strong relationship with solar radiation with small differences between sites. Latent heat flux expressed as the evapotranspiration rates (ET) also had a strong relationship with solar radiation, but showed seasonality due to variations in biological control (surface conductance) and atmospheric evaporative demand. The difference in ET and its responses to environments was less clear partly buffered by the differences in the stand age and seasons. The stable Fc-solar radiation relationship despite the variation in surface conductance was partly due to the saturation of net photosynthetic rates with intercellular CO2 concentration and the low sensitivity of net photosynthesis to variations in surface conductance in sugarcane with the C4 photosynthesis pathway. The response of gas transfer to periodic irrigation, rainfall and age-related changes in leaf ecophysiological traits will be

  11. An example of treated waste water use for soil irrigation in the SAFIR project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Jovanovic, Z.; Stikic, R.; Blagojevic, S.; Kloppmann, W.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops on soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). In this context, the European FP6 SAFIR project (Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management) investigates the geochemical quality of the root zone soil, knowing it is the main transit and storage compartment for pollutants. The type of reaction (sorption, co-precipitation…) and the reactive mineral phases also determine the availability of trace elements for the plant and determine the passage towards crops and products. Reactions of the infiltrating water with the soil solid phase are important for the solute cycling, temporary fixation and remobilisation of trace pollutants. Therefore the soil water quality was directly or indirectly assessed. Direct measurements of soil water were made through porous cups. The experiments were carried out during the growing season of 2006, 2007 and 2008 in a vegetable commercial farm, located at 10 km north of Belgrade. The soil is silty clayey, and developed on alluvial deposits. It was classified as humogley according to USDA Soil Classification. The climate of the field side is a continental type with hot and dry summers and cold and rainy winters. As in the rest of Serbia, farm suffers from water deficits during the main growing season. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of first year irrigation; the soil quality was then monitored throughout three years. Soil sampling

  12. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation...

  13. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  14. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  15. Root system stabilization of sugarcane fertigated by subsurface drip using a minirhizotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Barros de Oliveira Silva, Andre Luiz; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    To improve the efficiency of water use in irrigation practices and to provide information for modeling the knowledge of plants root system becomes necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies about the root system of sugarcane were performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system, which enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the time required for stabilization of the root system growth of sugarcane cultivar IACSP-5000 around the access tube in which images were captured. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The fertigation was applied by a subsurface drip system.. The soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution were monitored through solution extractor. Two access tubes with 1.05 m length were used, with 7 days difference between installations. The images were captured at 110, 128, 136, 143 and 151 days after harvest cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon), with the Root Scanner CI-600 ™ and were analyzed the number of roots and root length in each layer in different depths in the soil profile by software RootSnap! ™. The results show that the highest rates of increase in the number and length of roots were observed in the first 27 days. Absolute growth rates of up to 81 mm day-1 and 38 mm day-1 were presented in 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer respectively. The number of roots stabilized from 27 days after installation of the tube, while

  16. Evaluation of land suitability for main irrigated crops in the North-Western Region of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Hassanien Abd El-Aziz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability analysis can help to achieve sustainable crop production with a proper use of the natural resources. The current study was carried out on the soils of north-western area of Libya to assess their morphological, physical and chemical properties and their suitability for growing irrigated crops. The studied area lies between latitudes 32° 30′ 00.9" and 32° 57′ 34.2'' N and between longitudes 11° 35′ 08.4" and 11° 45′ 09.2" E. Two suitability methods (Sys &Verhey and Storie methods were used to assess the land suitability of this area. According to Sys and Verhye method, the soils of the studied area varied in the suitability for irrigation between highly suitable (S1 to marginally suitable (S3. However, according to modified Storie index method the soils productivity, ranged from excellent (grade 1 for agriculture to non-agricultural (grade 6. The modified Storie index method was more effective in assessing the land suitability of this area. The drip irrigation system was also more suitable than surface irrigation method for most of the soils of the studied area. The indeces of soil suitability rating and percentage for growing alfalfa, sorghum, barley, maize, millets, wheat and safflower were higher compared to those for growing soybean, sunflower and sesame. Onion and green pepper crops were moderately suitable to be grown in 42% of the soils of the studied area while the other vegetables were not suitable to be grown in most of the soils of the studied area. The evaluated fruit trees could be arranged according to the soil suitability rating and percentage in the order of date palm > olives > guava > citrus > banana. The results also revealed that the studied area has a good potential to produce the selected crops under irrigation provided that the water requirements for these crops are met. The main limiting factors for land suitability for growing crops are soil texture, soil depth, calcium carbonate, alkaline p

  17. A comprehensive guide for designing more efficient irrigation systems with respect to application control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddam, Issam; Schuetze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    The worldwide water scarcity problems are expected to aggravate due to the increasing population and the need to produce more food. Irrigated agriculture is considered the highest consumer of fresh water resources with a rate exceeds 70% of global consumption. Consequently, an improvement in the efficiency of all irrigation methods, such as furrow or drip irrigation, becomes more necessary and urgent. Therefore, a more precise knowledge about soil water distribution in the root zone and the water balance components is required. For this purpose and as a part of the SAPHIR project (Saxonian Platform for high Performance Irrigation), a 2D simulation- based study was performed with virtual field conditions. The study investigates the most important design parameters of many irrigation systems, such as irrigation intensity and duration, and shows there influence on the water distribution efficiency. Furthermore, three main soil textures are used to test the impact of the soil hydraulic properties on irrigation effectiveness. A numerous number of irrigation scenarios of each irrigation system was simulated using HYDRUS 2D. Thereafter, the results were digitally calculated, compiled and made available online in the so called "Irrigation Atlases". The irrigation atlases provide graphical results of the soil moisture and pressure head distributions in the root zone. Moreover, they contain detailed information of the water balance for all simulated scenarios. The most studies evaluate the irrigation water demands on local, regional or global scales and for that an efficient water distribution is required. In this context, the irrigation atlases can serve as a valuable tool for the implementation of planned irrigation measures.

  18. Water use and crop coefficient of subsurface drip-irrigated lettuce in Central Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Aureo S. de; Martin, Edward C.; Slack, Donald C.; Pegelow, Edward J.; Folta, Allen D.

    2005-01-01

    P. 37-44,Jan./Mar. Um estudo conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Maricopa (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W), pertencente à Universidade do Arizona, USA, nos anos agrícolas de 1996/97 e 1997/98, objetivou determinar o uso de água e derivar coeficientes de cultura (Kc) da alface de cabeça irrigada por gotejamento subsuperficial e cultivada em lisímetros de pesagem intermitente. O período de medições, expresso em graus-dia acumulados, variou de 480 a 1100 ºC-dia em 96/97 e de 439 a 1098 ºC-dia em 97/...

  19. Dissolved organic carbon, total carbon and nitrogen in pomegranate cultivation under drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past six years, pomegranate (POM) cultivation has become a popular commercial crop in San Joaquin Valley, California. The rising demand for this permanent crop is primarily due to POM juice high nutritional and antioxidants properties. In addition, it has been found POM trees are drought tole...

  20. Measurement of N2O emissions from drip irrigated soils in a pomegranate orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture is a major contributor to greenhouse gas N2O emissions. Developing a sustainable crop production system should consider minimizing N2O emissions and increasing N use efficiency. Pomegranate is a new emerging crop in the San Joaquin Valley of California because of the fruits value in pro...

  1. [Estimated nitrogen nutrition index based on the hyperspectral for wheat of drip irrigation under mulch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wan-ying; Li, Shao-kun; Wang, Ke-ru; Jin, Xiu-liang; Wang, Fang-yong; Chen, Bing; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Chun-hua

    2012-05-01

    The accurate wheat management needs a reasonable nitrogen application, and it is one of the key measures for real-time and quantitatively monitoring of nitrogen status to gain the higher yield of wheat. In the present study, two field experiments were conducted with different nitrogen stress and wheat cultivars, the relationship was analyzed between spectral parameters and the partial factor productivity from applied N (PFPn), and the estimating model was established for PFP, in the growth stages of wheat. The result indicated that there was a highly significant correlation between the PFP, and GreenNDVI at jointing, the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.6404, the estimating model of PFPn was established, and the root mean square errors (RMSE) was 0.4597. The result indicated that the PFPn can be effectively estimated by using spectral parameters.

  2. Bountiful crop with every drop: Using drip irrigation to increase yields and conserve water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Cauliflower, broccoli, sweet pepper and many other nutritious vegetables used to be expensive in Mauritius. The island’s climate and traditional agricultural practices were not suitable for cultivating several high value vegetable crops, while importing them to the island state was prohibitively costly due to the long distances involved. This has all changed over the past few years, and local farms are now starting to supply the country’s growing population and burgeoning tourism industry with fresh, locally grown produce.

  3. Soil microbial diversity, site conditions, shelter forest land, saline water drip-irrigation, drift desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengzhong; Lei, Jiaqiang; Li, Shengyu; Xu, Xinwen

    2013-10-01

    Soil microbes in forest land are crucial to soil development in extreme areas. In this study, methods of conventional culture, PLFA and PCR-DGGE were utilized to analyze soil microbial quantity, fatty acids and microbial DNA segments of soils subjected to different site conditions in the Tarim Desert Highway forest land. The main results were as follows: the soil microbial amount, diversity indexes of fatty acid and DNA segment differed significantly among sites with different conditions (F 84%), followed by actinomycetes and then fungi (Desert Highway shelter-forest promoted soil biological development; however, for enhancing sand control efficiency and promoting sand development, we should consider the effects of site condition in the construction and regeneration of shelter-forest ecological projects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Kwon, Joong Ho; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the amino acid contents of seafood cooking drips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Yun Joo; Kim, Jae Hun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong Ho [Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong Hyun; Chun, Byung Soo [Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyung Nationol University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the change of structural and free amino acids contents of cooking drips from Hizikia fusiformis (HF) and Enteroctopus dofleini (ED) were investigated. The main structural amino acids were glutamic acid in HF cooking drip, and glutamic acid, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid in ED cooking drip, respectively. The concentrations of structural amino acids in both cooking drip extracts were decreased by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 10 kGy. Especially, the sulfur-containing amino acids were severely degraded by the irradiation. In free amino acid, ED cooking drip extract was contained the larger amount of free amino acid than that of HF cooking drip affecting its rich flavor. The free amino acid concentrations of cooking drips extracts from HF and ED were both increased by irradiation, and it explained the higher protein content by the irradiation.

  6. Soil capacitance sensors and stem dendrometers. Useful tools for irrigation scheduling of commercial orchards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet, L.; Ferrer, P.; Castel, J. R.; Intrigliolo, D. S.

    2010-07-01

    Irrigation scheduling is often performed based on a soil water balance, where orchard evapotranspiration is estimated using the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) times the crop coefficient (Kc). This procedure, despite being widely spread, has some uncertainties. Because of this, plant and soil water status monitoring could be alternatively or complementarity used to schedule irrigation. The usefulness of capacitance probes was evaluated during several seasons in large irrigation districts where irrigation practices were changed over years from the ETo * Kc model to the analysis of soil water status trend. This area corresponds to drip irrigated orchards planted with citrus, peach, nectarine and persimmon. Around 25% less irrigation was applied with no substantial yield penalty when the information provided by capacitance probes was correctly applied for irrigation management. On the other hand, the usefulness of stem dendrometers for continuously monitoring plant water status was evaluated in a young plum experimental orchard. Over two years, irrigation was scheduled using exclusively trunk shrinkage via the signal intensity approach by means of a baseline equation previously obtained in the orchard. Results showed that it was not always possible to schedule irrigation based on the trunk shrinkage signal intensity due to the temporal changes in the reference values that occurred as trees aged. Overall, results obtained are discussed in terms of the possible extrapolation at field level of both capacitance probes and stem dendrometers. Advantages and drawbacks of each technique are analyzed and discussed. (Author) 34 refs.

  7. A risk-based approach for developing standards for irrigation with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troldborg, Mads; Duckett, Dominic; Allan, Richard; Hastings, Emily; Hough, Rupert L

    2017-12-01

    A generalised quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is developed to assess the potential harm to human health resulting from irrigation with reclaimed water. The QRA is conducted as a backward calculation starting from a pre-defined acceptable risk level at the receptor point (defined as an annual infection risk of 10 -4 for pathogens and by reference doses (RfD) for chemical hazards) and results in an estimate of the corresponding acceptable concentration levels of the given hazards in the effluent. In this way the QRA is designed to inform the level of water treatment required to achieve an acceptable risk level and help establish reclaimed water quality standards. The QRA considers the exposure of human receptors to microbial and chemical hazards in the effluent through various exposure pathways and routes depending on the specific irrigation scenario. By considering multiple pathways and routes, a number of key aspects relevant to estimating human exposure to recycled water can be accounted for, including irrigation and crop handling practices (e.g., non-edible vs edible, spray vs. drip, withholding time) and volumes consumed (directly vs indirectly). The QRA relies on a large number of inputs, many of which were found to be highly uncertain. A possibilistic approach, based on fuzzy set theory, was used to propagate the uncertain input values through the QRA model to estimate the possible range of hazard concentrations that are deemed acceptable/safe for reclaimed water irrigation. Two scenarios were considered: amenity irrigation and irrigation of ready-to-eat food crops, and calculations were carried out for six example hazards (norovirus, Cryptosporidium, cadmium, lead, PCB118 and naphthalene) and using UK-specific input values. The human health risks associated with using reclaimed water for amenity irrigation were overall deemed low, i.e. the calculated acceptable concentration levels for most of the selected hazards were generally far greater than levels

  8. Teores de nutrientes na alface irrigada com água residuária aplicada por sistemas de irrigação Nutrients levels in lettuce irrigated with wastewater applied by irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Sandri

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea.A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the seedling

  9. Control with anionic polyacrylamide of runoff and erosion induced by irrigation on Alentejo soils: surface and sprinkler irrigation (center pivot Controlo do escorrimento e da erosão em solos do Alentejo com poliacrilamidas aniónicas: rega de superfície e por aspersão (rampas rotativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Mediterranean soils in Southern Portugal, now being converted to irrigation, were under rain-fed agriculture, in areas of sensitive soils, eroded or with high potential for erosion. The particular characteristic of these soils is its rapidly permeable A-horizon overlaying a B-horizon of very low permeability. Such fact leads to low infiltration of the applied irrigation water and, consequently high limitations to irrigation. Therefore for these soils to be under irrigation it is important to adopt soil and water conservation practices and correctly manage the irrigation systems, hoping that these practices will favour agriculture yields and preserve the environment by reducing runoff, preventing soil loss and enhancing the infiltration of applied water. One of the strategies that can be used to achieve such goals and also help to improve the soil physical properties is the use of soil conditioners, particularly the anionic polyacrylamide (PAM. Encouraging results have been obtained in the irrigated soils of Southern Portugal with their use being able to stabilize soil surface structure and curb irrigation-induced erosion in surface irrigation as well as in sprinkler irrigated fields. Since 1997, studies of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM application have been conducted on field experiments, under surface irrigation and on contour and slopping furrows, and also with pressurized irrigation (center pivot and sprinkler simulators, as well as in more controlled laboratory studies, to test the PAM usefulness in controlling erosion and enhancing infiltration of irrigated soils. Several methodologies of applying PAM have been tested (direct application to the soil surface, in water suspension and later applied to furrows and pressurized systems through the irrigation water, and in multiple and/or single applications as well as several application rates and timing. The results have been conclusive and in most of the studied soils PAM application

  10. Olive oil qualitative parameters after orchard irrigation with saline water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoudaki, Evagelia; Williams, Mark; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Harwood, John

    2009-02-25

    The effect of irrigation with saline water on oil quality was studied in the two olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivars Koroneiki and Mastoidis, which are the main varieties grown extensively on the island of Crete. Plants (5 years old) were grown outdoors in containers, filled with freely drained light soil. Four treatments were applied, differing in the NaCl added to the irrigation water as follows: 0 (control) 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl. Drip irrigation was applied regularly, during the dry season (from April to October). Plants in all treatments were irrigated when the soil-water potential reached -40 kPa at a depth of 30 cm. Data showed that increased NaCl levels in irrigation water resulted in a decrease in oil content in the fruits and an increase in total phenols and their secoiridoid derivatives in olive oils from harvested fruits. Furthermore, changes also took place in the composition of fatty acids and triacylglycerol molecular species. The extent of alterations was different for the two varieties and greater in cv. Koroneiki. This fitted with agronomic evidence that cv. Koroneiki is less saline-tolerant than cv. Mastoidis.

  11. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    highly degrade the environment, applied without practices of soil and water conservation. Such production systems are associated with a variety of environmental problems, such as soil erosion, the extensive pumping of groundwater, the partial obstruction of surface drainage to form artificial lakes, the contamination of groundwater, among others. The environmental impacts generated by all these problems assume a greater importance due to the complete absence of monitoring the continuous lowering of the water table and the changes in water quality. We consider that the main management strategies for developing sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in this area should be based on monitoring water use efficiency, increasing water availability in the root zone and also preventing runoff, leaching and evaporation of water from the soil. Therefore, techniques were applied as green manures with legumes without incorporation of the biomass, non-mechanized and curve-level soil preparation, planting in level, soil cover with crop residues, fertirrigation with solid fertilization of low value, the conduct of tomato especially supported by plastic string attached to a trellis, drip irrigation, and monitoring soil water potential (SWP) with Watermak sensors. At the end of the tomato cycle, water use efficiency and the productivity were compared at 8 micro-plots installed in the 3 studied production systems: conventional tillage (CT-H), minimum tillage (MT-H), both with "wetting irrigation with garden hose", and no-tillage with drip irrigation (NT-D). For each production system, soil physical properties were characterized and soil water potential (SWP) and soil temperature were continuously monitored at different depths (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm), as well as the total water volume used in each irrigation. In parallel, we also compared the development of the root system and the final productivity for each one of the three production systems. The results obtained in this

  12. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  13. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  14. The influence of irrigation on growth and yield of plum trees cv. Valor grafted on Myrobalan and Wangenheim Prune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Treder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The climate of Poland is characterized by a high variability, especially regarding the sum of precipitation and its distribution in the season. Dry years occur periodically. Repeated negative climatic water balance for vegetative season is insufficient for proper growth and development of plants. In this experiment we studied the effectiveness of drip irrigation in plum tree cultivation. The study was carried out since 1990 to 1998 in the orchard of the Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skiemiewice. Trees of plum cv. Valor, grafted on Myrobalan and Wangenheim Prune seedlings were planted in the spring 1990 at a distance 4,2 m x 2,9 m. Influence of drip irrigation on trees growth changes, yield and fruit quality depended on weather conditions in the individual years. Generally, drip irrigation significantly increased the tree growth, yield and fruit quality. Higher positive effect of irrigation was obtained for plums grafted on Wangenheim Prune seedlings than on Myrobalan seedlings. Drought conditions clearly decreases the average weight of the fruit of the trees grafted on Wangenheim Prune. The rootstocks had no effect on fruit size.

  15. Effect of Different Alternate Irrigation Strategies using Saline and Non-Saline Water on Corn Yield, Salinity and Moisture Distribution in Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kiani

    2017-01-01

    -saline water in every other row, respectively; T5 and T6= fixed and variable deficit irrigation with non-saline water in every other rows, respectively and T7= full irrigation with saline water. To create the desired water salinity (8 dS/m, non-saline well water (1.5 dS/m and drainage water (20–35 dS/m were blended in different proportions. A T-tape drip irrigation system (20 m in length was used in the field experiment. Results and Discussion: In general, corn yield in 2013 was about 1270 kg ha-1 higher than in 2012. From the weather records it can be seen that the second year was drier than the first year. Yield analysis showed that deficit irrigation treatments (T2, T5 & T6 and also alternate salinity treatments (T3 & T4 did not significantly difference. In other words, the deficit irrigation management had no effect on yield. Corn yield in T3 and T4 with 50% of saved fresh water was just reduced to 7 and 1 % of T1, respectively. As a result, comparing treatments T3 and T4 with full irrigation have shown that treatments T3 and T4 are the best option. Comparison of moisture distribution in deficit irrigation treatments showed the highest water content in surface and deep layers was related to the treatments T6 and T2, respectively. The distribution of salinity in the soil profile for treatments T3 and T4 showed that after two years of irrigation with saline water, there is the possibility of use saline water for corn production, but drainage and leaching of soil will need to maintain sustainability. Conclusion: Naturally, in water scarce areas that use some strategic management such as deficit irrigation or saline water use, there is available arable farmland to further develop the irrigated area, and thereby increase total production. According to the results of the two-years where there was a shortage of water to meet crop water requirement and saline water was not available, the use of deficit irrigation managements as described in this study can save fresh water

  16. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their con