WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface downward longwave

  1. Observational Characterization of the Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation at the Surface in the City of São Paulo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Oliveira, A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Ferreira, M.J.; Mlakar, P.; Boznar, M.Z.; Escobedo, J.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the seasonal and diurnal variations of downward longwave atmospheric irradiance (LW) at the surface in São Paulo, Brazil, using 5-min-averaged values of LW, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation observed continuously and simultaneously from 1997 to 2006 on a

  2. Comprehensive assessment of parameterization methods for estimating clear-sky surface downward longwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yamin; Cheng, Jie; Liang, Shunlin

    2018-02-01

    Surface downward longwave radiation (SDLR) is a key variable for calculating the earth's surface radiation budget. In this study, we evaluated seven widely used clear-sky parameterization methods using ground measurements collected from 71 globally distributed fluxnet sites. The Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method was also introduced to obtain a multi-model ensemble estimate. As a whole, the parameterization method of Carmona et al. (2014) performs the best, with an average BIAS, RMSE, and R 2 of - 0.11 W/m2, 20.35 W/m2, and 0.92, respectively, followed by the parameterization methods of Idso (1981), Prata (Q J R Meteorol Soc 122:1127-1151, 1996), Brunt and Sc (Q J R Meteorol Soc 58:389-420, 1932), and Brutsaert (Water Resour Res 11:742-744, 1975). The accuracy of the BMA is close to that of the parameterization method of Carmona et al. (2014) and comparable to that of the parameterization method of Idso (1981). The advantage of the BMA is that it achieves balanced results compared to the integrated single parameterization methods. To fully assess the performance of the parameterization methods, the effects of climate type, land cover, and surface elevation were also investigated. The five parameterization methods and BMA all failed over land with the tropical climate type, with high water vapor, and had poor results over forest, wetland, and ice. These methods achieved better results over desert, bare land, cropland, and grass and had acceptable accuracies for sites at different elevations, except for the parameterization method of Carmona et al. (2014) over high elevation sites. Thus, a method that can be successfully applied everywhere does not exist.

  3. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  4. Correlation between long-wave downward radiation and greenhouse gases in the region of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    友寄, 友造; 清野, 光弘; 島袋, 知巳; Tomoyose, Tomozo; Seino, Mitsuhiro; Shimabukuro, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    We have studied correlation between long-wave downward radiation and greenhouse gases(CO_2 and H_2O)in the region of Japan. We found that the seasonal variation of water vapor are strongly correlated to that of long-wave downward radiation while the CO_2 concentration are uncorrelated to the long-wave downward radiation.The long-wave upperward radiations of H_2O and CO_2 are discussed by compairing the collision relaxation time and the re-radiation relaxation time of molecules.

  5. Predicting Downward Longwave Radiation for Various Land Use in All-Sky Condition: Northeast Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimate of the surface longwave radiation is important for the surface radiation budget, which in turn controls evaporation and sensible heat fluxes. Regional land use changes can impact local weather conditions; for example, heterogeneous land use patterns and temporal changes in atmospheric circulation patterns would affect air temperature and water vapor pressure, which are more commonly used as inputs in existing models for estimating downward longwave radiation (LWd. In this study, first, we analyzed the cloud cover and land use covers impacts on LWd. Next, LWd on all-sky conditions were developed by using the existing land use-adapted model and cloud cover data from the region of Saint Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD, FL. The results show that factors, such as, seasonal effects, cloud cover, and land use, are of importance in the estimation of LWd and they cannot be ignored when developing a model for LWd prediction. The all-sky land use-adapted model with all factors taken into account performs better than other existing models statistically. The results of the statistical analyses indicated that the BIAS, RMSE, MAE, and PMRE are −0.18 Wm−2, 10.81 Wm−2, 8.00 Wm−2, and 2.30%; −2.61 Wm−2, 14.45 Wm−2, 10.64 Wm−2, and 3.19%; −0.07 Wm−2, 10.53 Wm−2, 8.03 Wm−2, and 2.27%; and −0.62 Wm−2, 13.97 Wm−2, 9.76 Wm−2, and 2.87% for urban, rangeland, agricultural, and wetland areas, respectively.

  6. Cloudy-sky Longwave Downward Radiation Estimation by Combining MODIS and AIRS/AMSU Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Shi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Longwave downward radiation (LWDR) is another main energy source received by the earth's surface except solar radiation. Its importance in regulating air temperature and balancing surface energy is enlarged especially under cloudy-sky. Unfortunately, to date, a large number of efforts have been made to derive LWDR from space under only clear-sky conditions leading to difficulty in utilizing space-based LWDR in most models due to its spatio-temporal discontinuity. Currently, only few studies focused on LWDR estimation under cloudy-sky conditions, while their global application is still questionable. In this paper, an alternative strategy is proposed aiming to derive high resolution(1km) cloudy-sky LWDR by fusing collocated satellite multi-sensor measurements. The results show that the newly developed method can work well and can derive LWDR at better accuracy with RMSEbig difference from each other in the LWDR spatio-temporal distribution pattern and magnitude. The difference between these products can still up to 60W/m2 even at the monthly scale, implying large uncertainties in current LWDR estimations. Besides the higher accuracy of the proposed method, more importantly, it provides unprecedented possibilities for jointly generating high resolution global LWDR datasets by connecting the NASA's Earth Observing System-(EOS) mission (MODIS-AIRS/AMSU) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership-(NPP) mission (VIIRS-CrIS/ATMS). Meanwhile, the scheme proposed in this study also gives some clues for multiple data fusing in the remote sensing community.

  7. Towards a surface radiation climatology: Retrieval of downward irradiances from satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetz, Johannes

    Methods are reviewed for retrieving the downward shortwave (0.3-4 μm) and longwave (4-100 μm) irradiances at the earth's surface from satellites. Emphasis is placed on elucidating the physical aspects relevant to the satellite retrieval. For the shortwave irradiance an example of a retrieval is presented. The shortwave retrieval is facilitated by a close linear coupling between the reflected radiance field at the top of the atmosphere and the surface irradiance. A linear relationship between planetary albedo and surface irradiance does also account properly for cloud absorption, since cloud absorption and albedo are linearly related. In the longwave the retrieval is more difficult since only atmospheric window radiances at the top of the atmosphere can bear information on the near-surface radiation field. For the remainder of the longwave spectrum the radiation regimes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface are decoupled. More than 80% of the clear-sky longwave flux reaching the surface is emitted within the lowest 500 m of the atmosphere. In cloudy conditions the radiation fields at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere are entirely decoupled. Cloud contributions to the surface irradiance are important within the atmospheric window (8-13 μm) and the relative contribution increases in drier climates. Summaries are presented of various techniques devised for both the solar and longwave surface irradiances. A compilation of reported standard errors of shortwave techniques in comparison with ground measurements yields median values of about 5% and 10% for monthly and daily mean values, respectively. Standard errors for the longwave are of the order of 10-25 W m -2. Reported biases are typically of the order of 5 W m -2. For the shortwave retrieval there are fairly good prospects to obtain monthly mean estimates with the requested accuracy of about 10 W m -2 over regional scale areas. The inherent problems of the longwave still entails improvements

  8. Longwave surface radiation over the globe from satellite data - An error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. K.; Wilber, A. C.; Darnell, W. L.; Suttles, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Errors have been analyzed for monthly-average downward and net longwave surface fluxes derived on a 5-deg equal-area grid over the globe, using a satellite technique. Meteorological data used in this technique are available from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) system flown aboard NOAA's operational sun-synchronous satellites. The data used are for February 1982 from NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 satellites. The errors in the parametrized equations were estimated by comparing their results with those from a detailed radiative transfer model. The errors in the TOVS-derived surface temperature, water vapor burden, and cloud cover were estimated by comparing these meteorological parameters with independent measurements obtained from other satellite sources. Analysis of the overall errors shows that the present technique could lead to underestimation of downward fluxes by 5 to 15 W/sq m and net fluxes by 4 to 12 W/sq m.

  9. ENSO surface longwave radiation forcing over the tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Pavlakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the spatial and temporal variation of the surface longwave radiation (downwelling and net over a 21-year period in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean (40 S–40 N, 90 E–75 W. The fluxes were computed using a deterministic model for atmospheric radiation transfer, along with satellite data from the ISCCP-D2 database and reanalysis data from NCEP/NCAR (acronyms explained in main text, for the key atmospheric and surface input parameters. An excellent correlation was found between the downwelling longwave radiation (DLR anomaly and the Niño-3.4 index time-series, over the Niño-3.4 region located in the central Pacific. A high anti-correlation was also found over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E. There is convincing evidence that the time series of the mean downwelling longwave radiation anomaly in the western Pacific precedes that in the Niño-3.4 region by 3–4 months. Thus, the downwelling longwave radiation anomaly is a complementary index to the SST anomaly for the study of ENSO events and can be used to asses whether or not El Niño or La Niña conditions prevail. Over the Niño-3.4 region, the mean DLR anomaly values range from +20 Wm−2 during El Niño episodes to −20 Wm−2 during La Niña events, while over the western Pacific (15–0 S, 105–130 E these values range from −15 Wm−2 to +10 Wm−2, respectively. The long- term average (1984–2004 distribution of the net downwelling longwave radiation at the surface over the tropical and subtropical Pacific for the three month period November-December-January shows a net thermal cooling of the ocean surface. When El Niño conditions prevail, the thermal radiative cooling in the central and south-eastern tropical Pacific becomes weaker by 10 Wm−2 south of the equator in the central Pacific (7–0 S, 160–120 W for the three-month period of NDJ, because the DLR increase is larger than the increase in surface thermal emission. In contrast, the

  10. Visualization of pool boiling on downward-facing convex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ei-genk, M.S.; Gao, C.

    1997-01-01

    Visualizations and quenching experiments were performed to investigate effect of material properties on pool boiling from downward-facing, convex stainless steel and copper surfaces in saturated water. Video images showed that more than one boiling regimes can co-exist on the surface. Maximum heat flux (MHF) occurred first at lowermost position, then propagated radially outward to higher inclination positions and its local value decreased with increased inclination. However, the wall superheats corresponding to MHF were independent of the local surface inclinations. MHF propagated ∼10 times slower on stainless-steel than on copper and was ∼12% and 40% lower on stainless-steel than on copper at θ = 0 degree and θ 7.91 degree, respectively. Results confirmed that transition boiling consisted of two distinct regions: high wall superheat, in which heat flux increased relatively slowly, and low wall superheat, in which heat flux increased precipitously with time. Nuclear boiling regime also consisted of two distinct regions: high heat flux nucleate boiling, in which heat flux decreased with increased inclination, and low heat flux nucleate boiling, in which heat flux increased with increased inclination

  11. Downward velocity distribution of free surface vortex in a cylindrical vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohguri, Youhei; Monji, Hideaki; Kamide, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the basic flow characteristics, especially downward velocity, of the free surface vortex. The flow field at the vertical cross section in a cylindrical vessel was measured by using PIV. The measurement results showed the inclined vortex center due to the un-axisymmetric structure of the vessel. Therefore, the maximum downward velocity on the cross section was discussed with the depth. The relation between the maximum downward velocity and the depth showed the tendency where the downward velocity increased with the depth non-linearly. By using dye, the downward velocity was also measured but its results showed a little difference from that by PIV. (author)

  12. Estimation of Downwelling Surface Longwave Radiation under Heavy Dust Aerosol Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The variation of aerosols, especially dust aerosol, in time and space plays an important role in climate forcing studies. Aerosols can effectively reduce land surface longwave emission and re-emit energy at a colder temperature, which makes it difficult to estimate downwelling surface longwave radiation (DSLR with satellite data. Using the latest atmospheric radiative transfer code (MODTRAN 5.0, we have simulated the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR and DSLR under different land surface types and atmospheric profile conditions. The results show that dust aerosol has an obvious “warming” effect to longwave radiation compared with other aerosols; that aerosol longwave radiative forcing (ALRF increased with the increasing of aerosol optical depth (AOD; and that the atmospheric water vapor content (WVC is critical to the understanding of ALRF. A method is proposed to improve the accuracy of DSLR estimation from satellite data for the skies under heavy dust aerosols. The AOD and atmospheric WVC under cloud-free conditions with a relatively simple satellite-based radiation model yielding the high accurate DSLR under heavy dust aerosol are used explicitly as model input to reduce the effects of dust aerosol on the estimation of DSLR. Validations of the proposed model with satellites data and field measurements show that it can estimate the DSLR accurately under heavy dust aerosol skies. The root mean square errors (RMSEs are 20.4 W/m2 and 24.2 W/m2 for Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively, at the Yingke site, and the biases are 2.7 W/m2 and 9.6 W/m2, respectively. For the Arvaikheer site, the RMSEs are 23.2 W/m2 and 19.8 W/m2 for Terra and Aqua, respectively, and the biases are 7.8 W/m2 and 10.5 W/m2, respectively. The proposed method is especially applicable to acquire relatively high accurate DSLR under heavy dust aerosol using MODIS data with available WVC and AOD data.

  13. Time-Dependent Cryospheric Longwave Surface Emissivity Feedback in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chaincy; Feldman, Daniel R.; Huang, Xianglei; Flanner, Mark; Yang, Ping; Chen, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Frozen and unfrozen surfaces exhibit different longwave surface emissivities with different spectral characteristics, and outgoing longwave radiation and cooling rates are reduced for unfrozen scenes relative to frozen ones. Here physically realistic modeling of spectrally resolved surface emissivity throughout the coupled model components of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is advanced, and implications for model high-latitude biases and feedbacks are evaluated. It is shown that despite a surface emissivity feedback amplitude that is, at most, a few percent of the surface albedo feedback amplitude, the inclusion of realistic, harmonized longwave, spectrally resolved emissivity information in CESM1.2.2 reduces wintertime Arctic surface temperature biases from -7.2 ± 0.9 K to -1.1 ± 1.2 K, relative to observations. The bias reduction is most pronounced in the Arctic Ocean, a region for which Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5) models exhibit the largest mean wintertime cold bias, suggesting that persistent polar temperature biases can be lessened by including this physically based process across model components. The ice emissivity feedback of CESM1.2.2 is evaluated under a warming scenario with a kernel-based approach, and it is found that emissivity radiative kernels exhibit water vapor and cloud cover dependence, thereby varying spatially and decreasing in magnitude over the course of the scenario from secular changes in atmospheric thermodynamics and cloud patterns. Accounting for the temporally varying radiative responses can yield diagnosed feedbacks that differ in sign from those obtained from conventional climatological feedback analysis methods.

  14. An analytic model of pool boiling critical heat flux on an immerged downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Hui; Pan, Liang-ming, E-mail: cneng@cqu.edu.cn; Wu, Yao; Chen, De-qi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Thin liquid film and supplement of liquid contribute to the CHF. • CHF increases from the bottom to the upper of the lowerhead. • Evaporation of thin liquid film is dominant nearby bottom region. • The subcooling has significant effects on the CHF. - Abstract: In this paper, an analytical model of the critical heat flux (CHF) on the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling has been proposed, which hypothesizes that the CHF on the downward facing curved is composed of two parts, i.e. the evaporation of the thin liquid film underneath the elongated bubble adhering to the lower head outer surface and the depletion of supplement of liquid due to the relative motion of vapor bubbles along with the downward facing curved. The former adopts the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability analysis of vapor–liquid interface of the vapor jets which penetrating in the thin liquid film. When the heat flux closing to the CHF point, the vapor–liquid interface becomes highly distorted, which block liquid to feed the thin liquid film and the thin liquid film will dry out gradually. While the latter considers that the vapor bubbles move along with the downward facing curved surface, and the liquid in two-phase boundary layer enter the liquid film that will be exhausted when the CHF occurs. Based on the aforementioned mechanism and the energy balance between the thin liquid film evaporation and water feeding, and taking the subcooling of the bulk water into account, the mathematic model about the downward facing curved surface CHF has been proposed. The CHF of the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling increases along with the downward facing orientation except in the vicinity of bottom center region, because in this region the vapor bubble almost stagnates and the evaporation of the thin liquid film is dominant. In addition, the subcooling has significant effect on the CHF. Comparing the result of this model with the published experimental results show

  15. Uncertainty in regional and zonal monthly mean downward surface irradiances from Edition 4.0 CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) data product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Rutan, D. A.; Rose, F. G.; Loeb, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of the Earth receives solar radiation (shortwave) and emission from the atmosphere (longwave). At a global and annual mean approximately 12% of solar radiation incident on the surface is reflected and the rest is absorbed by the surface. The surface emits radiation proportional to the forth power of the temperature. Although the uncertainty in global and annual mean surface irradiances is estimated in earlier studies (Zhang et al. 1995, 2004; L'Ecuyer et al. 2008; Stephens et al. 2012; Kato et al. 2012), only a few studies estimated the uncertainty in computed surface irradiances at smaller spatial and temporal scales (Zhang et al. 1995, 2004; Kato et al. 2012). We use surface observations at 46 buoys and 36 land sites and newly released the Edition 4.0 Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF)-surface data product to estimate the uncertainty in regional and zonal monthly mean downward shortwave and longwave surface irradiances. The root-mean-square difference of monthly mean computed and observed irradiances is used for the regional uncertainty. The uncertainty is separated into bias and spatially random components. The random component decreases when irradiances are averaged over a larger area, nearly inversely proportional to the number of surface observation sites. The presentation provides the uncertainty in the regional and zonal monthly mean downward surface irradiances over ocean and land. ReferencesKato, S. and N.G.Loeb, D. A.Rutan, F. G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack,W.F.Miller, and Y. Chen, 2012. Surv. Geophys., 33, 395-412, doi:10.1007/s10712-012-9179-x. L'Ecuyer, T. S., N. B. Wood, T. Haladay, G. L. Stephens, and P. W. Stackhouse Jr., 2008, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00A15, doi:10.1029/2008JD009951. Stephens, G. L. and Coauthors, 2012, Nat. Geosci., 5, 691-696, doi:10.1038/ngeo1580. Zhang, Y., W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, and M. I. Mishchenko, 2004, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19105, doi:10.1029/2003JD

  16. Pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces: Effects of radius of curvature and edge angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Gao, C.

    1996-01-01

    Transient pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water is of interest for assessing the coolability of the lower head of an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) pressure vessel following a core meltdown accident. Here, quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of radius of curvature and edge angle on pool boiling from downwards-facing surfaces in saturated power. The experiments employed two, 20-mm-thick copper test sections that had the same diameter (75 mm) but different surface radii (148 and 218.5 mm) and vapor release (or edge) angles (14.68 and 9.88 deg). The effect of surface area on pool boiling was determined by comparing the present results with the results for a copper section that was of the same thickness but had a surface radius of 148 mm and was less than one-half the surface area. The maximum heat flux (q MHF ) was highest at the lowermost position and decreased with increased local inclination on the surface. Both local and surface average q MHF were representative of quasi-steady-state critical heat flux. The high edge angle reduced vapor accumulation, which enhanced surface coolability and shortened its quenching time. For an edge angle of 9.88 deg, increasing the surface area (or surface radius) insignificantly affected the local q MHF near the edge of the copper section but lowered it everywhere else by ∼10%. For the same surface area, the larger edge angle (or smaller surface radius) increased q MHF by as much as 40%

  17. New method to estimate surface upwelling long-wave radiation from MODIS cloud-free data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Tang, Bo-Hui; Huo, Xing; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2017-06-12

    As an important component in the surface radiation budget, surface upwelling longwave radiation (SULR) is an outcome of the land surface energy exchange and mainly represents the capability of thermal radiation from the surface of the Earth. Existing satellite-derived SULR products are too coarse to support high-resolution numerical models, and their accuracy needs to be improved. In this study, an equivalent temperature is introduced through which a "split-window" atmospheric correction algorithm is developed for MODIS data to estimate the instantaneous clear-sky SULR. It is a simple and feasible method that is particularly applicable to MODIS data to acquire relatively high precision SULR under clear skies from which qualified water vapor contents (WVC) and thermal channel brightness temperatures are available. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) are less than 13 W/m 2 for all WVC sub-ranges with the viewing zenith angle (VZA) less than 30°, or for all sub-ranges with the VZA less than 60° and the WVC less than 3.5 g/cm 2 . Also, applications and comparisons with the LST-emissivity method are made by using ground measurements which are collected from the network of surface radiation budget network data (SURFRAD) at the moment of MODIS overpass. Results show that the proposed model has high computational efficiency to estimate SULR from MODIS cloud-free data.

  18. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  19. Effects of complex terrain on net surface longwave radiation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaochen; Qiu, Xinfa; Zeng, Yan; Ren, Wei; Tao, Bo; Gao, Jiaqi; Liu, Haobo; Tan, Yunjuan

    2017-09-01

    Net surface longwave radiation (NSLR) is one of key meteorological factors and is strongly influenced by cloud cover, surface temperature, humidity, and local micrometeorological conditions as well as terrain conditions. Realistically estimating NSLR is vitally important for understanding surface radiation balance and investigating micrometeorological factors of air pollution dispersion, especially in regions with complicated terrain. In this study, we proposed a distributed model for estimating NSLR by considering effects of complex local terrain conditions in China. Meteorological data (including mean temperature, relative humidity, and sunshine percentage) and observed NSLR data from 1993 to 2001 together with the digital elevation model data were used to parametrize the model and account for the effects of atmospheric factors and surface terrain factors according to the isotropic principle. The monthly NSLR during 1961-2000 was estimated at a spatial resolution of 1 km. Topographic analysis suggests that the distribution characteristics of NSLR with elevation or slope are consistent with those of field observations. In particular, the estimated NSLR is favorably comparable with site-level observations on the Tibetan Plateau (average relative error < 11%). Our results indicate that this model can describe microscale distribution features in mountainous areas in detail and that this improved approach can be used for NSLR spatial estimation in other regions with complicated terrain.

  20. Evaluations of Surface Shortwave and Longwave Radiation from Earth System Models of CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Wang, K.; Wild, M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface shortwave radiation (Rs) and longwave radiation (Ld) are the key components of energy budget in the climate system. Studies have shown that the biases of simulated clouds display significant spatial pattern, which may introduce an important spatial pattern of the biases of simulated Rs and Ld. Therefore the evaluation results of global climate model Rs and Ld simulations may depend on the location of the ground observations. In this study, comprehensive ground-based observations were used to evaluate the Rs and Ld simulations from Earth System Models (ESMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We found that CMIP5 still overestimate Rs and underestimate Ld. We also quantified the representation of ground-based observations and their uncertainties in the global estimations of Rs and Ld. After removing the biases of CMIP5 ESMs, the globally averaged Rs is estimated to be 185 W m-2 from 2000 to 2005, and the globally averaged Ld from 1992 to 2005 is estimated to be 341 W m-2.

  1. Effect of heater material and coolant additives on CHF for a downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hae Min; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Heo, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical heat flux experiment for a downward facing curved surface was conducted. • We investigate the effect of heater material and coolant additives. • Critical heat flux is affected by the steel oxidation. - Abstract: The critical heat flux (CHF) in the vicinity of an inclination angle of 90° for the reactor vessel lower head external wall was measured on a downward facing curved surface. Two test sections having radii of curvature 0.15 m and 0.5 m were used. The objective was to investigate the effect of heater material and the combined effect of the heater material and additives on flow boiling CHF to assess the CHF enhancement under accident conditions. The heater material SA508 (low alloy steel) and the additive solutions of boric acid and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O) were used. An enhancement of CHF with the SA508 heater was confirmed in comparison with stainless steel reference heaters, which have negligible steel oxidation. As a result of the combined effect tests, the CHF with a TSP solution was reduced and the CHFs with a boric acid and a mixed solution (boric acid and TSP) were enhanced in comparison with the deionized water reference case. The CHF results are discussed in terms of steel oxidation according to the pH of the working fluid. Steel oxidation is also affected by local flow conditions as shown in the R = 0.5 m tests in which the boric acid and mixed solution had negligible effects on CHF enhancement. Under a relatively high concentration of boric acid (2.5 wt%), additive deposition as well as steel oxidation were observed and resulted in CHF enhancement

  2. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon on a downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes a theoretical and experimental study of the boundary layer boiling and critical heat flux phenomena on a downward facing curved heating surface, including both hemispherical and toroidal surfaces. A subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) test facility was developed to measure the spatial variation of the critical heat flux and observe the underlying mechanisms. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were performed in the SBLB facility under both saturated and subcooled conditions to obtain a complete database on the critical heat flux. To complement the experimental effort, an advanced hydrodynamic CHF model was developed from the conservation laws along with sound physical arguments. The model provides a clear physical explanation for the spatial variation of the CHF observed in the SBLB experiments and for the weak dependence of the CHF data on the physical size of the vessel. Based upon the CHF model, a scaling law was established for estimating the local critical heat flux on the outer surface of a heated hemispherical vessel that is fully submerged in water. The scaling law, which compares favorably with all the available local CHF data obtained for various vessel sizes, can be used to predict the local CHF limits on large commercial-size vessels. This technical information represents one of the essential elements that is needed in assessing the efficacy of external cooling of core melt by cavity flooding as a severe accident management strategy. 83 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  5. Comparison of several databases of downward solar daily irradiation data at ocean surface with PIRATA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolliet, Mélodie; Wald, Lucien

    2017-04-01

    The solar radiation impinging at sea surface is an essential variable in climate system. There are several means to assess the daily irradiation at surface, such as pyranometers aboard ship or on buoys, meteorological re-analyses and satellite-derived databases. Among the latter, assessments made from the series of geostationary Meteosat satellites offer synoptic views of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic Ocean every 15 min with a spatial resolution of approximately 5 km. Such Meteosat-derived databases are fairly recent and the quality of the estimates of the daily irradiation must be established. Efforts have been made for the land masses and must be repeated for the Atlantic Ocean. The Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) network of moorings in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean is considered as a reference for oceanographic data. It consists in 17 long-term Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System (ATLAS) buoys equipped with sensors to measure near-surface meteorological and subsurface oceanic parameters, including downward solar irradiation. Corrected downward solar daily irradiation from PIRATA were downloaded from the NOAA web site and were compared to several databases: CAMS RAD, HelioClim-1, HelioClim-3 v4 and HelioClim-3 v5. CAMS-RAD, the CAMS radiation service, combines products of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) on gaseous content and aerosols in the atmosphere together with cloud optical properties deduced every 15 min from Meteosat imagery to supply estimates of the solar irradiation. Part of this service is the McClear clear sky model that provides estimates of the solar irradiation that should be observed in cloud-free conditions. The second and third databases are HelioClim-1 and HelioClim-3 v4 that are derived from Meteosat images using the Heliosat-2 method and the ESRA clear sky model, based on the Linke turbidity factor. HelioClim-3 v5 is the fourth database and differs from v4 by the

  6. Studies on boiling heat transfer on a hemispherical downward heating surface supposing IVR-AM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Kataoka, Isao

    2006-01-01

    The scale-down experiments supposing the IVR-AM were made on the pool boiling heat transfer from hemispherical downward facing heating surface. The boiling phenomena were realized by flooding the heated hemispherical vessel into the sub-cooled water or saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The hemispherical vessel supposing the scale-down pressure vessel was made of SUS304 stainless steel. Molten lead, which was preheated up to about 500 degrees Celsius, was put into the vessel and used as the heat source. The vessel was cooled down by flooding into the water to realize the quenching process. The direct observation by using the digital video camera was performed and made clear the special characteristics of boiling phenomena such as the film boiling, the transition boiling and the nucleate boiling taking place in order during the cooling process. The measurement for the wall superheat and heat flux by using thermocouples was also carried out to make clear the boiling heat transfer characteristics during the cooling process. Fifteen thermocouples are inserted in the wall of the hemispherical bowl to measure the temperature distributions and heat flux in the hemispherical bowl. (author)

  7. Estimating Surface Downward Shortwave Radiation over China Based on the Gradient Boosting Decision Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Downward shortwave radiation (DSR is an essential parameter in the terrestrial radiation budget and a necessary input for models of land-surface processes. Although several radiation products using satellite observations have been released, coarse spatial resolution and low accuracy limited their application. It is important to develop robust and accurate retrieval methods with higher spatial resolution. Machine learning methods may be powerful candidates for estimating the DSR from remotely sensed data because of their ability to perform adaptive, nonlinear data fitting. In this study, the gradient boosting regression tree (GBRT was employed to retrieve DSR measurements with the ground observation data in China collected from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA Meteorological Information Center and the satellite observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR at a spatial resolution of 5 km. The validation results of the DSR estimates based on the GBRT method in China at a daily time scale for clear sky conditions show an R2 value of 0.82 and a root mean square error (RMSE value of 27.71 W·m−2 (38.38%. These values are 0.64 and 42.97 W·m−2 (34.57%, respectively, for cloudy sky conditions. The monthly DSR estimates were also evaluated using ground measurements. The monthly DSR estimates have an overall R2 value of 0.92 and an RMSE of 15.40 W·m−2 (12.93%. Comparison of the DSR estimates with the reanalyzed and retrieved DSR measurements from satellite observations showed that the estimated DSR is reasonably accurate but has a higher spatial resolution. Moreover, the proposed GBRT method has good scalability and is easy to apply to other parameter inversion problems by changing the parameters and training data.

  8. Revisiting the Cause of the 1989-2009 Arctic Surface Warming Using the Surface Energy Budget: Downward Infrared Radiation Dominates the Surface Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukyoung; Gong, Tingting; Feldstein, Steven B.; Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian

    2017-10-01

    The Arctic has been warming faster than elsewhere, especially during the cold season. According to the leading theory, ice-albedo feedback warms the Arctic Ocean during the summer, and the heat gained by the ocean is released during the winter, causing the cold-season warming. Screen and Simmonds (2010; SS10) concluded that the theory is correct by comparing trend patterns in surface air temperature (SAT), surface turbulence heat flux (HF), and net surface infrared radiation (IR). However, in this comparison, downward IR is more appropriate to use. By analyzing the same data used in SS10 using the surface energy budget, it is shown here that over most of the Arctic the skin temperature trend, which closely resembles the SAT trend, is largely accounted for by the downward IR, not the HF, trend.

  9. Measured and calculated longwave radiation fluxes and their year to year variation at Mizuho Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, Yamanouchi

    1984-01-01

    Together with measurements at Mizuho Station during POLEX-South, longwave radiation fluxes are calculated for the same measurement conditions. Comparing the measured and calculated downward longwave fluxes, good agreement is found for most months in 1979 and several months in 1980; however, large disagreements are seen for winter months in 1980. The variation of longwave radiation between 1979 and 1980 is examined using measured and calculated fluxes. The measured downward longwave flux in th...

  10. Vertical changes in the probability distribution of downward irradiance within the near-surface ocean under sunny conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernez, Pierre; Stramski, Dariusz; Darecki, Miroslaw

    2011-07-01

    Time series measurements of fluctuations in underwater downward irradiance, Ed, within the green spectral band (532 nm) show that the probability distribution of instantaneous irradiance varies greatly as a function of depth within the near-surface ocean under sunny conditions. Because of intense light flashes caused by surface wave focusing, the near-surface probability distributions are highly skewed to the right and are heavy tailed. The coefficients of skewness and excess kurtosis at depths smaller than 1 m can exceed 3 and 20, respectively. We tested several probability models, such as lognormal, Gumbel, Fréchet, log-logistic, and Pareto, which are potentially suited to describe the highly skewed heavy-tailed distributions. We found that the models cannot approximate with consistently good accuracy the high irradiance values within the right tail of the experimental distribution where the probability of these values is less than 10%. This portion of the distribution corresponds approximately to light flashes with Ed > 1.5?, where ? is the time-averaged downward irradiance. However, the remaining part of the probability distribution covering all irradiance values smaller than the 90th percentile can be described with a reasonable accuracy (i.e., within 20%) with a lognormal model for all 86 measurements from the top 10 m of the ocean included in this analysis. As the intensity of irradiance fluctuations decreases with depth, the probability distribution tends toward a function symmetrical around the mean like the normal distribution. For the examined data set, the skewness and excess kurtosis assumed values very close to zero at a depth of about 10 m.

  11. Temporal Arctic longwave surface emissivity feedbacks in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Feldman, D.; Huang, X.; Flanner, M.; Yang, P.; Chen, X.

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated how the inclusion of realistic and consistent surface emissivity in both land-surface and atmospheric components of the CESM coupled-climate model affects a wide range of climate variables. We did this by replacing the unit emissivity values in RRTMG_LW for water, fine-grained snow, and desert scenes with spectral emissivity values, and by replacing broadband emissivity values in surface components with the Planck-curve weighted counterparts. We find that this harmonized treatment of surface emissivity within CESM can be important for reducing high-latitude temperature biases. We also find that short-term effects of atmospheric dynamics and spectral information need to be considered to understand radiative effects in higher detail, and are possible with radiative kernels computed for every grid and time point for the entire model integration period. We find that conventional climatological feedback calculations indicate that sea-ice emissivity feedback is positive in sign, but that the radiative effects of the difference in emissivity between frozen and unfrozen surfaces exhibit seasonal dependence. Furthermore, this seasonality itself exhibits meridional asymmetry due to differences in sea-ice response to climate forcing between the Arctic and the Antarctic. In the Arctic, this seasonal, temporally higher order analysis exhibits increasing outgoing surface emissivity radiative response in a warming climate. While the sea-ice emissivity feedback and seasonal sea-ice emissivity radiative response amplitudes are a few percent of surface albedo feedbacks, the feedback analysis methods outlined in this work demonstrate that spatially and temporally localized feedback analysis can give insight into the mechanisms at work on those scales which differ in amplitude and sign from conventional climatological analyses. We note that the inclusion of this realistic physics leads to improved agreement between CESM model results and Arctic surface

  12. Effect of subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Glebov, A.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of water subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from a downward-facing curved surface. Experiments used three copper sections of the same diameter (50.8 mm) and surface radius (148 mm), but different thickness (12.8, 20 and 30 mm). Local and average pool boiling curves were obtained at saturation and 5 K, 10 K, and 14 K subcooling. Water subcooling increased the maximum heat flux, but decreased the corresponding wall superheat. The minimum film boiling heat flux and the corresponding wall superheat, however, increased with increased subcooling. The maximum and minimum film boiling heat fluxes were independent of wall thickness above 20 mm and Biot Number > 0.8, indicating that boiling curves for the 20 and 30 thick sections were representative of quasi steady-state, but not those for the 12.8 mm thick section. When compared with that for a flat surface section of the same thickness, the data for the 12.8 mm thick section showed significant increases in both the maximum heat flux (from 0.21 to 0.41 MW/m{sup 2}) and the minimum film boiling heat flux (from 2 to 13 kW/m{sup 2}) and about 11.5 K and 60 K increase in the corresponding wall superheats, respectively.

  13. GEWEX SRB Longwave Release 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikovitz, J. C.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Global Energy and Water Exchanges (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes for the surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA). Along with improvements in the algorithms, the primary inputs of cloud and meteorology data have been undergoing improvements in quality and spatial and temporal resolution. Many of these inputs are being developed in collaboration with other GEWEX projects to ensure consistency between GEWEX radiation and other GEWEX data products (i.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, GPCP, etc.). As part of this effort, the ISCCP has recalibrated its cloud properties and increased the number of available pixels. These improvements will allow for more varied cloud fractions on the current 1-degree grid system and also allow for finer horizontal resolutions in the future. Additionally, ISCCP is processing an atmospheric temperature and humidity data set called nnHIRS. In this presentation, we present an early analysis of the surface longwave fluxes computed with these cloud properties and meteorology. The Langley Research Center Fu-Liou radiative transfer code (Rose et al. 2006) is used to compute the longwave fluxes. We explore the temporal variability of the Rel. 4 fluxes as it relates to the input data, Rel. 3.1 SRB fluxes, and CERES fluxes. We also present the surface validation of the GEWEX longwave fluxes with BSRN and PMEL observations.

  14. Variability and trends of downward surface global solar radiation over the Iberian Peninsula based on ERA-40 reanalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perdigão, João Carlos

    2016-01-26

    © 2016 Royal Meteorological Society. A climate study of the incidence of downward surface global solar radiation (SSRD) in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) based primarily on ERA-40 reanalysis is presented. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and ground-based records from several Portuguese and Spanish stations have been also considered. The results show that reanalysis can capture a similar inter-annual variability as compared to ground-based observations, especially on a monthly basis, even though annual ERA-40 (NCEP/NCAR) values tend to underestimate (overestimate) the observations with a mean relative difference of around 20Wm-2 (40Wm-2). On the other hand, ground-based measurements in Portuguese stations during the period 1964-1989 show a tendency to decrease until the mid-1970s followed by an increase up to the end of the study period, in line with the dimming/brightening phenomenon reported in the literature. Nevertheless, there are different temporal behaviours as a greater increase since the 1970s is observed in the south and less industrialized regions. Similarly, the ERA-40 reanalysis shows a noticeable decrease until the early 1970s followed by a slight increase up to the end of the 1990s, suggesting a dimming/brightening transition around the early 1970s, earlier in the south and centre and later in the north of the IP. Although there are slight differences in the magnitude of the trends as well as the turning year of the dimming/brightening periods, the decadal changes of ERA-40 fairly agree with the ground-based observations in Portugal and Spain, in contrast to most of the literature for other regions of the world, and is used in the climatology of the SSRD in the study area. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis does not capture the decadal variations of SSRD in the IP. The results show that part of the decadal variability of the global radiation in the IP is related to changes in cloud cover (represented in ERA-40).

  15. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.5 Longwave cloud props 3 hourly Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2.5_LW_CLDPROPS_3HRLY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data set contain 47 surface and cloud properties including cloud fraction, cloud visible optical depth, cloud top temperature, cloud top pressure, cloud base pressure, and cloud water and ice content for each of 5 cloud types and in total. In addition to these cloud properties, the parameters also include surface pressure, total column ozone, day/night flag, and precipitable water. All perameters were measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 06/30/2005 and serve as inputs to the Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) longwave algorithm (GLW). [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=3 hourly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=3 hourly].

  16. Single bubble dynamic behavior in AL{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O nanofluid on downward-facing heating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Junmei [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-15

    After a severe accident to the nuclear reactor, the in-vessel retention strategy is a key way to prevent the leakage of radioactive material. Nanofluid is a steady suspension used to improve heat-transfer characteristics of working fluids, formed by adding solid particles with diameters below 100 nm to the base fluids, and its thermal physical properties and heat-transfer characteristics are much different from the conventional working fluids. Thus, nanofluids with appropriate nanoparticle type and volume concentration can enhance the heat-transfer process. In this study, the moving particle semi-implicit method-meshless advection using flow-directional local grid method is used to simulate the bubble growth, departure, and sliding on the downward-facing heating surface in pure water and nanofluid (1.0 vol.% Al2O3/H2O) flow boiling processes; additionally, the bubble critical departure angle and sliding characteristics and their influence are also investigated. The results indicate that the bubble in nanofluid departs from the heating surface more easily and the critical departure inclined angle of nanofluid is greater than that of pure water. In addition, the influence of nanofluid on bubble sliding is not significant compared with pure water.

  17. All-sky and clear-sky downward surface solar radiation trends for Italy from homogenized instrumental time series (1959-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Wild, Martin

    2016-04-01

    A dataset of 54 daily Italian downward surface solar radiation records (SSR) has been set up collecting data from different sources. The records have been quality checked and the dataset has been homogenized and completed by means of the neighboring records. Specifically, SSR records required an extensive homogenization procedure which led to adjust most of them, especially during the early period, in order to eliminate non climatic signals caused by changes either in the conditions of the corresponding meteorological station or by changes in the environment surrounding the station. The records were interpolated onto a regular grid and subjected to Principal Component Analysis that allowed identifying two regions: northern and southern Italy. The records of these areas were averaged in order to get all-sky regional SSR records for the 1959-2013 period. In addition, starting from the daily homogenized records, SSR series under clear-sky conditions were established for the 1959-2013 period with the same procedure used for the all-sky series, by considering only the days with a daily total cloud cover mean of 0 okta from corresponding ground-based cloudiness observations. All-sky SSR annual records show a decreasing tendency until the mid-1980s (i.e., dimming) followed by an increasing tendency (i.e. brightening) both for north and south Italy. The strength and the persistence of the tendencies are not the same in all seasons, however the overall picture of Italian SSR trends turns out in reasonable agreement with the dimming/brightening phases observed in many areas of the world. The clear-sky SSR records present stronger tendencies than all-sky SSR records, especially during the dimming period in all seasons and during the brightening period in winter and autumn. This could suggest that the variation of all-sky SSR caused by the increase/decrease in aerosol content has been partially masked by cloud cover variations, especially during the dimming period.

  18. Kondratieff's Long-Wave Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Craig S.

    1985-01-01

    The legendary Soviet economist's classic work, "Long-Wave Cycle," has been republished. Admirers believe that it explains how the world's economy works. According to Kondratieff, the world economy follows cycles lasting from 48 to 55 years. His cycle theory is discussed. (Author/RM)

  19. A study of longwave radiation codes for climate studies: Validation with ARM observations and tests in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of our group to meet our stated objectives. The report is divided into sections entitled: Radiation Model Testing Activities, General Circulation Model Testing Activities, Science Team Activities, and Publications, Presentations and Meetings. The section on Science Team Activities summarizes our participation with the science team to further advance the observation and modeling programs. Appendix A lists graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project. Reports on the activities during each of the first two years are included as Appendix B. Significant progress has been made in: determining the ability of line-by-line radiation models to calculate the downward longwave flux at the surface; determining the uncertainties in calculated the downwelling radiance and flux at the surface associated with the use of different proposed profiling techniques; intercomparing clear-sky radiance and flux observations with calculations from radiation codes from different climate models; determining the uncertainties associated with estimating N* from surface longwave flux observations; and determining the sensitivity of model calculations to different formulations of the effects of finite sized clouds

  20. The influence of Cloud Longwave Scattering together with a state-of-the-art Ice Longwave Optical Parameterization in Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. H.; Kuo, C. P.; Huang, X.; Yang, P.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in the Earth's radiation budget, and thus realistic and comprehensive treatments of cloud optical properties and cloud-sky radiative transfer are crucial for simulating weather and climate. However, most GCMs neglect LW scattering effects by clouds and tend to use inconsistent cloud SW and LW optical parameterizations. Recently, co-authors of this study have developed a new LW optical properties parameterization for ice clouds, which is based on ice cloud particle statistics from MODIS measurements and state-of-the-art scattering calculation. A two-stream multiple-scattering scheme has also been implemented into the RRTMG_LW, a widely used longwave radiation scheme by climate modeling centers. This study is to integrate both the new LW cloud-radiation scheme for ice clouds and the modified RRTMG_LW with scattering capability into the NCAR CESM to improve the cloud longwave radiation treatment. A number of single column model (SCM) simulations using the observation from the ARM SGP site on July 18 to August 4 in 1995 are carried out to assess the impact of new LW optical properties of clouds and scattering-enabled radiation scheme on simulated radiation budget and cloud radiative effect (CRE). The SCM simulation allows interaction between cloud and radiation schemes with other parameterizations, but the large-scale forcing is prescribed or nudged. Comparing to the results from the SCM of the standard CESM, the new ice cloud optical properties alone leads to an increase of LW CRE by 26.85 W m-2 in average, as well as an increase of the downward LW flux at surface by 6.48 W m-2. Enabling LW cloud scattering further increases the LW CRE by another 3.57 W m-2 and the downward LW flux at the surface by 0.2 W m-2. The change of LW CRE is mainly due to an increase of cloud top height, which enhances the LW CRE. A long-term simulation of CESM will be carried out to further understand the impact of such changes on simulated climates.

  1. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... are corroborated with multi-seam occurrences, mine working levels and surface manifestation which are also correlated well with 3D model of downward continued anomaly distribution. Keywords. Downward continuation; tilt derivative; magnetic data; coal fire mapping; Jharia coal field;. India. 1.

  2. LONGWAVE THERMAL INFRARED SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN INDIVIDUAL ROCKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6 - 11.6 µm) with a spatial resolution less than 5 mm at a range of 10 m was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra of individual rock surfaces. The rocks were obtained commercially, were ...

  3. DETERMINANT OF DOWNWARD AUDITOR SWITCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Budisantoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. This study examines the factors that influence downward auditor switching in five ASEAN countries. Fixed effect logistic regression was used as analytical method. This study found that opinion shopping occurred in ASEAN, especially in distress companies. Companies with complex businesses will retain the Big Four auditors to reduce complexity and audit costs. Audit and public committees serve as guardians of auditor quality. On the other hand, shareholders failed to maintain audit quality. It indicates that there is entrenchment effect in auditor switching.

  4. Downwelling radiation at the sea surface in the central Mediterranean: one year of shortwave and longwave irradiance measurements on the Lampedusa buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sarra, Alcide; Bommarito, Carlo; Anello, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Meloni, Daniela; Monteleone, Francesco; Pace, Giandomenico; Piacentino, Salvatore; Sferlazzo, Damiano

    2017-04-01

    An oceanographic buoy has been developed and deployed in August 2015 about 3.3 miles South West of the island of Lampedusa, at 35.49°N, 12.47°E, in the central Mediterranean Sea. The buoy was developed within the Italian RITMARE flagship project, and contributes to the Italian fixed-point oceanographic observation network. The buoy is an elastic beacon type and is intended to study air-sea interactions, propagation of radiation underwater, and oceanographic properties. The buoy measurements complement the atmospheric observations carried out at the long-term Station for Climate Observations on the island of Lampedusa (www.lampedusa.enea.it; 35.52°N, 12.63°E), which is located about 15 km E-NE of the buoy. Underwater instruments and part of the atmospheric sensors are presently being installed on the buoy. Measurements of downwelling shortwave, SW, and longwave, LW, irradiance, have been made since September 2015 with a Kipp and Zonen CMP21 pyranometer and a Kipp and Zonen CGR4 pyrgeometer, respectively. The radiometers are mounted on a small platform at about 7 m above sea level, on an arm protruding southward of the buoy. High time resolution data, at 1 Hz, have been acquired since December 2015, together with the sensors' attitude. Data from the period December 2015-December 2016 are analyzed and compared with measurements made on land at the Station for Climate Observations at 50 m above mean sea level. This study aims at deriving high quality determinations of the downwelling radiation over sea in the central Mediterranean. The following aspects will be discussed: - representativeness of time averaging of irradiance measurements over moving platforms; - comparison of downwelling irradiance measurements made over land and over ocean, and identification of possible correction strategies to infer irradiances over the ocean from close by measurements made over land; - influence of dome cleaning on the quality of measurements; - envisaging possible corrections

  5. Longwave atmospheric radiation as a possible indicator of the aviation impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, N.A. [Central Aerological Observatory of the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Aircraft emissions changing composition of the atmospheric air should be sensed by radiation parameters, such as downward (in first turn) and upward long-wave fluxes. It might be supposed that the accurate measurements of long-wave (LW) radiation fluxes in regions of crowded aircraft routes time outside these regions, could detect the influence. Main transformation of the long-wave radiation (LWR) proceeds in the troposphere which absorbs and irradiates the LWR. The only mass method of the LWR measurements in the free atmosphere became the radiometer probe. In the former USSR it was successfully developed in 1961, and since 1963 the special radiometer sounding network started to make regular observations over the USSR territory. Rather small spatial variations of the downward LWR flux was observed indicating rather high homogeneity of the atmosphere composition. Analysis of the seasonal variations of the downward LWR has revealed that over some stations it has the opposite course of changes from summer to winter and it is mainly observed at rather high levels. (R.P.) 10 refs.

  6. Estimating the Longwave Radiation Underneath the Forest Canopy in Snow-dominated Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Kumar, M.; Link, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    Forest canopies alter incoming longwave radiation at the land surface, thus influencing snow cover energetics. The snow surface receives longwave radiation from the sky as well as from surrounding vegetation. The longwave radiation from trees is determined by its skin temperature, which shows significant heterogeneity depending on its position and morphometric attributes. Here our goal is to derive an effective tree temperature that can be used to estimate the longwave radiation received by the land surface pixel. To this end, we implement these three steps: 1) derive a relation between tree trunk surface temperature and the incident longwave radiation, shortwave radiation, and air temperature; 2) develop an inverse model to calculate the effective temperature by establishing a relationship between the effective temperature and the actual tree temperature; and 3) estimate the effective temperature using widely measured variables, such as solar radiation and forest density. Data used to derive aforementioned relations were obtained at the University of Idaho Experimental Forest, in northern Idaho. Tree skin temperature, incoming longwave radiation, solar radiation received by the tree surface, and air temperature were measured at an isolated tree and a tree within a homogeneous forest stand. Longwave radiation received by the land surface and the sky view factors were also measured at the same two locations. The calculated effective temperature was then compared with the measured tree trunk surface temperature. Additional longwave radiation measurements with pyrgeometer arrays were conducted under forests with different densities to evaluate the relationship between effective temperature and forest density. Our preliminary results show that when exposed to direct shortwave radiation, the tree surface temperature shows a significant difference from the air temperature. Under cloudy or shaded conditions, the tree surface temperature closely follows the air temperature

  7. Downward surface flux computations in a vertically inhomogeneous grey planetary atmosphere Cálculo do fluxo radiativo superficial em uma atmosfera planetária cinza e verticalmente não-homogênea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pimenta de Abreu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe an efficient computational scheme for downward surface flux computations in a vertically inhomogeneous grey planetary atmosphere for different values of solar zenith angle. We start with the basic equations of a recently developed discrete ordinates spectral nodal method, and we derive suitable bidirectional functions whose diffuse components do not depend on the solar zenith angle. We then make use of these bidirectional functions to construct an efficient scheme for computing the downward surface fluxes in a given model atmosphere for a number of solar zenith angles. We illustrate the merit of the computational scheme described here with downward surface flux computations in a three-layer grey model atmosphere for four values of solar zenith angle, and we conclude this article with general remarks and directions for future work.Este artigo descreve um esquema computacional baseado em desenvolvimentos recentes do método espectro-nodal de ordenadas discretas para o cálculo eficiente do fluxo radiativo superficial em uma atmosfera planetária cinza e verticalmente não-homogênea para valores distintos do ângulo zenital solar. A partir das equações básicas do método espectro-nodal de ordenadas discretas, são obtidas funções bidirecionais discretas cujas componentes difusas não dependem do ângulo zenital solar. Com essas funções bidirecionais discretas, é construído um esquema computacional para calcular eficientemente fluxos radiativos superficiais em uma dada atmosfera-modelo para vários ângulos zenitais solares. O mérito computacional do esquema resultante é ilustrado com resultados numéricos para os fluxos radiativos superficiais em uma atmosfera-modelo cinza com três camadas para quatro valores distintos do ângulo zenital solar. Este artigo é finalizado com observações gerais e indicações de trabalhos futuros.

  8. A downward buoyant force experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,F.M.S.; Venceslau,G.M.; Brasil,G.T.

    2014-01-01

    In hydrostatics, the Archimedes principle predicts an upward force whenever a body is submerged in a liquid. In contrast to common sense, this physical law is not free of exceptions, as for example when the body touches the container. This is more evident when a rectangular block less dense than the liquid rests on the bottom, with no liquid underneath it, a case in which a downward force is expected, according to a recent work by the first author. In the present work, we describe a simple, l...

  9. An Assessment of the Surface Longwave Direct Radiative Effect of Airborne Dust in Zhangye China During the Asian Monsoon Year Field Experiment (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard A.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Ji, Qiang; Bell, Shaun W.; Holben, Brent N.; Ellsworth, Welton J.; Roush, Ted L.; Zhang, Wu; Huang, J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tiny suspensions of solid particles or liquid droplets, called aerosols, hover in earth's atmosphere and can be found over just about anywhere including oceans, deserts, vegetated areas, and other global regions. Aerosols come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and compositions which depend on such factors as their origin and how long they have been in the atmosphere (i.e., their residence time). Some of the more common types of aerosols include mineral dust and sea salt which get lifted from the desert and ocean surfaces, respectively by mechanical forces such as strong winds. Depending on their size, aerosols will either fall out gravitationally, as in the case of larger particles, or will remain resident in the atmosphere where they can undergo further change through interactions with other aerosols and cloud particles. Not only do aerosols affect air quality where they pose a health risk, they can also perturb the distribution of radiation in the earth-atmosphere system which can inevitably lead to changes in our climate. One aerosol that has been in the forefront of many recent studies, particularly those examining its radiative effects, is mineral dust. The large spatial coverage of desert source regions and the fact that dust can radiatively interact with such a large part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to its range in particle size, makes it an important aerosol to study. Dust can directly scatter and absorb solar and infrared radiation which can subsequently alter the amount of radiation that would otherwise be present in the absence of dust at any level of the atmosphere like the surface. This is known as radiative forcing. At the surface dust can block incoming solar energy, however at infrared wavelengths, dust acts to partially compensate the solar losses. Evaluating the solar radiative effect of dust aerosols is relatively straightforward due in part to the relatively large signal-to-noise ratio in the measurements. At infrared wavelengths, on the

  10. Testing longwave radiation parameterizations under clear and overcast skies at Storglaciären, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar, J.; Hock, R.

    2009-01-01

    Energy balance based glacier melt models require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation but direct measurements are often not available. Multi-year near-surface meteorological data from Storglaciären, Northern Sweden, were used to evaluate commonly used longwave radiation parameterizations in a glacier environment under clear-sky and all-sky conditions. Parameterizations depending solely on air temperature performed worse than those which include water vapor pressure. All models te...

  11. Longwave Imaging for Astronomical Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact portable longwave camera for astronomical applications. In Phase 1, we successfully developed the eye of the camera, i.e. the focal...

  12. ARM Shortwave and Longwave Radiometer Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina; Webb, Craig

    2017-03-23

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of shortwave and longwave calibrations performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Southern Great Plains site.

  13. Simulation of longwave enhancement beneath coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Markus; Rutter, Nick; Fletcher, Christopher; Wake, Leanne; Loranty, Michael

    2017-04-01

    CMIP5 models have been shown to underestimate both trend and variability in northern hemisphere spring snow cover extent, a substantial fraction of which is covered by boreal forests. Forest coverage shades the ground and enhances longwave radiation thereby impacting the radiation budget of the ground which is dominating the snow energy balance in forests. Longwave enhancement is a potential mechanism that contributes to uncertainty in snowmelt modelling. Here we use radiation measurements from an alpine forest to assess the simulation of sub-canopy longwave radiation by CLM4.5, the land component of the NCAR Community Earth System Model. CLM4.5 overestimates the diurnal cycle of sub-canopy longwave radiation and consequently longwave enhancement. Overestimation results from clear sky conditions, due to high absorption of shortwave radiation during daytime and radiative cooling during nighttime. Using recent improvements to the canopy parameterisations of SNOWPACK as a guideline, CLM4.5 simulations of sub-canopy longwave radiation improve through the implementation of a heat mass parameterisation, i.e. including the thermal inertia effect due to biomass. However, this improvement does not substantially reduce the amplitude of the diurnal cycle, a result also found during the development of SNOWPACK.

  14. Impact of an improved longwave radiation model, RRTM, on the energy budget and thermodynamic properties of the NCAR community climate model, CCM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacono, Michael J.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Clough, Shepard A.; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques

    2000-06-01

    The effect of introducing a new longwave radiation parameterization, RRTM, on the energy budget and thermodynamic properties of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) community climate model (CCM3) is described. RRTM is a rapid and accurate, correlated k, radiative transfer model that has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program to address the ARM objective of improving radiation models in GCMs. Among the important features of RRTM are its connection to radiation measurements through comparison to the extensively validated line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) and its use of an improved and validated water vapor continuum model. Comparisons between RRTM and the CCM3 longwave (LW) parameterization have been performed for single atmospheric profiles using the CCM3 column radiation model and for two 5-year simulations using the full CCM3 climate model. RRTM produces a significant enhancement of LW absorption largely due to its more physical and spectrally extensive water vapor continuum model relative to the current CCM3 water continuum treatment. This reduces the clear sky, outgoing longwave radiation over the tropics by 6-9 W m-2. Downward LW surface fluxes are increased by 8-15 W m-2 at high latitudes and other dry regions. These changes considerably improve known flux biases in CCM3 and other GCMs. At low and midlatitudes, RRTM enhances LW radiative cooling in the upper troposphere by 0.2-0.4 K d-1 and reduces cooling in the lower troposphere by 0.2-0.5 K d-1. The enhancement of downward surface flux contributes to increasing lower tropospheric and surface temperatures by 1-4 K, especially at high latitudes, which partly compensates documented, CCM3 cold temperature biases in these regions. Experiments were performed with the weather prediction model of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which show that RRTM also impacts temperature on timescales relevant to forecasting applications

  15. Longwave instabilities and patterns in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shklyaev, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the main advances in the field of nonlinear evolution and pattern formation caused by longwave instabilities in fluids. It will allow readers to master the multiscale asymptotic methods and become familiar with applications of these methods in a variety of physical problems.  Longwave instabilities are inherent to a variety of systems in fluid dynamics, geophysics, electrodynamics, biophysics, and many others. The techniques of the derivation of longwave amplitude equations, as well as the analysis of numerous nonlinear equations, are discussed throughout. This book will be of value to researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics, and engineering, in particular within the fields of fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer theory, and nonlinear dynamics. .

  16. A database on downward shortwave radiation for Africa and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, M.; Cros, S.; Albuisson, M.; Wald, L.

    2003-04-01

    comparisons between satellite-derived assessments and measurements performed in the world radiation network in Europe and Africa. The results depend upon the number of pixels whose values are averaged for the comparison with the irradiation measurements. The satellite data are in B2 format. This format results from a sub-sampling of the high-resolution data. Briefly written, one pixel out of six original pixels is kept. Estimates at the geographical locations of the stations are therefore produced by spatial interpolation [15]. These estimates were compared to observations made by 60 stations in Europe and 30 stations in Africa for one year, July 1994 to June 1995. The bias and root mean square error (RMSE) for the assessment of the irradiance for a month are better than respectively 3 and 17 W m-2 on cells of 5' of arc angle in size (approx. 10 km at mid-latitude). The RMSE decreases down to 9 W m-2 if assessments are averaged over cells of 0.5° of arc angle. Data in B2 format were collected from Eumetsat. They were quality-controlled and calibrated. The method Heliosat-II is being operated to produce a database of SW downward radiation for the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, Europe and Africa from 1985 onwards and for each day. This database is accessible through the SoDa service on a free basis [16] (http://www.soda-is.com). Further, tools are available through this service to estimate longwave downward irradiance and net irradiance from the SW downward irradiance. The Heliosat-II method can be operated in real-time. When applied to Meteosat data (MOP and MSG), it produces maps of downward SW irradiance within the hour following the acquisition. 1 Perez R., Seals R., Zelenka A., 1997, Comparing satellite remote sensing and ground network measurements for the production of site/time specific irradiance data, Solar Energy, 60, 89-96. 2 Zelenka A., Perez R., Seals R., and Renné D., 1999, Effective accuracy of satellite-derived hourly irradiances, Theoretical and Applied Climatology

  17. Broken Cloud Field Longwave-Scattering Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, E. E.; Ellingson, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    Throughout most of the shortwave spectrum, atmospheric gases do not absorb the abundant amount of incoming solar radiation. The shortwave-scattering albedo of clouds is very large. The combination of large amounts of incoming solar radiation, low gaseous absorptivity, and large cloud-scattering albedo enables clouds at one level of the atmosphere to affect the shortwave radiative transfer at all other atmospheric levels. Absorption by atmospheric gases is much stronger in the longwave. This localizes the effects of clouds in the longwave. Since longwave absorption is weakest in the window region (8-12 m), cloud effects there will have the greatest chance of propagating to other levels of the atmosphere. In partially overcast conditions, individual cloud geometry and optical properties are important factors. Longwave calculations of most GCMs ignore individual cloud geometry. For liquid water clouds, the optical properties of clouds are also ignored.Previous work in the window region by Takara and Ellingson considered opaque clouds with no absorption or emission by atmospheric gases. Under those conditions, the effect of cloud scattering was comparable to cloud geometry. In this work, the comparison of longwave scattering and geometric effects in the window region is improved by including partially transparent clouds and adding absorption and emission by atmospheric gases. The results show that for optically thick water clouds, it is sufficient to model the geometry; scattering can be neglected. The window region errors are less than 5 W m2 for fluxes and 0.05 K day1 for heating rates. The flat-plate approximation worked for ice clouds; the window region flux errors are less than 3 W m2 with heating rate errors less than 0.05 K day1.

  18. Testing longwave radiation parameterizations under clear and overcast skies at Storglaciären, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sedlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance based glacier melt models require accurate estimates of incoming longwave radiation but direct measurements are often not available. Multi-year near-surface meteorological data from Storglaciären, Northern Sweden, were used to evaluate commonly used longwave radiation parameterizations in a glacier environment under clear-sky and all-sky conditions. Parameterizations depending solely on air temperature performed worse than those which include water vapor pressure. All models tended to overestimate incoming longwave radiation during periods of low longwave radiation, while incoming longwave was underestimated when radiation was high. Under all-sky conditions root mean square error (RMSE and mean bias error (MBE were 17 to 20 W m−2 and −5 to 1 W m−2, respectively. Two attempts were made to circumvent the need of cloud cover data. First cloud fraction was parameterized as a function of the ratio, τ, of measured incoming shortwave radiation and calculated top of atmosphere radiation. Second, τ was related directly to the cloud factor (i.e. the increase in sky emissivity due to clouds. Despite large scatter between τ and both cloud fraction and the cloud factor, resulting calculations of hourly incoming longwave radiation for both approaches were only slightly more variable with RMSE roughly 3 W m−2 larger compared to using cloud observations as input. This is promising for longwave radiation modeling in areas where shortwave radiation data are available but cloud observations are not.

  19. Cover Art: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonee Kulman Brigham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artist's Statement for the cover art of IJPS volume 4, issue 3: River's Edge: Downward, Outward, Upward, 2015. Mixed Media: photograph, inkjet printed on presentation matte of colored pencil over photograph.

  20. Spectral Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing as Observed by AIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, John M.; Susskind, Joel; Lee, Jae N.; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    AIRS V6 products contain the spectral contributions to Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), clear-sky OLR (OLR(sub CLR)), and Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing (LWCRF) in 16 bands from 100 cm(exp -1) to 3260 cm(exp -1). We show climatologies of selected spectrally resolved AIRS V6 products over the period of September 2002 through August 2016. Spectrally resolved LWCRF can better describe the response of the Earth system to cloud and cloud feedback processes. The spectral LWCRF enables us to estimate the fraction of each contributing factor to cloud forcing, i.e.: surface temperature, mid to upper tropospheric water vapor, and tropospheric temperature. This presentation also compares the spatial characteristics of LWCRF from AIRS, CERES_EBAF Edition-2.8, and MERRA-2. AIRS and CERES LWCRF products show good agreement. The OLR bias between AIRS and CERES is very close to that of OLR(sub CLR). This implies that both AIRS and CERES OLR products accurately account for the effect of clouds on OLR.

  1. A simple formula for the net long-wave radiation flux in the southern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses problems of estimating the net long-wave radiation flux at the sea surface on the basis of easily measurable meteorological quantities (air and sea surface temperatures, near-surface water vapour pressure, cloudiness. Empirical data and existing formulae are compared. Additionally, an improved formula for the southern Baltic region is introduced, with a systematic error of less than 1 W -2 and a statistical error of less than 20 W -2.

  2. Film Boiling on Downward Quenching Hemisphere of Varying Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan S. Kim; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-04-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Laminar Transition Apparatus). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain low Biot numbers. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of all the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the test sections. The measured data are compared with the numerical predictions from laminar film boiling analysis. The measured heat transfer coefficients are found to be greater than those predicted by the conventional laminar flow theory on account of the interfacial wavy motion incurred by the Helmholtz instability. Incorporation of the wavy motion model considerably improves the agreement between the experimental and numerical results in terms of heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the interfacial wavy motion and the quenching process are visualized through a digital camera.

  3. Simulation of Longwave Enhancement beneath Montane and Boreal Forests in CLM4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, M.; Rutter, N.; Fletcher, C. G.; Wake, L. M.; Loranty, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    CMIP5 models have been shown to underestimate both trend and variability in northern hemisphere spring snow cover extent. A substantial fraction of this area is covered by boreal forests, in which the snow energy balance is dominated by radiation. Forest coverage impacts the surface radiation budget by shading the ground and enhancing longwave radiation. Longwave enhancement in boreal forests is a potential mechanism that contributes to uncertainty in snowmelt modelling, however, its impact on snowmelt in global land models has not been analysed yet. This study assesses the simulation of sub-canopy longwave radiation and longwave enhancement by CLM4.5, the land component of the NCAR Community Earth System Model, in which boreal forests are represented by three plant functional types (PFT): evergreen needleleaf trees (ENT), deciduous needleleaf trees (DNT), and deciduous broadleaf trees (DBT). Simulation of sub-canopy longwave enhancement is evaluated at boreal forest sites covering the three boreal PFT in CLM4.5 to assess the dependence of simulation errors on meteorological forcing, vegetation type and vegetation density. ENT are evaluated over a total of six snowmelt seasons in Swiss alpine and subalpine forests, as well as a single season at a Finnish arctic site with varying vegetation density. A Swedish artic site features varying vegetation density for DBT for a single winter, and two sites in Eastern Siberia are included covering a total of four snowmelt seasons in DNT forests. CLM4.5 overestimates the diurnal range of sub-canopy longwave radiation and consequently longwave enhancement, overestimating daytime values and underestimating nighttime values. Simulation errors result mainly from clear sky conditions, due to high absorption of shortwave radiation during daytime and radiative cooling during nighttime. Using recent improvements to the canopy parameterisations of SNOWPACK as a guideline, CLM4.5 simulations of sub-canopy longwave radiation improved

  4. Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balick, Lee K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillespie, Alan [UN. WASHINGTON; French, Andrew [USDA-ARS; Danilina, Iryna [UN. WASHINGTON

    2008-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

  5. Longwave infrared observation of urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility to develop improved methods for the identification and analysis of urban landscapes on the basis of a utilization of longwave infrared observations. Attention is given to landscape thermal behavior, urban thermal properties, modeled thermal behavior of pavements and buildings, and observed urban landscape thermal emissions. The differential thermal behavior of buildings, pavements, and natural areas within urban landscapes is found to suggest that integrated multispectral solar radiant reflectance and terrestrial radiant emissions data will significantly increase potentials for analyzing urban landscapes. In particular, daytime satellite observations of the considered type should permit better identification of urban areas and an analysis of the density of buildings and pavements within urban areas. This capability should enhance the utility of satellite remote sensor data in urban applications.

  6. Spectral model for clear sky atmospheric longwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengying; Liao, Zhouyi; Coimbra, Carlos F. M.

    2018-04-01

    An efficient spectrally resolved radiative model is used to calculate surface downwelling longwave (DLW) radiation (0 ∼ 2500 cm-1) under clear sky (cloud free) conditions at the ground level. The wavenumber spectral resolution of the model is 0.01 cm-1 and the atmosphere is represented by 18 non-uniform plane-parallel layers with pressure in each layer determined on a pressure-based coordinate system. The model utilizes the most up-to-date (2016) HITRAN molecular spectral data for 7 atmospheric gases: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O, O2 and N2. The MT_CKD model is used to calculate water vapor and CO2 continuum absorption coefficients. Longwave absorption and scattering coefficients for aerosols are modeled using Mie theory. For the non-scattering atmosphere (aerosol free), the surface DLW agrees within 2.91% with mean values from the InterComparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) program, with spectral deviations below 0.035 W cm m-2. For a scattering atmosphere with typical aerosol loading, the DLW calculated by the proposed model agrees within 3.08% relative error when compared to measured values at 7 climatologically diverse SURFRAD stations. This relative error is smaller than a calibrated parametric model regressed from data for those same 7 stations, and within the uncertainty (+/- 5 W m-2) of pyrgeometers commonly used for meteorological and climatological applications. The DLW increases by 1.86 ∼ 6.57 W m-2 when compared with aerosol-free conditions, and this increment decreases with increased water vapor content due to overlap with water vapor bands. As expected, the water vapor content at the layers closest to the surface contributes the most to the surface DLW, especially in the spectral region 0 ∼ 700 cm-1. Additional water vapor content (mostly from the lowest 1 km of the atmosphere) contributes to the spectral range of 400 ∼ 650 cm-1. Low altitude aerosols ( ∼ 3.46 km or less) contribute to the surface value of DLW mostly in the

  7. SIMULATION OF ANALYTICAL TRANSIENT WAVE DUE TO DOWNWARD BOTTOM THRUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugih Sudharma Tjandra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Generation process is an important part of understanding waves, especially tsunami. Large earthquake under the sea is one major cause of tsunamis. The sea surface deforms as a response from the sea bottom motion caused by the earthquake. Analytical description of surface wave generated by bottom motion can be obtained from the linearized dispersive model. For a bottom motion in the form of a downward motion, the result is expressed in terms of improper integral. Here, we focus on analyzing the convergence of this integral, and then the improper integral is approximated into a finite integral so that the integral can be evaluated numerically. Further, we simulate free surface elevation for three different type of bottom motions, classified as impulsive, intermediate, and slow  movements. We demonstrate that the wave propagating to the right, with a depression as the leading wave, followed with subsequent wave crests. This phenomena is often observed in most tsunami events.

  8. DOWNWARD CATASTROPHE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui, E-mail: zhangqh@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-07-10

    2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as an upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free; the system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Second, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by the jump of a solution from the upper branch to the lower. Both catastrophes are irreversible processes connecting the two branches of equilibrium solutions so as to form a cycle. Finally, the magnetic energy in the numerical domain is calculated. It is found that there exists a magnetic energy release for both catastrophes. The Ampère's force, which vanishes everywhere for force-free fields, appears only during the catastrophes and does positive work, which serves as a major mechanism for the energy release. The implications of the downward catastrophe and its relevance to solar activities are briefly discussed.

  9. DOWNWARD CATASTROPHE OF SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui

    2016-01-01

    2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as an upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free; the system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Second, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by the jump of a solution from the upper branch to the lower. Both catastrophes are irreversible processes connecting the two branches of equilibrium solutions so as to form a cycle. Finally, the magnetic energy in the numerical domain is calculated. It is found that there exists a magnetic energy release for both catastrophes. The Ampère's force, which vanishes everywhere for force-free fields, appears only during the catastrophes and does positive work, which serves as a major mechanism for the energy release. The implications of the downward catastrophe and its relevance to solar activities are briefly discussed.

  10. Comparing Derived and Actual Upwelling Longwave Measurements at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, B. E.; Schuster, G. L.; Denn, F. M.; Arduini, R. F.; Madigan, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    One of the parameters measured from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite is Earth emitted or longwave (LW) radiation. One validation site to compare this quantity is the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE), located at Chesapeake Light Station, approximately 25 kilometers east of Virginia Beach, Virginia (coordinates: 36.90N, 75.71W). However, the upwelling measurement is complicated due to the Light Station tower being in the LW instruments field of view. A negative outcome of the tower being in the field of view is a tower radiating effect, especially noticeable on clear, sunny days. During these days, the tower tends to heat up and radiate extra heat energy that is measured by the LW instrument. To understand the extent of the problem, we derive upwelling longwave measurements at the surface using sea surface temperature, air temperature, and dewpoint to compare with the actual longwave measurement made with an Eppley Laboratory pyrgeometer. The data used in this study is over a four-year period (2009-2012). One result using only nighttime data (range: 15.0 =solar insolation creating the tower radiating effect. Other results comparing the diurnal scope are analyzed and presented.

  11. CERES Fast Longwave And SHortwave Radiative Flux (FLASHFlux) Version4A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengphokhai, P.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Kratz, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The agricultural, renewable energy management, and science communities need global surface and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes on a low latency basis. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) FLASHFlux (Fast Longwave and SHortwave radiative Flux) data products address this need by enhancing the speed of CERES processing using simplified calibration and parameterized model of surface fluxes to provide a daily global radiative fluxes data set within one week of satellite observations. The CERES FLASHFlux provides two data products: 1) an overpass swath Level 2 Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) data products separately for both Aqua and Terra observations, and 2) a daily Level 3 Time Interpolated and Spatially Averaged (TISA) 1o x 1o gridded data that combines Aqua and Terra observations. The CERES FLASHFlux data product is being promoted to Version4A. Updates to FLASHFlux Version4A include a new cloud retrieval algorithm and an improved shortwave surface flux parameterization. We inter-compared FLASHFlux Version4A, FLASHFlux Version3C, CERES Edition 4 Syn1Deg and at the monthly scale CERES Edition4 EBAF (Energy Balanced and Filled) Top-of-Atmosphere and Edition 4 Surface EBAF fluxes to evaluate these improvements. We also analyze the impact of the new inputs and cloud algorithm to the surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes using ground sites measurement provided by CAVE (CERES/ARM Validation Experiment).

  12. Characterizing sensitivity of longwave infrared hyperspectral target detection with respect to signature mismatch and dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral target detection typically relies upon libraries of material reflectance and emissivity signatures. Application to real-world, airborne data requires estimation of atmospheric properties in order to convert reflectance/emissivity signatures to the sensor data domain. In the longwave infrared, an additional nuisance parameter of surface temperature exists that further complicates the signature conversion process. A significant amount of work has been done in atmospheric compensation and temperature-emissivity-separation techniques. This work examines the sensitivity of target detection performance for various materials with respect to target signature mismatch introduced from atmospheric compensation error or target temperature mismatch. Additionally, the impact of dimensionality reduction via principal components analysis is assessed.

  13. Experimental investigation on flow and scour characteristics around tandem piers in sandy channel with downward seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rutuja; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2017-09-01

    Experimental investigations have been carried out to study morpho-hydraulic characteristics such as scour geometry and turbulent flow properties around tandem piers in alluvial channels. Experiments were carried out in a plane sand bed with two circular piers of same diameter arranged in tandem manner under no seepage, 10% seepage and 20% seepage conditions. Downward seepage minimizes the scour depth around piers and restrains the development of scour depth with time. Strong reversal flow is found near the bed at upstream of piers and near free surface at downstream of piers where velocity and Reynolds shear stress are found to be negative which reduce in magnitude with downward seepage. The flow is more critical within the gap between two piers where velocity is lesser near free surface and gradually increasing towards bed. Quadrant analysis shows that contribution of each event to the total Reynolds shear stress increases with downward seepage. Sedimentation effect prevails within the scour hole whereas outside the scour hole erosive forces become more dominant. Reduced reversal flow at upstream of pier because of downward seepage results in decreasing higher order moments and turbulent kinetic energy. At downstream of piers, secondary currents are dominant due to wake vortices. Strouhal number decreases in case of seepage runs than no seepage condition.

  14. Near-surface climate and surface energy budget of Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kuipers Munneke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Data collected by two automatic weather stations (AWS on the Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctica, between 22 January 2009 and 1 February 2011 are analyzed and used as input for a model that computes the surface energy budget (SEB, which includes melt energy. The two AWSs are separated by about 70 km in the north–south direction, and both the near-surface meteorology and the SEB show similarities, although small differences in all components (most notably the melt flux can be seen. The impact of subsurface absorption of shortwave radiation on melt and snow temperature is significant, and discussed. In winter, longwave cooling of the surface is entirely compensated by a downward turbulent transport of sensible heat. In summer, the positive net radiative flux is compensated by melt, and quite frequently by upward turbulent diffusion of heat and moisture, leading to sublimation and weak convection over the ice shelf. The month of November 2010 is highlighted, when strong westerly flow over the Antarctic Peninsula led to a dry and warm föhn wind over the ice shelf, resulting in warm and sunny conditions. Under these conditions the increase in shortwave and sensible heat fluxes is larger than the decrease of net longwave and latent heat fluxes, providing energy for significant melt.

  15. SUNYA Regional Climate Model Simulations of East Asia Summer Monsoon: Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on the Surface Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong and Wei-Chyung Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the State University of New York at Albany (SUNYA regional climate model to study the effect of cloud vertical distribution in affecting the surface energy balance of the East Asia summer monsoon (EASM. Simulations were conducted for the summers of 1988 and 1989, during which large contrast in the intra-seasonal cloud radiative forcing (CRF was observed at the top of the atmosphere. The model results indicate that both the high and low clouds are persistent throughout the summer months in both years. Because of large cloud water, low clouds significantly reduce the solar radiation flux reaching the surface, which nevertheless still dominate the surface energy balance, accounting for more than 50% of the surface heating. The low clouds also contribute significantly the downward longwave radiation to the surface with values strongly dependent on the cloud base temperature. The presence of low clouds effectively decreases the temperature and moisture gradients near surface, resulting in a substantial decrease in the sensible and latent heat fluxes from surface, which partially compensate the decrease of the net radiative cooling of the surface. For example, in the two days, May 8 and July 11 of 1988, the total cloud cover of 80% is simulated, but the respective low cloud cover (water was 63% (114 gm-2 and 22% (21 gm-2. As a result, the downward solar radiation is smaller by 161 Wm-2 in May 8. On the other hand, the cloud temperature was _ lower, yielding 56 Wm-2 smaller downward longwave radiation. The near surface temperature and gradient is more than _ smaller (and moisture gradient, leading to 21 and 81 Wm-2 smaller sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. It is also demonstrated that the model is capable to reproduce the intraseasonal variation of shortwave CRF, and catches the relationship between total cloud cover and SW CRF. The model results show the dominance of high cloud on the regional mean longwave CRF and low cloud on the intra

  16. Understanding the surface temperature cold bias in CMIP5 AGCMs over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolei; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong

    2017-12-01

    The temperature biases of 28 CMIP5 AGCMs are evaluated over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) for the period 1979-2005. The results demonstrate that the majority of CMIP5 models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface 2-m air temperatures ( T as) over the TP. In addition, the ensemble of the 28 AGCMs and half of the individual models underestimate annual mean skin temperatures ( T s) over the TP. The cold biases are larger in T as than in T s, and are larger over the western TP. By decomposing the T s bias using the surface energy budget equation, we investigate the contributions to the cold surface temperature bias on the TP from various factors, including the surface albedo-induced bias, surface cloud radiative forcing, clear-sky shortwave radiation, clear-sky downward longwave radiation, surface sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and heat storage. The results show a suite of physically interlinked processes contributing to the cold surface temperature bias. Strong negative surface albedo-induced bias associated with excessive snow cover and the surface heat fluxes are highly anticorrelated, and the cancelling out of these two terms leads to a relatively weak contribution to the cold bias. Smaller surface turbulent fluxes lead to colder lower-tropospheric temperature and lower water vapor content, which in turn cause negative clear-sky downward longwave radiation and cold bias. The results suggest that improvements in the parameterization of the area of snow cover, as well as the boundary layer, and hence surface turbulent fluxes, may help to reduce the cold bias over the TP in the models.

  17. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  18. Towards Silicon-Based Longwave Integrated Optoelectronics (LIO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-21

    complex longwave functions performed by the on-chip network, (6) adaptable sensing using intelligent electronics, (7) inexpensive Foundry integration...PD1 PD2 Tunable laser diode gas everywhere on serpent Silicon LIO chip Ge/Si ref rence waveguide (no slot) Slotted serpentine Ge/Si waveguide μB1...everywhere on serpent CMOS electronics Silicon LIO chip Ge/Si reference waveguide (no slot) Slotted Ge/Si waveguide

  19. Comparison of observed and modeled longwave radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kenneth; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated LW radiances based on NMC profiles of temperature and humidities for the month of July 1985 are obtained using standard procedures for performing radiative transfer calculations, and are within 3 percent (against a standard deviation of 4 percent) for global daytime land comparsions and within 1 percent (against a standard deviation of 1.5 percent) for a case study located over North America. The calculated values over the global data set show a slight trend with the surface temperature, and since there is no obvious trend with the column amount of water vapor, it is argued that the trend with temperature is evidence that absorption by other components (i.e., CO2O3 and other trace gases not included in these calculations) in the model could be improved.

  20. Estimation of Daily Average Downward Shortwave Radiation over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingji Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface shortwave (SW irradiation is the primary driving force of energy exchange in the atmosphere and land interface. The global climate is profoundly influenced by irradiation changes due to the special climatic condition in Antarctica. Remote-sensing retrieval can offer only the instantaneous values in an area, whilst daily cycle and average values are necessary for further studies and applications, including climate change, ecology, and land surface process. When considering the large values of and small diurnal changes of solar zenith angle and cloud coverage, we develop two methods for the temporal extension of remotely sensed downward SW irradiance over Antarctica. The first one is an improved sinusoidal method, and the second one is an interpolation method based on cloud fraction change. The instantaneous irradiance data and cloud products are used in both methods to extend the diurnal cycle, and obtain the daily average value. Data from South Pole and Georg von Neumayer stations are used to validate the estimated value. The coefficient of determination (R2 between the estimated daily averages and the measured values based on the first method is 0.93, and the root mean square error (RMSE is 32.21 W/m2 (8.52%. As for the traditional sinusoidal method, the R2 and RMSE are 0.68 and 70.32 W/m2 (18.59%, respectively The R2 and RMSE of the second method are 0.96 and 25.27 W/m2 (6.98%, respectively. These values are better than those of the traditional linear interpolation (0.79 and 57.40 W/m2 (15.87%.

  1. Exploring the Longwave Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard A., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Dust aerosols not only affect air quality and visibility where they pose a significant health and safety risk, but they can also play a role in modulating the energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system by directly interacting with local radiative fields. Consequently, dust aerosols can impact regional climate patterns such as changes in precipitation and the evolution of the hydrological cycle. Assessing the direct effect of dust aerosols at the solar wavelengths is fairly straightforward due in part to the relatively large signal-to-noise ratio in broadband irradiance measurements. The longwave (LW) impacts, on the other hand, are rather difficult to ascertain since the measured dust signal level (10 Wm-2) is on the same order as the instrumental uncertainties. Moreover, compared to the shortwave (SW), limited experimental data on the LW optical properties of dust makes it a difficult challenge for constraining the LW impacts. Owing to the strong absorption features found in many terrestrial minerals (e.g., silicates and clays), the LW effects, although much smaller in magnitude compared to the SW, can still have a sizeable impact on the energetics of the Earth-atmosphere system, which can potentially trigger changes in the heat and moisture surface budgets, and dynamics of the atmosphere. The current endeavor is an integral part of an on-going research study to perform detailed assessments of dust direct aerosol radiative effects (DARE) using comprehensive global datasets from NASA Goddards mobile ground-based facility (cf. http://smartlabs.gsfc.nasa.gov/) during previous field experiments near key dust source regions. Here we examine and compare the results from two of these studies: the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities and the 2008 Asian Monsoon Years. The former study focused on transported Saharan dust at Sal Island (16.73N, 22.93W), Cape Verde along the west coast of Africa while the latter focused on Asian dust at Zhangye China (39

  2. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 4. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for delineation of concealed coal fire in East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coal field, India. S K Pal Jitendra Vaish Sahadev Kumar Piyush Priyam Abhay Kumar Bharti Rajwardhan Kumar. Volume ...

  3. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... The present study deals with the characterization of subsurface coal fires of East Basuria colliery in. Jharia coal field, India using tilt derivative and downward continuation of magnetic data. Magnetic data processing methods such as diurnal correction, noise removal, reduction to pole, tilt derivative and.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Variabilities of Solar and Longwave Radiation Fluxes below a Coniferous Forest in the French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicart, J. E.; Ramseyer, V.; Lejeune, Y.; Essery, R.; Webster, C.; Rutter, N.

    2017-12-01

    At high altitudes and latitudes, snow has a large influence on hydrological processes. Large fractions of these regions are covered by forests, which have a strong influence on snow accumulation and melting processes. Trees absorb a large part of the incoming shortwave radiation and this heat load is mostly dissipated as longwave radiation. Trees shelter the snow surface from wind, so sub-canopy snowmelt depends mainly on the radiative fluxes: vegetation attenuates the transmission of shortwave radiation but enhances longwave irradiance to the surface. An array of 13 pyranometers and 11 pyrgeometers was deployed on the snow surface below a coniferous forest at the CEN-MeteoFrance Col de Porte station in the French Alps (1325 m asl) during the 2017 winter in order to investigate spatial and temporal variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances in different meteorological conditions. Sky view factors measured with hemispherical photographs at each radiometer location were in a narrow range from 0.2 to 0.3. The temperature of the vegetation was measured with IR thermocouples and an IR camera. In clear sky conditions, the attenuation of solar radiation by the canopy reached 96% and its spatial variability exceeded 100 W m-2. Longwave irradiance varied by 30 W m-2 from dense canopy to gap areas. In overcast conditions, the spatial variabilities of solar and infrared irradiances were reduced and remained closely related to the sky view factor. A simple radiative model taking into account the penetration through the canopy of the direct and diffuse solar radiation, and isotropic infrared emission of the vegetation as a blackbody emitter, accurately reproduced the dynamics of the radiation fluxes at the snow surface. Model results show that solar transmissivity of the canopy in overcast conditions is an excellent proxy of the sky view factor and the emitting temperature of the vegetation remained close to the air temperature in this typically dense Alpine forest.

  5. Assessment of fungal viability after long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation combined with riboflavin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwabuchi, Renata T; Carvalho, Fabio R S; Khan, Yasin A; Hirai, Flavio; Campos, Mauro S; McDonnell, Peter J

    2013-02-01

    inactivation, because of their minimal cytotoxic effects on the corneal surface. The methodological improvement in the preparation and application of individual chemical compounds, such as riboflavin, or physical systems, such as a long-wave light source, as antifungal agents may also assist in establishing promising therapeutic procedures for keratomycosis.

  6. Liquid velocity in upward and downward air-water flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaodong; Paranjape, Sidharth; Kim, Seungjin; Ozar, Basar; Ishii, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void-weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  7. Longwave indirect effect of mineral dusts on ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In addition to microphysical changes in clouds, changes in nucleation processes of ice cloud due to aerosols would result in substantial changes in cloud top temperature as mildly supercooled clouds are glaciated through heterogenous nucleation processes. Measurements from multiple sensors on multiple observing platforms over the Atlantic Ocean show that the cloud effective temperature increases with mineral dust loading with a slope of +3.06 °C per unit aerosol optical depth. The macrophysical changes in ice cloud top distributions as a consequence of mineral dust-cloud interaction exert a strong cooling effect (up to 16 Wm−2 of thermal infrared radiation on cloud systems. Induced changes of ice particle size by mineral dusts influence cloud emissivity and play a minor role in modulating the outgoing longwave radiation for optically thin ice clouds. Such a strong cooling forcing of thermal infrared radiation would have significant impacts on cloud systems and subsequently on climate.

  8. Longwave emission trends over Africa and implications for Atlantic hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Rechtman, Thomas; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Li, Laifang; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Kossin, James P.

    2017-09-01

    The latitudinal gradient of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over Africa is a skillful and physically based predictor of seasonal Atlantic hurricane activity. The African OLR gradient is observed to have strengthened during the satellite era, as predicted by state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Prior to the satellite era and the U.S. and European clean air acts, the African OLR gradient weakened due to aerosol forcing of the opposite sign. GCMs predict a continuation of the increasing OLR gradient in response to greenhouse gas forcing. Assuming a steady linear relationship between African easterly waves and tropical cyclogenesis, this result suggests a future increase in Atlantic tropical cyclone frequency by 10% (20%) at the end of the 21st century under the RCP 4.5 (8.5) forcing scenario.

  9. Overhead longwave infrared hyperspectral material identification using radiometric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinski, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-09

    Material detection algorithms used in hyperspectral data processing are computationally efficient but can produce relatively high numbers of false positives. Material identification performed as a secondary processing step on detected pixels can help separate true and false positives. This paper presents a material identification processing chain for longwave infrared hyperspectral data of solid materials collected from airborne platforms. The algorithms utilize unwhitened radiance data and an iterative algorithm that determines the temperature, humidity, and ozone of the atmospheric profile. Pixel unmixing is done using constrained linear regression and Bayesian Information Criteria for model selection. The resulting product includes an optimal atmospheric profile and full radiance material model that includes material temperature, abundance values, and several fit statistics. A logistic regression method utilizing all model parameters to improve identification is also presented. This paper details the processing chain and provides justification for the algorithms used. Several examples are provided using modeled data at different noise levels.

  10. Downward finger displacement distinguishes Parkinson disease dementia from Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Abraham; Deep, Aman; Shi, Jiong; Dhall, Rohit; Shafer, Saulena; Moguel-Cobos, Guillermo; Dhillon, Ravneet; Frames, Christopher W; McCauley, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    Purpose/Aim of the study: To study finger displacement in patients with Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined 56 patients with PDD and 35 with AD. Patients were examined during their regular outpatient clinic visit. Finger displacement was measured by observers not actively involved in the study using a creative grid ruler for all PDD and AD patients. Finger displacement was examined by asking patients to point their index fingers toward the grid ruler with the nails facing upward. Patients were asked to maintain the pointing position for 15 s. After 15 s, patients were asked to close their eyes for another 15 s while maintaining the same position. A positive result was downward index finger displacement of ≥5 cm within the 15-second time window with eyes closed. Of the 56 PDD patients, 53 had bilateral finger displacement of >5 cm. In comparison, of the 35 AD patients, only 1 patient had minimal displacement. Results of the non-invasive finger displacement test may provide insight, on an outpatient basis, of the integrity of subcortical-cortical circuits. Downward finger displacement, especially bilateral downward displacement, may signal the extensive disruption of subcortical-cortical circuits that occurs in PDD patients. AChE: acetylcholinesterase; AD: Alzheimer disease; DLB: dementia with Lewy bodies; ET: essential tremor; MDS-UPDRS: Movement Disorder Society-sponsored Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; PD: Parkinson disease; PDD: Parkinson disease dementia.

  11. The cooling rates comparison between the longwave radiation and turbulence in nocturnal planetary boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Grisogono, Branko; Subanović, Nebojša; Koračin, Darko

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the process of the air-cooling is dominated by the divergence of the longwave radiative flux in cases of night-time clear-sky conditions and with weak wind conditions. The parameterization of the longwave radiative flux divergence is derived according to the emissivity concept and the Stefan-Boltzman law, assuming that the water vapor is the only absorber of longwave radiative. The parameterization of the turbulent temperature flux divergence has been based on the O’Brie...

  12. Strong double layer in the downward current region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Ergun, R. E.; Newman, D.; McFadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.

    2001-12-01

    A direct observation of a strong double layer has been recorded in detail by the FAST satellite in the downward current region of the aurora. This presentation concentrates on a particular compelling example in which both the electric field and particle measurements clearly illustrate the detail characteristics of the double layer. Electrons with initial energies of about 50 eV are observed to be accelerated through the double layer into a beam of more than 750 eV. This beam is rapidly plateaued by intense wave turbulence into a extended power law distribution. This process forms accelerated `flat-top' electron distributions, which are represented of energized distributions in the downward current region. Ions are also observed to be accelerated by the double layer in the opposite direction of the electron beam. Ion conics on the low potential side of the double layer are trapped between the double layer and their mirror points. The double layer is observed to move up the magnetic field line, in the direction of the electron beam. In front of it, an ion population moves with the speed of the double layer suggesting an overshoot in the potential ramp. The intense wave turbulence on the high potential side is seen to transform into electron phase-space holes far away from the double layer.

  13. Study of outgoing longwave radiation anomalies associated with Haiti earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xiong

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis by using the methods of Eddy field calculation mean and wavelet maxima to detect seismic anomalies within the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR data based on time and space. The distinguishing feature of the method of Eddy field calculation mean is that we can calculate "the total sum of the difference value" of "the measured value" between adjacent points, which could highlight the singularity within data. The identified singularities are further validated by wavelet maxima, which using wavelet transformations as data mining tools by computing the maxima that can be used to identify obvious anomalies within OLR data. The two methods has been applied to carry out a comparative analysis of OLR data associated with the earthquake recently occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010. Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena, the analyzed results have indicated a number of singularities associated with the possible seismic anomalies of the earthquake and from the comparative experiments and analyses by using the two methods, which follow the same time and space, we conclude that the singularities observed from 19 to 24 December 2009 could be the earthquake precursor of Haiti earthquake.

  14. Persistent influence of tropical North Atlantic wintertime sea surface temperature on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xidong; Liu, Hailong; Foltz, Gregory R.

    2017-08-01

    This study explores the seasonally lagged impact of wintertime sea surface temperature (SST) in the Atlantic main development region (MDR) on the subsequent Atlantic hurricane season. It is found that wintertime SST anomalies in the MDR can persist into the summer, explaining 42% of the variance in the subsequent hurricane season's SST during 1951-2010. An anomalously warm wintertime in the MDR is usually followed by an anomalously active hurricane season. Analysis shows an important constraint on the seasonal evolution of the MDR SST by the water vapor feedback process, in addition to the well-known wind-evaporation-SST and cloud-SST feedback mechanisms over the tropical North Atlantic. The water vapor feedback influences the seasonal evolution of MDR SST by modulating seasonal variations of downward longwave radiation. This wintertime thermal control of hurricane activity has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of hurricane activity over the North Atlantic.

  15. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  16. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 2000-present, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  20. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) from the NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS). NUCAPS was developed by the...

  1. Handheld Longwave Infrared Camera Based on Highly-Sensitive Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact handheld longwave infrared camera based on quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) technology. Based on...

  2. High Quantum Efficiency 1024x1024 Longwave Infrared SLS FPA and Camera, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a high quantum efficiency (QE) 1024x1024 longwave infrared focal plane array (LWIR FPA) and CAMERA with ~ 12 micron cutoff wavelength made from...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Monthly Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Version 2.2-1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) of monthly mean High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) flux at the top of the atmosphere...

  5. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Daily Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Climate Data Record (CDR) contains the daily mean Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) time series in global 1 degree x 1 degree equal-angle gridded maps spanning...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 2000-present, Net Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Net Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  7. Atmosphere-surface interactions over polar oceans and heterogeneous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihma, T.

    1995-12-31

    Processes of interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the planetary surface have been studied with special emphasis on polar ocean surfaces: the open ocean, leads, polynyas and sea ice. The local exchange of momentum, heat and moisture has been studied experimentally both in the Weddell Sea and in the Greenland Sea. Exchange processes over heterogeneous surfaces are addressed by modelling studies. Over a homogeneous surface, the local turbulent fluxes can be reasonably well estimated using an iterative flux-profile scheme based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In the Greenland Sea, the near-surface air temperature and the generally small turbulent fluxes over the open ocean were affected by the sea surface temperature fronts. Over the sea ice cover in the Weddell Sea, the turbulent sensible heat flux was generally downwards, and together with an upward oceanic heat flux through the ice it compensated the heat loss from the surface via long-wave radiation. The wind dominated on time scales of days, while the current became important on longer time scales. The drift dynamics showed apparent spatial differences between the eastern and western regions, as well as between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the rest of the Weddell Sea. Inertial motion was present in regions of low ice concentration. The surface heterogeneity, arising e.g. from roughness or temperature distribution, poses a problem for the parameterization of surface exchange processes in large-scale models. In the case of neutral flow over a heterogeneous terrain, an effective roughness length can be used to parameterize the roughness effects

  8. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Aaron; Armour, Kyle C; Pendergrass, Angeline G; Battisti, David S

    2014-11-25

    In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks—from satellite radiation and surface temperature data—suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR.

  9. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Aaron; Armour, Kyle C.; Pendergrass, Angeline G.; Battisti, David S.

    2014-01-01

    In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks—from satellite radiation and surface temperature data—suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR. PMID:25385628

  10. A more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation flux in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zapadka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new, more accurate formula for calculating the net longwave radiation fluxLW ↑↓ has been devised for the Baltic Sea region. To this end,the following sets of simultaneously measured data regarding the longwave radiation of the sea andthe atmosphere were used: the temperatures of the sea surface and its contiguous air layer,the water vapour pressure in the air above the water, and the cloud cover.These data were gathered during numerous research cruises in the Baltic in 2000-03 and were supplemented by satellitedata from Karlsson (2001 characterising the cloud cover over the whole Baltic. The formulaestablished for LW ↑↓ can be written in the form of three alternative equations,differing with respect to their cloud cover functions:LW ↑↓ =0.985σT4s - σT4a (0.685+0.00452e{(1 + d n2 average for all cloud types (Z1(1 + din2 separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z2(1 + dinϒi separately for low-, mid- and high-level clouds (Z3where σ - Stefan-Boltzmann constant; Ts - sea surface temperature [K]; Ta - air temperature [K]; e - water vapour pressure [mbar]; n - total cloud amount [0 - 1]; d - mean empirical dimensionless coefficient, determined for all cloud types or for particular months (see Tables 3 and 4; da - empirical coefficient determined for the quadratic function: d1 = 0.39 for low-level clouds, d2 = 0.305 for mid-level clouds, d3 = 0.22 for high-level clouds; di - empirical coefficient determined as follows: d1 = 0.39 for low-level clouds when γ1 = 1.3, d2 = 0.29 for mid-level clouds when γ2 = 1.1; d3 = 0.17 for high-level clouds when γ3 = 0.96. The improved accuracy of this formula (RMSE ≅ 10 W m-2 is due chiefly to the establishment of functions and coefficients characterising the cloud cover over the Baltic in particular months of the year and their incorporation into it.

  11. Dynamics of branching of negative downward lightning leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Zhu, Yujie; Gu, Shanqiang; He, Jinliang

    2017-11-01

    The branching of negative downward lightning leaders is of both theoretical insterest and practical importance. In the lightning protection of ground structures, a clearer understanding of the mechanism and dynamics of leader branching is needed to identify possible lightning strike locations as well as vulnerable parts of the protection systems. In this work, we start with the image analysis of a lightning leader process recorded with a high-speed camera and to show that the anode-directed streamer zone developed from space stems in front of a leader tip needs be smaller in size (electric field at the discharge front, which may result in new bursts of streamers. This model, if further verified, could be the foundation of inferring the structure and dynamics of the streamer zone from the morphology of the leader channel, which would significantly advance the knowledge of the streamer zone in negative lightning leaders.

  12. Solution of damped generalized regularized long-wave equation using a modified homotopy analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Ghazala; Sadaf, Maasoomah

    2018-02-01

    A modified algorithm for homotopy analysis method (MHAM) is presented for the solution of nonlinear damped generalized regularized long-wave equation. The modified algorithm has less computational cost than standard HAM and also overcomes the difficulty in calculating complicated integrals. The MHAM is applied on different cases of the damped generalized regularized long-wave equation subject to suitable initial conditions. The numerical results show that the approximate solutions are in good agreement with the exact solutions.

  13. Film boiling heat transfer from relatively large diameter downward-facing hemispheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Suh, Kune Y.; Park, Goon Cherl; Lee, Un Chul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Jun [Purdue Univ., Indiana (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Loop for Transient Analysis). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain Bi below 0.1. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of both the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the two test sections. The measured heat transfer coefficients for the test section with diameter 120 mm lie within the bounding values from the laminar film boiling analysis, while those for diameter 294 mm are found to be greater than the numerical results on account of the Helmholtz instability. There is little difference observed between the film boiling heat transfer coefficients measured from the two test sections. In addition, the higher thermal conductivity of copper results in the higher minimum heat flux in the tests. For the test section of diameter 120 mm, the Leidenfrost point is lower than that for the test section of diameter 294 mm. Destabilization of film boiling propagates radially inward for the 294 mm test section versus radially outward for the 120 mm test section.

  14. Lidar Penetration Depth Observations for Constraining Cloud Longwave Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant de Guelis, T.; Chepfer, H.; Noel, V.; Guzman, R.; Winker, D. M.; Kay, J. E.; Bonazzola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-borne active remote sensing Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations [CALIPSO; Winker et al., 2010] and CloudSat [Stephens et al., 2002] provide direct measurements of the cloud vertical distribution, with a very high vertical resolution. The penetration depth of the laser of the lidar Z_Opaque is directly linked to the LongWave (LW) Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) at Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) [Vaillant de Guélis et al., in review]. In addition, this measurement is extremely stable in time making it an excellent observational candidate to verify and constrain the cloud LW feedback mechanism [Chepfer et al., 2014]. In this work, we present a method to decompose the variations of the LW CRE at TOA using cloud properties observed by lidar [GOCCP v3.0; Guzman et al., 2017]. We decompose these variations into contributions due to changes in five cloud properties: opaque cloud cover, opaque cloud altitude, thin cloud cover, thin cloud altitude, and thin cloud emissivity [Vaillant de Guélis et al., in review]. We apply this method, in the real world, to the CRE variations of CALIPSO 2008-2015 record, and, in climate model, to LMDZ6 and CESM simulations of the CRE variations of 2008-2015 period and of the CRE difference between a warm climate and the current climate. In climate model simulations, the same cloud properties as those observed by CALIOP are extracted from the CFMIP Observation Simulator Package (COSP) [Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011] lidar simulator [Chepfer et al., 2008], which mimics the observations that would be performed by the lidar on board CALIPSO satellite. This method, when applied on multi-model simulations of current and future climate, could reveal the altitude of cloud opacity level observed by lidar as a strong constrain for cloud LW feedback, since the altitude feedback mechanism is physically explainable and the altitude of cloud opacity accurately observed by lidar.

  15. Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Nancey; O’Connor, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    How is free will possible in the light of the physical and chemical underpinnings of brain activity and recent neurobiological experiments? How can the emergence of complexity in hierarchical systems such as the brain, based at the lower levels in physical interactions, lead to something like genuine free will? The nature of our understanding of free will in the light of present-day neuroscience is becoming increasingly important because of remarkable discoveries on the topic being made by neuroscientists at the present time, on the one hand, and its crucial importance for the way we view ourselves as human beings, on the other. A key tool in understanding how free will may arise in this context is the idea of downward causation in complex systems, happening coterminously with bottom up causation, to form an integral whole. Top-down causation is usually neglected, and is therefore emphasized in the other part of the book’s title. The concept is explored in depth, as are the ethical and legal implications of...

  16. Assessment of Satellite Surface Radiation Products in Highland Regions with Tibet Instrumental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Koike, Toshio; Stackhouse, Paul; Mikovitz, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    This study presents results of comparisons between instrumental radiation data in the elevated Tibetan Plateau and two global satellite products: the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment - Surface Radiation Budget (GEWEX-SRB) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project - Flux Data (ISCCP-FD). In general, shortwave radiation (SW) is estimated better by ISCCP-FD while longwave radiation (LW) is estimated better by GEWEX-SRB, but all the radiation components in both products are under-estimated. Severe and systematic errors were found in monthly-mean SRB SW (on plateau-average, -48 W/sq m for downward SW and -18 W/sq m for upward SW) and FD LW (on plateau-average, -37 W/sq m for downward LW and -62 W/sq m for upward LW) for radiation. Errors in monthly-mean diurnal variations are even larger than the monthly mean errors. Though the LW errors can be reduced about 10 W/sq m after a correction for altitude difference between the site and SRB and FD grids, these errors are still higher than that for other regions. The large errors in SRB SW was mainly due to a processing mistake for elevation effect, but the errors in SRB LW was mainly due to significant errors in input data. We suggest reprocessing satellite surface radiation budget data, at least for highland areas like Tibet.

  17. Design and Tests of a High-Performance Long-Wave Infrared Refractive Thermal Imager: Freeform Lens in Coaxial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjin Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used a freeform lens in a long-wave, un-cooled, refractive infrared (IR thermal imager and present the design strategy and test results. This optical system is composed of only one freeform lens and several spheres. It can correct the distortion issue inherent to wide field-of-view systems more effectively, and achieve a better thermal imaging performance simultaneously compared to traditional aspheric optical lenses. Such a design model can alleviate the calculation load and cater for the demand of the ultra-precision turning on single crystal germanium. It satisfies the design idea of freeform surfaces with machining feasibility. The refractive freeform IR imager can be realized from the theoretical design to the engineering applications. The research contents of this paper are helpful for the further application of the freeform lens to a more complex cooled infrared refractive thermal imager.

  18. Diffraction analysis for DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qing; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Diffraction effects play a significant role in the digital micromirror device (DMD)-based scene projectors in the long-wave infrared (IR) band (8-12 μm). The contrast provided by these projector systems can become noticeably worse because of the diffraction characteristics of the DMD. We apply a diffraction grating model of the DMD based on the scalar diffraction theory and the Fourier transform to address this issue. In addition, a simulation calculation is conducted with MATLAB. Finally, the simulation result is verified with an experiment. The simulation and experimental results indicate that, when the incident azimuth angle is 0° and the zenith angle is between 42°and 46°, the scene projectors will have a good imaging contrast in the long-wave IR. The diffraction grating model proposed in this study provides a method to improve the contrast of DMD-based scene projectors in the long-wave IR.

  19. A quantitative model and the experimental evaluation of the liquid fuel layer for the downward flame spread of XPS foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengfeng; Xie, Qiyuan; Tang, Xinyi; Qiu, Rong; Yang, Yun

    2017-05-05

    The objective of this work is to investigate the distinctive mechanisms of downward flame spread for XPS foam. It was physically considered as a moving down of narrow pool fire instead of downward surface flame spread for normal solids. A method was developed to quantitatively analyze the accumulated liquid fuel based on the experimental measurement of locations of flame tips and burning rates. The results surprisingly showed that about 80% of the generated hot liquid fuel remained in the pool fire during a certain period. Most of the consumed solid XPS foam didn't really burn away but transformed as the liquid fuel in the downward moving pool fire, which might be an important promotion for the fast fire development. The results also indicated that the dripping propensity of the hot liquid fuel depends on the total amount of the hot liquid accumulated in the pool fire. The leading point of the flame front curve might be the breach of the accumulated hot liquid fuel if it is enough for dripping. Finally, it is suggested that horizontal noncombustible barriers for preventing the accumulation and dripping of liquid fuel are helpful for vertical confining of XPS fire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. BABCOCK–LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO: THE ROLE OF DOWNWARD PUMPING AND THE EQUATORWARD PROPAGATION OF ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Cameron, Robert, E-mail: bkarak@ucar.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-11-20

    The key elements of the Babcock–Leighton dynamos are the generation of poloidal field through decay and the dispersal of tilted bipolar active regions and the generation of toroidal field through the observed differential rotation. These models are traditionally known as flux transport dynamo models as the equatorward propagations of the butterfly wings in these models are produced due to an equatorward flow at the bottom of the convection zone. Here we investigate the role of downward magnetic pumping near the surface using a kinematic Babcock–Leighton model. We find that the pumping causes the poloidal field to become predominately radial in the near-surface shear layer, which allows the negative radial shear to effectively act on the radial field to produce a toroidal field. We observe a clear equatorward migration of the toroidal field at low latitudes as a consequence of the dynamo wave even when there is no meridional flow in the deep convection zone. Both the dynamo wave and the flux transport type solutions are thus able to reproduce some of the observed features of the solar cycle including the 11-year periodicity. The main difference between the two types of solutions is the strength of the Babcock–Leighton source required to produce the dynamo action. A second consequence of the magnetic pumping is that it suppresses the diffusion of fields through the surface, which helps to allow an 11-year cycle at (moderately) larger values of magnetic diffusivity than have previously been used.

  1. Assesment of longwave radiation effects on air quality modelling in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucasse, L.; Buchan, A.; Pain, C.

    2016-12-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is widely used as a predictive tool to evaluate people's exposure to pollutants in urban street canyons. However, in low-wind conditions, flow and pollutant dispersion in the canyons are driven by thermal effects and may be affected by longwave (infrared) radiation due to the absorption and emission of water vapor contained in the air. These effects are mostly ignored in the literature dedicated to air quality modelling at this scale. This study aims at quantifying the uncertainties due to neglecting thermal radiation in air quality models. The Large-Eddy-Simulation of air flow in a single 2D canyon with a heat source on the ground is considered for Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers in the range of [10e8-10e10] and [5.10e3-5.10e4] respectively. The dispersion of a tracer is monitored once the statistically steady regime is reached. Incoming radiation is computed for a mid-latitude summer atmosphere and canyon surfaces are assumed to be black. Water vapour is the only radiating molecule considered and a global model is used to treat the spectral dependancy of its absorption coefficient. Flow and radiation fields are solved in a coupled way using the finite element solvers Fluidity and Fetch which have the capability of adapting their space and angular resolution according to an estimate of the solution error. Results show significant effects of thermal radiation on flow patterns and tracer dispersion. When radiation is taken into account, the air is heated far from the heat source leading to a stronger natural convection flow. The tracer is then dispersed faster out of the canyon potentially decreasing people's exposure to pollution within the street canyon.

  2. Validation of Improved Broadband Shortwave and Longwave Fluxes Derived From GOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Yi, Yuhong; Minnis, Patrick; Doelling, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Broadband (BB) shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes at TOA (Top of Atmosphere) are crucial parameters in the study of climate and can be monitored over large portions of the Earth's surface using satellites. The VISST (Visible Infrared Solar Split-Window Technique) satellite retrieval algorithm facilitates derivation of these parameters from the Geostationery Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). However, only narrowband (NB) fluxes are available from GOES, so this derivation requires use of narrowband-to-broadband (NB-BB) conversion coefficients. The accuracy of these coefficients affects the validity of the derived broadband (BB) fluxes. Most recently, NB-BB fits were re-derived using the NB fluxes from VISST/GOES data with BB fluxes observed by the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy Budget) instrument aboard Terra, a sun-synchronous polar-orbiting satellite that crosses the equator at 10:30 LT. Subsequent comparison with ARM's (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) BB fluxes revealed that while the derived broadband fluxes agreed well with CERES near the Terra overpass times, the accuracy of both LW and SW fluxes decreased farther away from the overpass times. Terra's orbit hampers the ability of the NB-BB fits to capture diurnal variability. To account for this in the LW, seasonal NB-BB fits are derived separately for day and night. Information from hourly SW BB fluxes from the Meteosat-8 Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) is employed to include samples over the complete solar zenith angle (SZA) range sampled by Terra. The BB fluxes derived from these improved NB-BB fits are compared to BB fluxes computed with a radiative transfer model.

  3. Upward and downward comparison in the intermediate-status group: the role of social stratification stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca

    2012-06-01

    This work analyses intergroup comparison choices made by intermediate-status group members. Seventy-six psychology students were categorized in an intermediate position with respect to other faculties. Stability was manipulated at three levels: stable, upwardly unstable, and downwardly unstable. Data on strength of comparison, comparison for enhancing, comparison for evaluation, and ingroup identification were collected. Results revealed that in the stable condition, participants were equally engaged in both upward and downward comparison. In the upwardly unstable condition, participants were more likely to compare themselves with the high-status group, whereas in the downwardly unstable condition, they were more likely to choose a downward comparison. In this latter condition, both downward comparison for enhancement and in-group identification were lower than in other conditions. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  4. The roles of stratosphere vortex downward intrusion and troposphere baroclinity in two summer Arctic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tao, W.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Storm activities have recently exhibited intensification over the Arctic, potentially impacting air-ice-sea interactions and contributing to rapid changes in the Arctic climate and environment. In this study, the individual and collaborative impacts of stratosphere vortex and troposphere baroclinity in the development of two Arctic storms were explored with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In the long-lasting Arctic storm in September 2010, it is found the downward intrusion of stratosphere vortex and the resultant upper level positive potential vorticity (PV) anomaly play decisive roles in the storm's intensification and persistence over an extended period of time, though a merged surface baroclinic front also makes contributions at the initial time period. In the super strong Arctic storm in August 2012, thermal anomalies in both the troposphere and stratosphere are necessary for the storm's drastic development. The troposphere baroclinity along the Arctic Front Zone, as well as the enhanced upper level positive PV anomaly due to stratosphere warm anomalies contribute to a strong jet and accordingly accelerate the deepening rate of the surface low. In both of the cases, the out-of-phase occurrence in the maxima of the stratosphere warm and troposphere cold anomalies sustains the intensity of the PV anomalies around the tropopause, which in turn further supports the storm's persistence.The results here may have significant implications for enhancing Arctic storm prediction capability, and improving understanding of the physical mechanisms of large-scale climate variability and changes and their linkage to synoptic storms.

  5. On shapes and motion of an elongated bubble in downward liquid pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fershtman, A.; Babin, V.; Barnea, D.; Shemer, L.

    2017-11-01

    In stagnant liquid, or in a steady upward liquid pipe flow, an elongated (Taylor) bubble has a symmetric shape. The translational velocity of the bubble is determined by buoyancy and the liquid velocity profile ahead of it. In downward flow, however, the symmetry of the bubble nose can be lost. Taylor bubble motion in downward flow is important in numerous applications such as chemical plants and cooling systems that often contain countercurrent gas-liquid flow. In the present study, the relation between the Taylor bubble shape and its translational velocity is investigated experimentally in a vertical pipe for various downward liquid flow rates. At higher downward velocities, the bubble may be forced by the background flow to propagate downward against buoyancy. In order to include those cases as well in our experimental analysis, the bubbles were initially injected into stagnant liquid, whereas the downward flow was initiated at a later stage. This experimental procedure allowed us to identify three distinct modes of translational velocities for a given downward background liquid flow; each velocity corresponds to a different bubble shape. Hydrodynamic mechanisms that govern the transition between the modes observed in the present study are discussed.

  6. Long-wave infrared digital holography for the qualification of large space reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenrijt, J. F.; Thizy, C.; Georges, M. P.; Queeckers, P.; Dubois, F.; Doyle, D.

    2017-11-01

    Deformation metrology of complex and large space reflectors is a recurrent problem addressed by ESA. The challenging tasks of on-ground qualification and verification testing are to achieve the required accuracy in the measurement of these reflectors deformation and to verify their performance under simulated space conditions (vacuum, low temperature). A long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometer for the verification and validation of this type of reflector in a space environment is presented. It has been developed to fill the gap between holography/interferometry techniques in the visible wavelengths and methods based on structured light illumination like videogrammetry, stereocorrelation, and fringe/pattern projection. The former provide a good measurement uncertainty but the displacements are often too large to be measured and they require a very stable environment, while the latter provide large measurement range but with higher measurement uncertainty. The new instrument is based on digital holography and uses a CO2 lasers emitting at 10.6μm combined with a commercial thermographic camera. A diffuser is illuminated by the laser beam, producing a speckle wavefront which is observed after reflection on the reflector surface. This reflected speckle wavefront behaves exactly as if the reflector was a diffusive surface, producing its own speckle, allowing the measurement of its deformation. The advantage of this configuration compared to a classical interferometer working at 10.6μm, is that it requires no specific optics such as a null lens (in the case of parabola) or expensive illumination/collection optics (in the case of ellipse). The metrological certification of the system was performed in the laboratory by measuring the tilts of a 1.1 meter diameter parabolic reflector. The displacements are measured in parallel with a Doppler effect interferometer and the measurement uncertainty is estimated. The technique has been certified during a thermal

  7. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant de Guélis, Thibault; Chepfer, Hélène; Noel, Vincent; Guzman, Rodrigo; Dubuisson, Philippe; Winker, David M.; Kato, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    According to climate model simulations, the changing altitude of middle and high clouds is the dominant contributor to the positive global mean longwave cloud feedback. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of this longwave cloud altitude feedback and its magnitude have not yet been verified by observations. Accurate, stable, and long-term observations of a metric-characterizing cloud vertical distribution that are related to the longwave cloud radiative effect are needed to achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of longwave cloud altitude feedback. This study shows that the direct measurement of the altitude of atmospheric lidar opacity is a good candidate for the necessary observational metric. The opacity altitude is the level at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated when probing an opaque cloud. By combining this altitude with the direct lidar measurement of the cloud-top altitude, we derive the effective radiative temperature of opaque clouds which linearly drives (as we will show) the outgoing longwave radiation. We find that, for an opaque cloud, a cloud temperature change of 1 K modifies its cloud radiative effect by 2 W m-2. Similarly, the longwave cloud radiative effect of optically thin clouds can be derived from their top and base altitudes and an estimate of their emissivity. We show with radiative transfer simulations that these relationships hold true at single atmospheric column scale, on the scale of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instantaneous footprint, and at monthly mean 2° × 2° scale. Opaque clouds cover 35 % of the ice-free ocean and contribute to 73 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. Thin-cloud coverage is 36 % and contributes 27 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated provides a simple formulation of the cloud radiative effect in the longwave domain and so helps us to

  8. Study on Parameter Choice Methods for the RFMP with Respect to Downward Continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gutting

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the regularized functional matching pursuit (RFMP was introduced as a greedy algorithm for linear ill-posed inverse problems. This algorithm incorporates the Tikhonov-Phillips regularization which implies the necessity of a parameter choice. In this paper, some known parameter choice methods are evaluated with respect to their performance in the RFMP and its enhancement, the regularized orthogonal functional matching pursuit (ROFMP. As an example of a linear inverse problem, the downward continuation of gravitational field data from the satellite orbit to the Earth's surface is chosen, because it is exponentially ill-posed. For the test scenarios, different satellite heights with several noise-to-signal ratios and kinds of noise are combined. The performances of the parameter choice strategies in these scenarios are analyzed. For example, it is shown that a strongly scattered set of data points is an essentially harder challenge for the regularization than a regular grid. The obtained results yield, as a first orientation, that the generalized cross validation, the L-curve method and the residual method could be most appropriate for the RFMP and the ROFMP.

  9. Observations of up- and downward propagating gravity waves in the strato- and mesosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, Irina; Baumgarten, Gerd; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Hildebrand, Jens; Höffner, Josef; Stober, Gunter

    2017-04-01

    Experimental and modeling efforts show that small-scale gravity waves (GW) essentially affect large-scale circulations, thermal states, and dynamics from the surface to the middle atmosphere. In climate modeling and weather-forecasting applications the gravity-wave drag and its interaction with large-scale dynamics are referred to as sub-gridscale, i.e. unresolved processes and are the most uncertain aspect of these models. Advances in lidar measurement techniques allow for experimental studies of GWs at very small spatial and temporal scales, which are not accessible by other means. The state of the art Doppler lidars and radars at the ALOMAR research station located in Northern Norway (69°N, 16°E) provide an observational database of GWs at the edge of the polar vortex connected to global dynamics of the Earth atmosphere. Doppler Rayleigh Iodine System (DoRIS) provides horizontal wind measurements in addition to the temperature observation. The altitude coverage is extended from 30 to 110 km by using the temperature observed by mobile Fe lidar with wind observations taken from meteor radar system. This give us unique possibility to obtain wave propagation direction, intrinsic frequency and horizontal wavelength from the single station. Making use of the advantage of this system, we derive wave parameters more precisely, and under some conditions we observe waves with downward propagating energy. In this paper we will present results of analyses of the GW observations by lidars and radars and discuss implications on atmospheric dynamics.

  10. Tornado frequency in the USA - meteorological and non-meteorological factors of a downward trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citing numerical simulations, climate alarmists believe that global warming will lead to more frequent and more intensive tornadoes. Considering temperature increase data in the contiguous USA, this study has investigated the trend of strong tornadoes in F3+ category in the 1954-2012 period. Statistically significant decrease of tornadoes per year at an average rate of 0.44 has been recorded, that is, 4.4 tornadoes per decade. Tornado increase has been recorded with F0 and F1 categories and the cause of this increase lies in meteorological and non-meteorological factors. By using upper and lower standard deviation values, the stages of tornado activity have been singled out. The 1957-1974 period may be considered as an active stage and the 1978-2009 period as an inactive stage. Upward trend of air temperature increase does not correspond with the downward trend of the number of F3+ tornado category, while the correlation coefficient between these two variables is R = −0.14. This fact does not correspond with the simulation results and output data of various numerical models anticipating an increase in the number and intensity of tornado events in the conditions of surface air temperature growth.

  11. An earth outgoing longwave radiation climate model. II - Radiation with clouds included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Keng; Smith, G. Louis; Bartman, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    The model of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLWR) of Yang et al. (1987) is modified by accounting for the presence of clouds and their influence on OLWR. Cloud top temperature was adjusted so that the calculation agreed with NOAA scanning radiometer measurements. Cloudy sky cases were calculated for global average, zonal average, and worldwide distributed cases. The results were found to agree well with satellite observations.

  12. Long-term variations in outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Long-term variations in outgoing long-wave radiation. (OLR), convective available potential energy (CAPE) and temperature in the tropopause region over India. R Sapra1,2, S K Dhaka1,∗, V Panwar2,3, R Bhatnagar1,2, K Praveen Kumar4,. Y Shibagaki5, M Venkat Ratnam6 and M Takahashi7. 1Radio and Atmospheric ...

  13. Single interval longwave radiation scheme based on the net exchanged rate decomposition with bracketing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geleyn, J.- F.; Mašek, Jan; Brožková, Radmila; Kuma, P.; Degrauwe, D.; Hello, G.; Pristov, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 704 (2017), s. 1313-1335 ISSN 0035-9009 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : numerical weather prediction * climate models * clouds * parameterization * atmospheres * formulation * absorption * scattering * accurate * database * longwave radiative transfer * broadband approach * idealized optical paths * net exchanged rate decomposition * bracketing * selective intermittency Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.444, year: 2016

  14. Photonic antenna enhanced middle wave and longwave infrared focal plane array with low noise and high operating temperature, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photodetectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) covering the middle-wave and longwave infrared (MWIR/LWIR) are of great importance in numerous NASA applications,...

  15. Long-wave plasma radiofrequency ablation for treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Adone

    2018-03-01

    Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common type of xanthoma affecting the eyelids. It is characterized by asymptomatic soft yellowish macules, papules, or plaques over the upper and lower eyelids. Many treatments are available for management of xanthelasma palpebrarum, the most commonly used include surgical excision, ablative CO 2 or erbium lasers, nonablative Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, trichloroacetic acid peeling, and radiofrequency ablation. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of RF ablation in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum, with D.A.S. Medical portable device (Technolux, Italia), a radiofrequency tool working with long-wave plasma energy and without anesthesia. Twenty patients, 15 female and 5 male, affected by xanthelasma palpebrarum, were enrolled for long-wave plasma radiofrequency ablation treatment. The treatment consisted of 3/4 sessions that were carried out at intervals of 30 days. Treatments were well tolerated by all patients with no adverse effects and optimal aesthetic results. The procedure is very fast and can be performed without anesthesia because of the low and tolerable pain stimulation. Long-wave plasma radiofrequency ablation is an effective option for treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum and adds an additional tool to the increasing list of medical devices for aesthetic treatments. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Differential impact of upward and downward comparisons on diverse women's disordered eating behaviors and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Diana; Schaefer, Lauren M; Bosson, Jennifer K; Thompson, J Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Etiological models of disordered eating are limited in their consideration of racial/ethnic differences in risk factors. Appearance comparisons are consistent predictors of disordered eating outcomes, but research predominantly examines these associations among White women and overlooks the potential differential impact of upward (comparing to someone perceived as better off) versus downward comparisons (comparing to someone perceived as worse off). This study investigated race/ethnicity as a moderator of the associations between upward and downward appearance comparisons and disordered eating outcomes and body satisfaction of young adult women. Measures of upward and downward appearance comparisons, body satisfaction, and disordered eating were administered to 1,014 young adult women. A multiple group (by race/ethnicity) path analysis was estimated using maximum likelihood estimation for each disordered eating and body satisfaction outcome, controlling for age and BMI. Upward comparisons were associated with higher levels of disordered eating behaviors and lower body satisfaction for women of all racial/ethnic groups. Downward appearance comparisons emerged as detrimental for Hispanic/Latina women, but were protective for Asian and White women. Findings challenge the belief that appearance comparisons impact all women similarly and that downward comparisons are universally protective, a position often promulgated by clinical treatment approaches. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:519-523). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Urban surface energy fluxes based on remotely-sensed data and micrometeorological measurements over the Kansai area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeyasu, T.; Ueyama, M.; Ando, T.; Kosugi, Y.; Kominami, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island is associated with land cover changes and increases in anthropogenic heat fluxes. Clear understanding of the surface energy budget at urban area is the most important for evaluating the urban heat island. In this study, we develop a model based on remotely-sensed data for the Kansai area in Japan and clarify temporal transitions and spatial distributions of the surface energy flux from 2000 to 2016. The model calculated the surface energy fluxes based on various satellite and GIS products. The model used land surface temperature, surface emissivity, air temperature, albedo, downward shortwave radiation and land cover/use type from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) under cloud free skies from 2000 to 2016 over the Kansai area in Japan (34 to 35 ° N, 135 to 136 ° E). Net radiation was estimated by a radiation budget of upward/downward shortwave and longwave radiation. Sensible heat flux was estimated by a bulk aerodynamic method. Anthropogenic heat flux was estimated by the inventory data. Latent heat flux was examined with residues of the energy budget and parameterization of bulk transfer coefficients. We validated the model using observed fluxes from five eddy-covariance measurement sites: three urban sites and two forested sites. The estimated net radiation roughly agreed with the observations, but the sensible heat flux were underestimated. Based on the modeled spatial distributions of the fluxes, the daytime net radiation in the forested area was larger than those in the urban area, owing to higher albedo and land surface temperatures in the urban area than the forested area. The estimated anthropogenic heat flux was high in the summer and winter periods due to increases in energy-requirements.

  18. Downwardly mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    P & H Mining Equipment has produced the 250XP rotary blasthole drill, its first `clean sheet` drill after eight years of upgrading the line of large rotaries it acquired from Gardner Denver in 1991. A prototype has been working on an Australian coal mine since June 1998. A further two units of the 250XP are being erected at a diamond mine in Botswana for start-up in January 1999 and another will begin drilling at a Wyoming, USA coal mine in February. The drill is a highly mobile, heavy duty, highly reliable diesel/hydraulic drill weighing 113,500 kg and can drill holes at angles up to 30 degrees.

  19. Target recognition: fusing long-wave infrared and electro-optical imagery for detection of humans in a scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, R. L.; Skipper, J. A.; Repperger, D. W.

    2009-05-01

    We aim to identify humans in multimodal imagery by predicting the human long-wave infrared (LWIR) signature in a variety of scenarios. By adapting Tanabe's thermocomfort model, we simulate human body heat flow both between tissue layers (core, muscle, fat and skin) and between body segments (head, chest, upper arm, etc.). To assess the validity of our implementation, we simulated the conditions described in actual human subject studies, and compared our results to values reported in the literature. Inputs to the model include age, height, weight, clothing, physical activity and ambient conditions, including temperature, humidity and wind velocity. Iteration of heat transport equations and a thermoregulatory component yields temporal data of segment surface temperature. Our model was found to be in close agreement with experimentally collected data, with a maximum deviation from literature values of approximately 0.80%. By comparing the predicted human thermal signature to deblurred LWIR images and then fusing this information at the feature level with high-resolution electro-optical image data, we can facilitate identity detection of objects in a scene acquired under different conditions. Ultimately, our goal is to differentiate humans from their surroundings and label non-human objects as thermal clutter.

  20. Integrated visible and near-infrared, shortwave infrared, and longwave infrared full-range hyperspectral data analysis for geologic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) and spatially coincident hyperspectral thermal emission spectrometer (HyTES) data were used to map geology and alteration for a site in northern Death Valley, California and Nevada. AVIRIS with 224 bands from 0.4 to 2.5 μm were converted to reflectance. HyTES data with 256 bands covering 8 to 12 μm were converted to emissivity. Two approaches were investigated for integration of the datasets for full spectrum analysis. A combined (integrated) bands method utilized 332 spectral bands spanning both datasets. Spectral endmembers were extracted, and the predominant material at each pixel was mapped for the full spectral range using partial unmixing. This approach separated a variety of materials, but it was difficult to directly relate mapping results to surface properties. The second method used visible to near-infrared, shortwave infrared, and longwave infrared data independently to determine and map key endmembers in each spectral range. AVIRIS directly mapped a variety of specific minerals, while HyTES separated and mapped several igneous rock phases. Individual mapping results were then combined using geologically directed logical operators. The full-range results illustrate that integrated analysis provides advantages over use of just one spectral range, leading to improved understanding of the distribution of geologic units and alteration.

  1. New sea surface salinity product in the tropical Indian Ocean estimated from outgoing longwave radiation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; O'Brien, J.J.

    .... Teaming Toward the Future September 22-26, 2003 San Diego, California Town and Country -Hotel and Convention Center • • IEEE OCEANS 2003 MTSIIEEE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PUBLISHED BY: OCEANS 2003 MTSIIEEE CONFERENCE COMMITTEE Responsibility for the contents... © 2003 by The Marine Technology Society IEEE Catalog Number: 03CH37492 ISBN: 0-933957-30-0 DVDVersion ISBN: 0-933957-32-7 DVD, CD-ROM Layout and Replication by: HoUand Enterprises Book Layout and Printing by: HoUand Publications 1782 Solana Glen Escondido...

  2. Estimation of sea surface salinity in the Bay of Bengal using Outgoing Longwave Radiation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Sarma, M.S.S.; Tilvi, V.; RameshBabu, V.

    -induced precipitation. This study augments the in situ SSS measurements. A preliminary assessment of deriving SSS from OLR is presented for the Bay of Bengal. It is envisaged that the SSS estimated in this way may be useful in improving the existing climatologies...

  3. Evaluation and Comparison of the Processing Methods of Airborne Gravimetry Concerning the Errors Effects on Downward Continuation Results: Case Studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qilong; Strykowski, Gabriel; Li, Jiancheng; Pan, Xiong; Xu, Xinyu

    2017-05-25

    Gravity data gaps in mountainous areas are nowadays often filled in with the data from airborne gravity surveys. Because of the errors caused by the airborne gravimeter sensors, and because of rough flight conditions, such errors cannot be completely eliminated. The precision of the gravity disturbances generated by the airborne gravimetry is around 3-5 mgal. A major obstacle in using airborne gravimetry are the errors caused by the downward continuation. In order to improve the results the external high-accuracy gravity information e.g., from the surface data can be used for high frequency correction, while satellite information can be applying for low frequency correction. Surface data may be used to reduce the systematic errors, while regularization methods can reduce the random errors in downward continuation. Airborne gravity surveys are sometimes conducted in mountainous areas and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic errors generated by the method are close to the simulated values. In addition, we study the relationship between the downward continuation altitudes and the error effect. The

  4. The behaviour of hydrogen-like atoms in an intense long-wave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The equations, which permit the calculation by means of regular operations of multiphoton photoionisation cross sections and the dynamic polarisabilities in an intense classical long-wave electromagnetic field, are considered for a hydrogen atom. The calculations have been performed for a circularly polarised field. A quantitative expression has been derived for the Lamb shift analogue, which can be verified experimentally. Within the framework of the problem the interaction at small distances is self-compensated and reduced to a constant potential. This conclusion is of general interest for the theory of strong interactions. (author)

  5. Dispersion relation for long-wave neutrons and the possibility of its precise experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.I.; Nosov, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    Modern theoretical concepts concerning the dispersion relation for slow neutrons in matter are considered. The generally accepted optical-potential model is apparently not quite accurate and should be supplemented with some small corrections in the energy range attainable in experiments. For ultracold neutrons, these corrections are related to the proximity of the applicability boundary of the theory; for cold neutrons, these corrections are due to correlations in the positions of scatters. The accuracy of existing experiments is insufficient for confirmation or refutation these conclusions. A precision experiment is proposed to verify the dispersion relation for long-wave neutrons. 30 refs., 3 figs

  6. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vaillant de Guélis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to climate model simulations, the changing altitude of middle and high clouds is the dominant contributor to the positive global mean longwave cloud feedback. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of this longwave cloud altitude feedback and its magnitude have not yet been verified by observations. Accurate, stable, and long-term observations of a metric-characterizing cloud vertical distribution that are related to the longwave cloud radiative effect are needed to achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of longwave cloud altitude feedback. This study shows that the direct measurement of the altitude of atmospheric lidar opacity is a good candidate for the necessary observational metric. The opacity altitude is the level at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated when probing an opaque cloud. By combining this altitude with the direct lidar measurement of the cloud-top altitude, we derive the effective radiative temperature of opaque clouds which linearly drives (as we will show the outgoing longwave radiation. We find that, for an opaque cloud, a cloud temperature change of 1 K modifies its cloud radiative effect by 2 W m−2. Similarly, the longwave cloud radiative effect of optically thin clouds can be derived from their top and base altitudes and an estimate of their emissivity. We show with radiative transfer simulations that these relationships hold true at single atmospheric column scale, on the scale of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES instantaneous footprint, and at monthly mean 2° × 2° scale. Opaque clouds cover 35 % of the ice-free ocean and contribute to 73 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. Thin-cloud coverage is 36 % and contributes 27 % of the global mean cloud radiative effect. The link between outgoing longwave radiation and the altitude at which a spaceborne lidar beam is fully attenuated provides a simple formulation of the cloud radiative effect in the

  7. Three-dimensional canopy fuel loading predicted using upward and downward sensing LiDAR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas S. Skowronski; Kenneth L. Clark; Matthew Duveneck; John. Hom

    2011-01-01

    We calibrated upward sensing profiling and downward sensing scanning LiDAR systems to estimates of canopy fuel loading developed from field plots and allometric equations, and then used the LiDAR datasets to predict canopy bulk density (CBD) and crown fuel weight (CFW) in wildfire prone stands in the New Jersey Pinelands. LiDAR-derived height profiles were also...

  8. Evaluation of Satellite-Based Surface Energy Budget Products with Surface Measurements Over the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Loeb, N. G.; Lenters, J. D.; Spence, C.; Blanken, P.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is fundamentally driven by the global energy balance. While Earth's energy budget at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) is well understood, satellite-based estimates of the global mean surface energy budget yield an imbalance of 15-20 Wm-2. The data products used to infer the components of the surface energy budget are often based upon physical or empirical models and ancillary input data sets of varying quality. In order to make progress, comparisons between satellite-based estimates of the surface energy budget components and direct surface measurements are critically needed. This study evaluates surface radiative fluxes from NASA CERES EBAF and surface turbulent heat fluxes from OAFLUX by comparing them with surface station measurements from the Great Lakes Evaporation Network (GLEN). The GLEN measurements are collected using instruments on lighthouses in the Great Lakes, and include surface evaporation measurement via eddy covariance technique. The evaluation is performed for 3 offshore and 1 nearshore Great Lakes sites. We highlight results for Stannard Rock in Lake Superior, which is the farthest lighthouse from shore ( 40km from the nearest land). Relative to the GLEN observations, the OAFLUX underestimates latent heat flux by 12 Wm-2 (19 Wm-2) at Stannard Rock (4-station average), in part due to its weaker near surface wind speed, and overestimates sensible heat flux by 12 Wm-2 (6 Wm-2), which is partly contributed by its colder surface air temperature. The CERES EBAF-Surface overestimates the surface downward all-sky shortwave (longwave) flux by 8 Wm-2 (7 Wm-2) at Stannard Rock, and is comparable to the 4-station average. As a result, the surface estimated using EBAF-Surface and OAFLUX receives 16 Wm-2 (13 Wm-2) more than the GLEN observations at Stannard Rock (4-station average). The above surface energy flux differences will be further discussed based on a comparison between the input data sets used in the satellite-based estimates and

  9. Assessment of clear sky radiative fluxes in CMIP5 climate models using surface observations from BSRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M.; Hakuba, M. Z.; Folini, D.; Ott, P.; Long, C. N.

    2017-12-01

    Clear sky fluxes in the latest generation of Global Climate Models (GCM) from CMIP5 still vary largely particularly at the Earth's surface, covering in their global means a range of 16 and 24 Wm-2 in the surface downward clear sky shortwave (SW) and longwave radiation, respectively. We assess these fluxes with monthly clear sky reference climatologies derived from more than 40 Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) sites based on Long and Ackermann (2000) and Hakuba et al. (2015). The comparison is complicated by the fact that the monthly SW clear sky BSRN reference climatologies are inferred from measurements under true cloud-free conditions, whereas the GCM clear sky fluxes are calculated continuously at every timestep solely by removing the clouds, yet otherwise keeping the prevailing atmospheric composition (e.g. water vapor, temperature, aerosols) during the cloudy conditions. This induces the risk of biases in the GCMs just due to the additional sampling of clear sky fluxes calculated under atmospheric conditions representative for cloudy situations. Thereby, a wet bias may be expected in the GCMs compared to the observational references, which may induce spurious low biases in the downward clear sky SW fluxes. To estimate the magnitude of these spurious biases in the available monthly mean fields from 40 CMIP5 models, we used their respective multi-century control runs, and searched therein for each month and each BSRN station the month with the lowest cloud cover. The deviations of the clear sky fluxes in this month from their long-term means have then be used as indicators of the magnitude of the abovementioned sampling biases and as correction factors for an appropriate comparison with the BSRN climatologies, individually applied for each model and BSRN site. The overall correction is on the order of 2 Wm-2. This revises our best estimate for the global mean surface downward SW clear sky radiation, previously at 249 Wm-2 infered from the GCM clear sky

  10. Analysis of regularized long-wave equation associated with a new fractional operator with Mittag-Leffler type kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Singh, Jagdev; Baleanu, Dumitru; Sushila

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we aim to present a new fractional extension of regularized long-wave equation. The regularized long-wave equation is a very important mathematical model in physical sciences, which unfolds the nature of shallow water waves and ion acoustic plasma waves. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the regularized long-wave equation associated with Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative having Mittag-Leffler type kernel is verified by implementing the fixed-point theorem. The numerical results are derived with the help of an iterative algorithm. In order to show the effects of various parameters and variables on the displacement, the numerical results are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  11. Ground-Based Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes Associated with Downward-Directed Lightning Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, J.; Abbasi, R.; Krehbiel, P. R.; LeVon, R.; Remington, J.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGFs) have been observed in satellite-borne gamma ray detectors for several decades, starting with the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray observatory in 1994. TGFs consist of bursts of upwards of 1018 primary gamma rays, with a duration of up to a few milliseconds, originating in the Earth's atmosphere. More recent observations have shown that satellite-observed TGFs are generated in upward-propagating negative leaders of intracloud lightning, suggesting that they may be sensitive to the processes responsible for the initial lightning breakdown. Here, we present the first evidence that TGFs are also produced at the beginning of negative cloud-to-ground flashes, and that they may provide a new window through which ground-based observatories may contribute to understanding the breakdown process. The Telescope Array Surface Detector (TASD) is a 700 square kilometer cosmic ray observatory, an array of 507 3m2 scintillators on a 1.2 km grid. The array is triggered and read out when at least three adjacent detectors observe activity within an 8 μs window. Following the observation of bursts of anomalous TASD triggers, lasting a few hundred microseconds and correlated with local lightning activity, a Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and slow electric field antenna were installed at the TASD site in order to study the effect. From data obtained between 2014 and 2016, correlated observations were obtained for ten -CG flashes. In 9 out of 10 cases, bursts of up to five anomalous triggers were detected during the first ms of the flash, as negative breakdown was descending into lower positive storm charge. The triggers occurred when the LMA-detected VHF radiation sources were at altitudes between 1.5 to 4.5 km AGL. The tenth flash was initiated by an unusually energetic leader that reached the ground in 2.5 ms and produced increasingly powerful triggers down to about 500 m AGL. While the TASD is not optimized for individual gamma ray detection

  12. Thermal hydraulic analysis of flow inversion in a research reactor with downward core cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Dae Seong; Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Research reactors with forced downward core cooling experience flow inversion if the primary cooling pump (PCP) is failed. If PCP failure occurs, the downward flow decreases into zero flow and eventually turn into upward flow by natural circulation. During flow inversion phenomenon, reactor cores may undergo the most unfavorable thermal hydraulic condition, which results in the highest coolant and fuel temperatures and lowest thermal margins. The transient thermal hydraulic analyses of loss of flow accidents (LOFA) in IAEA 10MW benchmark MTR research reactor have been widely investigated by many institutes. In this study, a transient thermal hydraulic model of flow inversion is developed and applied to IAEA 10MW benchmark MTR research reactor. The results are compared against other analyses

  13. Derivation of the downward velocity of the flaring region of 26 June 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Alkader Ali Abseim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, three methods have been used to compute the downward velocity of the flare plasma of the solar flare on June 26, 1999. The first method is used to determine the plasma velocity of the studied flare from the Hα line asymmetries by using the asymmetry method developed by Edward (2009. The second one is to obtain the downward velocity of the flare plasma from the far wings of the excess profiles by the bisector method. This method was employed by; for example, Ichimoto and Kurokawa (1984, Falchi et al. (1992, and Ding et al. (1995. The third method is the modified cloud model which is described by Liu and Ding (2001a,b, Gu and Ding (2002, Semeida et al. (2004 and Berlicki (2007.

  14. Using IASI to simulate the total spectrum of outgoing long-wave radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, E. C.; Lee, H.-T.; Tett, S. F. B.

    2015-06-01

    A new method of deriving high-resolution top-of-atmosphere spectral radiances in 10 181 bands, over the whole outgoing long-wave spectrum of the Earth, is presented. Correlations between different channels measured by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interfermeter (IASI) on the MetOp-A (Meteorological Operation) satellite and unobserved wavenumbers are used to estimate far infrared (FIR) radiances at 0.5 cm-1 intervals between 25.25 and 644.75 cm-1 (the FIR), and additionally between 2760 and 3000 cm-1 (the NIR - near infrared). Radiances simulated by the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) are used to construct the prediction model. The spectrum is validated by comparing the Integrated Nadir Long-wave Radiance (INLR) product spanning the whole 25.25-3000 cm-1 range with the corresponding broadband measurements from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on the Terra and Aqua satellites at points of simultaneous nadir overpass. There is a mean difference of 0.3 W m-2 sr-1 (0.5% relative difference). This is well within the uncertainties associated with the measurements made by either instrument. However, there is a noticeable contrast when the bias is separated into night-time and daytime scenes with the latter being significantly larger, possibly due to errors in the CERES Ed3 Spectral Response Functions (SRF) correction method. In the absence of an operational spaceborne instrument that isolates the FIR, this product provides a useful proxy for such measurements within the limits of the regression model it is based on, which is shown to have very low root mean squared errors. The new high-resolution spectrum is presented for global mean clear and all skies where the FIR is shown to contribute 44 and 47% to the total INLR, respectively. In terms of the spectral cloud effect (Cloud Integrated Nadir Long-wave Radiance - CINLR), the FIR contributes 19% and in some subtropical instances appears to be negative; results that

  15. Long-wave dynamics of an elastic sheet lubricated by a thin liquid film on a wetting substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Y.-N.; Stone, H. A.

    2017-06-01

    The dynamics of an elastic sheet lubricated by a thin liquid film on a wetting solid substrate is examined using both numerical simulations of a long-wave lubrication equation and a quasistatic model. Interactions between the liquid and the wetting substrate are modeled by a disjoining pressure that gives rise to an ultrathin (precursor) film. For a fluid interface without elastic bending stiffness, a flat precursor film may be linearly unstable and evolve towards an equilibrium of a single "drop" connected to a flat ultrathin film. Similar behavior is found when the thin film is covered by an elastic sheet: The sheet deforms, rearranging the thin liquid film, and contributes regulating surface forces such as a bending resistance and/or a tensile force, which may arise from interactions between the sheet and liquid or inextensibility of the sheet. Glasner's quasistatic model [Phys. Fluids 15, 1837 (2003), 10.1063/1.1578076], developed for a liquid film, is adopted to investigate the combined effects of elastic and tensile forces in the sheet on the thin film dynamics. The equilibrium height of the drop is found to vary inversely with the bending rigidity. When the elastic sheet is inextensible (such as a lipid bilayer membrane), a compressive tensile force may occur and the equilibrium film height is dependent less on the bending rigidity and more on the excess area of the membrane. Analyses of the lubrication equation also show that the precursor film transitions monotonically to the core film for tension-dominated dynamics. In contrast, for elasticity-dominated dynamics, a spatial oscillation of film height in the contact line region is found. In addition, elasticity in the sheet causes a sliding motion of the thin film: the contact angle is rendered zero by elasticity, and the contact line moves at a finite speed.

  16. Iterative Spherical Downward Continuation Applied to Magnetic and Gravitational Data from Satellite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, J.; Šprlák, M.; Novák, P.; Bezděk, Aleš; Valko, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2014), s. 941-958 ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071 Grant - others:ESA(XE) AO/1-6367/10/NL/AF Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : downward continuation * Earth's gravitational and magnetic field * poisson integral equation Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.447, year: 2014

  17. Airborne Downward Looking Sparse Linear Array 3-D SAR Heterogeneous Parallel Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yirong Wu; Weixian Tan; Xueming Peng; Wen Hong; Yanping Wang

    2013-01-01

    The airborne downward looking sparse linear array three dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) operates nadir observation with the along-track synthetic aperture formulated by platform movement and the cross-track synthetic aperture formulated by physical sparse linear array. Considering the lack of DLSLA 3-D SAR data in the current preliminary study stage, it is very important and essential to develop DLSLA 3-D SAR simulation (echo generation simulation and image reconstruction...

  18. Vertical downward subcooled bubbly flow modelling with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristevski, R.; Parzer, I.; Markov, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The presented paper will consider the correlation for void fraction distribution in the subcooled boiling flow regime of downward liquid flow at low velocities. More specifically, it will focus on the choice of the most appropriate heat and mass transfer correlation. The experimental findings and theoretical consideration of these processes and phenomena will be compared with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 Gamma predictions. (author)

  19. Enhancing satisfaction through downward comparison : The role of relational discontent and individual differences in social comparison orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Oldersma, FL; de Dreu, CKW

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether downward social comparison may enhance satisfaction in close relationships. In a thought-generating task participants were asked to generate features of their relationship in which they considered their relationship as better than that of most others (downward

  20. Optical progression characteristics of an interesting natural downward bipolar lightning flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luwen; Lu, Weitao; Zhang, Yijun; Wang, Daohong

    2015-01-01

    high-speed cameras, Lightning Attachment Process Observation Systems, and fast and slow electrical antennas, we documented a downward bipolar lightning flash that contained one first positive stroke with a peak current of 142 kA and five subsequent negative strokes hitting on a 90 m tall structure on 29 July 2010 in Guangzhou City, China. All the six strokes propagated along the same viewed channel established by the first positive return stroke. The leader which preceded the positive return stroke propagated downward without any branches at a two-dimensional (2-D) speed of 2.5 × 106 m/s. An upward connecting leader with a length of about 80 m was observed in response to the downward positive leader. The 10-90% risetimes of the return strokes' optical pulses ranged from 2.2 µs to 3.2 µs, while the widths from the 10% wavefront to the 50% wave tail ranged from 56.5 µs to 83.1 µs, and the half peak widths ranged from 53.4 µs to 81.6 µs. All the return strokes exhibited similar speeds, ranging from 1.0 × 108 m/s to 1.3 × 108 m/s. Each of the return strokes was followed by a continuing current stage (CC). The first positive stroke CC lasted more than 150 ms, much larger than all the subsequent negative stroke CC, ranging from 13 ms to 70 ms.

  1. Effects of Gloves and Pulling Task on Achievable Downward Pull Forces on a Rung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschorner, Kurt E; Slota, Gregory P; Pliner, Erika M; Spaho, Egli; Seo, Na Jin

    2018-03-01

    Objective We examined the impacts of pulling task (breakaway and pull-down tasks at different postures), glove use, and their interaction on achievable downward pull forces from a ladder rung. Background Posture, glove use, and the type of pulling task are known to affect the achievable forces. However, a gap in the literature exists regarding how these factors affect achievable downward pulling forces, which are relevant to recovery from a perturbation during ladder climbing. Methods Forty subjects completed four downward pulling tasks (breakaway force; pull force at maximum height, shoulder height, and a middle height), using three glove conditions with varying coefficient of friction (COF) levels (cotton glove, low COF; bare hand, moderate COF; and latex-coated glove, high COF) with their dominant and nondominant hand. The outcome variable was the maximum force normalized to body weight. Results The highest forces were observed for the highest hand postures (breakaway and maximum height). Increased COF led to higher forces and had a larger effect on breakaway force than the other tasks. The dominant hand was associated with higher forces than the nondominant hand. Male subjects generated greater forces than female subjects, particularly for higher hand positions. Conclusion This study suggests that a higher hand position on the ladder, while avoiding low-friction gloves, may be effective for improving recovery from ladder perturbations. Application This study may guide preferred climbing strategies (particularly those that lead to a higher hand position) for improving recovery from a perturbation during ladder climbing.

  2. THE USE OF LOCAL LONG-WAVE INFRARED IRRADIATION IN THE COMBINATION TREATMENT OF LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sekirin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized scleroderma often results in irreversible cosmetic abnormalities and if advanced, to organ dysfunction and disability. Pharmacological treatment is not effective enough and can cause adverse events and complications. Due to this fact, much attention is paid to non-medical approaches to this disorder that would be able to exert positive clinical and patho-physiological effects and potentiate the effects of medical treatment. Aim: To evaluate the effects of local long-wave infrared irradiation on the course of localized scleroderma and to assess therapeutic efficacy of this method combined with conventional pharmacological treatment. Materials and methods: Fifty five (55 patients with localized scleroderma were included into the study. The patients from the control group (n = 20 were administered conventional medical treatment for 14  to 20  days, including antibacterials, proteolytic enzymes, calcium antagonists, antioxidants, topical vasculoprotectors + microcirculation correctors, as well as applications of corticosteroids. The patients from the main group (n = 35, in addition to conventional medical treatment, were administered local long-wave infrared irradiation of the lesions (wavelength 4  to 16  mcm, once daily for 10  days. We assessed changes in edema and hyperemia on the borders of the lesion, the degree and extent of the process with a modified scoring system mRODNAN Skin Score, as well as microcirculatory vasculature by means of Spectrotest. Results: Compared to the control group, the patients with localized scleroderma who, in addition to conventional medical treatment, were administered local long-wave infrared irradiation, showed a  bigger reduction of mRODNAN index (2.2 ± 0.1 and 6.3 ± 0.5, respectively, р < 0.05, of oxygen saturation within the lesions (0.646 ± 0.04 and 0.9 ± 0.001 units, р < 0.05 and an increase of blood flow volume in the microcirculation (0.23 ± 0.045 and 0.091

  3. Improved Estimates of Clear Sky Longwave Flux and Application to the Tropical Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W. D.

    1997-01-01

    The first objective of this investigation is to eliminate the clear-sky offset introduced by the scene-identification procedures developed for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Estimates of this systematic bias range from 10 to as high as 30 W/sq m. The initial version of the ScaRaB data is being processed with the original ERBE algorithm. Since the ERBE procedure for scene identification is based upon zonal flux averages, clear scenes with longwave emission well below the zonal mean value are mistakenly classified as cloudy. The erroneous classification is more frequent in regions with deep convection and enhanced mid- and upper-tropospheric humidity. We will develop scene identification parameters with zonal and/or time dependence to reduce or eliminate the bias in the clear- sky data. The modified scene identification procedure could be used for the ScaRaB-specific version of the Earth-radiation products. The second objective is to investigate changes in the clear-sky Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) associated with decadal variations in the tropical and subtropical climate. There is considerable evidence for a shift in the climate state starting in approximately 1977. The shift is accompanied by higher SSTs in the equatorial Pacific, increased tropical convection, and higher values of atmospheric humidity. Other evidence indicates that the humidity in the tropical troposphere has been steadily increasing over the last 30 years. It is not known whether the atmospheric greenhouse effect has increased during this period in response to these changes in SST and precipitable water. We will investigate the decadal-scale fluctuations in the greenhouse effect using Nimbus-7, ERBE, and ScaRaB measurements spaning 1979 to the present. The data from the different satellites will be intercalibrated by comparison with model calculations based upon ship radiosonde observations. The fluxes calculated from the radiation model will also be used for validation of the

  4. Studies on longwave length radiation properties of row cover (Plant Blanket), net radiation and leaf temperature under row cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Okada, M.; Aihara, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The use of nonwoven fabrics or cheesecloth for covering crops has become a common practice to promote crop growth or to protect crops from extreme weather or pests. The term, ''row cover'', is used in the present study to refer to this type of covering. There are several different ways of employing a ''row cover'', e. g. direct covering without any supporting materials (contact type), and the use of simple frame structures for suspension of the cover (floating type). There are many kinds of row covers, each differing in material and/or in porosity. These differences in covering method or row cover type can affect the microclimate under the row cover. In the present study, the longwave length radiation properties of several row covers were determined and their effects on nocturnal radiation and leaf temperature under the row cover were examined.Longwave length radiation properties, i.e., transmissivity, emissivity and reflectivity of the five different commercial row covers (A, B, C, D and E) were measured by the method proposed by Okada (1983). The porosity of the row covers was photographically determined. The results are shown in table 1. The relationship between transmissivity and porosity of the row cover is plotted in Fig. 1. The transmissivity depended linearly on the porosity except for row cover C. Row cover C is made from a highly transmissive material polypropylene, while the rest of the row covers are made from materials with low transmissivity, e.g. polyester (A and B) or polyvinylalcohol (D and E).To express the reduction ratio of nocturnal net radiation flux under the row cover to the outside, a protection index PI, as given by Eq. 1, was used. The PI of each film was measured in field experiments. The PI was clearly related to the transmissivity (Fig. 2) as shown in the empirical Eq. 6 developed from the data.Based on the heat balance of a leaf surface, Eq. 5 was derived to estimate the temperature difference

  5. A Study of Longwave Radiation Codes for Climate Studies: Validation with ARM Observations and Tests in General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert G. Ellingson

    2004-09-28

    One specific goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in General Circulation Models (GCMs) under clear-sky, general overcast and broken cloud conditions. Our project was geared to contribute to this goal by attacking major problems associated with one of the dominant radiation components of the problem --longwave radiation. The primary long-term project objectives were to: (1) develop an optimum longwave radiation model for use in GCMs that has been calibrated with state-of-the-art observations for clear and cloudy conditions, and (2) determine how the longwave radiative forcing with an improved algorithm contributes relatively in a GCM when compared to shortwave radiative forcing, sensible heating, thermal advection and convection. The approach has been to build upon existing models in an iterative, predictive fashion. We focused on comparing calculations from a set of models with operationally observed data for clear, overcast and broken cloud conditions. The differences found through the comparisons and physical insights have been used to develop new models, most of which have been tested with new data. Our initial GCM studies used existing GCMs to study the climate model-radiation sensitivity problem. Although this portion of our initial plans was curtailed midway through the project, we anticipate that the eventual outcome of this approach will provide both a better longwave radiative forcing algorithm and from our better understanding of how longwave radiative forcing influences the model equilibrium climate, how improvements in climate prediction using this algorithm can be achieved.

  6. Downward migration of radiocesium in an abandoned paddy soil after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junko; Wakabayashi, Shokichi; Tamura, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi

    2018-02-01

    After the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on March 2011, continuous monitoring of the detailed vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil is required to evaluate the fate of radiocesium and establish strategies for remediation and management of the contaminated land. It is especially important to investigate paddy soil because little knowledge has been accumulated for paddy soil and wetland rice is a major staple in Japan. Therefore, we monitored the vertical distribution of 137 Cs in abandoned paddy soil in a planned evacuation zone from June 2011 to March 2016. The decontamination works (i.e., 5 cm of surface soil removal and re-covering with uncontaminated soil) were conducted by the government in 2015. As a result of monitoring, the 137 Cs gradually migrated downward with time and the 137 Cs concentration in the 0-10 cm soil was almost homogenous in October 2014, although it was non-cultivated. The liner relationship was obtained between the median depth, which is the thickness of a soil layer containing half of the total 137 Cs inventory, and the time after the accident, indicating the migration rate was constant (1.3 cm y -1 ) before the decontamination works. After the decontamination works, the 137 Cs concentration in the uppermost surface layer was reduced by 90%, however the total 137 Cs inventory was reduced by only 50-70%. It was shown that the efficiency of 137 Cs removal by the decontamination works decrease linearly over time in fields like the studied paddy, in which the homogenization of 137 Cs concentration occurred. Conversely, the downward migration of 137 Cs to subsurface layers deeper than 10 cm (i.e., plowpan layer) with low permeability rarely occurred. It is expected that these unique trends in distribution and migration of 137 Cs would be found in abandoned paddy soils with properties similar to the studied soil, sandy loam but poorly drained because of the low permeable plowpan layer, although further validation is

  7. Downward regulation of photosynthesis and growth at high CO sub 2 levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idso, S.B.; Kimball, B.A. (US Water Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States))

    1991-07-01

    Numerous photosynthesis and growth measurements of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) trees maintained in ambient air and air enriched with an extra 300 microliters per liter of Co{sub 2} have revealed the Co{sub 2}-enriched trees to have consistently sequestered approximately 2.8 times more carbon than the control trees over a period of three full years. Under field conditions in the natural environment, plants may not experience the downward regulation of photosynthetic capacity typically observed in long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment experiments with plants growing in pots.

  8. Heavy mineral sorting in downwards injected Palaeocene sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov

    2011-01-01

    sorting. In this study we describe an example of effective shear-zone sorting of heavy minerals in a thin downward injected sandstone dyke which was encountered in one of the cores in the Cecilie Field, Siri Canyon. Differences in sorting pattern of heavy minerals are suggested as a tool for petrographic...... of depositional structures in deep-water sandstones, the distinction between "in situ" and injected or remobilised sandstones is often ambiguous. Large scale heavy mineral sorting (in 10 m thick units) is observed in several reservoir units in the Siri Canyon and has been interpreted to represent the depositional...

  9. The role of interaction torque and muscle torque in the control of downward squatting

    OpenAIRE

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Murakami, Kenichi; Kawakami, Shingo; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were first to analyze the multijoint dynamics of downward squatting, and to examine the contribution of interaction torque and muscle torque to net torque, and second, to examine mechanisms of movement control. [Subjects] The subjects were 31 healthy men with a mean age of 21.0 ? 1.2?years (range, 19?24?years). [Methods] Squatting tasks with the trunk in two positions, an erect and anterior tilt position, were performed by the subjects. Net, interaction, m...

  10. The Equatorial Pacific Cold Tongue Simulated by IPCC AR4 Coupled GCMs: Upper Ocean Heat Budget and Feedback Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    points in longitude x latitude and number of vertical layers. currents, surface wind stress, surface downward/upward shortwave /longwave radiation ...3.0 [Fairall et al, 2003]. Surface shortwave and longwave radiation of OAFlux is derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project...boundary layer (PBL) and the SST, wrong solar and longwave cloud forcing, bad coastal winds resulting from coarse resolutions and continental effect

  11. Evaluation and Comparison of the Processing Methods of Airborne Gravimetry Concerning the Errors Effects on Downward Continuation Results: Case Studies in Louisiana (USA and the Tibetan Plateau (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilong Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gravity data gaps in mountainous areas are nowadays often filled in with the data from airborne gravity surveys. Because of the errors caused by the airborne gravimeter sensors, and because of rough flight conditions, such errors cannot be completely eliminated. The precision of the gravity disturbances generated by the airborne gravimetry is around 3–5 mgal. A major obstacle in using airborne gravimetry are the errors caused by the downward continuation. In order to improve the results the external high-accuracy gravity information e.g., from the surface data can be used for high frequency correction, while satellite information can be applying for low frequency correction. Surface data may be used to reduce the systematic errors, while regularization methods can reduce the random errors in downward continuation. Airborne gravity surveys are sometimes conducted in mountainous areas and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic errors generated by the method are close to the simulated values. In addition, we study the relationship between the downward continuation altitudes and the

  12. Surface mount component jig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, James W.

    1990-08-07

    A device for bending and trimming the pins of a dual-inline-package component and the like for surface mounting rather than through mounting to a circuit board comprises, in a first part, in pin cutter astride a holder having a recess for holding the component, a first spring therebetween, and, in a second part, two flat members pivotally interconnected by a hinge and urged to an upward peaked position from a downward peaked position by a second spring. As a downward force is applied to the pin cutter it urges the holder downward, assisted by the first spring and a pair of ridges riding on shoulders of the holder, to carry the component against the upward peaked flat members which guide the pins outwardly. As the holder continues downwardly, the flat members pivot to the downward peaked position bending the pins upwardly against the sides of the holder. When the downward movement is met with sufficient resistance, the ridges of the pin cutter ride over the holder's shoulders to continue downward to cut any excess length of pin.

  13. Study of natural energy system and downward atmospheric radiation. Part 1. Outline on measurement and result on downward atmospheric radiation; Shizen energy system to tenku hosharyo no kansoku kenkyu. 1. Kisho kansoku gaiyo to tenku hosharyo no kansoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, K. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Masuoka, Y. [Yokogawa Architects and Engineers, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the study of a natural energy system taking advantage of radiation cooling, a simplified method for estimating downward atmospheric radiation quantities was examined, using observation records supplied from Hachioji City, Aerological Observatory in Tsukuba City, and four other locations. Downward atmospheric radiation quantities are closely related to partial vapor pressure in the atmosphere. Because partial vapor pressure changes according to the season, it was classified into two, for summer and for winter, and was referred to downward atmospheric radiation quantities for the establishment of their correlationships. Downward atmospheric radiation quantities were predicted on the basis of meteorological factors such as partial vapor pressure and free air temperature. Accuracy was examined of the simplified estimation equation for downward atmospheric radiation that had been proposed. A multiple regression analysis was carried out for calculating constants for the estimation equation, using partial vapor pressure, Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and free air dry-bulb absolute temperature, all closely correlated with atmospheric downward radiation quantities. Accuracy improved by time-based classification. At night, use of SAT (equivalent free air temperature) produced more accurate estimation. Though dependent upon local characteristics of the observation spot, the estimation equation works effectively. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Impacts of Saharan dust on downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ohde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A semi-empirical approach was used to quantify the modification of the underwater light field in amplitude (magnitude effect and spectral distribution (spectral effect by different atmospheric conditions altering the incident light. The approach based on an optical model in connection with radiation measurements in the area off Northwest Africa. Key inputs of the model were parameterized magnitude and spectral effects. Various atmospheric conditions were considered: clear sky, dusty sky without clouds, cloudy sky without dust and skies with different ratios of dust and clouds. Their impacts were investigated concerning the modification of the downward irradiance and photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. The impact on downward irradiance depended on the wavelength, the water depth, the optical water properties, the dust and cloud properties, and the ratio of clouds to dust. The influence of clouds on the amplitude can be much higher than that of dust. Saharan dust reduced the photosynthetically available radiation in the water column. Ocean regions were more influenced than coastal areas. Compensations of the magnitude and spectral effects were observed at special water depths in ocean regions and at atmospheric conditions with definite cloud to dust ratios.

  15. Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer in a narrow rectangular channel for upward and downward flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Dae Seong; Park, Jong Hark; Chae, Hee Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Al-Yahia, Omar; Altamimi, Raga' I M [Advanced Nuclear Engineering System Department, University of Science and Technology, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Heat transfer characteristics in a narrow rectangular channel are experimentally investigated for upward and downward flows. The experimental data obtained are compared with existing data and predictions by many correlations. Based on the observations, there are differences from others: (1) there are no different heat transfer characteristics between upward and downward flows, (2) most of the existing correlations under-estimate heat transfer characteristics, and (3) existing correlations do not predict the high heat transfer in the entrance region for a wide range of Re. In addition, there are a few heat transfer correlations applicable to narrow rectangular channels. Therefore, a new set of correlations is proposed with and without consideration of the entrance region. Without consideration of the entrance region, heat transfer characteristics are expressed as a function of Re and Pr for turbulent flows, and as a function of Gz for laminar flows. The correlation proposed for turbulent and laminar flows has errors of ±18.25 and ±13.62%, respectively. With consideration of the entrance region, the heat transfer characteristics are expressed as a function of Re, Pr, and z{sup 2} for both laminar and turbulent flows. The correlation for turbulent and laminar flows has errors of ±19.5 and ±22.0%, respectively.

  16. A unified engineering model of the first stroke in downward negative lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Amitabh; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2016-03-01

    Each stroke in a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash is composed of downward leader and upward return stroke processes, which are usually modeled individually. The first stroke leader is stepped and starts with preliminary breakdown (PB) which is often viewed as a separate process. We present the first unified engineering model for computing the electric field produced by a sequence of PB, stepped leader, and return stroke processes, serving to transport negative charge to ground. We assume that a negatively charged channel extends downward in a stepped fashion during both the PB and leader stages. Each step involves a current wave that propagates upward along the newly formed channel section. Once the leader attaches to ground, an upward propagating return stroke neutralizes the charge deposited along the channel. Model-predicted electric fields are in reasonably good agreement with simultaneous measurements at both near (hundreds of meters, electrostatic field component is dominant) and far (tens of kilometers, radiation field component is dominant) distances from the lightning channel. Relations between the features of computed electric field waveforms and model input parameters are examined. It appears that peak currents associated with PB pulses are similar to return stroke peak currents, and the observed variation of electric radiation field peaks produced by leader steps at different heights above ground is influenced by the ground corona space charge.

  17. Removal of NAPLs from the unsaturated zone using steam: prevention of downward migration by injecting mixtures of steam and air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, R.; Gudbjerg, Jacob; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel

    2002-01-01

    injection technology is presented, where a mixture of steam and air was injected. In twodimensional experiments with unsaturated porous medium contaminated with nonaqueous phase liquids, it was demonstrated how injection of pure steam lead to severe downward migration. Similar experiments, where steam......Steam injection for remediation of porous media contaminated by nonaqueous phase liquids has been shown to be a potentially efficient technology. There is, however, concern that the technique may lead to downward migration of separate phase contaminant. In this work, a modification of the steam...... and air were injected simultaneously, resulted in practically no downward migration and still rapid cleanup was achieved. The processes responsible for the prevention of downward migration when injecting steam–air mixtures were analyzed using a nonisothermal multiphase flow and transport model. Hereby...

  18. Experimental observation of pulsating instability under acoustic field in downward-propagating flames at large Lewis number

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Sung Hwan

    2017-10-12

    According to previous theory, pulsating propagation in a premixed flame only appears when the reduced Lewis number, β(Le-1), is larger than a critical value (Sivashinsky criterion: 4(1 +3) ≈ 11), where β represents the Zel\\'dovich number (for general premixed flames, β ≈ 10), which requires Lewis number Le > 2.1. However, few experimental observation have been reported because the critical reduced Lewis number for the onset of pulsating instability is beyond what can be reached in experiments. Furthermore, the coupling with the unavoidable hydrodynamic instability limits the observation of pure pulsating instabilities in flames. Here, we describe a novel method to observe the pulsating instability. We utilize a thermoacoustic field caused by interaction between heat release and acoustic pressure fluctuations of the downward-propagating premixed flames in a tube to enhance conductive heat loss at the tube wall and radiative heat loss at the open end of the tube due to extended flame residence time by diminished flame surface area, i.e., flat flame. The thermoacoustic field allowed pure observation of the pulsating motion since the primary acoustic force suppressed the intrinsic hydrodynamic instability resulting from thermal expansion. By employing this method, we have provided new experimental observations of the pulsating instability for premixed flames. The Lewis number (i.e., Le ≈ 1.86) was less than the critical value suggested previously.

  19. A stable downward continuation of airborne magnetic data: A case study for mineral prospectivity mapping in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Gholami, Ali; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that a well-known multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) technique called Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II) to explore porphyry copper deposits can prioritize the ground-based exploratory evidential layers effectively. In this paper, the PROMETHEE II method is applied to airborne geophysical (potassium radiometry and magnetometry) data, geological layers (fault and host rock zones), and various extracted alteration layers from remote sensing images. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt is chosen for this study. A stable downward continuation method as an inverse problem in the Fourier domain using Tikhonov and edge-preserving regularizations is proposed to enhance magnetic data. Numerical analysis of synthetic models show that the reconstructed magnetic data at the ground surface exhibits significant enhancement compared to the airborne data. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) and the analytic signal filters are applied to the magnetic data to show better maps of the magnetic anomalies. Four remote sensing evidential layers including argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations are extracted from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry copper deposits. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on six Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images is implemented to map iron oxide layer. The final mineral prospectivity map based on desired geo-data set indicates adequately matching of high potential zones with previous working mines and copper deposits.

  20. Extracting Leaf Area Index by Sunlit Foliage Component from Downward-Looking Digital Photography under Clear-Sky Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelu Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of near-surface remote sensing requires the accurate extraction of leaf area index (LAI from networked digital cameras under all illumination conditions. The widely used directional gap fraction model is more suitable for overcast conditions due to the difficulty to discriminate the shaded foliage from the shadowed parts of images acquired on sunny days. In this study, a new LAI extraction method by the sunlit foliage component from downward-looking digital photography under clear-sky conditions is proposed. In this method, the sunlit foliage component was extracted by an automated image classification algorithm named LAB2, the clumping index was estimated by a path length distribution-based method, the LAD and G function were quantified by leveled digital images and, eventually, the LAI was obtained by introducing a geometric-optical (GO model which can quantify the sunlit foliage proportion. The proposed method was evaluated at the YJP site, Canada, by the 3D realistic structural scene constructed based on the field measurements. Results suggest that the LAB2 algorithm makes it possible for the automated image processing and the accurate sunlit foliage extraction with the minimum overall accuracy of 91.4%. The widely-used finite-length method tends to underestimate the clumping index, while the path length distribution-based method can reduce the relative error (RE from 7.8% to 6.6%. Using the directional gap fraction model under sunny conditions can lead to an underestimation of LAI by (1.61; 55.9%, which was significantly outside the accuracy requirement (0.5; 20% by the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS. The proposed LAI extraction method has an RMSE of 0.35 and an RE of 11.4% under sunny conditions, which can meet the accuracy requirement of the GCOS. This method relaxes the required diffuse illumination conditions for the digital photography, and can be applied to extract LAI from downward-looking webcam images

  1. Integration of Absorption Feature Information from Visible to Longwave Infrared Spectral Ranges for Mineral Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Merging hyperspectral data from optical and thermal ranges allows a wider variety of minerals to be mapped and thus allows lithology to be mapped in a more complex way. In contrast, in most of the studies that have taken advantage of the data from the visible (VIS, near-infrared (NIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and longwave infrared (LWIR spectral ranges, these different spectral ranges were analysed and interpreted separately. This limits the complexity of the final interpretation. In this study a presentation is made of how multiple absorption features, which are directly linked to the mineral composition and are present throughout the VIS, NIR, SWIR and LWIR ranges, can be automatically derived and, moreover, how these new datasets can be successfully used for mineral/lithology mapping. The biggest advantage of this approach is that it overcomes the issue of prior definition of endmembers, which is a requested routine employed in all widely used spectral mapping techniques. In this study, two different airborne image datasets were analysed, HyMap (VIS/NIR/SWIR image data and Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS, LWIR image data. Both datasets were acquired over the Sokolov lignite open-cast mines in the Czech Republic. It is further demonstrated that even in this case, when the absorption feature information derived from multispectral LWIR data is integrated with the absorption feature information derived from hyperspectral VIS/NIR/SWIR data, an important improvement in terms of more complex mineral mapping is achieved.

  2. Mutagenicity of 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wave ultraviolet irradiation in diploid human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell killing and the induction of mutation were studied in dividing and non-dividing human skin fibroblasts as a result of treatment by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long-wave UV irradiation (UVA). The cytotoxic effect was highly dependent upon the duration of the UVA exposure. The frequency of mutations increased linearly with the UVA dose at concentrations of 10 and 0.25 μl 8-MOP/ml, the latter representing the concentration in the skin during PUVA treatment. The number of mutations induced per unit dose (= per μg 8-MOP/ml per joule UVA/m 2 ) was calculated: for dividing cells this value was 3.3 x 10 -8 per cell and for non-dividing cells 0.6 x 10.8 -8 per cell. On the basis of these values the expected number of induced mutants in the human skin per session of photochemotherapy is 1.2 x 10 -5 , and per 30 years of maintenance therapy 1.3 x 10 -2 per cell. A comparison was made between this frequency and the frequency to be expected from spontaneous mutation. In addition the significance of absence in patients of SCE induction by photochemotherapy is discussed. (orig.)

  3. First Satellite-detected Perturbations of Outgoing Longwave Radiation Associated with Blowing Snow Events over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Palm, Stephen P.; Marshak, Alexander; Wu, Dong L.; Yu, Hongbin; Fu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    We present the first satellite-detected perturbations of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) associated with blowing snow events over the Antarctic ice sheet using data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System. Significant cloud-free OLR differences are observed between the clear and blowing snow sky, with the sign andmagnitude depending on season and time of the day. During nighttime, OLRs are usually larger when blowing snow is present; the average difference in OLRs between without and with blowing snow over the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is about 5.2 W/m2 for the winter months of 2009. During daytime, in contrast, the OLR perturbation is usually smaller or even has the opposite sign. The observed seasonal variations and day-night differences in the OLR perturbation are consistent with theoretical calculations of the influence of blowing snow on OLR. Detailed atmospheric profiles are needed to quantify the radiative effect of blowing snow from the satellite observations.

  4. Full-wave reflection of lightning long-wave radio pulses from the ionospheric D- region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Shao, X.; Holzworth, R.

    2008-12-01

    A model is developed for calculating ionospheric reflection of electromagnetic pulses emitted by lightning, with most energy in the long-wave spectral region (f = 3 - 100 kHz). The building-block of the calculation is a differential-equation full-wave solution of Maxwell's Equations for the complex reflection of individual plane waves incident from below, by the anisotropic, dissipative, diffuse dielectric profile of the lower ionosphere. This full-wave solution is then put into a summation over plane waves in an angular Direct Fourier Transform to obtain the reflection properties of curved wavefronts. This step models also the diffraction effects of long- wave ionospheric reflections observed at short or medium range (200 - 500 km). The calculation can be done with any arbitrary but smooth dielectric profile versus altitude. For an initial test, we use the classic D- region exponential profiles of electron density and collision rate given by Wait. With even these simple profiles, our model of full-wave reflection of curved wavefronts captures some of the basic attributes of observed reflected waveforms recorded with the Los Alamos Sferic Array.

  5. Long-wave equivalent viscoelastic solids for porous rocks saturated by two-phase fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. E.; Savioli, G. B.

    2018-04-01

    Seismic waves traveling across fluid-saturated poroelastic materials with mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities induce fluid flow and Biot's slow waves generating energy loss and velocity dispersion. Using Biot's equations of motion to model these type of heterogeneities would require extremely fine meshes. We propose a numerical upscaling procedure to determine the complex and frequency dependent P-wave and shear moduli of an effective viscoelastic medium long-wave equivalent to a poroelastic solid saturated by a two-phase fluid. The two-phase fluid is defined in terms of capillary pressure and relative permeability flow functions. The P-wave and shear effective moduli are determined using harmonic compressibility and shear experiments applied on representative samples of the bulk material. Each experiment is associated with a boundary value problem that is solved using the finite element method. Since a poroelastic solid saturated by a two-phase fluid supports the existence of two slow waves, this upscaling procedure allows to analyze their effect on the mesoscopic-loss mechanism in hydrocarbon reservoir formations. Numerical results show that a two-phase Biot medium model predicts higher attenuation than classic Biot models.

  6. Modelling of long-wave chaotic radar system for anti-stealth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suhail, Ghaida A.; Tahir, Fadhil Rahma; Abd, Mariam Hussien; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Fortuna, Luigi

    2018-04-01

    Although the Very Low-Frequency (VLF) waveforms have limited practical applications in acoustics (sonar) and secure military communications with radars and submarines; to this end; this paper presents a new and simple analytical model of VLF monostatic direct chaotic radar system. The model hypothetically depends on the two identical coupled time-delayed feedback chaotic systems which can generate and recover a long-wave chaotic signal. To resist the influence of positive Lyapunov exponents of the time-delay chaotic systems, the complete replacement of Pecaro and Carroll (PC) synchronization is employed. It can faithfully recover the chaotic signal from the back-scattered (echo) signal from the target over a noisy channel. The system performance is characterized in terms of the time series of synchronization in addition to the peak of the cross-correlation. Simulation results are conducted for substantial sensitivities of the chaotic signal to the system parameters and initial conditions. As a result, it is found that an effective and robust chaotic radar (CRADAR) model can be obtained when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) highly degrades to 0 dB, but with clear peak in correlation performance for detecting the target. Then, the model can be considered as a state of the art towards counter stealth technology and might be developed for other acoustic secure applications.

  7. Recent developments in the line-by-line modeling of outgoing longwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, S.A.; Engeln, A. von; Brocard, E.; John, V.O.; Kuhn, T.; Eriksson, P.

    2006-01-01

    High frequency resolution radiative transfer model calculations with the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) were used to simulate the clear-sky outgoing longwave radiative flux (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere. Compared to earlier calculations by Clough and coworkers the model used a spherical atmosphere instead of a plane parallel atmosphere, updated spectroscopic parameters from HITRAN, and updated continuum parameterizations from Mlawer and coworkers. These modifications lead to a reduction in simulated OLR by approximately 4.1%, the largest part, approximately 2.5%, being due to the absence of the plane parallel approximation. As a simple application of the new model, the sensitivity of OLR to changes in humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature were investigated for different cloud-free atmospheric scenarios. It was found that for the tropical scenario a 20% change in humidity has a larger impact than a doubling of the carbon dioxide concentration. The sensitive altitude region for temperature and humidity changes is the entire free troposphere, including the upper troposphere where humidity data quality is poor

  8. Role of Longwave Cloud-Radiation Feedback in the Simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehyun; Ahn, Min-Seop; Kang, In-Sik; Del Genio, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the cloud-radiation interaction in the simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is investigated. A special focus is on the enhancement of column-integrated diabatic heating due to the greenhouse effects of clouds and moisture in the region of anomalous convection. The degree of this enhancement, the greenhouse enhancement factor (GEF), is measured at different precipitation anomaly regimes as the negative ratio of anomalous outgoing longwave radiation to anomalous precipitation. Observations show that the GEF varies significantly with precipitation anomaly and with the MJO cycle. The greenhouse enhancement is greater in weak precipitation anomaly regimes and its effectiveness decreases monotonically with increasing precipitation anomaly. The GEF also amplifies locally when convection is strengthened in association with the MJO, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). A robust statistical relationship is found among CMIP5 climate model simulations between the GEF and the MJO simulation fidelity. Models that simulate a stronger MJO also simulate a greater GEF, especially in the weak precipitation anomaly regime (less than 5 mm day(exp -1)). Models with a greater GEF in the strong precipitation anomaly regime (greater than 30 mm day(-1)) represent a slightly slower MJO propagation speed. Many models that lack the MJO underestimate the GEF in general and in particular in the weak precipitation anomaly regime. The results herein highlight that the cloud-radiation interaction is a crucial process for climate models to correctly represent the MJO.

  9. Impact of different definitions of clear-sky flux on the determination of longwave cloud radiative forcing: NICAM simulation results

    OpenAIRE

    B. J. Sohn; T. Nakajima; M. Satoh; H.-S. Jang

    2010-01-01

    Using one month of the cloud-resolving Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) simulations, we examined the impact of different definitions of clear-sky flux on the determination of longwave cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Because the satellite-like cloud-free composite preferentially samples drier conditions relative to the all-sky mean state, the conventional clear-sky flux calculation using the all-sky mean state in the model may represent a more humid atmosph...

  10. Impact of different definitions of clear-sky flux on the determination of longwave cloud radiative forcing: NICAM simulation results

    OpenAIRE

    B. J. Sohn; T. Nakajima; M. Satoh; H.-S. Jang

    2010-01-01

    Using one month of the cloud-resolving Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) simulations, we examined the impact of different definitions of clear-sky flux on the determination of longwave cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Because the satellite-like cloud-free composite preferentially samples drier conditions relative to the all-sky mean state, the conventional clear-sky flux calculation using the all-sky mean state in the model may represent a more humid atmospheric state in comp...

  11. Characteristics of downward leaders in a cloud-to-ground lightning strike on a lightning rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Sun, Zhuling; Jiang, Rubin; Tian, Yangmeng; Qie, Xiushu

    2018-05-01

    A natural downward negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning was observed at a close distance of 370 m by using electric field change measurements and a high-speed camera at 5400 frames per second (fps). Two subsequent leader-return strokes of the lightning hit a lightning rod installed on the top of a seven-story building in Beijing city, while the grounding point for the stepped leader-first return stroke was 12 m away, on the roof of the building. The 2-D average speed of the downward stepped leader (L1) before the first return stroke (R1) was approximately 5.1 × 104 m/s during its propagation over the 306 m above the building, and those before the subsequent strokes (R2 and R3) ranged from 1.1 × 106 m/s to 2.2 × 106 m/s. An attempted leader (AL) occurred 201 ms after R1 and 10 ms before R2 reached approximately 99 m above the roof and failed to connect to the ground. The 2-D average speed of the AL was approximately 7.4 × 104 m/s. The luminosity at tip of the leader was brighter than the channel behind it. The leader inducing the R2 with an alteration of terminating point was a dart-stepped leader (DSL), which propagated through the channel of AL and continued to develop downward with new branches at about 17 m above the roof. The 2-D speed of the DSL at the bottom 99 m was 6.6 × 105 m/s. The average time interval between the stepped pulses of the DSL was approximately 10 μs, smaller than that of L1 with value of about 17 μs. The average step lengths of the DSL were approximately 6.6 m. The study shows that the stepped leader-first return stroke of lightning will not always hit the tip of a tall metal rod due to the significant branching property of the leader. However, under certain conditions, the subsequent return strokes may alter the grounding point to the tip of a tall metal rod. For the lightning rod, the protection against subsequent return strokes may be better than that against the first return stroke.

  12. Preliminary study of the on-orbit radiometric traceability and artifacts for the VIIRS longwave infrared channels during blackbody temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Changyong; Wang, Wenhui; Blonski, Slawomir; Zhang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) has been continuously observing the Earth with global coverage twice daily in the longwave infrared channels since January 20, 2012. These channels are primarily used for cloud detection, and for retrieving sea surface temperatures globally, as well as a number of other applications. The VIIRS sensor data records (SDR), aka level 1b data, have been shown to be accurate and stable at 0.1K level since the data reached validated maturity on March 18, 2014. However, during the scheduled quarterly warm-up/cool-down of the onboard blackbody calibration source, a calibration bias on the order of 0.1 K is introduced. The bias is further amplified by the sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm up to 0.3 K which causes an apparent spike in the SST product time series. Our previous study [1] reveals that this bias is likely caused by a fundamental assumption on the radiometric traceability of the VIIRS calibration equation, pertaining to the shape of the calibration curve. In this study, we further analyzed the equation and presented an improved correction algorithm known as Ltrace 2. This algorithm attempts to fundamentally reconcile the calibration curve shape assumption such that the calibration bias can be removed during the WUCD with better performance for all bands. Sample test results are presented to show the improvements using this algorithm.

  13. Far-zone contributions of airborne gravity anomalies' upward/downward continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne gravimetry has become a vital technique in local gravity field approximation, and upward/downward continuation of gravity data is a key process of airborne gravimetry. In these procedures, the integral domain is divided into two parts, namely the near-zone and the far-zone. The far-zone contributions are approximated by the truncation coefficients and a global geo-potential model, and their values are controlled by several issues. This paper investigates the effects of flight height, the size of near-zone cap, and Remove-Compute-Restore (RCR technique upon far-zone contributions. Results show that at mountainous area the far-zone contributions can be ignored when EIGEN-6C of 360 degree is removed from the gravity data, together with a near-zone cap of 1° and a flight height less than 10 km, while at flat area EIGEN-6C of 180 degree is feasible.

  14. Concepts of self-acting circulation loops for downward heat transfer (reverse thermosiphons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobriansky, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific and technical knowledge related to general self-acting flow loops (thermosiphons and heat pipes) that transmit heat upwards and self-acting reverse flow loops that transmit heat downwards. This paper classifies the heat and mass transfer processes that take place in general flow loops and analyses the nomenclature applied in the literature. It also presents the principles of operation of sixteen reverse flow loops; four of the loops are powered by an external source of energy, while the remaining loops are self-acting. Of the self-acting loops, vapor was used for heat transfer in seven of them and liquid was used in the remaining ones. Based on the available research results, a list of the advantages and disadvantages of both types of loops is presented.

  15. Downwards Vertical Attention Bias in Conversion Disorder vs Controls: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Sivan; Elkana, Odelia; Dawidowicz, Liraz; Yeshayahu, Liel; Biran, Iftah

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a largely enigmatic disorder, one that requires a thorough ruling-out process. Prior research suggests that metaphors and conceptualization are rooted in physical experience, and that we interpret our affective world through metaphors. Spatial metaphors (interaction of affect and vertical space) are a prominent example of the grounding of metaphors. This is a relatively unpaved direction of research of CD. The present pilot study sought to explore this view by investigating the "healthy is up, sick is down" spatial metaphors (e.g., "fell ill" and "top shape") in patients with CD, examining the correlation between the processing of bodily-related words, CD, and vertical space. We hypothesized that patients with CD, who experience their bodies as ill, will demonstrate a downwards bias when processing bodily-related words; corresponding to the "healthy is up, sick is down" spatial metaphor. A total of 8 female patients (ages M-38.13 SD-10.44) and 42 female controls (ages M-36.4 SD-14.57) performed a visual attention task. Participants were asked to identify a spatial probe at the top or the bottom of a screen, following either a bodily related (e.g., arm) or non-bodily related (e.g., clock) prime word. As predicted, when processing bodily-related words, patients with CD demonstrated a downwards attention bias. Moreover, the higher the patient's level of somatization, the faster the patient detected lower (vs upper) spatial targets. This study suggests that the changed health paradigm of patients with CD is grounded in sensorimotor perception. Further research could propose new diagnostic and treatment options for CD. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinematic differences exist between transtibial amputee fallers and non-fallers during downwards step transitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Natalie; Strike, Siobhán C; Polman, Remco

    2015-08-01

    Stair negotiation is biomechanically more challenging than level gait. There are few biomechanical assessments of transtibial amputees descending stairs and none specifically related to falls. Stair descent may elicit more differences than level gait in amputees with and without a previous falls history. The aim of this study was to compare the gait kinematics of fallers and non-fallers during downwards step transitioning in transtibial amputees. Cross-sectional study. Six fallers and five non-fallers completed step transition trials on a three-step staircase at their self-selected pace. Nine participants exhibited a clear preference to lead with the affected limb, while two had no preference. Four participants self-selected a step-to rather than a reciprocal stair descent strategy. The fallers who used a reciprocal strategy walked 44% more quickly than the non-fallers. To compensate for the lack of active plantar flexion of the prosthetic foot, exaggerated range of motion occurred proximally at the pelvis during swing. The step-to group was more reliant on the handrails than the reciprocal group and walked more slowly. As anticipated, the fallers walked faster than the non-fallers despite employing the more difficult 'roll-over' technique. Handrail use could help to improve dynamic control during downwards step transitions. Transtibial amputees are advised to descend steps using external support, such as handrails, for enhanced dynamic control. Hip abductor and knee extensor eccentric strength should be improved through targeted exercise. Prosthetic socket fit should be checked to allow adequate knee range of motion on the affected side. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  17. Absorption of Visible and Long-wave Radiation by Primary and Secondary Biogenic Aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2008-12-01

    Field results for the 14C content of carbonaceous aerosols are presented that indicate significant biogenic sources of both primary and secondary aerosols in urban and regional environments. Samples collected in Mexico City and downwind of the urban area during the MILAGRO field study are compared with results reported previously in the literature indicating a significant amount of biogenic aerosols from both biomass burning and secondary photochemical production (e.g. terpene oxidations) are contributing to the overall carbonaceous aerosols in the optically active region of 0.1 to 1.0 micron. Samples in this size range collected on quartz fiber filters were also examined using an integrating sphere and FTIR diffuse reflectance techniques to obtain absorption spectra from 280 to the mid-IR. These data clearly indicate that the biogenic derived primary aerosols from agricultural and trash-burning, as well as secondary organic aerosols from isoprene and terpene oxidations will produce both UV-Visible (short-wave) absorbing substances as well as IR (long-wave) absorbing compounds including humic-like-substances (HULIS). With the anticipated increases in growing seasons (i.e. earlier springs and longer summers) the likely hood of increased fires (forest and grassland) as well as the continuing growth in agricultural burning activities, these primary sources are expected to increase and may play a role in heating of the atmosphere. The compound effects of these primary and secondary biogenic sources of absorbing aerosols to the total aerosol loading and regional climate will be discussed. This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64328 as part of the Atmospheric Science Program.

  18. Rapid long-wave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements using a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Eiei; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe; Jin, Feng; Jia, Yingqing; Trivedi, Sudhir; D'souza, Arvind I; Decuir, Eric A; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal S; Samuels, Alan C

    2015-11-20

    In this work, we develop a mercury-cadmium-telluride linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing (∼1-5  s) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) region (∼5.6-10  μm). Similar to the conventional UV-Vis LIBS, a broadband emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering the whole 5.6-10 μm region can be acquired from just a single laser-induced microplasma or averaging a few single laser-induced microplasmas. Atomic and molecular signature emission spectra of solid inorganic and organic tablets and thin liquid films deposited on a rough asphalt surface are observed. This setup is capable of rapidly probing samples "as is" without the need of elaborate sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous UV-Vis and LWIR LIBS measurement.

  19. Simultaneous emissions of X-rays and microwaves from long laboratory sparks and downward lightning leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanya, J.; Oscar, V. D. V.; Tapia, F. F.

    2017-12-01

    radiation was detected before the return stroke. The microwave emissions in the first positive leader had lower amplitude but presented longer duration whereas the emissions in the three negative downward dart leaders were more impulsive. X-rays were detected in two of the three negative downward dart leaders.

  20. Is tropospheric weather influenced by solar wind through atmospheric vertical coupling downward control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Paul; Tsukijihara, Takumi; Iwao, Koki; Muldrew, Donald B.; Bruntz, Robert; Rušin, Vojto; Rybanský, Milan; Turňa, Maroš; Šťastný, Pavel; Pastirčák, Vladimír

    2017-04-01

    More than four decades have passed since a link between solar wind magnetic sector boundary structure and mid-latitude upper tropospheric vorticity was discovered (Wilcox et al., Science, 180, 185-186, 1973). The link has been later confirmed and various physical mechanisms proposed but apart from controversy, little attention has been drawn to these results. To further emphasize their importance we investigate the occurrence of mid-latitude severe weather in the context of solar wind coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (MIA) system. It is observed that significant snowstorms, windstorms and heavy rain, particularly if caused by low pressure systems in winter, tend to follow arrivals of high-speed solar wind. Previously published statistical evidence that explosive extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere tend to occur after arrivals of high-speed solar wind streams from coronal holes (Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 1-30, 2009; Prikryl et al., J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 149, 219-231, 2016) is corroborated for the southern hemisphere. A physical mechanism to explain these observations is proposed. The leading edge of high-speed solar wind streams is a locus of large-amplitude magneto-hydrodynamic waves that modulate Joule heating and/or Lorentz forcing of the high-latitude lower thermosphere generating medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves that propagate upward and downward through the atmosphere. Simulations of gravity wave propagation in a model atmosphere using the Transfer Function Model (Mayr et al., Space Sci. Rev., 54, 297-375, 1990) show that propagating waves originating in the thermosphere can excite a spectrum of gravity waves in the lower atmosphere. In spite of significantly reduced amplitudes but subject to amplification upon reflection in the upper troposphere, these gravity waves can provide a lift of unstable air to release instabilities in the troposphere thus initiating convection to form cloud/precipitation bands

  1. A machine learning approach to estimation of downward solar radiation from satellite-derived data products: An application over a semi-arid ecosystem in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingtao; Flores, Alejandro; Glenn, Nancy F; Walters, Reggie; Han, Bangshuai

    2017-01-01

    Shortwave solar radiation is an important component of the surface energy balance and provides the principal source of energy for terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a machine learning approach in the form of a random forest (RF) model for estimating daily downward solar radiation flux at the land surface over complex terrain using MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensing data. The model-building technique makes use of a unique network of 16 solar flux measurements in the semi-arid Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory, in southwest Idaho, USA. Based on a composite RF model built on daily observations from all 16 sites in the watershed, the model simulation of downward solar radiation matches well with the observation data (r2 = 0.96). To evaluate model performance, RF models were built from 12 of 16 sites selected at random and validated against the observations at the remaining four sites. Overall root mean square errors (RMSE), bias, and mean absolute error (MAE) are small (range: 37.17 W/m2-81.27 W/m2, -48.31 W/m2-15.67 W/m2, and 26.56 W/m2-63.77 W/m2, respectively). When extrapolated to the entire watershed, spatiotemporal patterns of solar flux are largely consistent with expected trends in this watershed. We also explored significant predictors of downward solar flux in order to reveal important properties and processes controlling downward solar radiation. Based on the composite RF model built on all 16 sites, the three most important predictors to estimate downward solar radiation include the black sky albedo (BSA) near infrared band (0.858 μm), BSA visible band (0.3-0.7 μm), and clear day coverage. This study has important implications for improving the ability to derive downward solar radiation through a fusion of multiple remote sensing datasets and can potentially capture spatiotemporally varying trends in solar radiation that is useful for land surface hydrologic and terrestrial

  2. A machine learning approach to estimation of downward solar radiation from satellite-derived data products: An application over a semi-arid ecosystem in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingtao Zhou

    Full Text Available Shortwave solar radiation is an important component of the surface energy balance and provides the principal source of energy for terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a machine learning approach in the form of a random forest (RF model for estimating daily downward solar radiation flux at the land surface over complex terrain using MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer remote sensing data. The model-building technique makes use of a unique network of 16 solar flux measurements in the semi-arid Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory, in southwest Idaho, USA. Based on a composite RF model built on daily observations from all 16 sites in the watershed, the model simulation of downward solar radiation matches well with the observation data (r2 = 0.96. To evaluate model performance, RF models were built from 12 of 16 sites selected at random and validated against the observations at the remaining four sites. Overall root mean square errors (RMSE, bias, and mean absolute error (MAE are small (range: 37.17 W/m2-81.27 W/m2, -48.31 W/m2-15.67 W/m2, and 26.56 W/m2-63.77 W/m2, respectively. When extrapolated to the entire watershed, spatiotemporal patterns of solar flux are largely consistent with expected trends in this watershed. We also explored significant predictors of downward solar flux in order to reveal important properties and processes controlling downward solar radiation. Based on the composite RF model built on all 16 sites, the three most important predictors to estimate downward solar radiation include the black sky albedo (BSA near infrared band (0.858 μm, BSA visible band (0.3-0.7 μm, and clear day coverage. This study has important implications for improving the ability to derive downward solar radiation through a fusion of multiple remote sensing datasets and can potentially capture spatiotemporally varying trends in solar radiation that is useful for land surface hydrologic and

  3. Heavy mineral sorting in downwards injected Palaeocene sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Svendsen, Johan Byskov; Weibel, Rikke

    2011-05-01

    Post-depositional remobilization and injection of sand are often seen in deep-water clastic systems and have been recently recognised as a significant modifier of deep-water sandstone geometry. Large scale injectite complexes have been interpreted from borehole data in the Palaeocene Siri Canyon near the Danish Central Graben of the North Sea hydrocarbon province. The emplacement of large scale injectite complexes has been commonly attributed to seismic activity and consequent sand liquefaction. However, due to very small differences in textural and compositional properties, and the lack of depositional structures in deep-water sandstones, the distinction between "in situ" and injected or remobilized sandstones is often ambiguous. Large scale heavy mineral sorting (in 10 m thick units) is observed in several reservoir units in the Siri Canyon and has been interpreted to represent the depositional sorting. In this study we describe an example of effective shear-zone sorting of heavy minerals in a thin downwards injected sandstone dyke which was encountered in one of the cores in the Cecilie Field, Siri Canyon. Differences in sorting pattern of heavy minerals are suggested as a tool for petrographic/geochemical distinction between "in situ" sandstones and their related injectites, especially where primary sedimentary structures are removed by fluidization or minor remobilization.

  4. Flow Regime Identification of Co-Current Downward Two-Phase Flow With Neural Network Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Goda; Seungjin Kim; Ye Mi; Finch, Joshua P.; Mamoru Ishii; Jennifer Uhle

    2002-01-01

    Flow regime identification for an adiabatic vertical co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in the 25.4 mm ID and the 50.8 mm ID round tubes was performed by employing an impedance void meter coupled with the neural network classification approach. This approach minimizes the subjective judgment in determining the flow regimes. The signals obtained by an impedance void meter were applied to train the self-organizing neural network to categorize these impedance signals into a certain number of groups. The characteristic parameters set into the neural network classification included the mean, standard deviation and skewness of impedance signals in the present experiment. The classification categories adopted in the present investigation were four widely accepted flow regimes, viz. bubbly, slug, churn-turbulent, and annular flows. These four flow regimes were recognized based upon the conventional flow visualization approach by a high-speed motion analyzer. The resulting flow regime maps classified by the neural network were compared with the results obtained through the flow visualization method, and consequently the efficiency of the neural network classification for flow regime identification was demonstrated. (authors)

  5. Analysis of Tube Bank Heat Transfer In Downward Directed Foam Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gylys

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Apparatus with the foam flow are suitable to use in different technologies like heat exchangers, food industry, chemical and oil processing industry. Statically stable liquid foam until now is used in technologic systems rather seldom. Although a usage of this type of foam as heat transfer agent in foam equipment has a number of advantages in comparison with one phase liquid equipment: small quantity of liquid is required, heat transfer rate is rather high, mass of equipment is much smaller, energy consumption for foam delivery into heat transfer zone is lower. The paper analyzes the peculiarities of heat transfer from distributed in staggered order and perpendicular to foam flow in channel of rectangular cross section tube bundle to the foam flow. It was estimated the dependence of mean gas velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam flow to heat transfer in downward foam flow. Significant difference of heat transfer intensity from front and back tubes of tube row in laminar foam flow was noticed. Dependence of heat transfer on flow velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam was confirmed and estimated by criterion equations.

  6. Airborne Downward Looking Sparse Linear Array 3-D SAR Heterogeneous Parallel Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirong Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The airborne downward looking sparse linear array three dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR operates nadir observation with the along-track synthetic aperture formulated by platform movement and the cross-track synthetic aperture formulated by physical sparse linear array. Considering the lack of DLSLA 3-D SAR data in the current preliminary study stage, it is very important and essential to develop DLSLA 3-D SAR simulation (echo generation simulation and image reconstruction simulation, including point targets simulation and 3-D distributed scene simulation. In this paper, DLSLA 3-D SAR imaging geometry, the echo signal model and the heterogeneous parallel technique are discussed first. Then, heterogeneous parallel echo generation simulation with time domain correlation and the frequency domain correlation method is described. In the following, heterogeneous parallel image reconstruction simulation with two imaging algorithms, e.g., 3-D polar format algorithm, polar formatting and L1 regularization algorithm is discussed. Finally, the point targets and the 3-D distributed scene simulation are demonstrated to validate the effectiveness and performance of our proposed heterogeneous parallel simulation technique. The 3-D distributed scene employs airborne X-band DEM and P-band Circular SAR image of the same area as simulation scene input.

  7. The performance evaluation test for prototype model of Longwave Infrared Imager (LIR) onboard PLANET-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Makoto; Imamura, Takeshi

    The PLANET-C mission, which is one of the future planetary missions of Japan, aims at understanding the atmospheric circulation of Venus. Meteorological information will be obtained by globally mapping clouds and minor constituents successively with four imagers at ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, and radio occultation experiments will provide vertical profiles of the atmospheric temperature. These systematic, continuous remote observations will provide us with an unprecedented large data set of the Venusian atmospheric dynamics. The Longwave Infrared Imager (LIR), which mounts a commercial uncooled micro-bolometer array (UMBA), is one of four imagers onboard the spacecraft and detects thermal emission from the top of the sulfur dioxide cloud in a rather wide wavelength region of 8-12 µm to map the cloud-top temperature which is typically as low as 230 K. Unlike other imagers, LIR is able to take images of both dayside and nightside with equal quality and accuracy. The cloud-top temperature map will reflect the cloud height distribution in which a few hundred meters of difference in cloud height corresponds to temperature difference of 0.3 K. In order to detect the cloud height difference of a few hundred meters, LIR requires a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 0.3 K. The commercial UMBA camera is typically used for observing room-temperature targets, and thus the electronics and the driving parameters have been optimized for low temperature-targets. Images of blackbody targets in room temperature (˜300 K) and low temperature (˜230 K) have been acquired in a vacuum environment using a prototype model of LIR, showing that the NETD of 0.2 K and 0.8 K are achieved in room temperature and low temperature, respectively. Although the NETD at the low temperature is 4 times worse than the case for the room temperature, we expect that the requirement of N ET D < 0.3 K for a low-temperature target will be achieved by averaging several tens of images

  8. Estimation of Land Surface Energy Balance Using Satellite Data of Spatial Reduced Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintila, Ruxandra; Radnea, Cristina; Savin, Elena; Poenaru, Violeta

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents preliminary results concerning the monitoring at national level of several geo-biophysical variables retrieved by remote sensing, in particular those related to drought or aridisation. The study, which is in progress, represents also an exercise for to the implementation of a Land Monitoring Core Service for Romania, according to the Kopernikus Program and in compliance with the INSPIRE Directive. The SEBS model has been used to retrieve land surface energy balance variables, such as turbulent heat fluxes, evaporative fraction and daily evaporation, based on three information types: (1) surface albedo, emissivity, temperature, fraction of vegetation cover (fCover), leaf area index (LAI) and vegetation height; (2) air pressure, temperature, humidity and wind speed at the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height; (3) downward solar radiation and downward longwave radiation. AATSR and MERIS archived reprocessed images have provided several types of information. Thus, surface albedo, emissivity, and land surface temperature have been retrieved from AATSR, while LAI and fCover have been estimated from MERIS. The vegetation height has been derived from CORINE Land Cover and PELCOM Land Use databases, while the meteorological information at the height of PBL have been estimated from the measurements provided by the national weather station network. Other sources of data used during this study have been the GETASSE30 digital elevation model with 30" spatial resolution, used for satellite image orthorectification, and the SIGSTAR-200 geographical information system of soil resources of Romania, used for water deficit characterisation. The study will continue by processing other AATSR and MERIS archived images, complemented by the validation of SEBS results with ground data collected on the most important biomes for Romania at various phenological stages, and the transformation of evaporation / evapotranspiration into a drought index using the soil texture

  9. Physically Consistent Eddy-resolving State Estimation and Prediction of the Coupled Pan-Arctic Climate System at Daily to Interannual Time Scales Using the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    energy budget terms as a function of calendar month: (a) downward longwave radiation , (b) downward shortwave radiation down...heterogeneous response to nudging. RASM_nonudg tends to have more downward longwave radiation throughout the year and less downward shortwave radiation for...c) upward longwave radiation , (d) upward shortwave radiation , (e) net longwave radiation , (f) net shortwave radiation , (g) latent heat flux,

  10. Evaluation and comparison of the processing methods of airborne gravimetry concerning the errors effects on downward continuation results: Case studies in Louisiana (USA) and the Tibetan Plateau (China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qilong; Strykowski, Gabriel; Li, Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    and the most extreme area of the world for this type of survey is the Tibetan Plateau. Since there are no high-accuracy surface gravity data available for this area, the above error minimization method involving the external gravity data cannot be used. We propose a semi-parametric downward continuation method...... in combination with regularization to suppress the systematic error effect and the random error effect in the Tibetan Plateau; i.e., without the use of the external high-accuracy gravity data. We use a Louisiana airborne gravity dataset from the USA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA......) to demonstrate that the new method works effectively. Furthermore, and for the Tibetan Plateau we show that the numerical experiment is also successfully conducted using the synthetic Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM08)-derived gravity data contaminated with the synthetic errors. The estimated systematic...

  11. Downward social comparison and subjective well-being in late life: the moderating role of perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Ruthig, Joelle C; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from Heckhausen and Schulz's Motivational Theory of Life-span Development, this study examined perceived control as a moderator of the protective relationship between downward social comparison and subjective well-being among older adults. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 97, 63% female, ages 79-97) were interviewed in their own homes at three time-points over a nine-year period. Interviews assessed older adults' perceived control over daily tasks, their use of downward social comparison in response to task restriction, and their subjective well-being. Regression analyses yielded a significant interaction between downward social comparison and perceived control for three subjective well-being outcomes: life satisfaction, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms. Follow-up analyses revealed that downward social comparison was associated with greater subjective well-being at low levels of perceived control; but was unrelated to subjective well-being at high levels of perceived control. These findings corroborate Heckhausen and Schulz's theorized goal-opportunity congruence premise and have implications for quality-of-life interventions to assist community-dwelling older adults.

  12. Comparison of vehicle-mounted forward-looking polarimetric infrared and downward-looking infrared sensors for landmine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Jong, W. de; Schutte, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives a comparison of two vehicle-mounted infrared systems for landmine detection. The first system is a down-ward looking standard infrared camera using processing methods developed within the EU project LOTUS. The second system is using a forward-looking polarimetric infrared camera.

  13. Flow regime, void fraction and interfacial area transport and characteristics of co-current downward two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokanathan, Manojkumar [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States); Hibiki, Takashi [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Downward flow regime maps and models were studied for 25.4 to 101.6 mm pipe diameters. • Effect of flow inlet on flow transition, void & interfacial area profile were studied. • Bubble void profiles were associated with the interfacial forces for downward flow. • Flow regime pressure drop and interfacial friction factor were studied. • The most applicable and accurate downward drift-flux correlation was determined. - Abstract: Downward two-phase flow is observed in light water reactor accident scenarios such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and loss of heat sink accident (LOHS) due to loss of feed water or a secondary pipe break. Hence, a comprehensive literature review has been performed for the co-current downward two-phase flow with information on the flow regime transitions and flow characteristics for each regime in the downward flow. The review compares the experimental data of the flow regime map and the current available transition models. Objectivity of the data varies on the method utilized as a certain degree of subjectivity is still present in the most objective method. Nevertheless, experimental data through subjective methods such as direct visualization or analysis of a wire mesh sensor (WMS) data were still studied in this review. Despite the wide range of flow regime data for numerous pipe sizes, a consensus was not reached for the effect of pipe sizes on flow regime transition. However, it is known that a larger pipe results in greater degree of coalescence at lower gas flow rates (Hibiki et al., 2004). The introduction of a flow straightener at the inlet led to less coring and fluid rotation and inevitably, reduced bubble coalescence. This also resulted in the disappearance of the kinematic shock wave phenomenon, contrary to an inlet without a flow straightener. The effect of flow inlet, flow location, pipe diameter and bubble interfacial forces on the radial distribution as well as bubble coalescence and breakup rate

  14. Tracers confirm downward mixing of Tyrrhenian Sea upper waters associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Roether

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of tritium and 3He in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1987–2009, confirm the enhanced vertical mixing of intermediate waters into the deep waters that has been noted and associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient in previous studies. Our evidence for the mixing rests on increasing tracer concentrations in the Tyrrhenian deep waters, accompanied by decreases in the upper waters, which are supplied from the Eastern Mediterranean. The downward transfer is particularly evident between 1987 and 1997. Later on, information partly rests on increasing tritium-3He ages; here we correct the observed 3He for contributions released from the ocean floor. The Tyrrhenian tracer distributions are fully compatible with data upstream of the Sicily Strait and in the Western Mediterranean. The tracer data show that mixing reached to the bottom and confirm a cyclonic nature of the deep water circulation in the Tyrrhenian. They furthermore indicate that horizontal homogenization of the deep waters occurs on a time scale of roughly 5 years. Various features point to a reduced impact of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW in the Tyrrhenian during the enhanced-mixing period. This is an important finding because it implies less upward mixing of WMDW, which has been named a major process to enable the WMDW to leave the Mediterranean via the Gibraltar Strait. On the other hand, the TDW outflow for several years represented a major influx of enhanced salinity and density waters into the deep-water range of the Western Mediterranean.

  15. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: Land cover and surface energy budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, P.S.; Steyaert, L.T.; Walko, R.L.; Waever, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover data sets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dew point temperatures, rainfall, and the individual components of the surface energy budget to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6??C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0??C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions, however, were slightly cooler. Dew point temperatures decreased by 0.3-0.6??C, suggesting drier, less humid near-surface air for the present-day landscape. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Full-wave reflection of lightning long-wave radio pulses from the ionospheric D region: Numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Abram R.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Holzworth, Robert

    2009-03-01

    A model is developed for calculating ionospheric reflection of electromagnetic pulses emitted by lightning, with most energy in the long-wave spectral region (f ~ 3-100 kHz). The building block of the calculation is a differential equation full-wave solution of Maxwell's equations for the complex reflection of individual plane waves incident from below, by the anisotropic, dissipative, diffuse dielectric profile of the lower ionosphere. This full-wave solution is then put into a summation over plane waves in an angular direct Fourier transform to obtain the reflection properties of curved wavefronts. This step models also the diffraction effects of long-wave ionospheric reflections observed at short or medium range (~200-500 km). The calculation can be done with any arbitrary but smooth dielectric profile versus altitude. For an initial test, this article uses the classic D region exponential profiles of electron density and collision rate given by Volland. With even these simple profiles, our model of full-wave reflection of curved wavefronts captures some of the basic attributes of observed reflected waveforms recorded with the Los Alamos Sferic Array. A follow-on article will present a detailed comparison with data in order to retrieve ionospheric parameters.

  17. Ultra-Trace Chemical Sensing with Long-Wave Infrared Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-02-20

    The infrared sensors task of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) Remote Spectroscopy Project (Task B of Project PL211) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ spectroscopic chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and coun-tering terrorism. Missions to be addressed by remote chemical sensor development in-clude detecting proliferation of nuclear or chemical weapons, and providing warning of terrorist use of chemical weapons. Missions to be addressed by in-situ chemical sensor development include countering terrorism by screening luggage, personnel, and shipping containers for explosives, firearms, narcotics, chemical weapons, or chemical weapons residues, and mapping contaminated areas. The science and technology is also relevant to chemical weapons defense, air operations support, monitoring emissions from chemi-cal weapons destruction or industrial activities, law enforcement, medical diagnostics, and other applications. Sensors for most of these missions will require extreme chemical sensitivity and selectiv-ity because the signature chemicals of importance are expected to be present in low con-centrations or have low vapor pressures, and the ambient air is likely to contain pollutants or other chemicals with interfering spectra. Cavity-enhanced chemical sensors (CES) that draw air samples into optical cavities for laser-based interrogation of their chemical content promise real-time, in-situ chemical detection with extreme sensitivity to specified target molecules and superb immunity to spectral interference and other sources of noise. PNNL is developing CES based on quantum cascade (QC) lasers that operate in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR - 3 to 5 microns) and long-wave infrared (LWIR - 8 to 14 mi-crons), and CES based on telecommunications lasers operating in the short-wave infrared (SWIR - 1 to 2 microns). All three spectral regions are promising because smaller mo-lecular absorption cross sections in the SWIR

  18. Study of the influence of water properties dependency with the temperature in a laminar downward flow between parallel flat plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmastro, Dario F.; Chasseur, A.F.; Garcia, Juan C.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we develop a model that contemplates stationary completely developed laminar downward flow between flat parallel plates with uniform and constant heat fluxes. The Boussinesq approach is used in the momentum equation, taking into account the change of the density with the temperature only in the gravitational term. The system is at atmospheric pressure and the dependencies of the density and the thermal conductivity with the temperature are also considered. The velocity and temperature profiles, the friction factor, the heat transfer coefficient and the Nusselt Number are calculated, for different flow rates and heating powers. The results allow to obtain some conclusions that can be of interest in the study of research reactors with forced downward refrigeration and flat plate fuels, although these calculations do not exactly represent the real behavior inside these channels. (author) [es

  19. Surface Radiation Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data sets contain global 3-hourly, daily and monthly averages of surface longwave and shortwave radiative properties, cloud amount, and meteorological properties computed using models. The main input data for these models include cloud information, top-of-atmosphere radiances and profiles of atmospheric water vapor and temperature. Some of the input data include Earth Radiation Budget Energy (ERBE) top-of-atmosphere clear-sky albedo and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiances and cloud amount. SRB parameters derived for the renewable energy community are also available from the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set. Other SRB data are available from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). [Mission Objectives] The objective of the SRB Project is to produce and archive a global data set of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) surface and top of the atmosphere parameters. The data generated in the SRB project may be used in conjunction with other data sets to facilitate the development of renewable energy resources and increase understanding of radiative properties within the meteorological community. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  20. Are insecure jobs as bad for mental health and occupational commitment as unemployment? Equal threat or downward spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Otto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of unemployment and job insecurity for mental health (self-esteem; life satisfaction and occupational commitment (occupational self-efficacy; affective occupational commitment comparing the "equal threat" assumption with the "downward spiral" assumption. Whereas the equal threat model suggests that unemployment and (perceived insecure employment are similarly threatening phenomena, the downward spiral model assumes that there might be a spectrum of employment insecurity, ranging from secure employment to long-term unemployment, that is associated with decreasing mental health and occupational commitment. Controlling for socio-demographic background variables and personality traits, results of ANCOVAs, in which we distinguished between workers who were (more or less securely employed and those who were either insecurely employed or short- or long-term unemployed revealed that the insecurely employed workers were no better off than those who were (short-term unemployed - in line with the equal threat hypothesis. Only for occupational self-efficacy did we find some support for the downward spiral model.

  1. Disappearance of the laue spots of the downward X-ray diffraction and huge recoil Thomson scattering in solid helium as some prominent peculiarities of a quantum crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo.

    1996-02-01

    In topographs of the downward X-ray diffraction, no Laue spots could be observed using a horizontally thin line-focussed beam. The disappearance of the Laue spots by the downward X-ray diffraction could be explained by two main factors besides a synergistic effect of the smallness of the atomic-scattering factors, the absorption coefficients, the densities etc. One is that the downward X-ray diffraction is completely inelastic scattering, and, as a result, diffracted X-ray beams may become entirely diffuse scattering. The other is that the great difference in the linear scatterer density between the forward and downward directions resulted from the fact that the irradiation of a line-focussed X-ray beam to take section topographs weakens the downward X-ray diffraction. The main reason is not due to the zero-point vibration. (J.P.N.)

  2. Comparative analysis of different approaches to the computation of long-wave radiation balance of water air systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskii, K.; Nourani, Y.; Monte, L.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, the net long-wave radiation balance of the water-air environmental systems is analysed on the base of several semi-empirical approaches. Various theoretical models of infrared atmospheric radiation are reviewed. Factors, affecting their behavior are considered. Special attention is paid to physical conditions under which those models are applicable. Atmospheric and net infrared radiation fluxes are computed and compared under clear and cloudy sky. Results are presented in graphical form. Conclusions are made on the applicability of models considered for evaluating infrared radiation fluxes in environmental conditions of Central Italy. On the base of present analysis Anderson's model is chosen for future calculations of heat budget of lakes in Central Italy [it

  3. On exact solutions of the regularized long-wave equation: A direct approach to partially integrable equations. II. Periodic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.

    1995-07-01

    In this second of two articles (designated I and II), the bilinear transformation method is used to obtain stationary periodic solutions of the partially integrable regularized long-wave (RLW) equation. These solutions are expressed in terms of Riemann theta functions, and this approach leads to a new and compact expression for the important dispersion relation. The periodic solution (or cnoidal wave) can be represented as an infinite sum of sech2 ``solitary waves'': this remarkable property may be interpreted in the context of a nonlinear superposition principle. The RLW cnoidal wave approximates to a sinusoidal wave and a solitary wave in the limits of small and large amplitudes, respectively. Analytic approximations and error estimates are given which shed light on the character of the cnoidal wave in the different parameter regimes. Similar results are presented in brief for the related RLW Boussinesq (RLWB) equation.

  4. Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide hybrids used as long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyao; Xu, Ruoyu; Ling, Min; He, Guanjie

    2017-10-01

    We report a facile thermal decomposition approach to synthesize Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide (Ag-Ag2S/rGO), the Ag-Ag2S nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide with diameters of 10-20 nm. The photoluminescence spectra of Ag-Ag2S/rGO showed two obvious emission peaks at 327 and 339 nm with the excitation wavelength at 287 nm. Compared with Ag-Ag2S heterostructured clusters with two peaks at 407 and 430 nm, it showed a big blue shift and higher intensity, which makes it a novel candidate for long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposite.

  5. Net radiation of mountain cultivated Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stand: evaluation of shortand long-wave radiation ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Irena; Marek, Michal V.

    2011-01-01

    The radiation exchange drives the plant ecosystems energy balance and provides the energy for photosynthesis, transpiration and plant growth. The investigation on net radiation and its component during vegetation season in relation to the clearness index and sun elevation in a cultivated 31-year-old mountain spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stand is presented. Downward short-wave radiation – Sd (incident on the spruce stand was the main part of the short-wave radiation balance during th...

  6. Effect of long-wave ultraviolet light on the lens. I. Model systems for detecting and measuring effect on the lens in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuck, J.F.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Rat, mouse, and chick lenses incubated with 3-aminotriazole under long-wave ultraviolet (UV) show reduced accumulation and incorporation of leucine and a loss of glutathione. The effect on leucine incorporation is strikingly enhanced when capsule-epithelium pools are incubated. The procedure may identify photosensitizers or metabolic inhibitors which are cataractogenic when acting in conjunction with UV

  7. Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE) Longwave Infrared Spectral Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    an example the US Air Force sponsored SEBASS LWIR hyperspectral instrument, which requires cooling the FPA of silicon arsenide (SiAs) impurity- band...radiance at the sensor from the sky plate ( aluminum plate) in the scene is dominated by the surface-reflected downwelling sky radiance toward the... aluminum plate deployed at the SPICE site clearly show the surface-reflected downwelling sky radiance 30 corresponding to downwelling in the

  8. Confronting the surface temperature cold bias in AGCMs over the Tibetan Plateau and improving climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. X.; Liu, Y.; Bao, Q.; Chen, X.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    One of the mid-term progresses of the NSFC- Key Research Program "Land-air Coupling over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Climate Impact " is presented. The elevated heating in summer and cooling in winter of the Tibetan Plateau significantly regulate the seasonal change of the atmospheric circulation and exert remarkable impacts on world climate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of the Phase-5 Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface air temperatures (Ta) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In addition, more than half of the models underestimate annual and seasonal mean surface temperatures (Ts) over the TP. These cold biases are larger over the western TP. By decomposing the Ts bias using the surface energy budget equation, it was demonstrated that this TP's cold bias can be attributed to various factors, in which the stronger bias in surface albedo (a-) and the weaker bias in clear-sky downward Longwave radiation (DLR) play the most significant roles. Since a- and DLR are respectively affected by snow coverage fraction at the ground surface and water vapor content in the atmosphere, these results then imply that the cold bias over the TP is caused by too large snow coverage fraction and too less water vapor content over the TP in the models. The FAMIL AGCM model developed at LASG also suffers from the similar cold bias over the TP. By introducing the 3D- Radiative Transfer Parameterization Over Mountains/Snow (Liou, 2013) into the model, the total solar radiation reaching the ground surface is increased during the daytime, resulting in more snowmelt and less snow coverage. Accordingly, surface albedo is decreased on the sunny side of the mountains, and the surface cold bias over mountain areas is decreased. It is shown that the improvement is sensitive to the model resolution: increased the horizontal resolution of Community Land Model version 4.0 (CLM 4.0) from nearly 200km (1.9o×2.5o) to

  9. Air-sea heat flux climatologies in the Mediterranean Sea: Surface energy balance and its consistency with ocean heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiangzhou; Yu, Lisan

    2017-05-01

    This study provides an analysis of the Mediterranean Sea surface energy budget using nine surface heat flux climatologies. The ensemble mean estimation shows that the net downward shortwave radiation (192 ± 19 W m-2) is balanced by latent heat flux (-98 ± 10 W m-2), followed by net longwave radiation (-78 ± 13 W m-2) and sensible heat flux (-13 ± 4 W m-2). The resulting net heat budget (Qnet) is 2 ± 12 W m-2 into the ocean, which appears to be warm biased. The annual-mean Qnet should be -5.6 ± 1.6 W m-2 when estimated from the observed net transport through the Strait of Gibraltar. To diagnose the uncertainty in nine Qnet climatologies, we constructed Qnet from the heat budget equation by using historic hydrological observations to determine the heat content changes and advective heat flux. We also used the Qnet from a data-assimilated global ocean state estimation as an additional reference. By comparing with the two reference Qnet estimates, we found that seven products (NCEP 1, NCEP 2, CFSR, ERA-Interim, MERRA, NOCSv2.0, and OAFlux+ISCCP) overestimate Qnet, with magnitude ranging from 6 to 27 W m-2, while two products underestimate Qnet by -6 W m-2 (JRA55) and -14 W m-2 (CORE.2). Together with the previous warm pool work of Song and Yu (2013), we show that CFSR, MERRA, NOCSv2.0, and OAFlux+ISCCP are warm-biased not only in the western Pacific warm pool but also in the Mediterranean Sea, while CORE.2 is cold-biased in both regions. The NCEP 1, 2, and ERA-Interim are cold-biased over the warm pool but warm-biased in the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Dynamic interaction of a downward plane jet and a cough jet with respect to particle transmission: An analytical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guangyu; Liu, Shichao; Boor, Brandon E; Novoselac, Atila

    2017-08-01

    A cough jet can travel beyond the breathing zone of the source person, and thus, infectious viral- and bacterial-laden particles can be transported from the source person to others in close proximity. To reduce the interpersonal transmission of coughed particles, the objective of this study was to analytically and experimentally investigate the performance of downward plane jets with various discharge velocities. Chamber measurements were conducted to examine the interaction between a transient cough jet (discharge velocities of 12 m/sec and 16 m/sec) and a steady downward plane jet (discharge velocities from 1.0-8.5 m/sec) with respect to the transport of and human exposure to coughed particles. The results show that a relatively high-speed cough can easily penetrate a downward plane jet with a discharge velocity of less than 6 m/sec. A downward plane jet with a discharge velocity of 8.5 m/sec can bend the cough jet to a certain extent. In this study, momentum comparison of the cough jet and the downward plane jet shows that the value of personal exposure to coughed particles depends on the ratio of jet momentums. The results show that when the two momentums are equivalent or if the downward plane jet has a greater momentum, the cough jet is deflected downward and does not reach the breathing zone of the target thermal dummy. Using the ratio of the two momentums, it may be estimated whether the transmission of a cough jet can be controlled. A trajectory model was developed based on the ratio of the two momentums of a cough jet and a downward jet and was validated using the experimental data. In addition, the predicted trajectory of the cough jet agreed well with the results from smoke visualization experiments. This model can be used to guide the design of downward plane jet systems for protection of occupants from coughed particles.

  11. The Impact of Föhn Winds on Surface Energy Balance During the 2010-2011 Melt Season Over Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. C.; Kirchgaessner, A.; Bevan, S.; Elvidge, A. D.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Luckman, A.; Orr, A.; Renfrew, I. A.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2017-11-01

    We use model data from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS), measurements from automatic weather stations and satellite observations to investigate the association between surface energy balance (SEB), surface melt, and the occurrence of föhn winds over Larsen C Ice Shelf (Antarctic Peninsula) over the period November 2010 to March 2011. Föhn conditions occurred for over 20% of the time during this period and are associated with increased air temperatures and decreased relative humidity (relative to nonföhn conditions) over the western part of the ice shelf. During föhn conditions, the downward turbulent flux of sensible heat and the downwelling shortwave radiation both increase. However, in AMPS, these warming tendencies are largely balanced by an increase in upward latent heat flux and a decrease in downwelling longwave radiation so the impact of föhn on the modeled net SEB is small. This balance is highly sensitive to the representation of surface energy fluxes in the model, and limited validation data suggest that AMPS may underestimate the sensitivity of SEB and melt to föhn. There is broad agreement on the spatial pattern of melt between the model and satellite observations but disagreement in the frequency with which melt occurs. Satellite observations indicate localized regions of persistent melt along the foot of the Antarctic Peninsula mountains which are not simulated by the model. Furthermore, melt is observed to persist in these regions during extended periods when föhn does not occur, suggesting that other factors may be important in controlling melt in these regions.

  12. Impact of external longwave radiation on optimum insulation thickness in Tunisian building roofs based on a dynamic analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daouas, Naouel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient tool is proposed for a rigorous energy analysis of building envelope. • The longwave radiation has an important impact on the energy requirements. • Optimum insulation thickness for roofs is rigorously determined in a cost analysis. • The present method is more accurate than the sol–air degree hours method. • The proposed model is applicable to the study of the efficiency of cool roofs. - Abstract: In Tunisia, the building sector is considered as a major issue of energy consumption. A special attention should be drawn to improve the thermal quality of the building envelope with real consideration of the Tunisian climate specificity. One of the most effective measures is the roof insulation. Therefore, the present study is concerned with the determination of the optimum insulation thickness and the resulting energy savings and payback period for two typical roof structures and two types of insulation materials. An efficient analytical dynamic model based on the Complex Finite Fourier Transform (CFFT) is proposed and validated in order to handle the nonlinear longwave radiation (LWR) exchange with the sky. This model provides a short computational time solution of the transient heat transfer through multilayer roofs, which could be a good alternative to some numerical methods. Both heating and cooling annual loads are rigorously estimated and used as inputs to a life-cycle cost analysis. Among the studied cases, the most economical one is the hollow terracotta-based roof insulated with rock wool, where the optimum insulation thickness is estimated to be 7.9 cm, with a payback period of 6.06 years and energy savings up to 58.06% of the cost of energy consumed without insulation. The impact of the LWR exchange component is quantified and the results show its important effect on the annual transmission loads and, consequently, on optimum insulation thickness. A sensitivity analysis shows the efficiency of cool roofs in the Tunisian

  13. Natural convection in inclined hemispherical cavities with isothermal disk and dome faced downwards. Experimental and numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baïri, A.; Monier-Vinard, E.; Laraqi, N.; Baïri, I.; Nguyen, M.N.; Dia, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to propose correlations of Nusselt–Rayleigh type for controlling the thermal state of electronic devices used in various engineering sectors such as thermoregulation of electronic devices, solar energy, aeronautics or safety and security. The assemblies are contained in hemispherical air-filled cavities whose disk is maintained isothermal and inclined at an angle varying between 90° (vertical position) and 180° (disk horizontal with isothermal dome oriented downwards). The numerical approach performed by means of the finite volume method for Rayleigh numbers varying between 10 4 and 5 × 10 8 is validated by measurements for various combinations of inclination angle and Rayleigh number. The results of this work show that the natural convective heat transfer are between 13% and 21% higher when the disk is maintained isothermal as compared to the case corresponding to imposed heat flux on the disk, for the same inclination angle and Rayleigh ranges. - Highlights: • Quantification of steady state natural convective heat transfer. • Nu–Ra correlations for large Ra range and Dirichlet-type boundary condition. • Hemispherical air-filled inclined enclosure with dome oriented downwards. • Thermal control of electronic devices for engineering applications. • Experimental and numerical approaches

  14. Properties of the histogram location approach and the extent and change of downward nominal wage rigidity in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behr

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The histogram location approach has been proposed by Kahn (1997 to estimate the fraction of wage cuts prevented by downward nominal wage rigidity. In this paper, we analyze the validity of the approach by means of a simulation study which yielded evidence of unbiasedness but also of potential underestimation of rigidity parameter uncertainty and therefore of potential anticonservative inference. We apply the histogram location approach to estimate the extent of downward nominal wage rigidity across the EU for 1995-2001. Our data base is the User Data Base (UDB of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP. The results show wide variation in the fraction of wage cuts prevented by nominal wage rigidity across the EU. The lowest rigidity parameters are found for the UK, Spain and Ireland, the largest for Portugal and Italy. Analyzing the change of rigidity between sub periods 1995-1997 and 1999-2001 even shows an widening of the differences in nominal wage rigidity. Due to the finding of large differences across the EU, the results imply that the costs of low inflation policies across the EU differ substantially.

  15. Progress in Understanding Land-Surface-Atmosphere Coupling from LBA Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available LBA research has deepened our understanding of the role of soil water storage, clouds and aerosols in land-atmosphere coupling. We show how the reformulation of cloud forcing in terms of an effective cloud albedo per unit area of surface gives a useful measure of the role of clouds in the surface energy budget over the Amazon. We show that the diurnal temperature range has a quasi-linear relation to the daily mean longwave cooling; and to effective cloud albedo because of the tight coupling between the near-surface climate, the boundary layer and the cloud field. The coupling of surface and atmospheric processes is critical to the seasonal cycle: deep forest rooting systems make water available throughout the year, whereas in the dry season the shortwave cloud forcing is reduced by regional scale subsidence, so that more light is available for photosynthesis. At sites with an annual precipitation above 1900 mm and a dry season length less than 4 months, evaporation rates increased in the dry season, coincident with increased radiation. In contrast, ecosystems with precipitation less than 1700 mm and a longer dry season showed clear evidence of reduced evaporation in the dry season coming from water stress. In all these sites, the seasonal variation of the effective cloud albedo is a major factor in determining the surface available energy. Dry season fires add substantial aerosol to the atmosphere. Aerosol scattering and absorption both reduce the total downward surface radiative flux, but increase the diffuse/direct flux ratio, which increases photosynthetic efficiency. Convective plumes produced by fires enhance the vertical transport of aerosols over the Amazon, and effectively inject smoke aerosol and gases directly into the middle troposphere with substantial impacts on mid- tropospheric dispersion. In the rainy season in Rondônia, convection in low-level westerly flows with low aerosol content resembles oceanic convection with

  16. Effect of UV radiation on the surface of mammalian immunocompetent cells 2. The change of some surface characteristics of thymus lymphocytes in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylenkov, V.A.; Malygin, A.M. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Tsitologii)

    1983-01-01

    The effect af short-wave (254 nm) and long-wave (365 nm) UV-rays in non-lethal and low lethal doses on thymus cells brings about the increase in the expression of surface markers characteristic of ..beta..-lymphocytes (MBLA-antigens and EAC-receptors) which do not reveal themselves in plasmatic membrane of non-irradiated thymocytes.

  17. Temperature-moisture biases in ECMWF analyses based on clear sky longwave simulations constrained by SSMI and MSU measurements and comparisons to ERBE estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju

    1994-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiation fluxes for the summer of 1988 and winter of 1989 have been simulated with a radiative transfer model that includes detailed treatment of atmospheric gas absorption. The input data to the model are humidity and temperature profiles from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses and surface temperature measurements from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. To reduce the inherent uncertainties in humidity profiles, the ECMWF moisture fields have been adjusted, based on the climatological relationship between the moisture profile and total precipitable water (PW), so that the ECMWF PW is equal to that derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) data. SSMI and ECMWF PW patterns are generally similar, but significant differences in magnitude are found in the low latitudes, particularly over the subtropical oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. At the same time the tropospheric brightness temperature (T(sub B)) at 53.74 GHz has been computed using a microwave transfer model with ECMWF temperature and humidity fields as inputs. The comparison of computed T(sub B) with the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) channel 2 T(sub B) revealed differences larger than 1.5 K over most of the oceans, suggesting that the ECMWF model atmosphere has a cold bias. Maximum biases greater than 3 K are found in low latitudes. After removing the bias from the ECMWF temperature field, a new set of temperature profiles yielding brightness temperature equal to MSU channel 2 T(sub B) has been obtained. Simulation results clearly demonstrate that inclusion of satellite estimates of PW and T(sub B) enhances the accuracy of the clear sky LW flux simulation, substantially reducing the differences from Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) estimates. Global averages indicate that the model-derived top-of-atmosphere (TOA) clear sky fluxes from the adjusted moisture and temperature profiles are in very good agreement with

  18. Significantly extended cutoff wavelength of very long-wave infrared detectors based on InAs/GaSb/InSb/GaSb superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongwei; Han, Xi; Hao, Hongyue; Sun, Yaoyao; Jiang, Zhi; Lv, Yuexi; Guo, Chunyan; Wang, Guowei; Xu, Yingqiang; Yu, Yang; Niu, Zhichuan

    2017-10-01

    The authors report significant tunability of the bandgap in very long-wave infrared (VLWIR) InAs/GaSb/InSb/GaSb superlattices. Calculations using the empirical tight binding method have shown the flexibility in tuning the energy levels of the valence band by inserting a thin InSb layer in the middle of the GaSb layer of a normal type-II binary InAs/GaSb superlattice. Through the experimental realization of several barrier structure photodiodes with 15 ML InAs/7 ML GaSb active region, the cutoff wavelength was extended from 14.5 μm to 18.2 μm by inserting 0.6 ML InSb at different locations in GaSb layer. The agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurement suggests a way to exploit this advantage for the realization of very long-wave infrared detection without increasing the thickness of InAs layer. At 77 K, the quantum efficiency of a very long-wave detector with the cutoff wavelength of 16.9 μm reached at a maximum value of 30%, and the R0A is kept at a stable value of 10 Ω cm2 with the peak detectivity of 2.73 × 1011 cm Hz1/2/W. The operability and the uniformity in responsivity of the 320 × 256 very long-wave focal plane arrays were 88% and 80%. The noise equivalent temperature difference at 65 K presents a peak at 25 mK, corresponding to an average value of 60 mK, with an integration time of 0.5 ms, a 300 K background, and f/2 optics.

  19. Development of long-wave microwave satellite systems for measuring soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1998-12-01

    The science need for remotely sensed soil moisture has been well established in the hydrologic, climate change and weather forecasting communities. There also have been a number of programs that have demonstrated the feasibility of using long wave microwave sensors for estimating soil moisture. These have ranged from truck mounted sensors, to intensive airborne campaigns with science objectives. Based on this history of truck and aircraft experiments, the science community has settled on a soil moisture product that meets the following criteria: a two day global repeat, a measured layer of 5 cm of soil, a footprint of 20 to 30 km, and an absolute accuracy of plus or minus 4% volumetric soil moisture. The principal sensor to accomplish this is an L-band passive microwave radiometer. A soil moisture mission is being proposed for the NASA Earth Systems Science Pathfinder (ESSP) mission which has very real constraints of a limited budget which includes the launch vehicle, and a three year award to launch time schedule. Within the past few years there have been a number of mission concepts proposed that meet the challenge of getting a very large antenna in space in order to realize a spatial resolution on the ground that meets the science and applications needs. This paper describes some of the alternative concepts considered to meet these unusual requirements and the ways to solve the very large antenna challenge, and the criteria used to choose the final design for an ESSP proposal. The paper also discusses the alternatives considered to obtain the necessary ancillary data for characterizing the surface roughness, the surface temperature and the attenuation affects of vegetation.

  20. Comparative Investigation of the Downward and Upward Directionally Solidified Single-Crystal Blades of Superalloy CMSX-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Ma, Dexin; Bogner, Samuel; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Single-crystal blades of Ni-base superalloys CMSX-4 have been directionally solidified using the downward directional solidification (DWDS) process. The possible benefits of the process were comparatively evaluated with respect to the Bridgman process' results. The DWDS process exhibits good capabilities for casting the single-crystal components. The thermal gradients of this process are approximately seven times higher than those of the Bridgman process. It provides more advantages for solidifying the single-crystal superalloy blades by reducing the casting defects, refining the microstructure, decreasing the size of the γ/ γ' eutectic pools, refining the γ' precipitates, alleviating the degree of the microsegregation, and minimizing the size and volume fraction of the micropores.

  1. Imaging method for downward-looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar based on reweighted atomic norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qian; Han, Kuoye; Lin, Yun; Zhang, Bingchen; Liu, Jianguo; Hong, Wen

    2016-01-01

    We propose an imaging algorithm for downward-looking sparse linear array three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar (DLSLA 3-D SAR) in the circumstance of cross-track sparse and nonuniform array configuration. Considering the off-grid effect and the resolution improvement, the algorithm combines pseudo-polar formatting algorithm, reweighed atomic norm minimization (RANM), and a parametric relaxation-based cyclic approach (RELAX) to improve the imaging performance with a reduced number of array antennas. RANM is employed in the cross-track imaging after pseudo-polar formatting the DLSLA 3-D SAR echo signal, then the reconstructed results are refined by RELAX. By taking advantage of the reweighted scheme, RANM can improve the resolution of the atomic norm minimization, and outperforms discretized compressive sensing schemes that suffer from off-grid effect. The simulated and real data experiments of DLSLA 3-D SAR verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Experimental Study on Downwardly Spreading Flame over Inclined Polyethylene-insulated Electrical Wire with Applied AC Electric Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung Jae

    2014-12-30

    An experimental study on downwardly spreading flame over slanted electrical wire, which is insulated by Polyethylene (PE), was conducted with applied AC electric fields. The result showed that the flame spread rate decreased initially with increase in inclination angle of wire and then became nearly constant. The flame shape was modified significantly with applied AC electric field due to the effect of ionic wind. Such a variation in flame spread rate could be explained by a thermal balance mechanism, depending on flame shape and slanted direction of flame. Extinction of the spreading flame was not related to angle of inclination, and was described well by a functional dependency upon the frequency and voltage at extinction.

  3. Evaluation of the treatment of chronic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy using long-wave diathermy and interferential currents: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Katarina; Bergkvist, Leif; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effects of long-wave diathermy in combination with interferential currents (interferential therapy and long-wave diathermy at high power (ITH)) in comparison with long-wave diathermy at a power below the active treatment dose (long-wave diathermy at low power (LDL), control group) on sensory and motor symptoms in patients with chronic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in the lower extremities. Sixty-seven patients with chronic CIPN were randomized to 12 weeks of either ITH or LDL. Follow-up assessments were performed after the treatment period and at 37 weeks after randomization. The primary outcome was pain (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)), and the secondary outcomes were discomfort, nerve symptoms, subjective measurement of dizziness (Dizziness Handicap Inventory), and balance. Differences within and between groups were analyzed. Pain intensity decreased significantly only in the LDL group directly after the treatment period from NRS median 25 to median 12.5 (P = 0.017). At the 37-week follow-up, no changes were detected, irrespective of group (NRS 13 vs. 20, P = 0.885). Discomfort decreased significantly in both groups at both 12 and 37 weeks after the baseline (P < 0.05). Balance disability showed significant declines in both groups at 12 and 37 weeks (P = 0.001/0.025 in the ITH group vs P = 0.001/<0.001 in the LDL group). Balance ability (tightened Romberg test) increased significantly at both 12 and 37 weeks in both groups (P = 0.004/<0.040 in the ITH group) but did not improve in the LDL group at any of the follow-up time points (P = 0.203 vs P = 0.383). The one-legged stance test was unchanged in the ITH group after 12 weeks but improved 37 weeks after baseline (P = 0.03). No significant changes were observed in the LDL group at any of the follow-up time points. This study provides no support for the use of a combination of long-wave diathermy and ITH as a treatment option for patients

  4. On the measurement of the surface energy budget over a land ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the seasonal time scale, the net longwave radiation is the largest energy loss term at the experi- mental site. The seasonal variation in the energy sink term is small compared to that in the energy source term. 1. Introduction. Land surface temperature is an important meteoro- logical variable and is required in many practi-.

  5. Interannual variability of summertime outgoing longwave radiation over the Maritime Continent in relation to East Asian summer monsoon anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Guan, Zhaoyong

    2017-08-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC) is under influences of both the tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Anomalous convective activities over the MC have significant impacts on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and climate in China. In the present study, the variation in convective activity over the MC in boreal summer and its relationship to EASM anomalies are investigated based on regression analysis of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and CMAP [Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation] data, with a focus on the impacts of ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The most significant interannual variability of convective activity is found over 10°S-10°N, 95°-145°E, which can be roughly defined as the key area of the MC (hereafter, KMC). Outgoing longwave radiation anomaly (OLRA) exhibits 3- to 7-yr periodicities over the KMC, and around 70% of the OLRA variance can be explained by the ENSO signal. However, distinct convection and precipitation anomalies still exist over this region after the ENSO and IOD signals are removed. Abnormally low precipitation always corresponds to positive OLRA over the KMC when negative diabatic heating anomalies and anomalous cooling of the atmospheric column lead to abnormal descending motion over this region. Correspondingly, abnormal divergence occurs in the lower troposphere while convergence occurs in the upper troposphere, triggering an East Asia-Pacific/Pacific-Japan (EAP/PJ)-like anomalous wave train that propagates northeastward and leads to a significant positive precipitation anomaly from the Yangtze River valley in China to the islands of Japan. This EAP/PJ-like wave pattern becomes even clearer after the removal of the ENSO signal and the combined effects of ENSO and IOD, suggesting that convective anomalies over the KMC have an important impact on EASM anomalies. The above results provide important clues for the prediction of EASM anomalies and associated summer precipitation anomalies in China.

  6. Shutterless non-uniformity correction for the long-term stability of an uncooled long-wave infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengwei; Sui, Xiubao; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian

    2018-02-01

    For the uncooled long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera, the infrared (IR) irradiation the focal plane array (FPA) receives is a crucial factor that affects the image quality. Ambient temperature fluctuation as well as system power consumption can result in changes of FPA temperature and radiation characteristics inside the IR camera; these will further degrade the imaging performance. In this paper, we present a novel shutterless non-uniformity correction method to compensate for non-uniformity derived from the variation of ambient temperature. Our method combines a calibration-based method and the properties of a scene-based method to obtain correction parameters at different ambient temperature conditions, so that the IR camera performance can be less influenced by ambient temperature fluctuation or system power consumption. The calibration process is carried out in a temperature chamber with slowly changing ambient temperature and a black body as uniform radiation source. Enough uniform images are captured and the gain coefficients are calculated during this period. Then in practical application, the offset parameters are calculated via the least squares method based on the gain coefficients, the captured uniform images and the actual scene. Thus we can get a corrected output through the gain coefficients and offset parameters. The performance of our proposed method is evaluated on realistic IR images and compared with two existing methods. The images we used in experiments are obtained by a 384× 288 pixels uncooled LWIR camera. Results show that our proposed method can adaptively update correction parameters as the actual target scene changes and is more stable to temperature fluctuation than the other two methods.

  7. Classification of tree species based on longwave hyperspectral data from leaves, a case study for a tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D.; Rivard, B.; Sánchez-Azofeifa, A.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing of the environment has utilized the visible, near and short-wave infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum to characterize vegetation health, vigor and distribution. However, relatively little research has focused on the use of the longwave infrared (LWIR, 8.0-12.5 μm) region for studies of vegetation. In this study LWIR leaf reflectance spectra were collected in the wet seasons (May through December) of 2013 and 2014 from twenty-six tree species located in a high species diversity environment, a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. A continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) was applied to all spectra to minimize noise and broad amplitude variations attributable to non-compositional effects. Species discrimination was then explored with Random Forest classification and accuracy improved was observed with preprocessing of reflectance spectra with continuous wavelet transformation. Species were found to share common spectral features that formed the basis for five spectral types that were corroborated with linear discriminate analysis. The source of most of the observed spectral features is attributed to cell wall or cuticle compounds (cellulose, cutin, matrix glycan, silica and oleanolic acid). Spectral types could be advantageous for the analysis of airborne hyperspectral data because cavity effects will lower the spectral contrast thus increasing the reliance of classification efforts on dominant spectral features. Spectral types specifically derived from leaf level data are expected to support the labeling of spectral classes derived from imagery. The results of this study and that of Ribeiro Da Luz (2006), Ribeiro Da Luz and Crowley (2007, 2010), Ullah et al. (2012) and Rock et al. (2016) have now illustrated success in tree species discrimination across a range of ecosystems using leaf-level spectral observations. With advances in LWIR sensors and concurrent improvements in their signal to noise, applications to large-scale species

  8. Assessment of the effectiveness of downward water sprays for mitigating gaseous chlorine releases in partially confined spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbour, J P; Gilbert, D; Dandrieux, A; Dusserre, G

    2003-01-31

    Water sprays are sometimes used as a means of mitigating accidental releases of chlorine gas. This paper gives results of a series of small-scale experimental field tests on the mitigation of chlorine gaseous releases (about 1kg/min) by various downward water sprays. The releases were from a cylinder of liquefied chlorine located in a storage shed. The shed could be configured to simulate confined and semi-confined installations used at public swimming pools. The water sprays were located in the shed. During these tests, different types of spray nozzles and storage configurations were tested under various atmospheric conditions, in order to select the best water spray. It was shown that the best chlorine downstream concentration reduction (factor 3-5 at 10m) was achieved with a flat fan water spray for the semi-confined configuration. Poor absorption in water was observed (fog water spray for the confined configuration. This is expected since chlorine is a low soluble gas. It has been evidenced for the confined configuration, that even if reduction of concentration has been observed (factor 2), downstream concentration remains very high (>10,000ppm), and above critical level of toxicity. Consequently, the use of water sprays in this case without additives to promote absorption seems to be inefficient.

  9. Acoustic and optical variations during rapid downward motion episodes in the deep north-western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, H.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyons, K.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Maurin, G.; Mazure, A.; Melissas, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, G.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pillet, R.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-08-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was moored at the deep-sea site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope near Toulon, France, thus providing a unique opportunity to compare high-resolution acoustic and optical observations between 70 and 170 m above the sea bed at 2475 m. The ADCP measured downward vertical currents of magnitudes up to 0.03 m s-1 in late winter and early spring 2006. In the same period, observations were made of enhanced levels of acoustic reflection, interpreted as suspended particles including zooplankton, by a factor of about 10 and of horizontal currents reaching 0.35 m s-1. These observations coincided with high light levels detected by the telescope, interpreted as increased bioluminescence. During winter 2006 deep dense-water formation occurred in the Ligurian subbasin, thus providing a possible explanation for these observations. However, the 10-20 days quasi-periodic episodes of high levels of acoustic reflection, light and large vertical currents continuing into the summer are not direct evidence of this process. It is hypothesized that the main process allowing for suspended material to be moved vertically later in the year is local advection, linked with topographic boundary current instabilities along the rim of the 'Northern Current'.

  10. Estimation of daily average downward shortwave radiation from MODIS data using principal components regression method: Fars province case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzin, Razieh; Shirvani, Amin; Lotfi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Downward shortwave radiation is a key quantity in the land-atmosphere interaction. Since the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data has a coarse temporal resolution, which is not suitable for estimating daily average radiation, many efforts have been undertaken to estimate instantaneous solar radiation using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data. In this study, the principal components analysis technique was applied to capture the information of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer bands, extraterrestrial radiation, aerosol optical depth, and atmospheric water vapour. A regression model based on the principal components was used to estimate daily average shortwave radiation for ten synoptic stations in the Fars province, Iran, for the period 2009-2012. The Durbin-Watson statistic and autocorrelation function of the residuals of the fitted principal components regression model indicated that the residuals were serially independent. The results indicated that the fitted principal components regression models accounted for about 86-96% of total variance of the observed shortwave radiation values and the root mean square error was about 0.9-2.04 MJ m-2 d-1. Also, the results indicated that the model accuracy decreased as the aerosol optical depth increased and extraterrestrial radiation was the most important predictor variable among all.

  11. An experimental study on two-phase pressure drop in small diameter horizontal, downward inclined and vertical tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autee Arun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of two-phase pressure drop in small diameter tubes orientated horizontally, vertically and at two other downward inclinations of θ= 300 and θ = 600 is described in this paper. Acrylic transparent tubes of internal diameters 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 mm with lengths of 400 mm were used as the test section. Air-water mixture was used as the working fluid. Two-phase pressure drop was measured and compared with the existing correlations. These correlations are commonly used for calculation of pressure drop in macro and mini-microchannels. It is observed that the existing correlations are inadequate in predicting the two-phase pressure drop in small diameter tubes. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation has been proposed for predicting the two-phase pressure drop. This correlation is developed by modification of Chisholm parameter C by incorporating different parameters. It was found that the proposed correlation predicted two-phase pressure drop at satisfactory level.

  12. Lumbosacral Subdural Hematoma After Glioblastoma Multiforme Resection: Possible Radiographic Evidence for the Downward Migration of Intracranial Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisan, Gabriella M; Buell, Thomas J; Raper, Daniel; Asthagiri, Ashok

    2017-12-01

    Spinal subdural hematomas (SSDHs) are rare and usually associated with bleeding diatheses, trauma, iatrogenic injury, spinal vascular malformations, or intraspinal tumors. We report a case of a 75-year-old man who developed a symptomatic lumbosacral SSDH after undergoing resection of a right temporal glioblastoma multiforme. The patient subsequently recovered and was discharged home. Over the next 2 weeks, he developed progressively worsening symptoms of lower back pain, lower extremity weakness, and urinary retention. Although the patient had no known risk factors for developing a SSDH, magnetic resonance imaging on postoperative day 16 revealed an extensive L2-sacrum SSDH. The patient underwent L2-L5 total laminectomies for evacuation of the SSDH. His symptoms resolved after surgery. Literature review produced 26 other cases of SSDHs after intracranial surgery in patients without obvious risk factors. In our case, the lumbosacral SSDH may have originated from downward migration of intracranial blood in a gravity-dependent fashion. Radiographic evidence of blood within the posterior thecal sac of the patient's cervical spine supports this hypothesis. In most cases, SSDHs after intracranial surgery resolve with conservative treatment; however, as shown in our case, surgery may be required if there is progressive neurologic decline. Neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication after intracranial surgery; a magnetic resonance imaging of the spine may be indicated if there is unexplained lower extremity pain or weakness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the Electronic Crosstalk Effect in Terra MODIS Long-Wave Infrared Photovoltaic Bands Using Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Truman; Wu, Aisheng; Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors among the suite of remote sensing instruments on board the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. For each MODIS spectral band, the sensor degradation has been measured using a set of on-board calibrators. MODIS also uses lunar observations from nearly monthly spacecraft maneuvers, which bring the Moon into view through the space-view port, helping to characterize the scan mirror degradation at a different angles of incidence. Throughout the Terra mission, contamination of the long-wave infrared photovoltaic band (LWIR PV, bands 27-30) signals has been observed in the form of electronic crosstalk, where signal from each of the detectors among the LWIR PV bands can leak to the other detectors, producing a false signal contribution. This contamination has had a noticeable effect on the MODIS science products since 2010 for band 27, and since 2012 for bands 28 and 29. Images of the Moon have been used effectively for determining the contaminating bands, and have also been used to derive correction coefficients for the crosstalk contamination. In this paper, we introduce an updated technique for characterizing the crosstalk contamination among the LWIR PV bands using data from lunar calibration events. This approach takes into account both the in-band and out-of-band contribution to the signal contamination for each detector in bands 27-30, which is not considered in previous works. The crosstalk coefficients can be derived for each lunar calibration event, providing the time dependence of the crosstalk contamination. Application of these coefficients to Earth-view image data results in a significant reduction in image contamination and a correction of the scene radiance for bands 27- 30. Also, this correction shows a significant improvement to certain threshold tests in the MODIS Level-2 Cloud Mask. In this paper, we will detail the methodology used to identify and correct

  14. Exact solutions for power-law regularized long-wave and R(m, n) equations with time-dependent coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, M.; Mirzazadeh, M.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present solitary wave solution of two different forms of regularized long-wave equation with time-dependent coefficients that models shallow-water waves in fluid dynamics and some phenomena in elastic media, optic fibres and plasma physics. The simplest equation method is applied to solve the governing equations and then exact 1-soliton solutions are obtained. It is shown that this method provides us with a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations with time-dependent coefficients in mathematical physics.

  15. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Land surface characteristics; high resolution mesoscale model; Uttarakhand rainfall; monsoon season. .... radiation flux at the. Analysis for Research and surface (SW). Applications (MERRA). Downward longwave radiation flux at the surface (LW). Rain rate (PCP) ...... cal diffusion package with an explicit treatment of.

  16. Effect of solidification parameters on the microstructures of superalloy CMSX-6 formed during the downward directional solidification process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Ma, D.; Zhang, J.; Liu, L.; Hong, J.; Bogner, S.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2014-03-01

    The single crystal Ni-base superalloy CMSX-6 was cast by using the downward directional solidification process (DWDS) using withdrawal rates of between 0.0013 and 0.0217 cm/s. The evolutions of as-cast microstructures were characterized as functions of the withdrawal rate. The primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings, λ1 and λ2, decreased with increasing withdrawal rate, which is similar to the experimental results obtained in the conventional Bridgman process. However, the value of λ1 and λ2 measured in the present work is much smaller than that in the Bridgman process. In addition to this, the value of λ1 cannot be reasonably described by the theoretical models for the primary dendrite arm spacing in which the convection effect was not taken into account. In comparison, the theoretical model of Bouchard and Kirkaldy which considers the convection factor can predict the λ1 value well in the present work if the dendrite-calibrating factor (a1) is assumed to be 13.5. The sizes of the γ‧ phase in the dendrite and interdendritic regions were also reduced with an increased withdrawal rate. The shape of the γ‧ phase was cuboidal in the dendritic regions at all experimental withdrawal rates. This contrasts with the γ‧ phase in the dendrite cores which became more rounded at the highest withdrawal rates employed in the present work, due to the low supersaturation and insufficient growth time. With an increased withdrawal rate, significant reduction in the size of the γ/γ‧ eutectic island was observed in the samples. Meanwhile, the microsegregation of the alloying elements was reduced and the volume fraction of the γ/γ‧ eutectic initially decreased and then increased. The difference in the shape of the γ/γ‧ eutectic was also found in those samples processed at low withdrawal rates as well as at high withdrawal rates.

  17. Modeling the downward transport of 210Pb in Peatlands: Initial Penetration‐Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olid, Carolina; Diego, David; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 210 Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100–150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of 210 Pb within some peat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration–Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from 210 Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radionuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived 210 Pb ( 210 Pb xs ) in peat taking into account both incorporation of 210 Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of 210 Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous 210 Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used 210 Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. 241 Am and 137 Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where 210 Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Accurate age dating of peat and sediment cores is critical for evaluating change. • A new 210 Pb dating model that includes vertical transport of 210 Pb was developed. • The IP-CRS model provided consistent peat accumulation rates. • The IP-CRS ages were consistent with independent chronological markers. • The IP-CRS model derives peat ages where downward 210 Pb transport is evidenced.

  18. Investigation of dominant hydrological processes in a tropical catchment in a monsoonal climate via the downward approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Montanari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the dominant processes that may be responsible for the observed streamflow response in Seventeen Mile Creek, a tropical catchment located in a monsoonal climate in Northern Territory, Australia. The hydrology of this vast region of Australia is poorly understood due to the low level of information and gauging that are available. Any insights that can be gained from the few well gauged catchments that do exist can be valuable for predictions and water resource assessments in other poorly gauged or ungauged catchments in the region. To this end, the available rainfall and runoff data from Seventeen Mile Creek catchment are analyzed through the systematic and progressive development and testing of rainfall-runoff models of increasing complexity, by following the "downward" or "top-down" approach. This procedure resulted in a multiple bucket model (4 buckets in parallel. Modelling results suggest that the catchment's soils and the landscape in general have a high storage capacity, generating a significant fraction of delayed runoff, whereas saturation excess overland flow occurs only after heavy rainfall events. The sensitivity analyses carried out with the model with regard to soil depth and temporal rainfall variability revealed that total runoff from the catchment is more sensitive to rainfall variations than to soil depth variations, whereas the partitioning into individual components of runoff appears to be more influenced by soil depth variations. The catchment exhibits considerable inter-annual variability in runoff volumes and the greatest determinant of this variability turns out to be the seasonality of the climate, the timing of the wet season, and temporal patterns of the rainfall. The water balance is also affected by the underlying geology, nature of the soils and the landforms, and the type, density and dynamics of vegetation, although information pertaining to these is lacking.

  19. Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    boundary layer (ABL). It predicts turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and is a Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model. As in Lee et al. (2012...cumulus parameterization (Kain 2004) is employed. For radiation , the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) (Mlawer et al. 1997) is used for...longwave and the Dudhia scheme (Dudhia 1989) for shortwave . The Noah land surface model (Chen and Dudhia 2001) is used to represent land surface processes

  20. Seasonal contrast in the surface energy balance of the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Slingo, A.; Barnard, J. C.; Kassianov, E.

    2009-07-01

    Over much of the world, heating of the surface by sunlight is balanced predominately by evaporative cooling. However, at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) in Niamey, Niger, evaporation makes a significant contribution to the surface energy balance only at the height of the rainy season, when precipitation has replenished the reservoir of soil moisture. The AMF was placed at Niamey from late 2005 to early 2007 to provide measurements of surface fluxes in coordination with geostationary satellite retrievals of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, as part of the RADAGAST experiment to calculate atmospheric radiative divergence. We use observations at the mobile facility to investigate how the surface adjusts to radiative forcing throughout the year. The surface response to solar heating varies with changes in atmospheric water vapor associated with the seasonal reversal of the West African monsoon, which modulates the greenhouse effect and the ability of the surface to radiate thermal energy directly to space. During the dry season, sunlight is balanced mainly by longwave radiation and the turbulent flux of sensible heat. The ability of longwave radiation to cool the surface drops after the onset of southwesterly surface winds at Niamey, when moist, oceanic air flows onshore, increasing local column moisture and atmospheric opacity. Following the onset of southwesterly flow, evaporation remains limited by the supply of moisture from precipitation. By the height of the rainy season, however, sufficient precipitation has accumulated that evaporation is controlled by incident sunlight, and radiative forcing of the surface is balanced comparably by the latent, sensible, and longwave fluxes. Evaporation increases with the leaf area index, suggesting that plants are a significant source of atmospheric moisture and may tap moisture stored beneath the surface that accumulated during a previous rainy season. Surface radiative forcing

  1. The increasing chronicity of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: Re-thinking "HIV as a long-wave event" in the era of widespread access to ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whiteside Alan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV was first described as a "long-wave event" in 1990, well before the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART. The pandemic was then seen as involving three curves: an HIV curve, an AIDS curve and a curve representing societal impact. Since the mid-2000's, free public delivery of life-saving ART has begun shifting HIV from a terminal disease to a chronic illness for those who can access and tolerate the medications. This increasing chronicity prompts revisiting HIV as a long-wave event. First, with widespread availability of ART, the HIV curve will be higher and last longer. Moreover, if patterns in sub-Saharan Africa mirror experiences in the North, people on ART will live far longer lives but with new experiences of disability. Disability, broadly defined, can result from HIV, its related conditions, and from side effects of medications. Individual experiences of disability will vary. At a population level, however, we anticipate that experiences of disability will become a common part of living with HIV and, furthermore, may be understood as a variation of the second curve. In the original conceptualization, the second curve represented the transition to AIDS; in the era of treatment, we can expect a transition from HIV infection to HIV-related disability for people on ART. Many such individuals may eventually develop AIDS as well, but after a potentially long life that includes fluctuating episodes of illness, wellness and disability. This shift toward chronicity has implications for health and social service delivery, and requires a parallel shift in thinking regarding HIV-related disability. A model providing guidance on such a broader understanding of disability is the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. In contrast to a biomedical approach concerned primarily with diagnoses, the ICF includes attention to the impact of these diagnoses on people's lives and

  2. A theoretical model of air and steam co-injection to prevent the downward migration of DNAPLs during steam-enhanced extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslusky, Scott F.; Udell, Kent S.

    2002-04-01

    When steam is injected into soil containing a dense volatile non-aqueous phase liquid contaminant the DNAPL vaporized within the heated soil region condenses and accumulates ahead of the steam condensation front. If enough DNAPL accumulates, gravitational forces can overcome trapping forces allowing the liquid contaminant to flow downward. By injecting air with steam, a portion of the DNAPL vapor remains suspended in equilibrium with the air, decreasing liquid contaminant accumulation ahead of the steam condensation front, and thus reducing the possibility of downward migration. In this work, a one-dimensional theoretical model is developed to predict the injection ratio of air to steam that will prevent the accumulation of volatile DNAPLs. The contaminated region is modeled as a one-dimensional homogeneous porous medium with an initially uniform distribution of a single component contaminant. Mass and energy balances are combined to determine the injection ratio of air to steam that eliminates accumulation of the contaminant ahead of the steam condensation front, and hence reduces the possibility of downward migration. The minimum injection ratio that eliminates accumulation is defined as the optimum injection ratio. Example calculations are presented for three DNAPLs, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4), trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PCE). The optimum injection ratio of air to steam is shown to depend on the initial saturation and the volatility of the liquid contaminant. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the model, and to illustrate downward migration for ratios less than optimum. Optimum injection ratios determined from numerical simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theoretical model.

  3. Surface radiation changes and their impact on climate in Central Europe[Dissertation 17578

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruckstuhl, Ch.

    2008-07-01

    forcing on surface temperature, direct aerosol forcing is found to be about five times larger than the forcing due to changing clouds. First order estimates using mean climate sensitivity factors indicate that with the observed strong aerosol decline the direct and the indirect aerosol and cloud forcing combined may have produced about one third of the recent rapid temperature increase observed in Central Europe since the 1980s. The observed relation of decreasing AOD and consequently increasing solar radiation under cloud-free skies has been confirmed by MODTRAN (MODerate spectral resolution atmospheric TRANsmittance algorithm and computer model) calculations. MODTRAN calculations further indicate that the observed increase in water vapor has at least a five times smaller impact on solar irradiance transmission under cloud-free skies than the measured aerosol optical depth decline has. For the conducted analysis of solar radiation under cloud-free skies, a new method has been developed to automatically detect cloud-free skies. The method is based on sunshine duration measurements and the variability of the atmospheric transmission derived from global solar irradiance measurements. This new method presents the advantage to use standard solar radiation parameters that are usually measured at advanced meteorological stations. To validate state-of-the-art radiometers a one year radiometer comparison campaign has been performed at the Payerne Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site. The comparison has shown that state-of-the-art Kipp and Zonen pyranometers measure global solar irradiance within 1.6%, and if a field adjustment is performed the uncertainty even reduces to 1.0% on monthly means. If Eppley PSP pyranometers are also considered, the uncertainties are about twice as large. In order to explore the total surface radiation budget, a parameterization has been derived to estimate longwave downward radiation (LDR) from surface humidity and column integrated water

  4. Social comparison in the brain: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies on the downward and upward comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Eickhoff, Simon B; Hétu, Sébastien; Feng, Chunliang

    2018-01-01

    Social comparison is ubiquitous across human societies with dramatic influence on people's well-being and decision making. Downward comparison (comparing to worse-off others) and upward comparison (comparing to better-off others) constitute two types of social comparisons that produce different neuropsychological consequences. Based on studies exploring neural signatures associated with downward and upward comparisons, the current study utilized a coordinate-based meta-analysis to provide a refinement of understanding about the underlying neural architecture of social comparison. We identified consistent involvement of the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in downward comparison and consistent involvement of the anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in upward comparison. These findings fit well with the "common-currency" hypothesis that neural representations of social gain or loss resemble those for non-social reward or loss processing. Accordingly, we discussed our findings in the framework of general reinforcement learning (RL) hypothesis, arguing how social gain/loss induced by social comparisons could be encoded by the brain as a domain-general signal (i.e., prediction errors) serving to adjust people's decisions in social settings. Although the RL account may serve as a heuristic framework for the future research, other plausible accounts on the neuropsychological mechanism of social comparison were also acknowledged. Hum Brain Mapp 39:440-458, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. On precursors to the Italy earthquake M.6.2 using VLF signal of NSY(45.9 kHz) received at Kiel Longwave Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Keshav Prasad; Khadka, Balaram; Bhatta, Karan; Schnoor, Peter Wilhelm; Ghimire, Basu Dev

    2017-12-01

    On August 24, 2016, an earthquake of magnitude 6.2 struck Central Italy (42.706°N and 13.223°E) at 1:36 UT. We present the results obtained from the US Navy VLF Transmitter's NSY signal of 45.9 kHz transmitted from Niscemi, in the province of Sicily, Italy and received at the Kiel Longwave Monitor, Germany for 2016. We analysed the terminator times and their individual differences. We also analysed trends, dispersion and night time fluctuation which gave us a possible precursor the Italy earthquake. We found ionospheric perturbations in these parameters on 14th, 19th and 22nd of August, few days prior. Moreover, we filtered the possible effects due to lightning, storms and auroras if any.

  6. Pulsed, tunable, single-frequency OP-GaAs OPO for the standoff detection of hazardous chemicals in the longwave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Q.; Melkonian, J.-M.; Dherbecourt, J.-B.; Raybaut, M.; Grisard, A.; Lallier, E.; Gérard, B.; Faure, B.; Souhaité, G.; Godard, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present our results on the first nanosecond single-frequency optical parametric oscillator (OPO) emitting in the longwave infrared. It is based on orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs), and can be pumped by a pulsed singlefrequency Tm:YAP microlaser thanks to its low oscillation threshold of 10 μJ. Stable single-longitudinal mode emission of the OPO is obtained owing to Vernier spectral filtering provided by its nested cavity OPO (NesCOPO) scheme. Crystal temperature tuning covers the 10.3-10.9 μm range with a single quasi-phase-matching period of 72.6 μm. Shortrange standoff detection of ammonia vapor around 10.4 μm is performed with this source. We believe that this achievement paves the way to differential absorption lidars in the LWIR with increased robustness and reduced footprint.

  7. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with downward sloping audiometric patterns of hearing loss and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case review was to identify patterns of cochlear element degeneration in individuals with presbycusis exhibiting downward sloping audiometric patterns of hearing loss and to correlate these findings with those reported in the literature to clarify conflicting concepts regarding the association between hearing loss and morphologic abnormalities. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for downward-sloping audiometric thresholds. Twenty-one temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones from individuals with normal hearing. The stria vascularis volumes, spiral ganglion cell populations, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells were quantitatively evaluated. The relationship between the severity of hearing loss and the degeneration of cochlear elements was analyzed using univariate linear regression models. Outer hair cell loss and ganglion cell loss was observed in all individuals with presbycusis. Inner hair cell loss was observed in 18 of the 21 individuals with presbycusis and stria vascularis loss was observed in 10 of the 21 individuals with presbycusis. The extent of degeneration of all four of the cochlear elements evaluated was highly associated with the severity of hearing loss based on audiometric thresholds at 8,000 Hz and the pure-tone average at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 Hz. The extent of ganglion cell degeneration was associated with the slope of the audiogram. Individuals with downward-sloping audiometric patterns of presbycusis exhibit degeneration of the stria vascularis, spiral ganglion cells, inner hair cells, and outer hair cells that is associated with the severity of hearing loss. This association has not been previously reported in studies that did not use quantitative methodologies for evaluating the cochlear elements and strict audiometric criteria for selecting cases.

  8. Land-Surface-Atmosphere Coupling in Observations and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal cycle and the daily mean at the land-surface result from the coupling of many physical processes. The framework of this review is largely conceptual; looking for relationships and information in the coupling of processes in models and observations. Starting from the surface energy balance, the role of the surface and cloud albedos in the shortwave and longwave fluxes is discussed. A long-wave radiative scaling of the diurnal temperature range and the night-time boundary layer is summarized. Several aspects of the local surface energy partition are presented: the role of soilwater availability and clouds; vector methods for understanding mixed layer evolution, and the coupling between surface and boundary layer that determines the lifting condensation level. Moving to larger scales, evaporation-precipitation feedback in models is discussed; and the coupling of column water vapor, clouds and precipitation to vertical motion and moisture convergence over the Amazon. The final topic is a comparison of the ratio of surface shortwave cloud forcing to the diabatic precipitation forcing of the atmosphere in ERA-40 with observations.

  9. Research Note : Near-surface layer replacement for sparse data: Is interpolation needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, D.J.; Luo, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Near-surface problem is a common challenge faced by land seismic data processing, where often, due to near-surface anomalies, events of interest are obscured. One method to handle this challenge is near-surface layer replacement, which is a wavefield reconstruction process based on downward

  10. Comparison of the Long-Range Climate Memory in Outgoing Longwave Radiation over the Tibetan Plateau and the Indian Monsoon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongping Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA method, scaling behaviors of the daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR from 1979 to 2015 over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the Indian Monsoon Region (IMR are analyzed. The results show that there is long-term memory for the OLR time series over the TP and IMR. The long-range memory behaviors of OLR over TP are stronger than those over IMR. The averaged values of the scaling exponents over TP and IMR are 0.71 and 0.64; the maximum values in the two regions are 0.81 and 0.75; the minimum values are 0.59 and 0.58. The maximum frequency counts for scaling exponents occur in the range of 0.625 and 0.675 both in TP and in IMR. The spatial distribution of the scaling exponents of the OLR sequence is closely related to the conditions of climatic high cloud cover in the two areas. The high cloud cover over TP is obviously less than that of IMR. In addition, the scaling behaviors of OLR over TP and IMR are caused by the fractal characteristics of time series, which is further proved by randomly disrupting the time series to remove trends and correlation.

  11. Experimental investigations on turbulent mixing of hot upward flow and cold downward flow inside a chimney model of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Samiran, E-mail: samiran_sengupta@yahoo.co.in [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghosh, Aniruddha [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, C. [Research Reactor Maintenance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayan, P.K. [Reactor Design & Development Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Research Reactor Design & Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sharma, R.C. [Reactor Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulated mixing of hot upward and cold downward flows in a chimney of a reactor. • Experiments in chimney model (2:9 scale) at Reynolds number (Re)—1.5 to 4.5 × 10{sup 5}. • Hot upward flow comes out of the chimney when bypass flow ratio (R) is zero. • Increase in ratio (R) reduces jet height, vortex spread height and temperature front height. • Effects of Re, chimney height and temperature differential are not significant. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the turbulent mixing of hot upward flow and cold downward flow inside a scaled down model of chimney structure of a pool type nuclear research reactor. Open pool type nuclear reactors often use this type of chimney structures to prevent mixing of radioactive core outlet water directly into the reactor pool so that radiation field at the reactor pool top can be kept to a lower limit. The chimney structure is designed to facilitate guiding of the radioactive water towards the two outlet nozzles of the chimney and simultaneously allows drawing water from the reactor pool through the chimney top opening. The present work aims at studying flow mixing behaviour of hot and cold water inside a 2/9th scaled down model of the chimney structure experimentally. The ratio between the cold downward flow and the hot upward flow is varied between 0 and 0.15 to predict the extent of suppression of the hot upward flow within the chimney region for various bypass flow ratios. The Reynolds number of the hot upward flow considered in the experiment is about 1.5 × 10{sup 5} which corresponds to a flow rate of about 500 l min{sup −1}. The upward jet height and the temperature distribution were predicted from the experiment. It was observed that increase in bypass flow ratio reduces the upward jet height of hot water. Experiments were also carried out by increasing the flow rate to 1000 and 1500 l min{sup −1} corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 3 × 10{sup 5} and 4.5 × 10{sup 5

  12. Balance of longwave radiation employing the rate of solar radiation for Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Zanini Righi

    Full Text Available New coefficients were determined for the weighting term for cloudiness in the Brunt-Penman equation using the rate of solar radiation (RK in place of the rate of sunshine duration (n/N. The coefficients in the Brutsaert method proposed for daytime in southern Brazil were also tested and adjusted, and the method was selected which gave the more accurate daily results in relation to the original Brunt-Penman equation, for Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (RS. Meteorological data covering 2,472 days obtained from the automatic and conventional weather stations in Santa Maria were used. The coefficients were adjusted by linear and nonlinear regression methods depending on the model, using 2/3 of the data. The adjusted equations were tested with the remaining 1/3 of the data. The Brunt-Penman equation modified by the term for cloudiness weighted both for solar radiation incident on the surface with no cloudiness (RK,R and for solar radiation incident at the top of the atmosphere (RK,K, were those that resulted in the best statistical indices relative to the original Brunt-Penman equation. In those equations the boundary conditions, 0.3 ≥ RK,R ≥ 1 or RK,K ≤ 0.22, were imposed. Although having similar statistical indices, a sensitivity analysis showed that the Brutsaert equation and other weightings for cloudiness resulted in larger deviations when compared to the original Brunt-Penman equation, in addition to having greater complexity for practical application.

  13. Bidirectional Echolocation in the Bat Barbastella barbastellus: Different Signals of Low Source Level Are Emitted Upward through the Nose and Downward through the Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Anna-Maria; Koblitz, Jens C; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The Barbastelle bat (Barbastella barbastellus) preys almost exclusively on tympanate moths. While foraging, this species alternates between two different signal types. We investigated whether these signals differ in emission direction or source level (SL) as assumed from earlier single microphone recordings. We used two different settings of a 16-microphone array to determine SL and sonar beam direction at various locations in the field. Both types of search signals had low SLs (81 and 82 dB SPL rms re 1 m) as compared to other aerial-hawking bats. These two signal types were emitted in different directions; type 1 signals were directed downward and type 2 signals upward. The angle between beam directions was approximately 70°. Barbastelle bats are able to emit signals through both the mouth and the nostrils. As mouth and nostrils are roughly perpendicular to each other, we conclude that type 1 signals are emitted through the mouth while type 2 signals and approach signals are emitted through the nose. We hypothesize that the "stealth" echolocation system of B. barbastellus is bifunctional. The more upward directed nose signals may be mainly used for search and localization of prey. Their low SL prevents an early detection by eared moths but comes at the expense of a strongly reduced detection range for the environment below the bat. The more downward directed mouth signals may have evolved to compensate for this disadvantage and may be mainly used for spatial orientation. We suggest that the possibly bifunctional echolocation system of B. barbastellus has been adapted to the selective foraging of eared moths and is an excellent example of a sophisticated sensory arms race between predator and prey.

  14. Bidirectional Echolocation in the Bat Barbastella barbastellus: Different Signals of Low Source Level Are Emitted Upward through the Nose and Downward through the Mouth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Seibert

    Full Text Available The Barbastelle bat (Barbastella barbastellus preys almost exclusively on tympanate moths. While foraging, this species alternates between two different signal types. We investigated whether these signals differ in emission direction or source level (SL as assumed from earlier single microphone recordings. We used two different settings of a 16-microphone array to determine SL and sonar beam direction at various locations in the field. Both types of search signals had low SLs (81 and 82 dB SPL rms re 1 m as compared to other aerial-hawking bats. These two signal types were emitted in different directions; type 1 signals were directed downward and type 2 signals upward. The angle between beam directions was approximately 70°. Barbastelle bats are able to emit signals through both the mouth and the nostrils. As mouth and nostrils are roughly perpendicular to each other, we conclude that type 1 signals are emitted through the mouth while type 2 signals and approach signals are emitted through the nose. We hypothesize that the "stealth" echolocation system of B. barbastellus is bifunctional. The more upward directed nose signals may be mainly used for search and localization of prey. Their low SL prevents an early detection by eared moths but comes at the expense of a strongly reduced detection range for the environment below the bat. The more downward directed mouth signals may have evolved to compensate for this disadvantage and may be mainly used for spatial orientation. We suggest that the possibly bifunctional echolocation system of B. barbastellus has been adapted to the selective foraging of eared moths and is an excellent example of a sophisticated sensory arms race between predator and prey.

  15. Improved Determination of Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures Using Only Shortwave AIRS Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind,Joel

    2009-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4, 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS is a grating spectrometer with a number of linear arrays of detectors with each detector sensitive to outgoing radiation in a characteristic frequency v(sub i) with a spectral band pass delta v(sub i) of roughly v(sub i) /1200. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(exp -1) (15.38 gm) - 2665 cm(exp -1)' (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometer (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometer (shortwave) CO, absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometerm - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. One reason for this was concerns about the effects, during the day, of reflected sunlight and non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) on the observed radiances in the shortwave portion of the spectrum. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses the longwave channels to determine cloud cleared radiances R(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used by the AIRS Science Team in preparation for the AIRS Version 6 Retrieval Algorithm. This paper describes how the effects on the radiances of solar radiation reflected by clouds and the Earth's surface, and also of non-LTE, are accounted for in the analysis of the data. Results are presented for both

  16. Imaging of Ground Ice with Surface-Based Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    intrusive ice feature occurring in existing permafrost ter- rain when surface water infiltrates into downward-propagated contraction cracks ...testing and pavement color testing was performed. 2.1.2 Creamer’s Field We constructed one transect at this site, which is located north of Fair

  17. Infrared surface phonon polariton waveguides on SiC Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuchen; Manene, Franklin M.; Lail, Brian A.

    2015-08-01

    Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguides harbor many potential applications at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. However, dispersive properties of the metal in the waveguide yields weakly coupled and lossy plasmonic modes in the mid and long wave infrared range. This is one of the major reasons for the rise in popularity of surface phonon polariton (SPhP) waveguides in recent research and micro-fabrication pursuit. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a good candidate in SPhP waveguides since it has negative dielectric permittivity in the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectral region, indicative that coupling to surface phonon polaritons is realizable. Introducing surface phonon polaritons for waveguiding provides good modal confinement and enhanced propagation length. A hybrid waveguide structure at long-wave infrared (LWIR) is demonstrated in which an eigenmode solver approach in Ansys HFSS was applied. The effect of a three layer configuration i.e., silicon wire on a benzocyclobutene (BCB) dielectric slab on SiC, and the effects of varying their dimensions on the modal field distribution and on the propagation length, is presented.

  18. Probing organic residues on Martian regolith simulants using a long-wave infrared Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy linear array detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Yang, Clayton S.-C.; Jin, Feng; Jia, Ken; Brown, EiEi; Hömmerich, Uwe; Jia, Yingqing; Trivedi, Sudhir; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Decuir, Eric; Samuels, Alan C.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) linear array detection system that is capable of rapidly capturing ( 1-5 second) a broad spectrum of atomic and molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) emissions in the longwave infrarμed region (LWIR, 5.6 to 10 μm) has been developed. Similar to the conventional Ultraviolet (UV)-Visible (Vis) LIBS, a broad band emission spectrum of condensed phase samples covering the entire 5.6 to 10 μm region can be acquired from just a single laser-induced micro-plasma or averaging a few single laser-induced micro-plasmas. This setup has enabled probing samples "as is" without the need for extensive sample preparation and also offers the possibility of a simultaneous UV-Vis and LWIR LIBS measurement. A Martian regolith simulant (JSC Mars-1A) was studied with this novel Vis + LWIR LIBS array system. A broad SiO2 vibrational emission feature around 9.5 μm and multiple strong emission features between 6.5 to 8 μm can be clearly identified. The 6.5 to 8 μm features are possibly from biological impurities of the simulant. JSC Mars-1A samples with organic methyl salicylate (MeS, wintergreen oil) and Dimethyl methyl-phosphonate (DMMP) residues were also probed using the LWIR LIBS array system. Both molecular spectral signature around 6.5 μm and 9.5 μm of Martian regolith simulant and MeS and DMMP molecular signature emissions, such as Aromatic CC stretching band at 7.5 μm, C-CH3O asymmetric deformation at 7.6 μm, and P=O stretching band at 7.9 μm, are clearly observed from the LIBS emission spectra in the LWIR region.

  19. Long-wave infrared radiation reflected by compression stockings in the treatment of cellulite: a clinical double-blind, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, E; Miot, H A; Soares, J L M; Sanudo, A; Afonso, J P J M; de Barros Junior, N; Talarico, S

    2013-10-01

    Cellulite refers to changes in skin relief on the thighs and buttocks of women, with a prevalence of 80-90%, causing dissatisfaction and search for treatment. Etiopathogenesis is multifactorial, as follows: herniation of the hypodermis towards the dermis, facilitated by perpendicular fibrous septa, changes in the dermal extracellular matrix, decreased adiponectin, genetic polymorphism, microcirculation alterations and inflammatory process. There are numerous therapeutic approaches, with little evidence of effectiveness. The long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation interacts with water, improves microcirculation and stimulates metabolic processes. To date, the use of tissues with potential reflection of LWIR radiation has not been systematically investigated as adjuvant treatment for cellulite. To investigate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of cellulite through the use of compression stockings made with thread reflecting LWIR radiation. Clinical study of therapeutic intervention, controlled and double-blind, including 30 women, aging from 25 to 40 years, with cellulite of grades II and III on the thighs and buttocks who used compression stockings, "pantyhose" model, made with reflector thread of LWIR radiation, on only one randomized side. Women under other treatments for cellulite and with venous and/or blood insufficiencies were excluded. Evaluation of efficacy by clinical parameters, photographs, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), cutometry and high frequency ultrasonography and security by observation of adverse events and venous EcoDoppler recordings. DLQI scores showed significant reduction; the two-dimensional high-frequency ultrasonography showed an insignificant increase in dermal echogenicity as well as other efficacy parameters demonstrated no or slight improvement, with no differences between the sides exposed or not to LWIR; and there were no severe adverse events. Compression stockings, with or without thread reflector of LWIR, showed slight

  20. Observational signatures of unusual outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) as precursory effects of May 2015 Nepal earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Sasmal, Sudipta; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake preparation processes may start 1-30 days before its actual occurrence. Measurements of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and detection of the presence of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) in very low frequency (VLF) radio signals can be used as tools to identify such processes. We studied these signals monitored prior to a recent major earthquake that occurred in Nepal at southeast of Kodari on May 12, 2015 at 12:50 pm local time (07:05 UTC) with Richter scale magnitude of M = 7.3 and depth 10 km (6.21 miles). It was preceded by another major earthquake on April 25, 2015 with magnitude M = 7.9. First, to study the effects of seismic events on OLR, we used NOAA/IR daily (two degree gridded) data from April 16 to May 30, 2015 and followed the method of Eddy field calculation mean to find pre-seismic anomalies. We found singularities in Eddy field OLR curves around the earthquake epicenter starting 3 days prior to the earthquake days and disappearance of such singularities after the events. Such singularities can be associated with a large amount of energy released by the earthquakes. Second, we analyzed very low frequency (VLF) data recorded at Ionospheric and Earthquake Research Centre (IERC) of Indian Centre for Space Physics transmitted from JJI (22.2 kHz) station of Japan. We looked for the presence of atmospheric gravity waves in the ionosphere which can be considered as an important factor in finding seismo-ionospheric correlations. We performed both fast Fourier transform (FFT) and wavelet analysis on the signal and found significant presence of such waves (periods of almost 1 h) four days before the earthquake.

  1. Measuring the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing through the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipona, Rolf; Kräuchi, Andreas; Brocard, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    In spite of a large body of existing measurements of incoming shortwave solar radiation and outgoing longwave terrestrial radiation at the Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere, there are few observations documenting how radiation profiles change through the atmosphere - information that is necessary to fully quantify the greenhouse effect of the Earth's atmosphere. Using weather balloons and specific radiometer equipped radiosondes, we continuously measured shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes from the surface of the Earth up to altitudes of 35 kilometers in the upper stratosphere. Comparing radiation profiles from night measurements with different amounts of water vapor, we show evidence of large greenhouse forcing. We show, that under cloud free conditions, water vapor increases with Clausius-Clapeyron ( 7% / K), and longwave downward radiation at the surface increases by 8 Watts per square meter per Kelvin. The longwave net radiation however, shows a positive increase (downward) of 2.4 Watts per square meter and Kelvin at the surface, which decreases with height and shows a similar but negative increase (upward) at the tropopause. Hence, increased tropospheric water vapor increases longwave net radiation towards the ground and towards space, and produces a heating of 0.42 Kelvin per Watt per square meter at the surface. References: Philipona et al., 2012: Solar and thermal radiation profiles and radiative forcing measured through the atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L13806, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052087.

  2. Biodiversity losses: The downward spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomback, Diana F.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Tomback, Diana F.; Arno, Stephen F.; Keane, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    The dramatic decline of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada from the combined effects of fire exclusion, mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), and the projected decline of whitebark pine populations rangewide (Chapters 10 and 11) do not simply add up to local extirpations of a single tree species. Instead, the loss of whitebark pine has broad ecosystem-level consequences, eroding local plant and animal biodiversity, changing the time frame of succession, and altering the distribution of subalpine vegetation (Chapter 1). One potential casualty of this decline may be the midcontinental populations of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis), which use whitebark pine seeds as a major food source (Chapter 7). Furthermore, whitebark pine is linked to other white pine ecosystems in the West through its seed-disperser, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) (Chapter 5). Major declines in nutcracker populations ultimately seal the fate of several white pine ecosystems, and raise the question of whether restoration is possible once a certain threshold of decline is reached.

  3. Reflection of plane waves from free surface of a microstretch elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The problem of reflection of plane waves from free surface of a microstretch elastic solid half-space is studied. The energy ratios for ... axis is taken normal to free surface in downward direction. The region z > 0 is occupied by linear ... Superposed dots on the right hand side of above equations denote the second partial ...

  4. Surface energy budget responses to radiative forcing at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathaniel B.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Cox, Christopher J.; Noone, David; Persson, P. Ola G.; Steffen, Konrad

    2017-02-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet surface temperatures are controlled by an exchange of energy at the surface, which includes radiative, turbulent, and ground heat fluxes. Data collected by multiple projects are leveraged to calculate all surface energy budget (SEB) terms at Summit, Greenland, for the full annual cycle from July 2013 to June 2014 and extend to longer periods for the radiative and turbulent SEB terms. Radiative fluxes are measured directly by a suite of broadband radiometers. Turbulent sensible heat flux is estimated via the bulk aerodynamic and eddy correlation methods, and the turbulent latent heat flux is calculated via a two-level approach using measurements at 10 and 2 m. The subsurface heat flux is calculated using a string of thermistors buried in the snow pack. Extensive quality-control data processing produced a data set in which all terms of the SEB are present 75 % of the full annual cycle, despite the harsh conditions. By including a storage term for a near-surface layer, the SEB is balanced in this data set to within the aggregated uncertainties for the individual terms. November and August case studies illustrate that surface radiative forcing is driven by synoptically forced cloud characteristics, especially by low-level, liquid-bearing clouds. The annual cycle and seasonal diurnal cycles of all SEB components indicate that the non-radiative terms are anticorrelated to changes in the total radiative flux and are hence responding to cloud radiative forcing. Generally, the non-radiative SEB terms and the upwelling longwave radiation component compensate for changes in downwelling radiation, although exact partitioning of energy in the response terms varies with season and near-surface characteristics such as stability and moisture availability. Substantial surface warming from low-level clouds typically leads to a change from a very stable to a weakly stable near-surface regime with no solar radiation or from a weakly stable to neutral

  5. Bread and Shoulders: Reversing the Downward Spiral, a Qualitative Analyses of the Effects of a Housing First-Type Program in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhenter, Pauline; Moreau, Delphine; Laval, Christian; Mantovani, Jean; Albisson, Amandine; Suderie, Guillaume; Boucekine, Mohamed; Tinland, Aurelie; Loubière, Sandrine; Greacen, Tim; Auquier, Pascal; Girard, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative analysis of the effects of accompagnement, a support framework, on recovery trajectories of people with long-term homelessness and severe psychiatric disorders during 24 months in a Housing First-type program in France. A comprehensive methodology based on grounded theory was used to construct an interview guide, conduct multiple interviews with 35 Housing First participants sampled for heterogeneity, and produce memos on their trajectories before and after entering the program based on interview information. Thematic analysis of a representative subsample (n = 13) of memos identified 12 objective factors and 6 subjective factors key to the recovery process. An in-depth re-analysis of the memos generated four recovery themes: (1) the need for secure space favorable to self-reflexivity; (2) a “honeymoon” effect; (3) the importance of even weak social ties; (4) support from and hope among peers. Three challenges to recovery were identified: (1) finding a balance between protection and risk; (2) breaking downward spirals; (3) bifurcating the trajectory. This study provides new insight into the recovery process, understood as a non-linear transformation of an experience—the relationship between objective life conditions and subjective perception of those conditions—which reinforces protective support over risk elements. PMID:29538346

  6. A Dual Conductance Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Void Fraction and Structure Velocity of Downward Two-Phase Flow in a Slightly Inclined Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Gun; Won, Woo-Youn; Lee, Bo-An; Kim, Sin

    2017-05-08

    In this study, a new and improved electrical conductance sensor is proposed for application not only to a horizontal pipe, but also an inclined one. The conductance sensor was designed to have a dual layer, each consisting of a three-electrode set to obtain two instantaneous conductance signals in turns, so that the area-averaged void fraction and structure velocity could be measured simultaneously. The optimum configuration of the electrodes was determined through numerical analysis, and the calibration curves for stratified and annular flow were obtained through a series of static experiments. The fabricated conductance sensor was applied to a 45 mm inner diameter U-shaped downward inclined pipe with an inclination angle of 3° under adiabatic air-water flow conditions. In the tests, the superficial velocities ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 m/s for water and from 0.1 to 18 m/s for air. The obtained mean void fraction and the structure velocity from the conductance sensor were validated against the measurement by the wire-mesh sensor and the cross-correlation technique for the visualized images, respectively. The results of the flow regime classification and the corresponding time series of the void fraction at a variety of flow velocities were also discussed.

  7. Bread and Shoulders: Reversing the Downward Spiral, a Qualitative Analyses of the Effects of a Housing First-Type Program in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Rhenter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative analysis of the effects of accompagnement, a support framework, on recovery trajectories of people with long-term homelessness and severe psychiatric disorders during 24 months in a Housing First-type program in France. A comprehensive methodology based on grounded theory was used to construct an interview guide, conduct multiple interviews with 35 Housing First participants sampled for heterogeneity, and produce memos on their trajectories before and after entering the program based on interview information. Thematic analysis of a representative subsample (n = 13 of memos identified 12 objective factors and 6 subjective factors key to the recovery process. An in-depth re-analysis of the memos generated four recovery themes: (1 the need for secure space favorable to self-reflexivity; (2 a “honeymoon” effect; (3 the importance of even weak social ties; (4 support from and hope among peers. Three challenges to recovery were identified: (1 finding a balance between protection and risk; (2 breaking downward spirals; (3 bifurcating the trajectory. This study provides new insight into the recovery process, understood as a non-linear transformation of an experience—the relationship between objective life conditions and subjective perception of those conditions—which reinforces protective support over risk elements.

  8. A Dual Conductance Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Void Fraction and Structure Velocity of Downward Two-Phase Flow in a Slightly Inclined Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Gun Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new and improved electrical conductance sensor is proposed for application not only to a horizontal pipe, but also an inclined one. The conductance sensor was designed to have a dual layer, each consisting of a three-electrode set to obtain two instantaneous conductance signals in turns, so that the area-averaged void fraction and structure velocity could be measured simultaneously. The optimum configuration of the electrodes was determined through numerical analysis, and the calibration curves for stratified and annular flow were obtained through a series of static experiments. The fabricated conductance sensor was applied to a 45 mm inner diameter U-shaped downward inclined pipe with an inclination angle of 3° under adiabatic air-water flow conditions. In the tests, the superficial velocities ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 m/s for water and from 0.1 to 18 m/s for air. The obtained mean void fraction and the structure velocity from the conductance sensor were validated against the measurement by the wire-mesh sensor and the cross-correlation technique for the visualized images, respectively. The results of the flow regime classification and the corresponding time series of the void fraction at a variety of flow velocities were also discussed.

  9. Impact of buildings on surface solar radiation over urban Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bin; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Gu, Yu; He, Cenlin; Lee, Wee-Liang; Chang, Xing; Li, Qinbin; Wang, Shuxiao; Tseng, Hsien-Liang R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-12

    The rugged surface of an urban area due to varying buildings can interact with solar beams and affect both the magnitude and spatiotemporal distribution of surface solar fluxes. Here we systematically examine the impact of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes over urban Beijing by using a 3-D radiation parameterization that accounts for 3-D building structures vs. the conventional plane-parallel scheme. We find that the resulting downward surface solar flux deviations between the 3-D and the plane-parallel schemes are generally ±1–10 W m-2 at 800 m grid resolution and within ±1 W m-2 at 4 km resolution. Pairs of positive–negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings are resolved at 800 m resolution, while they offset each other at 4 km resolution. Flux deviations from the unobstructed horizontal surface at 4 km resolution are positive around noon but negative in the early morning and late afternoon. The corresponding deviations at 800 m resolution, in contrast, show diurnal variations that are strongly dependent on the location of the grids relative to the buildings. Both the magnitude and spatiotemporal variations of flux deviations are largely dominated by the direct flux. Furthermore, we find that flux deviations can potentially be an order of magnitude larger by using a finer grid resolution. Atmospheric aerosols can reduce the magnitude of downward surface solar flux deviations by 10–65 %, while the surface albedo generally has a rather moderate impact on flux deviations. The results imply that the effect of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes may not be critically significant in mesoscale atmospheric models with a grid resolution of 4 km or coarser. However, the effect can play a crucial role in meso-urban atmospheric models as well as microscale urban dispersion models with resolutions of 1 m to 1 km.

  10. Influence of surface roughness of a desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical simulation study, using the current GLAS climate GCM, was carried out to examine the influence of low bulk aerodynamic drag parameter in the deserts. The results illustrate the importance of yet another feedback effect of a desert on itself, that is produced by the reduction in surface roughness height of land once the vegetation dies and desert forms. Apart from affecting the moisture convergence, low bulk transport coefficients of a desert lead to enhanced longwave cooling and sinking which together reduce precipitation by Charney's (1975) mechanism. Thus, this effect, together with albedo and soil moisture influence, perpetuate a desert condition through its geophysical feedback effect. The study further suggests that man made deserts is a viable hypothesis.

  11. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  12. High-resolution satellite-based cloud-coupled estimates of total downwelling surface radiation for hydrologic modelling applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Forman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple satellite-based radiation model yielding high-resolution (in space and time downwelling longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes at the Earth's surface is presented. The primary aim of the approach is to provide a basis for deriving physically consistent forcing fields for distributed hydrologic models using satellite-based remote sensing data. The physically-based downwelling radiation model utilises satellite inputs from both geostationary and polar-orbiting platforms and requires only satellite-based inputs except that of a climatological lookup table derived from a regional climate model. Comparison against ground-based measurements over a 14-month simulation period in the Southern Great Plains of the United States demonstrates the ability to reproduce radiative fluxes at a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h with good accuracy during all-sky conditions. For hourly fluxes, a mean difference of −2 W m−2 with a root mean square difference of 21 W m−2 was found for the longwave fluxes whereas a mean difference of −7 W m−2 with a root mean square difference of 29 W m−2 was found for the shortwave fluxes. Additionally, comparison against advanced downwelling longwave and solar insolation products during all-sky conditions showed comparable uncertainty in the longwave estimates and reduced uncertainty in the shortwave estimates. The relatively simple form of the model enables future usage in ensemble-based applications including data assimilation frameworks in order to explicitly account for input uncertainties while providing the potential for conditioning estimates from other readily available products derived from more sophisticated retrieval algorithms.

  13. Measurements of Radiation Components at Mizuho Station, East Antarctica in 1979

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanouchi,Takashi; Wada,Makoto; Mae,Shinji; Kawaguchi,Sadao; Tsukamura,Koji

    1981-01-01

    Radiation budget measurements were made at Mizuho Station under the program of POLEX-South. Global and reflected shortwave down-ward and upward longwave radiations were measured at the snow surface and at the top of a 30m tower. Direct solar radiation was also measured at the snow surface. The spectral measurements of shortwave radiation divided into four wavelength regions were made. Sensitivity constants of the pyranometers used for the measurement of global and reflected radiations showed ...

  14. Comprehensive study of solid pharmaceutical tablets in visible, near infrared (NIR), and longwave infrared (LWIR) spectral regions using a rapid simultaneous ultraviolet/visible/NIR (UVN) + LWIR laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy linear arrays detection system and a fast acousto-optic tunable filter NIR spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S C; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, Siva R; Patel, Sita; Ramer, Evan D; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Brown, Ei E; Hommerich, Uwe; Samuels, Alan C

    2017-10-30

    This is the first report of a simultaneous ultraviolet/visible/NIR and longwave infrared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (UVN + LWIR LIBS) measurement. In our attempt to study the feasibility of combining the newly developed rapid LWIR LIBS linear array detection system to existing rapid analytical techniques for a wide range of chemical analysis applications, two different solid pharmaceutical tablets, Tylenol arthritis pain and Bufferin, were studied using both a recently designed simultaneous UVN + LWIR LIBS detection system and a fast AOTF NIR (1200 to 2200 nm) spectrometer. Every simultaneous UVN + LWIR LIBS emission spectrum in this work was initiated by one single laser pulse-induced micro-plasma in the ambient air atmosphere. Distinct atomic and molecular LIBS emission signatures of the target compounds measured simultaneously in UVN (200 to 1100 nm) and LWIR (5.6 to 10 µm) spectral regions are readily detected and identified without the need to employ complex data processing. In depth profiling studies of these two pharmaceutical tablets without any sample preparation, one can easily monitor the transition of the dominant LWIR emission signatures from coating ingredients gradually to the pharmaceutical ingredients underneath the coating. The observed LWIR LIBS emission signatures provide complementary molecular information to the UVN LIBS signatures, thus adding robustness to identification procedures. LIBS techniques are more surface specific while NIR spectroscopy has the capability to probe more bulk materials with its greater penetration depth. Both UVN + LWIR LIBS and NIR absorption spectroscopy have shown the capabilities of acquiring useful target analyte spectral signatures in comparable short time scales. The addition of a rapid LWIR spectroscopic probe to these widely used optical analytical methods, such as NIR spectroscopy and UVN LIBS, may greatly enhance the capability and accuracy of the combined system for a comprehensive analysis.

  15. Interaction Between Surface Heat Budgets, Sea Surface Temperature and Deep Convection in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Dah; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The surface heat budgets, sea surface temperature (SST), clouds and winds in the tropical western Pacific are analyzed and compared for the periods April-June 1998 and 1999. The spring of 1998 is in the later phase of a strong El Nino, whereas the spring of 1999 is in a period of a La Nina. The surface shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes are retrieved from Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite radiance measurements, while the surface turbulent fluxes (latent and sensible heat) are derived from SSM/I-Inferred surface air humidity and winds. The SST and sea-air temperature differences are taken from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Deep convection is inferred from the outgoing longwave radiation of NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites. The longitudinal shift in maximum SST, deep convection and winds during El Nino and La Nina have a large impact on the spatial distribution of surface heating. Changes in clouds between these two periods have a large impact on the monthly-mean radiative heating, exceeding 60 W m(exp -2) over large oceanic regions. Similarly, the differences in wind speeds and SST have a large impact on the latent cooling, exceeding 40 W m(exp -2) over large oceanic areas. However, the maximum impacts on radiative and latent heat fluxes occur in different regions. The regions of maximum impact on radiative fluxes coincide with the regions of maximum change in clouds, whereas regions of maximum impact on turbulent heat fluxes coincide with the regions of maximum change in trade winds. The time-evolution of SST in relation to that of surface heat fluxes and winds are investigated and compared between the two El Nino and La Nina periods. In regions where wind speeds (or wind stresses) are large, the change in SST agrees well with the change in the net surface heating, indicating a deep ocean mixed layer associated with strong trade winds. On the other hand, in regions where radiative fluxes are large, the change in SST does not agree well with the

  16. Interannual variability in stratiform cloudiness and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joel R.; Leovy, Conway B.

    1994-01-01

    Marine stratiform cloudiness (MSC)(stratus, stratocumulus, and fog) is widespread over subtropical oceans west of the continents and over midlatitude oceans during summer, the season when MSC has maximum influence on surface downward radiation and is most influenced by boundary-layer processes. Long-term datasets of cloudiness and sea surface teperature (SST) from surface observations from 1952 to 1981 are used to examine interannual variations in MSC and SST. Linear correlations of anomalies in seasonal MSC amount with seasonal SST anomalies are negative and significant in midlatitude and eastern subtropical oceans, especially during summer. Significant negative correlations between SST and nimbostratus and nonprecipitating midlevel cloudiness are also observed at midlatitudes during summer, suggesting that summer storm tracks shift from year to year following year-to-year meridional shifts in the SST gradient. Over the 30-yr period, there are significant upward trends in MSC amount over the northern midlatitude oceans and a significant downward trend off the coast of California. The highest correlations and trends occur where gradients in MSC and SST are strongest. During summer, correlations between SST and MSC anomalies peak at zero lag in midlatitudes where warm advection prevails, but SST lags MSC in subtropical regions where cold advection predominates. This difference is attributed to a tendency for anomalies in latent heat flux to compensate anomalies in surface downward radiation in warm advection regions but not in cold advection regions.

  17. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores

  18. Global scale variability of the mineral dust long-wave refractive index: a new dataset of in situ measurements for climate modeling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Balkanski, Yves; Caponi, Lorenzo; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Journet, Emilie; Nowak, Sophie; Caquineau, Sandrine; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kandler, Konrad; Saeed, Thuraya; Piketh, Stuart; Seibert, David; Williams, Earle; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    Modeling the interaction of dust with long-wave (LW) radiation is still a challenge because of the scarcity of information on the complex refractive index of dust from different source regions. In particular, little is known about the variability of the refractive index as a function of the dust mineralogical composition, which depends on the specific emission source, and its size distribution, which is modified during transport. As a consequence, to date, climate models and remote sensing retrievals generally use a spatially invariant and time-constant value for the dust LW refractive index. In this paper, the variability of the mineral dust LW refractive index as a function of its mineralogical composition and size distribution is explored by in situ measurements in a large smog chamber. Mineral dust aerosols were generated from 19 natural soils from 8 regions: northern Africa, the Sahel, eastern Africa and the Middle East, eastern Asia, North and South America, southern Africa, and Australia. Soil samples were selected from a total of 137 available samples in order to represent the diversity of sources from arid and semi-arid areas worldwide and to account for the heterogeneity of the soil composition at the global scale. Aerosol samples generated from soils were re-suspended in the chamber, where their LW extinction spectra (3-15 µm), size distribution, and mineralogical composition were measured. The generated aerosol exhibits a realistic size distribution and mineralogy, including both the sub- and super-micron fractions, and represents in typical atmospheric proportions the main LW-active minerals, such as clays, quartz, and calcite. The complex refractive index of the aerosol is obtained by an optical inversion based upon the measured extinction spectrum and size distribution. Results from the present study show that the imaginary LW refractive index (k) of dust varies greatly both in magnitude and spectral shape from sample to sample, reflecting the

  19. Diagnosing the extreme surface melt event over southwestern Greenland in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tedesco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of passive microwave brightness temperatures from the space-borne Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I documents a record surface snowmelt over high elevations (above 2000 m of the Greenland ice sheet during summer of 2007. To interpret this record, results from the SSM/I are examined in conjunction with fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis and output from a regional climate model. The record surface melt reflects unusually warm conditions, seen in positive summertime anomalies of surface air temperatures, downwelling longwave radiation, 1000–500 hPa atmospheric thickness, and the net surface energy flux, linked in turn to southerly airflow over the ice sheet. Low snow accumulation may have contributed to the record through promoting anomalously low surface albedo.

  20. Annual Cycles of Surface Shortwave Radiative Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Gupta, Shashi K.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    The annual cycles of surface shortwave flux are investigated using the 8-yr dataset of the surface radiation budget (SRB) components for the period July 1983-June 1991. These components include the downward, upward, and net shortwave radiant fluxes at the earth's surface. The seasonal cycles are quantified in terms of principal components that describe the temporal variations and empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) that describe the spatial patterns. The major part of the variation is simply due to the variation of the insolation at the top of the atmosphere, especially for the first term, which describes 92.4% of the variance for the downward shortwave flux. However, for the second term, which describes 4.1% of the variance, the effect of clouds is quite important and the effect of clouds dominates the third term, which describes 2.4% of the variance. To a large degree the second and third terms are due to the response of clouds to the annual cycle of solar forcing. For net shortwave flux at the surface, similar variances are described by each term. The regional values of the EOFs are related to climate classes, thereby defining the range of annual cycles of shortwave radiation for each climate class.

  1. Measuring and modeling near-surface reflected and emitted radiation fluxes at the FIFE site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Starks, Patrick J.; Vining, Roel C.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Information is presented pertaining to the measurement and estimation of reflected and emitted components of the radiation balance. Information is included about reflectance and transmittance of solar radiation from and through the leaves of some grass and forb prairie species, bidirectional reflectance from a prairie canopy is discussed and measured and estimated fluxes are described of incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Results of the study showed only very small differences in reflectances and transmittances for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of grass species in the visible and infrared wavebands, but some differences in the infrared wavebands were noted for the forbs. Reflectance from the prairie canopy changed as a function of solar and view zenith angles in the solar principal plane with definite asymmetry about nadir. The surface temperature of prairie canopies was found to vary by as much as 5 C depending on view zenith and azimuth position and on the solar azimuth. Aerodynamic temperature calculated from measured sensible heat fluxes ranged from 0 to 3 C higher than nadir-viewed temperatures. Models were developed to estimate incoming and reflected shortwave radiation from data collected with a Barnes Modular Multiband Radiometer. Several algorithms for estimating incoming longwave radiation were evaluated and compared to actual measures of that parameter. Net radiation was calculated using the estimated components of the shortwave radiation streams, determined from the algorithms developed, and from the longwave radiation streams provided by the Brunt, modified Deacon, and the Stefan-Boltzmann models. Estimates of net radiation were compared to measured values and found to be within the measurement error of the net radiometers used in the study.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRITICAL HEAT FLUX WITH ALUMINA-WATER NANOFLUIDS IN DOWNWARD-FACING CHANNELS FOR IN-VESSEL RETENTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. DEWITT

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Heat Flux (CHF of water with dispersed alumina nanoparticles was measured for the geometry and flow conditions relevant to the In-Vessel Retention (IVR situation which can occur during core melting sequences in certain advanced Light Water Reactors (LWRs. CHF measurements were conducted in a flow boiling loop featuring a test section designed to be thermal-hydraulically similar to the vessel/insulation gap in the Westinghouse AP1000 plant. The effects of orientation angle, pressure, mass flux, fluid type, boiling time, surface material, and surface state were investigated. Results for water-based nanofluids with alumina nanoparticles (0.001% by volume on stainless steel surface indicate an average 70% CHF enhancement with a range of 17% to 108% depending on the specific flow conditions expected for IVR. Experiments also indicate that only about thirty minutes of boiling time (which drives nanoparticle deposition are needed to obtain substantial CHF enhancement with nanofluids.

  3. Impact of errors in the downwelling irradiances on simulations of snow water equivalent, snow surface temperature, and the snow energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapo, Karl E.; Hinkelman, Laura M.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-03-01

    The forcing irradiances (downwelling shortwave and longwave irradiances) are the primary drivers of snowmelt; however, in complex terrain, few observations, the use of estimated irradiances, and the influence of topography and elevation all lead to uncertainties in these radiative fluxes. The impact of uncertainties in the forcing irradiances on simulations of snow is evaluated in idealized modeling experiments. Two snow models of contrasting complexity, the Utah Energy Balance Model (UEB) and the Snow Thermal Model (SNTHERM), are forced with irradiances with prescribed errors of the structure and magnitude representative of those found in methods for estimating the downwelling irradiances. Relatively modest biases have substantial impacts on simulated snow water equivalent (SWE) and surface temperature (Ts) across a range of climates, whereas random noise at the daily scale has a negligible effect on modeled SWE and Ts. Shortwave biases have a smaller SWE impact, due to the influence of albedo, and Ts impact, due to their diurnal cycle, compared to equivalent longwave biases. Warmer sites exhibit greater sensitivity to errors when evaluated using SWE, while colder sites exhibit more sensitivity as evaluated using Ts. The two models displayed different sensitivity and responses to biases. The stability feedback in the turbulent fluxes explains differences in Ts between models in the negative longwave bias scenarios. When the models diverge during melt events, differences in the turbulent fluxes and internal energy change of the snow are found to be responsible. From this analysis, we suggest model evaluations use Ts in addition to SWE.

  4. Spray drift for the assessment of exposure of aquatic organisms to plant protection products in the Netherlands : part 1: field crops and downward spraying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zande, van de J.C.; Holterman, H.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Dutch authorisation procedure for pesticides an assessment of the effect on aquatic organisms in surface water adjacent to agricultural fields is required. So far, in the current Dutch authorisation procedure spray drift is the only source of exposure. For this reason a new exposure

  5. Long-term changes in net radiation and its components above a pine forest and a grass surface in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term measurements (1974–1993 and 1996, respectively) of the net radiation (Q), global radiation (G), reflected global radiation (R), long-wave atmospheric radiation (A) and thermal radiation (E) of a pine forest in Southern Germany (index p) and of a grass surface in Northern Germany (index g) are compared. The influence of changes in surface properties is discussed. There are, in the case of the pine stand, forest growth and forest management and in the case of the grass surface, the shifting of the site from a climatic garden to a horizontal roof. Both series of radiant fluxes are analyzed with respect to the influences of the weather (cloudiness, heat advection). To eliminate the different influence of the solar radiation of the two sites, it is necessary to normalize by means of the global radiation G, yielding the radiation efficiency Q/G, the albedo R/G=α and the normalized long-wave net radiation (A+E)/G. Furthermore, the long-term mean values and the long-term trend of yearly mean values are discussed and, moreover, a comparison is made of individual monthly values. Q p is twice as large as Q g . The reason for this is the higher values of G and A above the pine forest and half values of α p compared to α g . E p is only a little greater than E g . The time series of the radiation fluxes show the following trends: Q p declines continuously despite a slight increase of G p . This is mainly due to the long-wave radiation fluxes. The net radiation of the grass surface Q g shows noticeably lower values after the merging of the site. This phenomenon is also dominated by the long-wave radiation processes. Although the properties of both site surfaces alter, E p and E g remain relatively stable. A p and A g show a remarkable decrease however. The reason for this is to be found in a modification of the heat advection, showing a more pronounced impact on the more continentally exposed site (pine forest). Compared to α g , α p shows only a small

  6. Far-infrared surface emissivity and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Daniel R; Collins, William D; Pincus, Robert; Huang, Xianglei; Chen, Xiuhong

    2014-11-18

    Presently, there are no global measurement constraints on the surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, even though this surface property in this far-IR region has a direct impact on the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and infrared cooling rates where the column precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm. Such dry conditions are common for high-altitude and high-latitude locations, with the potential for modeled climate to be impacted by uncertain surface characteristics. This paper explores the sensitivity of instantaneous OLR and cooling rates to changes in far-IR surface emissivity and how this unconstrained property impacts climate model projections. At high latitudes and altitudes, a 0.05 change in emissivity due to mineralogy and snow grain size can cause a 1.8-2.0 W m(-2) difference in the instantaneous clear-sky OLR. A variety of radiative transfer techniques have been used to model the far-IR spectral emissivities of surface types defined by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Incorporating these far-IR surface emissivities into the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario of the Community Earth System Model leads to discernible changes in the spatial patterns of surface temperature, OLR, and frozen surface extent. The model results differ at high latitudes by as much as 2°K, 10 W m(-2), and 15%, respectively, after only 25 y of integration. Additionally, the calculated difference in far-IR emissivity between ocean and sea ice of between 0.1 and 0.2, suggests the potential for a far-IR positive feedback for polar climate change.

  7. Contaminant mass estimation of powder contaminated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Timothy J.; Messinger, David W.

    2017-05-01

    How can we determine the physical characteristics of a mixture of multiple materials within a single pixel? Intimate mixing occurs when different materials within the region encompassed by a pixel interact with each other prior to reaching the sensor. For powder contaminated surfaces, nonlinear mixing is unavoidable. The Nonconventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS) Contamination Model can make longwave hyperspectral mixture signatures, but only for a small subset of their spectral library. In addition, the model uses percent coverage as its only physical property input despite it not being informative to the contaminants physical properties. Through a complex parameter inversion, the NEFDS contamination model can be used to derive various physical properties. These physical characteristics were estimated by using empirically measured data of varying contaminant amounts using a Designs and Prototypes Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Once estimated parameters are found, the mixture spectra was recreated and compared to the measured data. The estimated areal coverage density is used to derive a total deposited mass on the surface based on the area of contaminated surface. This is compared to the known amount deposited that was measured during the experimental campaign. This paper presents some results of those measurements and model estimates.

  8. Cloud-Induced Stabilization of Greenland Surface Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Zender, C. S.; van As, D.; Smeets, P.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Surface melt and mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) may play crucial roles in global climate change due to its large fresh water storage and positive feedbacks. Complemented by clear-sky simulations from a radiative transfer model, we use measurements from 30+ automatic weather stations (AWSs) to estimate the strong and most variable contribution to Greenland's surface energy budget: the cloud radiative effects (CREs). AWSs are the only in-situ data source for long term surface energy budget studies across the GrIS. The primary bias in its radiation measurements stem from station tilt caused by spatially heterogeneous snow melt, snow compaction, and glacier dynamics. Over all AWSs on GrIS, hourly absolute biases in insolation can reach up to 200 W/m2, and insolation on fewer than 40% of clear days peaks within ±0.5 hr of the true solar noon time. We developed and used the Retrospective, Iterative, Geometry-Based (RIGB) tilt-correction method to identify and remove per-station mean-absolute biases that average 18 W/m2 over GrIS during melt seasons. We demonstrate using the tilt-adjusted radiation that surface albedo, among other environmental factors and cloud properties, determines the net CRE, a competition between shortwave shading and longwave heating. At stations where surface albedo is high and close to cloud albedo, shortwave shading is suppressed and longwave heating dominates. At stations where albedo is low (e.g., due to temperature-induced snow metamorphism and/or melt), shading effect increases faster than greenhouse effect, driving net CRE toward cooling. We found that a 0.57 albedo threshold distinguishes areas of positive from negative CREs with 99% accuracy. The cooling effect intensifies at lower albedo. During the extensive surface melt across GrIS in 2012, clouds exerted anomalously strong cooling in the southern ablation zone, and only climatological-mean warming in the accumulation zone. Clouds reduced more than promoted surface melt

  9. Automated calculation of surface energy fluxes with high-frequency lake buoy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolway, R. Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Hamilton, David P.; Maberly, Stephen C; Muroaka, Kohji; Read, Jordan S.; Smyth, Robyn L; Winslow, Luke A.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Heat Flux Analyzer is a program used for calculating the surface energy fluxes in lakes according to established literature methodologies. The program was developed in MATLAB for the rapid analysis of high-frequency data from instrumented lake buoys in support of the emerging field of aquatic sensor network science. To calculate the surface energy fluxes, the program requires a number of input variables, such as air and water temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and short-wave radiation. Available outputs for Lake Heat Flux Analyzer include the surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat and their corresponding transfer coefficients, incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation. Lake Heat Flux Analyzer is open source and can be used to process data from multiple lakes rapidly. It provides a means of calculating the surface fluxes using a consistent method, thereby facilitating global comparisons of high-frequency data from lake buoys.

  10. Effect of UV radiation on the surface of mammalian immunocompetent cells. 1. The change in expression of some antigens and receptors of murine spleen lymphocyte surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylenkov, V.A.; Malygin, A.M. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Tsitologii)

    1982-12-01

    Short-wave (254nm) and long-wave (365 nm) UV rays (ShUS and LUV rays) induce the increase in the expression of surface markers of T lymphocytes-THETA(Thy-1) antigens and B lymphocytes-MBLA-antigens and EAS receptors when affecting mouse spleen cells in nonlethal and small lethal doses. Total cell content with T and B lymphocyte characters in an irradiated suspension exceeds even the total cell quantity in non-irradiated suspension (100%) which points to the possibility of the expression of plasmatic membrane antigens and receptors not manifested on the surface of nonirradiated lymphocytes. In the isolethal dose range (LD/sup 15/-LD/sup 28/) ShUV rays suppress and LUV rays induce further increase of THETA and MBLA antigens expression. Among B lymphocytes surface markers the MBLA antigens are more resistant to ShUV an LUV radiation as compared with the EAC receptors.

  11. Influence of surface oxidation on the radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ning, E-mail: lncaep@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Xing, Pifeng; Li, Cui [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900 (China); Wang, Peng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Jin, Xinxin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Zhang, Xinghong [Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments Laboratory, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Surface component affected radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites significantly. • Emissivity in long-wave range gradually increased with the thickness of oxide scale. • The surface temperature had a little effect on radiative properties of composites. • Influence of surface roughness on emissivity could be negligible. • Covering the surface with glass is a method for improving radiative properties. - Abstract: The spectral emissivities of ZrB{sub 2}-20 vol.% SiC composites with various surface components of ZrB{sub 2}/SiC (ZS1), silica-rich glass (ZS2) and porous zirconia (ZS3) were measured using infrared spectrometer in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 25.0 μm. The relationship between surface oxidation (associated with surface component, thickness of oxide scale, testing temperature as well as roughness) and the radiative properties of ZrB{sub 2}-SiC composites were investigated systematically. Surface component affected the radiative properties of composites significantly. The total emissivity of ZS1 varied from 0.22 to 0.81 accompanied with surface oxidation in the temperature range 300–900 °C. The emissivity of ZS2 was about 1.5 times as that of ZS3 under the same testing conditions. The oxide scale on specimen surface enhanced the radiative properties especially in terms of short-wave range, and the emissivity in the long-wave range gradually increased with the thickness of oxide scale within a certain range. The influence of testing temperature and surface roughness was also investigated. The testing temperature had a little effect on radiative properties, whereas effect of surface roughness could be negligible.

  12. Using surface remote sensors to derive radiative characteristics of Mixed-Phase Clouds: an example from M-PACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Boer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurements from ground-based cloud radar, high spectral resolution lidar and microwave radiometer are used in conjunction with a column version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG and radiosonde measurements to derive the surface radiative properties under mixed-phase cloud conditions. These clouds were observed during the United States Department of Energy (US DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Experiment (M-PACE between September and November of 2004. In total, sixteen half hour time periods are reviewed due to their coincidence with radiosonde launches. Cloud liquid (ice water paths are found to range between 11.0–366.4 (0.5–114.1 gm−2, and cloud physical thicknesses fall between 286–2075 m. Combined with temperature and hydrometeor size estimates, this information is used to calculate surface radiative flux densities using RRTMG, which are demonstrated to generally agree with measured flux densities from surface-based radiometric instrumentation. Errors in longwave flux density estimates are found to be largest for thin clouds, while shortwave flux density errors are generally largest for thicker clouds. A sensitivity study is performed to understand the impact of retrieval assumptions and uncertainties on derived surface radiation estimates. Cloud radiative forcing is calculated for all profiles, illustrating longwave dominance during this time of year, with net cloud forcing generally between 50 and 90 Wm−2.

  13. Rayleigh-Bénard-Marangoni convection in a weakly non-Boussinesq fluid layer with a deformable surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimov, D. V.; Lyubimova, T. P.; Lobov, N. I.; Alexander, J. I. D.

    2018-02-01

    The influence of surface deformations on the Rayleigh-Bénard-Marangoni instability of a uniform layer of a non-Boussinesq fluid heated from below is investigated. In particular, the stability of the conductive state of a horizontal fluid layer with a deformable surface, a flat isothermal rigid lower boundary, and a convective heat transfer condition at the upper free surface is considered. The fluid is assumed to be isothermally incompressible. In contrast to the Boussinesq approximation, density variations are accounted for in the continuity equation and in the buoyancy and inertial terms of the momentum equations. Two different types of temperature dependence of the density are considered: linear and exponential. The longwave instability is studied analytically, and instability to perturbations with finite wavenumber is examined numerically. It is found that there is a decrease in stability of the system with respect to the onset of longwave Marangoni convection. This result could not be obtained within the framework of the conventional Boussinesq approximation. It is also shown that at Ma = 0 the critical Rayleigh number increases with Ga (the ratio of gravity to viscous forces or Galileo number). At some value of Ga, the Rayleigh-Bénard instability vanishes. This stabilization occurs for each of the density equations of state. At small values of Ga and when deformation of the free surface is important, it is shown that there are significant differences in stability behavior as compared to results obtained using the Boussinesq approximation.

  14. The long-term Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Our Earth's environment is experiencing rapid changes due to natural variability and human activities. To monitor, understand and predict environment changes to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, use of long-term high-quality satellite data products is critical. The Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite, generated at Beijing Normal University, currently includes 12 products, including leaf area index (LAI), broadband shortwave albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downwelling shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface skin temperature, longwave net radiation, daytime all-wave net radiation, fraction of absorbed photosynetically active radiation absorbed by green vegetation (FAPAR), fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary productivity (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). Most products span from 1981-2014. The algorithms for producing these products have been published in the top remote sensing related journals and books. More and more applications have being reported in the scientific literature. The GLASS products are freely available at the Center for Global Change Data Processing and Analysis of Beijing Normal University (http://www.bnu-datacenter.com/), and the University of Maryland Global Land Cover Facility (http://glcf.umd.edu). After briefly introducing the basic characteristics of GLASS products, we will present some applications on the long-term environmental changes detected from GLASS products at both global and local scales. Detailed analysis of regional hotspots, such as Greenland, Tibetan plateau, and northern China, will be emphasized, where environmental changes have been mainly associated with climate warming, drought, land-atmosphere interactions, and human activities.

  15. Future projections of the Greenland ice sheet energy balance driving the surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulations at 25 km resolution are performed over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, using the regional climate model MAR forced by four RCP scenarios from three CMIP5 global circulation models (GCMs, in order to investigate the projected changes of the surface energy balance (SEB components driving the surface melt. Analysis of 2000–2100 melt anomalies compared to melt results over 1980–1999 reveals an exponential relationship of the GrIS surface melt rate simulated by MAR to the near-surface air temperature (TAS anomalies, mainly due to the surface albedo positive feedback associated with the extension of bare ice areas in summer. On the GrIS margins, the future melt anomalies are preferentially driven by stronger sensible heat fluxes, induced by enhanced warm air advection over the ice sheet. Over the central dry snow zone, the surface albedo positive feedback induced by the increase in summer melt exceeds the negative feedback of heavier snowfall for TAS anomalies higher than 4 °C. In addition to the incoming longwave flux increase associated with the atmosphere warming, GCM-forced MAR simulations project an increase of the cloud cover decreasing the ratio of the incoming shortwave versus longwave radiation and dampening the albedo feedback. However, it should be noted that this trend in the cloud cover is contrary to that simulated by ERA-Interim–forced MAR for recent climate conditions, where the observed melt increase since the 1990s seems mainly to be a consequence of more anticyclonic atmospheric conditions. Finally, no significant change is projected in the length of the melt season, which highlights the importance of solar radiation absorbed by the ice sheet surface in the melt SEB.

  16. Ensemble forecasts of road surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Zbyněk; Bližňák, Vojtěch; Sedlák, Pavel; Zacharov, Petr; Pešice, Petr; Škuthan, Miroslav

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes a new ensemble technique for road surface temperature (RST) forecasting using an energy balance and heat conduction model. Compared to currently used deterministic forecasts, the proposed technique allows the estimation of forecast uncertainty and probabilistic forecasts. The ensemble technique is applied to the METRo-CZ model and stems from error covariance analyses of the forecasted air temperature and humidity 2 m above the ground, wind speed at 10 m and total cloud cover N in octas by the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. N is used to estimate the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes. These variables are used to calculate the boundary conditions in the METRo-CZ model. We found that the variable N is crucial for generating the ensembles. Nevertheless, the ensemble spread is too small and underestimates the uncertainty in the RST forecast. One of the reasons is not considering errors in the rain and snow forecast by the NWP model when generating ensembles. Technical issues, such as incorrect sky view factors and the current state of road surface conditions also contribute to errors. Although the ensemble technique underestimates the uncertainty in the RST forecasts, it provides additional information to road authorities who provide winter road maintenance.

  17. Using Visible Spectral Information to Predict Long-Wave Infrared Spectral Emissivity: A Case Study over the Sokolov Area of the Czech Republic with an Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing platforms are often comprised of a cluster of different spectral range detectors or sensors to benefit from the spectral identification capabilities of each range. Missing data from these platforms, caused by problematic weather conditions, such as clouds, sensor failure, low temporal coverage or a narrow field of view (FOV, is one of the problems preventing proper monitoring of the Earth. One of the possible solutions is predicting a detector or sensor’s missing data using another detector/sensor. In this paper, we propose a new method of predicting spectral emissivity in the long-wave infrared (LWIR spectral region using the visible (VIS spectral region. The proposed method is suitable for two main scenarios of missing data: sensor malfunctions and narrow FOV. We demonstrate the usefulness and limitations of this prediction scheme using the airborne hyperspectral scanner (AHS sensor, which consists of both VIS and LWIR spectral regions, in a case study over the Sokolov area, Czech Republic.

  18. Impact of buildings on surface solar radiation over urban Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rugged surface of an urban area due to varying buildings can interact with solar beams and affect both the magnitude and spatiotemporal distribution of surface solar fluxes. Here we systematically examine the impact of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes over urban Beijing by using a 3-D radiation parameterization that accounts for 3-D building structures vs. the conventional plane-parallel scheme. We find that the resulting downward surface solar flux deviations between the 3-D and the plane-parallel schemes are generally ±1–10 W m−2 at 800 m grid resolution and within ±1 W m−2 at 4 km resolution. Pairs of positive–negative flux deviations on different sides of buildings are resolved at 800 m resolution, while they offset each other at 4 km resolution. Flux deviations from the unobstructed horizontal surface at 4 km resolution are positive around noon but negative in the early morning and late afternoon. The corresponding deviations at 800 m resolution, in contrast, show diurnal variations that are strongly dependent on the location of the grids relative to the buildings. Both the magnitude and spatiotemporal variations of flux deviations are largely dominated by the direct flux. Furthermore, we find that flux deviations can potentially be an order of magnitude larger by using a finer grid resolution. Atmospheric aerosols can reduce the magnitude of downward surface solar flux deviations by 10–65 %, while the surface albedo generally has a rather moderate impact on flux deviations. The results imply that the effect of buildings on downward surface solar fluxes may not be critically significant in mesoscale atmospheric models with a grid resolution of 4 km or coarser. However, the effect can play a crucial role in meso-urban atmospheric models as well as microscale urban dispersion models with resolutions of 1 m to 1 km.

  19. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: Integrated Data Product With Reprocessed Radiance, Cloud, and Meteorology Inputs, and New Surface Albedo Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  20. Role of sea surface temperature responses in simulation of the climatic effect of mineral dust aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust aerosol can be transported over the nearby oceans and influence the energy balance at the sea surface. The role of dust-induced sea surface temperature (SST responses in simulations of the climatic effect of dust is examined by using a general circulation model with online simulation of mineral dust and a coupled mixed-layer ocean model. Both the longwave and shortwave radiative effects of mineral dust aerosol are considered in climate simulations. The SST responses are found to be very influential on simulated dust-induced climate change, especially when climate simulations consider the two-way dust-climate coupling to account for the feedbacks. With prescribed SSTs and dust concentrations, we obtain an increase of 0.02 K in the global and annual mean surface air temperature (SAT in response to dust radiative effects. In contrast, when SSTs are allowed to respond to radiative forcing of dust in the presence of the dust cycle-climate interactions, we obtain a global and annual mean cooling of 0.09 K in SAT by dust. The extra cooling simulated with the SST responses can be attributed to the following two factors: (1 The negative net (shortwave plus longwave radiative forcing of dust at the surface reduces SST, which decreases latent heat fluxes and upward transport of water vapor, resulting in less warming in the atmosphere; (2 The positive feedback between SST responses and dust cycle. The dust-induced reductions in SST lead to reductions in precipitation (or wet deposition of dust and hence increase the global burden of small dust particles. These small particles have strong scattering effects, which enhance the dust cooling at the surface and further reduce SSTs.

  1. A Stabilizing Feedback Between Cloud Radiative Effects and Greenland Surface Melt: Verification From Multi-year Automatic Weather Station Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Wang, W.; van As, D.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds have strong impacts on Greenland's surface melt through the interaction with the dry atmosphere and reflective surfaces. However, their effects are uncertain due to the lack of in situ observations. To better quantify cloud radiative effects (CRE) in Greenland, we analyze and interpret multi-year radiation measurements from 30 automatic weather stations encompassing a broad range of climatological and topographical conditions. During melt season, clouds warm surface over most of Greenland, meaning the longwave greenhouse effect outweighs the shortwave shading effect; on the other hand, the spatial variability of net (longwave and shortwave) CRE is dominated by shortwave CRE and in turn by surface albedo, which controls the potential absorption of solar radiation when clouds are absent. The net warming effect decreases with shortwave CRE from high to low altitudes and from north to south (Fig. 1). The spatial correlation between albedo and net CRE is strong (r=0.93, pCRE seasonal trend is controlled by longwave CRE associated with cloud fraction and liquid water content. It becomes stronger from May to July and stays constant in August. In the ablation zone, albedo determines the net CRE seasonal trend, which decreases from May to July and increases afterwards. On an hourly timescale, we find two distinct radiative states in Greenland (Fig. 2). The clear state is characterized by clear-sky conditions or thin clouds, when albedo and solar zenith angle (SZA) weakly correlates with CRE. The cloudy state is characterized by opaque clouds, when the combination of albedo and SZA strongly correlates with CRE (r=0.85, pCRE, the large melt-season variability of these two non-cloud factors, albedo and solar zenith angle, explains the majority of the CRE variation in spatial distribution, seasonal trend in the ablation zone, and in hourly variability in the cloudy radiative state. Clouds warm the brighter and colder surfaces of Greenland, enhance snow melt, and tend to

  2. Mars water vapor, near-surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. A.; Sharman, R. D.; Lucich, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous paper we concluded that the temperature sensors aboard the Viking landers (VL-1 and VL-2) were detecting the water vapor frost point. Analysis of one Mars year of data at both lander sites substantiates this conclusion. At VL-1 it is found that the water vapor mixing ratio is constant with height through the bulk of the atmosphere, most of the time. Exceptions are during the onset phases of the two major dust storms when temporary enhancement of near-surface vapor occurs (the same phenomenon is observed at VL-2), and some depletion of near-surface vapor during the decay phase of the first storm, possibly the second storm as well. The former suggests near-surface, northward transport of water vapor with the storms. The latter suggests adsorption of vapor on dust particles followed by surface deposition. At VL-2, severe near-surface depletion of water vapor occurs during northern autumn and winter. The residual vapor is in equilibrium with the surface condensate observed at the site during this period, indicating that the source region for the condensate must be aloft with downward transport by dust fall-out. Since the near-surface water vapor mixing ratio and concentration at VL-1 generally parallels the column abundance over VL-1 obtained by the orbiters, this suggests that VL-1 can be used to give a measure of column abundance for as long as the temperature sensors remain operational.

  3. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  4. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Wei; Hao, Xiang; Pan, Tao; Zhong, Jia-Lin; Ma, Chun-Lan; Hou, Fang; Wu, Yin-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO) film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  5. NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget: First Results From The Release 4 GEWEX Integrated Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul; Cox, Stephen; Gupta, Shashi; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; zhang, taiping

    2016-04-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current release 3 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number should help improve the RMS of the existing products and allow for future higher resolution SRB gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree). In addition to the input data improvements, several important algorithm improvements have been made. Most notable has been the adaptation of Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) from CERES to improve the initial calculation of shortwave TOA fluxes, from which the surface flux calculations follow. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institut Aerosol Climatology (MAC), temperature and moisture profiles from HIRS, and new topography, surface type, and snow/ice. Here we present results for the improved GEWEX Shortwave and Longwave algorithm (GSW and GLW) with new ISCCP data, the various other improved input data sets and the incorporation of many additional internal SRB model improvements. As of the time of abstract submission, results from 2007 have been produced with ISCCP H availability the limiting factor. More SRB data will be produced as ISCCP reprocessing continues. The SRB data produced will be released as part of the Release 4.0 Integrated Product, recognizing the interdependence of the radiative fluxes with other GEWEX products providing estimates of the Earth's global water and energy cycle (I.e., ISCCP, SeaFlux, LandFlux, NVAP, etc.).

  6. Comparative Study of the Spherical Downward Continuation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Pitoňák, M.; Hamáčková, E.; Novák, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2015), s. 253-267 ISSN 0169-3298 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0090 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : limited airborne gravity * potential-field data * horizontal plane Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.622, year: 2015

  7. Pollinators: Downward Trends and Lofty Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinators are essential to natural and managed landscapes. By providing critical pollination services, bees, birds, beetles, butterflies, bats and other animals enhance biodiversity and contribute to production of many nutritious foods. Honey bees alone pollinate 90 commercia...

  8. Atomic-scale friction on stepped surfaces of ionic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Pascal; Gnecco, Enrico; Krok, Franciszek; Budzioch, Janusz; Walczak, Lukasz; Konior, Jerzy; Szymonski, Marek; Meyer, Ernst

    2011-05-06

    We report on high-resolution friction force microscopy on a stepped NaCl(001) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. The measurements were performed on single cleavage step edges. When blunt tips are used, friction is found to increase while scanning both up and down a step edge. With atomically sharp tips, friction still increases upwards, but it decreases and even changes sign downwards. Our observations extend previous results obtained without resolving atomic features and are associated with the competition between the Schwöbel barrier and the asymmetric potential well accompanying the step edges.

  9. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  10. Investigation of empirical correlations on the determination of condensation heat transfer characteristics during downward annular flow of R134a inside a vertical smooth tube using artificial intelligence algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcilar, Muhammet; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Bolat, Berna [Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan); Wongwises, Somchai [King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-10-15

    The heat transfer characteristics of R134a during downward condensation are investigated experimentally and numerically. While the convective heat transfer coefficient, two-phase multiplier and frictional pressure drop are considered to be the significant variables as output for the analysis, inputs of the computational numerical techniques include the important two-phase flow parameters such as equivalent Reynolds number, Prandtl number, Bond number, Froude number, Lockhart and Martinelli number. Genetic algorithm technique (GA), unconstrained nonlinear minimization algorithm-Nelder-Mead method (NM) and non-linear least squares error method (NLS) are applied for the optimization of these significant variables in this study. Regression analysis gave convincing correlations on the prediction of condensation heat transfer characteristics using {+-}30% deviation band for practical applications. The most suitable coefficients of the proposed correlations are depicted to be compatible with the large number of experimental data by means of the computational numerical methods. Validation process of the proposed correlations is accomplished by means of the comparison between the various correlations reported in the literature.

  11. Turbulent flow over an interactive alternating land-water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerwaarden, C.; Mellado, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The alternating land-water surface is a challenging surface to represent accurately in weather and climate models, but it is of great importance for the surface energy balance in polar regions. The complexity of this surface lies in the fact that secondary circulations, which form at the boundary of water and land, interact strongly with the surface energy balance. Due to its large heat capacity, the water temperature adapts slowly to the flow, thus the properties of the atmosphere determine the uptake of energy from the water. In order to study this complex system in a simpler way, retaining only the most essential physics, we have simplified the full surface energy balance including radiation. We have derived a boundary condition that mimics the full balance and can be formulated as a so-called Robin boundary condition: a linear combination of Dirichlet (fixed temperature) and Neumann (fixed temperature gradient) ones. By spatially varying the coefficients, we are able to express land and water using this boundary condition. We have done a series of direct numerical simulations in which we generate artificial land-water patterns from noise created from a Gaussian spectrum centered around a dominant wave number. This method creates realistic random patterns, but we are still in control of the length scales. We show that the system can manifest itself in three regimes: micro-, meso- and macro-scale. In the micro-scale, we find perfect mixing of the near-surface atmosphere that results in identical air properties over water and land. In the meso-scale, secondary circulations alter the heat exchange considerably by advecting air between land and water. In addition, they bring the surface temperature of the land closer to that of the air, thereby modulating the energy loss due to outgoing longwave radiation. In the macro-scale regime, the flow over land and water become independent of each other and only the large scale forcings determine the energy balance.

  12. Surface radiation budget and cloud radiative forcing from pan-Arctic Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C. J.; Long, C. N.; Crepinsek, S.; Maturilli, M.; McComiskey, A. C.; Miller, N.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Kustov, V. Y.; Shupe, M.; Steffen, K.; Stanitski, D.; Starkweather, S.; Stone, R. S.; Uttal, T.; Walden, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and forecasting of the seasonal melt of snow and ice in the Arctic is a priority need as Arctic climate changes and the number of stakeholders increases. Seasonal snow and ice melt represent the largest annual perturbation to the surface net radiation budget. Radiative interactions between clouds, the surface and the atmosphere play an important role on scales of minutes to decades, but models insufficiently represent cloud properties. Furthermore, the surface radiation budget is not directly observed from satellite platforms. Direct observations from the surface must therefore be used to document the physical and correlative relationships between variables, and to provide a baseline target for data sets with more comprehensive spatial representation. High-quality, continuous, long-term observations of radiative fluxes are collected from land stations surrounding the Arctic Basin as part of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) facilitates international collaboration amongst station scientists and other topic experts for the purposes of streamlining pan-Arctic synthesis studies. The IASOA Radiation Working Group is currently analyzing the data acquired from Barrow, Alaska (1993-2015), Alert, Canada (2004-2014), Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (1993-2015), Eureka, Canada (2007-2015), and Tiksi, Russia (2011-2015). The measurements include upwelling and downwelling longwave and shortwave fluxes, as well as direct and diffuse shortwave flux components, and surface meteorology. The observations are post-processed using the Radiative Flux Analysis (RFA) method, which, in addition to basic quality control, provides value-added metrics such as cloud radiative forcing (CRF), optical depth, and fractional sky cover. Here, we present a spatial and temporal analysis of the surface radiation budget and calculated variables from the pan-Arctic BSRN stations. Particular attention is given to inter

  13. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  14. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  15. A new method to diagnose the contribution of anthropogenic activities to temperature: temperature tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Grewe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new methodology, called temperature tagging. It keeps track of the contributions of individual processes to temperature within a climate model simulation. As a first step and as a test bed, a simple box climate model is regarded. The model consists of an atmosphere, which absorbs and emits radiation, and of a surface, which reflects, absorbs and emits radiation. The tagging methodology is used to investigate the impact of the atmosphere on surface temperature. Four processes are investigated in more detail and their contribution to the surface temperature quantified: (i shortwave influx and shortwave atmospheric absorption ("sw", (ii longwave atmospheric absorption due to non-CO2 greenhouse gases ("nC", (iii due to a base case CO2 concentration ("bC", and (iv due to an enhanced CO2 concentration ("eC". The differential equation for the temperature in the box climate model is decomposed into four equations for the tagged temperatures. This method is applied to investigate the contribution of longwave absorption to the surface temperature (greenhouse effect, which is calculated to be 68 K. This estimate contrasts an alternative calculation of the greenhouse effect of slightly more than 30 K based on the difference of the surface temperature with and without an atmosphere. The difference of the two estimates is due to a shortwave cooling effect and a reduced contribution of the shortwave to the total downward flux: the shortwave absorption of the atmosphere results in a reduced net shortwave flux at the surface of 192 W m−2, leading to a cooling of the surface by 14 K. Introducing an atmosphere results in a downward longwave flux at the surface due to atmospheric absorption of 189 W m−2, which roughly equals the net shortwave flux of 192 W m−2. This longwave flux is a result of both the radiation due to atmospheric temperatures and its longwave absorption. Hence the longwave absorption roughly accounts for 91 W m−2 out

  16. Rumble surfaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Institute for Transport and Road

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumble surfaces are intermittent short lengths of coarse-textured road surfacings on which vehicle tyres produce a rumbling sound. used in conjunction with appropriate roadsigns and markings, they can reduce accidents on rural roads by alerting...

  17. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  18. Thermal analysis of dry eye subjects and the thermal impulse perturbation model of ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Maki, Kara L; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Hindman, Holly B; Aquavella, James V; Zavislan, James M

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we explore the usage of ocular surface temperature (OST) decay patterns to distinguished between dry eye patients with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The OST profiles of 20 dry eye subjects were measured by a long-wave infrared thermal camera in a standardized environment (24 °C, and relative humidity (RH) 40%). The subjects were instructed to blink every 5 s after 20 ∼ 25 min acclimation. Exponential decay curves were fit to the average temperature within a region of the central cornea. We find the MGD subjects have both a higher initial temperature (p model, referred to as the thermal impulse perturbation (TIP) model. We conclude that long-wave-infrared thermal imaging is a plausible tool in assisting with the classification of dry eye patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low level chemiluminescence measurement of the binding of 8-methoxypsoralen to proteins and lymphocytic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B.

    1980-01-01

    Photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and longwave ultraviolet light is beneficial in such different disorders like psoriasis, lichen planus, and mykosis fungoides. In contrast to a widely accepted hypothesis 8-MOP does not solely bind to nucleic acid, but also to certain proteins. The mechanism of this binding as well as the precise binding area are unknown. Therefore the UV-provoked reactions of 8-MOP with a lipid mixture, a glucosaminoglycan solution, a protein solution, and lymphocyte suspensions, respectively were investigated using low level chemiluminescence (LLCL). It was found an 8-MOP concentration-dependent decrease of LLCL intensity in the lymphocyte suspensions (10 3 to 10 4 cells/μl). This effect is result of the diminution of the photoactive 8-MOP content of the solution. 8-MOP binds quickly and in the course of a free radical reaction to lymphocytic surfaces and coincidentally loses its potency to start LLCL-detectable free radical chain responses. (author)

  20. Using Radiative Signatures to Diagnose the Cause of Warming Associated with the Californian Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S.; Yin, D.; Roderick, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    California recently experienced among the worst droughts of the last century, with unprecedented precipitation deficits and record high temperatures. The dry conditions caused severe water shortages in one of the economically most important agricultural regions of the US, particularly in the Central Valley. It has been hypothesized that anthropogenic warming is increasing the likelihood of such extreme droughts in California, or more specifically, that these drought conditions are a consequence of warmer temperatures from the enhanced greenhouse effect. Process studies suggest, however, that increased temperatures during droughts are mostly a consequence of reduced evaporative cooling resulting from the reduction in precipitation. Here we use surface radiation components from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy Systems (CERES), climatic data and direct flux tower measurements to investigate the cause of warming associated with the recent Californian Drought. Based on radiative signatures and surface energy balance we show that the warmer temperatures were not associated with an enhanced greenhouse effect by anthropogenic warming. The radiative signature showed decreased longwave downward radiation during the water years 2013-2014 compared to the decadal mean of 2001-2012. Instead, increased solar downward radiation in combination with reduced evaporative cooling from water deficits enhanced surface temperatures and sensible heat transfer to the atmosphere. We conclude that the drought was not directly associated with warming by increased longwave downward radiation, and that there is no simple relation between warmer surface temperatures and drought.

  1. Process Parameter Identification in Thin Film Flows Driven by a Stretching Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyananda Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a thin liquid film over a heated stretching surface is considered in this study. Due to a potential nonuniform temperature distribution on the stretching sheet, a temperature gradient occurs in the fluid which produces surface tension gradient at the free surface of the thin film. As a result, the free surface deforms and these deformations are advected by the flow in the stretching direction. This work focuses on the inverse problem of reconstructing the sheet temperature distribution and the sheet stretch rate from observed free surface variations. This work builds on the analysis of Santra and Dandapat (2009 who, based on the long-wave expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations, formulate a partial differential equation which describes the evolution of the thickness of a film over a nonisothermal stretched surface. In this work, we show that after algebraic manipulation of a discrete form of the governing equations, it is possible to reconstruct either the unknown temperature field on the sheet and hence the resulting heat transfer or the stretching rate of the underlying surface. We illustrate the proposed methodology and test its applicability on a range of test problems.

  2. The effect of surface anisotropy in the slippery zone of Nepenthes alata pitchers on beetle attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-01-01

    The slippery zone in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata bears scattered prominent lunate cells and displays continuous epicuticular crystalline wax coverage. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the surface anisotropy, caused by the shape of lunate cells, on insect attachment ability. Traction tests with ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata were performed in two types of experiments, where surface samples of (1) intact pitchers, (2) chemically de-waxed pitchers, and (3) their polymer replicas were placed horizontally. Beetle traction forces were measured when they walked on test surfaces in either an upward (towards the peristome) or downward (towards the pitcher bottom) direction, corresponding to the upright or inverted positions of the pitcher. On intact pitcher surfaces covered with both lunate cells and wax crystals, experiments showed significantly higher forces in the direction towards the pitcher bottom. To distinguish between the contributions, from claw interlocking and pad adhesion, to insect attachment on the pitcher surfaces, intact versus claw-ablated beetles were used in the second type of experiment. On both de-waxed plant samples and their replicas, intact insects generated much higher forces in the downward direction compared to the upward one, whereas clawless insects did not. These results led to the conclusion that, (i) due to the particular shape of lunate cells, the pitcher surface has anisotropic properties in terms of insect attachment, and (ii) claws were mainly responsible for attachment enhancement in the downward pitcher direction, since, in this direction, they could interlock with overhanging edges of lunate cells.

  3. The effect of surface anisotropy in the slippery zone of Nepenthes alata pitchers on beetle attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Gorb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The slippery zone in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata bears scattered prominent lunate cells and displays continuous epicuticular crystalline wax coverage. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the surface anisotropy, caused by the shape of lunate cells, on insect attachment ability. Traction tests with ladybird beetles Coccinella septempunctata were performed in two types of experiments, where surface samples of (1 intact pitchers, (2 chemically de-waxed pitchers, and (3 their polymer replicas were placed horizontally. Beetle traction forces were measured when they walked on test surfaces in either an upward (towards the peristome or downward (towards the pitcher bottom direction, corresponding to the upright or inverted positions of the pitcher. On intact pitcher surfaces covered with both lunate cells and wax crystals, experiments showed significantly higher forces in the direction towards the pitcher bottom. To distinguish between the contributions, from claw interlocking and pad adhesion, to insect attachment on the pitcher surfaces, intact versus claw-ablated beetles were used in the second type of experiment. On both de-waxed plant samples and their replicas, intact insects generated much higher forces in the downward direction compared to the upward one, whereas clawless insects did not. These results led to the conclusion that, (i due to the particular shape of lunate cells, the pitcher surface has anisotropic properties in terms of insect attachment, and (ii claws were mainly responsible for attachment enhancement in the downward pitcher direction, since, in this direction, they could interlock with overhanging edges of lunate cells.

  4. Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

  5. a Research on Monitoring Surface Deformation and Relationships with Surface Parameters in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, S. J.; Li, Y. T.; Wang, F.; Li, L.; Ge, Y.; Luo, L.; Zhang, C. L.; Chen, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    different in arid areas and wet areas. During the research time, frost heaving firstly accounted for a large proportion both in the arid and wet areas with the decrease of downward radiation from July to December; after December, thaw settlement came into prominence with the increase downward radiation in the arid areas, while in the wet areas, surface put into diverse situations because of water transformation leading to severe deformation. In summary, soil moisture is an important factor that influences the surface deformation. This relationship between deformation process and soil moisture will be researched more in our further work.

  6. A Remote Sensing Analysis on the Spatiotemporal Variation of Land Surface Albedo and Emissivity in South Florida: An Implication for Surface-Atmosphere Energy and Water Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Land use /land cover has wide range of impacts from surface energy budget to radiative forcing of climate change. This study aims to analyze the variation in two radiative properties, albedo and emissivity in South Florida landscape to investigate how radially distinct surfaces lead to a energy and moisture contrast on the near-surface atmosphere and eventually to surface-induced climate. Maps of land surface albedo and emissivity were prepared using algorithms that convert narrow-band spectral reflectance to total short-wave albedo, and vegetation index to emissivity from Landsat -5 TM images of several different summer dates. A comparative analysis was made using the zonal statistics in ArcGIS. Relatively higher albedos were found over cultivated and developed lands (0.17 - 0.21) than in forests and herbaceous wetland (0.09 - 0.16). The emissivities, on the other hand, are lower for developed and drained lands. Average albedo exhibits a slight increase whereas emissivity is found to be decreasing through time. Urban areas showing higher albedos, a unique occurrence in this landscape, store less short-wave radiation, however, their lower emissivities points to increased storage of long-wave radiation. The results imply that the emissivity perhaps play a dominant role in heat island development and initiation of local circulation in urbanized South Florida.

  7. Solar Surface Magneto-Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Stein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the properties of solar magneto-convection in the top half of the convection zones scale heights (from 20 Mm below the visible surface to the surface, and then through the photosphere to the temperature minimum. Convection is a highly non-linear and non-local process, so it is best studied by numerical simulations. We focus on simulations that include sufficient detailed physics so that their results can be quantitatively compared with observations. The solar surface is covered with magnetic features with spatial sizes ranging from unobservably small to hundreds of megameters. Three orders of magnitude more magnetic flux emerges in the quiet Sun than emerges in active regions. In this review we focus mainly on the properties of the quiet Sun magnetic field. The Sun’s magnetic field is produced by dynamo action throughout the convection zone, primarily by stretching and twisting in the turbulent downflows. Diverging convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy carry magnetic flux toward the surface and sweep the field into the surrounding downflow lanes where the field is dragged downward. The result is a hierarchy of undulating magnetic Ω- and U-loops of different sizes. New magnetic flux first appears at the surface in a mixed polarity random pattern and then collects into isolated unipolar regions due to underlying larger scale magnetic structures. Rising magnetic structures are not coherent, but develop a filamentary structure. Emerging magnetic flux alters the convection properties, producing larger, darker granules. Strong field concentrations inhibit transverse plasma motions and, as a result, reduce convective heat transport toward the surface which cools. Being cooler, these magnetic field concentrations have a shorter scale height and become evacuated. The field becomes further compressed and can reach strengths in balance with the surrounding gas pressure. Because of their small internal density, photons escape from deeper in

  8. Redatuming borehole-to-surface electromagnetic data using Stratton-Chu integral transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method of analyzing borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (BSEM) survey data based on redatuming of the observed data from receivers distributed over the surface of the earth onto virtual receivers located within the subsurface. The virtual receivers can be placed close to the target...... of interest, such as just above a hydrocarbon reservoir, which increases the sensitivity of the EM data to the target. The method is based on the principles of downward analytical continuation of EM fields. We use Stratton-Chu type integral transforms to calculate the EM fields at the virtual receivers. Model...

  9. The Plumbing of Land Surface Models: Is Poor Performance a Result of Methodology or Data Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Ned; Abramowitz, Gab; Pitman, Andy J.; Or, Dani; Best, Martin J.; Johnson, Helen R.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Boone, Aaron; Cuntz, Matthais; Decharme, Bertrand; hide

    2016-01-01

    The PALS Land sUrface Model Benchmarking Evaluation pRoject (PLUMBER) illustrated the value of prescribing a priori performance targets in model intercomparisons. It showed that the performance of turbulent energy flux predictions from different land surface models, at a broad range of flux tower sites using common evaluation metrics, was on average worse than relatively simple empirical models. For sensible heat fluxes, all land surface models were outperformed by a linear regression against downward shortwave radiation. For latent heat flux, all land surface models were outperformed by a regression against downward shortwave, surface air temperature and relative humidity. These results are explored here in greater detail and possible causes are investigated. We examine whether particular metrics or sites unduly influence the collated results, whether results change according to time-scale aggregation and whether a lack of energy conservation in fluxtower data gives the empirical models an unfair advantage in the intercomparison. We demonstrate that energy conservation in the observational data is not responsible for these results. We also show that the partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes in LSMs, rather than the calculation of available energy, is the cause of the original findings. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that the nature of this partitioning problem is likely shared among all contributing LSMs. While we do not find a single candidate explanation forwhy land surface models perform poorly relative to empirical benchmarks in PLUMBER, we do exclude multiple possible explanations and provide guidance on where future research should focus.

  10. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C S B

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites.

  11. Simulated Effects of Land Cover Conversion on the Surface Energy Budget in the Southwest of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbo Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the coupled WRF/SSiB model, accompanied by a Karst Rocky Desertification (KRD map of the Guizhou Karst Plateau (GKP of China, was applied to detect how the changed vegetation and soil characteristics over the GKP modify the energy balance at the land surface. The results indicated that land degradation led to reduced net radiation by inducing more upward shortwave and longwave radiation, which were associated with increasing surface albedo and temperature, respectively. The KRD also resulted in changed surface energy partitioning into sensible and latent heat fluxes. The latent heat flux at land surface was reduced substantially due to the higher surface albedo and stomatal resistance, the lower Leaf Area Index (LAI and roughness length in the degradation experiment, while the sensible heat flux increased, mainly because of the higher surface temperature. Furthermore, the moisture flux convergence was reduced, owing to the lower atmospheric heating and the relative subsidence. However, compared with the reduced evaporation, the decrease in moisture flux convergence contributed much less to the reduced precipitation. Precipitation strongly affects soil moisture, vegetation growth and phenology, and thus evaporation and convective latent heating, so when precipitation was changed, a feedback loop was created.

  12. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xun; Xiang Hao; Tao Pan; Jia-Lin Zhong; Chun-Lan Ma; Fang Hou; Yin-Zhong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO) film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investiga...

  13. Defining the Magnitude: Patterns, Regularities and Direct TOA-Surface Flux Relationships in the 15-Year Long CERES Satellite Data — Observations, Model and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoni, M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past fifteen years, the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite mission has provided the scientific community with the most reliable Earth radiation budget data. This presentation offers quantitative assessment of the published CERES Energy Balanced and Filled (EBAF) Edition 2.8 and Edition 4.0 data products, and reveals several internal patterns, ratios and regularities within the annual global mean flux components of the all-sky and clear-sky surface and atmospheric energy budgets. The found patterns, among others, include: (i) direct relationships between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative and surface radiative and non-radiative fluxes (contradicting the expectation that TOA and surface fluxes are physically decoupled); (ii) integer ratios and relationships between the absorbed and emitted surface and atmospheric energy flow elements; and (iii) definite connections among the clear-sky and the all-sky shortwave, longwave and non-radiative (turbulent) flux elements and the corresponding greenhouse effect. Comparison between the EBAF Ed2.8 and Ed4.0 SFC and TOA data products and trend analyses of the normalized clear-sky and all-sky greenhouse factors are presented. Longwave cloud radiative effect (LW CRE) proved to be playing a principal role in organizing the found numerical patterns in the surface and atmospheric energy flow components. All of the revealed structures are quantitatively valid within the one-sigma range of uncertainty of the involved individual flux elements. This presentation offers a conceptual framework to interpret the found relationships and shows how the observed CERES fluxes can be deduced from this proposed physical model. An important conclusion drawn from our analysis is that the internal atmospheric and surface energy flow system forms a definite structure and seems to be more constrained to the incoming solar energy than previously thought.

  14. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  15. Superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Evelyn N; McCarthy, Matthew; Enright, Ryan; Culver, James N; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-03-24

    Surfaces having a hierarchical structure--having features of both microscale and nanoscale dimensions--can exhibit superhydrophobic properties and advantageous condensation and heat transfer properties. The hierarchical surfaces can be fabricated using biological nanostructures, such as viruses as a self-assembled nanoscale template.

  16. Spherical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2016-01-01

    We study surfaces of constant positive Gauss curvature in Euclidean 3-space via the harmonicity of the Gauss map. Using the loop group representation, we solve the regular and the singular geometric Cauchy problems for these surfaces, and use these solutions to compute several new examples. We give...

  17. Global distribution of Earth's surface shortwave radiation budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hatzianastassiou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean shortwave (SW radiation budget at the Earth's surface (SRB was computed on 2.5-degree longitude-latitude resolution for the 17-year period from 1984 to 2000, using a radiative transfer model accounting for the key physical parameters that determine the surface SRB, and long-term climatological data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2. The model input data were supplemented by data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction - National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Global Reanalysis projects, and other global data bases such as TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS and Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS. The model surface radiative fluxes were validated against surface measurements from 22 stations of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN covering the years 1992-2000, and from 700 stations of the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, covering the period 1984-2000. The model is in good agreement with BSRN and GEBA, with a negative bias of 14 and 6.5 Wm-2, respectively. The model is able to reproduce interesting features of the seasonal and geographical variation of the surface SW fluxes at global scale. Based on the 17-year average model results, the global mean SW downward surface radiation (DSR is equal to 171.6 Wm-2, whereas the net downward (or absorbed surface SW radiation is equal to 149.4 Wm-2, values that correspond to 50.2 and 43.7% of the incoming SW radiation at the top of the Earth's atmosphere. These values involve a long-term surface albedo equal to 12.9%. Significant increasing trends in DSR and net DSR fluxes were found, equal to 4.1 and 3.7 Wm-2, respectively, over the 1984-2000 period (equivalent to 2.4 and 2.2 Wm-2 per decade, indicating an increasing surface solar radiative heating. This surface SW radiative heating is primarily attributed to clouds, especially low-level, and secondarily to

  18. Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Kerry; Sobel, Adam

    2013-06-01

    A single-column model is used to estimate the equilibrium response of sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and several variables related to tropical cyclone (TC) activity to changes in both local and global forcing. Response to local forcing is estimated using the weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation. The surface temperature is calculated using a thin slab ocean so as to maintain surface energy balance. Forcing is varied by changing the solar constant, atmospheric CO2 concentration, surface wind speed, and the convergence of upper ocean heat flux. These experiments show that precipitation and variables related to TC activity are not unique functions of SST on time scales long enough for surface energy balance to be maintained. Precipitation varies inversely with SST in experiments in which the surface wind speed is varied. At low wind speed, the WTG experiments reveal a regime of high relative SST and low precipitation, which is maintained by increased transmission of longwave radiation from the surface directly to space through a dry troposphere. In general, TC potential intensity and genesis potential vary much more rapidly with SST in response to varying surface wind speed than in response to other forcings. Local changes in TC potential intensity are highly correlated with local changes in SST, showing that relative SST is a good proxy for potential intensity when forcing is strictly local, but it cannot capture potentially important changes in potential intensity that arise from global-scale changes in forcing.

  19. Comparison of the meteorology and surface energy fluxes of debris-free and debris-covered glaciers in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the meteorology and energy fluxes of debris-free and debris-covered glaciers is important for understanding the varying response of glaciers to climate change. Field measurements at the debris-free Parlung No. 4 Glacier and the debris-covered 24K Glacier in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau were carried out to compare the meteorology and surface energy fluxes and to understand the factors controlling the melting process. The meteorological comparisons displayed temporally synchronous fluctuations in air temperature, relative humidity, incoming longwave radiation (Lin), but notable differences in precipitation, incoming shortwave radiation (Sin) and wind speed. Under the prevailing regional precipitation and debris conditions, more Lin (42 W/m2) was supplied from warmer and more humid air and more Sin (58 W/m2) was absorbed at the 24K Glacier. The relatively high energy supply led mainly to an increased energy output via turbulent heat fluxes and outgoing longwave radiation, rather than glacier melting beneath the thick debris. The sensitivity experiment showed that melting rates were sensitive to variations in energy supply with debris thicknesses of less than 10 cm. In contrast, energy supply to the ablation zone of the Parlung No. 4 Glacier mainly resulted in snow/ice melting, the magnitude of which was significantly influenced by the energy supplied by Sin and the sensible heat flux.

  20. The surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 2: Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the winter time surface energy balance at a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia based on independent measurements of the net radiation, the sensible heat flux and the ground heat flux from two winter seasons. The latent heat flux is inferred from measurements of the atmospheric turbulence characteristics and a model approach. The long-wave radiation is found to be the dominant factor in the surface energy balance. The radiative losses are balanced to about 60 % by the ground heat flux and almost 40 % by the sensible heat fluxes, whereas the contribution of the latent heat flux is small. The main controlling factors of the surface energy budget are the snow cover, the cloudiness and the soil temperature gradient. Large spatial differences in the surface energy balance are observed between tundra soils and a small pond. The ground heat flux released at a freezing pond is by a factor of two higher compared to the freezing soil, whereas large differences in net radiation between the pond and soil are only observed at the end of the winter period. Differences in the surface energy balance between the two winter seasons are found to be related to differences in snow depth and cloud cover which strongly affect the temperature evolution and the freeze-up at the investigated pond.

  1. Dynamics and Stability of Self-similar Pinch-off via Surface Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernoff, Andrew J.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Witelski, Thomas P.

    1998-11-01

    The motion of an interface via BBW.html>surface diffusion is a well-known model in the study of thin solid filaments with application to such fields as integrated circuit technology. The interface moves with a normal velocity proportional to minus the surface Laplacian of its mean curvature. This flow conserves the volume enclosed inside the surface while minimizing its surface area. A cylindrical surface is unstable to long-wave perturbations, analogous to the Rayleigh instability in fluid dynamics. The initial instability leads to a conical pinch-off of the cylinder to form isolated spheres. We examine the structure of the pinch-off, showing it has self-similar structure, using asymptotic, numerical and analytical methods. In addition to a previously known solution(Wong et al. Scripta Mater.) 39(1):55, 1998, we find a countable set of similarity solutions, each with a different cone angle. We develop a stability theory in similarity variables that selects the original similarity solution as the only linearly stable one and consequently the only observable one. We confirm this theory via numerical simulations, using self-similar adaptive mesh refinement, of the pinch-off.

  2. A Climatology of Surface Cloud Radiative Effects at the ARM Tropical Western Pacific Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Long, Charles N.; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2013-04-01

    Cloud radiative effects on surface downwelling fluxes are investigated using long-term datasets from the three Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region. The Nauru and Darwin sites show significant variability in sky cover, downwelling radiative fluxes, and surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) due to El Niño and the Australian monsoon, respectively, while the Manus site shows little intra-seasonal or interannual variability. Cloud radar measurement of cloud base and top heights are used to define cloud types so that the effect of cloud type on the surface CRE can be examined. Clouds with low bases contribute 71-75% of the surface shortwave (SW) CRE and 66-74% of the surface longwave (LW) CRE at the three TWP sites, while clouds with mid-level bases contribute 8-9% of the SW CRE and 12-14% of the LW CRE, and clouds with high bases contribute 16-19% of the SW CRE and 15-21% of the LW CRE.

  3. Surface boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-22

    In this paper, we introduce a surface boxplot as a tool for visualization and exploratory analysis of samples of images. First, we use the notion of volume depth to order the images viewed as surfaces. In particular, we define the median image. We use an exact and fast algorithm for the ranking of the images. This allows us to detect potential outlying images that often contain interesting features not present in most of the images. Second, we build a graphical tool to visualize the surface boxplot and its various characteristics. A graph and histogram of the volume depth values allow us to identify images of interest. The code is available in the supporting information of this paper. We apply our surface boxplot to a sample of brain images and to a sample of climate model outputs.

  4. Convex surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This exploration of convex surfaces focuses on extrinsic geometry and applications of the Brunn-Minkowski theory. It also examines intrinsic geometry and the realization of intrinsic metrics. 1958 edition.

  5. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S. da; Teixeira, M.V.

    1986-06-01

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Simulation and transient analyses of a complete passive heat removal system in a downward cooling pool-type material testing reactor against a complete station blackout and long-term natural convection mode using the RELAP5/3.2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Afshin [Reactor and Nuclear Safety School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, a complete station blackout (SBO) or complete loss of electrical power supplies is simulated and analyzed in a downward cooling 5-MW pool-type Material Testing Reactor (MTR). The scenario is traced in the absence of active cooling systems and operators. The code nodalization is successfully benchmarked against experimental data of the reactor's operating parameters. The passive heat removal system includes downward water cooling after pump breakdown by the force of gravity (where the coolant streams down to the unfilled portion of the holdup tank), safety flapper opening, flow reversal from a downward to an upward cooling direction, and then the upward free convection heat removal throughout the flapper safety valve, lower plenum, and fuel assemblies. Both short-term and long-term natural core cooling conditions are simulated and investigated using the RELAP5 code. Short-term analyses focus on the safety flapper valve operation and flow reversal mode. Long-term analyses include simulation of both complete SBO and long-term operation of the free convection mode. Results are promising for pool-type MTRs because this allows operators to investigate RELAP code abilities for MTR thermal–hydraulic simulations without any oscillation; moreover, the Tehran Research Reactor is conservatively safe against the complete SBO and long-term free convection operation.

  7. Simulation and transient analyses of a complete passive heat removal system in a downward cooling pool-type material testing reactor against a complete station blackout and long-term natural convection mode using the RELAP5/3.2 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Hedayat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a complete station blackout (SBO or complete loss of electrical power supplies is simulated and analyzed in a downward cooling 5-MW pool-type Material Testing Reactor (MTR. The scenario is traced in the absence of active cooling systems and operators. The code nodalization is successfully benchmarked against experimental data of the reactor's operating parameters. The passive heat removal system includes downward water cooling after pump breakdown by the force of gravity (where the coolant streams down to the unfilled portion of the holdup tank, safety flapper opening, flow reversal from a downward to an upward cooling direction, and then the upward free convection heat removal throughout the flapper safety valve, lower plenum, and fuel assemblies. Both short-term and long-term natural core cooling conditions are simulated and investigated using the RELAP5 code. Short-term analyses focus on the safety flapper valve operation and flow reversal mode. Long-term analyses include simulation of both complete SBO and long-term operation of the free convection mode. Results are promising for pool-type MTRs because this allows operators to investigate RELAP code abilities for MTR thermal–hydraulic simulations without any oscillation; moreover, the Tehran Research Reactor is conservatively safe against the complete SBO and long-term free convection operation.

  8. Surface phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Wette, Frederik

    1991-01-01

    In recent years substantial progress has been made in the detection of surface phonons owing to considerable improvements in inelastic rare gas scattering tech­ niques and electron energy loss spectroscopy. With these methods it has become possible to measure surface vibrations in a wide energy range for all wave vectors in the two-dimensional Brillouin zone and thus to deduce the complete surface phonon dispersion curves. Inelastic atomic beam scattering and electron energy loss spectroscopy have started to play a role in the study of surface phonons similar to the one played by inelastic neutron scattering in the investigation of bulk phonons in the last thirty years. Detailed comparison between experimen­ tal results and theoretical studies of inelastic surface scattering and of surface phonons has now become feasible. It is therefore possible to test and to improve the details of interaction models which have been worked out theoretically in the last few decades. At this point we felt that a concise, co...

  9. ENSO impact on surface radiative fluxes as observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, R. T.; Grodsky, S. A.; Zhang, B.; Busalacchi, A.; Chen, W.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on surface radiative fluxes over the tropical Pacific using satellite observations and fluxes derived from selected atmospheric reanalyses. Agreement between the two in this region is important because reanalysis information is frequently used to assess surface energy budget sensitivity to ENSO. We found that during the traditional ENSO, the maximum variance of anomalous incoming solar radiation is located just west of the dateline and coincides with the area of the largest anomalous SST gradient. It can reach up to 60 W/m2 and lags behind the Niño3 index by about a month, suggesting a response to anomalous SST gradient. The magnitude of longwave anomaly is only half that large and varies in phase with the SST anomaly. Similar anomalies were derived from outputs: from the European Centre for Medium-Weather Forecasts Reanalysis Interim (ERA-I), from the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis version 2 (MERRA-2), from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 (R1), and from the Japanese JRA55 reanalysis. Among the four reanalyses used, results from ERA-I are the closest to observations. We have also investigated the surface wind divergence/convergence and found that the main factor limiting eastward excursions of convection is the surface wind convergence. Due to the wind divergence pattern normally present over the eastern cold tongue, anomalous convection extends into the eastern equatorial Pacific only during the strongest warm events. Our analysis also considers the El Niño Modoki events, for which the radiation flux patterns are shifted westward following the SST pattern.

  10. Impact of soil moisture and winter wheat height from the Loess Plateau in Northwest China on surface spectral albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchao; Yang, Jiaxi; Gao, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Zhiyuan; Yu, Ye; Hou, Xuhong; Wei, Zhigang

    2018-02-01

    The understanding of surface spectral radiation and reflected radiation characteristics of different surfaces in different climate zones aids in the interpretation of regional surface energy transfers and the development of land surface models. This study analysed surface spectral radiation variations and corresponding surface albedo characteristics at different wavelengths as well as the relationship between 5-cm soil moisture and surface albedo on typical sunny days during the winter wheat growth period. The analysis was conducted using observational Loess Plateau winter wheat data from 2015. The results show that the ratio of atmospheric downward radiation to global radiation on typical sunny days is highest for near-infrared wavelengths, followed by visible wavelengths and ultraviolet wavelengths, with values of 57.3, 38.7 and 4.0%, respectively. The ratio of reflected spectral radiation to global radiation varies based on land surface type. The visible radiation reflected by vegetated surfaces is far less than that reflected by bare ground, with surface albedos of 0.045 and 0.27, respectively. Thus, vegetated surfaces absorb more visible radiation than bare ground. The atmospheric downward spectral radiation to global radiation diurnal variation ratios vary for near-infrared wavelengths versus visible and ultraviolet wavelengths on typical sunny days. The near-infrared wavelengths ratio is higher in the morning and evening and lower at noon. The visible and ultraviolet wavelengths ratios are lower in the morning and evening and higher at noon. Visible and ultraviolet wavelength surface albedo is affected by 5-cm soil moisture, demonstrating a significant negative correlation. Excluding near-infrared wavelengths, correlations between surface albedo and 5-cm soil moisture pass the 99% confidence test at each wavelength. The correlation with 5-cm soil moisture is more significant at shorter wavelengths. However, this study obtained surface spectral radiation

  11. Surface energy budget of landfast sea ice during the transitions from winter to snowmelt and melt pond onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Else, B.G.T.; Papakyriakou, T.N.; Raddatz, R.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few sea ice energy balance studies have successfully captured the transition season of warming, snowmelt, and melt pond formation. In this paper, we report a surface energy budget for landfast sea ice that captures this important period. The study was conducted in the Canadian Arctic......) combined with the seasonal increase in incoming shortwave radiation then triggered snowmelt onset. Melt progressed with a rapid reduction in albedo and attendant increases in shortwave energy absorption, resulting in melt pond formation 8 days later. The key role of longwave radiation in initiating melt...... onset supports past findings, and confirms the importance of clouds and water vapor associated with synoptic weather systems. However, we also observed a period of strong turbulent energy exchange associated with the passage of a cyclone. The cyclone event occurred shortly after melt pond formation...

  12. Multimodal imaging of ocular surface of dry eye subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V.; Zavislan, James M.

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between the corneal lipid layer and the ocular surface temperature (OST), we conducted a clinical trial for 20 subjects. Subjects were clinically screened prior to the trial. Of the 20 subjects, 15 have Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 5 have aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE). A custom, circularly polarized illumination video tearscope measured the lipid layer thickness of the ocular tear film. A long-wave infrared video camera recorded the dynamic thermal properties of the ocular team film. The results of these two methods were analyzed and compared. Using principal component analysis (PCA) of the lipid layer distribution, we find that the 20 subjects could be categorized into five statistically significant groups, independent of their original clinical classification: thin (6 subjects), medium (5 subjects), medium and homogenous (3 subjects), thick (4 subjects), and very thick (2 subjects) lipids, respectively. We also conducted PCA of the OST data, and recategorized the subjects into two thermal groups by k-means clustering: one includes all ADDE subjects and some MGD subjects; the other includes the remaining MGD subjects. By comparing these two methods, we find that dry eye subjects with thin (lipids have significantly lower OST, and a larger OST drop range, potentially due to more evaporation. However, as long as the lipid layer is not thin (> 40 nm), there is no strong correlation between the lipid layer thickness and heterogeneity and the OST patterns.

  13. Advanced LWIR hyperspectral sensor for on-the-move proximal detection of liquid/solid contaminants on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Jay P.; Dixon, John; Dupuis, Julia R.; Cosofret, Bogdan R.; Marinelli, William J.

    2017-05-01

    Sensor technologies capable of detecting low vapor pressure liquid surface contaminants, as well as solids, in a noncontact fashion while on-the-move continues to be an important need for the U.S. Army. In this paper, we discuss the development of a long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-10.5 μm) spatial heterodyne spectrometer coupled with an LWIR illuminator and an automated detection algorithm for detection of surface contaminants from a moving vehicle. The system is designed to detect surface contaminants by repetitively collecting LWIR reflectance spectra of the ground. Detection and identification of surface contaminants is based on spectral correlation of the measured LWIR ground reflectance spectra with high fidelity library spectra and the system's cumulative binary detection response from the sampled ground. We present the concepts of the detection algorithm through a discussion of the system signal model. In addition, we present reflectance spectra of surfaces contaminated with a liquid CWA simulant, triethyl phosphate (TEP), and a solid simulant, acetaminophen acquired while the sensor was stationary and on-the-move. Surfaces included CARC painted steel, asphalt, concrete, and sand. The data collected was analyzed to determine the probability of detecting 800 μm diameter contaminant particles at a 0.5 g/m2 areal density with the SHSCAD traversing a surface.

  14. Downscaling Satellite Land Surface Temperatures in Urban Regions for Surface Energy Balance Study and Heat Index Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Bah, A.; Prakash, S.; Nouri, N.; Blake, R.

    2017-12-01

    A great percentage of the world's population reside in urban areas that are exposed to the threats of global and regional climate changes and associated extreme weather events. Among them, urban heat islands have significant health and economic impacts due to higher thermal gradients of impermeable surfaces in urban regions compared to their surrounding rural areas. Therefore, accurate characterization of the surface energy balance in urban regions are required to predict these extreme events. High spatial resolution Land surface temperature (LST) in the scale of street level in the cities can provide wealth of information to study surface energy balance and eventually providing a reliable heat index. In this study, we estimate high-resolution LST maps using combination of LandSat 8 and infrared based satellite products such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and newly launched Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-R). Landsat 8 provides higher spatial resolution (30 m) estimates of skin temperature every 16 days. However, MODIS and GOES-R have lower spatial resolution (1km and 4km respectively) with much higher temporal resolution. Several statistical downscaling methods were investigated to provide high spatiotemporal LST maps in urban regions. The results reveal that statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can provide reliable estimations of LST downscaling with 2K accuracy. Other methods also were tried including aggregating (up-scaling) the high-resolution data to a coarse one to examine the limitations and to build the model. Additionally, we deployed flux towers over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops in New York City to monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. This

  15. An energy balance model exploration of the impacts of interactions between surface albedo, cloud cover and water vapor on polar amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, A. Helena; McDonald, Adrian J.; Bodeker, Gregory E.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the effects of non-linear interactions between surface albedo, water vapor and cloud cover (referred to as climate variables) on amplified warming of the polar regions, using a new energy balance model. Our simulations show that the sum of the contributions to surface temperature changes due to any variable considered in isolation is smaller than the temperature changes from coupled feedback simulations. This non-linearity is strongest when all three climate variables are allowed to interact. Surface albedo appears to be the strongest driver of this non-linear behavior, followed by water vapor and clouds. This is because increases in longwave radiation absorbed by the surface, related to increases in water vapor and clouds, and increases in surface absorbed shortwave radiation caused by a decrease in surface albedo, amplify each other. Furthermore, our results corroborate previous findings that while increases in cloud cover and water vapor, along with the greenhouse effect itself, warm the polar regions, water vapor also significantly warms equatorial regions, which reduces polar amplification. Changes in surface albedo drive large changes in absorption of incoming shortwave radiation, thereby enhancing surface warming. Unlike high latitudes, surface albedo change at low latitudes are more constrained. Interactions between surface albedo, water vapor and clouds drive larger increases in temperatures in the polar regions compared to low latitudes. This is in spite of the fact that, due to a forcing, cloud cover increases at high latitudes and decreases in low latitudes, and that water vapor significantly enhances warming at low latitudes.

  16. Climate of the Greenland ice sheet using a high-resolution climate model – Part 2: Near-surface climate and energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ettema

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of near-surface variables and surface energy balance components over the Greenland ice sheet are presented, using the output of a regional atmospheric climate model for the period 1958–2008. The model was evaluated in Part 1 of this paper.

    The near-surface temperature over the ice sheet is affected by surface elevation, latitude, longitude, large-scale and small-scale advection, occurrence of summer melt and mesoscale topographical features. The atmospheric boundary layer is characterised by a strong temperature inversion, due to continuous longwave cooling of the surface. In combination with a gently sloping surface the radiative loss maintains a persistent katabatic wind. This radiative heat loss is mainly balanced by turbulent sensible heat transport towards the surface. In summer, the surface is near radiative balance, resulting in lower wind speeds. Absorption of shortwave radiation and a positive subsurface heat flux due to refreezing melt water are heat sources for surface sublimation and melt.

    The strongest temperature deficits (>13 °C are found on the northeastern slopes, where the strongest katabatic winds (>9 m s−1 and lowest relative humidity (<65% occur. Due to strong large scale winds, clear sky (cloud cover <0.5 and a concave surface, a continuous supply of cold dry air is generated, which enhances the katabatic forcing and suppresses subsidence of potentially warmer free atmosphere air.

  17. A physically based model of global freshwater surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Eikelboom, Tessa; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2012-09-01

    Temperature determines a range of physical properties of water and exerts a strong control on surface water biogeochemistry. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime directly affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism and indirectly through their tolerance to parasites and diseases. Models used to predict surface water temperature range between physically based deterministic models and statistical approaches. Here we present the initial results of a physically based deterministic model of global freshwater surface temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modeled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff, and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by shortwave and longwave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We use the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global freshwater surface temperature at daily time steps with a spatial resolution of 0.5° on a regular grid for the period 1976-2000. We opt to parameterize the model with globally available data and apply it without calibration in order to preserve its physical basis with the outlook of evaluating the effects of atmospheric warming on freshwater surface temperature. We validate our simulation results with daily temperature data from rivers and lakes (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), limited to the USA) and compare mean monthly temperatures with those recorded in the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) data set. Results show that the model is able to capture the mean monthly surface temperature for the majority of the GEMS stations, while the interannual variability as derived from the USGS and NOAA data was captured reasonably well. Results are poorest for

  18. Observations of surface radiation and stratospheric processes at Thule Air Base, Greenland, during the IPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Muscari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based measurements of atmospheric parameters have been carried out for more than 20 years at the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC station at Thule Air Base (76.5°N, 68.8°W, on the north-western coast of Greenland. Various instruments dedicated to the study of the lower and middle polar atmosphere are installed at Thule in the framework of a long standing collaboration among Danish, Italian, and US research institutes and universities. This effort aims at monitoring the composition, structure and dynamics of the polar stratosphere, and at studying the Arctic energy budget and the role played by different factors, such as aerosols, water vapour, and surface albedo. During the International Polar Year (IPY, in winter 2008-2009, an intensive measurement campaign was conducted at Thule within the framework of the IPY project “Ozone layer and UV radiation in a changing climate evaluated during IPY” (ORACLE-O3 which sought to improve our understanding of the complex mechanisms that lead to the Arctic stratospheric O3 depletion. The campaign involved a lidar system, measuring aerosol backscatter and depolarization ratios up to 35 km and atmospheric temperature profiles from 25 to 70 km altitude, a ground-based millimeter-wave spectrometer (GBMS used to derive stratospheric mixing ratio profiles of different chemical species involved in the stratospheric ozone depletion cycle, and then ground-based radiometers and a Cimel sunphotometer to study the Arctic radiative budget at the surface. The observations show that the surface radiation budget is mainly regulated by the longwave component throughout most of the year. Clouds have a significant impact contributing to enhance the role of longwave radiation. Besides clouds, water vapour seasonal changes produce the largest modification in the shortwave component at the surface, followed by changes in surface albedo and in aerosol amounts. For what concerns the

  19. Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  20. Flare differentially rotates sunspot on Sun's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Deng, Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Hudson, Hugh S.; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Jiasheng; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Sunspots are concentrations of magnetic field visible on the solar surface (photosphere). It was considered implausible that solar flares, as resulted from magnetic reconnection in the tenuous corona, would cause a direct perturbation of the dense photosphere involving bulk motion. Here we report the sudden flare-induced rotation of a sunspot using the unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope, supplemented by magnetic data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. It is clearly observed that the rotation is non-uniform over the sunspot: as the flare ribbon sweeps across, its different portions accelerate (up to ∼50° h−1) at different times corresponding to peaks of flare hard X-ray emission. The rotation may be driven by the surface Lorentz-force change due to the back reaction of coronal magnetic restructuring and is accompanied by a downward Poynting flux. These results have direct consequences for our understanding of energy and momentum transportation in the flare-related phenomena. PMID:27721463

  1. Simultaneous solution of the geoid and the surface density anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A. A.; Safari, A.; Karimi, R.; AllahTavakoli, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The main application of the land gravity data in geodesy is "local geoid" or "local gravity field" modeling, whereas the same data could play a vital role for the anomalous mass-density modeling in geophysical explorations. In the realm of local geoid computations based on Geodetic Boundary Value Problems (GBVP), it is needed that the effect of the topographic (or residual terrain) masses be removed via application of the Newton integral in order to perform the downward continuation in a harmonic space. However, harmonization of the downward continuation domain may not be perfectly possible unless accurate information about the mass-density of the topographic masses be available. On the other hand, from the exploration point of view the unwanted topographical masses within the aforementioned procedure could be regarded as the signal. In order to overcome the effect of the remaining masses within the remove step of the GBVP, which cause uncertainties in mathematical modeling of the problem, here we are proposing a methodology for simultaneous solution of the geoid and residual surface density modeling In other words, a new mathematical model will be offered which both provides the needed harmonic space for downward continuation and at the same time accounts for the non-harmonic terms of gravitational field and makes use of it for residual mass density modeling within the topographic region. The presented new model enjoys from uniqueness of the solution, opposite to the inverse application of the Newton integral for mass density modeling which is non-unique, and only needs regularization to remove its instability problem. In this way, the solution of the model provides both the incremental harmonic gravitational potential on surface of the reference ellipsoid as the gravity field model and the lateral surface mass-density variations via the second derivatives of the non harmonic terms of gravitational field. As the case study and accuracy verification, the proposed

  2. Surfacing Moves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    such as schedules, machines, and aging bodies. To this end, the article also experiments with ‘surfacing’ as an ethnographic heuristic for figuring these different ‘spatial-timings’. The article concludes that surfacing matters not only in senior home care but also in the field-desks of ethnographic analysis....

  3. Attack surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruschka, Nils; Jensen, Meiko

    2010-01-01

    The new paradigm of cloud computing poses severe security risks to its adopters. In order to cope with these risks, appropriate taxonomies and classification criteria for attacks on cloud computing are required. In this work-in-progress paper we present one such taxonomy based on the notion...... of attack surfaces of the cloud computing scenario participants....

  4. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF) by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks). Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing) and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA) and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  5. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW and longwave (LW radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks. Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  6. Sensitivity of boundary layer variables to PBL schemes over the central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Liu, H.; Wang, L.; Du, Q.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) parameterization schemes play critical role in numerical weather prediction and research. They describe physical processes associated with the momentum, heat and humidity exchange between land surface and atmosphere. In this study, two non-local (YSU and ACM2) and two local (MYJ and BouLac) planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model have been tested over the central Tibetan Plateau regarding of their capability to model boundary layer parameters relevant for surface energy exchange. The model performance has been evaluated against measurements from the Third Tibetan Plateau atmospheric scientific experiment (TIPEX-III). Simulated meteorological parameters and turbulence fluxes have been compared with observations through standard statistical measures. Model results show acceptable behavior, but no particular scheme produces best performance for all locations and parameters. All PBL schemes underestimate near surface air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau. By investigating the surface energy budget components, the results suggest that downward longwave radiation and sensible heat flux are the main factors causing the lower near surface temperature. Because the downward longwave radiation and sensible heat flux are respectively affected by atmosphere moisture and land-atmosphere coupling, improvements in water vapor distribution and land-atmosphere energy exchange is meaningful for better presentation of PBL physical processes over the central Tibetan Plateau.

  7. The Asian-Bering-North American teleconnection: seasonality, maintenance, and climate impact on North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lin, H.; Wu, Z. W.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) teleconnection index is constructed from the normalized 500-hPa geopotential field by excluding the Pacific-North American pattern contribution. The ABNA pattern features a zonally elongated wavetrain originating from North Asia and flowing downstream across Bering Sea and Strait towards North America. The large-scale teleconnection is a year-round phenomenon that displays strong seasonality with the peak variability in winter. North American surface temperature and temperature extremes, including warm days and nights as well as cold days and nights, are significantly controlled by this teleconnection. The ABNA pattern has an equivalent barotropic structure in the troposphere and is supported by synoptic-scale eddy forcing in the upper troposphere. Its associated sea surface temperature anomalies exhibit a horseshoe-shaped structure in the North Pacific, most prominent in winter, which is driven by atmospheric circulation anomalies. The snow cover anomalies over the West Siberian plain and Central Siberian Plateau in autumn and spring and over southern Siberia in winter may act as a forcing influence on the ABNA pattern. The snow forcing influence in winter and spring can be traced back to the preceding season, which provides a predictability source for this teleconnection and for North American temperature variability. The ABNA associated energy budget is dominated by surface longwave radiation anomalies year-round, with the temperature anomalies supported by anomalous downward longwave radiation and damped by upward longwave radiation at the surface.

  8. Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    imbalance magnitude. All turbulent fluxes are highly correlated with net radiation because this balance between solar and longwave radiation is the principal energy source for daytime surface warming, evaporation, and photosynthesis. We find that turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide and sensible heat are closely linked and, on average, change sign synchronously during the diurnal and annual cycles. The work is supported by the NOAA Climate Program Office, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) with award ARC 11-07428, and by the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation (CRDF) with award RUG1-2976-ST-10.

  9. Surface temperatures in New York City: Geospatial data enables the accurate prediction of radiative heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandehari, Masoud; Emig, Thorsten; Aghamohamadnia, Milad

    2018-02-02

    Despite decades of research seeking to derive the urban energy budget, the dynamics of thermal exchange in the densely constructed environment is not yet well understood. Using New York City as a study site, we present a novel hybrid experimental-computational approach for a better understanding of the radiative heat transfer in complex urban environments. The aim of this work is to contribute to the calculation of the urban energy budget, particularly the stored energy. We will focus our attention on surface thermal radiation. Improved understanding of urban thermodynamics incorporating the interaction of various bodies, particularly in high rise cities, will have implications on energy conservation at the building scale, and for human health and comfort at the urban scale. The platform presented is based on longwave hyperspectral imaging of nearly 100 blocks of Manhattan, in addition to a geospatial radiosity model that describes the collective radiative heat exchange between multiple buildings. Despite assumptions in surface emissivity and thermal conductivity of buildings walls, the close comparison of temperatures derived from measurements and computations is promising. Results imply that the presented geospatial thermodynamic model of urban structures can enable accurate and high resolution analysis of instantaneous urban surface temperatures.

  10. Analysis of MAGSAT and surface data of the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Techniques and significant results of an analysis of MAGSAT and surface data of the Indian region are described. Specific investigative tasks included: (1) use of the multilevel data at different altitudes to develop a model for variation of magnetic anomaly with altitude; (2) development of the regional model for the description of main geomagnetic field for the Indian sub-continent using MAGSAT and observatory data; (3) development of regional mathematical model of secular variations over the Indian sub-continent; and (4) downward continuation of the anomaly field obtained from MAGSAT and its combination with the existing observatory data to produce a regional anomaly map for elucidating tectonic features of the Indian sub-continent.

  11. A process-based decomposition of decadal-scale surface temperature evolutions over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junwen; Deng, Yi; Lin, Wenshi; Yang, Song

    2017-08-01

    This study partitions the observed decadal evolution of surface temperature and surface temperature differences between two decades (early 2000s and early 1980s) over the East Asian continent into components associated with individual radiative and non-radiative (dynamical) processes in the context of the coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM). Rapid warming in this region occurred in late 1980s and early 2000s with a transient pause of warming between the two periods. The rising CO2 concentration provides a sustained, region-wide warming contribution and surface albedo effect, largely related to snow cover change, is important for warming/cooling over high-latitude and high-elevation regions. Sensible hear flux and surface dynamics dominates the evolution of surface temperature, with latent heat flux and atmospheric dynamics working against them mostly through large-scale and convective/turbulent heat transport. Cloud via its shortwave effect provides positive contributions to warming over southern Siberia and South China. The longwave effect associated with water vapor change contributes significant warming over northern India, Tibetan Plateau, and central Siberia. Impacts of solar irradiance and ozone changes are relatively small. The strongest year-to-year temperature fluctuation occurred at a rapid warming (1987-1988) and a rapid cooling (1995-1996) period. The pattern of the rapid warming receives major positive contributions from sensible heat flux with changes in atmospheric dynamics, water vapor, clouds, and albedo providing secondary positive contributions, while surface dynamics and latent heat flux providing negative contributions. The signs of the contributions from individual processes to the rapid cooling are almost opposite to those to the rapid warming.

  12. Competing Atmospheric and Surface-Driven Impacts of Absorbing Aerosols on the East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, G.; Paynter, D.; Ming, Y.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2015-12-01

    Absorbing aerosols, by attenuating shortwave radiation within the atmosphere and reemitting it as longwave radiation, redistribute energy both vertically within the surface-atmosphere column and horizontally between polluted and unpolluted regions. East Asia has the largest concentrations of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols globally, and these, along with the region's scattering aerosols, have both reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface regionally ("solar dimming") and increased shortwave absorption within the atmosphere, particularly during the peak months of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). We here analyze how atmospheric absorption and surface solar dimming compete in driving the response of EASM circulation to anthropogenic absorbing aerosols, which dominates, and why—issues of particular importance for predicting how the EASM will respond to projected changes in absorbing and scattering aerosol emissions in the future. We probe these questions in a state-of-the-art general circulation model (GCM) using a combination of realistic and idealized aerosol perturbations that allow us to analyze the relative influence of absorbing aerosols' atmospheric and surface-driven impacts on EASM circulation. In combination, our results make clear that, although absorption-driven dimming has a less detrimental effect on EASM circulation than purely scattering-driven dimming, aerosol absorption is still a net impairment to EASM strength when both its atmospheric and surface effects are considered. Because atmospheric heating is not efficiently conveyed to the surface, the surface dimming and associated cooling from even a pure absorber is sufficient to counteract its atmospheric heating, resulting in a net reduction in EASM strength. These findings elevate the current understanding of the impacts of aerosol absorption on the EASM, improving our ability to diagnose EASM responses to current and future regional changes in aerosol emissions.

  13. The (001) 3C SiC surface termination and band structure after common wet chemical etching procedures, stated by XPS, LEED, and HREELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengeler, Sven; Kaiser, Bernhard; Ferro, Gabriel; Chaussende, Didier; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    The (001) surface of cubic silicon carbide (3C SiC) after cleaning, Ar sputtering and three different wet chemical etching procedures was thoroughly investigated via (angle resolved) XPS, HREELS, and LEED. While Ar sputtering was found to be unsuitable for surface preparation, all three employed wet chemical etching procedures (piranha/NH4F, piranha/HF, and RCA) provide a clean surface. HF as oxide removal agent tends to result in fluorine traces on the sample surface, despite thorough rinsing. All procedures yield a 1 × 1 Si-OH/C-H terminated surface. However, the XPS spectra reveal some differences in the resulting surface states. NH4F for oxide removal produces a flat band situation, whereas the other two procedures result in a slight downward (HF) or upward (RCA) band bending. Because the band bending is small, it can be concluded that the number of unsaturated surface defects is low.

  14. Water Entry and Exit of Horizontal Cylinder in Free Surface Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafsia, Zouhaier; Maalel, Khlifa; Mnasri, Chokri; Mohamed, Omri

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes two-dimensional numerical simulations of the water entry and exit of horizontal circular cylinder at constant velocity. The deformation of free surface is described by Navier-Stokes (N S) equations of incompressible and viscous fluid with additional transport equation of the volume-of-fluid (VOF). The motion of the cylinder is modeled by the associated momentum source term implemented in the Phoenicis (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series) code. The domain is discretized by a fixed Cartesian grid using a finite volume method and the cylinder is represented and cut cell method. The simulated results are compared with the numerical results of Lin (2007). This comparison shows good agreement in terms of free surface evolution for water exit and sinking. However, for water entry, the jet flow simulated by Lin is not reproduced. The free surface deformation around the cylinder in downward direction is accurately predicted

  15. Surface formation, preservation, and history of low-porosity crusts at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegyveresi, John M.; Alley, Richard B.; Muto, Atsuhiro; Orsi, Anaïs J.; Spencer, Matthew K.

    2018-01-01

    Observations at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide site show that near-surface snow is strongly altered by weather-related processes such as strong winds and temperature fluctuations, producing features that are recognizable in the deep ice core. Prominent glazed surface crusts develop frequently at the site during summer seasons. Surface, snow pit, and ice core observations made in this study during summer field seasons from 2008-2009 to 2012-2013, supplemented by automated weather station (AWS) data with short- and longwave radiation sensors, revealed that such crusts formed during relatively low-wind, low-humidity, clear-sky periods with intense daytime sunshine. After formation, such glazed surfaces typically developed cracks in a polygonal pattern likely from thermal contraction at night. Cracking was commonest when several clear days occurred in succession and was generally followed by surface hoar growth; vapor escaping through the cracks during sunny days may have contributed to the high humidity that favored nighttime formation of surface hoar. Temperature and radiation observations show that daytime solar heating often warmed the near-surface snow above the air temperature, contributing to upward mass transfer, favoring crust formation from below, and then surface hoar formation. A simple surface energy calculation supports this observation. Subsequent examination of the WDC06A deep ice core revealed that crusts are preserved through the bubbly ice, and some occur in snow accumulated during winters, although not as commonly as in summertime deposits. Although no one has been on site to observe crust formation during winter, it may be favored by greater wintertime wind packing from stronger peak winds, high temperatures and steep temperature gradients from rapid midwinter warmings reaching as high as -15 °C, and perhaps longer intervals of surface stability. Time variations in crust occurrence in the core may provide paleoclimatic information

  16. Linking atmospheric synoptic transport, cloud phase, surface energy fluxes, and sea-ice growth: observations of midwinter SHEBA conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, P. Ola G.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Perovich, Don; Solomon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project are used to describe a sequence of events linking midwinter long-range advection of atmospheric heat and moisture into the Arctic Basin, formation of supercooled liquid water clouds, enhancement of net surface energy fluxes through increased downwelling longwave radiation, and reduction in near-surface conductive heat flux loss due to a warming of the surface, thereby leading to a reduction in sea-ice bottom growth. The analyses provide details of two events during Jan. 1-12, 1998, one entering the Arctic through Fram Strait and the other from northeast Siberia; winter statistics extend the results. Both deep, precipitating frontal clouds and post-frontal stratocumulus clouds impact the surface radiation and energy budget. Cloud liquid water, occurring preferentially in stratocumulus clouds extending into the base of the inversion, provides the strongest impact on surface radiation and hence modulates the surface forcing, as found previously. The observations suggest a minimum water vapor threshold, likely case dependent, for producing liquid water clouds. Through responses to the radiative forcing and surface warming, this cloud liquid water also modulates the turbulent and conductive heat fluxes, and produces a thermal wave penetrating into the sea ice. About 20-33 % of the observed variations of bottom ice growth can be directly linked to variations in surface conductive heat flux, with retarded ice growth occurring several days after these moisture plumes reduce the surface conductive heat flux. This sequence of events modulate pack-ice wintertime environmental conditions and total ice growth, and has implications for the annual sea-ice evolution, especially for the current conditions of extensive thinner ice.

  17. Surfaces of Building Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Surynková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    My diploma thesis Surfaces of Building Practice deals with the basic properties of surfaces, their mathematical description, categorization, and application in technical practice. Each studied surface is defined and its process of construction and parametrical description is listed. The thesis studies selected types of surfaces in details - these surfaces include surfaces of revolution, ruled surfaces, screw surfaces, and translational surfaces. An application of each studied surfaces is show...

  18. Surface sediment characteristics and tower karst dissolution, Guilin, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution of extensive outcrops of limestone and dolostone in humid tropical and subtropical southern China produced numerous caves and residual hills that are referred as tower karst. This study identifies and relates the physical and chemical characteristics of the surface sediment with the limestone bedrock in Guilin to assess the influence of the limestone dissolution process on sediment composition. The results of this study indicated that (i) both limestone and dolostone of the region are very pure (99.5% and 98.5% of CaCO 3 and MgCO 3, respectively); (ii) the material composition of limestone and dolostone is different from that of soil and sediment of the region: constituents of surface sediments are highly related with the clastic sedimentary rocks, such as the mudstone, but show negative correlation with limestone and dolostone; (iii) the limestone formations are highly resistant to physical weathering and disintegration; their durability versus physical weathering and their high susceptibility to chemical dissolution account for why residual towers can form and persist; (iv) a dual-zone environmental structure exists vertically downward from the surface in Guilin: the zone of unconsolidated clastic sediments that is predominantly acidic, and the zone of karstified limestone that is predominantly basic. The evidence suggests that the environment and processes differ in these two zones. The chemical dissolution of limestone that formed tower karst of the region is not mainly responsible for the accumulation of clastic sediment on the surface.

  19. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  20. Rough surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudina, M.

    1982-08-01

    For the determination of the thermal-hydraulic performances of rough surfaces, the method of evaluation is particularly important. In order to increase confidence in the results, a new evaluation procedure was introduced. This procedure is based on the transformation of simple channel experimental results to equal boundary conditions, and on the suitable application and confirmation of these transformed values in more complicated flow channel geometries. Existing methods, applied to the results obtained in an annular channel, do not fulfil all the transformation requirements. Thus a new, more complete transformation method, which uses the turbulent eddy diffusivity model, was developed. To check the quality of this transformation, within the scope of the new evaluation procedure, the results of experimental investigation in annular channels and in a bundle of hexagonal geometry were used together with the predictions of benchmark calculations. The success of the new method was confirmed by extensive comparisons, with the results of different presently-acknowledged transformations being considered as well. Based on these comparisons an assessment of the individual transformations is given. (Auth.)

  1. Phonon-mediated decay of an atom in a surface-induced potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kien, Fam Le; Hakuta, K.; Dutta Gupta, S.

    2007-01-01

    We study phonon-mediated transitions between translational levels of an atom in a surface-induced potential. We present a general master equation governing the dynamics of the translational states of the atom. In the framework of the Debye model, we derive compact expressions for the rates for both upward and downward transitions. Numerical calculations for the transition rates are performed for a deep silica-induced potential allowing for a large number of bound levels as well as free states of a cesium atom. The total absorption rate is shown to be determined mainly by the bound-to-bound transitions for deep bound levels and by bound-to-free transitions for shallow bound levels. Moreover, the phonon emission and absorption processes can be orders of magnitude larger for deep bound levels as compared to the shallow bound ones. We also study various types of transitions from free states. We show that, for thermal atomic cesium with a temperature in the range from 100 μK to 400 μK in the vicinity of a silica surface with a temperature of 300 K, the adsorption (free-to-bound decay) rate is about two times larger than the heating (free-to-free upward decay) rate, while the cooling (free-to-free downward decay) rate is negligible

  2. The clear-sky greenhouse effect sensitivity to a sea surface temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvel, J. PH.; Breon, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky greenhouse effect response to a sea surface temperature (SST or Ts) change is studied using outgoing clear-sky longwave radiation measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Considering geographical distributions for July 1987, the relation between the SST, the greenhouse effect (defined as the outgoing infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases), and the precipitable water vapor content (W), estimated by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, is analyzed first. A fairly linear relation between W and the normalized greenhouse effect g, is found. On the contrary, the SST dependence of both W and g exhibits nonlinearities with, especially, a large increase for SST above 25 C. This enhanced sensitivity of g and W can be interpreted in part by a corresponding large increase of atmospheric water vapor content related to the transition from subtropical dry regions to equatorial moist regions. Using two years of data (1985 and 1986), the normalized greenhouse effect sensitivity to the sea surface temperature is computed from the interannual variation of monthly mean values.

  3. Microphysics, Radiation and Surface Processes in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    ) ice microphysics, (2) longwave and shortwave radiative transfer processes, (3) land surface processes, (4) ocean surface fluxes and (5) ocean mixed layer processes are presented. The performance of these new GCE improvements will be examined. Observations are used for model validation.

  4. The Impact of Moisture Intrusions from Lower Latitudes on Arctic Net Surface Radiative Fluxes and Sea Ice Growth in Fall and Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, B. M.; Taylor, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    The fall and winter seasons mark an important period in the evolution of Arctic sea ice, where energy is transferred away from the surface to facilitate the cooling of the surface and the growth of Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. Climatologically, these seasons are characterized by distinct periods of increased and reduced surface cooling and sea ice growth. Periods of reduced sea ice growth and surface cooling are associated with cloudy conditions and the transport of warm and moist air from lower latitudes, termed moisture intrusions. In the research presented, we explore the regional and Arctic-wide impact of moisture intrusions on the surface net radiative fluxes and sea ice growth for each fall and winter season from 2000/01-2015/16, utilizing MERRA2 reanalysis data, PIOMAS sea ice thickness data, and daily CERES radiative flux data. Consistent with previous studies, we find that positive anomalies in downwelling longwave surface flux are associated with increased temperature and water vapor content in the atmospheric column contained within the moisture intrusions. Interestingly, there are periods of increased downwelling LW flux anomalies that persist for one week or longer (i.e. longer than synoptic timescales) that are associated with persistent poleward flux of warm, moist air from lower latitudes. These persistent anomalies significantly reduce the regional growth of Arctic sea ice, and may in part explain the interannual variability of fall and winter Arctic sea ice growth.

  5. Control of wave-driven turbulence and surface heating on the mixing of microplastic marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, T.; Lavender Law, K. L.; Proskurowski, G. K.

    2016-02-01

    Buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD) is a pollutant in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) that is submerged by turbulent transport processes. Langmuir circulation (LC) is a turbulent process driven by wind and surface waves that enhances mixing in the OSBL. Sea surface cooling also contributes to OSBL turbulence by driving convection. On the other hand, sea surface heating stratifies and stabilizes the water column to reduce turbulent motion. We analyze observed MPMD surface concentrations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to reveal a significant increase in MPMD concentrations during surface heating and a decrease during surface cooling. Turbulence resolving large eddy simulations of the OSBL for an idealized diurnal heating cycle suggest that turbulent downward fluxes of buoyant tracers are enhanced at night, facilitating deep submergence of plastics, and suppressed in heating conditions, resulting in surface trapped MPMD. Simulations agree with observations if enhanced mixing due to LC is included. Our results demonstrate the controlling influence of surface heat fluxes and LC on turbulent transport in the OSBL and on vertical distributions of buoyant marine particles.

  6. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Per-Olof

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to the bedrock

  7. Description of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This report describes the modelling of the surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology that was performed for the final site descriptive model of Forsmark produced in the site investigation stage, SDM-Site Forsmark. The comprehensive investigation and monitoring programme forms a strong basis for the developed conceptual and descriptive model of the hydrological and near-surface hydrological system of the site investigation area. However, there are some remaining uncertainties regarding the interaction of deep and near-surface groundwater and surface water of importance for the understanding of the system: The groundwaters in till below Lake Eckarfjaerden, Lake Gaellbotraesket, Lake Fiskarfjaerden and Lake Bolundsfjaerden have high salinities. The hydrological and hydrochemical interpretations indicate that these waters are relict waters of mainly marine origin. From the perspective of the overall water balance, the water below the central parts of the lakes can be considered as stagnant. However, according to the hydrochemical interpretation, these waters also contain weak signatures of deep saline water. Rough chloride budget calculations for the Gaellbotraesket depression also raise the question of a possible upward flow of deep groundwater. No absolute conclusion can be drawn from the existing data analyses regarding the key question of whether there is a small ongoing upward flow of deep saline water. However, Lake Bolundsfjaerden is an exception where the clear downward flow gradient from the till to the bedrock excludes the possibility of an active deep saline source. The available data indicate that there are no discharge areas for flow systems involving deep bedrock groundwater in the northern part of the tectonic lens, where the repository is planned to be located (the so-called 'target area'). However, it can not be excluded that such discharge areas exist. Data indicate that the prevailing downward vertical flow gradients from the QD to

  8. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy of self-organized nanoscale Co islands on Au(111) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteden, K; Muzychenko, D A; Van Haesendonck, C

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic monolayer and bilayer Co islands of only a few nanometer in size were grown by atomic deposition on atomically flat Au(111) films. The islands were studied in situ by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy at low temperatures. Spin-resolved tunneling spectroscopy, using an STM tip with a magnetic coating, revealed that the Co islands exhibit a net magnetization perpendicular to the substrate surface due to the presence of spin-polarized d-states. A random distribution of islands with either upward or downward pointing magnetization was observed, without any specific correlation of magnetization orientation with island size or island height.

  9. Changes in Energy Imbalance at the Ocean Surface during the "hiatus" period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.

    2016-02-01

    Despite the recent slowdown in the rate of surface warming, a general consensus exists, that is, the Earth continues to gain energy and almost all the energy added to the Earth system is accumulated in the oceans. Nevertheless, key issues remain unaddressed regarding the actual energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere and the Earth surface, their changes over time, and their storage and distribution in the oceans. Quantifying and tracking the energy flow through the Earth System require consistent and accurate record of observations, but existing observation platforms contain various degrees of uncertainty. There is a need to cross-validate the energy budget estimates from different resources and from different approaches. In this study, we conducted an assessment of net energy budget at the ocean surface estimated from three general sources, the satellite-based analysis (WHOI OAFlux and NASA CERES), an ocean state estimator (MIT ECCO), and the atmospheric reanalysis products. For the "hiatus" period (2001-2010) in study, all products show that the oceans have been on net energy gain, but the magnitude varies and the differences in the rate of the decadal change in energy imbalance are large. While the reanalysis products show either upward or downward trends, ECCO and OAFlux/CERES indicate that the energy imbalance remains near constant. The downward trend in ERA-Interim started from 2006, driven by a peculiar pattern change in the Pacific. ECCO, which used ERA-Interim as initial surface forcing, corrected the pattern and maintained a near steady rate. ECCO assimilates observations from oceanographic satellites and Argo profiles, while the OAFlux/CERES Qnet were obtained from satellite atmospheric and near-surface observations using no dynamical models but the state-of-the-art flux algorithms and statistical approaches. Given the differences in input data sources and approaches, the agreement between ECCO and OAFlux/CERES is encouraging and instructive.

  10. Characterizing Surface Energy Budget Components in Urban Regions Using Combination of Flux Tower Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Vant-hull, B.; Ramamurthy, P.; Blake, R.; Prakash, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban and built regions because of their lack of surface moisture and their surface impermeability significantly perform differently in surface energy budget than natural and non-urban regions. Characterizing the effect and the response of each surface type in the cities can help to increase our understanding of climate, anthropogenic heat, and urban heat islands. Both ground observations and remote sensing observations are important when the extent of the heat energy balance components in big cities is targeted. This is study aims to provide a novel approach to use ground observations and map the maxima and minima air temperature in New York City using satellite measurements. Complete energy balance stations are installed over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops. The footprint of these stations is restricted to the individual materials. The energy balance stations monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Moreover, satellite observations from Landsat 8 are utilized to classify the city surfaces to distinct defined surfaces where ground observations were performed. The mapped temperatures will be linked to MODIS surface temperatures to develop a model that can downscale MODIS skin temperatures to fine resolution air temperature over urban regions. The results are compared with ground observations, which they reveal a great potential of using synergetic use of flux tower observations and satellite measurement to study urban surface energy budget. The results of this study can enhance our understanding about urban heat islands as well as climate studies and their effects on the environment.

  11. Final Report for “Simulating the Arctic Winter Longwave Indirect Effects. A New Parameterization for Frost Flower Aerosol Salt Emissions” (DESC0006679) for 9/15/2011 through 9/14/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lynn M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Somerville, Richard C.J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Burrows, Susannah [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rasch, Phil [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-12

    Description of the Project: This project has improved the aerosol formulation in a global climate model by using innovative new field and laboratory observations to develop and implement a novel wind-driven sea ice aerosol flux parameterization. This work fills a critical gap in the understanding of clouds, aerosol, and radiation in polar regions by addressing one of the largest missing particle sources in aerosol-climate modeling. Recent measurements of Arctic organic and inorganic aerosol indicate that the largest source of natural aerosol during the Arctic winter is emitted from crystal structures, known as frost flowers, formed on a newly frozen sea ice surface [Shaw et al., 2010]. We have implemented the new parameterization in an updated climate model making it the first capable of investigating how polar natural aerosol-cloud indirect effects relate to this important and previously unrecognized sea ice source. The parameterization is constrained by Arctic ARM in situ cloud and radiation data. The modified climate model has been used to quantify the potential pan-Arctic radiative forcing and aerosol indirect effects due to this missing source. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Li Xu) for two years and contributed to the training and research of an undergraduate student. This research allowed us to establish a collaboration between SIO and PNNL in order to contribute the frost flower parameterization to the new ACME model. One peer-reviewed publications has already resulted from this work, and a manuscript for a second publication has been completed. Additional publications from the PNNL collaboration are expected to follow.

  12. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  13. Temperate forest impacts on maritime snowpacks across an elevation gradient: An assessment of the snow surface energy balance and airborne lidar derived forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T. R.; Nolin, A. W.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate forests modify snow evolution patterns both spatially and temporally relative to open areas. Dense, warm forests both impede snow accumulation through increased canopy snow interception and increase sub-canopy longwave energy inputs onto the snow surface. These process modifications vary in magnitude and duration depending on climatic, topographic and forest characteristics. Here we present results from a four year study of paired forested and open sites at three elevations, Low - 1150 m, Mid - 1325 m and High - 1465 m. Snowpacks are deeper and last up to 3-4 weeks longer at the Low and Mid elevation Open sites relative to the adjacent Forest sites. Conversely, at the High Forest site, snow is retained 2-4 weeks longer than the Open site. This change in snowpack depth and persistence is attributed to deposition patterns at higher elevations and forest structure differences that alter the canopy interception efficiency and the sub-canopy energy balance. Canopy interception efficiency (CIE) in the Low and Mid Forest sites, over the duration of the study were 79% and 76% of the total event snowfall, whereas CIE was 31% at the High Forest site. Longwave radiation in forested environments is the primary energy component across each elevation band due to the warm winter environment and forest presence, accounting for 82%, 88%, and 59% of the energy balance at the Low, Mid, and High Forest sites, respectively. High wind speeds in the High elevation Open site significantly increases the turbulent energy and creates preferential snowfall deposition in the nearby Forest site. These results show the importance of understanding the effects of forest cover on sub-canopy snowpack evolution and highlight the need for improved forest cover model representation to accurately predict water resources in maritime forests.

  14. Trend and Variability of China Precipitation in Spring and Summer: Linkage to Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fanglin; Lau, K.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Observational records in the past 50 years show an upward trend of boreal-summer precipitation over central eastern China and a downward trend over northern China. During boreal spring, the trend is upward over southeastern China and downward over central eastern China. This study explores the forcing mechanism of these trends in association with the global sea-surface temperature (SST) variations on the interannual and inter-decadal timescales. Results based on Singular Value Decomposition analyses (SVD) show that the interannual variability of China precipitation in boreal spring and summer can be well defined by two centers of actions for each season, which are co-varying with two interannual modes of SSTs. The first SVD modes of precipitation in spring and summer, which are centered in southeastern China and northern China, respectively, are linked to an ENSO-like mode of SSTs. The second SVD modes of precipitation in both seasons are confined to central eastern China, and are primarily linked to SST variations over the warm pool and Indian Ocean. Features of the anomalous 850-hPa winds and 700-Wa geopotential height corresponding to these modes support a physical mechanism that explains the causal links between the modal variations of precipitation and SSTs. On the decadal and longer timescale, similar causal links are found between the same modes of precipitation and SSTs, except for the case of springtime precipitation over central eastern China. For this case, while the interannual mode of precipitation is positively correlated with the interannual variations of SSTs over the warm pool and Indian Ocean; the inter-decadal mode is negatively correlated with a different SST mode, the North Pacific mode. The later is responsible for the observed downward trend of springtime precipitation over central eastern China. For all other cases, both the interannual and inter-decadal variations of precipitation can be explained by the same mode of SSTs. The upward trend

  15. Nanoparticle motion on the surface of drying droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Advances in solution-based printing and surface patterning techniques for additive manufacturing demand a clear understanding of particle dynamics in drying colloidal droplets and its relationship with deposit structure. Although the evaporation-driven deposition has been studied thoroughly for the particles dispersed in the bulk of the droplet, few investigations have focused on the particles strongly adsorbed to the droplet surface. We modeled the assembly and deposition of the surface-active particles in a drying sessile droplet with a pinned contact line by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann-Brownian dynamics method. The particle trajectory and its area density profile characterize the assembly dynamics and deposition pattern development during evaporation. While the bulk-dispersed particles continuously move to the contact line, forming the typical "coffee-ring" deposit, the interface-bound particles migrate first toward the apex and then to the contact line as the droplet dries out. To understand this unexpected behavior, we resolve the droplet velocity field both in the bulk and within the interfacial region. The simulation results agree well with the analytical solution for the Stokes flow inside an evaporating droplet. At different stages of evaporation, our study reveals that the competition between the tangential surface flow and the downward motion of the evaporating liquid-vapor interface governs the dynamics of the interface-bound particles. In particular, the interface displacement contributes to the particle motion toward the droplet apex in a short phase, while the outward advective flow prevails at the late stage of drying and carries the particles to the contact line. The final deposit of the surface-adsorbed particles exhibits a density enhancement at the center, in addition to a coffee ring. Despite its small influence on the final deposit in the present study, the distinct dynamics of surface-active particles due to the interfacial confinement

  16. The Warming of Large Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence From a Lake Model Simulation of Nam Co, China, During 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wang, Junbo; Zhu, Liping; Ju, Jianting; Daut, Gerhard

    2017-12-01

    Lakes are considered as indicators of climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In the present study, we use the General Lake Model to simulate water temperature changes in Nam Co, the second largest lake on the central TP, for the period 1979-2012. The calibration and validation results demonstrate that this model is well suited for thermal simulation of Nam Co. The simulation results indicate that Nam Co has responded to the recent warming climate. The average summer surface water temperature fluctuated yearly, but its trend is positive at a rate of 0.52 ± 0.25°C per decade. At the same time, the onset of summer stratification advanced by 4.20 ± 2.02 d per decade, and the duration increased at a rate of 6.00 ± 3.54 d per decade. To explore the roles of air temperature and longwave radiation in lake warming, three sensitivity experiments are conducted by removing long-term trends from time series of air temperature and longwave radiation in the forcing data. These experiments prove that both increased air temperature and downward longwave radiation are two driving factors responsible for the warming of Nam Co.

  17. An Overview of the Naval Research Laboratory Ocean Surface Flux (NFLUX) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J. C.; Rowley, C. D.; Barron, C. N.

    2016-02-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) ocean surface flux (NFLUX) system is an end-to-end data processing and assimilation system used to provide near-real time satellite-based surface heat flux fields over the global ocean. Swath-level air temperature (TA), specific humidity (QA), and wind speed (WS) estimates are produced using multiple polynomial regression algorithms with inputs from satellite sensor data records from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A, the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 sensors. Swath-level WS estimates are also retrieved from satellite environmental data records from WindSat, the MetOp scatterometers, and the Oceansat scatterometer. Swath-level solar and longwave radiative flux estimates are produced utilizing the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Global Circulation Models (RRTMG). Primary inputs to the RRTMG include temperature and moisture profiles and cloud liquid and ice water paths from the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System. All swath-level satellite estimates undergo an automated quality control process and are then assimilated with atmospheric model forecasts to produce 3-hourly gridded analysis fields. The turbulent heat flux fields, latent and sensible heat flux, are determined from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.0 bulk algorithms using inputs of TA, QA, WS, and a sea surface temperature model field. Quality-controlled in situ observations over a one-year time period from May 2013 through April 2014 form the reference for validating ocean surface state parameter and heat flux fields. The NFLUX fields are evaluated alongside the Navy's operational global atmospheric model, the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM). NFLUX is shown to have smaller biases and lower or similar root mean square errors compared to NAVGEM.

  18. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  19. Artificial Intelligence Mechanisms on Interactive Modified Simplex Method with Desirability Function for Optimising Surface Lapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchanun Luangpaiboon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made to optimise the influential parameters of surface lapping process. Lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure were chosen from the preliminary studies as parameters to determine process performances in terms of material removal, lap width, and clamp force. The desirability functions of the-nominal-the-best were used to compromise multiple responses into the overall desirability function level or D response. The conventional modified simplex or Nelder-Mead simplex method and the interactive desirability function are performed to optimise online the parameter levels in order to maximise the D response. In order to determine the lapping process parameters effectively, this research then applies two powerful artificial intelligence optimisation mechanisms from harmony search and firefly algorithms. The recommended condition of (lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure at (33, 35, 6.0, and 5.0 has been verified by performing confirmation experiments. It showed that the D response level increased to 0.96. When compared with the current operating condition, there is a decrease of the material removal and lap width with the improved process performance indices of 2.01 and 1.14, respectively. Similarly, there is an increase of the clamp force with the improved process performance index of 1.58.

  20. On surface approximation using developable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. Y.; Lee, I. K.; Leopoldseder, s.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a method for approximating a given surface by a developable surface. It will be either a G(1) surface consisting of pieces of cones or cylinders of revolution or a G(r) NURBS developable surface. Our algorithm will also deal properly with the problems of reverse engineering and produ...... robust approximation of given scattered data. The presented technique can be applied in computer aided manufacturing, e.g. in shipbuilding. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  1. On surface approximation using developable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. Y.; Lee, I. K.; Leopoldseder, S.

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a method for approximating a given surface by a developable surface. It will be either a G_1 surface consisting of pieces of cones or cylinders of revolution or a G_r NURBS developable surface. Our algorithm will also deal properly with the problems of reverse engineering and produce...... robust approximation of given scattered data. The presented technique can be applied in computer aided manufacturing, e.g. in shipbuilding....

  2. Assessment of SNPP VIIRS VIS NIR Radiometric Calibration Stability Using Aqua MODIS and Invariant Surface Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Cao, Changyong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. As a primary sensor, it collects imagery and radiometric measurements of the land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans in the spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared. NASA's National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) VIIRS Characterization Support Team has been actively involved in the VIIRS radiometric and geometric calibration to support its Science Team Principal Investigators for their independent quality assessment of VIIRS Environmental Data Records. This paper presents the performance assessment of the radiometric calibration stability of the VIIRS VIS and NIR spectral bands using measurements from SNPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS simultaneous nadir overpasses and over the invariant surface targets at the Libya-4 desert and Antarctic Dome Concordia snow sites. The VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) used in this paper are reprocessed by the NASA SNPP Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element. This paper shows that the reprocessed VIIRS SDRs have been consistently calibrated from the beginning of the mission, and the calibration stability is similar to or better than MODIS. Results from different approaches indicate that the calibrations of the VIIRS VIS and NIR spectral bands are maintained to be stable to within 1% over the first three-year mission. The absolute calibration differences between VIIRS and MODIS are within 2%, with an exception for the 0.865-m band, after correction of their spectral response differences.

  3. A Smart Irrigation Approach Aided by Monitoring Surface Soil Moisture using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienhold, K. J.; Li, D.; Fang, N. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical component in the optimization of irrigation scheduling in water resources management. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) equipped with multispectral sensors represent an emerging technology capable of detecting and estimating soil moisture for irrigation and crop management. This study demonstrates a method of using a UAV as an optical and thermal remote sensing platform combined with genetic programming to derive high-resolution, surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates. The objective is to evaluate the feasibility of spatially-variable irrigation management for a golf course (about 50 acres) in North Central Texas. Multispectral data is collected over the course of one month in the visible, near infrared and longwave infrared spectrums using a UAV capable of rapid and safe deployment for daily estimates. The accuracy of the model predictions is quantified using a time domain reflectometry (TDR) soil moisture sensor and a holdout validation test set. The model produces reasonable estimates for SSM with an average coefficient of correlation (r) = 0.87 and coefficient of determination of (R2) = 0.76. The study suggests that the derived SSM estimates be used to better inform irrigation scheduling decisions for lightly vegetated areas such as the turf or native roughs found on golf courses.

  4. Study of Volcanic Activity at Different Time Scales Using Hypertemporal Land Surface Temperature Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Efthymia; Hecker, Christoph; van der Werff, Harald; van der Meijde, Mark

    2017-10-01

    We apply a method for detecting subtle spatiotemporal signal fluctuations to monitor volcanic activity. Whereas midwave infrared data are commonly used for volcanic hot spot detection, our approach utilizes hypertemporal longwave infrared-based land surface temperature (LST) data. Using LST data of the second-generation European Meteorological Satellites, we study (a) a paroxysmal, 1 day long eruption of Mount Etna (Italy); (b) a prolonged, 6 month period of effusive and lateral lava flows of the Nyamuragira volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo); and (c) intermittent activity in the permanent lava lake of Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo) over a period of 2 years (2011-2012). We compare our analysis with published ground-based observations and satellite-based alert systems; results agree on the periods of increased volcanic activity and quiescence. We further apply our analysis on mid-infrared and long-infrared brightness temperatures and compare the results. We conclude that our study enables the use of LST data for monitoring volcanic dynamics at different time scales, can complement existing methodologies, and allows for use of long time series from older sensors that do not provide midwave infrared data.

  5. Diffusion Filters for Variational Data Assimilation of Sea Surface Temperature in an Intermediate Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential, adaptive, and gradient diffusion filters are implemented into spatial multiscale three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR as alternative schemes to model background error covariance matrix for the commonly used correction scale method, recursive filter method, and sequential 3DVAR. The gradient diffusion filter (GDF is verified by a two-dimensional sea surface temperature (SST assimilation experiment. Compared to the existing DF, the new GDF scheme shows a superior performance in the assimilation experiment due to its success in extracting the spatial multiscale information. The GDF can retrieve successfully the longwave information over the whole analysis domain and the shortwave information over data-dense regions. After that, a perfect twin data assimilation experiment framework is designed to study the effect of the GDF on the state estimation based on an intermediate coupled model. In this framework, the assimilation model is subject to “biased” initial fields from the “truth” model. While the GDF reduces the model bias in general, it can enhance the accuracy of the state estimation in the region that the observations are removed, especially in the South Ocean. In addition, the higher forecast skill can be obtained through the better initial state fields produced by the GDF.

  6. Effects of surface active agents on DNAPL migration and distribution in saturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhou; Gao, Bin; Xu, Hongxia; Sun, Yuanyuan; Shi, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jichun

    2016-11-15

    Dissolved surface active agents such as surfactant and natural organic matter can affect the distribution and fate of dense nonaqueous liquids (DNAPLs) in soil and groundwater systems. This work investigated how two common groundwater surface active agents, humic acid (HA) and Tween 80, affected tetrachloroethylene (PCE) migration and source zone architecture in saturated porous media under environmentally relevant conditions. Batch experiments were first conducted to measure the contact angles and interfacial tensions (IFT) between PCE and quartz surface in water containing different amount of surface active agents. Results showed that the contact angle increased and IFT decreased with concentration of surface active agent increasing, and Tween 80 was much more effective than HA. Five 2-D flow cell experiments were then conducted. Correspondingly, Tween 80 showed strong effects on the migration and distribution of PCE in the porous media due to its ability to change the medium wettability from water-wet into intermediate/NAPL-wet. The downward migration velocities of the PCE in three Tween 80 cells were slower than those in the other two cells. In addition, the final saturation of the PCE in the cells containing surface active agents was higher than that in the water-only cell. Results from this work indicate that the presence of surface active agents in groundwater may strongly affect the fate and distribution of DNAPL through altering porous medium wettability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parametrization of translational surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Diaz, Sonia; Shen, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic translational surface is a typical modeling surface in computer aided design and architecture industry. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for that algebraic surface having a standard parametric representation and our proof is constructive. If the given algebraic surface is translational, then we can compute a standard parametric representation for the surface.

  8. The Validation of the GEWEX SRB Surface Shortwave Flux Data Products Using BSRN Measurements: A Systematic Quality Control, Production and Application Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous record of global shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 11 latitude11 longitude. The inputs of the latest version (Release 3.0) include the GEOS Version 4.0.3 meteorological information and cloud properties derived from ISCCP DX data. The SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly time scales. To assess the quality of the product, we extensively validated the SRB data against 5969 site-months of groundbased measurements from 52 Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations. This paper describes first the characteristics of the BSRN data and the GEWEX SRB data, the methodology for quality control and processing of the shortwave BSRN data, and then the systematic SRB-BSRN comparisons. It is found that, except for occasional extreme outliers as seen in scatter plots, the satellite-based surface radiation data generally agree very well with BSRN measurements. Specifically, the bias/RMS for the daily and monthly mean shortwave fluxes are, respectively, -3.6/35.5 and -5.2/23.3W1 m2 under all-sky conditions.

  9. Modeling of the cloud and radiation processes observed during SHEBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ping; Girard, Eric; Bertram, Allan K.; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2011-09-01

    Six microphysics schemes implemented in the climate version of the Environment Canada's Global Multiscale Environmental (GEM) model are used to simulate the cloud and radiation processes observed during Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) field experiment. The simplest microphysics scheme (SUN) has one prognostic variable: the total cloud water content. The second microphysics scheme (MLO) has 12 prognostic variables. The four other microphysics schemes are modified versions of MLO. A new parameterization for heterogeneous ice nucleation based on laboratory experiments is included in these versions of MLO. One is for uncoated ice nuclei (ML-NAC) and another is for sulfuric acid coated ice nuclei (ML-AC). ML-AC and ML-NAC have been developed to distinguish non-polluted and polluted air masses, the latter being common over the Arctic during winter and spring. A sensitivity study, in which the dust concentration is reduced by a factor 5, is also performed to assess the sensitivity of the results to the dust concentration in ML-AC-test and ML-NAC-test. Results show that SUN, ML-AC and ML-AC-test reproduce quite well the downward longwave radiation and cloud radiative forcing during the cold season. The good results obtained with SUN are due to compensating errors. It overestimates cloud fraction and underestimates cloud liquid water path during winter. ML-AC and ML-AC-test reproduces quite well all these variables and their relationships. MLO, ML-NAC and ML-NAC-test underestimate the cloud liquid water path and cloud fraction during the cold season, which leads to an underestimation of the downward longwave radiation at surface. During summer, all versions of the model underestimate the downward shortwave radiation at surface. ML-AC and ML-NAC overestimate the total cloud water during the warm season, however, they reproduce relatively well the relationships between cloud radiative forcing and cloud microstructure, which is not the case for the most simple

  10. Experimental study of gas entrainment from surface swirl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moudjed, B., E-mail: brahim.moudjed@cea.fr; Excoffon, J.; Riva, R.; Rossi, L., E-mail: lionel.rossi@cea.fr

    2016-12-15

    Gas entrainment from surface swirls is characterized using water experiments. A free surface shear flow is generated in an open channel flow. A suction nozzle is set at the bottom of the test section to induce a downward flow and provoke gas entrainment. An important originality of these experiments is the possibility to change the inlet condition so as to generate different turbulent shear flows. This is done by adding obstacles of different sizes and shapes at the end of a flat plate separating the inlet flow from a “stagnant” water area. Velocity fields and profiles, measured with the PIV technique, are provided both to describe the inlet conditions corresponding to various geometries and flow rates, and to characterize the temporal average shear flow generated within the centre part of the channel. Gas entrainment mappings are established from direct observations of the different flow configurations. These new results show that the threshold for the suction velocities required to entrain gas are similar for the configurations with small obstacles and the flat plate configuration triggering a standard shear flow. Increasing the size of the obstacles promotes gas entrainment and reduces the threshold values of the suction velocity to trigger gas entrainment. Shadowgraphy with image processing is used to present new results characterizing the geometrical properties of surface swirls and the quantity of gas entrained. Inlet configurations with obstacles generate larger surface swirls which move upstream from the suction nozzle centre whereas they are situated downstream with the flat plate configuration. Moreover, dimensionless power laws are found to be good approximations for the surface swirl width and the quantity of gas entrained. In addition to provide new insights about gas entrainment in analytical configurations relevant to Sodium cooled fast nuclear reactor, these results should provide different test cases for the validation of MCFD codes.

  11. Absorption of solar energy heats up our planet's surface and the atmosphere and makes life for us po

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Credit: Image courtesy Barbara Summey, NASA Goddard Visualization Analysis Lab, based upon data processed by Takmeng Wong, CERES Science Team, NASA Langley Research Center Satellite: Terra Sensor: CERES Image Date: 09-30-2001 VE Record ID: 11546 Description: Absorption of solar energy heats up our planet's surface and the atmosphere and makes life for us possible. But the energy cannot stay bound up in the Earth's environment forever. If it did then the Earth would be as hot as the Sun. Instead, as the surface and the atmosphere warm, they emit thermal longwave radiation, some of which escapes into space and allows the Earth to cool. This false-color image of the Earth was produced on September 30, 2001, by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows where more or less heat, in the form of longwave radiation, is emanating from the top of Earth's atmosphere. As one can see in the image, the thermal radiation leaving the oceans is fairly uniform. The blue swaths across the central Pacific represent thick clouds, the tops of which are so high they are among the coldest places on Earth. In the American Southwest, which can be seen in the upper righthand corner of the globe, there is often little cloud cover to block outgoing radiation and relatively little water to absorb solar energy. Consequently, the amount of outgoing radiation in the American Southwest exceeds that of the oceans. Also, that region was experiencing an extreme heatwave when these data were acquired. Recently, NASA researchers discovered that incoming solar radiation and outgoing thermal radiation increased in the tropics from the 1980s to the 1990s. (Click to read the press release .) They believe that the reason for the unexpected increase has to do with an apparent change in circulation patterns around the globe, which effectively reduced the amount of water vapor and cloud cover in the upper reaches of the atmosphere

  12. Butalbital and pediatric headache: stay off the downward path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alessandra; Lazdowsky, Lori; Rabner, Jonathan; Haberman, Jason; LeBel, Alyssa

    2015-02-01

    Despite limited evidence from the literature surrounding safety or efficacy, butalbital-containing medicines (BCMs) have maintained their rank as "go-to" prescribed migraine and headache relief drugs in the United States, despite bans on these barbiturates in Germany and other European countries. Providers at the Pediatric Headache Program at Boston Children's Hospital recommend that clinicians prescribe triptan-based medications instead of BCMs, given the known negative side effects of BCMs on the general population, and the uncertain longitudinal trajectory of BCMs on developing brains. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  13. The Demand Curves for Giffen Goods Are Downward Sloping.

    OpenAIRE

    Barzel, Yoram; Suen, Wing

    1992-01-01

    Consumers' optimal consumption strategy in anticipation of price variations is to equalize the marginal utility of income across different price regimes. Since the marginal utility of income is positively related to the price of a Giffen good, consumers will adopt a consumption plan (through saving and borrowing, insurance, or an appropriate choice of portfolio) that allows them to increase total expenditure when the Giffen good is relatively expensive and to reduce total expenditure when the...

  14. Multi-model prediction of downward short-wave radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Krč, Pavel; Juruš, Pavel; Pelikán, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2012), EMS2012-384 [EMS Annual Meeting /12./ and European Conference on Applied Climatology /9./. 10.09.2012-14.09.2012, Lodz] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : multi-model prediction * NWP * model postprocessing Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  15. Karakteristik Preliminary Breakdown Petir Downward Leader Sebelum Sambaran Negatif Pertama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulka Hendri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A hundred lightning flash was observed in Padang city, West Sumatera at January until Mei 2013. The lightning that use to analyze is proceeding with preliminary breakdown pulse (PBP train and followed by first negative return stroke (RS. Fast antenna capacitive was used to record electric field that produced of lightning flash. PBP-RS separation and pre-return stroke duration was used to analyze. Arithmetic and geometric mean of PPB-RS separation is 50,62ms and 31,73ms respectively. Arithmetic and geometric mean of pre-return stroke duration is 54,44ms and 33,92ms respectively. We have find two type of preliminary breakdown pulse train are; (1 the pulse train that dominant positive pulse at first half cycle (2 the pulse train that dominant negative pulse at first half cycle. The first type of pulse train have the PPB-RS separation and pre-return stroke duration that longer than the second type. The place that near with equator have PPB-RS separation and pre-return stroke duration that longer than the place far from equator (this conclusion we get from compare the result of our research with the result that produce from the other previous researchers.

  16. Tubeworm May Live Longer by Cycling Its Sulfur Downward

    OpenAIRE

    Cordes, Erik E; Arthur, Michael A; Shea, Katriona; Arvidson, Rolf S; Fisher, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The deep-sea vestimentiferan tubeworm Lamellibrachia luymesi forms large aggregations at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico that may persist for over 250 y. Here, we present the results of a diagenetic model in which tubeworm aggregation persistence is achieved through augmentation of the supply of sulfate to hydrocarbon seep sediments. In the model, L. luymesi releases the sulfate generated by its internal, chemoautotrophic, sulfide-oxidizing symbionts through posterior root-like extens...

  17. Sperm quality in New Zealand: Is the downward trend continuing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Mary A; Peek, John; Valiapan, Sumithra

    2015-10-16

    To investigate whether the decline in sperm concentration in New Zealand sperm donors observed from 1987 to 2007 continued in the period 2008-2014. A retrospective study from 2008 to 2014. The first semen sample of 285 men presenting as sperm donors in Auckland and Wellington was analysed for sperm concentration, seminal fluid volume and the percentage of motile sperm. These results were compared to results from 1987 to 2007 from the same clinics. The decline in semen volume and sperm concentration observed between 1987 and 2007 did not continue in 2008-2014. Sperm concentration decreased from 1987 until some time between 1997 and 2001, and has remained stable at an average of 62x106/ml between 2001 and 2014. Sperm motility declined significantly (8%) in the period 2008-2014, but there was no significant change over the total period studied, between 1987 and 2014. After a decline between 1987 and sometime during 1997-2001, the sperm concentration in men presenting as donors remained unchanged between 2002 and 2014, suggesting semen quality has not changed in New Zealand men over the last decade.

  18. Downward transfer of a sub-cooled cryoliquid

    CERN Document Server

    Wertelaers, P

    2016-01-01

    An alternative is proposed to the traditional transfer of a cryo fluid in gaseous -- and warm -- form, a method of low productivity and high energy cost. In order to prevent the much-feared geysering, focus is on sub-cooling of the liquid, and the safe maintaining of such state all along the journey. A cryogenic transfer line of simplest construction is proposed, and the difficulties with such line extending over a transfer depth of the order of the kilometre, are discussed.

  19. Ion cyclotron harmonics in the Saturn downward current auroral region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menietti, J. D.; Schippers, P.; Santolík, Ondřej; Gurnett, D. A.; Crary, F.; Coates, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2011), A12234/1-A12234/6 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : ELECTRON-BEAMS * WAVES * WAVES * PRECIPITATION * PLASMA * ASSOCIATION Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2011JA017102.shtml

  20. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  1. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Selective surfaces have wavelength dependent emissivity/absorption. These surfaces can be designed to reflect solar radiation, while maximizing infrared emittance,...

  2. Characterization of solid surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, Philip F; Larrabee, Graydon B

    1974-01-01

    .... A comprehensive review of surface analysis, this important volume surveys both principles and techniques of surface characterization, describes instrumentation, and suggests the course of future research...

  3. Comparative Assessment of Satellite-Retrieved Surface Net Radiation: An Examination on CERES and SRB Datasets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface net radiation plays an important role in land–atmosphere interactions. The net radiation can be retrieved from satellite radiative products, yet its accuracy needs comprehensive assessment. This study evaluates monthly surface net radiation generated from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES and the Surface Radiation Budget project (SRB products, respectively, with quality-controlled radiation data from 50 meteorological stations in China for the period from March 2000 to December 2007. Our results show that surface net radiation is generally overestimated for CERES (SRB, with a bias of 26.52 W/m2 (18.57 W/m2 and a root mean square error of 34.58 W/m2 (29.49 W/m2. Spatially, the satellite-retrieved monthly mean of surface net radiation has relatively small errors for both CERES and SRB at inland sites in south China. Substantial errors are found at northeastern sites for two datasets, in addition to coastal sites for CERES. Temporally, multi-year averaged monthly mean errors are large at sites in western China in spring and summer, and in northeastern China in spring and winter. The annual mean error fluctuates for SRB, but decreases for CERES between 2000 and 2007. For CERES, 56% of net radiation errors come from net shortwave (NSW radiation and 44% from net longwave (NLW radiation. The errors are attributable to environmental parameters including surface albedo, surface water vapor pressure, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI of land surface proxy, and visibility for CERES. For SRB, 65% of the errors come from NSW and 35% from NLW radiation. The major influencing factors in a descending order are surface water vapor pressure, surface albedo, land surface temperature, NDVI, and visibility. Our findings offer an insight into error patterns in satellite-retrieved surface net radiation and should be valuable to improving retrieval accuracy of surface net radiation. Moreover, our

  4. Observational estimation of radiative feedback to surface air temperature over Northern High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jiwon; Choi, Yong-Sang; Kim, WonMoo; Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan H.

    2018-01-01

    The high-latitude climate system contains complicated, but largely veiled physical feedback processes. Climate predictions remain uncertain, especially for the Northern High Latitudes (NHL; north of 60°N), and observational constraint on climate modeling is vital. This study estimates local radiative feedbacks for NHL based on the CERES/Terra satellite observations during March 2000-November 2014. The local shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative feedback parameters are calculated from linear regression of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere on surface air temperatures. These parameters are estimated by the de-seasonalization and 12-month moving average of the radiative fluxes over NHL. The estimated magnitudes of the SW and the LW radiative feedbacks in NHL are 1.88 ± 0.73 and 2.38 ± 0.59 W m-2 K-1, respectively. The parameters are further decomposed into individual feedback components associated with surface albedo, water vapor, lapse rate, and clouds, as a product of the change in climate variables from ERA-Interim reanalysis estimates and their pre-calculated radiative kernels. The results reveal the significant role of clouds in reducing the surface albedo feedback (1.13 ± 0.44 W m-2 K-1 in the cloud-free condition, and 0.49 ± 0.30 W m-2 K-1 in the all-sky condition), while the lapse rate feedback is predominant in LW radiation (1.33 ± 0.18 W m-2 K-1). However, a large portion of the local SW and LW radiative feedbacks were not simply explained by the sum of these individual feedbacks.

  5. Open algebraic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  6. Early stages of Cs adsorption mechanism for GaAs nanowire surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yu; Liu, Lei; Xia, Sihao; Feng, Shu

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the adsorption mechanism of Cs adatoms on the (100) surface of GaAs nanowire with [0001] growth direction is investigated utilizing first principles method based on density function theory. The adsorption energy, work function, atomic structure and electronic property of clean surface and Cs-covered surfaces with different coverage are discussed. Results show that when only one Cs is adsorbed on the surface, the most favorable adsorption site is BGa-As. With increasing Cs coverage, work function gradually decreases and gets its minimum at 0.75 ML, then rises slightly when Cs coverage comes to 1 ML, indicating the existence of 'Cs-kill' phenomenon. According to further analysis, Cs activation process can effectively reduce the work function due to the formation of a downward band bending region and surface dipole moment directing from Cs adatom to the surface. As Cs coverage increases, the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum both shift towards lower energy side, contributed by the orbital hybridization between Cs-5s, Cs-5p states and Ga-4p, As-4s, As-4p states near Fermi level. The theoretical calculations and analysis in this study can improve the Cs activation technology for negative electron affinity optoelectronic devices based on GaAs nanowires, and also provide a reference for the further Cs/O or Cs/NF3 activation process.

  7. Spatial distribution of potential near surface moisture flux at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    An estimate of the areal distribution of present-day surface liquid moisture flux at Yucca Mountain was made using field measured water contents and laboratory measured rock properties. Using available data for physical and hydrologic properties (porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention functions) of the volcanic rocks, surface lithologic units that are hydrologically similar were delineated. Moisture retention and relative permeability functions were assigned to each surface unit based on the similarity of the mean porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the surface unit to laboratory samples of the same lithology. The potential flux into the mountain was estimated for each surface hydrologic unit using the mean saturated hydraulic conductivity for each unit and assuming all matrix flow. Using measured moisture profiles for each of the surface units, estimates were made of the depth at which seasonal fluctuations diminish and steady state downward flux conditions are likely to exist. The hydrologic properties at that depth were used with the current relative saturation of the tuff, to estimate flux as the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This method assumes a unit gradient. The range in estimated flux was 0.02 mm/yr for the welded Tiva Canyon to 13.4 mm/yr for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff. The areally averaged flux was 1.4 mm/yr. The major zones of high flux occur to the north of the potential repository boundary where the nonwelded tuffs are exposed in the major drainages

  8. Spatial distribution of potential near surface moisture flux at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    An estimate of the areal distribution of present-day surface liquid moisture flux at Yucca Mountain was made using field measured water contents and laboratory measured rock properties. Using available data for physical and hydrologic properties (porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity moisture retention functions) of the volcanic rocks, surface lithologic units that are hydrologically similar were delineated. Moisture retention and relative permeability functions were assigned to each surface unit based on the similarity of the mean porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the surface unit to laboratory samples of the same lithology. The potential flux into the mountain was estimated for each surface hydrologic unit using the mean saturated hydraulic conductivity for each unit and assuming all matrix flow. Using measured moisture profiles for each of the surface units, estimates were made of the depth at which seasonal fluctuations diminish and steady state downward flux conditions are likely to exist. The hydrologic properties at that depth were used with the current relative saturation of the tuff, to estimate flux as the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This method assumes a unit gradient. The range in estimated flux was 0.02 mm/yr for the welded Tiva Canyon to 13.4 mm/yr for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff. The areally averaged flux was 1.4 mm/yr. The major zones of high flux occur to the north of the potential repository boundary where the nonwelded tuffs are exposed in the major drainages

  9. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Gaustad, Krista L.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Long, Charles N.; Delamere, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  10. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Gaustad, K. L.; Mlawer, E. J.; Long, C. N.; Delamere, J.

    2011-09-01

    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  11. Long-wave Infrared Detectors for the Planetary Infrared Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the role of primitive bodies as building blocks for planets and life are key targets for space exploration. Chemical and mineralogical...

  12. Comparison on micrometeorology and surface energy fluxes between debris-free and debris-covered glaciers in the southeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Yongjie

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of meteorology and energy fluxes on the debris-free and debris-covered glacier is important for understanding how different glaciers behaviors heterogeneous to regional climate change. Based on the observations during 2016 ablation season at the debris-free Parlung No.4 Glacier and the debris-covered 24K Glacier in southeast Tibetan Plateau, a comparative analysis was made to shed light on the micrometeorology and surface energy fluxes and to gain knowledge about the influencing factors controlling melting process at different type glaciers. The meteorological correlations showed that the variables including air temperature, relative humidity and incoming longwave radiation (Lin) display a regionally synchronous pattern, but there are notable differences in precipitation, incoming shortwave radiation (Sin) and wind speed between two glaciers. The most striking is the difference in precipitation, with 5 times larger in the 24K Glacier. The energy fluxes between two glaciers display contrasting pattern due to different surface conditions and monsoonal precipitation. More Sin was absorbed due to lower debris albedo (0.05) In spite of same amount of total Sin and more Lin (W/m2 larger) was supplied from warm and humidity air at the 24K Glacier. However, such excess energy supply was mainly used to warm the debris temperature, leading to the increase of energy output by outgoing longwave radiation and turbulent heat fluxes, rather than glacier melting. These energy outputs are very sensitive to the debris thickness in which is less than 10 cm and the amount of Sin, leading to significant spatial change of underneath ice melting magnitude. At the debris-free surface at AWS of Parlung No.4 Glacier, surface melting is mainly supplied by net shortwave radiation and turbulent sensible heat fluxes (Hse). Comparing with energy fluxes in 2009, the reduced melting energy in 2016 on the debris-free Parlung No.4 Glacier is attributed to the decrease of Sin and Hse by

  13. Surfaces with Natural Ridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Markvorsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    We discuss surfaces with singularities, both in mathematics and in the real world. For many types of mathematical surface, singularities are natural and can be regarded as part of the surface. The most emblematic example is that of surfaces of constant negative Gauss curvature, all of which neces...

  14. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 4; Determination of surface and atmosphere fluxes and temporally and spatially averaged products (subsystems 5-12); Determination of surface and atmosphere fluxes and temporally and spatially averaged products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, David R.

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 4 details the advanced CERES techniques for computing surface and atmospheric radiative fluxes (using the coincident CERES cloud property and top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux products) and for averaging the cloud properties and TOA, atmospheric, and surface radiative fluxes over various temporal and spatial scales. CERES attempts to match the observed TOA fluxes with radiative transfer calculations that use as input the CERES cloud products and NOAA National Meteorological Center analyses of temperature and humidity. Slight adjustments in the cloud products are made to obtain agreement of the calculated and observed TOA fluxes. The computed products include shortwave and longwave fluxes from the surface to the TOA. The CERES instantaneous products are averaged on a 1.25-deg latitude-longitude grid, then interpolated to produce global, synoptic maps to TOA fluxes and cloud properties by using 3-hourly, normalized radiances from geostationary meteorological satellites. Surface and atmospheric fluxes are computed by using these interpolated quantities. Clear-sky and total fluxes and cloud properties are then averaged over various scales.

  15. Kaguya observations of the lunar wake in the terrestrial foreshock: Surface potential change by bow-shock reflected ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Harada, Yuki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2017-09-01

    There forms a tenuous region called the wake behind the Moon in the solar wind, and plasma entry/refilling into the wake is a fundamental problem of the lunar plasma science. High-energy ions and electrons in the foreshock of the Earth's magnetosphere were detected at the lunar surface in the Apollo era, but their effects on the lunar night-side environment have never been studied. Here we show the first observation of bow-shock reflected protons by Kaguya (SELENE) spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, confirming that solar wind plasma reflected at the terrestrial bow shock can easily access the deepest lunar wake when the Moon stays in the foreshock (We name this mechanism 'type-3 entry'). In a continuous type-3 event, low-energy electron beams from the lunar night-side surface are not obvious even though the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the lunar surface. On the other hand, in an intermittent type-3 entry event, the kinetic energy of upward-going field-aligned electron beams decreases from ∼ 80 eV to ∼ 20 eV or electron beams disappear as the bow-shock reflected ions come accompanied by enhanced downward electrons. According to theoretical treatment based on electric current balance at the lunar surface including secondary electron emission by incident electron and ion impact, we deduce that incident ions would be accompanied by a few to several times higher flux of an incident electron flux, which well fits observed downward fluxes. We conclude that impact by the bow-shock reflected ions and electrons raises the electrostatic potential of the lunar night-side surface.

  16. How effective would solar geoengineering be at offsetting surface mass balance losses of the ice-sheets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, P. J.; Keith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Studies of the sea-level rise response to solar geoengineering suggest that it could be highly effective at reducing sea-level rise by reducing thermal expansion of ocean waters and reducing the melting of land ice. However, all studies to date have employed simplistic treatments of surface mass balance where melt is a function only of surface air temperature and many have not had explicit treatments of accumulation. Solar geoengineering would counteract the longwave forcing of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations by reducing incoming solar radiation, changing the seasonal, latitudinal and vertical distribution of energy within the climate system. Climate model simulations suggest that solar geoengineering deployed to counter future warming from rising greenhouse gas concentrations could partially offset many climate trends associated with rising greenhouse gas concentrations, however it would lead to a suppression of the hydrological cycle as well as leading to substantial residual regional climate changes. In this study the response of the surface mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets to solar geoengineering will be investigated. Multi-model results from G1, the idealized solar insolation reduction experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), will be compared against results from the abrupt4×CO2 and piControl experiment. The energy and mass balance of the ice sheets, as well as the broader climate response in the polar regions will be analysed in the GeoMIP ensemble. This analysis will be complemented by offline surface mass balance simulations, including both those which directly simulate the energy balance and by those which use approximations based on surface air temperatures. This analysis will help to determine whether previous studies have over- or under-estimated the efficacy of solar geoengineering at offsetting future sea-level rise.

  17. The European Continent : Surface Expression of Upper Mantle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondi, M. R.; Schivardi, R.; Molinari, I.; Morelli, A.

    2012-12-01

    images of the European upper mantle isotropic shear-wave speeds and mass densities, recently recovered by combined inversion of surface-wave information and GRACE satellite gravity data (Tondi et al., 2012) are used to select the regions where the residual topography and the residual mantle gravity anomalies are strongly correlated (correlation coefficient is equal to 1). We assume surface uplift processes with negative density anomalies and downward pull with positive anomalies. Our work shows a strong correlation among the areas where, on the basis of our assumptions, the mantle dynamics have surface expression and the areas of low values of radial anisotropy: (1) the southern margins of the East European Craton, (2) the North-Eastern edges of the Arabian Plateau, (3) the northern edge of the CEVP (Central European Volcanic Province), (4) the North-Eastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Iceland.

  18. Weyl nodal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Oǧuz; Moroz, Sergej

    2018-02-01

    We consider three-dimensional fermionic band theories that exhibit Weyl nodal surfaces defined as two-band degeneracies that form closed surfaces in the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate that topology ensures robustness of these objects under small perturbations of a Hamiltonian. This topological robustness is illustrated in several four-band models that exhibit nodal surfaces protected by unitary or antiunitary symmetries. Surface states and Nielsen-Ninomiya doubling of nodal surfaces are also investigated.

  19. Surface Topography Hinders Bacterial Surface Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yow-Ren; Weeks, Eric R; Ducker, William A

    2018-03-21

    We demonstrate that the surface motility of the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is hindered by a crystalline hemispherical topography with wavelength in the range of 2-8 μm. The motility was determined by the analysis of time-lapse microscopy images of cells in a flowing growth medium maintained at 37 °C. The net displacement of bacteria over 5 min is much lower on surfaces containing 2-8 μm hemispheres than on flat topography, but displacement on the 1 μm hemispheres is not lower. That is, there is a threshold between 1 and 2 μm for response to the topography. Cells on the 4 μm hemispheres were more likely to travel parallel to the local crystal axis than in other directions. Cells on the 8 μm topography were less likely to travel across the crowns of the hemispheres and were also more likely to make 30°-50° turns than on flat surfaces. These results show that surface topography can act as a significant barrier to surface motility and may therefore hinder surface exploration by bacteria. Because surface exploration can be a part of the process whereby bacteria form colonies and seek nutrients, these results help to elucidate the mechanism by which surface topography hinders biofilm formation.

  20. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLOK, WJG; VANDERHULST, JM; BOTHUN, GD

    1995-01-01

    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  1. Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol concentrations at Barrow, Alaska, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic (60ºN-90ºN) climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions substantially increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol concentration in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The parameterization reproduces both the magnitude and seasonal variation of the observed submicron sea salt aerosol concentration at surface in Barrow during winter much better than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases aerosol optical depth by 10% and results in a small cooling at surface. The increase in salt particle mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 2 W m-2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate.

  2. Observational Evidence for Desert Amplification Using Multiple Satellite Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Nan; Zhou, Liming; Dai, Yongjiu; Xia, Geng; Hua, Wenjian

    2017-05-17

    Desert amplification identified in recent studies has large uncertainties due to data paucity over remote deserts. Here we present observational evidence using multiple satellite-derived datasets that desert amplification is a real large-scale pattern of warming mode in near surface and low-tropospheric temperatures. Trend analyses of three long-term temperature products consistently confirm that near-surface warming is generally strongest over the driest climate regions and this spatial pattern of warming maximizes near the surface, gradually decays with height, and disappears in the upper troposphere. Short-term anomaly analyses show a strong spatial and temporal coupling of changes in temperatures, water vapor and downward longwave radiation (DLR), indicating that the large increase in DLR drives primarily near surface warming and is tightly associated with increasing water vapor over deserts. Atmospheric soundings of temperature and water vapor anomalies support the results of the long-term temperature trend analysis and suggest that desert amplification is due to comparable warming and moistening effects of the troposphere. Likely, desert amplification results from the strongest water vapor feedbacks near the surface over the driest deserts, where the air is very sensitive to changes in water vapor and thus efficient in enhancing the longwave greenhouse effect in a warming climate.

  3. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies. (letter)

  4. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R E

    1987-11-01

    The aims of this research are the creation of new surface forms and the determination of geometric and physical properties of surfaces. The full sweep from constructive mathematics through the implementation of algorithms and the interactive computer graphics display of surfaces is utilized. Both three-dimensional and multi- dimensional surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to the scientific computing solution of Department of Energy problems. The methods that we have developed and that we are proposing to develop allow applications such as: Producing smooth contour maps from measured data, such as weather maps. Modeling the heat distribution inside a furnace from sample measurements. Terrain modeling based on satellite pictures. The investigation of new surface forms includes the topics of triangular interpolants, multivariate interpolation, surfaces defined on surfaces and monotone and/or convex surfaces. The geometric and physical properties considered include contours, the intersection of surfaces, curvatures as a interrogation tool, and numerical integration.

  5. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  6. Surface Stress with Non-stationary Weak Winds and Stable Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, L.; Thomas, Christoph K.

    2016-04-01

    The behaviour of turbulent transport in the weak-wind, stably-stratified, boundary layer over land is examined in terms of the non-stationarity of the wind field using measurements from three field programs. These field programs include towers ranging from 12 to 20 m in height and an extensive horizontal network of sonic anemometers. The relationship of the friction velocity to the stratification and non-stationary submeso motions is investigated from several points of view and nominally quantified. The relationship of the turbulence to the stratification is less systematic than expected partly due to enhancement of the turbulence by submeso motions. Cause and effect relationships are difficult to isolate because the non-stationary momentum flux significantly modifies the profile of the non-stationary mean flow. The link between the turbulence and accelerations at the surface is examined in terms of the changing vertical structure of the wind profile and sudden increases in the downward transport of momentum.

  7. A novel metamaterial filter with stable passband performance based on frequency selective surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Y. Fang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel metamaterial filter based on frequency selective surface (FSS is proposed. Using the mode matching method, we theoretically studied the transmission performance of the structure. Results show that, by rotating its neighboring elements 90 degree, the novel filter has a better stability to angle of incidence than traditional structures for TE and TM polarization. As the incident angles vary from 0 to 50 degrees, the metamaterial filter exhibits a transmittance higher than 0.98 and the center frequency slightly shifts downward (from 10 GHz to 0.96 GHz for TE polarization. For TM polarization, a transmittance of 0.98 is achieved and the center frequency retains 0.96 GHz with the varying of the incident angles. Furthermore, an experimental prototype fabricated was tested in a microwave chamber, and the measured results show good agreement with the simulated ones.

  8. A parametric study of a thick, incompressible flow over a curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRAGAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the lift phenomenon produced by the Coanda effect when a fluid flows over a curved surface. A secondary goal was to quantify and to integrate it on super circulation wing aircraft configurations. Therefore we have conducted a series of CFD studies, varying the fluid velocity and measuring the pressure gradient over the super circulated curved ramp. The results showed that thick jets provide the anticipated lift force which is proportional to the flow velocity. Although in this case the ratio between the Coanda lift and the thrust of the jet itself is less than 10% on average. The immediate interpretation is that, by using thick jets we can increase the lift generated by the SCW aircraft bearing in mind that the main lift is not generated by this effect but rather by diversion of the jet downwards.

  9. Orientation-dependent chemistry and band-bending of Ti on polar ZnO surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Patrizia; Mouchaal, Younes; Dai, Zongbei; Cabailh, Gregory; Chenot, Stéphane; Lazzari, Rémi; Jupille, Jacques

    2017-04-19

    Orientation-dependent reactivity and band-bending are evidenced upon Ti deposition (1-10 Å) on polar ZnO(0001)-Zn and ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O surfaces. At the onset of the Ti deposition, a downward band-bending was observed on ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O while no change occurred on ZnO(0001)-Zn. Combining this with the photoemission analysis of the Ti 2p core level and Zn L 3 (L 2 )M 45 M 45 Auger transition, it is established that the Ti/ZnO reaction is of the form Ti + 2ZnO → TiO 2 + 2Zn on ZnO(0001)-Zn and Ti + yZnO → TiZn x O y + (y - x)Zn on ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O. Consistently, upon annealing thicker Ti adlayers, the metallic zinc is removed to leave ZnO(0001)-Zn surfaces covered with a TiO 2 -like phase and ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O surfaces covered with a defined (Ti, Zn, O) compound. Finally, a difference in the activation temperature between the O-terminated (500 K) and Zn-terminated (700 K) surfaces is observed, which is tentatively explained by different electric fields in the space charge layer at ZnO surfaces.

  10. Iterative discrete ordinates solution of the equation for surface-reflected radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkevich, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of numerical solution of the integral equation for the radiance reflected from an anisotropic surface. The equation relates the radiance at the surface level with BRDF and solutions of the standard radiative transfer problems for a slab with no reflection on its surfaces. It is also shown that the kernel of the equation satisfies the condition of the existence of a unique solution and the convergence of the successive approximations to that solution. The developed method features two basic steps: discretization on a 2D quadrature, and solving the resulting system of algebraic equations with successive over-relaxation method based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative process. Presented numerical examples show good coincidence between the surface-reflected radiance obtained with DISORT and the proposed method. Analysis of contributions of the direct and diffuse (but not yet reflected) parts of the downward radiance to the total solution is performed. Together, they represent a very good initial guess for the iterative process. This fact ensures fast convergence. The numerical evidence is given that the fastest convergence occurs with the relaxation parameter of 1 (no relaxation). An integral equation for BRDF is derived as inversion of the original equation. The potential of this new equation for BRDF retrievals is analyzed. The approach is found not viable as the BRDF equation appears to be an ill-posed problem, and it requires knowledge the surface-reflected radiance on the entire domain of both Sun and viewing zenith angles.

  11. Surface conductivity of Mercury provides current closure and may affect magnetospheric symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We study what effect a possible surface conductivity of Mercury has on the closure of magnetospheric currents by making six runs with a quasi-neutral hybrid simulation. The runs are otherwise identical but use different synthetic conductivity models: run 1 has a fully conducting planet, run 2 has a poorly conducting planet ( m and runs 3-6 have one of the hemispheres either in the dawn-dusk or day-night directions, conducting well, the other one being conducting poorly. Although the surface conductivity is not known from observations, educated guesses easily give such conductivity values that magnetospheric currents may close partly within the planet, and as the conductivity depends heavily on the mineral composition of the surface, the possibility of significant horizontal variations cannot be easily excluded. The simulation results show that strong horizontal variations may produce modest magnetospheric asymmetries. Beyond the hybrid simulation, we also briefly discuss the possibility that in the nightside there may be a lack of surface electrons to carry downward current, which may act as a further source of surface-related magnetospheric asymmetry. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (planetary magnetospheres; current systems; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.6

  12. Modeling large-scale human alteration of land surface hydrology and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Felfelani, Farshid; Shin, Sanghoon; Yamada, Tomohito J.; Satoh, Yusuke

    2017-12-01

    Rapidly expanding human activities have profoundly affected various biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system over a broad range of scales, and freshwater systems are now amongst the most extensively altered ecosystems. In this study, we examine the human-induced changes in land surface water and energy balances and the associated climate impacts using a coupled hydrological-climate model framework which also simulates the impacts of human activities on the water cycle. We present three sets of analyses using the results from two model versions—one with and the other without considering human activities; both versions are run in offline and coupled mode resulting in a series of four experiments in total. First, we examine climate and human-induced changes in regional water balance focusing on the widely debated issue of the desiccation of the Aral Sea in central Asia. Then, we discuss the changes in surface temperature as a result of changes in land surface energy balance due to irrigation over global and regional scales. Finally, we examine the global and regional climate impacts of increased atmospheric water vapor content due to irrigation. Results indicate that the direct anthropogenic alteration of river flow in the Aral Sea basin resulted in the loss of 510 km3 of water during the latter half of the twentieth century which explains about half of the total loss of water from the sea. Results of irrigation-induced changes in surface energy balance suggest a significant surface cooling of up to 3.3 K over 1° grids in highly irrigated areas but a negligible change in land surface temperature when averaged over sufficiently large global regions. Results from the coupled model indicate a substantial change in 2 m air temperature and outgoing longwave radiation due to irrigation, highlighting the non-local (regional and global) implications of irrigation. These results provide important insights on the direct human alteration of land surface

  13. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave Daily Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_DAILY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    This data set contains upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=daily; Temporal_Resolution_Range=daily].

  14. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2 Shortwave 3 hourly Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2_SW_3HRLY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The SRB data include the average upward and downward fluxes, photosynthetically active radiative flux, aerosol and cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, and solar zenith angle measured at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire globe between 07/01/1983 and 10/31/1995. These SW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Shortwave algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1998-07-26] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=3 hourly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=3 hourly].

  15. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...... of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces....

  16. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  17. PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2011-12-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of

  18. Preliminary analysis of surface temperature anomalies that preceded the two major Emilia 2012 earthquakes (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Qin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's, from an analysis of satellite images, Russian scientists reported on a short-term thermal infrared radiation enhancement that occurred before some medium-to-large earthquakes in central Asia [Gorny et al. 1988]. Since then, many researchers have been studying earthquake thermal anomalies with satellite remote sensing data [Qiang et al. 1991, Tronin 1996, Tramutoli et al. 2001, Ouzounov and Freund 2004, Saraf and Choudhury 2004, Aliano et al. 2008, Blackett et al. 2011]. Recently, abnormal surface latent heat flux [Dey and Singh 2003, Cervone et al. 2005, Qin et al. 2009, Qin et al. 2011, Qin et al. 2012], outgoing long-wave radiation [Ouzounov et al. 2007] and microwave radiation [Takashi and Tadashi 2010] have also been shown to precede earthquakes. To investigate the possible physical mechanisms of such satellite thermal anomalies, some studies conducted a series of detecting experiments on rock loaded to fracturing [Wu et al. 2000, Freund 2002, Wu et al. 2002, Wu et al. 2006a, Wu et al. 2006b, Freund et al. 2007], and some hypotheses have been proposed. These have included: leaking of pore-gas, and hence the resulting greenhouse effect [Qiang et al. 1995]; activating and recombining of p-holes during rock deformation [Freund 2002]; release of latent heat due to near-surface air ionization [Pulinets et al. 2006], and stress-induced thermal effects due to friction and fluids [Wu and Liu 2009]. […] In this study, the long-term temperature data from both satellite and ground (with greater emphasis on the satellite data have been used to determine whether there were thermal anomalies associated with this Emilia 2012 seismic sequence. In particular, the next section will be dedicated to describing both the data and the method of analysis. In Section 3, we provide the more significant results, which we discuss in Section 4, together with the main conclusions. […

  19. Estimates of land surface heat fluxes of the Mt. Everest region over the Tibetan Plateau utilizing ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cunbo; Ma, Yaoming; Chen, Xuelong; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-02-01

    Regional land surface albedo, land surface temperature, net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were derived in the Mt. Everest area utilizing topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model and nine scenes of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data under clear-sky and in-situ measurements at the QOMS station (the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The parameterization schemes for diffused and reflected downward shortwave radiation flux of the TESEBS model were improved by introducing the parameters sky-view factor (SVF) and terrain configuration factor (Ct). Then, a so-called C-correction method for land surface albedo was coupled into the TESEBS model to reduce the influences of topography. After topographical correction, the albedo of the dark tilted surface facing away from the Sun was compensated and albedo of the brightness surface facing the Sun was restrained. The downward shortwave radiation flux was broken down into three components including solar direct radiation flux, solar diffused radiation flux, and reflected solar radiation flux by surrounding terrain. The solar diffused radiation flux ranges from about 30 to 60 W/m2 at the satellite passing time on 6 January 2008. The reflected solar radiation flux changes from 0 to more than 100 W/m2 in the area covered by glaciers and snows. Thus, it is important to take the topographical effects into account in estimation of surface radiation balance in the mountainous area, especially in the glacier area. The retrieved land surface parameters, land surface radiation balance components, and the land surface energy balance components were evaluated by the field measurements in the QOMS station. The estimated results were very close to the in-situ observations with low mean bias errors, low root mean square errors and high correlation coefficients

  20. Enhanced surface warming and accelerated snow melt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau induced by absorbing aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, William K M; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Lee, Woo-Seop; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2010-01-01

    Numerical experiments with the NASA finite-volume general circulation model show that heating of the atmosphere by dust and black carbon can lead to widespread enhanced warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and accelerated snow melt in the western TP and Himalayas. During the boreal spring, a thick aerosol layer, composed mainly of dust transported from adjacent deserts and black carbon from local emissions, builds up over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, against the foothills of the Himalaya and the TP. The aerosol layer, which extends from the surface to high elevation (∼5 km), heats the mid-troposphere by absorbing solar radiation. The heating produces an atmospheric dynamical feedback-the so-called elevated-heat-pump (EHP) effect, which increases moisture, cloudiness, and deep convection over northern India, as well as enhancing the rate of snow melt in the Himalayas and TP. The accelerated melting of snow is mostly confined to the western TP, first slowly in early April and then rapidly from early to mid-May. The snow cover remains reduced from mid-May through early June. The accelerated snow melt is accompanied by similar phases of enhanced warming of the atmosphere-land system of the TP, with the atmospheric warming leading the surface warming by several days. Surface energy balance analysis shows that the short-wave and long-wave surface radiative fluxes strongly offset each other, and are largely regulated by the changes in cloudiness and moisture over the TP. The slow melting phase in April is initiated by an effective transfer of sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere to land. The rapid melting phase in May is due to an evaporation-snow-land feedback coupled to an increase in atmospheric moisture over the TP induced by the EHP effect.

  1. Enhanced Surface Warming and Accelerated Snow Melt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau Induced by Absorbing Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lee, Woo-Seop

    2010-01-01

    Numerical experiments with the NASA finite-volume general circulation model show that heating of the atmosphere by dust and black carbon can lead to widespread enhanced warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and accelerated snow melt in the western TP and Himalayas. During the boreal spring, a thick aerosol layer, composed mainly of dust transported from adjacent deserts and black carbon from local emissions, builds up over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, against the foothills of the Himalaya and the TP. The aerosol layer, which extends from the surface to high elevation (approx.5 km), heats the mid-troposphere by absorbing solar radiation. The heating produces an atmospheric dynamical feedback the so-called elevated-heat-pump (EHP) effect, which increases moisture, cloudiness, and deep convection over northern India, as well as enhancing the rate of snow melt in the Himalayas and TP. The accelerated melting of snow is mostly confined to the western TP, first slowly in early April and then rapidly from early to mid-May. The snow cover remains reduced from mid-May through early June. The accelerated snow melt is accompanied by similar phases of enhanced warming of the atmosphere-land system of the TP, with the atmospheric warming leading the surface warming by several days. Surface energy balance analysis shows that the short-wave and long-wave surface radiative fluxes strongly offset each other, and are largely regulated by the changes in cloudiness and moisture over the TP. The slow melting phase in April is initiated by an effective transfer of sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere to land. The rapid melting phase in May is due to an evaporation-snow-land feedback coupled to an increase in atmospheric moisture over the TP induced by the EHP effect.

  2. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Günther, Felix

    2017-03-15

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  3. Integrated Surface Dataset (Global)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Surface (ISD) Dataset (ISD) is composed of worldwide surface weather observations from over 35,000 stations, though the best spatial coverage is...

  4. Surface Prognostic Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Prognostic Charts are historical surface prognostic (forecast) charts created by the United States Weather Bureau. They include fronts, isobars, cloud, and...