WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface detectors measure

  1. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  2. Measuring variation of indoor radon concentration using bare nuclear tracks detectors, scintillation counters and surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, I.; Mahat, R.H.; Amin, Y.M.

    1996-01-01

    Bare LRI 15 nuclear track detectors , scintillators counter and surface barrier detectors were used to measured the indoor radon concentration in various location within two rooms. Spatial variation of the radon concentration is caused by positioning of the door, windows, furniture, cracks in the building and also distances from floor, wall and ceiling. It is found that the change in temperature are causing radon concentration to increase at certain time of the day

  3. Cryogenic germanium detectors for dark matter search: Surface events rejection by charge measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniatowski, A.; Censier, B.; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.

    2006-01-01

    Test experiments have been performed on a Ge detector of the Edelweiss collaboration, combining time-resolved acquisition of the ionization signals with heat measurements. Pulse-shape analysis of the charge signals demonstrates the capability to reject surface events of poor charge collection with energies larger than 50 keV in ionization

  4. Online Monitoring of Laser-Generated XUV Radiation Spectra by Surface Reflectivity Measurements with Particle Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoffmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we present a wavelength-sensitive method for the detection of extreme ultraviolet (XUV photon energies between 30 eV and 120 eV. The method is based on 45° reflectivity from either a cesium iodide-coated or an uncoated metal surface, which directs the XUV beam onto an electron or ion detector and its signal is used to monitor the XUV beam. The benefits of our approach are a spectrally sensitive diagnosis of the XUV radiation at the interaction place of time-resolved XUV experiments and the detection of infrared leak light though metal filters in high-harmonic generation (HHG experiments. Both features were tested using spectrally shaped XUV pulses from HHG in a capillary, and we have achieved excellent agreement with XUV spectrometer measurements and reflectivity calculations. Our obtained results are of interest for time-resolved XUV experiments presenting an additional diagnostic directly in the interaction region and for small footprint XUV beamline diagnostics.

  5. Coincidence system for absolute measuring of radionuclide activity using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.; Dias, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma radionuclides has been developed at IPEN. Two surface barrier detectors are coupled to two thin-window NaI(Tl) crystals, suitable for low energy gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of a Am-241 solution. The absolute activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4πα-γ coincidence technique. The alpha efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the source or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained by the linear extrapolation method, using a flow-gas 4π proportional counter. The agreement between the results were around 99.5%. (Author) [pt

  6. Combined Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage Effects at Very High Fluences in Silicon Detectors: Measurements and TCAD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Moscatelli, F; Morozzi, A; Mendicino, R; Dalla Betta, G F; Bilei, G M

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new combined TCAD radiation damage modelling scheme, featuring both bulk and surface radiation damage effects, for the analysis of silicon detectors aimed at the High Luminosity LHC. In particular, a surface damage model has been developed by introducing the relevant parameters (NOX, NIT) extracted from experimental measurements carried out on p-type substrate test structures after gamma irradiations at doses in the range 10-500 Mrad(Si). An extended bulk model, by considering impact ionization and deep-level cross-sections variation, was included as well. The model has been validated through the comparison of the simulation findings with experimental measurements carried out at very high fluences (2×1016 1 MeV equivalent n/cm2) thus fostering the application of this TCAD approach for the design and optimization of the new generation of silicon detectors to be used in future HEP experiments.

  7. Electron/positron measurements obtained with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector on the surface of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Appel, J. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Experimental and Applied Physics; and others

    2016-04-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, measures the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars. Although charged and neutral particle spectra have been investigated in detail, the electron and positron spectra have not been investigated yet. The reason for that is that they are difficult to separate from each other and because of the technical challenges involved in extracting energy spectra from the raw data. We use GEANT4 to model the behavior of the RAD instrument for electron/positron measurements.We compare Planetocosmics predictions for different atmospheric pressures and different modulation parameters Φ with the obtained RAD electron/positron measurements.We find that the RAD electron/positron measurements agree well with the spectra predicted by Planetocosmics. Both RAD measurements and Planetocosmics simulation show a dependence of the electron/positron fluxes on both atmospheric pressure and solar modulation potential.

  8. Technical Note: Out-of-field dose measurement at near surface with plastic scintillator detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgouin, Alexandra; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Archambault, Louis

    2016-09-08

    Out-of-field dose depends on multiple factors, making peripheral dosimetry com-plex. Only a few dosimeters have the required features for measuring peripheral dose. Plastic scintillator dosimeters (PSDs) offer numerous dosimetric advantages as required for out-of-field dosimetry. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential of using PSD as a surface peripheral dosimeter. Measurements were performed with a parallel-plate ion chamber, a small volume ion chamber, and with a PSD. Lateral-dose measurements (LDM) at 0.5 cm depth and depth-dose curve (PDD) were made and compared to the dose calculation provided by a treatment planning system (TPS). This study shows that a PSD can measure a dose as low as 0.51 ± 0.17 cGy for photon beam and 0.58 ± 0.20 cGy for electron beam with a difference of 0.2 and 0.1 cGy compared to a parallel-plate ion chamber. This study demonstrates the potential of using PSD as an out-of-field dosimeter since measure-ments with PSD avoid averaging over a too-large depth, at 1 mm diameter, and can make precise measurement at very low dose. Also, electronic equilibrium is easier to reach with PSD due to its small sensitive volume and its water equivalence. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Contamination detector for inner surface of container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadao.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for detecting contamination of radioactive materials on the inner surface of a vessel upon reutilizing the vessel for containing solidified radioactive wastes and transporting them. Namely, the detecting device has following functions. (1) A radiation detector detects the radioactive materials on the inner surface of the vessel. (2) A plurality of proximity switches measure the distance from the radiation detector to the wall surface of the vessel and are actuated if the distance is decreased to a predetermined value, (3) A vessel inner surface position calculation mechanism calculates the position of the inner surface of the vessel based on the information from a direction indicator and a height indicator. (4) A frontal limit detector detects the limit for allowing the radiation detector to proceed. (5) A vessel inner shape judging mechanism for judging the shape of the inner side of the vessel based on the signals from the proximity switches in a state where the frontal limit detector is operated and a vessel inner surface position signal outputted from the vessel inner surface position calculation mechanism. As a result, the shape of the inner side of the vessel can accurately be recognized, thereby improving accuracy of radiation measurement. (I.S.)

  10. Measurements on a prototype segmented Clover detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, S L; Cullen, D M; Appelbe, D E; Simpson, J; Gerl, J; Kaspar, M; Kleinböhl, A; Peter, I; Rejmund, M; Schaffner, H; Schlegel, C; France, G D

    1999-01-01

    The performance of a segmented Clover germanium detector has been measured. The segmented Clover detector is a composite germanium detector, consisting of four individual germanium crystals in the configuration of a four-leaf Clover, housed in a single cryostat. Each crystal is electrically segmented on its outer surface into four quadrants, with separate energy read-outs from nine crystal zones. Signals are also taken from the inner contact of each crystal. This effectively produces a detector with 16 active elements. One of the purposes of this segmentation is to improve the overall spectral resolution when detecting gamma radiation emitted following a nuclear reaction, by minimising Doppler broadening caused by the opening angle subtended by each detector element. Results of the tests with sources and in beam will be presented. The improved granularity of the detector also leads to an improved isolated hit probability compared with an unsegmented Clover detector. (author)

  11. Determination of conversion factors and efficiency for GM detectors used in measurements of surface pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala G, J.; Alvarez R, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Radiation protection, is to observe with the National and as International standardization referring to the ICRP dose limitation system (ICRP 26, ICRP 60). In this work it was treated the problem corresponding about how to determine the conversion factor of cpm/mR/h and the absolute efficiency ε, for a Geiger-Muller equipment with thin window. This equipment is used for the beta particle detection. Thus the correct use of calibration factors and the procedures to convert cpm in Bq is expedited and also to apply the ISO procedure for to evaluate contaminated surfaces. (Author)

  12. Experimental Measurements of Concentration Fluctuations and Scales in a Dispersing Plume in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Obtained Using a Very Fast Response Concentration Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    VOLUME 33 Experimental Measurements of Concentration Fluctuations and Scales in a Dispersing Plume in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Obtained Using a...Very Fast Response Concentration Detector EUGENE YEE Defence Research Establishment Suffield, Medicine Hat, Alberta , Canada R. CHAN AND P. R...various concentration timescales, length scales , and microscales (e.g., Taylor microscale, correlation scale , length scale based on the spectral

  13. Review of surface dose detectors in radiotherapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, E.

    2006-11-20

    Several instruments have been used to measure absorbed radiation dose under non-electronic equilibrium conditions, such as in the build-up region or near the interface between two different media, including the surface. Many of these detectors are discussed in this paper. A common method of measuring the absorbed dose distribution and electron contamination in the build-up region of high-energy beams for radiation therapy is by means of parallel-plate ionisation chambers. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), diodes and radiographic film have also been used to obtain surface dose measurements. The diamond detector was used recently by the author in an investigation on the effects of beam-modifying devices on skin dose and it is also described in this report

  14. Surface barrier silicon detectors with a large active area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Husimi, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Kim, C.; Ohkawa, S.; Sakai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Surface barrier silicon detectors with a large active area have been produced by using high resistive n-type silicon crystals, diameters of which are 3 to 5 inches. High quality detectors with a low leakage current and a low noise were achieved by developing the improved surface treatment. Characteristics of detectors obtained are good in energy resolution compared with conventional large area Si(Li) detectors. It has also been confirmed that local dead region is not found from measuring results of photo-pulse injection

  15. Germanium cryogenic detectors: Alpha surface events rejection capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorucci, S.; Broniatowski, A.; Chardin, G.; Censier, B.; Lesquen, A. de; Deschamps, H.; Fesquet, M.; Jin, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Alpha surface events and multiple compton gamma interactions are the two major background components in Ge detectors for double-beta decay investigations. Two different methods have been studied to identify such type of events, using cryogenic Ge detectors developed primarily for dark matter search: (i) combined heat and ionization measurements, and (ii) pulse-shape analysis of the charge collection signals. Both methods show strong separation between electron recoil events and surface alphas. Cryogenic heat-ionization detectors therefore appear able to reject virtually all surface alpha interactions

  16. Efficiency of a concentric matrix track detector surface scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Nikezic, D.; Kostic, D.; Krstic, D.; Cuknic, O.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy particle ionizing radiation track counting on the surface of a solid state round surface detector is made using the microscope and scanning step by step by a round field of vision. The whole solid state detector surface could not be fully or completely covered by round fields of visions. Therefore detector surface could be divided on the two parts, the larger surface, being under fields of vision, really scanned and no scanned missed or omitted surface. The ratio between omitted and scanned surfaces is so called track scanning efficiency. The knowledge of really counted, or scanned surface is a important value for evaluating the real surface track density an exposed solid state track detector. In the paper a matrix of a concentric field of vision made around the first microscope field of vision placed in center of the round disc of the scanned track detector is proposed. In a such scanning matrix the real scanned surface could be easy calculated and by the microscope scanning made as well. By this way scanned surface is very precisely obtained as well. Precise knowledge of scanned and omitted surface allows to obtain more precise scanning efficiency factor as well as real surface track density, the main parameter in solid state track detection measurements. (author)

  17. Fabrication and characterization of fully depleted surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of fully depleted surface barrier type thin detectors needs thin silicon wafer of 20 - 30 μm thickness and flatness of ± 1 μm. Process has been developed for thinning silicon wafers to achieve thickness up to 20 - 30 μm from thicker (0.5 - 0.8 mm) silicon samples. These samples were used to fabricate fully depleted surface barrier detectors using Au contacts on n-type silicon. The detectors were characterized by measuring forward and reverse I-V characteristics and alpha energy spectra of Am-Pu source. (author)

  18. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Beta dosimetry with surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.F.M.; Schuren, H.; Dreesen, K.

    1980-01-01

    A small dosimeter to measure the dose rate due to β-radiation in an energy independent fashion is described in detail. A surface barrier semi-conductor detector is used whose thickness of sensitive layer is changed by varying the detector voltage. The integral count rate can then be determined as a function of applied voltage and discrimination thresholds. The integral count rate can be related to β dose rate in an energy independent fashion only for a time constant of 0.25 μs. However, the use of a single channel analyzer permits an energy-independent determination of the β-dose rate with 0.25 or 0.5 μs time constants. The sensitivity of the device as a function of dose rate is investigation up to 600 rad/hr. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the device at a constant dose rate was shown to be uniform up to a dose of 50,000 rads. (UK)

  20. A multilayer surface detector for ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui, E-mail: zwang@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hoffbauer, M.A.; Morris, C.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Callahan, N.B.; Adamek, E.R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Bacon, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Blatnik, M. [Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Brandt, A.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Broussard, L.J.; Clayton, S.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cude-Woods, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Currie, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dees, E.B. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ding, X. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gao, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Gray, F.E. [Regis University, Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Hickerson, K.P. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Holley, A.T. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505 (United States); Ito, T.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Liu, C.-Y. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); and others

    2015-10-21

    A multilayer surface detector for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) is described. The top {sup 10}B layer is exposed to vacuum and directly captures UCNs. The ZnS:Ag layer beneath the {sup 10}B layer is a few microns thick, which is sufficient to detect the charged particles from the {sup 10}B(n,α){sup 7}Li neutron-capture reaction, while thin enough that ample light due to α and {sup 7}Li escapes for detection by photomultiplier tubes. A 100-nm thick {sup 10}B layer gives high UCN detection efficiency, as determined by the mean UCN kinetic energy, detector materials, and other parameters. Low background, including negligible sensitivity to ambient neutrons, has also been verified through pulse-shape analysis and comparison with other existing {sup 3}He and {sup 10}B detectors. This type of detector has been configured in different ways for UCN flux monitoring, development of UCN guides and neutron lifetime research.

  1. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  2. Autocorrelation studies of the arrival directions of UHECRs measured by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The history of cosmic rays started in the beginning of the 20th century. Since then one of the main questions is their origin. Due to the very low flux at the highest energies huge areas have to be instrumented to answer this question. For this purpose the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is studied. The largest experiment so far is the Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Pampa in western Argentina with an area of about 3000 km 2 . In recent years it provided many major contributions to the field of cosmic ray physics and its data is the basis of this work. Among other things a correlation analysis of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) was performed leading to the first evidence that UHECRs are not isotropically distributed. Here the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays at the highest energies (>50 EeV) is examined by using autocorrelation methods to check whether it is compatible with the isotropic expectation or not.This thesis is organised as follows: in the first two chapters a short introduction to the topic is given, followed by a more general discussion on cosmic rays including models of acceleration, possible sources and the propagation of UHECRs in the third chapter. The fourth chapter focuses on the detector design of the Pierre Auger Observatory and event reconstruction at highest energies. Special attention is paid to the monitoring of the High Elevation Auger Telescopes (HEAT). It is a low energy enhancement of the observatory consisting of three tiltable fluorescence telescopes. The calibration of the new sensor setups is described as well as the installation in each HEAT shelter. The next chapter starts with a detailed description of the underlying ideas and motivations of autocorrelation methods: a representation of the 2pt-Correlation Function and its extension, a Minimum Spanning Tree and a Cluster Algorithm with different weighting procedures. The principle of each

  3. Autocorrelation studies of the arrival directions of UHECRs measured by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Stephan

    2011-07-11

    The history of cosmic rays started in the beginning of the 20th century. Since then one of the main questions is their origin. Due to the very low flux at the highest energies huge areas have to be instrumented to answer this question. For this purpose the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is studied. The largest experiment so far is the Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Pampa in western Argentina with an area of about 3000 km{sup 2}. In recent years it provided many major contributions to the field of cosmic ray physics and its data is the basis of this work. Among other things a correlation analysis of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) was performed leading to the first evidence that UHECRs are not isotropically distributed. Here the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays at the highest energies (>50 EeV) is examined by using autocorrelation methods to check whether it is compatible with the isotropic expectation or not.This thesis is organised as follows: in the first two chapters a short introduction to the topic is given, followed by a more general discussion on cosmic rays including models of acceleration, possible sources and the propagation of UHECRs in the third chapter. The fourth chapter focuses on the detector design of the Pierre Auger Observatory and event reconstruction at highest energies. Special attention is paid to the monitoring of the High Elevation Auger Telescopes (HEAT). It is a low energy enhancement of the observatory consisting of three tiltable fluorescence telescopes. The calibration of the new sensor setups is described as well as the installation in each HEAT shelter. The next chapter starts with a detailed description of the underlying ideas and motivations of autocorrelation methods: a representation of the 2pt-Correlation Function and its extension, a Minimum Spanning Tree and a Cluster Algorithm with different weighting procedures. The principle of each

  4. SU-E-T-96: Demonstration of a Consistent Method for Correcting Surface Dose Measurements Using Both Solid State and Ionization Chamber Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, T; Gerbi, B; Higgins, P [UniversityMinnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the surface dose (SD) measured using a PTW 30-360 extrapolation chamber with different commonly used dosimeters (Ds): parallel plate ion chambers (ICs): RMI-449 (Attix), Capintec PS-033, PTW 30-329 (Markus) and Memorial; TLD chips (cTLD), TLD powder (pTLD), optically stimulated (OSLs), radiochromic (EXR2) and radiographic (EDR2) films, and to provide an intercomparison correction to Ds for each of them. Methods: Investigations were performed for a 6 MV x-ray beam (Varian Clinac 2300, 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field, SSD = 100 cm). The Ds were placed at the surface of the solid water phantom and at the reference depth dref=1.7cm. The measurements for cTLD, OSLs, EDR2 and EXR2 were corrected to SD using an extrapolation method (EM) indexed to the baseline PTW 30-360 measurements. A consistent use of the EM involved: 1) irradiation of three Ds stacked on top of each other on the surface of the phantom; 2) measurement of the relative dose value for each layer; and, 3) extrapolation of these values to zero thickness. An additional measurement was performed with externally exposed OSLs (eOSLs), that were rotated out of their protective housing. Results: All single Ds measurements overestimated the SD compared with the extrapolation chamber, except for Attix IC. The closest match to the true SD was measured with the Attix IC (− 0.1%), followed by pTLD (0.5%), Capintec (4.5%), Memorial (7.3%), Markus (10%), cTLD (11.8%), eOSL (12.8%), EXR2 (14%), EDR2 (14.8%) and OSL (26%). The EM method of correction for SD worked well for all Ds, except the unexposed OSLs. Conclusion: This EM cross calibration of solid state detectors with an extrapolation or Attix chamber can provide thickness corrections for cTLD, eOSLs, EXR2, and EDR2. Standard packaged OSLs were not found to be simply corrected.

  5. Cherenkov Detector for Beam Quality Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078842

    2016-01-01

    A new detector to measure the machine induced background at larger radiihas been developed and installed in the CMS experiment at LHC. Itconsists of 40 modules, each comprising a quartz bar read out by aphotomultiplier. Since Cerenkov radiation is emitted in a forward conearound the charged particle trajectory, these detectors can distinguishthe directions of the machine induced background.The back-end consists of a microTCA readout with excellent time resolution.The performance of the detector modules measured in several test-beamcampaigns will be reported. The installation in CMS will be described, andfirst results about operating the detector during data taking will begiven.

  6. Neutron energy response measurement of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongqiong; Peng Taiping; Yang Jianlun; Tang Zhengyuan; Yang Gaozhao; Li Linbo; Hu Mengchun; Wang Zhentong; Zhang Jianhua; Li Zhongbao; Wang Lizong

    2004-01-01

    Neutron sensitivities of detectors composed of plastic scintillator ST401, ST1422, ST1423 and phyotomultiplier tube in primary energy range of fission neutron are calibrated by direct current. The energy response curve of the detectors is obtained in this experiment. The experimental result has been compared with the theoretical calculation and they are in agreement within measuring uncertainty. (authors)

  7. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  8. Pressures Detector Calibration and Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156315

    2016-01-01

    This is report of my first and second projects (of 3) in NA61. I did data taking and analysis in order to do calibration of pressure detectors and verified it. I analyzed the data by ROOT software using the C ++ programming language. The first part of my project was determination of calibration factor of pressure sensors. Based on that result, I examined the relation between pressure drop, gas flow rate of in paper filter and its diameter.

  9. Luminosity Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Maettig, Stefan; Pauly, T

    For almost all measurements performed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) one crucial ingredient is the precise knowledge about the integrated luminosity. The determination and precision on the integrated luminosity has direct implications on any cross-section measurement, and its instantaneous measurement gives important feedback on the conditions at the experimental insertions and on the accelerator performance. ATLAS is one of the main experiments at the LHC. In order to provide an accurate and reliable luminosity determination, ATLAS uses a variety of different sub-detectors and algorithms that measure the luminosity simultaneously. One of these sub-detectors are the Beam Condition Monitors (BCM) that were designed to protect the ATLAS detector from potentially dangerous beam losses. Due to its fast readout and very clean signals this diamond detector is providing in addition since May 2011 the official ATLAS luminosity. This thesis describes the calibration and performance of the BCM as a luminosity detec...

  10. Double Chooz Improved Multi-Detector Measurements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment (DC) is a reactor neutrino oscillation experiment running at Chooz nuclear power plant (2 reactors) in France. In 2011, DC first reported indication of non-zero θ13 with the far detector (FD) located at the maximum of oscillation effects (i.e. disappearance), thus challenging the CHOOZ non-observation limit. A robust observation of θ13 followed in 2012 by the Daya Bay experiments with multiple detector configurations. Since 2015 DC runs in a multi-detector configuration making thus the impact of several otherwise dominating systematics reduce strongly. DC’s unique almost "iso-flux" site, allows the near detector (ND) to become a direct accurate non-oscillation reference to the FD. Our first multi-detector results at MORIOND-2016 showed an intriguing deviation of θ13 with respect to the world average. We will address this issue in this seminar. The combined "reactor-θ13" measurement is expected to ...

  11. Test Beam Measurements on Picosec Gaseous Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Sohl, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    In the Picosec project micro pattern gaseous detectors with a time resolution of some ten picoseconds are developed. The detectors are based on Micromegas detectors. With a cherenkov window and a photocathode the time jitter from different position of the primary ionization clusters can be substituted. This reports describes the beam setup and measurements of different Picosec prototypes. A time resolution of under 30 ps has been measured during the test beam. This report gives an overview of my work as a Summer Student. I set up and operated a triple-GEM tracker and a trigger system for the beam. During the beam I measured different prototypes of Picosec detectors and analysed the data.

  12. Time response measurements of LASL diagnostic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, L.P.

    1970-07-01

    The measurement and data analysis techniques developed under the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's detector improvement program were used to characterize the time and frequency response of selected LASL Compton, fluor-photodiode (NPD), and fluor-photomultiplier (NPM) diagnostic detectors. Data acquisition procedures and analysis methods presently in use are summarized, and detector time and frequency data obtained using the EG and G/AEC electron linear accelerator fast pulse (approximately 50 psec FWHM) as the incident radiation driving function are presented. (U.S.)

  13. Multilayer detector for skin absorbed dose measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanov, D.P.; Panova, V.P.; Shaks, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    A method for skin dosimetry based on utilization of multilayer detectors and permitting to estimate distribution of absorbed dose by skin depth is described. The detector represents a set of thin sensitive elements separated by tissue-equivalent absorbers. Quantitative evaluation and forecasting the degree of radiation injury of skin are determined by the formula based on determination of the probability of the fact that cells are not destroyed and they can divide further on. The given method ensures a possibility of quantitative evaluation of radiobiological effect and forecasting clinical consequences of skin irradiation by results of corresponding measurements of dose by means of the miultilayer detector

  14. Heavy ion measurement by chemical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.; Erzgraeber, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    1979-02-01

    In testing the applicability of the threshold system polyvinyl alcohol/methyl orange/chloral hydrate/sodium tetraborate to the quantitative detection of single particles, the chemical detector was irradiated with 4 He, 12 C, 18 O, 22 He ions of different LET. Detectors with 4 different borax concentrations (chloral hydrate concentration kept constant) have been irradiated. The dose causing the colour change increased linearly with the borax concentration. For equal borax concentrations this dose increases with increasing LET due to the decreasing G value of the HCl. The fluence ranges measurable with the various detector compositions are given. 4 He and 18 O ion ranges have been determined. The measured depth dose curves have been corrected because the dose is LET-dependent. The experimentally determined ranges are in good agreement with values calculated for the detector material

  15. Detector magnets for charged particle momentum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Arduini, Gianluigi

    1995-01-01

    Basic formulae related to the momentum measurement of charged particles by tracking devices in magnetic fields and typical detector magnet geometries are briefly revised. From these, guidelines are worked out for the determination of the basic specifications (yoke size, excitation current, conductor type and size, cooling) both for normal and superconducting magnets. The problem of magnetic shielding of components placed near big detector magnets is also considered.

  16. Neutron flux measurement by mobile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verchain, M.

    1987-01-01

    Various incore instrumentation systems and their technological evolution are first reviewed. Then, for 1300 MWe PWR nuclear power plant, temperature and neutron flux measurement are described. Mobile fission chambers, with their large measuring range and accurate location allow a good knowledge of the core. Other incore measures are possible because of flux detector thimble tubes inserted in the reactor core [fr

  17. A low-cost miniaturised detector for environmental radioactivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Briggs, Aaron; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Baird, Adam

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a low-cost (£ few hundred), low-power (40mA), low-mass (30g) detector for environmental radioactivity measurements, using scintillator and solid state technology. The detector can measure energy and therefore has the capability to distinguish between different types of energetic particle. Results from recent tests, when our detector was integrated with a meteorological radiosonde system, and flew on a balloon up to 25km, identified the transition region between energetic particles near the surface, dominated by terrestrial gamma emissions, and higher-energy particles in the free troposphere from cosmic rays. The detector can be used with Bluetooth technology for remote monitoring, which is particularly useful for hazardous areas. It is also small and cheap enough to be used in sensor networks for a wide range of applications, from atmospheric science to disaster monitoring.

  18. Electroweak measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Electroweak measurements with the ATLAS detector -First Run 2 measurements of electroweak processes -Run 1 measurements of SM parameters, i.e. W mass and weak mixing angle -Recent Run 1 measurements of di- and multi-boson production cross-sections as well as vector boson fusion and scattering processes at 8 TeV -Recent Run 1 measurements of exclusive di-lepton and WW production

  19. Missing Transverse Momentum Measurement using ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    E_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{miss}} play a very important role on new physics searches. This document will show how the E_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{miss}} measured using ATLAS detector and the techniques developed by ATLAS Etmiss group to improve the measurement.

  20. Initial Performance from the NOνA Surface Prototype Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muether, M.

    NOνA, the NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance experiment, will study νμ → νe oscillations characterized by the mixing angle θ13. Provided θ13 is large enough, NOνA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed ˜14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillatior tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOνA program.

  1. Cherenkov detector for beam quality measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanelli, S.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A new detector to measure the machine induced background at larger radii has been developed and installed in the CMS experiment at the LHC. It consists of forty modules, each comprising a quartz bar read out by a photomultiplier tube. Since Cherenkov radiation is emitted in a forward cone around the charged particle trajectory, these detectors can distinguish between the arrival directions of the machine induced background and the collision products. The back-end electronics consists of a uTCA readout with excellent time resolution. The installation in the CMS is described and first commissioning measurements with the LHC beams in Run II are presented.

  2. Standard Model measurements with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani Samira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various Standard Model measurements have been performed in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 and 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. A review of a selection of the latest results of electroweak measurements, W/Z production in association with jets, jet physics and soft QCD is given. Measurements are in general found to be well described by the Standard Model predictions.

  3. A surface barrier detector for simultaneous detection of α and β particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Fumio

    1981-01-01

    Semiconductor detectors are indispensable as the solid detectors with high energy resolution. Ge detectors are used for gamma-ray spectroscopy and its applied fields, while Si detectors are used as the detectors for charged particles such as α and β rays and low energy X-ray. In this paper, it is reported that the Si detector developed in the author's laboratory is suitable to monitor very weak radioactivity. The Si detector is a rectifier, but in order to capture radiation, it has large area and increased thickness, and a window is provided for incident charged particles. The Si detectors are classified into three types according to the manufacturing methods, namely surface barrier type, PN joint type and Li drift type. The Si detector introduced here is of surface barrier type, but it is characterized by the use of P-type Si with superhigh purity. The method of manufacturing this detector, its specifications and characteristics are described. Because of the surface barrier type, it can be produced simply in short time, and the yield of products is good. The stability is good, and the sensitivity is high, accordingly very weak radioactivity can be measured. As the examples of measurements, the results of uranium ore and fertilizer on the market are compared. Also the utilization as surface contamination meters is explained. (Kako, I.)

  4. High Dynamics and Precision Optical Measurement Using a Position Sensitive Detector (PSD in Reflection-Mode: Application to 2D Object Tracking over a Smart Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Alexandru Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When related to a single and good contrast object or a laser spot, position sensing, or sensitive, detectors (PSDs have a series of advantages over the classical camera sensors, including a good positioning accuracy for a fast response time and very simple signal conditioning circuits. To test the performance of this kind of sensor for microrobotics, we have made a comparative analysis between a precise but slow video camera and a custom-made fast PSD system applied to the tracking of a diffuse-reflectivity object transported by a pneumatic microconveyor called Smart-Surface. Until now, the fast system dynamics prevented the full control of the smart surface by visual servoing, unless using a very expensive high frame rate camera. We have built and tested a custom and low cost PSD-based embedded circuit, optically connected with a camera to a single objective by means of a beam splitter. A stroboscopic light source enhanced the resolution. The obtained results showed a good linearity and a fast (over 500 frames per second response time which will enable future closed-loop control by using PSD.

  5. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-03-24

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  6. Seminar on Detectors and measurements techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. (ed.) [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-07-01

    A Nordic Seminar on detectors and radionuclide measurement techniques was held in Lund, Sweden, May 3-4, 2001. The objective was to highlight recent progress and problems for techniques to study environmental radioactivity. It covered the aspect of detector sample geometry's and methods for evaluation of gamma gamma pulse height distributions. Within the field of alpha-spectrometric techniques gridded ionisation chambers, semiconductor detectors and a general description for analysis of alpha-particle-spectra were presented. Recent development in mass spectrometric techniques, AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma mass Spectrometry) for long-lived radionuclides was described. Principles for analysis of beta particle emitters, especially by liquid scintillation were presented. The seminar also covered radiochemistry such advantages and disadvantages between ion exchange, solvent extraction and extraction chromatography. The use of controlled laboratory conditions for discerning the dynamics of accumulation in organisms was demonstrated. Other techniques such as neutron activation were also shown to be useful analytical tool for certain long-lived radionuclides. The results of the intercalibration exercises within the Nordic countries showed the importance of such analytical quality control. (au)

  7. Seminar on Detectors and measurements techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    2002-01-01

    A Nordic Seminar on detectors and radionuclide measurement techniques was held in Lund, Sweden, May 3-4, 2001. The objective was to highlight recent progress and problems for techniques to study environmental radioactivity. It covered the aspect of detector sample geometry's and methods for evaluation of gamma gamma pulse height distributions. Within the field of alpha-spectrometric techniques gridded ionisation chambers, semiconductor detectors and a general description for analysis of alpha-particle-spectra were presented. Recent development in mass spectrometric techniques, AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) and ICPMS (Inductively Coupled Plasma mass Spectrometry) for long-lived radionuclides was described. Principles for analysis of beta particle emitters, especially by liquid scintillation were presented. The seminar also covered radiochemistry such advantages and disadvantages between ion exchange, solvent extraction and extraction chromatography. The use of controlled laboratory conditions for discerning the dynamics of accumulation in organisms was demonstrated. Other techniques such as neutron activation were also shown to be useful analytical tool for certain long-lived radionuclides. The results of the intercalibration exercises within the Nordic countries showed the importance of such analytical quality control. (au)

  8. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  9. Electroweak Precision Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiqing; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    With the high integrated luminosities recorded at the LHC and the very good understanding of the ATLAS detector, it is possible to measure electroweak observables to the highest precision. In this talk, we review the measurement of the W boson mass using data, collected at 7 TeV. Special focus is drawn on a discussion of the modeling uncertainties and the physics potential of the latest low-mu runs, recorded at a center of mass energy of 5 and 13 TeV at the end of 2017. The talk will also review the measurement of the triple differential Drell-Yan cross-section at 8 TeV, which can be used to extract the weak mixing angle. We conclude with a presentation of the tau polarization, measured in Z->tautau using 20.3/fb of proton proton collision data collected at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV.

  10. Gamma detection: an unusual application for surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtenbaum de Iacub, Silvana; Matatagui, Emilio

    1983-01-01

    The silicon surface barrier detectors (SBD), may be ideal devices to be used in dose indicators for the monitoring of gamma radiations; the SBD working as a cavity sensor. The measurement consists in counting the number of pulses that exceeds a certain level of discrimination, this number being proportional to the absorbed dose. The spectral distribution of the pulses gives an idea of the existing photons field's energy. Characteristic spectra obtained with different gamma-and X ray sources are described and analyzed, and tests are carried out by using different sensitive volumes of the detector in order to determine significant parameters for a gamma-monitor system. The results from the measurements indicate: a) high sensitivity of the system with SBD (high density of material); b) low background: enviromental backgrounds are reliably registered (approx. 10μ R/h); c) minimum detectable energies of the order of 60 keV; d) possibility to determine high exposure rates (approx. 100 R/h); e) for emitters of low Z, the result is approximately independent from the gamma energy. These results suggest the possibility of constructing fixed and portable systems, appropriate for gamma monitoring, which utilize SBD as sensors; these devices are adequate for working at enviroment temperatures, being compact, reliable, with low polarization voltages, and of relatively low cost. (M.E.L.) [es

  11. Fabrication and characterization of surface barrier detector from commercial silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julio Batista Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    In this work it was developed radiation detectors silicon surface barrier that were capable of detecting the presence of gamma radiation from a low energy of iodine-125 seeds used in brachytherapy treatments. >From commercial silicon substrates detectors were developed, one sequence left of chemical treatments to the surfaces of these substrates with the intention of minimizing the possible noise generated, validation of the samples obtained as diodes, ensuring detector characteristics and effective use as detector for Iodine-125 radioactive sources with energy of about 25 keV and Americium-251 with energy on the order of 59 keV. Finished performing the analysis of the obtained energy spectra and so it was possible to observe the ability of these detectors to measure the energy from these seeds. (author)

  12. Experimental study on the 1/f noise in surface-barrier particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, W.; Korbel, K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the 1/f noise origins in a surface-barrier particle detector are presented. In these experiments an ordinary surface-barrier detector provided with a reasonably designed guard-ring was used. The measurements of the noise spectra were performed in the ''floating'' and ''balanced'' guard-ring conditions. This way two components of the 1/f noise were determined: the noise occuring due to the surface phenomena, connected with the flow of the surface leakage current, and the noise originated in the bulk of semiconductor, caused by the mobility fluctuation of charge carriers. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  13. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billoir, Pierre, E-mail: billoir@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3 and Univ. P. and M. Curie and Univ. D. Diderot, 4 place Jussieu 75272 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Observatorio Pierre Auger, av. San Martín Norte, 304 5613, Malargüe (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km{sup 2}), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense “infill” subarray. - Highlights: • The water Cherenkov technique is used in the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. • Cross-calibrated with the Fluorescence Detector, it provides a measurement of the primary energy. • The spectrum of the UHE cosmic rays exhibits clearly an “ankle” and a cutoff. • The muon observed muon content of the atmospheric showers is larger than expected from the models. • Stringent limits on the flux of UHE neutrinos and photons are obtained.

  14. The measuring problems of the determination of noise characteristic of semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, W.; Korbel, K.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of measuring the noise of semiconductor detectors are presented. It was shown, that for obtaining the spectral noise distribution of noises generated in the detector in its original form, anaffected by the passive elements network, there is necessary to know the characteristics: I-V, Csub(D)(f) and Rsub(D)(f). The results of measurements of noise spectra for surface barrier and lithium-ion-drifted silicon detectors are discussed. Also conclusions dealing with the noise distribution structure as well as the reverse current of examined detectors are given. (author)

  15. Characterisation of a MOSFET-based detector for dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, W. L.; Ung, N. M.; Tiong, A. H. L.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Wong, J. H. D.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the fundamental dosimetric characteristics of the MOSkin detector for megavoltage electron beam dosimetry. The reproducibility, linearity, energy dependence, dose rate dependence, depth dose measurement, output factor measurement, and surface dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam were tested. The MOSkin detector showed excellent reproducibility (>98%) and linearity (R2= 1.00) up to 2000 cGy for 4-20 MeV electron beams. The MOSkin detector also showed minimal dose rate dependence (within ±3%) and energy dependence (within ±2%) over the clinical range of electron beams, except for an energy dependence at 4 MeV electron beam. An energy dependence correction factor of 1.075 is needed when the MOSkin detector is used for 4 MeV electron beam. The output factors measured by the MOSkin detector were within ±2% compared to those measured with the EBT3 film and CC13 chamber. The measured depth doses using the MOSkin detector agreed with those measured using the CC13 chamber, except at the build-up region due to the dose volume averaging effect of the CC13 chamber. For surface dose measurements, MOSkin measurements were in agreement within ±3% to those measured using EBT3 film. Measurements using the MOSkin detector were also compared to electron dose calculation algorithms namely the GGPB and eMC algorithms. Both algorithms were in agreement with measurements to within ±2% and ±4% for output factor (except for the 4 × 4 cm2 field size) and surface dose, respectively. With the uncertainties taken into account, the MOSkin detector was found to be a suitable detector for dose measurement under megavoltage electron beam. This has been demonstrated in the in vivo skin dose measurement on patients during electron boost to the breast tumour bed.

  16. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.

    2007-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  17. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail: ingo@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Barbosa, A.F. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bauleo, P. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Civit, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Escobar, C.O. [Departamento de Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6165, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Garcia, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Guedes, G. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Av. Universitaria Km 03 da BR 116, Campus Universitario, 44031-460 Feira de Santana BA (Brazil); Gomez Berisso, M. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Harton, J.L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Healy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Newman-Holmes, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL (United States); Pepe, I. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Odina, 40210-340 Salvador BA (Brazil); Rodriguez-Cabo, I. [Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Salazar, H. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Ap. Postal J-48, 72500 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Smetniansky-De Grande, N. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Warner, D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19}eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  18. Resonant surface acoustic wave chemical detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Robert W.; Brocato, Terisse; Stotts, Larry G.

    2017-08-08

    Apparatus for chemical detection includes a pair of interdigitated transducers (IDTs) formed on a piezoelectric substrate. The apparatus includes a layer of adsorptive material deposited on a surface of the piezoelectric substrate between the IDTs, where each IDT is conformed, and is dimensioned in relation to an operating frequency and an acoustic velocity of the piezoelectric substrate, so as to function as a single-phase uni-directional transducer (SPUDT) at the operating frequency. Additionally, the apparatus includes the pair of IDTs is spaced apart along a propagation axis and mutually aligned relative to said propagation axis so as to define an acoustic cavity that is resonant to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the operating frequency, where a distance between each IDT of the pair of IDTs ranges from 100 wavelength of the operating frequency to 400 wavelength of the operating frequency.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of surface barrier detector from commercial silicon substrate; Fabricacao e caracterizacao de detector de barreira de superficie a partir de substrato de silicio comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julio Batista Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    In this work it was developed radiation detectors silicon surface barrier that were capable of detecting the presence of gamma radiation from a low energy of iodine-125 seeds used in brachytherapy treatments. >From commercial silicon substrates detectors were developed, one sequence left of chemical treatments to the surfaces of these substrates with the intention of minimizing the possible noise generated, validation of the samples obtained as diodes, ensuring detector characteristics and effective use as detector for Iodine-125 radioactive sources with energy of about 25 keV and Americium-251 with energy on the order of 59 keV. Finished performing the analysis of the obtained energy spectra and so it was possible to observe the ability of these detectors to measure the energy from these seeds. (author)

  20. Lunar rock surfaces as detectors of solar processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.B.; Hunter College, New York, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lunar rock surfaces exposed at or just below the lunar surface are considered as detectors of the solar wind, solar flares and solar-derived magnetic fields through their interactions with galactic cosmic rays. The degradation of the solar detector capabilities of lunar surface rocks by meteoroid impact erosion, accreta deposition, loose dust, and sputtering, amorphous layer formation and accelerated diffusion due to solar particles and illumination is discussed, and it is noted that the complex interactions of factors affecting the outer micron of exposed surface material has so far prevented the development of a satisfactory model for a particle detector on the submicron scale. Methods for the determination of surface exposure ages based on the accumulation of light solar wind noble gases, Fe and Mg, impact craters, solar flare tracks, and cosmogenic Kr isotopes are examined, and the systematic variations in the ages determined by the various clocks are discussed. It is concluded that a means of obtaining satisfactory quantitative rate or flux data has not yet been established

  1. Bubble Detector Neutron Measurements on JET High Performance Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherendi, M.; Craciunescu, T.; Pantea, A.; Zoita, V. [Association EURATOM-MEdC, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Conroy, S.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Hellesen, C. [Association EURATOM-VR, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Edlington, T.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S. [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Association EURATOM-ENEA, RFX, Padova (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    A neutron diagnostics technique based on the bubble detectors has been successfully used for measurements during the JET experimental campaigns of 2008 and 2009. The main aim of these measurements was the determination of the neutron field characteristics in high performance discharges which employ high neutral beam powers ({approx}20 MW) and produce neutron yields in the range (3-5)*10{sup 16} neutrons per pulse. The neutron field parameters at a specific location above a narrow collimating channel in the ceiling of the JET Torus Hall have been measured simultaneously by two independent techniques (super-heated fluid detectors or 'bubble detectors' and time-of-flight). The bubble detector measurement location is situated at the end of a vertical collimated line of sight, behind the TOFOR time-of-flight spectrometer. The field-of-view of the neutron detectors can be varied by means of a pre-collimator. Spatial (radial and toroidal) distributions of the neutron fluence have been obtained using two-dimensional arrays containing up to 10 bubble detectors. The operation of the bubble detector array as a neutron pinhole camera having a radial resolution at the JET vacuum chamber mid-plane of about 55 mm was demonstrated in measurements using various openings of the pre-collimator. The comparison of the area integrated fluence determined by the bubble detector array with the TOFOR neutron flux has shown a good correlation factor of about 0.99. (authors)

  2. Diffraction measurements with a boron-based GEM neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Gabriele; Albani, Giorgia; Cazzaniga, Carlo; Perelli Cippo, Enrico; Schooneveld, Erik; Claps, Gerardo; Cremona, Anna; Grosso, Giovanni; Muraro, Andrea; Murtas, Fabrizio; Rebai, Marica; Scherillo, Antonella; Tardocchi, Marco; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The research of reliable substitutes of 3He detectors is an important task for the affordability of new neutron scattering instrumentation for future spallation sources like the European Spallation Source. GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier)-based detectors represent a valid alternative since they can combine high-rate capability, coverage of up to 1\\ \\text{m}^{2} area and good intrinsic spatial resolution (for this detector class it can be better than 0.5 mm). The first neutron diffraction measurements performed using a borated GEM detector are reported. The detector has an active area of 10 \\times 5\\ \\text{cm}^{2} and is equipped with a borated cathode. The GEM detector was read out using the standard ISIS Data Acquisition System. The comparison with measurements performed with standard 3He detectors shows that the broadening of the peaks measured on the diffractogram obtained with the GEM is 20-30% wider than the one obtained by 3He tubes but the active area of the GEM is twice that of 3He tubes. The GEM resolution is improved if half of its active area is considered. The signal-to-background ratio of the GEM is about 1.5 to 2 times lower than that of 3He. This measurement proves that GEM detectors can be used for neutron diffraction measurements and paves the way for their use at future neutron spallation sources.

  3. THz detectors using surface Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Yampol'skii, Valery; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    We describe a proposal for THz detectors based on the excitation of surface waves, in layered superconductors, at frequencies lower than the Josephson plasma frequency ω J . These waves propagate along the vacuum-superconductor interface and are attenuated in both transverse directions out of the surface (i.e., towards the superconductor and towards the vacuum). The surface Josephson plasma waves are also important for the complete suppression of the specular reflection from a sample (Wood's anomalies, used for gratings) and produce a huge enhancement of the wave absorption, which can be used for the detection of THz waves

  4. Toroidal magnetic detector for high resolution measurement of muon momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A muon detector system including central and end air-core superconducting toroids and muon detectors enclosing a central calorimeter/detector. Muon detectors are positioned outside of toroids and all muon trajectory measurements are made in a nonmagnetic environment. Internal support for each magnet structure is provided by sheets, located at frequent and regularly spaced azimuthal planes, which interconnect the structural walls of the toroidal magnets. In a preferred embodiment, the shape of the toroidal magnet volume is adjusted to provide constant resolution over a wide range of rapidity.

  5. Reference detectors for low flux optical radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellouati-Ghazi, Amal

    2003-01-01

    The parametric down conversion of photons generated in a non-linear crystal gives rise to two correlated photons. Associated to a System of counting of coincidences, this phenomenon makes possible the quantum efficiency measurements of detectors working on photon counting levels, without using neither sources nor detectors of references. This new method was developed at BNMINM with the aim to realize new standards detectors in the field of weak flows. It allows the determination of quantum efficiency with a relative uncertainty of 1,1%. A comparison with the IENGF (Italy) bearing on the quantum determination of efficiency of one of BNM-FNM detectors made possible to confront the exactitude of the measuring equipment. This detector was also made the object of a comparison with the French reference of radiometry, the cryogenic radiometer, the results were in agreement with uncertainties of measurements. (author) [fr

  6. Three types of photon detectors for in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, R. G.; Gehrke, R. J.; Carpenter, M. V.

    1999-02-01

    The authors have been involved in the calibration and use of three types of γ- and X-ray detectors for in situ measurements of soil contamination. These three detectors are an N-type, thin-window Ge semiconductor detector (5.0 cm diam.× 2.0 cm deep), a plastic scintillator (30.5 cm × 30.5 cm × 3.8 cm thick), and an array of six CaF 2 detectors (each 7.6 cm × 7.6 cm × 0.15 cm thick). The latter two detectors have been used with scanning systems that allow significant areas (say, >100 m 2) to be surveyed completely with the aid of either laser-based triangulation or a global positioning system (GPS) to record the precise position for each measurement. Typically, these systems scan at a rate of 15-30 cm/s which allows an area of 100 m 2 to covered with the plastic scintillator in about 15 min. The data are telemetered or transferred via RS232 protocol to a computer, providing operators with real-time mapping of the area surveyed and of the measured detector count rate. The "efficiencies" of these detectors have been determined by a combination of measurements of calibrated planar sources and Monte Carlo transport calculations for a variety of source sizes and depths in soil, as well as by comparing these field measurements with independent laboratory sample analysis.

  7. Measurement of high-energy electrons by means of a Cherenkov detector in ISTTOK tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L., E-mail: lech.Jjakubowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Rabinski, M. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049 - 001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    The paper concerns detectors of the Cherenkov radiation which can be used to measure high-energy electrons escaping from short-living plasma. Such detectors have high temporal (about 1 ns) and spatial (about 1 mm) resolution. The paper describes a Cherenkov-type detector which was designed, manufactured and installed in the ISTTOK tokamak in order to measure fast runaway electrons. The radiator of that detector was made of an aluminium nitride (AlN) tablet with a light-tight filter on its front surface. Cherenkov signals from the radiator were transmitted through an optical cable to a fast photomultiplier. It made possible to perform direct measurements of the runaway electrons of energy above 80 keV. The measured energy values and spatial characteristics of the recorded electrons appeared to be consistent with results of numerical modelling of the runaway electron generation process in the ISTTOK tokamak.

  8. Vertex measurement at a hadron collider. The ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Knetter, J.

    2008-03-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system and will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the Pixel Detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, fast read-out, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability, all combined with a low material budget. The new design concepts used to meet the challenging requirements are discussed with their realisation in the Pixel Detector, followed by a description of a refined and extensive set of measurements to assess the detector performance during and after its construction. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of indoor radon concentration by CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Yoneda, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Takashi.

    1990-01-01

    A convenient and cheap method for measuring indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration with a CR-39 track detector is described. The detector consisted of two sheets of CR-39 enclosed separately in two plastic pots : one covered by a filter (cup method) and another no covering (bare method). The bare method was used here to supplement the cup method. To compare with the result of the CR-39 detector, alpha-ray spectrometry was carried out with a Si(Au) detector in a controlled radon exposure chamber. Indoor radon concentration measured in 133 houses in several districts of Ishikawa Prefecture have been found to range from 6 Bq/m 3 to as high as 113 Bq/m 3 with a median value of 24 Bq/m 3 . The problems to measure indoor radon concentration using the CR-39 detector are also discussed with emphasis on the position of setting the detector in the room and the possible thoron contribution to the detector. (author)

  10. Detectors for timing measurements 2. Streak cameras and fast photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihito; Adachi, Shin-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Measuring methods of the pulse structure and its stability of the synchrotron radiation, and the method of time resolving measurement by synchronizing the external signal with the synchrotron radiation pulse are explained. The synchrotron radiation pulse width ranges from some ten to some hundred pico-seconds, and the time resolution of the detectors should be better than some pico-seconds. The streak camera is such a fast detector. Instead of the streak camera which is large-scaled and expensive, fast photo-detectors can be employed to know entire time structures. Some examples of time-synchronized measurements using the streak camera and the fast photo-detector are presented. (K.Y.)

  11. Measuring the Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos with the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovic, Alexander [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It measures the flux from the predominately muon neutrino NuMI beam first 1 km from beam start and then again 735 km later using a pair of steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. The comparison of measured neutrino energy spectra at our Far Detector with the prediction based on our Near Detector measurement allows for a measurement of the parameters which define neutrino oscillations. This thesis will describe the most recent measurement of muon neutrino disappearance in the NuMI muon neutrino beam using the MINOS experiment.

  12. Determination of TFTR far-field neutron detector efficiencies by local neutron flux spectrum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; Ascione, G.; Kugel, H.W.; Roquemore, A.L.; Barcelo, T.W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Kumar, A. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Neutron detectors have often been located on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) test cell floor 3 m or more from the vacuum vessel for ease of detector access, to reduce radiation damage, minimize count saturation problems, and to avoid high magnetic fields. These detectors include Si surface-barrier diodes, fission chambers, natural diamond detectors, and T{sub 2} production in a moderated {sup 3}He cell. To evaluate the performance of these detectors during deuterium{endash}tritium (D{endash}T) operation, we determined the neutron flux spectrum incident on the principal detector enclosure using nuclide sample sets containing Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Zr, Nb, In, and Au activation foils. Foils were installed and then removed after ample exposure to TFTR D{endash}T neutrons. High efficiency, high purity Ge detectors were used for gamma spectroscopy of the irradiated foils. The incident neutron fluence and spectral distribution were unfolded from the measured results, and used to derive absolute detector efficiencies. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Development of electron temperature measuring system by silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xianying; Yang Jinwei; Liao Min

    2007-12-01

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy with two channels Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) are adopted for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak in 2005. The working principle, design and first operation of the SDD soft X-ray spectroscopy are introduced. The measuring results of electron temperature are also presented. The results show that the SDD is very good detector for electron temperature measuring on HL-2A tokamak. These will become a solid basic work to establish SDD array for electron temperature profiling. (authors)

  14. The antiproton depth–dose curve measured with alanine detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels; Palmans, Hugo; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Kovacevic, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    n this paper we report on the measurement of the antiproton depth–dose curve, with alanine detectors. The results are compared with simulations using the particle energy spectrum calculated by FLUKA, and using the track structure model of Hansen and Olsen for conversion of calculated dose into response. A good agreement is observed between the measured and calculated relative effectiveness although an underestimation of the measured values beyond the Bragg-peak remains unexplained. The model prediction of response of alanine towards heavy charged particles encourages future use of the alanine detectors for dosimetry of mixed radiation fields.

  15. Exclusive ρ0 production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-01

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  16. Inner detector alignment and top-quark mass measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, Regina

    This thesis is divided in two parts: one related with the alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system and other with the measurement of the top-quark mass. Both topics are connected by the Globalχ2 fitting method. In order to measure the properties of the particles with high accuracy, the ID detector is composed by devices with high intrinsic resolution. If by any chance the position of the modules in the detector is known with worse precision than their intrinsic resolution this may introduce a distortion in the reconstructed trajectory of the particles or at least degrade the tracking resolution. The alignment is the responsible of determining the location of each module with high precision and avoiding therefore any bias in the physics results. During the commissioning of the detector, different alignment exercises were performed for preparing the Globalχ2 algorithm (the CSC , the FDR, weak modes studies,…). At the same time, the ATLAS detector was collecting million of cosmic rays which were...

  17. Recent ("Hot Topic") Electroweak Measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00286669; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Recent electroweak measurements with the ATLAS detector are discussed. Evidence of $W\\gamma\\gamma$ production in pp collisions at 8TeV and the measurement of the WW+WZ production cross section in pp collisions at 7TeV are presented. Limits on anomalous triple and quartic gauge couplings are also presented.

  18. Electroweak measurements with the ATLAS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349845; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of multi-boson production processes involving combinations of W, Z and isolated photons at 8 TeV are summarized. Standard Model cross section are measured with high precision by ATLAS and are compared to world averages. Production processes sensitive to vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering are also presented and used for the triple and quartic gauge boson couplings limits setting.

  19. Electroweak measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The seminar presents an overview of the ATLAS electroweak physics programme. Recent measurements of di-boson and multi-boson production processes involving combinations of W, Z and isolated photons, associated with up to two jets, at 8 TeV proton-proton collisions are discussed. Inclusive, fiducial and differential production cross sections are presented, including vector-boson fusion and vector-boson scattering processes. These measurements allow to derive constraints on anomalous triple and quartic gauge couplings.

  20. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-08-10

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  1. The Antiproton Depth Dose Curve Measured with Alanine Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, Johnny Witterseh; Palmans, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on the measurement of the antiproton depth dose curve, with alanine detectors. The results are compared with simulations using the particle energy spectrum calculated by FLUKA, and using the track structure model of Hansen et Olsen for conversion of calculated dose...... into response. A good agreement was observed between the measured and calculated relative effectiveness although a slight underestimation of the calculated values in the Bragg peak remains unexplained. The model prediction of response of alanine towards heavy charged particles encourages future use...... of the alanine detectors for dosimetry of mixed radiation fields....

  2. Measurement of the Higgs boson mass with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garay Walls F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A summary of the latest results on the combined measurement of the Higgs boson mass in the H → ZZ* → 4l and the H → γγ decay channels with the ATLAS detector is presented. The analysis uses 25 fb−1 of pp collision data recorded by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at centre-of-mass energies of 7TeV and 8 TeV during 2011 and 2012. The combined measured value of the Higgs boson mass is mH = 125.36 ± 0.37 (stat ± 0.18 (syst GeV.

  3. Energy-loss measurement with the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, D.

    2007-05-15

    The measurement of the specific energy loss due to ionisation, dE/dx, in a drift chamber is a very important tool for particle identification in final states of reactions between high energetic particles. Such identification requires a well understood dE/dx measurement including a precise knowledge of its uncertainties. Exploiting for the first time the full set of ZEUS data from the HERA operation between 1996 and 2005 twelve detector-related influences affecting the dE/dx measurement of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector have been identified, separately studied and parameterised. A sophisticated iterative procedure has been developed to correct for these twelve effects, which takes into account the correlations between them. A universal parameterisation of the detector-specific Bethe-Bloch curve valid for all particle species has been extracted. In addition, the various contributions to the measurement uncertainty have been disentangled and determined. This yields the best achievable prediction for the single-track dE/dx resolution. For both the analysis of the measured data and the simulation of detector performance, the detailed understanding of the measurement and resolution of dE/dx gained in this work provides a tool with optimum power for particle identification in a physics studies. (orig.)

  4. Radon measurements technique in air using a track plastic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.F.A.; Silva Estrada, J.J. da; Binns, D.A.C.; Urban, M.

    1983-01-01

    A difusion chamber is used to measure the radon concentration in air through alpha particles tracks in Makrofol E, 300μm thick. This system was developed by Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre, Germany, and is already used by the Occupational Radiological Protection Department of IRD/CNEN, for premilimar measurements in Pocos de Caldas and Rio de Janeiro. In the chamber, the plastic detector is set at the lower end and a filter is placed at the upper end. In this way, a known volume is defined in the detector system. To amplify the tracks produced by the alpha particles due to radon and short-lived dadon-daughter products, an electrochemical system is employed. Some theoretical questions about the treeing produced by the electrochemical etching, the detector characteristics, as well as the adapted statistics model are also discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Calibration of NE213 detector in neutron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkurt, I

    2004-01-01

    Organic scintillator is one of the widely used materials in neutron measurement as they have good timing properties and a high hydrogen content. Calibration of the detector system is an important part of the experimental study for interpretation of the results. As the neutron uncharged, the pulse from the detector is not directly used to determine neutron kinetic energy but the detection threshold for recoil charged particles (p,d,□ etc) has to be known in order to calculate the neutron detection efficiency. In this work calibration procedure of a NE213 detector array used in neutron measurements at MaxLab (Lund,Sweden ), is described.This includes both pulse height and neutron flight time which is important in neutron energy determinations

  6. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  7. QCD measurements with the CMS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In the first year of LHC data taking, CMS pursued a rich program of QCD physics. In the low-pt front, results on momentum-, pseudorapidity- and multiplicity distributions of charged and strange hadrons, underlying event observables, two particle rapidity correlations and Bose-Einstein correlations are presented. In the high-pt front, jet and photon cross-section measurements are reported on inclusive and di-object production, as well as ratios of 3/2 jet cross sections. Finally, the QCD multi-jet dynamics is explored with event-shapes variables, dijet azimuthal decorrelations and dijet angular distributions

  8. NOνA detector technology with initial performance from the surface prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muether, Mathew

    2013-02-01

    NOνA, the NuMI Off-Axis νe Appearance experiment, will study νμ → νe oscillations characterized by the mixing angle θ13. Provided θ13 is large enough, NOνA may ultimately determine the ordering of the neutrino masses and measure CP violation in neutrino oscillations. A complementary pair of detectors will be constructed ~14 mrad off beam axis to optimize the energy profile of the neutrinos. This system consists of a surface based 14 kTon liquid scintillatior tracking volume located 810 km from the main injector source (NuMI) in Ash River, Minnesota and a smaller underground 222 Ton near detector at the Fermilab. The first neutrino signals at the Ash River Site are expected prior to the 2012 accelerator shutdown. In the meantime, a near detector surface prototype has been completed and neutrinos from two Fermilab sources have been observed using the same highly segmented PVC and liquid scintillator detector system that will be deployed in the full scale experiment. Design and initial performance characteristics of this prototype system are being fed back into the design for the full NOνA program.

  9. Ion range measurements using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimpki, G.; Osinga, J.-M.; Herrmann, R.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) show excellent detection properties for heavy charged particles and have, therefore, been investigated in this study in terms of their potential for in-vivo range measurements. We irradiated FNTDs with protons as well as with C, Mg, S, Fe and Xe ion beams...

  10. Applications of a silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Voytchev, M; Chambaudet, A; Georgiev, G; Iovtchev, M

    1999-01-01

    An application of our developed silicon photodiode detector for radon progeny measurements is presented in this paper. It was determined the deposition velocity for free (3.6+-0.7)x10 sup - sup 3 m s sup - sup 1 and attached (1.0+-0.5)x10 sup - sup 5 m s sup - sup 1 fraction of short living radon progeny.

  11. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  12. Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

  13. Measurements of quarkonia with the central detectors of ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Wolfgang

    2008-03-26

    The production of quarkonia, the bound state of an heavy quark with its anti-particle, has for a long time been seen as a key process to understand the properties of nuclear matter in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. This thesis presents studies on the production of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at the new Large Hadron collider (LHC). The focus is set on the decay of J/Psi and Upsilon-states into their di-electronic decay channel, measured within the central detectors of the ALICE detector. (orig.)

  14. Heavy ion measurements by use of chemical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.; Erzgraeber, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    1980-01-01

    In order to test whether the threshold system polyvinyl alcohol/methyl organe/chloral hydrate/sodium tetraborate permits quantitative detection of individual particles, the chemical detector was irradiated at the JINR U-200 cyclotron with 4 He, 12 C, 18 O, 22 Ne ions having different LET. Irradiations were performed with detectors of four different borax concentrations (the chloral hydrate concentration being constant). The colour change dose Dsub(u) increases linearly with increasing borax concentration and at constant borax concentration with increasing LET. Hence it follows that the G value of dehydrochlorination decreases with increasing LET. Fluence ranges measurable with detectors of different composition are given for the heavy ions studied. (author)

  15. Short range laser obstacle detector. [for surface vehicles using laser diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriger, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A short range obstacle detector for surface vehicles is described which utilizes an array of laser diodes. The diodes operate one at a time, with one diode for each adjacent azimuth sector. A vibrating mirror a short distance above the surface provides continuous scanning in elevation for all azimuth sectors. A diode laser is synchronized with the vibrating mirror to enable one diode laser to be fired, by pulses from a clock pulse source, a number of times during each elevation scan cycle. The time for a given pulse of light to be reflected from an obstacle and received is detected as a measure of range to the obstacle.

  16. Surface passivation of high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Edmondson, M.; Lawson, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental work consists of two parts. The first involves fabrication of hyper-pure germanium gamma ray detectors using standard surface treatment, chemical etchings and containment in a suitable cryostat. Then, after cooling the detectors to 77 K, γ-ray emissions from radioisotopes are resolved, resolution, depletion depth, V R versus I R characteristics and /N A -N D / of the germanium are measured. The second part of the work involves investigation of surface states in an effort to achieve long-term stability of operating characteristics. Several methods are used: plasma hydrogenation, a-Si and a-Ge pinch-off effect and simple oxidation. A-Ge and a-Si thicknesses were measured using Rutherford backscattering techniques; surface states were measured with deep level transient spectroscopy and diode reverse current versus reverse voltage plots. Some scanning electron microscope measurements were used in determining major film contaminants during backscattering of a-Si and a-Ge films. Surface passivation studies revealed unexpected hole trapping defects generated when a-Ge:H film is applied. The a-Si:H films were found to be mechanically strong, no defect traps were found and preliminary results suggest that such films will be good passivants. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs., 13 ills

  17. Characterization of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda M, L. de; Federico, C. A.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Air crews, as pilots and flight attendants, are subjected to cosmic ray doses which can be higher than the average doses on workers from the nuclear industry. The diversity of particles of high energies present in the radiation field on board of air crafts turns the determination of the incident dose difficult, and requires special care regarding dosimetric systems to be used in this kind of radiation field. The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA) in conjunction with the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP) are working on this subject since 2008. A prototype of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements was previously built and tested in flight and laboratory conditions. The detector is able of measuring a quantity known as absorbed dose (using passive dosimeters), which will subsequently be correlated to the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose received by air crews. In this context, a theoretical approach through Monte Carlo simulations with the computational codes MCNP5 and MCNPX was used to model and characterize the detector response at such experimental conditions. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between the absorbed doses measured and simulated, and its relationship with the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose for this detector. (author)

  18. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  19. Detector to detector corrections: a comprehensive experimental study of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small radiotherapy beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azangwe, Godfrey; Grochowska, Paulina; Georg, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially...... useful as a reference data set for small beam dosimetry measurements. Methods: Dose response of passive and real time detectors was investigated for small field sizes shaped with a micromultileaf collimator ranging from 0.6 × 0.6 cm2 to 4.2 × 4.2 cm2 and the measurements were extended to larger fields...... of up to 10 × 10 cm2. Measurements were performed at 5 cm depth, in a 6 MV photon beam. Detectors used included alanine, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), stereotactic diode, electron diode, photon diode, radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPLDs), radioluminescence detector based on carbon...

  20. Low-level radon measurements by nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksal, E. M.; Goksel, S. A.; Alkan, H.

    1985-01-01

    In the work to be described here we have developed a passive nuclear track dosimeter to measure the integrated value of indoor radon (Rn-222) over a long period of time. Passive radon dosimeter which we have developed in our laboratories makes use of two small pieces of CR-39 plastic (Allyl diglycol carbonate) as detectors for registering tracks of alpha particles emitted by radon. These CR-39 plastic detectors are fixed on the inside bottom of a cup-shaped polystrene enclosure which is closed at the top by a tissue permeable for gases only. CR-39 detectors exposed to radon gas in the indoor air for a period of six months then are removed and chemically etched to make the alpha particle tracks visible under the microscope. The counts of tracks are evaluated to determine the radon concentration in the air in comparison with the number of tracks produced by a known concentration of radon gas. By using the passive dosimeters developed and the chemical etching procedure descriped here, measurements of indoor radon concentrations were carried out in 45 houses in different districts of the city of Istanbul. In this pilot experiment mean radon concentrations between 0.7 and 3.5 pCi/l have been found in these houses. In order to improve the counting of alpha tracks produced on the detectors a prototype electrochemical etching system in addition to chemical etching, is being developed. (author)

  1. Diamond detectors with laser induced surface graphite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komlenok, M. [A.M. Prokorhov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, A. [A.M. Prokorhov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 Xidazhi Str., 150001 Harbin (China); Ralchenko, V. [A.M. Prokorhov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 Xidazhi Str., 150001 Harbin (China); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Kashirskoye shosse, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Konov, V. [A.M. Prokorhov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Kashirskoye shosse, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Conte, G. [Department of Sciences, University Roma Tre and INFN, Via Vasca Navale, 84-00148 Rome (Italy); CNR-ISM, Institute for Structure of Matter, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29, 300, Montelibretti (Italy); Girolami, M. [CNR-ISM, Institute for Structure of Matter, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29, 300, Montelibretti (Italy); Oliva, P. [University Niccolò Cusano, Via don Carlo Gnocchi, 3-00166 Rome (Italy); Mediterranean Institute of Fundamental Physics ‘MIFP’, Via Appia Nuova, 31-00040 Marino (Rome) (Italy); Salvatori, S. [University Niccolò Cusano, Via don Carlo Gnocchi, 3-00166 Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-21

    We report on the response of metal-less CVD polycrystalline-diamond pixel sensors under β-particles irradiation. A 21×21 array of 0.18×0.18 mm{sup 2} pixels was realized on one side of a 10.0×10.0×0.5 mm{sup 3} polycrystalline diamond substrate by means of laser induced surface graphitization. With the same technique, a large graphite contact, used for detector biasing, was fabricated on the opposite side. A coincidence detecting method was used with two other reference polycrystalline diamond detectors for triggering, instead of commonly used scintillators, positioned in the front and on the back of the sensor-array with respect to the impinging particles trajectory. The collected charge distribution at each pixel was analyzed as a function of the applied bias. No change in the pulse height distribution was recorded by inverting the bias voltage polarity, denoting contacts ohmicity and symmetry. A fairly good pixel response uniformity was obtained: the collected charge most probable value saturates for all the pixels at an electric field strength of about ±0.6 V/μm. Under saturation condition, the average collected charge was equal to =1.64±0.02 fC, implying a charge collection distance of about 285 µm. A similar result, within 2%, was also obtained for 400 MeV electrons at beam test facility at INFN Frascati National Laboratory. Experimental results highlighted that more than 84% of impinging particles involved only one pixel, with no significant observed cross-talk effects.

  2. Photoluminescence study of surface treatment effects on detector-grade CdTe:In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zázvorka, J.; Hlídek, P.; Franc, J.; Pekárek, J.; Grill, R.

    2016-02-01

    We studied the influence of standard surface treatment techniques on the generation of defects with deep levels that can act as trapping and recombination centers for photo-generated carriers in detector-grade CdTe:In material grown via the Vertical-Gradient-Freeze (VGF) method. We measured room-temperature contactless resistivity, photoconductivity, detector performance and low-temperature photoluminescence dependence on the surface preparation of the material and observed changes in the resistivity and photoluminescence signal after etching a 5 μm thick surface layer. We found four deep levels in the range of 0.8-1.3 eV. The relative ratio of their photoluminescence maxima changes after mechanical polishing and chemical etching treatment. A deep level at ˜0.9 eV seems to be connected to mechanical stress induced by polishing of the sample with a standard 1 μm alumina abrasive and influences the charge collection efficiency of the detector.

  3. Germanium nitride and oxynitride films for surface passivation of Ge radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggioni, G., E-mail: maggioni@lnl.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Carturan, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia G. Galilei, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Fiorese, L. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e delle Tecnologie Industriali, Università di Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Pinto, N.; Caproli, F. [Scuola di Scienze e Tecnologie, Sezione di Fisica, Università di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Napoli, D.R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell’Universita’2, I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Giarola, M.; Mariotto, G. [Dipartimento di Informatica—Università di Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • A surface passivation method for HPGe radiation detectors is proposed. • Highly insulating GeNx- and GeOxNy-based layers are deposited at room temperature. • Deposition parameters affect composition and electrical properties of the layers. • The improved performance of a GeNx-coated HPGe diode is assessed. - Abstract: This work reports a detailed investigation of the properties of germanium nitride and oxynitride films to be applied as passivation layers to Ge radiation detectors. All the samples were deposited at room temperature by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. A strong correlation was found between the deposition parameters, such as deposition rate, substrate bias and atmosphere composition, and the oxygen and nitrogen content in the film matrix. We found that all the films were very poorly crystallized, consisting of very small Ge nitride and oxynitride nanocrystallites, and electrically insulating, with the resistivity changing from three to six orders of magnitude as a function of temperature. A preliminary test of these films as passivation layers was successfully performed by depositing a germanium nitride film on the intrinsic surface of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) diode and measuring the improved performance, in terms of leakage current, with respect to a reference passivated diode. All these interesting results allow us to envisage the application of this coating technology to the surface passivation of germanium-based radiation detectors.

  4. Measurements of radon in dwellings with CR-39 track detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, Benny

    1986-01-01

    A passive integrating dosemeter has been designed for measuring natural radiation in dwellings. The dosemeter contains one or two CR-39 track detectors to measure radon and three thermoluminescence dosemeters to measure external radiation. The dosemeter was investigated in a pilot study in 1983....../84, and it is now used in a nationwide survey of natural radiation in Danish dwellings. The characteristics of the dosemeter with respect to radon measurements are presented, and the radon monitoring results obtained in the pilot study are summarized...

  5. Estimation of methane emission flux at landfill surface using laser methane detector: Influence of gauge pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kyu; Kang, Jong-Yun; Lee, Nam-Hoon

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of measuring methane emission fluxes, using surface methane concentration and gauge pressure, by analyzing the influence of gauge pressure on the methane emission flux and the surface methane concentration, as well as the correlation between the methane emission flux and surface methane concentrations. The surface methane concentration was measured using a laser methane detector. Our results show a positive linear relationship between the surface methane concentration and the methane emission flux. Furthermore, the methane emission flux showed a positive linear relationship with the gauge pressure; this implies that when the surface methane concentration and the surface gauge pressure are measured simultaneously, the methane emission flux can be calculated using Darcy's law. A decrease in the vertical permeability was observed when the gauge pressure was increased, because reducing the vertical permeability may lead to a reduced landfill gas emission to the atmosphere, and landfill gas would be accumulated inside the landfill. Finally, this method is simple and can allow for a greater number of measurements during a relatively shorter period. Thus, it provides a better representation of the significant space and time variations in methane emission fluxes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Numerical calculation of the geometric efficiency of circular detector and surface source arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, O.J.

    1980-05-01

    This report describes a numerical technique of determining the geometric efficiency of circular detector and various surface source arrangements. Circular sources are primarily discussed, but most other surface shapes can be accommodated by the technique

  7. Technological advances in cosmogenic neutron detectors for measuring soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreda, M. G.; Schrön, M.; Köhli, M.

    2017-12-01

    The cosmic-ray neutron probe is used for measuring area-average soil water content at the hectometer scale. Early work showed a simple exponential decrease with distance of the instrument's sensitivity and a footprint 300 m in radius. Recent research suggested a much higher sensitivity to local neutrons and reduced footprint. We show results confirming the high sensitivity to local neutrons, describe two ways to reduce local and increase far-field effects, and propose ways of measuring neutrons at different spatial scales. Measurements with moderated detectors across a 10-m-wide creek and a 2-m-wide water tank show a decrease by 30% and 20%, respectively, of neutron intensity over water compared to that over land nearby. These results mean that the detector is sensitive to meter-scale heterogeneities of water content. This sensitivity can be reduced by rising the detector or by shielding it from local neutrons. The effect of local water distributions on the measured neutron intensity decreases with height. In the water tank experiment it disappeared almost completely at the height of 2 m, leading to the conjecture that the height roughly equal to the horizontal scale of heterogeneity would eliminate the sensitivity. This may or may not be practical. Shielding the detector below by a hydrogenous material removes a substantial fraction of the local neutrons. The shielded detector has a reduced count rate, reduced sensitivity to local neutrons and increased sensitivity to neutrons farther afield, and a larger footprint. Such a detector could be preferable to the current cosmogenic-neutron probe under heterogeneous soil water conditions. The shielding experiments also inspired the development of a local-area neutron detector. It has hydrogenous neutron shields on all sides except the bottom, substantially blocking the neutrons coming from afar, while allowing the neutrons coming directly from below. Its footprint is equal to its physical dimension when the detector is

  8. TT detector description and implementation of the survey measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Salzmann, C

    2008-01-01

    The TT geometry in the software has been updated to comply with the latest technical drawings. The main difference is in the description of the beam pipe insulation, where the amount of material has increased from $7.5\\%$ to $15.4\\%$ of $X_0$. Mother volumes are added to decrease the CPU consumption and finally several scans are made to compare the material budget between the DC06 geometry and the new 2008 geometry. In addition, the survey measurements of the TT detector have been analysed. These measurements can be subdivided into surveys of the detector box, photogrammetry of the balconies and metrology of the half-modules. The offsets with the nominal geometry are implemented in the alignment condition database.

  9. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  10. Measurement of the W boson mass with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00408270

    This thesis describes a measurement of the W boson mass with the ATLAS detector based on the data-set recorded by ATLAS in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and corresponding to 4.6 inverse femtobarn of integrated luminosity. Measurements are performed through template fits to the transverse momentum distributions of charged leptons and to transverse mass distributions of the W boson, in electron and muon decay modes in various kinematic categories. The individual measurements are found to be consistent and their combination leads to a value of \\begin{eqnarray} \

  11. Measurements of exclusive production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iuppa, Roberto; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been adopted to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. A measurement of exclusive production of dileptons (ee and mumu) proton-proton collisions is presented. The results show significant deviations from the pure QED prediction, which can be explained by photon coherence and proton rescattering effects. If available, a first measurement of the exclusive di-muon production in proton–proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and a measurement of the production of exclusive pions at 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector will be also presented. In addition, an analysis performed at 8 TeV concentrates on the electron-muon final state to study the exclusive prod...

  12. A luminosity measurement at LEP using the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    To perform high precision measurements at particle colliders it is crucial to know the exact intensity of the colliding beams. In particle physics this quantity is generally referred to as the luminosity. The determination of the luminosity in one of the experiments (L3) is the topic of this thesis. The implementation and the use of a silicon strip detector in L3, will be described in detail. In chapter one the most important parameters measured at LEP are discussed, preceded by a short introduction to the Standard Model. The process generally used for luminosity measurements in electron positron colliders is small angle Bhabha scattering. This process is discussed at the end of chapter one. In chapter two the characteristics of the collider and the L3 experiment are given. Together with the signature of the small angle Bhabha scattering, these experimental conditions determine the specifications for the design of the luminosity monitor. The general features of silicon strip detectors for their application in high energy physics are presented in chapter three. Some special attention is given to the behaviour of the sensors used for the tracking detector in the luminosity monitor. The more specific design details of the luminosity monitor are constricted to chapter four. In chapter five the conversion from detector signals into ccordinates relevant for the analysis is explained. The selection of the small angle Bhabha scattering events and the subsequent determination of the luminosity, are presented in chapter six. Systematic uncertainties are carefully studied. Important for a good understanding of the Bhabha selection are the events where a photon is produced in the scattering process. These events are separately studied. In chapter seven a comparison is presented between the radiative events observed in the data and their modelling in the Bhlumi Monte Carlo programme. (orig.)

  13. Accuracy of fuel motion measurements using in-core detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    An initial assessment has been made as to how accurately fuel motion can be measured with in-core detectors. A portion of this assessment has involved the calculation of the response of various detectors to fuel motion and the development of a formalism for correlating uncertainties in a neutron flux measurement to uncertainties in the fuel motion. Initially, four idealized configurations were studied in one dimension. These configurations consisted of (1) a single fuel-pin test using ACPR, (2) a seven fuel-pin test using ACPR, (3) a full subassembly (271 pin) test using a Class I ANL-type SAREF, and (4) a full subassembly plus six partial subassemblies (approximately 1000 pin) test using a Class III GE-type SAREF. It was assumed that melt would occur symmetrically at the center of the test fuel and that fuel would therefore disappear from the center of the geometry. For each case of series of calculations was performed in which detector responses were determined at several radial locations for the unperturbed core and for the core with various fractions of the fuel replaced with Na. This fuel loss was assumed to occur essentially instantaneously such that the power level in the remaining portion of the test fuel remained unchanged from that of the initial unperturbed condition

  14. Muon lifetime measurement using the HiSPARC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Mau Chung; Nguyen Thi Dung; Nguyen Anh Duc; Luong Anh Hong; Giang Kien Trung; Nguyen Duc Vinh; Jan Oldenziel

    2011-01-01

    A HiSPARC (High School Project on AstroPhysics Research with Cosmics) Cosmic Ray Detector Station has been set up in Viet Nam with the help of NIKHEF and University of Amsterdam. This paper presents the results of an experiment using HiSPARC scintillation detector (with an area of 0.5x1 m 2 and a thickness 3 cm) in order to measure the lifetime of cosmic muon. With average energy at sea level around 4.0 GeV, most of cosmic muons pass through the scintillator easily but some of them are stopped in the scintillator material and decay in an electron and two neutrinos: μ - → e - + ν μ + ν e . Muon and electron daughter are detected by the detector and the difference time between two signals is measured by the MuonLab II DAQ system. After analyzing a set of data about 1.4x10 4 events which have been collected during the run time more than 1300 h, the experiment obtained the value of muon lifetime τ = (2.201 ± 0.015)x10 -6 s which is compatible with the nominal one. (author)

  15. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  16. Measurement of diffractive and exclusive processes with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gach Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS Collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV at the LHC. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. Prospects for exclusive jet production studies with the forward proton tagging capability of the AFP sub-detector of ATLAS are also discussed. First results based on data taken jointly with the ATLAS and the LHCf detectors in a p+Pb run will also be shown. In addition, the measurement of the cross-section for the exclusive production of di-lepton pairs in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV is discussed.

  17. Towards a Total Cross Section Measurement with the ALFA Detector at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebiński, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The main goals of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) detector is to provide an absolute luminosity and total cross section measurement. The measurement method used, the detector alignment and the quality of the collected data are discussed.

  18. Burnup measurements with the Los Alamos fork detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, G.E.; Rinard, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The fork detector system can determine the burnup of spent-fuel assemblies. It is a transportable instrument that can be mounted permanently in a spent-fuel pond near a loading area for shipping casks, or be attached to the storage pond bridge for measurements on partially raised spent-fuel assemblies. The accuracy of the predicted burnup has been demonstrated to be as good as 2% from measurements on assemblies in the United States and other countries. Instruments have also been developed at other facilities throughout the world using the same or different techniques, but with similar accuracies. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Measurement of the position resolution of the Gas Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffitta, Paolo; Muleri, Fabio; Fabiani, Sergio; Costa, Enrico; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; Minuti, Massimo; Pinchera, Michele; Spandre, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The Gas Pixel Detector was designed and built as a focal plane instrument for X-ray polarimetry of celestial sources, the last unexplored subtopics of X-ray astronomy. It promises to perform detailed and sensitive measurements resolving extended sources and detecting polarization in faint sources in crowded fields at the focus of telescopes of good angular resolution. Its polarimetric and spectral capability were already studied in earlier works. Here we investigate for the first time, with both laboratory measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, its imaging properties to confirm its unique capability to carry out imaging spectral-polarimetry in future X-ray missions.

  20. Top quark properties and mass measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno Llacer, Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ID# 104 Top quark properties and mass measurements with the ATLAS detector The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented using 8 TeV and 13 TeV data. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The production of top-quark pairs in association with W and Z bosons is also presented. The measurement probes the coupling between the top quark and ...

  1. Measurement of the W boson mass with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Balli, Fabrice; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A precise measurement of the mass of the W boson mass represents an important milestone to test the overall consistency of the Standard Model. Since the discovery of a Higgs Boson, the W boson mass is predicted to 7 MeV precision, while the world average of all measurements is 15 MeV, making the improved measurement an important goal. The ATLAS experiment at the LHC represents an ideal laboratory for such a precise measurement. Large samples of many millions of leptonic decays of W and Z bosons were collected with efficient single lepton triggers in the 7 TeV data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6/fb. With these samples the detector and physics modelling has been studied in great detail to enable a systematic uncertainty on the measurement that approaches the statistical power of the data of 7 MeV per decay channel as far as possible.

  2. Measurement of the W boson mass with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivernyk, Oleh

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes a measurement of the W boson mass with the ATLAS detector based on the data-set recorded by ATLAS in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and corresponding to 4.6 inverse femto-barn of integrated luminosity. Measurements are performed through template fits to the transverse momentum distributions of charged leptons and to transverse mass distributions of the W boson, in electron and muon decay modes in various kinematic categories. The individual measurements are found to be consistent and their combination leads to a value of m W = 80371.1 ± 18.6 MeV. The measured value of the W boson mass is compatible with the current world average of m W = 80385 ± 15 MeV. The uncertainty is competitive with the current most precise measurements performed by the CDF and D0 collaborations. (author) [fr

  3. Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valevich, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel

  4. Measurements of exclusive production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, Leszek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been adopted to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs (ee and mumu) in proton-proton collision data taken at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV. The results show significant deviations from the pure QED prediction, which can be explained by photon coherence and proton rescattering effects. If available, a measurement of the production of exclusive pions at 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector will be also presented. In addition, an analysis performed at 8 TeV concentrates on the electron-muon final state to study the exclusive production of WW boson pairs. This analysis is re-optimised to search for the exclusive production of the Higgs boson in the WW* decay channel and the corresponding results will be discussed.

  5. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.C. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  6. Tau Polarization Measurement in the L3 Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Polarization asymmetry (A p ) measurement can be obtained from the energy spectra of the tau lepton (tau) decay products. This measurement provides a precise determination of the weak mixing angel (sin''2 tilde char theta w ), one of the Standard Model fundamental parameters. Tau leptons are produced at LEP in e''+e''-yields tilde char f interactions at a center of mass energy of the order of the Z boson mass. In order to get A p we have calculated the analytical formulae of the tau decay products energy spectra, including radiative corrections, for all of the one prong tau decay channels. We have also extended this analytical formalism to the detector level, including the selection criteria effectsand the detector resolution (calibration) in the analytical expressions.Detailed studies have been performed concerning our measurement using this formalism. From the data collected with the L3 detector between 1991 and 1994, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 118.8 pb''1 at a center of mass energy of the order of the Z mass, we have identified and selected the following tau decay channel samples: tau yields e nu tilde char nu, tau yields mu nu tilde char nu, tau yields pi/K nu y tau yields p/K*nu. From the analysis of these samples we get the tau polarization asymmetry measurement: A p =3D0.143+-0.014+-0.010, which corresponds to a value of sin''2 tilde char theta w =3D0.2320+-0.0018+-0.0013. (Author) 24 refs

  7. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurement and Detector Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide information on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway

  8. Surface roughness studies with DALLAS-detector array for laser light angular scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Teague, E. C.; Scire, F. E.; Mclay, M. J.; Gilsinn, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop a better mathematical description of optical scattering phenomena, in order to construct an optical scattering apparatus for reliable and routine measurements of roughness parameters without resorting to comparator standards. After a brief outline of optical scattering theory, a description is presented of an experimental instrument for measuring surface roughness which incorporates optical scattering principles. The instrument has a He-Ne laser which illuminates the test surface at a variable angle of incidence. Scattered light distribution is detected by an array of 87 fiber-optic sensors positioned in a rotating semicircular yoke. The output from the detector is digitized and analyzed in a laboratory computer. For a comparison with experimental data, theoretical distributions are calculated by substituting the roughness profiles into the operand of and integral equation for electromagnetic scattering developed by Beckmann and Spizzichino (1963). A schematic diagram of the instrument is provided and the general implications of the experimental results are discussed.

  9. Measuring ionizing radiation in the atmosphere with a new balloon-borne detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, K. L.; Briggs, A. A.; Harrison, R. G.; Marlton, G. J.

    2017-05-01

    Increasing interest in energetic particle effects on weather and climate has motivated development of a miniature scintillator-based detector intended for deployment on meteorological radiosondes or unmanned airborne vehicles. The detector was calibrated with laboratory gamma sources up to 1.3 MeV and known gamma peaks from natural radioactivity of up to 2.6 MeV. The specifications of our device in combination with the performance of similar devices suggest that it will respond to up to 17 MeV gamma rays. Laboratory tests show that the detector can measure muons at the surface, and it is also expected to respond to other ionizing radiation including, for example, protons, electrons (>100 keV), and energetic helium nuclei from cosmic rays or during space weather events. Its estimated counting error is ±10%. Recent tests, when the detector was integrated with a meteorological radiosonde system and carried on a balloon to 25 km altitude, identified the transition region between energetic particles near the surface, which are dominated by terrestrial gamma emissions, to higher-energy particles in the free troposphere.

  10. Elastic and inelastic cross section measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Simon Holm; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The total pp cross section is a fundamental property of the strong interaction which can not be calculated in perturbative QCD but only described based on phenomenological models. The ATLAS collaboration has measured the total inelastic proton-proton cross section and the diffractive part of the inelastic cross section at 13 TeV in special data sets taken with low beam currents and using forward scintillators. More precise measurements of the total pp cross section and the elastic and inelastic contributions have been extracted from measurements of the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem. The ATLAS Collaboration has performed this measurement in elastic data collected with high beta* optics at 8 TeV centre-of-mass energy with the ALFA Roman Pot detector.

  11. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  12. Trigger and aperture of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Castro, M. L. Diaz; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.

    2010-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consists of 1600 water-Cherenkov detectors, for the study of extensive air showers (EAS) generated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We describe the trigger hierarchy, from the identification of candidate showers at the level of a single

  13. Luminosity Measurement at The CMS Detector (BCM1F)

    CERN Document Server

    Shaglel, Salwa

    2017-01-01

    The most important performance parameters for a particle collider are the beam energy and the luminosity. An event is the rate of useful interactions, and it’s a very important term in particle collider world. The quantity that defines the ability of a collider to produce events is called the luminosity (L). Precise luminosity measurements are of crucial importance, as it determines the precision of any physics cross section measurement. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 × 10 34 cm −2 s −1 was reached with 10 11 protons per bunch and bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles with an excellent time resolution. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced back- ground arrive with 12 ns time difference. The performance of the BCM1F detector is...

  14. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  15. Scaling beta-delayed neutron measurements to large detector areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, F.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2017-08-01

    We explore the performance of a cargo screening system that consists of two large-sized composite scintillation detectors and a high-energy neutron interrogation source by modeling and simulation. The goal of the system is to measure β-delayed neutron emission from an illicit special nuclear material by use of active interrogation. This task is challenging because the β-delayed neutron yield is small in comparison with the yield of the prompt fission secondary products, β-delayed neutrons are emitted with relatively low energies, and high neutron and gamma backgrounds are typically present. Detectors used to measure delayed neutron emission must exhibit high intrinsic efficiency and cover a large solid angle, which also makes them sensitive to background neutron radiation. We present a case study where we attempt to detect the presence of 5 kg-scale quantities of 235U in a standard air-filled cargo container using 14 MeV neutrons as a probe. We find that by using a total measurement time of ˜11.6 s and a dose equivalent of ˜1.7 mrem, the presence of 235U can be detected with false positive and false negative probabilities that are both no larger than 0.1%.

  16. Resistivity measurements on the neutron irradiated detector grade silicon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng

    1993-11-01

    Resistivity measurements under the condition of no or low electrical field (electrical neutral bulk or ENB condition) have been made on various device configurations on detector grade silicon materials after neutron irradiation. Results of the measurements have shown that the ENB resistivity increases with neutron fluence ({Phi}{sub n}) at low {phi}{sub n} (<10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}) and saturates at a value between 300 and 400 k{Omega}-cm at {phi}{sub n} {approximately}10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}. Meanwhile, the effective doping concentration N{sub eff} in the space charge region (SCR) obtained from the C-V measurements of fully depleted p{sup +}/n silicon junction detectors has been found to increase nearly linearly with {phi}{sub n} at high fluences ({phi}{sub n} > 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}). The experimental results are explained by the deep levels crossing the Fermi level in the SCR and near perfect compensation in the ENB by all deep levels, resulting in N{sub eff} (SCR) {ne} n or p (free carrier concentrations in the ENB).

  17. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L. Danilishin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  18. Measurement of nuclear activity with Ge detectors and its uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes P, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the influence magnitudes which affect the activity measurement of gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources. They prepared by means of the gravimetric method, as well as, determining the uncertainty of such measurement when this is carried out with a gamma spectrometer system with a germanium detector. This work is developed in five chapters: In the first one, named Basic principles it is made a brief description about the meaning of the word Measurement and its implications and the necessaries concepts are presented which are used in this work. In the second chapter it is exposed the gravimetric method used for the manufacture of the gamma transmitter isolated radioactive sources, it is tackled the problem to determine the main influence magnitudes which affect in the measurement of their activity and the respective correction factors and their uncertainties are deduced. The third chapter describes the gamma spectrometry system which is used in this work for the measurement of the activity of isolated sources and also its performance and experimental arrangement that it is used. In the fourth chapter are applied the three previous items with the object of determining the uncertainty which would be obtained in the measurement of an isolated radioactive source elaborated with the gravimetric method in the experimental conditions less favourable predicted above the obtained results from the chapter two. The conclusions are presented in the fifth chapter and they are applied to establish the optimum conditions for the measurement of the activity of a gamma transmitter isolated radioactive source with a spectrometer with germanium detector. (Author)

  19. Conversion factor and uncertainty estimation for quantification of towed gamma-ray detector measurements in Tohoku coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, S.; Thornton, B.; Kamada, S.; Hirao, Y.; Ura, T.; Odano, N.

    2016-01-01

    Factors to convert the count rate of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to the concentration of radioactive cesium in marine sediments are estimated for a towed gamma-ray detector system. The response of the detector against a unit concentration of radioactive cesium is calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation considering the vertical profile of radioactive material measured in core samples. The conversion factors are acquired by integrating the contribution of each layer and are normalized by the concentration in the surface sediment layer. At the same time, the uncertainty of the conversion factors are formulated and estimated. The combined standard uncertainty of the radioactive cesium concentration by the towed gamma-ray detector is around 25 percent. The values of uncertainty, often referred to as relative root mean squat errors in other works, between sediment core sampling measurements and towed detector measurements were 16 percent in the investigation made near the Abukuma River mouth and 5.2 percent in Sendai Bay, respectively. Most of the uncertainty is due to interpolation of the conversion factors between core samples and uncertainty of the detector's burial depth. The results of the towed measurements agree well with laboratory analysed sediment samples. Also, the concentrations of radioactive cesium at the intersection of each survey line are consistent. The consistency with sampling results and between different lines' transects demonstrate the availability and reproducibility of towed gamma-ray detector system.

  20. Conversion factor and uncertainty estimation for quantification of towed gamma-ray detector measurements in Tohoku coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, S., E-mail: ohnishi@nmri.go.jp [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan); Thornton, B. [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kamada, S.; Hirao, Y.; Ura, T.; Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Institute, 6-38-1, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004 (Japan)

    2016-05-21

    Factors to convert the count rate of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to the concentration of radioactive cesium in marine sediments are estimated for a towed gamma-ray detector system. The response of the detector against a unit concentration of radioactive cesium is calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation considering the vertical profile of radioactive material measured in core samples. The conversion factors are acquired by integrating the contribution of each layer and are normalized by the concentration in the surface sediment layer. At the same time, the uncertainty of the conversion factors are formulated and estimated. The combined standard uncertainty of the radioactive cesium concentration by the towed gamma-ray detector is around 25 percent. The values of uncertainty, often referred to as relative root mean squat errors in other works, between sediment core sampling measurements and towed detector measurements were 16 percent in the investigation made near the Abukuma River mouth and 5.2 percent in Sendai Bay, respectively. Most of the uncertainty is due to interpolation of the conversion factors between core samples and uncertainty of the detector's burial depth. The results of the towed measurements agree well with laboratory analysed sediment samples. Also, the concentrations of radioactive cesium at the intersection of each survey line are consistent. The consistency with sampling results and between different lines' transects demonstrate the availability and reproducibility of towed gamma-ray detector system.

  1. Measurements of V+jets with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mcfayden, Josh; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of jets in association with vector bosons is an important process to study QCD in a multi-scale environment. The ATLAS collaboration has performed measurements of vector boson+jets cross sections, differential in several kinematic variables, in proton-proton collision data taken at center-of-mass energies of 8TeV and 13TeV. The measurements are compared to state-of-the art theory predictions and can be used to constrain the proton structure. We have also studied the jet production rates at different resolution scales. In particular, we present a measurement of the splitting scales in the kt jet-clustering algorithm for final states containing a Z-boson candidate at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data are corrected for detector effects and are compared to state-of-the-art Monte Carlo predictions.

  2. Measurements of ttbar+X using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kawade, Kentaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The large centre-of-mass energy available at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) allows for the copious production of top quark pairs in association with other final state particles at high transverse momenta. Several final state observables that are sensitive to additional radiation in top anti-top quark final states has been measured by the ATLAS experiment. The production of top quark pair in association with $W$ and $Z$ bosons or with a photon are also measured by using the ATLAS detector. Analyses probing the top pair production with additional QCD radiation include the multiplicity of jets for various transverse momentum thresholds in the 13 TeV data. These measurements are compared to modern Monte Carlo generators based on NLO QCD matrix element or LO multi-leg matrix elements, and the results are consistent with the standard model predictions within the experimental uncertainties.

  3. Field evaluation of nanofilm detectors for measuring acidic particles in indoor and outdoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Beverly S; Heikkinen, Maire S A; Hazi, Yair; Gao, Hai; Peters, Paul; Lippmann, Morton

    2004-09-01

    This field evaluation study was conducted to assess new technology designed to measure number concentrations of strongly acidic ultrafine particles. Interest in these particles derives from their potential to cause adverse health effects. Current methods for counting and sizing airborne ultrafine particles cannot isolate those particles that are acidic. We hypothesized that the size-resolved number concentration of such particles to which people are exposed could be measured by newly developed iron nanofilm detectors on which sulfuric acid (H2SO4*) droplets produce distinctive ringed reaction sites visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We carried out field measurements using an array of samplers, with and without the iron nanofilm detectors, that allowed indirect comparison of particle number concentrations and size-resolved measures of acidity. The iron nanofilm detectors are silicon chips (5 mm x 5 mm x 0.6 mm) that are coated with iron by vapor deposition. The iron layer was 21.5 or 26 nm thick for the two batches used in these experiments. After exposure the detector surface was scanned topographically by AFM to view and enumerate the ringed acid reaction sites and deposited nonacidic particles. The number of reaction sites and particles per scan can be counted directly on the image displayed by AFM. Sizes can also be measured, but for this research we did not size particles collected in the field. The integrity of the surface of iron nanofilm detectors was monitored by laboratory analysis and by deploying blank detectors and detectors that had previously been exposed to H2SO4 calibration aerosols. The work established that the detectors could be used with confidence in temperate climates. Under extreme high humidity and high temperature, the surface film was liable to detach from the support, but remaining portions of the film still produced reliable data. Exposure to ambient gases in a filtered air canister during the field tests did not affect the film

  4. Induced Radioactivity Measured in a Germanium Detector After a Long Duration Balloon Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, R.; Evans, L. G.; Floyed, S. R.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Rester, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    A 13-day long duration balloon flight carrying a germanium detector was flown from Williams Field, Antartica in December 1992. After recovery of the payload the activity induced in the detector was measured.

  5. Boosted Dark Matter Quarrying at Surface Neutrino Detectors arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    We propose the idea of "Earth Shielding" to reject cosmic-ray backgrounds, in the search for boosted dark matter at surface neutrino detectors, resulting in the enhancement of the signal-to-background ratio. The identification of cosmic-originating rare signals, especially lacking features, at surface detectors is often considered hopeless due to a vast amount of cosmic-ray-induced background, hence underground experiments are better motivated to avoid such a challenge. We claim that surface detectors can attain remarkable sensitivities to even featureless signals, once restricting to events coming through the Earth from the opposite side of the detector location for the signals leaving appreciable tracks from which the source direction is inferred. By doing so, potential backgrounds in the signal region of interest can be substantially suppressed. To validate our claim, we study experimental reaches at several surface experiments such as SBN Program (MicroBooNE, ICARUS, and SBND) and ProtoDUNE for elastic bo...

  6. MARTA: A high-energy cosmic-ray detector concept with high-accuracy muon measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; et al.

    2017-12-20

    A new concept for the direct measurement of muons in air showers is presented. The concept is based on resistive plate chambers (RPCs), which can directly measure muons with very good space and time resolution. The muon detector is shielded by placing it under another detector able to absorb and measure the electromagnetic component of the showers such as a water-Cherenkov detector, commonly used in air shower arrays. The combination of the two detectors in a single, compact detector unit provides a unique measurement that opens rich possibilities in the study of air showers.

  7. Development of a alpha spectrometer system with the surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Marcus Alexandre Vallini de

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this work is the development of an α spectrometer of low cost and home made technology. The spectrometer is mounted in a double NIM module and includes a surface barrier detector and dedicate electronic system. Six barrier surface detectors were made, three of which with η type silicon wafer 3350 Ω.cm, 270mm 2 and three other with ρ type silicon wafer 5850 Ω.cm and 220mm 2 . The rectifier and the ohmic contacts were prepared at high vacuum (10 -2 to 10 -3 Pa) evaporation with 40μg/cm 2 of Au and Al respectively for the η type detectors, and with Al and Au respectively for the ρ type detectors. The electronic system is composed by a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier with the operational amplifier LF-356 mounted with 1OOMΩ feedback resistor and a 0.5 pF capacitor. The linear amplifier is also based in the LF-356 and the LM-310 operational amplifier. The bipolar output is formatted through a (CR) 2- (RC) 4 shaping network and the unipolar output is obtained through a CR-(RC) 4 shaping system which is sufficient to realize a almost true Gaussian shaping pulse with a time constant of 3.0μs. This format was chosen because we can expect a low counting rate and the gaussian pulse can improve the signal/noise ratio. The first CR differentiation has also a active pole-zero cancellation network.The resolution of detectors for 241 Am α particles at room temperature (24 degree) vary 21 to 44 keV FWHM. The electronic noise of the noise of the system is 7.5 keV FWHM at OpF input capacitance. The overall resolution of the spectrometer was found to be 62 keV FWHM at room temperature. The simplicity of the electronic system, the low cost of the construction and the overall resolution show that this alpha spectrometer can be readily used in measurements where high resolution is not a premium. (author)

  8. Measurement of Top Mass and Properties with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary success of the LHC in delivering proton-proton collisions with large integrated luminosity allows the study of top-quark-enriched data samples with unprecedented statistics. This opens new possibilities for the assessment and further refinements of detector performance, and of data analysis tools. At the same time, different aspects of top-quark event modeling, as implemented in Monte Carlo simulations, can be tested and confronted with data with impressive precision. As an example, the description of the extra QCD radiation accompanying the top-anti-top system can be refined based on measurements. In this context, the experimental challenges and recent results on precision top-quark physics measurements within the ATLAS experiment are summarized and reviewed. In particular, the recent ATLAS top-quark mass result, obtained using a three dimensional template method, which allows the simultaneous determination of the top-quark mass together with a global jet energy scale factor (JSF), and a ...

  9. Measurement of 147Pm in-vivo using phoswich detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.

    1977-10-01

    Recently an individual was suspected of having inhaled significant amounts of the almost pure beta emitter, 147 Pm. Urine analysis confirmed that contaminations had occurred but these results could not be used to evaluate the amount of material deposited in the lungs because an acceptable model of promethium clearance from the lung to blood and hence to urine has not been developed. Therefore another method of evaluation, that of the measurement, using phoswich detectors, of the soft photons emitted by the deposited 147 Pm was used. This paper describes the calibrations and measurements that were done in order that an upper limit on the deposited activity, and hence limits for committed dose to the various organs, could be assigned. (author)

  10. Di-boson production measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This talk covers the results of the measurements of diboson production cross sections in proton- proton interactions at 7 TeV in 2011 and at 8 TeV in 2012, performed by the ATLAS experiment. The cross sections are measured in phase space regions defined by the decay kinematics, the detector acceptance and then extrapolated to the full phase space. Cross sections for VV (V=W, Z, γ) production in the leptonic or semileptonic channels are compared to (N)NLO predictions of the Standard Model. Kinematic spectra are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. All cross sections are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. No experimental evidence is found of anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. PACS: 14.70.-e Gauge bosons.

  11. Measurement of Charmonium Polarization with the LHCb Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yanxi

    In particle physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory used to describe the interaction of colored particles. Heavy quarkonium is the bound state of heavy quark and its anti-quark, and its production cross section and polarization can be used to test the theory models in the framework of QCD. The computation of the heavy quarkonium production cross section by color singlet mechanism (CSM) underestimates the experimental measurements, while results from the calculation of non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) can describe experimental data very well. However, the NRQCD predicts that the $S$ wave heavy quarkonium is heavily transversely polarized in the large transverse momentum region, which is contrary to experimental observations. LHCb, dedicated for precision measurement in bottom and charm physics, is one of the experiments located at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHCb detector, which is a forward region spectrometer covering the pseudo rapidity range 2-5, has fine particle reconstruction and identi...

  12. The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber 4Shooter directional dark matter detector: Calibration in a surface laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, James B.R.; Deaconu, Cosmin; Druitt, Gabriela; Eggleston, Richard; Fisher, Peter; Giampa, Pietro; Gregoric, Vincent; Henderson, Shawn; Jaegle, Igal; Lawhorn, Jay; Lopez, Jeremy P.; Monroe, Jocelyn; Recine, Kristen A.; Strandberg, Adam; Tomita, Hidefumi; Vahsen, Sven; Wellenstein, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    The 4Shooter is a prototype dark matter detector built by the Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) collaboration. The aim of the collaboration is to observe dark matter with directional sensitivity by measuring the recoil directions of nuclei struck by dark matter particles. The 4Shooter is a single time projection chamber containing CF 4 gas, with both optical (CCD and photomultiplier tube) and charge readout. This paper describes the 4Shooter and presents results from the commissioning of the detector in a surface laboratory

  13. Self-Powered Neutron and Gamma Detectors for In-Core Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1971-11-01

    The performance of various types of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors intended for control and power distribution measurements in water cooled reactors is discussed. The self-powered detectors are compared with other types of in-core detectors and attention is paid to such properties as neutron and gamma sensitivity, high-temperature performance, burn-up rate and time of response. Also treated are the advantages and disadvantages of using gamma detector data for power distribution calculations instead of data from neutron detectors. With regard to neutron-sensitive detectors, results from several long-term experiments with vanadium and cobalt detectors are presented. The results include reliability and stability data for these two detector types and the Co build-up in cobalt detectors. Experimental results which reveal the fast response of cobalt detectors are presented, and the use of cobalt detectors in reactor safety systems is discussed. Experience of the design and installation of complete flux probes, electronic units and data processing systems for power reactors is reported. The investigation of gamma-sensitive detectors includes detectors with emitters of lead, zirconium, magnesium and Inconel. Measured gamma sensitivities from calibrations both in a reactor and in a gamma cell are given, and the signal levels of self-powered neutron and gamma detectors when applied to power reactors are compared

  14. X ray spectra measurement using a CdTe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurkova, D.; Judas, L.

    2014-01-01

    X ray spectra were measured using a CdTe XR-100T detector (Amptek). Spectra of N series were measured (according to ISO 4037-1:1996): from N60 to N150 for anode voltage of the tube 60-150 kV, realised by x ray tubeIsovolt Titan in dosimetric laboratory SURO, v.v.i.. Two sets of spectra were measured - first without using the tungsten collimator kit of the spectrometer, in a distance of 7 m from x ray tube and low tube current and second using a tungsten collimator kit measured in a distance 1 m from x ray tube focus and low tube current. Elimination of random coincidences was achieved by reduction of counting rates on the detection system. Further artefacts in measured spectra were compensated using an analytic response matrix. Response matrix was computed and subsequently applied in a program made in MATLAB. We demonstrate a function of response matrix on both model physical spectra and measured spectra. In consequence of mainly continuous character of measured spectra more parameters are needed for its description compared to the line spectra. Therefore we came up with additional parameters for characterization and mutual comparison of x ray spectra. (authors)

  15. Radiation damage measurements in room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franks, L A; Olsen, R W; Walsh, D S; Vizkelethy, G; Trombka, J I; Doyle, B L; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI sub 2) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 0 p/cm sup 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 2 p/cm sup 2. CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5x10 sup 9 p/cm sup 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from a moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particles at fluences up to 1.5x10 sup 1 sup 0 alpha/cm sup 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5x10 sup 9 alpha/cm sup 2. CT detectors show resolution...

  16. Measurements of B Meson Lifetime Ratios with the LHCb Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Luisier, Johan

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The LHCb detector is a one-arm spectrometer dedicated to precise measurements of the CP-violation and studies or rare b-hadron decays. The centre of mass energy and luminosity for a hadron collider) have both values never reached before. LHCb started data taking in November 2009. LHCb relies on excellent reconstruction and trigger efficiency, very good mass and proper time resolution, reliable particle identification systems to achieve the wanted precision on CP-violation parameters. These performances cannot be fulfilled without the detector to be calibrated. For instance, the Inner Tracker (IT) is readout by around a thousand chips, and the data are processed by 42 data acquisition cards, called TELL1. The Tracker Turicensis (TT) data are processed by 48 TELL1 boards. Each of these TELl1 boards has more than 18,000 parameters that need to be tuned in order to reduce the fake hits in the tracking systems. A hi...

  17. Dose measurements with a HPGe detector - a technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstroem, K.; Nordenfors, C.; Aagren, G.

    2000-06-01

    This paper is a technical manual for estimations of dose based on a gamma spectrum. The method used is based on the Monte Carlo code EGS4. Since dose estimations from spectra are specific for each detector, this work is performed on two mobile HPGe detectors at FOA NBC Defence in Umeaa. This technical manual describes the method used in three steps: Part 1 explains how to construct a model of the detector geometry and the specific material for a new detector. Part 2 describes the underlying work of Monte Carlo simulations of a detector given geometry and material. Part 3 describes dose estimations from a gamma spectrum

  18. Measurements of Charge Sharing Effects in Pixilated CZT/CdTe Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, charge sharing and charge loss effects in pixilated CZT/CdTe detectors are investigated by measurements. We measured charge sharing effects function of the inter-pixel gap (with same pixel pitch), the photon energy and the detector bias voltage for a large numbers of CZT and CdTe...... pixel detector samples. The results are used for the development of the large area X-ray and Gamma ray detector for the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) planned for the ISS ESA Columbus module. Charge sharing measurements on detector samples with identical size and pixel geometry...

  19. Top quark mass and properties measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno Llacer, Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle and unique among the known quarks since it decays before forming hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector are reported using 8 TeV and 13 TeV data of proton-proton collisions from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN laboratory. Measurements of the top quark decay width, top quark spin observables and $W$ boson helicity in events with top quark pairs ($t\\bar{t}$) are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The cross-section measurements of top quark pairs production in association with photons, $Z$ or $W$ bosons is also presented and compared to the most accurate theoretical calculations. These measurements probe the top quark electroweak couplings. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are also reported. In add...

  20. Top quark properties and mass measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The production of top-quark pairs in association with W and Z bosons is also presented. The measurement probes the coupling between the top quark and the Z boson. The cross-section measurement of photons produced in association with top-quark pairs is a...

  1. Design of New Complex Detector Used for Gross Beta Measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junmin

    2010-01-01

    The level of gross β for radioactive aerosol in the containment of nuclear plants can indicate how serious the radioactive pollution is in the shell, and it can provide evidence which shows whether there is the phenomenon of leak in the boundaries of confined aquifer of the primary coolant circuit equipment.In the process of measuring, the counting of gross β is influenced by γ. In order to avoid the influence of γ, a new method was introduced and a new detector was designed using plastic scintillator as the major detecting component and BGO as the sub-component. Based on distinctive difference of light attenuation time, signal induced in them can be discriminated. γ background in plastic scintillator was subtracted according to the counting of γ in BGO. The functions of absolute detection efficiency were obtained. The simulation for Monte-Carlo method shows that the influence of γ background is decreased about one order of magnitude. (authors)

  2. Radon measurements by track detectors in Calabrian workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastro, V.; Niceforo, G.; Vuono, D.; Luca, P. de; Nastro, A.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor radon studies have been carried out in some workplaces of the South Calabria (Italy) by track detectors CR-39. This study has been undertaken for the purpose of safeguarding the public healthy: since the European population spends, in average, the most greater part of their time in confined environments(residences and offices) the risks of exposure can be elevated. This radon passive measurements are been effectuated according to the recommendations. The exposure time in the workplaces was two different cycle: three months, and six months. The obtained results indicate a radon concentration not only in an average of low level but also in the range of action level (>500 Bq/m 3 ). In this last case will be necessary to reduce the radon pollution by adequate land operation works, and a continuous monitoring is also necessary

  3. Measurement of the W boson mass with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A measurement of the W-boson mass is presented based on 4.6 fb^-1 of proton–proton collision data recorded in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The selected data sample consists of 7.8x10^6 candidates in the W -> mu nu channel and 5.9x10^6 candidates in the W -> e nu channel. The W-boson mass is determined using template fits to the charged lepton transverse momentum distributions, and to the charged lepton and E_T^miss transverse mass distribution. Special emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the experimental systematic uncertainties, as well as on the uncertainties due to the modeling of the vector boson production and decay. The final result is compared to the current world average and interpreted in the context of the global electroweak fit.

  4. Measurements of the Vector boson production with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kordas, Kostas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The electroweak sector of the Standard Model can be tested by precision measurements of its fundamental parameters, such as the W boson mass or the electroweak mixing angle. In this talk, we present the first measurement of the W boson mass, based on the 7 TeV data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb$^{-1}$. With these samples the detector and physics modelling has been studied in great detail, leading to an overall uncertainty of 19 MeV. The ATLAS collaboration also performed a new precise triple differential cross-section measurement as a function of M(ll), dilepton rapidity and $cos\\theta^{*}$ defined in the Collins-Soper frame. This measurement provides sensitivity to the PDFs and the Z forward-backward asymmetry, $A_{FB}$, which is derived and will be presented. The later builds the foundation for a possible future extraction of the weak-mixing angle. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is an important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment...

  5. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, John K.; Rice, Blake B.; McNeil, Walter J.; Solomon, Clell J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Bellinger, Steven L.

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  6. Investigation of n{sup +} surface events in HPGe detectors for liquid argon background rejection in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU-Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge using an array of germanium detectors immersed in liquid argon (LAr). Phase II of the experiment aims to improve the background level by a factor 10 in order to reach 10{sup -3} counts / (kg.keV.yr). A strong suppression technique is required to suppress the intrinsic LAr background of {sup 42}Ar/{sup 42}K. 30 newly produced p-type Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors will be deployed in Phase II. The n{sup +} electrode of the GERDA BEGe detectors is covering 96-98 % of the surface and is between 0.5 and 1.2 mm thick. Betas from the {sup 42}K decay can penetrated the detector surface and deposit energies within the 0νββ region. Experiences from GERDA Phase I show that these surface events are the dominate background component without suppression. Energy depositions inside the n{sup +} layer create pulse shapes that are slower than those from interactions in the bulk. This talk presents a rejection technique for those events. The signal development inside the n{sup +} layer is modeled and applied in Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations are compared with data for {sup 241}Am and {sup 90}Sr calibration source measurements. The suppression capabilities are extrapolated for {sup 42}K in GERDA Phase II.

  7. Lifetime measurements of charmed mesons with high resolution silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijk, G.A.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis an experiment is described to measure the lifetimes of pseudoscalar charmed mesons. The experiment uses a negatively charged unseparated hadron beam of 200 GeV. The experiment is carried out with a magnetic spectrometer preceded by a beam telescope, an active target and a vertex telescope, all consisting of Si microstrip detectors. The spectrometer consists of two spectrometer magnets, 48 planes of drift chambers and 3 Cerenkov hodoscopes for the determination and identification of charged secondaries. The lifetimes of the charmed mesons are determined by measuring the length of their flight path, their momentum and their mass. The results, which are described in the thesis, are based on the analysis of part of the collected data. The production rates in the K - beam and in the π - beam are found to be in the same order of magnitude within the x F range covered. Previous experimental data on the lifetimes of charmed particles are reviewed. A theoretical interpretation is presented of the measured decay properties. (Auth.)

  8. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hirokuni [Ohyo Koken Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hatakeyama, Mutsuo [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, Mitsuo; Yanagihara, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures {beta}-rays and {gamma}-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of {beta}-rays measures {gamma}-rays. The {beta}-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting {gamma}-ray counts measured by the inner detector from {gamma}- and {beta}-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of {sup 60}Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm{sup 2} with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm{sup 2} corresponding to clearance level of {sup 60}Co (0.4 Bq/g) can be evaluated with measurement time of 2 seconds, which is equal to measurement speed of 54 m/h. (author)

  9. Design and construction of a system for determination of Radon-222 by a surface-barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio M, J.; Iturbe, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work the design and construction of a system for the determination of 222 Rn is described, which utilizes silicon surface-barrier detectors. The 222 Rn gas was obtained a source of 226 Ra electrodeposited on stainless-steel discs. The well separated energies with this system makes possible the measurement and identification of alpha particles of 222 Rn, and its daughters 210 Po, 218 Po and 214 Po. (Author) 3 figs, 19 refs

  10. Noninvasive Quantum Measurement of Arbitrary Operator Order by Engineered Non-Markovian Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülte, Johannes; Bednorz, Adam; Bruder, Christoph; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    The development of solid-state quantum technologies requires the understanding of quantum measurements in interacting, nonisolated quantum systems. In general, a permanent coupling of detectors to a quantum system leads to memory effects that have to be taken into account in interpreting the measurement results. We analyze a generic setup of two detectors coupled to a quantum system and derive a compact formula in the weak-measurement limit that interpolates between an instantaneous (text-book type) and almost continuous—detector dynamics-dependent—measurement. A quantum memory effect that we term "system-mediated detector-detector interaction" is crucial to observe noncommuting observables simultaneously. Finally, we propose a mesoscopic double-dot detector setup in which the memory effect is tunable and that can be used to explore the transition to non-Markovian quantum measurements experimentally.

  11. Neutron detector for fusion reaction-rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillion, D.W.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a fast, sensitive neutron detector for recording the fusion reaction-rate history of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The detector is based on the fast rise-time of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC-422) and has a response 7 neutrons

  12. Measurement of ionising radiation semiconductor detectors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussel, J.P.

    1986-06-01

    Manufacturing techniques for nuclear detectors using semiconductors are constantly advancing, and a large range of models with different specificities and characteristics are available. After a theoretical reminder, this report describes the main types of detectors, their working and their preferential use. A comparative table guides the neophyte reader in his choice [fr

  13. Radiation damage measurements on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    from 2 x 10(8) to 60 x 10(8) p(+)/cm(2). Even for the highest fluences, which had a dramatic effect on the spectroscopic performance, we were able to recover the detectors after an appropriate annealing procedure. The radiation damage was studied as a function of depth inside the detector material...

  14. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  15. Microthermal Instrument for Measuring Surface Layer Seeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Deng, Lin Hua; Xu, Guang

    2012-02-01

    Microthermal fluctuations are introduced by atmospheric turbulence very near the ground. In order to detect microthermal fluctuations at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO), a microthermal instrument has been developed. The microthermal instrument consists of a microthermal sensor, which is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors, an associated signal processing unit, and a data collection, & communication subsystem. In this paper, after a brief introduction to surface layer seeing, we discuss the instrumentation behind the microthermal detector we have developed and then present the results obtained. The results of the evaluation indicate that the effect of the turbulent surface boundary layer to astronomical seeing would become sufficiently small when installing a telescope at a height of 16m or higher from the ground at FSO.

  16. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID [Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector] and associated measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.; Duboscq, J.; Hale, D.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Morrison, R.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Williams, D.A.; Jacques, P.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Hasegawa, K.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, K.S.; Shoup, A.; Stockdale, I.; Suekane, F.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wilson, R.J.

    1990-04-01

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs

  17. Electrostatic design of the barrel CRID (Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector) and associated measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Va' Vra, J. Williams, H. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (US

    1990-04-01

    We report on the electrostatic design and related measurements of the barrel Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector for the Stanford Large Detector experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Linear Collider. We include test results of photon feedback in TMAE-laden gas, distortion measurements in the drift boxes and corona measurements. 13 refs., 21 figs.

  18. Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2010-08-01

    We present a measurement of the ratio of positive to negative muon fluxes from cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, using data collected by the CMS detector both at ground level and in the underground experimental cavern at the CERN LHC. Muons were detected in the momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The surface flux ratio is measured to be 1.2766 \\pm 0.0032(stat.) \\pm 0.0032 (syst.), independent of the muon momentum, below 100 GeV/c. This is the most precise measurement to date. At higher momenta the data are consistent with an increase of the charge ratio, in agreement with cosmic ray shower models and compatible with previous measurements by deep-underground experiments.

  19. Effects of bulk and surface conductivity on the performance of CdZnTe pixel detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chen, C.M.H.; Cook, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of bulk and surface conductivity on the performance of high-resistivity CdZnTe (CZT) pixel detectors with Pt contacts. We emphasize the difference in mechanisms of the bulk and surface conductivity as indicated by their different temperature behaviors. In addition...... with two back-to-back Schottky-barrier contacts. The high-surface leakage. current is apparently due to the presence of a low-resistivity surface layer that has characteristics that differ considerably from those of the bulk material. This surface layer has a profound effect on the charge......-collection efficiency in detectors with multicontact geometry; some fraction of the electric field lines that originated on the cathode intersects the surface areas between the pixel contacts where the charge produced by an ionizing particle gets trapped. To overcome this effect, we place a grid of thin electrodes...

  20. SU-E-T-607: Performance Quantification of the Nine Detectors Used for Dosimetry Measurements in Advanced Radiation Therapy Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, M; Stathakis, S; Jurkovic, I; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify performance of the nine detectors used for dosimetry measurements in advanced radiation therapy treatments. Methods: The 6 MV beam was utilized for measurements of the field sizes with the lack of lateral charge particle equilibrium. For dose fidelity aspect, energy dependence was studied by measuring PDD and profiles at different depths. The volume effect and its influence on the measured dose profiles have been observed by measuring detector’s response function. Output factor measurements with respect to change in energy spectrum have been performed and collected data has been analyzed. The linearity of the measurements with the dose delivered has been evaluated and relevant comparisons were done. Results: The measured values of the output factors with respect to change in energy spectrum indicated presence of the energy dependence. The detectors with active volume size ≤ 0.3 mm3 maximum deviation from the mean is 5.6% for the field size 0.5 x 0.5 cm2 while detectors with active volume size > 0.3 mm3 have maximum deviation from the mean 7.1%. Linearity with dose at highest dose rate examined for diode detectors showed maximum deviation of 4% while ion chambers showed maximum deviation of 2.2%. Dose profiles showed energy dependence at shallow depths (surface to dmax) influenced by low energy particles with 12 % maximum deviation from the mean for 5 mm2 field size. In relation to Monte Carlo calculation, the detector’s response function σ values were between (0.42±0.25) mm and (1.2±0.25) mm. Conclusion: All the detectors are appropriate for the dosimetry measurements in advanced radiation therapy treatments. The choice of the detectors has to be determined by the application and the scope of the measurements in respect to energy dependence and ability to accurately resolve dose profiles as well as to it’s intrinsic characteristics

  1. Analysis of Surface Chemistry and Detector Performance of Chemically Process CdZnTe crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOSSAIN, A.; Yang, G.; Sutton, J.; Zergaw, T.; Babalola, O. S.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda. ZG. S.; Gul, R.; Roy, U. N., and James, R. B.

    2015-10-05

    The goal is to produce non-conductive smooth surfaces for fabricating low-noise and high-efficiency CdZnTe devices for gamma spectroscopy. Sample preparation and results are discussed. The researachers demonstrated various bulk defects (e.g., dislocations and sub-grain boundaries) and surface defects, and examined their effects on the performance of detectors. A comparison study was made between two chemical etchants to produce non-conductive smooth surfaces. A mixture of bromine and hydrogen peroxide proved more effective than conventional bromine etchant. Both energy resolution and detection efficiency of CZT planar detectors were noticeably increased after processing the detector crystals using improved chemical etchant and processing methods.

  2. Measurements of Near Sea Surface Infrared Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frost, Shaun

    1999-01-01

    .... Measurements have been made of the atmospheric infrared transmission near the sea surface. Spectral transmission profiles were measured for a number of ranges using a fourier transform spectrometer...

  3. Surface Micromachined Arrays of Transition-Edge Detectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative surface micromachining technique is described for the fabrication of closely-packed arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters....

  4. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, H; Tachibana, M; Yanagihara, S

    2003-01-01

    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures beta-rays and gamma-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of beta-rays measures gamma-rays. The beta-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting gamma-ray counts measured by the inner detector from gamma- and beta-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of sup 6 sup 0 Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm sup 2 with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm sup 2 co...

  5. The measurement of surface gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10 −8 m s −2 ), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1–5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post

  6. The measurement of surface gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10-8 m s-2), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1-5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post-glacial rebound

  7. Performance of New and Upgraded Detectors for Luminosity and Beam Condition Measurement at CMS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The beam monitoring and luminosity systems of the CMS experiment are enhanced by several new and upgraded sub-detectors to match the challenges of the LHC operation and physics program at increased energy and higher luminosity. A dedicated pixelated luminosity telescope is installed for a fast and precise luminosity measurement. This detector measures coincidences between several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. An up...

  8. Bubble detector measurements of a mixed radiation field from antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Knudsen, Helge; Møller, Søren Pape

    2006-01-01

    In the light of recent progress in the study of the biological potential of antiproton tumour treatment it is important to be able to characterize the neutron intensity arising from antiproton annihilation using simple, compact and reliable detectors. The intensity of fast neutrons from antiproton...... annihilation on polystyrene has been measured with bubble detectors and a multiplicity has been derived as well as an estimated neutron equivalent dose. Additionally the sensitivity of bubble detectors towards protons was measured....

  9. Characteristic study of non-power detectors for measurement of gamma-ray dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shengren; Li Mingfei

    1993-01-01

    Some plate-type non-power detectors for the measurement of gamma-ray doses with different thicknesses of the dielectric and the induction body and different ratios of the two sided capacitances have been made. The characteristics of plate-type non-power detectors with different structures were studied quantitatively. Some measurement results are given and discussed systematically. The best possibilities and work conditions of the plate-type non-power detector are discussed. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  10. A scintillation detector set measuring the charge particle energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Chantal.

    1979-01-01

    The S143 experiment, at CERN in 1976, needed both the measurement and the identification of light nuclei, and especially the separation between 3 H and 3 He, over a large energy range. In the chosen solution, in addition to semiconductor detectors, some scintillation counters are used. The non-linearity of light versus energy of charged particles was complicated by the fact there was two different linear laws according to the charge of particles. To obtain good analogic signals over a dynamic range nearly equal to 200, the signals from several dynodes were used simultaneously. In the experimental setting up, each scintillator was put directly in contact with the corresponding photocathode. In spite of a special shielding, some perturbations due to the magnet placed close by required to bring important corrections to linear laws. Thanks to complementary informations from semiconductor counters, a full separation between charge 1 and charge 2 particles was possible. A suitable identification as guaranted among charge 1 particles, but only kinematic constraints gave the possibility to extract 4 He corresponding to the elastic scattering [fr

  11. Injection quality measurements with diamond based particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Oliver; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During the re-commissioning phase of the LHC after the long shutdown 1 very high beam losses were observed at the TDI during beam injection. The losses reached up to 90% of the dump threshold. To decrease the through beam losses induced stress on the accelerator components these loss levels need to be reduced. Measurements with diamond based particle detectors (dBLMs), which have nano-second time resolution, revealed that the majority of these losses come from recaptured SPS beam surrounding the nominal bunch train. In this MD the injection loss patterns and loss intensities were investigated in greater detail. Performed calibration shots on the TDI (internal beam absorber for injection) gave a conversion factor from impacting particles intensities to signal in the dBLMs (0.1Vs/109 protons). Using the SPS tune kicker for cleaning the recaptured beam in the SPS and changing the LHC injection kicker settings resulted in a reduction of the injection losses. For 144 bunch injections the loss levels were decreased...

  12. Luminosity measurements with the LUCID detector in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Valentinetti, Sara

    La misura della luminosità è un obiettivo importante per tutta la fisica del modello standard e per la scoperta di nuova fisica, poiché è legata alla sezione d'urto (σ) e al rate di produzione (R) di un determinato processo dalla relazione L = R*σ. Nell'eserimento ATLAS a LHC è installato un monitor di luminosità dedicato chiamato LUCID (Luminosity measurements Using Cherenkov Integrating Detector). Grazie ai dati acquisiti durante il 2010 la valutazione off-line delle performances del LUCID e l'implementazione di controlli on-line sulla qualità dei dati raccolti è stata possibile. I dati reali sono stati confrontati con i dati Monte Carlo e le simulazioni sono state opportunamente aggiustate per ottimizzare l'accordo tra i due. La calibrazione della luminosità relativa che permette di ottenere una valutazione della luminosità assoluta è stata possibile grazie ai cosiddetti Van der Meer scan, grazie ai quale è stata ottenuta una precisione dell'11%. L'analisi della fisica del decadimento della Z...

  13. Search for ultra-high energy photons and neutrinos using Telescope Array surface detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitsky S.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We search for ultra-high energy photons by analyzing geometrical properties of shower fronts of events registered by the Telescope Array surface detector. By making use of an event-by-event statistical method, we derive upper limits on the absolute flux of primary photons with energies above 1019eV, 1019.5eV and above 1020eV based on the three years data from Telescope Array surface detector (May 2008 – May 2011. We report the results of down-going neutrino search based on the analysis of very inclined events.

  14. Bulk and surface event identification in p-type germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L. T.; Li, H. B.; Wong, H. T.; Agartioglu, M.; Chen, J. H.; Jia, L. P.; Jiang, H.; Li, J.; Lin, F. K.; Lin, S. T.; Liu, S. K.; Ma, J. L.; Sevda, B.; Sharma, V.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Sonay, A.; Yang, S. W.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.

    2018-04-01

    The p-type point-contact germanium detectors have been adopted for light dark matter WIMP searches and the studies of low energy neutrino physics. These detectors exhibit anomalous behavior to events located at the surface layer. The previous spectral shape method to identify these surface events from the bulk signals relies on spectral shape assumptions and the use of external calibration sources. We report an improved method in separating them by taking the ratios among different categories of in situ event samples as calibration sources. Data from CDEX-1 and TEXONO experiments are re-examined using the ratio method. Results are shown to be consistent with the spectral shape method.

  15. Detector distance selection for ICF temperature measurements by neutron TOF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Remington, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel ion temperatures for laser-driven, inertial-confinement fusion targets are often determined by neutron time-of-flight (TOF) techniques. The error in the temperature measurement is a minimum at a target-to-detector distance that depends on both target and detector characteristics. The error is dominated by the detector response at shorter distances and by the number of detected neutrons at larger distances. We develop equations that relate the temperature error to the target ion temperature, the number of neutrons detected, target-to-detector distance, and the detector impulse response; and present sample calculations of the error for D-D and D-T plasmas observed by typical Nova neutron TOF detectors. The detector placement is important for minimizing temperature error for target yield below 10 10 neutrons. 4 refs., 2 figs

  16. First measurements with the ALICE detector at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, D.

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE experiment is designed to measure the properties of strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions at LHC. The apparatus has several features, such as low p T acceptance and powerful tracking over a broad momentum range, that make ALICE also an important contributor to the first proton-proton physics. In this respect the ALICE physics program aims both at setting the baseline for the understanding of the heavy-ion data and exploring the new energy domain. The charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity density distributions will be the first measurements that ALICE will perform, both in p-p and in Pb-Pb collisions. As those observables correspond to basic properties of the collisions in the new energy domain at LHC, their knowledge will allow to constrain the hadroproduction models and correctly configure the Monte Carlo generators. Moreover, the measurement of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density in the central rapidity region will extend the existing energy dependence pattern and provide an estimate of the energy density attained in the early phase of the collision. Besides these very first measurements, p T spectra of both all charged and identified particles, baryon number transport and strangeness production analyses will also be carried out within the p-p first physics programme. Since it will follow the first p-p run, the early heavy-ion data taking is expected to be carried out with a fully commissioned detector: in particular alignment and calibrations will be available from the previously collected comics and p-p samples. Data quality and statistics should allow, already with this pilot run, to explore quite a rich physics spectrum. The first few 10 4 events (both minimum bias and central collisions) will provide information about global event properties such us multiplicity, pseudorapidity density and elliptical flow. With a statistics of 10 5 to 10 6 events particle spectra, resonances, differential flow and

  17. Measurement of Magnetic Field Uniformity For a Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Detector with New Lead Endcaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anita; Filippone, Bradley; Slutsky, Simon; Swank, Christopher; Carr, Robert; Osthelder, Charles; Biswas, Aritra; Molina, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Over the last several decades, physicists have been measuring the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) with greater and greater sensitivity. The latest experiment we are developing will have 100 times more sensitivity than the previous leading experiment. A nonzero nEDM could, among other consequences, explain the presence of more matter than antimatter in the universe. To measure the nEDM with high accuracy, it is necessary to have a very uniform magnetic field inside the detector since non-uniformities can create false signals via the geometric phase effect. One way to improve field uniformity is to add superconducting lead endcaps to the detector, which constrain the fields at their surfaces to be parallel to them. Here, we test how the endcaps improve field uniformity by measuring the magnetic field at various points in a 1/3-scale experimental volume, inferring what the field must be at all other points, and calculating gradients in the field. This knowledge could help guide further steps needed to improve field uniformity and characterize limitations to the sensitivity of nEDM measurements for the full-scale experiment. Rose Hills Foundation, National Science Foundation Grant 1506459, and Department of Energy.

  18. Cathode signal in a TPC directional detector: implementation and validation measuring the drift velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, C.; Riffard, Q.; Sauzet, N.; Guillaudin, O.; Naraghi, F.; Santos, D.

    2017-11-01

    Low-pressure gaseous TPCs are well suited detectors to correlate the directions of nuclear recoils to the galactic Dark Matter (DM) halo. Indeed, in addition to providing a measure of the energy deposition due to the elastic scattering of a DM particle on a nucleus in the target gas, they allow for the reconstruction of the track of the recoiling nucleus. In order to exclude the background events originating from radioactive decays on the surfaces of the detector materials within the drift volume, efforts are ongoing to precisely localize the track nuclear recoil in the drift volume along the axis perpendicular to the cathode plane. We report here the implementation of the measure of the signal induced on the cathode by the motion of the primary electrons toward the anode in a MIMAC chamber. As a validation, we performed an independent measurement of the drift velocity of the electrons in the considered gas mixture, correlating in time the cathode signal with the measure of the arrival times of the electrons on the anode.

  19. 30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices. 75.320 Section 75.320 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.320 Air quality detectors and measurement devices. (a)...

  20. A miniature silicon diode matrix detector for in vivo measurement of 133Xe disappearance following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, K; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Rasmussen, H B

    1992-01-01

    -tissue indicator diffusion and indicate means of avoiding influence from local diffusion in the washout curve of 133Xe. From the recorded 133Xe distribution in the depot proper, Si photodiodes in the matrix were selected for calculation of the washout. The Si matrix detector was reliable with a constant linearity...... have the capability of measuring the lowest energies (25-40 keV) of gamma and x-ray emitters with sufficient efficiency when applied on the skin surface and close to the indicator depot. The purpose of the present study was firstly to evaluate a portable Si photodiode matrix detector system, composed...

  1. Determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny using surface barrier detector for various shapes of passive radon dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, K.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of radon dosimetry, it is customary to measure radon ( 222 Rn) concentration while potential health hazard is due to the radon short-lived progeny. When radon is in secular equilibrium, the measured activity of radon equals the activity of radon's progeny. However, in practical cases an inequilibrium between radon and its progeny exists which is measured in terms of the equilibrium factor. To determine the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in a closed environment various shapes of passive dosimeters based upon solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are employed. In order to observe the dependence of equilibrium factor upon shapes or effective volumes, experiments have been performed replacing the SSNTDs with a surface barrier detector in Karlsruhe diffusion chamber, pen-type and box-type dosimeters. Using the collected alpha spectra, the equilibrium factor has been determined for a radon-air mixture in a custom designed radon chamber simulating a closed environment of a room. The results show that the radon equilibrium factor is about 0.20 for different shapes of dosimeters studied in this research. It is concluded that the determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny does not depend upon effective volume or shape of the passive dosimeters using alpha spectroscopic data acquired by surface barrier detector. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, Lance [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  3. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  4. Measuring Surface Combatant Fleet Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crary, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...? While Measures of Effectiveness for an individual ship can include its number of missiles, speed, and endurance, it is difficult to find a Measure of Effectiveness credible to experienced warplanners...

  5. Measurement of Photomultipier Plateau Curves and Single MIP response in the AD detector at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez Falero, Sebastian De Jesus

    2015-01-01

    The Alice Diffractive (AD) detector is a forward detector in the ALICE experiment at CERN. It is aimed to the triggering on diffractive events and extends the pseudorapidity coverage to about 4.9 < /n/ < 6.3. In this work, a PMT's efficiency plateau and single MIP response are measured using a replica of the detector's scintillator modules, electronic and data acquisition system and cosmic rays as particle source.

  6. Error in measuring radon in soil gas by means of passive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Passive detection of radon isotopes depends on diffusion of radon atoms from the sites of their generation to the location of the detecting or collecting device. Because some radon decays en route to a passive detector in soil, the radon concentration measured by the detector must be less than the concentration in those soil pores where it is undiminished by diffusion to the detector cavity. The true radon concentration may be significantly underestimated in moist soils. (author)

  7. Project and construction of a spectrometer for alpha particles using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terini, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The project, construction, tests and some applications of a system for alpha and beta spectrometry, using surface barrier detector are described. The device includes a solid state detector ORTEC-Series F coupled to a system for amplifying the charges produced by passage of an ionizing particle through the detector. The amplifying system is composed by a charge sensitive pre-amplifier, which employs an operational amplifier CA 3140, and a low noise linear amplifier, which is based on the operational amplifiers CA 3140 and LM 301. The pre-amplifier stage input impedance is on the order of TΩ and produces output pulses which heights are proportional to total charge produced by passage of particle through the detector sensitive volume. The main advantage to use charge sensitive system lies in obtention of independent pulse heights of the distributed capacity of connecting cable between the detector and the pre-amplifier. The total system amplification ca reach a maximum of 50.000 in the linear region. Pulses are analysed in a multichannel system ORTEC, model 6240. The amplifier system is easily constructed and low cost using components available in the national market, and it can be employed with ionization chambers, proportional counters, scitillation counters and semiconductor detectors. The results of spectrometer application for alpha spectrometry of AM 241 source were compared to systems made with imported stages. (Author) [pt

  8. An experimental method for making spectral emittance and surface temperature measurements of opaque surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Daniel Maynes, R.; Baxter, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to make spectral emittance and temperature measurements. The spectral emittance of an object is calculated using measurements of the spectral emissive power and of the surface temperature of the object obtained using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A calibration procedure is described in detail which accounts for the temperature dependence of the detector. The methods used to extract the spectral emissive power and surface temperature from measured infrared spectra were validated using a blackbody radiator at known temperatures. The average error in the measured spectral emittance was 2.1% and the average difference between the temperature inferred from the recorded spectra and the temperature indicated on the blackbody radiator was 1.2%. The method was used to measure the spectral emittance of oxidized copper at various temperatures.

  9. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V.I.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Kubota, H.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Oldorf, C.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Policastro, G.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tran, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 atmospheric muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the charge ratio dependence on the primary composition. The measured charge ratio values were corrected taking into account the charge-misidentification errors. Data have also been grouped in five bins of the "vertical surface energy". A fit to a simplified model of muon production in the atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  10. Non-contact local temperature measurement inside an object using an infrared point detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaka, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Local temperature measurement in deep areas of objects is an important technique in biomedical measurement. We have investigated a non-contact method for measuring temperature inside an object using a point detector for infrared (IR) light. An IR point detector with a pinhole was constructed and the radiant IR light emitted from the local interior of the object is photodetected only at the position of pinhole located in imaging relation. We measured the thermal structure of the filament inside the miniature bulb using the IR point detector, and investigated the temperature dependence at approximately human body temperature using a glass plate positioned in front of the heat source.

  11. The effect of cathode bias (field effect) on the surface leakage current of CdZnTe detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chen, C.M.H.; Cook, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    Surface resistivity is an important parameter of multi-electrode CZT detectors such as coplanar-grid, strip, or pixel detectors. Low surface resistivity results in a high leakage current and affects the charge collection efficiency in the areas near contacts. Thus, it is always desirable to have ...

  12. Measurement of moderated neutron fluxes using Au-La-Co-Mn sandwich detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.

    1967-03-01

    In order to measure the energy spectra of moderated neutrons in reactors or in their protections, it is possible to improve resonating detectors by using three of them together: the difference between the activities of the exterior detectors and that of the central detector is proportional to the neutron flux at the resonance energy. The sensitivity obtained is lower but the energy selectivity is better than with simple detectors. The object of this work has been to develop this technique for four substances: gold, lanthanum, cobalt and manganese which have resonance energies at 4.9 - 73.5 - 132 and 337 eV. (author) [fr

  13. A test-bench for measurement of electrical static parameters of strip silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Elsha, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control. (author)

  14. A measurement method of a detector response function for monochromatic electrons based on the Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhlanov, S.V.; Bazlov, N.V.; Derbin, A.V.; Drachnev, I.S.; Kayunov, A.S.; Muratova, V.N.; Semenov, D.A.; Unzhakov, E.V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of scintillation detector energy calibration using the gamma-rays. The technique is based on the Compton scattering of gamma-rays in a scintillation detector and subsequent photoelectric absorption of the scattered photon in the Ge-detector. The novelty of this method is that the source of gamma rays, the germanium and scintillation detectors are immediately arranged adjacent to each other. The method presents an effective solution for the detectors consisting of a low atomic number materials, when the ratio between Compton effect and photoelectric absorption is large and the mean path of gamma-rays is comparable to the size of the detector. The technique can be used for the precision measurements of the scintillator light yield dependence on the electron energy.

  15. Some recent measurements onboard spacecraft with passive detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Jadrníčková, Iva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, 1-4 (2005), s. 228-231 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : space research * radiation dosimetry * passive detectors Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.490, year: 2005

  16. A large area transition radiation detector to measure the energy of muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Perchiazzi, M.; Raino, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and built a transition radiation detector of 36 m 2 area in order to measure the residual energy of muons penetrating in the Gran Sasso cosmic ray underground laboratory up to the TeV region. It consists of three adjacent modules, each of 2x6 m 2 area. Polystyrene square tubes, filled with a argon-carbon dioxide gas mixture, and polyethylene foam layers are used as proportional detectors and radiators respectively. We cover such a large surface with only 960 channels that provide adequate energy resolution and particle tracking for the astroparticle physics items to investigate. The detector has been calibrated using a reduced size prototype in a test beam. Results from one module exposed to cosmic rays at sea level are shown. (orig.)

  17. MTF measurement and analysis of linear array HgCdTe infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Lin, Chun; Chen, Honglei; Sun, Changhong; Lin, Jiamu; Wang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    The slanted-edge technique is the main method for measurement detectors MTF, however this method is commonly used on planar array detectors. In this paper the authors present a modified slanted-edge method to measure the MTF of linear array HgCdTe detectors. Crosstalk is one of the major factors that degrade the MTF value of such an infrared detector. This paper presents an ion implantation guard-ring structure which was designed to effectively absorb photo-carriers that may laterally defuse between adjacent pixels thereby suppressing crosstalk. Measurement and analysis of the MTF of the linear array detectors with and without a guard-ring were carried out. The experimental results indicated that the ion implantation guard-ring structure effectively suppresses crosstalk and increases MTF value.

  18. First Measurements of the Inclined Boron Layer Thermal-Neutron Detector for Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clonts, Lloyd G [ORNL; Crow, Lowell [ORNL; Van Vuure, Thorwald L [ORNL; Robertson, Lee [ORNL; Riedel, Richard A [ORNL; Richards, John D [ORNL; Cooper, Ronald G [ORNL; Remec, Igor [ORNL; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; Browning, Jim [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A prototype detector based on the inclined boron layer principle is introduced. For typical measurement conditions at the Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, its count rate capability is shown to be superior to that of the current detector by nearly two orders of magnitude.

  19. Surface charge measurement by the Pockels effect

    CERN Document Server

    Sam, Y L

    2001-01-01

    have been observed by applying both impulse and AC voltages to a needle electrode in direct contact with the BSO. AC surface discharge behaviour of polymeric materials bonded to the BSO has also been investigated. The effect of the surrounding environment has been experimentally examined by placing the cell inside a vacuum chamber. Surface charge measurements have been made at various atmospheric pressures. The effect of an electro-negative gas (Sulphur Hexafluoride) on the surface charge distribution has also been investigated. This thesis is concerned with the design and development of a surface charge measurement system using Pockels effect. The measurement of surface charge is important in determining the electrical performance of high voltage insulation materials. The method proposed allows on-line measurement of charge and can generate two-dimensional images that represent the charge behaviour on the surface of the material under test. The measurement system is optical and uses a Pockels crystal as the ...

  20. Spectroscopic measurements with a silicon drift detector having a continuous implanted drift cathode-voltage divider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; D'Acunto, L; Franck, D; Gregorio, A; Pihet, P; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N

    2000-01-01

    A silicon drift detector (SDD) prototype where the drift electrode also plays the role of a high-voltage divider has been realised and characterised for spectroscopic applications at near-room temperatures. Among the advantages of this design, is the absence of metal on the sensitive surface which makes this detector interesting for soft X-rays. The detector prototype has a large sensitive area (2x130 mm sup 2) and the charge is collected by two anodes (butterfly-like detector). The energy resolution of a such a detector has been investigated at near-room temperatures using a commercial, hybrid, low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier. The results obtained for the X-ray lines from sup 5 sup 5 Fe and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am are presented.

  1. Neutron multiplicity measurements with 3He alternative: Straw neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Wolff, Ronald [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Detwiler, Ryan [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Maurer, Richard [Arnold Avenue Andrews AFB, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Mitchell, Stephen [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Guss, Paul [Remote Sensing Lab. - Nellis, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Lacy, Jeffrey L. [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Sun, Liang [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Athanasiades, Athanasios [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-01-27

    Counting neutrons emitted by special nuclear material (SNM) and differentiating them from the background neutrons of various origins is the most effective passive means of detecting SNM. Unfortunately, neutron detection, counting, and partitioning in a maritime environment are complex due to the presence of high-multiplicity spallation neutrons (commonly known as ‘‘ship effect ’’) and to the complicated nature of the neutron scattering in that environment. A prototype neutron detector was built using 10B as the converter in a special form factor called ‘‘straws’’ that would address the above problems by looking into the details of multiplicity distributions of neutrons originating from a fissioning source. This paper describes the straw neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) and assesses the performance with those of a commercially available fission meter. The prototype straw neutron detector provides a large-area, efficient, lightweight, more granular (than fission meter) neutron-responsive detection surface (to facilitate imaging) to enhance the ease of application of fission meters. Presented here are the results of preliminary investigations, modeling, and engineering considerations leading to the construction of this prototype. This design is capable of multiplicity and Feynman variance measurements. This prototype may lead to a near-term solution to the crisis that has arisen from the global scarcity of 3He by offering a viable alternative to fission meters. This paper describes the work performed during a 2-year site-directed research and development (SDRD) project that incorporated straw detectors for neutron multiplicity counting. The NMC is a two-panel detector system. We used 10B (in the form of enriched boron carbide: 10B4C) for neutron detection instead of 3He. In the first year, the project worked with a panel of straw neutron detectors, investigated its characteristics, and

  2. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors; Medicion de rayos X con detectores de semiconductor tipo PIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Electronica, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  3. Measurement of jet production with the ATLAS detector and extraction of the strong coupling constant

    CERN Document Server

    Marceca, Gino; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The inclusive-jet cross-section at 8 TeV and the inclusive-jet and dijet cross-sections at 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector are presented. NLO QCD calculations, and NNLO for the inclusive-jet measurement at 13 TeV, are compared to the measurements. The extraction of $\\alpha_{s}$ from the measurement of the transverse energy-energy correlation at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector is also presented.

  4. An electrostatic radon detector designed for water radioactivity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Jian Xiong; Simpson, J J

    1999-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory contains 1000 t of ultra-pure heavy water and 7000 t of very pure light water. In order to achieve the goal of determining accurately the total number of neutrinos emitted by the sun regardless of type, the radioactivity in the water must be maintained with a radiopurity of less than 10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 g/g of sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th and sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U in secular equilibrium with their daughters. This paper describes the design and application of an electrostatic radon detector which determines the amount of radon emanating from a column containing MnO sub 2 used to extract radium from the water. This electrostatic radon detector has a total efficiency of 35% for detecting sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and 22% for sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn.

  5. Radiation damage measurements on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    from 2 x 10(8) to 60 x 10(8) p(+)/cm(2). Even for the highest fluences, which had a dramatic effect on the spectroscopic performance, we were able to recover the detectors after an appropriate annealing procedure. The radiation damage was studied as a function of depth inside the detector material...... with the proton dose. The radiation contribution to the electron trapping was found to obey the following relation: (mutau(e)(-1))(rad) = (2.5+/-0.2) x 10(-7) x Phi (V/cm)(2) with the proton fluence, Phi in p(+)/cm(2). The trapping depth dependence, however, did not agree well with the damage profile calculated...

  6. Measurements of charging-up processes in THGEM-based particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, M.; Correia, P. M. M.; Bressler, S.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Shaked Renous, D.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Breskin, A.

    2018-03-01

    The time-dependent gain variation of detectors incorporating Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) electrodes was studied in the context of charging-up processes of the electrode's insulating surfaces. An experimental study was performed to examine model-simulation results of the aforementioned phenomena, under various experimental conditions. The results indicate that in a stable detector's environment, the gain stabilization process is mainly affected by the charging-up of the detector's insulating surfaces caused by the avalanche charges. The charging-up is a transient effect, occurring during the detector's initial operation period; it does not affect its long-term operation. The experimental results are consistent with the outcome of model-simulations.

  7. Thermo-dynamical measurements for ATLAS Inner Detector (evaporative cooling system)

    CERN Document Server

    Bitadze, Alexander; Buttar, Craig

    During the construction, installation and initial operation of the Evaporative Cooling System for the ATLAS Inner Detector SCT Barrel Sub-detector, some performance characteristics were observed to be inconsistent with the original design specifications, therefore the assumptions made in the ATLAS Inner Detector TDR were revisited. The main concern arose because of unexpected pressure drops in the piping system from the end of the detector structure to the distribution racks. The author of this theses made a series of measurements of these pressure drops and the thermal behavior of SCT-Barrel cooling Stave. Tests were performed on the installed detector in the pit, and using a specially assembled full scale replica in the SR1 laboratory at CERN. This test setup has been used to perform extensive tests of the cooling performance of the system including measurements of pressure drops in different parts of system, studies of the thermal profile along the stave pipe for different running conditions / parameters a...

  8. A measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanov, Rustem [Texas U.

    2008-08-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. The neutrino beam is produced by the NuMI facility at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, and is observed at near and far detectors placed 734 km apart. The neutrino interactions in the near detector are used to measure the initial muon neutrino fl The vast majority of neutrinos travel through the near detector and Earth matter without interactions. A fraction of muon neutrinos oscillate into other fl vors resulting in the disappearance of muon neutrinos at the far detector. This thesis presents a measurement of the muon neutrino oscillation parameters in the framework of the two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis.

  9. Measuring Io's Lava Eruption Temperatures with a Novel Infrared Detector and Digital Readout Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley; Gunapala, Sarath; Rafol, B., Sir; Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.

    2016-10-01

    One method of determining lava eruption temperature of Io's dominant silicate lavas is by measuring radiant flux at two or more wavelengths and fitting a black-body thermal emission function. Only certain styles of volcanic activity are suitable, those where thermal emission is from a restricted range of surface temperatures close to eruption temperature. Such processes include [1] large lava fountains; [2] fountaining in lava lakes; and [3] lava tube skylights. Problems that must be overcome are (1) the cooling of the lava between data acquisitions at different wavelengths; (2) the unknown magnitude of thermal emission, which often led to detector saturation; and (3) thermal emission changing on a shorter timescale than the observation integration time. We can overcome these problems by using the HOT-BIRD detector [4] and an advanced digital readout circuit [5]. We have created an instrument model that allows different instrument parameters (including mirror diameter, number of signal splits, exposure duration, filter band pass, and optics transmissivity) to be tested so as to determine eruption detectability. We find that a short-wavelength infrared instrument on an Io flyby mission can achieve simultaneity of observations by splitting the incoming signal for all relevant eruption processes and obtain data fast enough to remove uncertainties in accurate determination of the highest lava surface temperatures exposed. Observations at 1 and 1.5 μm are sufficient to do this. Lava temperature determinations are also possible with a visible wavelength detector [3] so long as data at different wavelengths are obtained simultaneously and integration time is very short. This is especially important for examining the thermal emission from lava tube skylights [3] due to rapidly-changing viewing geometry during close flybys. References: [1] Davies et al., 2001, JGR, 106, 33079-33104. [2] Davies et al., 2011, GRL, 38, L21308. [3] Davies et al., 2016, Icarus, in press. [4

  10. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  11. Analysis of the surface technology of silicon detectors for imaging of low-energy beta tracers in biological material

    CERN Document Server

    Tykva, R

    2000-01-01

    Using silicon surface barrier detectors, the counting sensitivity of low-energy beta tracers is considerably influenced by surface technology applied in detector manufacturing. Original diagnostic procedure, using a mixture of uranium fission products, is described to trace the behaviors of different admixtures as in the etching bath as in the water used during development of the detector surface. In combination with some other described analyses, the detectors produced with the developed surface control are used in a PC - controlled scanning equipment reaching at room temperature an FWHM of 3.4 keV for sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am. Such detectors make it possible to image distribution, of e.g., sup 3 H, sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I, sup 3 H+ sup 1 sup 4 C and other beta tracer combinations applied in life and environmental sciences.

  12. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, N

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ− in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 cosmic ray muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the Rμ dependence on the primary composition. Rμ is also shown as a function of the Òvertical surface energyÓ Eμ cos !. A Þt to a simpliÞed model of muon pro- duction in atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  13. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks

  14. Optimisation of elevated radon concentration measurement by using electro-chemical etching of nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P.; Fujimoto, K.; Tommasino, L.; Demajo, A.; Zunic, Z.; Celikovic, I.)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, two methods for adjusting of passive radon-thoron discriminative dosimeters (UFO detector) for enhanced radon concentration measurement are presented. Achieved upper limit of detection is 5.94 MBq m-3 d [sr

  15. Validation of Am-241 measurement in ion chamber type smoke detector by using gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Khairul Nizam Razali

    2005-01-01

    Smoke detectors are useful devices in modern days that able to save many lives. Even though, the use of ion chamber type smoke detector (usually contain Americium-241) was exempted in Malaysia, but the trading of this device was controlled by regulation, under the Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304). The activity of the Am-241 can be measured by using the Gamma Spectrometry System since it was much easier, compared to Alpha Spectrometry System. To do so, the system was first need to be calibrated using the standard reference source to find the efficiency of the germanium detector. The method used for the measurement was first validated for several relevant parameters, which include specificity, precision (repeatability), bias (accuracy), linearity, working range, detection limit, robustness and ruggedness to ensure it was fit for the purpose. The measured Am-241 activity inside the smoke detector will be reported together with a reasonable expanded uncertainty arise from the measurement. (Author)

  16. Prototype of the stacked CdZnTe semiconductor detector for 16N measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Hiroshi; Inujima, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    Prototype of the Stacked CdZnTe Semiconductor Detector for Measurement The prototype model of the stacked CdZnTe semiconductor detector, which is able to measure the 6.13 MeV γ-ray from 16 N, was fabricated. The prototype's response calculation was carried out by Monte-Carlo method. The result of the response calculation agreed with the experiment data of check sources of 137 Cs and 60 Co, and 16 N which was measured at vicinity of the primary cooling water pipe of the nuclear reactor. The source spectra were unfolded with detector's response function obtained by simulation, and it is indicated that the incident γ-ray energy and its intensity ratio was identified and that the energy of 6 MeV γ-ray could be measured by the prototype of the stacked detector. (author)

  17. The γ rays sensitivity measurement of CeF3 scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mengchun; Zhou Dianzhong; Li Rurong; Wang Zhentong; Yang Hongqiong; Zhang Jianhua; Hu Qingyuan; Peng Taiping

    2003-01-01

    The CeF 3 is an abio-scintillator developed in recent years, which are insensitive to neutron and sensitive to gamma rays and respond quickness. The relationship of CeF 3 scintillation detector gamma rays sensitivity with the change of crystal thickness was measured. The CeF 3 scintillation detector is composed by high liner current photomultiplier tube of CHφT3, CHφT5 and CeF 3 scintillator. The detector gamma rays sensitivity of purple photocell and common photocell with CeF 3 scintillator were measured too

  18. Calculated and measured efficiency of a man-portable 3He neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A small man-portable neutron detector was constructed using 18 3 He proportional counters arranged in three layers within a polyethylene moderator. Each counter is 25 mm in diameter by 340 mm long (sensitive length) and is filled with highly-purified 3 He to a pressure of 400 kPa (4 atm). Efficiency measurements were made using a 252 Cf neutron source. Detailed calculations of the detector efficiency were done using the TART Monte Carlo transport code. Calculations and measurements were compared for several source/detector configurations

  19. Energy response corrections for profile measurements using a combination of different detector types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Sonja; Sauer, Otto A

    2018-02-01

    Different detector properties will heavily affect the results of off-axis measurements outside of radiation fields, where a different energy spectrum is encountered. While a diode detector would show a high spatial resolution, it contains high atomic number elements, which lead to perturbations and energy-dependent response. An ionization chamber, on the other hand, has a much smaller energy dependence, but shows dose averaging over its larger active volume. We suggest a way to obtain spatial energy response corrections of a detector independent of its volume effect for profiles of arbitrary fields by using a combination of two detectors. Measurements were performed at an Elekta Versa HD accelerator equipped with an Agility MLC. Dose profiles of fields between 10 × 4 cm² and 0.6 × 0.6 cm² were recorded several times, first with different small-field detectors (unshielded diode 60012 and stereotactic field detector SFD, microDiamond, EDGE, and PinPoint 31006) and then with a larger volume ionization chamber Semiflex 31010 for different photon beam qualities of 6, 10, and 18 MV. Correction factors for the small-field detectors were obtained from the readings of the respective detector and the ionization chamber using a convolution method. Selected profiles were also recorded on film to enable a comparison. After applying the correction factors to the profiles measured with different detectors, agreement between the detectors and with profiles measured on EBT3 film was improved considerably. Differences in the full width half maximum obtained with the detectors and the film typically decreased by a factor of two. Off-axis correction factors outside of a 10 × 1 cm² field ranged from about 1.3 for the EDGE diode about 10 mm from the field edge to 0.7 for the PinPoint 31006 25 mm from the field edge. The microDiamond required corrections comparable in size to the Si-diodes and even exceeded the values in the tail region of the field. The SFD was found

  20. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  1. A prototype silicon detector system for space cosmic-ray charge measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Dong, Yi-Fa; Gong, Ke; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Ya-Qing; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    A readout electronics system used for space cosmic-ray charge measurement for multi-channel silicon detectors is introduced in this paper, including performance measurements. A 64-channel charge sensitive ASIC (VA140) from the IDEAS company is used. With its features of low power consumption, low noise, large dynamic range, and high integration, it can be used in future particle detecting experiments based on silicon detectors.

  2. Measuring radon levels at high exposures with alpha-track detectors. Calibration and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanestad, Katrine; Roennqvist, Tryggve; Jensen, Camilla Lunder

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the TADTAC method - a track area dependent total area counting method, for measuring radon levels at high exposures with alpha-track detectors. Normally radon levels are measured by counting individual tracks. The TADTAC method is developed by Gammadata Maaleteknik AB and implemented at The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Alpha-track detectors used for testing and calibrating the method where exposed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. (author) (tk)

  3. A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burgett, Eric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; May, Iain [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taw, Felicia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tovesson, Fredrik K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on nanocomposite-based scintillators for gamma-ray detection indicates that this approach can be extended to load nanoparticles of fissionable material into a scintillating matrix, with up to three orders of magnitude higher loading than typical fission chambers. This will result in a rugged, cost-efficient detector with high efficiency, a short signal rise time, and the ability to be used in low neutron-flux environments. Initial efforts to utilize the luminescence of uranyl oxide to eliminate the need for wavelength-shifting dyes were unsuccessful. Excitation of uranyl compounds has been reported at wavelengths ranging from 266 nm to 532 nm. However, neither the 300 nm emission of toluene, nor the 350 nm emission of PPO, nor the 410 nm emission of POPOP resulted in significant excitation of and emission by uranyl oxide. As indicated by UV/visible spectroscopy, light emitted at these wavelengths was absorbed by the colored solution. {sup 235}U remains the most attractive candidate for a fissionable scintillator, due to its high fission cross-section and lack of a threshold fission energy, but all solutions containing molecular uranium compounds will be colored, most more highly than the U{sup 6+} compounds used here. Research is therefore continuing toward the fabrication of uranium nanoparticles, in which, due to Rayleigh scattering, the coloration should be less pronounced. The characterization of the thorium-loaded liquid scintillator and the fabrication of the 100 mL detectors for use at LANSCE demonstrated the feasibility of loading fissionable

  4. Cylinder gauge measurement using a position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, W. Doyle

    2007-01-01

    A position sensitive detector (PSD) has been used to determine the diameter of cylindrical pins based on the shift in a laser beam's centroid. The centroid of the light beam is defined here as the weighted average of position by the local intensity. A shift can be observed in the centroid of an otherwise axially symmetric light beam, which is partially obstructed. Additionally, the maximum shift in the centroid is a unique function of the obstructing cylinder diameter. Thus to determine the cylinder diameter, one only needs to detect this maximum shift as the cylinder is swept across the beam

  5. Technique for measuring very high surface velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maron, Y.

    1977-01-01

    An interferometric technique for measuring displacements of surfaces moving at velocities in the range of a few millimeters per microsecond is presented. The Doppler shift of frequency of light scattered from such surfaces is too high to be detectable by known devices. The present technique is based upon monitoring the signal resulting from the interference between two beams reflected from the surface at different incidence angles. Measurement systems for specularly as well as diffusely reflecting surfaces are described. Light source with very modest temporal coherence delivering about 100 mw power is required. The accuracy of the technique is discussed. (author)

  6. A timing detector with pulsed high-voltage power supply for mass measurements at CSRe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Tu, X.L.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y.H.; Xu, H.S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Blaum, K.

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy of nuclear mass measurements in storage rings depends critically on the accuracy with which the revolution times of stored ions can be obtained. In such experiments, micro-channel plates (MCP) are used as timing detectors. Due to large phase space of injected secondary beams, a large number of ions cannot be stored in the ring and is lost within the first few revolutions. However, these ions interact with the detector and can saturate the MCP and thus deteriorate its performance. In order to eliminate such effects, a fast, pulsed high-voltage power supply (PHVPS) has been employed which keeps the detector switched-off during the first few revolutions. The new detector setup was taken into operation at the Experimental Cooler-Storage-Ring CSRe in Lanzhou and resulted in a significant improvement of the detector amplitude and efficiency characteristics

  7. Aging measurements on triple-GEM detectors operated with $CF_{4}$-based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; De Simone, P; Murtas, F; Poli Lener, M P; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; Raspino, D; Saitta, B; Pinci, D; Baccaro, S; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2005.03.054

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a global irradiation test of full size triple-GEM detectors operated with CF/sub 4/-based gas mixtures. This study has been performed in the framework of an R&D activity on detectors for the innermost region of the first muon station of the LHCb experiment. The prototypes have been irradiated at the Calliope facility of the ENEA-Casaccia with a high intensity 1.25 MeV detectors performances have been measured with X-rays and with a 3 Ge V pion beam at CERN. A SEM analysis on several samples of the detectors has been performed to complete the understanding of the physical processes occurring in a GEM detector during a strong irradiation.

  8. Aging measurements on triple-GEM detectors operated with $CF_{4}$- based gas mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonsi, M; Bencivenni, G; Bonivento, W; Cardini, A; Lener, M P; Murtas, F; Pinci, D; Raspino, D; Saitta, B; De Simone, P

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a global irradiation test of full size triple-GEM detectors operated with CF/sub 4/-based gas mixtures. This study has been performed in the framework of an R&D activity on detectors for the innermost region of the first muon station of the LHCb experiment. The prototypes have been irradiated at the Calliope facility of the ENEA-Casaccia with a high intensity 1.25 MeV gamma from a /sup 60/Co source. After the irradiation test the detectors performances have been measured with X-rays and with a 3 GeV pion beam at CERN. A SEM analysis on several samples of the detectors has been performed to complete the understanding of the physical processes occurring in the GEM detector during the strong irradiation.

  9. Aging measurements on triple-GEM detectors operated with CF{sub 4}-based gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN, Frascati (Italy); Bencivenni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Simone, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN, Frascati (Italy); Murtas, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN, Frascati (Italy); Poli Lener, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati - INFN, Frascati (Italy); Bonivento, W. [Sezione INFN di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cardini, A. [Sezione INFN di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Raspino, D. [Sezione INFN di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Saitta, B. [Sezione INFN di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Pinci, D. [Sezione INFN di Roma 1, Rome (Italy); Baccaro, S. [ENEA-FIS/ION, C.R. Casaccia, 00060, S. Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy)

    2006-01-15

    We present the results of a global irradiation test of full size triple-GEM detectors operated with CF{sub 4}-based gas mixtures. This study has been performed in the framework of an R and D activity on detectors for the innermost region of the first muon station of the LHCb experiment. The prototypes have been irradiated at the Calliope facility of the ENEA-Casaccia with a high intensity 1.25 MeV {gamma} {sup 6}Co source. After the irradiation test the detectors performances have been measured with X-rays and with a 3 GeV pion beam at CERN. A SEM analysis on several samples of the detectors has been performed to complete the understanding of the physical processes occurring in a GEM detector during a strong irradiation.

  10. Simulation and experimental measurement of radon activity using a multichannel silicon-based radiation detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, F B; Selcuk, A B; Ozkorucuklu, S; Alpat, A B; Ozdemir, T; Ӧzek, N

    2018-05-01

    In this study, high-precision radiation detector (HIPRAD), a new-generation semiconductor microstrip detector, was used for detecting radon (Rn-222) activity. The aim of this study was to detect radon (Rn-222) activity experimentally by measuring the energy of particles in this detector. Count-ADC channel, eta-charge, and dose-response values were experimentally obtained using HIPRAD. The radon simulation in the radiation detector was theoretically performed using the Geant4 software package. The obtained radioactive decay, energy generation, energy values, and efficiency values of the simulation were plotted using the root program. The new-generation radiation detector proved to have 95% reliability according to the obtained dose-response graphs. The experimental and simulation results were found to be compatible with each other and with the radon decays and literature studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design for measurement system of Doppler broadening profiles with the coincidence technique using a NaI detector in colinear geometry with the Ge detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuteru; Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Nakai, Katsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The measurement system for Doppler broadening profiles with the coincidence technique using a NaI detector in colinear geometry with a Ge detector was developed. The principle of measurement system with the coincidence technique between the NaI detector and the Ge detector was described. Application of the system for the detection of vacancy-type defects introduced by electron irradiation in Czochralski-(Cz) grown Si was shown. Detail in the difference between the Doppler broadening profiles for Cz-Si and Si grown by the floating-zone method was also obtained. (author)

  12. Design for measurement system of Doppler broadening profiles with the coincidence technique using a NaI detector in colinear geometry with the Ge detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kazuteru; Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Nakai, Katsuhiko

    1998-08-01

    The measurement system for Doppler broadening profiles with the coincidence technique using a NaI detector in colinear geometry with a Ge detector was developed. The principle of measurement system with the coincidence technique between the NaI detector and the Ge detector was described. Application of the system for the detection of vacancy-type defects introduced by electron irradiation in Czochralski-(Cz) grown Si was shown. Detail in the difference between the Doppler broadening profiles for Cz-Si and Si grown by the floating-zone method was also obtained. (author)

  13. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 7 (2016), 1-16, č. článku 072006. ISSN 2470-0010 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Pierre Auger Observatory * cosmic rays * surface detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.568, year: 2016

  14. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars science laboratory's curiosity rover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler, D.M.; Zeitlin, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.; Ehresmann, B.; Rafkin, S.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Brinza, D.E.; Weigle, G.; Böttcher, S.; Böhm, E.; Burmeister, S.; Guo, J.; Köhler, J.; Martin, C.; Reitz, G.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Kim, M.-H.; Grinspoon, D.; Bullock, M.A.; Posner, A.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Vasavada, A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory’s Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose

  15. Pulse-height response of silicon surface-barrier detectors to high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.

    1973-01-01

    The pulse-height defect (PHD) of high-energy heavy ions in silicon surface-barrier detectors can be divided into three components: (1) energy loss in the gold-surface layer, (2) a nuclear-stopping defect, and (3) a defect due to recombination of electron-hole pairs in the plasma created by the heavy ion. The plasma recombination portion of the PHD was the subject of this study using the variation of the PHD with (1) the angle of incidence of incoming heavy ions, and (2) changes in the detector bias. The Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory was used to produce scattered beam ions ( 32 S, 35 Cl) and heavy target recoils (Ni, Cu, 98 Mo, Ag, Au) at sufficient energies to produce a significant recombination defect. The results confirm the existence of a recombination zone at the front surface of these detectors and the significance of plasma recombination as a portion of the pulse-height defect. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  16. Method of impressing and reading out a surface charge on a multilayered detector structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeno, A.; Marsh, L.M.; Cowart, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A latent charge image is recorded on and reproduced from a multilayered detector. Firstly the detector is given a uniform surface charge on its photoconductive layer. This layer is then biased with an electric field of opposite polarity to the surface charge. The detector is then exposed to a modulated radiation flux to cause at least partial discharge of the photoconductive layer. The latent charge image of the modulated radiation flux is thus stored and later read by scanning the surface of the photoconductive layer with a small diameter photon beam to discharge further sequentially the photoconductive layer. The changing electrical potential of this discharge is detected and processed into a video signal by a processor for storage or display. This invention provides a method and apparatus capable of replacing conventional photographic and radiographic films. It also provides an X-ray sensing system which produces radiographic images of a patient using a lower radiation dosage. The output is an analog or digital video signal that may be displayed on a television monitor, recorded on film or directly stored or processed in a computer for image enhancement or pattern recognition. Other aspects are detailed. (U.K.)

  17. Precise measurement of muon momenta at LEP using the L3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Romero, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this PhD report the author presents the studies and methods developed to achieve the optimization of the resolution in the momentum measurement of the L3 moun detector. Chapters 1 and 2 show the motivations to build a precision muon detector for the LEP e + e - collider. Special emphasis is applied to the study of the Higgs scalar boson search and identification and the guiding principles used to design the L3 muon detector are outlined. Chapter 3 is devoted to the description of the drift chambers. They are located in three concentric octagonal cylinders inside one solenoidal magnet, around the interaction point and coaxial with the beams. These chambers are the measuring elements of the detector. The chapter includes the description or the different tests applied to the chambers to obtain their resolution and calibration. In chapter 4 the alignment system of this chambers is described. This system is a key element to the precision of the detector, that being 12 meters long and of 12 meters of diameter has to measure the particles trajectories with precisions of just a few micrometers. Chapter 5 describes the third key piece for the detector precision, the monitoring and control system. It allows to know continually the precise values of the critical parameters of the detector. Finally in chapter 6 the author presents the results of the many test applied to the detector using cosmic rays, UV lasers and even the actual muons produced in the e + e - interactions. These tests prove that the L3 muon detector is the most precise measuring system for muon momenta installed at present in one e + e - collider ring. (Author)

  18. Developments in Silicon Detectors and their impact on LHCb Physics Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gouldwell-Bates, A

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a high energy physics detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which will probe the current understanding of the Standard Model through precise measurements of CP violation and rare decays. The LHCb detector heavily depends on the silicon vertexing (VELO) sub-detector for excellent vertex and proper decay time resolutions. The VELO detector sits at a position of only 7 mm from the LHC proton beams. However, the proximity of the silicon sensors to the proton beams results in the detectors suffering radiation damage. Radiation damage results in three changes in the macroscopic properties of the silicon detector: an increase of the leakage current, a decrease in the charge collection efficiency, and changes in the operation voltage required to fully deplete the silicon detector of the free charge carriers. Due to this radiation damage, it is expected that a replacement or upgrade of the LHCb vertex detector will be required by 2010, only 3 years after the turn-on of the LHC. This thesis...

  19. Surface texture measurement for additive manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantaphyllou, Andrew; Tomita, Ben; Milne, Katherine A; Giusca, Claudiu L; Macaulay, Gavin D; Roerig, Felix; Hoebel, Matthias; Leach, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    The surface texture of additively manufactured metallic surfaces made by powder bed methods is affected by a number of factors, including the powder’s particle size distribution, the effect of the heat source, the thickness of the printed layers, the angle of the surface relative to the horizontal build bed and the effect of any post processing/finishing. The aim of the research reported here is to understand the way these surfaces should be measured in order to characterise them. In published research to date, the surface texture is generally reported as an Ra value, measured across the lay. The appropriateness of this method for such surfaces is investigated here. A preliminary investigation was carried out on two additive manufacturing processes—selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM)—focusing on the effect of build angle and post processing. The surfaces were measured using both tactile and optical methods and a range of profile and areal parameters were reported. Test coupons were manufactured at four angles relative to the horizontal plane of the powder bed using both SLM and EBM. The effect of lay—caused by the layered nature of the manufacturing process—was investigated, as was the required sample area for optical measurements. The surfaces were also measured before and after grit blasting. (paper)

  20. Constructing invariant fairness measures for surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a rational method to derive fairness measures for surfaces. It works in cases where isophotes, reflection lines, planar intersection curves, or other curves are used to judge the fairness of the surface. The surface fairness measure is derived by demanding that all the given cu...... of curves. Six basic third order invariants by which the fairing measures can be expressed are defined. Furthermore, the geometry of a plane intersection curve is studied, and the variation of the total, the normal, and the geodesic curvature and the geodesic torsion is determined....

  1. Systematic investigation of background sources in neutron flux measurements with a proton-recoil silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Acosta, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, México D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Aïche, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2017-01-01

    Proton-recoil detectors (PRDs), based on the well known standard H(n,p) elastic scattering cross section, are the preferred instruments to perform precise quasi-absolute neutron flux measurements above 1 MeV. The limitations of using a single silicon detector as PRD at a continuous neutron beam facility are investigated, with the aim of extending such measurements to neutron energies below 1 MeV. This requires a systematic investigation of the background sources affecting the neutron flux measurement. Experiments have been carried out at the AIFIRA facility to identify these sources. A study on the role of the silicon detector thickness on the background is presented and an energy limit on the use of a single silicon detector to achieve a neutron flux precision better than 1% is given.

  2. Investigation of surface homogeneity of mirrors for the CBM-RICH detector and low-mass di-electron feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, E; Hoehne, C

    2014-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR facility will investigate high net-baryon density matter at moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 4-45 AGeV. One of the key observables of the CBM physics program is electromagnetic radiation as a probe of strongly interacting matter in heavy-ion collisions, carrying undistorted information on its conditions to the detector. This includes detailed investigations of low-mass vector mesons in their di-electron channel. A clean and efficient identification of electrons is required for such measurements. In CBM the electron identification will be performed by a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector and several layers of Transition Radiation Detectors. The RICH detector will be operated with CO 2 radiator gas, MAPMTs as photodetector and spherical glass mirrors as focusing elements. A high quality of the mirrors in terms of reflectivity and surface homogeneity is required. In the first part of the contribution results on measurements of the mirror surface homogeneity are presented. Results on the feasibility studies of low-mass di-electron measurements with realistic detector response are discussed in the second part of the contribution.

  3. Long-Term Stable Surface Treatments on CdTe and CdZnTe Radiation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarek, Jakub; Belas, Eduard; Zazvorka, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    The spectral resolution and charge collection efficiency (CCE) of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) room-temperature x-ray and gamma-ray detectors are often limited by high surface leakage current due to conducting surface species created during detector fabrication. Surface treatments play a major role in reduction of this surface leakage current. The effect of various types of surface etching and passivation on the leakage current and thereby the spectral energy resolution, CCE, and internal electric field profile of CdTe/CZT detectors has been studied. The main aim of this work is preparation of long-term stable detectors with strongly reduced leakage current. The time stability of the current-voltage characteristic and spectral resolution was investigated during 21 days and 1 year, respectively, after performing surface treatments. Our results suggest that the optimal detector preparation method is chemomechanical polishing in bromine-ethylene glycol solution followed by chemical etching in bromine-methanol solution then surface passivation in potassium hydroxide or ammonium fluoride (NH4F/H2O2). Detectors prepared using this optimal treatment exhibited low leakage current, high spectral resolution, and long-term stability compared with those subjected to other surface preparation methods.

  4. Surface tension measurements with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Nicolas-Alexandre; Denis, Zakari; Lavaud, Maxime; Grolleau, Adrian; Dufour, Nicolas; Deblais, Antoine; Delabre, Ulysse

    2017-11-01

    Smartphones are increasingly used in higher education and at university in mechanics, acoustics, and even thermodynamics as they offer a unique way to do simple science experiments. In this article, we show how smartphones can be used in fluid mechanics to measure surface tension of various liquids, which could help students understand the concept of surface tension through simple experiments.

  5. Intrinsic noise of a superheated droplet detector for neutron background measurements in massively shielded facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Ana C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superheated droplet detectors are a promising technique to the measurement of low-intensity neutron fields, as detectors can be rendered insensitive to minimum ionizing radiations. We report on the intrinsic neutron-induced signal of C2ClF5 devices fabricated by our group that originate from neutron- and alpha-emitting impurities in the detector constituents. The neutron background was calculated via Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX-PoliMi code in order to extract the recoil distributions following neutron interaction with the atoms of the superheated liquid. Various nuclear techniques were employed to characterise the detector materials with respect to source isotopes (238U, 232Th and 147Sm for the normalisation of the simulations and also light elements (B, Li having high (α, n neutron production yields. We derived a background signal of ~10-3 cts/day in a 1 liter detector of 1-3 wt.% C2ClF5, corresponding to a detection limit in the order of 10-8 n cm-2s-1. Direct measurements in a massively shielded underground facility for dark matter search have confirmed this result. With the borosilicate detector containers found to be the dominant background source in current detectors, possibilities for further noise reduction by ~2 orders of magnitude based on selected container materials are discussed.

  6. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a general method which from an invariant curve fairness measure constructs an invariant surface fairness measure. Besides the curve fairness measure one only needs a class of curves on the surface for which one wants to apply the curve measure. The surface measure at a point...... variation.The method is extended to the case where one considers, not the fairness of one curve, but the fairness of a one parameter family of curves. Such a family is generated by the flow of a vector field, orthogonal to the curves. The first, respectively the second order derivative along the curve...... of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  7. Light higgsinos at the ILC. Precision measurements and detector requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, Hale

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is based on a study of Natural Supersymmetry (SUSY) scenarios at the International Linear Collider (ILC). These scenarios are motivated by naturalness, which requires the mu parameter to be at the electroweak scale. The considered Natural SUSY scenario contains three light higgsino-like charginos and neutralinos, χ 1 ± , χ 1 0 and χ 2 0 with a mass splitting of a few GeV or even sub-GeV, while all other supersymmetric particles are heavy in the multi-TeV scale. Due to the small mass difference of a few GeV, the final state consists of a large missing energy and a few very soft visible particles. Therefore, the analysis of such scenarios is extremely challenging for the LHC as well as the ILC. In order to investigate the feasibility of observing light higgsinos at the ILC, an analysis has been performed using both fast detector simulation and full detector simulation for International Large Detector (ILD). The fast simulation results have indicated that the key observables of the higgsinos can be reconstructed with an uncertainty of a few percent. It has been shown that the results enable determining the lower limits and allowed regions for the mass parameters of the bino M 1 and the wino M 2 , as well as determining the higgsino mass parameter μ to the accuracy of a few percent. The full simulation analysis has provided information about detector requirements, such as the identification of low momentum electrons and muons. The electron identification can be studied by using the ionisation energy loss of the particles per length, dE/dx, which can be obtained from the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of ILD. The identification of low momentum muons has been studied in the context of the thesis by using the calorimeter cluster shape differences between muons and pions. As a result, a method has been developed for particles with momentum lower than 2 GeV, and its impact on the higgsino analysis has been investigated. It has been found that assuming the

  8. Preparation of stable silica surfaces for surface forces measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huai-Yin; Mizukami, Masashi; Kurihara, Kazue

    2017-09-01

    A surface forces apparatus (SFA) measures the forces between two surfaces as a function of the surface separation distance. It is regarded as an essential tool for studying the interactions between two surfaces. However, sample surfaces used for the conventional SFA measurements have been mostly limited to thin (ca. 2-3 μm) micas, which are coated with silver layers (ca. 50 nm) on their back, due to the requirement of the distance determination by transmission mode optical interferometry called FECO (fringes of equal chromatic order). The FECO method has the advantage of determining the absolute distance, so it should be important to increase the availability of samples other than mica, which is chemically nonreactive and also requires significant efforts for cleaving. Recently, silica sheets have been occasionally used in place of mica, which increases the possibility of surface modification. However, in this case, the silver layer side of the sheet is glued on a cylindrical quartz disc using epoxy resin, which is not stable in organic solvents and can be easily swollen or dissolved. The preparation of substrates more stable under severe conditions, such as in organic solvents, is necessary for extending application of the measurement. In this study, we report an easy method for preparing stable silica layers of ca. 2 μm in thickness deposited on gold layers (41 nm)/silica discs by sputtering, then annealed to enhance the stability. The obtained silica layers were stable and showed no swelling in organic solvents such as ethanol and toluene.

  9. A standardization of the physical tests for external irradiation measuring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    This report is the result of a standardization work, realized within the Radioprotection Services of the A.E.C., of the physical tests for dectors measuring external irradiations. Among the various tests mentionned, calibration and the establishment of the relative spectral response are treated in details. As far as calibration is concerned, the standardization refers to: the reference detector, the reference radiation source, the installation and calibration procedure. As for the relative spectral response the standardization refers to: the reference detector, the radiation sources to be used. High flux detectors and those for pulse electromagnetic radiations are also dealt with [fr

  10. Direct measurement of galactic cosmic ray fluxed with the orbital detector AMS-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Diego

    2003-03-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment is a high energy particle detector developed to measure cosmic ray fluxes outside the Earth atmosphere. The first version of the detector, called AMS-01, successfully flew aboard of the shuttle Discovery on June 2-12, 1998 (NASA STS-91 mission), collecting over one hundred million events. The next version of the detector, called AMS-02, will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha at the end of 2005, where it will operate for at least three years.

  11. Muon detector for the measurement of muon flux and lifetime of atmospheric muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, Ragandeep Singh; Simrandeep Kaur; Bhatnagar, V.; Singh, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    For the present study, muon detector (consisting of four plastic scintillator paddles well equipped with DAQ) to i) measure the muon flux and ii) measure the lifetime of the atmospheric muons have been used. Measurement of lifetime of muons is a classic experiment to measure the time dilation in muons. The muon detector consisting of four scintillator paddles (forming a cuboidal geometry) is connected to PMT tubes from where we get an electrical signal whenever the muon passes. For the case of flux measurement, the coincidence signal is received from the upper and lower scintillator paddle. In the case of lifetime measurement, the muon of low energy decays into an electron (positron) and an antineutron (neutrino). The coincidence signal in this case is received from the top and the two side paddles. The major components of the muon detector are the part of Quark Net experiments developed by Fermilab which have been installed and setup at Panjab University

  12. Measurement of the directional sensitivity of Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaconu, Cosmin; Leyton, Michael; Corliss, Ross; Druitt, Gabriela; Eggleston, Richard; Guerrero, Natalia; Henderson, Shawn; Lopez, Jeremy; Monroe, Jocelyn; Fisher, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The dark matter time projection chamber (DMTPC) is a direction-sensitive detector designed to measure the direction of recoiling F 19 and C 12 nuclei in low-pressure CF4 gas using optical and charge readout systems. In this paper, we employ measurements from two DMTPC detectors, with operating pressures of 30-60 torr, to develop and validate a model of the directional response and performance of such detectors as a function of recoil energy. Using our model as a benchmark, we formulate the necessary specifications for a scalable directional detector with sensitivity comparable to that of current-generation counting (nondirectional) experiments, which measure only recoil energy. Assuming the performance of existing DMTPC detectors, as well as current limits on the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleus cross section, we find that a 10-20 kg scale direction-sensitive detector is capable of correlating the measured direction of nuclear recoils with the predicted direction of incident dark matter particles and providing decisive (3 σ ) confirmation that a candidate signal from a nondirectional experiment was indeed induced by elastic scattering of dark matter particles off of target nuclei.

  13. Development of a scintillator detector set with counter and data acquisition for flow measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, F E D

    2002-01-01

    A portable counter with data acquisition system for flow measurements was developed, using the pulse velocity technique. This consists in determining the tracer transit time mixed homogeneously to the liquid or gas pipelines. The counter comprises: (a) two CsI(Tl) crystals solid state detectors, associated with Si PIN photodiodes, with compatible sensitivity to the injected radiotracers activities; (b) amplification units; (c) analogue-to-digital interface, which processes and displays the detectors counting separately and in real time, but in a same temporal axis, via a computer screen and (d) 30-m coaxial cables for signals transmission from each detector to the processing unit. Experiments were carried out for the detector and associated electronic characterizations. The equipment showed to be suitable for flow measurements in an industrial plant, in the real situation.

  14. Measurements of the top quark mass with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The top quark mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model. The latest ATLAS measurements of the top quark mass are presented. A measurement using lepton+jets events is presented, where a multidimensional template fit is used to constrain the uncertainties on the energy measurements of jets. The measurement is combined with a measurement using dilepton events. In addition, novel measurements aiming to measure the mass in a welldefined scheme are presented. These measurements use precision theoretical QCD calculations for both inclusive ttbar production and ttbar production with an additional jet to extract the top quark mass in the polemass scheme.

  15. Accurate measurement of the time delay in the response of the LIGO gravitational wave detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Aso, Yoichi; Goetz, Evan; Kalmus, Peter; Matone, Luca; Márka, Szabolcs; Myers, Joshua; O’Reilly, Brian; Savage, Rick; Schwinberg, Paul; Siemens, Xavier; Sigg, Daniel; Smith, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to precisely calibrate the time delay in a long baseline gravitational-wave interferometer. An accurate time stamp is crucial for data analysis of gravitational wave detectors, especially when performing coincidence and correlation analyses between multiple detectors. Our method uses an intensity-modulated radiation pressure force to actuate on the mirrors. The time delay is measured by comparing the phase of the signal at the actuation point with the phase of the recorded...

  16. The calibration of the solid state nuclear track detector LR 115 for radon measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gericke, C; Jönsson, G; Freyer, K; Treutler, H C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    An experimental calibration of indoor room and outdoor soil detector devices which are based on LR 115 as sensitive element has taken place at the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm (Sweden) in 1994 and 1996, at the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig (Germany) in 1997 and at the Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany) in 1997. Special properties of the used solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) material LR 115 have been measured to define the application of the experimental calibration.

  17. First evaluation of low frequency noise measurements of in core detector signals in the measuring assembly Rheinsberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collatz, S.

    1982-01-01

    Reactor noise spectra of in core neutron detectors are measured in the low frequency range (0.03 Hz to 1 Hz) and evaluated. The increase of the effective noise signal value is due to pressure oscillations or oscillations of special steam volume portions. Thus boiling monitoring of reactor cores in PWR type reactors may be possible, if the low frequency noise of the whole set of in core detectors is taken into account

  18. Measurements of radionuclide in Par Pond sediments with an underwater HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1993-11-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) effluent gamma emitting radionuclides in Par Pond sediment were examined in situ with an underwater HPGe detector prior to and following a 19 ft drawdown of the pond in 1991 to address dam repairs. These measurements provide a map of the {sup 137}Cs concentrations of the pond sediment, indicating that 9.4 {plus_minus} 1.5 Ci is exposed by the drawdown and that 46.6 {plus_minus} 7.2 Ci is the entire pond inventory. The highest individual {sup 137}Cs concentration was 25 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} for the exposed sediment and 50 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} for the entire pond. The results are consistent with parallel studies conducted by SREL, as well as historical data. Aside from {sup 137}Cs, the only other SRS-produced isotope observed was {sup 60}Co, with activity of only about 1% of that for {sup 137}Cs. This observation was also confirmed in grab samples of pond sediment and vegetation, which were returned to the laboratory for ultra-low-level gamma spectrometry analysis. A special effort was required to calibrate the underwater HPGe detector, where both measurements and calculational models were used. The effects of sediment depth profiles for density and {sup 137}Cs concentration were addressed in the calibration. Calibration factors for sediment surface concentrations ({mu}Ci/m{sup 2}/cpm) and sediment mass concentrations (pCi/kg/cpm) were obtained. In general, the {mu}Ci/m{sup 2}/cpm factor is recommended, as the pCi/kg/cpm factor depends on the depth location of the sediment of interest. However, a pCi/kg/cpm factor, which is dependent on the depth within the sediment is presented to address dose calculations that require it.

  19. Response of a BGO detector to photon and neutron sources simulations and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vincke, H H; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Otto, T

    2002-01-01

    In this paper Monte Carlo simulations (FLUKA) and measurements of the response of a BGO detector are reported. %For the measurements different radioactive sources were used to irradiate the BGO crystal. For the measurements three low-energy photon emitters $\\left({}^{60}\\rm{Co},\\right.$ ${}^{54}\\rm{Mn},$ $\\left. {}^{137}\\rm{Cs}\\right)$ were used to irradiate the BGO from various distances and angles. The neutron response was measured with an Am--Be neutron source. Simulations of the experimental irradiations were carried out. Our study can also be considered as a benchmark for FLUKA in terms of its reliability to predict the detector response of a BGO scintillator.

  20. Characterization of BSA unfolding and aggregation using a single-capillary viscometer and dynamic surface tension detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Emilia; Ferrari, Carlo; Angeli, Valeria; Onor, Massimo; Synovec, Robert E

    2011-10-15

    A dynamic surface tension detector (DSTD) has been equipped with an additional pressure sensor for simultaneous viscosity measurements, as a detector for flow injection analysis. The viscosity measurement is based on a single capillary viscometer (SCV) placed in parallel configuration with the DSTD. The viscometer in the optimized conditions consists of a PEEK capillary (i.d.=0.25 mm, L=75 cm) kept at constant temperature using a thermostatic bath, which leads on the two sides to the two arms of a differential piezoelectric pressure transducer with a range of 0-35 psi. The DSTD, described previously, measures the changing pressure across the liquid/air interface of 2 μL drops repeatedly forming at the end of a capillary. SCV performance has been evaluated by measuring dynamic viscosity of water/glycerol mixtures analysed in flow injection and comparing the results with the values reported in the literature. The detection limits of SCV and DSTD, calculated as 3σ of the blank, were 0.012 cP and 0.6 dyn cm(-1), respectively. The FI-SCV-DSTD system has been applied to the study of temperature-induced denaturation/aggregation process in bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results have been supported and discussed with respect to BSA conformational analysis performed using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The GALATEA test facility and a first study of α-induced surface events in a germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlbeck, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Germanium detectors are a choice technology in fundamental research. They are suitable for the search for rare events due to their high sensitivity and excellent energy resolution. As an example, the GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is described. The observation of this decay would resolve the fundamental question whether the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Especially adapted detector technologies and low background rates needed to detect very rare events such as neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed. The identification of backgrounds originating from the interaction of radiation, especially α-particles, is a focus of this thesis. Low background experiments face problems from α-particles due to unavoidable surface contaminations of the germanium detectors. The segmentation of detectors is used to obtain information about the special characteristics of selected events. The high precision test stand GALATEA was especially designed for surface scans of germanium detectors. As part of this work, GALATEA was completed and commissioned. The final commissioning required major upgrades of the original design which are described in detail. Collimator studies with two commercial germanium detectors are presented. Different collimation levels for a β-source were investigated and crystal axis effects were examined. The first scan with an α-source of the passivated end-plate of a special 19-fold segmented prototype detector mounted in GALATEA is described. The α-induced surface events were studied and characterized. Crosstalk and mirror pulses seen in the segments of the germanium detector were analyzed. The detector studies presented in this thesis will help to further improve the design of germanium detectors for low background experiments.

  2. TL detectors for gamma ray dose measurements in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Zorko, Benjamin; Gregori, Beatriz; Knezević, Zeljka

    2007-01-01

    Determination of gamma ray dose in mixed neutron+gamma ray fields is still a demanding task. Dosemeters used for gamma ray dosimetry are usually in some extent sensitive to neutrons and their response variations depend on neutron energy i.e., on neutron spectra. Besides, it is necessary to take into account the energy dependence of dosemeter responses to gamma rays. In this work, several types of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) placed in different holders used for gamma ray dose determination in the mixed fields were examined. Dosemeters were from three different institutions: Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI), Croatia, JoZef Stefan Institute (JSI), Slovenia and Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear (ARN), Argentina. All dosemeters were irradiated during the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002. Three accidental scenarios were reproduced and in each irradiation the dosemeters were exposed placed on the front of phantom and 'free in air'. Following types of TLDs were used: 7LiF (TLD-700), CaF2:Mn and Al2O3:Mg,Y-all from RBI; CaF2:Mn from JSI and 7LiF (TLD-700) from ARN. Reported doses were compared with the reference values as well as with the values obtained from the results of all participants. The results show satisfactory agreement with other dosimetry systems used in the Intercomparison. The influence of different types of holders and applied corrections of dosemeters' readings are discussed.

  3. Quantum correlation measurements in interferometric gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, D. V.; Frolov, V. V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Izumi, K.; Miao, H.; Mavalvala, N.; Hall, E. D.; Lanza, R.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Ananyeva, A.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Aston, S. M.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Batch, J. C.; Bell, A. S.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blair, C. D.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Countryman, S. T.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Danzmann, K.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Driggers, J. C.; Dwyer, S. E.; Effler, A.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fair, H.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Fisher, R. P.; Fritschel, P.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Grote, H.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Heintze, M. C.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hough, J.; Jones, R.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kijbunchoo, N.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kuehn, G.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lormand, M.; Lundgren, A. P.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Mendell, G.; Merilh, E. L.; Meyers, P. M.; Miller, J.; Mittleman, R.; Moreno, G.; Mueller, G.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Palamos, J. R.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I.; Principe, M.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Raab, F. J.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Ryan, K.; Sadecki, T.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Savage, R. L.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Sellers, D.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sigg, D.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Sorazu, B.; Staley, A.; Strain, K. A.; Tanner, D. B.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Walker, M.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Weaver, B.; Weiss, R.; Weßels, P.; Willke, B.; Wipf, C. C.; Worden, J.; Wu, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LSC Instrument Authors

    2017-04-01

    Quantum fluctuations in the phase and amplitude quadratures of light set limitations on the sensitivity of modern optical instruments. The sensitivity of the interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, such as the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), is limited by quantum shot noise, quantum radiation pressure noise, and a set of classical noises. We show how the quantum properties of light can be used to distinguish these noises using correlation techniques. Particularly, in the first part of the paper we show estimations of the coating thermal noise and gas phase noise, hidden below the quantum shot noise in the Advanced LIGO sensitivity curve. We also make projections on the observatory sensitivity during the next science runs. In the second part of the paper we discuss the correlation technique that reveals the quantum radiation pressure noise from the background of classical noises and shot noise. We apply this technique to the Advanced LIGO data, collected during the first science run, and experimentally estimate the quantum correlations and quantum radiation pressure noise in the interferometer.

  4. Digital Pulse Shape Analysis with Phoswich Detectors to Simplify Coincidence Measurements of Radioactive Xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, Wolfgang; Tan, Hui; Warburton, William K.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2005-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty establishes a network of monitoring stations to detect radioactive Xenon in the atmosphere from nuclear weapons testing. One such monitoring system is the Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which uses a complex arrangement of separate beta and gamma detectors to detect beta-gamma coincidences from the Xe isotopes of interest. The coincidence measurement is very sensitive, but the large number of detectors and photomultiplier tubes require careful calibration which makes the system hard to use. It has been suggested that beta-gamma coincidences could be detected with only a single photomultiplier tube and electronics channel by using a phoswich detector consisting of optically coupled beta and gamma detectors (Ely, 2003). In that work, rise time analysis of signals from a phoswich detector was explored as a method to determine if interactions occurred in either the beta or the gamma detector or in both simultaneously. However, this approach was not able to detect coincidences with the required sensitivity or to measure the beta and gamma energies with sufficient precision for Xenon monitoring. In this paper, we present a new algorithm to detect coincidences by pulse shape analysis of the signals from a BC-404/CsI(Tl) phoswich detector. Implemented on fast digital readout electronics, the algorithm achieves clear separation of beta only, gamma only and coincidence events, accurate measurement of both beta and gamma energies, and has an error rate for detecting coincidences of less than 0.1%. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and light collection were performed to optimize design parameters for a replacement detector module for the ARSA system, obtaining an estimated coincidence detection efficiency of 82-92% and a background rejection rate better than 99%. The new phoswich/pulse shape analysis method is thus suitable to simplify the existing ARSA

  5. Low energy RBS-channeling measurement system with the use of a time-of-flight scattered ion detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Masataka; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hayashi, Nobuyuki [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    We have developed a low energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry-ion channeling measurement system for the analysis of thin films and solid surfaces with the use of several tens keV hydrogen ions and a time-of-flight particle energy spectrometer. For the detection of the scattered ions new TOF spectrometer has been developed, which consists of two micro-channel-plate detectors. The pulsing of the primary ion beam is not necessary for this type of TOF measurement, and it is possible to observe continues scattered ion beams. The dimension of whole system is very compact compared to the conventional RBS-channeling measurement system with the use of MeV He ions. The energy resolution, {delta} E/E, for 25 keV H{sup +} was 4.1%, which corresponds to the depth resolution of 4.8 nm for silicon. The depth resolution of our system is better than that of conventional RBS system with MeV helium ions and solid state detectors. We have demonstrated the ion channeling measurement by this system with 25 keV hydrogen ions. The system can be available well to the analysis of thin films and solid surfaces with the use of the ion channeling effect. The observation of the reaction between Fe and hydrogen terminated silicon surface was also demonstrated. (J.P.N.)

  6. Positioning of the detectors inside an anthropomorphic phantom in order to measure the effective dose at workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furstoss, C.; Menard, S.

    2006-01-01

    Passive and active dosimeters worn on the trunk by the workers exposed to radiation fields at their workplaces measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(10), which was introduced by ICRP 60 to provide an appropriate estimate of the protection quantity: the effective dose E. However, the angular and energy distributions of the radiation fields encountered at workplaces can generate an over or an under-estimation of E because of the response of the dosimeters or/and because of the definition of H p(10) itself. That is why the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is evaluating the possibility of the measurement of the effective dose E using an instrumented anthropomorphic phantom. The determination of the effective dose E in mixed neutron/photon fields requires to identify the nature and the energy distribution of the incident fields in order to apply the right radiation weighting factor to the mean absorbed doses. So electronic detectors will have to be placed on the surface and inside the phantom in order to identify the nature of the radiation field and to measure the mean absorbed dose within the organs. The positions and the technical characteristics of the detectors are determined by simulating the spatial distributions of the energy losses within organs and tissues of the phantom. The simulations are carried out with the Monte Carlo code M.C.N.P.X. using mesh tallies (virtual grid superimposed to the phantom geometry) and a mathematical model of an anthropomorphic phantom based on the specifications of Cristy and Eckerman. The processing of the first numerical results corresponding to photon irradiations in standard configurations (A.P., P.A. and L.A.T.) shows that for the following organs: the lungs, the liver, the small intestine and the brain, just one detector is enough and that this detector is not necessarily located at the center of the organ. On the other hand, the determination of the energy deposited in the red bone marrow

  7. Measurements of diboson production with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolucci Federico

    2014-04-01

    The measurements of diboson production in ATLAS are presented for different electroweak diboson channels: ZZ, WZ, WW, Wγ and Zγ. Anomalous triple-gauge coupling limits that are obtained from these measurements are also presented.

  8. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3` NaI detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.; Ugletveit, F.; Floe, L.; Mikkelborg, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3` NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of {sup 137}Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3` NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au).

  9. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3' NaI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.; Ugletveit, F.; Floe, L.; Mikkelborg, O.

    1997-01-01

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3' NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of 137 Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3' NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au)

  10. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements for efficiency determination of lead shielded plastic scintillator detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Zafar; Negoita, Florin; Tabbassum, Sana; Borcea, Ruxandra; Kisyov, Stanimir

    2017-12-01

    The plastic scintillators are used in different areas of science and technology. One of the use of these scintillator detectors is as beam loss monitors (BLM) for new generation of high intensity heavy ion in superconducting linear accelerators. Operated in pulse counting mode with rather high thresholds and shielded by few centimeters of lead in order to cope with radiofrequency noise and X-ray background emitted by accelerator cavities, they preserve high efficiency for high energy gamma ray and neutrons produced in the nuclear reactions of lost beam particles with accelerator components. Efficiency calculation and calibration of detectors is very important before their practical usage. In the present work, the efficiency of plastic scintillator detectors is simulated using FLUKA for different gamma and neutron sources like, 60Co, 137Cs and 238Pu-Be. The sources are placed at different positions around the detector. Calculated values are compared with the measured values and a reasonable agreement is observed.

  11. Development of CANDLES low background HPGe detector and half-life measurement of 180Tam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, W. M.; Kishimoto, T.; Umehara, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Suzuki, K.; Yoshida, S.; Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Fushimi, K.; Nomachi, M.; Ogawa, I.; Tamagawa, Y.; Hazama, R.; Takemoto, Y.; Nakatani, N.; Takihira, Y.; Tozawa, M.; Kakubata, H.; Trang, V. T. T.; Ohata, T.; Tetsuno, K.; Maeda, T.; Khai, B. T.; Li, X. L.; Batpurev, T.

    2018-01-01

    A low background HPGe detector system was developed at CANDLES Experimental Hall for multipurpose use. Various low background techniques were employed, including hermatic shield design, radon gas suppression, and background reduction analysis. A new pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method was specially created for coaxial Ge detector. Using this PSD method, microphonics noise and background event at low energy region less than 200 keV can be rejected effectively. Monte Carlo simulation by GEANT4 was performed to acquire the detection efficiency and study the interaction of gamma-rays with detector system. For rare decay measurement, the detector was utilized to detect the nature's most stable isomer tantalum-180m (180Tam) decay. Two phases of tantalum physics run were completed with total livetime of 358.2 days, which Phase II has upgraded shield configuration. The world most stringent half-life limit of 180Tam has been successfully achieved.

  12. Airborne Spectral Measurements of Surface-Atmosphere Anisotropy for Several Surfaces and Ecosystem over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; King, M. D.; Tsay, S.; Arnold, G. T.; Li, J. Y.

    2001-12-01

    The Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) was flown aboard the University of Washington Convair CV-580 research aircraft and took measurements on 23 flights between August 15 and September 16. On 12 of those flights, BRF measurements were obtained over different natural surfaces and ecosystem in southern Africa. The BRF measurements were done to characterize surface anisotropy in support of SAFARI 2000 science objectives principally to validate products from NASA's EOS satellites, and to parameterize and validate BRF models. In this paper we present results of BRFs taken over two EOS validation sites: Skukuza tower, South Africa (25.0 oS, 31.5 oE) and Mongu tower, Zambia (15.4 oS, 23.3 oE). Additional sites are also considered and include, Maun tower, Botswana (20.0 oS, 23.5 oE), Sowa Pan, Botswana (20.6 oS, 26.2 oE) and Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.0 oS, 16.0 oE). The CAR is capable of measuring scattered light in fourteen spectral bands. The scan mirror, rotating at 100 rpm, directs the light into a Dall-Kirkham telescope where the beam is split into nine paths. Eight light beams pass through beam splitters, dichroics, and lenses to individual detectors (0.34-1.27 μ m), and finally are registered by eight data channels. They are sampled simultaneously and continuously. The ninth beam passes through a spinning filter wheel to an InSb detector cooled by a Stirling cycle cooler. Signals registered by the ninth data channel are selected from among six spectral channels (1.55-2.30 μ m). The filter wheel can either cycle through all six spectral bands at a prescribed interval (usually changing filter every fifth scan line), or lock onto any one of the six spectral bands and sample it continuously. To measure the BRF of the surface-atmosphere system, the University of Washington CV-580 had to bank at a comfortable roll angle of ~20 o and fly in a circle about 3 km in diameter above the surface for roughly two minutes. Replicated observations (multiple circular orbits) were

  13. DT High Energy Measurements and Comparison of Multiple Spectra in a He-4 Gas Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Hannah E.; Zhu, Ting; Gokhale, Sasmit; Parker, Cody; Richard, Andrea; Massey, Thomas; Baciak, James E.; Enqvisst, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron spectroscopy is important for a variety of applications to nuclear energy, national security, and basic science research. Currently, organic scintillator neutron detectors are used as a diagnostic tool for neutron spectroscopy in DT fusion research. However, these neutron measurements generate contaminants in common organics from deuteron or carbon break-up that affects the light output spectrum. A potential solution to this problem is to use a He-4 fast neutron gas scintillator detector system. He-4 has excellent gamma rejection due to a low charge density, pulse shape discrimination, and lower light yield and deposited energy from gamma interactions. The detector will also not degrade due to high intensity background gamma radiation. The detector was irradiated with 14.1 MeV neutrons at the Edwards Accelerator Lab at Ohio University. We report on the effectiveness of the He-4 detector system to measure the resulting high energy neutrons and compare this spectrum to other neutron spectra taken with this detector.

  14. Development of high sensitivity 4H-SiC detectors for fission neutron pulse shape measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yong; Li, Meng; Zeng, Lina; Li, Junjie; Gao, Hui; Zou, Dehui; Bai, Zhongxiong; Ye, Cenming; Liang, Wenfeng; Dai, Shaofeng; Lu, Yi; Rong, Ru; Du, Jinfeng; Fan, Xiaoqiang

    2017-08-01

    4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) detectors are well suited for measurements of fission neutron pulse shape for their compact size, excellent radiation resistance, and hydrogen free composition. The aim of this study is to improve the 4H-SiC detector's sensitivity to fission neutron pulses. 4H-SiC detectors with varied epilayer thicknesses are fabricated and then tested in the pulsed neutron field of the Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II (CFBR II). The sensitivity of the 4H-SiC detector to the CFBR II neutron pulse is increased by 139.8%, with the enlargement of epilayer thickness from 20 μm to 120 μm. By employing the proton-recoil method, the sensitivity of the 4H-SiC detector to the CFBR II neutron pulse is further increased by 11.6%. With enhanced sensitivity to fission neutron pulses, 4H-SiC detectors are promising devices for high intensity neutron pulse measurements.

  15. Calibration of electrons and photons with the ATLAS detector, and its impact on ATLAS precision measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Becot, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    A precise energy calibration of electrons and photons is a key ingredient to many measurements performed with the ATLAS detector, such as the measurement of the Higgs boson mass. An improved calibration scheme is based on corrections derived from collision data, multivariant algorithms for the energy reconstruction and finally electrons from Z boson decays to set the absolute energy scale. Studies of the longitudinal shape of electromagnetic showers also lead to an improved detector material simulation. The calibration is checked with electrons from J/psi decays and photons from radiative photon decays. This contribution will describe the calibration scheme and the cross checks and the impact on ATLAS measurements.

  16. Measurement of detector neutron energy response using time-of-flight techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janee, H.S.

    1973-09-01

    The feasibility of using time-of-flight techniques at the EG and G/AEC linear accelerator for measuring the neutron response of relatively sensitive detectors over the energy range 0.5 to 14 MeV has been demonstrated. The measurement technique is described in detail as are the results of neutron spectrum measurements from beryllium and uranium photoneutron targets. The sensitivity of a fluor photomultiplier LASL detector with a 2- by 1-inch NE-111 scintillator was determined with the two targets, and agreement in the region of overlap was very good. (U.S.)

  17. Exclusive {rho}{sup 0} production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-15

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  18. Measurements of the initiation of post-wildfire runoff during rainstorms using in situ overland flow detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Martin, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Overland flow detectors (OFDs) were deployed in 2012 on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon fire near Boulder, Colorado, USA. These detectors were simple, electrical resistor-type instruments that output a voltage (0–2·5 V) and were designed to measure and record the time of runoff initiation, a signal proportional to water depth, and the runoff hydrograph during natural convective rainstorms.Initiation of runoff was found to be spatially complex and began at different times in different locations on the hillslope. Runoff started first at upstream detectors 56% of the time, at the mid-stream detectors 6%, and at the downstream detectors 38% of the time. Initiation of post-wildfire runoff depended on the time-to-ponding, travel time between points, and the time to fill surface depression storage. These times ranged from 0·5–54, 0·4–1·1, and 0·2–14 minutes, respectively, indicating the importance of the ponding process in controlling the initiation of runoff at this site. Time-to-ponding was modeled as a function of the rainfall acceleration (i.e. the rate of change of rainfall intensity) and either the cumulative rainfall at the start of runoff or the soil–water deficit.Measurements made by the OFDs provided physical insight into the spatial and temporal initiation of post-wildfire runoff during unsteady flow in response to time varying natural rainfall. They also provided data that can be telemetered and used to determine critical input parameters for hydrologic rainfall–runoff models.

  19. Composites in small and simple devices to increase mixing on detector surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, L F; Lima, R R; Leite, A R; Silva, M L P; Fachini, E R

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at three different applications for the betterment of plasma generated-composite thin films: pre-mixing, spray formation in miniaturized structures and an increase in the performance of detector surfaces. Miniaturized structures were projected, simulated with FEMLAB ® 3.2 software and then constructed. Clustered films made from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and nonafluoro(iso)butyl ether (HFE ® ) precursors were deposited on silicon, acrylic and quartz substrates for different kinds of film characterization/or in the projected structures. Physical and chemical characterization guided the selection of best films previous to/after UVC exposure. The active surfaces (plasma-deposited films) in structures were modified by UVC exposure and then tested. The applications include pre-mixing of liquids and/or spray formation, best results being obtained with surface covered by derivative-HFE films, which acted as passivation layers. Preliminary results show good humidity sensing for TEOS-derivative films.

  20. The Activation Detector Activity Calculations Using the Effective Source Method and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutný, Vladimir; Konečná, Alena; Sprinzl, Daniel; Klupák, Vít; Vinš, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    In the paper the application of effective source to the solution of activation detector activities in the reactor pressure vessel cavity of the VVER-1000 reactor is presented. The effective source method applies the Boltzmann transport operator to time integrated source data to obtain detector activities. Weighting the source data by time dependent depletion of the detector activity, the result of the calculation is the detector activity. The approach works because of the inherent linearity of radiation transport in non-multiplying time-invariant media. Integrated in this way, the source data are referred to as the `effective source'. The effective source method thereby enables the analyst to replace numerous intensive transport calculations with a single transport calculation in which the time dependence and magnitude of the source are correctly represented. Detailed description of the effective source method is presented in previous works. First, there were performed neutron-physical calculations of few real VVER-1000 cycles using MOBY-DICK macrocode. Second, there follows 3-D transport calculation using the deterministic code TORT and the cross section library BUGLE-B7 and obtained results are presented. These calculation results of activation detector activities in the reactor cavity are compared with relevant activation detectors results of the ex-vessel measurement. The comparison between calculation and measurement of activation detectors activity in the reactor cavity is necessary to the calculation quality verifying for further fast neutron fluence onto the reactor pressure vessel credible calculation. The activation detectors positions are evident from Figs 1, 2, 3.

  1. Top Quark Properties Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219183; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties are presented. Measurements of the charge asymmetry in top quark pair production, which probe models of physics beyond the Standard Model, are presented; these include measurements at high invariant masses of the $t\\bar{t}$ system using boosted top quarks. Limits on the rate of flavour-changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are discussed

  2. Development of Optics and Detectors for Advanced CMB Polarization Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have been essential to the development of modern cosmology. Future observations will provide cosmological...

  3. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  4. On the achievable field sensitivity of a segmented annular detector for differential phase contrast measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzhuber, Felix; Melzl, Peter; Zweck, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Practical guide to calibrate a DPC setup considering geometrical parameters. • Optimizing the field sensitivity of a segmented annular DPC detector. • Determination of maximum electric and magnetic field sensitivity of a DPC setup. - Abstract: Differential phase contrast microscopy measures minute deflections of the electron probe due to electric and/or magnetic fields, using a position sensitive device. Although recently, pixelated detectors have become available which also serve as a position sensitive device, the most frequently used detector is a four-segmented annular semiconducting detector ring (or variations thereof), where the difference signals of opposing detector elements represent the components of the deflection vector. This deflection vector can be used directly to quantitatively determine the deflecting field, provided the specimen’s thickness is known. While there exist many measurements of both electric and magnetic fields, even at an atomic level, until now the question of the smallest clearly resolvable field value for this detector has not yet been answered. This paper treats the problem theoretically first, leading to a calibration factor κ which depends solely on simple, experimentally accessible parameters and relates the deflecting field to the measured deflection vector. In a second step, the calibration factor for our combination of microscope and detector is determined experimentally for various combinations of camera length, condenser aperture and spot size to determine the optimum setup. From this optimized condition we determine the minimum change in field which leads to a clearly measurable signal change for both HMSTEM and LMSTEM operation. A strategy is described which allows the experimenter to choose the setup giving the highest field sensitivity. Quantification problems due to scattering processes in the specimen are addressed and ways are shown to choose a setup which is less sensitive to these artefacts.

  5. On the achievable field sensitivity of a segmented annular detector for differential phase contrast measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzhuber, Felix, E-mail: felix.schwarzhuber@ur.de; Melzl, Peter; Zweck, Josef

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Practical guide to calibrate a DPC setup considering geometrical parameters. • Optimizing the field sensitivity of a segmented annular DPC detector. • Determination of maximum electric and magnetic field sensitivity of a DPC setup. - Abstract: Differential phase contrast microscopy measures minute deflections of the electron probe due to electric and/or magnetic fields, using a position sensitive device. Although recently, pixelated detectors have become available which also serve as a position sensitive device, the most frequently used detector is a four-segmented annular semiconducting detector ring (or variations thereof), where the difference signals of opposing detector elements represent the components of the deflection vector. This deflection vector can be used directly to quantitatively determine the deflecting field, provided the specimen’s thickness is known. While there exist many measurements of both electric and magnetic fields, even at an atomic level, until now the question of the smallest clearly resolvable field value for this detector has not yet been answered. This paper treats the problem theoretically first, leading to a calibration factor κ which depends solely on simple, experimentally accessible parameters and relates the deflecting field to the measured deflection vector. In a second step, the calibration factor for our combination of microscope and detector is determined experimentally for various combinations of camera length, condenser aperture and spot size to determine the optimum setup. From this optimized condition we determine the minimum change in field which leads to a clearly measurable signal change for both HMSTEM and LMSTEM operation. A strategy is described which allows the experimenter to choose the setup giving the highest field sensitivity. Quantification problems due to scattering processes in the specimen are addressed and ways are shown to choose a setup which is less sensitive to these artefacts.

  6. Measurement of Gas-Surface Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, W. M.; Rader, D. J.; Castañeda, J. N.; Torczynski, J. R.; Gallis, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal accommodation coefficients have been determined for a variety of gas-surface combinations using an experimental apparatus developed to measure both the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux and the variation of gas density between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness and surface contamination have been examined with this system, and the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Results are discussed in comparison with previous parallel-plate experimental studies as well as numerical simulations.

  7. Top production measurements using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Marino; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an overview of recent results on top-quark production measurements obtained by the ATLAS collaboration from the analysis of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 and 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. Total and differential top-quark pair ($t\\bar{t}$) cross section and total single top cross section measurements are presented.

  8. Top quark properties measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Span\\`o, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark test the Standard Model (SM) and can be used to constrain new physics models. As it may be significantly enhanced by the presence of new physics, the $t\\overline{t}$ production charge asymmetry is measured inclusively and differentially using the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset using both the lepton+jets and dilepton channels, including a dedicated measurement for highly boosted top quarks. In the SM the top quark is predicted to decay almost exclusively into W boson and a $b$-quark. Measurements of the W-helicity and spin correlations in $t\\overline{t}$ production are presented as well as new measurements of CP asymmetries in $b$-hadron decays using top-quark events.

  9. Top quark properties measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Spano, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark test the Standard Model (SM) and can be used to constrain new physics models. As it may be significantly enhanced by the presence of new physics, the ttbar production charge asymmetry is measured inclusively and differentially using the 8 TeV ATLAS dataset using both the lepton+jets and dilepton channels, including a dedicated measurement for highly boosted top-quarks. In the SM the top-quark is predicted to decay almost exclusively into a W boson and a b-quark. Measurements of the W-helicity and spin correlations in ttbar production are presented as well as new measurements of CP asymmetries in b-hadron decays using top-quark events.

  10. FY2017 Report on NISC Measurements and Detector Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Madison Theresa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meierbachtol, Krista Cruse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Tyler Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-14

    FY17 work focused on automation, both of the measurement analysis and comparison of simulations. The experimental apparatus was relocated and weeks of continuous measurements of the spontaneous fission source 252Cf was performed. Programs were developed to automate the conversion of measurements into ROOT data framework files with a simple terminal input. The complete analysis of the measurement (which includes energy calibration and the identification of correlated counts) can now be completed with a documented process which involves one simple execution line as well. Finally, the hurdles of slow MCNP simulations resulting in low simulation statistics have been overcome with the generation of multi-run suites which make use of the highperformance computing resources at LANL. Preliminary comparisons of measurements and simulations have been performed and will be the focus of FY18 work.

  11. Cross section measurements for quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, Mark Edward [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Chicago, Illinois. MINOS measures neutrino interactions in two large iron-scintillator tracking/sampling calorimeters; the Near Detector on-site at FNAL and the Far Detector located in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota. The Near Detector has recorded a large number of neutrino interactions and this high statistics dataset can be used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross sections. The cross section for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering has been measured by a number of previous experiments and these measurements disagree by up to 30%. A method to select a quasi-elastic enriched sample of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector is presented and a procedure to fit the kinematic distributions of this sample and extract the quasi-elastic cross section is introduced. The accuracy and robustness of the fitting procedure is studied using mock data and finally results from fits to the MINOS Near Detector data are presented.

  12. Use of FET in automatic scanning of measurements using thermocouples and self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1977-01-01

    Advantages lying in using FET switches in the relays of multiplexing systems are shown with two examples of application. Their performance as regard fast reliable operation are used in temperature measurement scanning inside nuclear reactors. As for current measurements using self-powered neutron detectors, the weak leakage currents of said switches ( [fr

  13. Measurement of cross sections and couplings of the Higgs Boson using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Shunsuke; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs boson, the measurement of its coupling properties are of particular importance. In this talk measurement of the cross sections and couplings of the Higgs boson in bosonic and fermionic decay channels with the ATLAS detector are presented.

  14. Pile-up and defective pulse rejection by pulse shape discrimination in surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeland, K.A.; Kristiansson, P.

    1994-01-01

    A technique to reject pile-up pulses and defective tail pulses from surface barrier detectors by the use of pulse shape discrimination is demonstrated. The electronic implementation of the pulse shape discrimination is based upon the zero crossing technique and for data reduction multiparameter techniques are used. The characteristic τ value for pile-up rejection is shown to be less than 56 ns. Its effect on detection limits from tail reduction in Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and pile-up peak suppression is discussed. ((orig.))

  15. Top properties and mass measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Brost, Elizabeth; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties are presented. Measurements of the charge asymmetry in top-quark pairs, which probe models of physics beyond the Standard Model, are presented; these include measurements at high invariant masses of the ttbar system using boosted top quarks. Measurements of the top polarization produced either through pair process or through single top process are discussed. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. Limits on the rate of flavor-changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are discussed. The latest ATLAS measurements of the top quark mass are also presented. A measurement using lepton+jets events is presented, where...

  16. Radon Measurements in Egypt using passive etched track detectors. A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Hussein, A.S.; El-Arabi, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its progeny may cause serious radiation harm to human health such as lung cancer and other types. Radon measurements based on alpha particles etched track detectors (LR-115, CR-39) are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. This is due to their high sensitivity, low cost, easy to handle and retain a permanent record of data. Also these detectors can incorporate the effects of seasonal and diurnal fluctuation of radon activity concentrations due to physical, geological and meteorological factors. The present review is based mainly on the topic of passive etched track detectors for the measurements of radon in Egypt in the recent years. Published papers includes the measurements of radon in dwellings, working places, Cairo Metro stations, ancient Pharaonic places and uranium exploration galleries as well as assessment of radon in drinking water

  17. Optimized estimation of energy loss rate for charged particles from energy deposit measurements in tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siklér, Ferenc; Szeles, Sándor

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of energy loss rate dE/dx for charged particles in tracking detectors using energy deposit measurements is studied. The truncated mean method is generalized to the weighted mean of the measurements. The weights are optimized for better particle separation in the energy loss rate variable, for arithmetic and geometric means, using a detailed simulation. The obtained weights are rather independent of particle momentum and track segment length. Their values are connected to the form of the corresponding energy deposit distribution, allowing for a simple universal description as a function of the number of measured track segments. While for semiconductor detectors the weighted mean estimator may be further improved with maximum likelihood methods, for gaseous detectors the (0%,55%) truncation already gives excellent results.

  18. Prospects for measuring the gravitational free-fall of antihydrogen with emulsion detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Belov, A.S.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Bremer, J.; Brusa, R.S.; Cabaret, L.; Canali, C.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Cialdi, S.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Derking, J.H.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Ereditato, A.; Ferragut, R.; Fontana, A.; Genova, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Gninenko, S.N.; Haider, S.; Harasimovicz, J.; Hogan, S.D.; Huse, T.; Jordan, E.; Jørgensen, L.V.; Kaltenbacher, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Knecht, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Magnani, A.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.A.; Moia, F.; Nebbia, G.; Nédélec, P.; Oberthaler, M.K.; Pacifico, N.; Petráček, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Regenfus, C.; Riccardi, C.; Røhne, O.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Scampoli, P.; Sosa, A.; Storey, J.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Špaček, M.; Testera, G.; Trezzi, D.; Vaccarone, R.; Welsch, C.P.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the AEgIS experiment at CERN is to test the weak equivalence principle for antimatter. AEgIS will measure the free-fall of an antihydrogen beam traversing a moir\\'e deflectometer. The goal is to determine the gravitational acceleration g for antihydrogen with an initial relative accuracy of 1% by using an emulsion detector combined with a silicon micro-strip detector to measure the time of flight. Nuclear emulsions can measure the annihilation vertex of antihydrogen atoms with a precision of about 1 - 2 microns r.m.s. We present here results for emulsion detectors operated in vacuum using low energy antiprotons from the CERN antiproton decelerator. We compare with Monte Carlo simulations, and discuss the impact on the AEgIS project.

  19. High-pressure plastic scintillation detector for measuring radiogenic gases in flow systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schell, W R; Yoon, S R; Tobin, M J

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive gases are emitted into the atmosphere from nuclear electric power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, from hospitals discarding xenon used in diagnostic medicine, as well as from nuclear weapons tests. A high-pressure plastic scintillation detector was constructed to measure atmospheric levels of such radioactive gases by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electron decays. Operational tests and calibrations were made that permit integration of the flow detectors into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification system (GASP). The equipment developed can be used for measuring fission gases released from nuclear reactor sources and/or as part of monitoring equipment for enforcing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The detector is being used routinely for in-line gas separation efficiency measurements, at the elevated operational pressures used for the high-pressure swing analysis system (2070 kPa) and at flow rates of 5-15 l/min . This paper presents the design features, opera...

  20. Measurement of diboson production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, S

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of diboson production processes involving combinations of W, Z and isolated photons are summarized. Measurements using data at 7 TeV as well as new results using data at 8 TeV are presented. The measurements are performed using leptonic decay modes, including the invisible decay Z -> nu nu , as well as semileptonic channels. Differential and total visible cross sections are presented and are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge boson couplings. An overview of these results is given.

  1. Measurement of diboson production with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Suen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ATLAS measurements of diboson production processes involving combinations of W, Z and isolated photons are summarized. Measurements using data at 7 TeV as well as more recent results using data at 8 TeV are presented. The measurements are performed using leptonic decay modes, including the invisible decay Z → Z→vv¯$Z o var v$, as well as semileptonic channels. Differential and total cross sections are presented and are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge boson couplings. An overview of these results is given.

  2. Measurement of diboson production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of diboson production processes involving combinations of W, Z and isolated photons are summarized. Measurements using data at 7 TeV as well as new results using data at 8 TeV are presented. The measurements are performed using leptonic decay modes, including the invisible decay Z--> nunu, as well as semileptonic channels. Differential and total visible cross sections are presented and are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge boson couplings. An overview of these results is given.

  3. Interpreting the probe-surface interaction of surface measuring instruments, or what is a surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard; Weckenmann, Albert; Coupland, Jeremy; Hartmann, Wito

    2014-09-01

    When using dimensional measuring instruments it is assumed that there is a property of the object, which we call surface, that is present before during and after the measurement, i.e. the surface is a fundamental property of an object that can, by appropriate means, be used to measure geometry. This paper will attempt to show that the fundamental property ‘surface’ does not exist in any simple form and that all the information we can have about a surface is the measurement data, which will include measurement uncertainty. Measurement data, or what will be referred to as the measured surface, is all that really exists. In this paper the basic physical differences between mechanically, electromagnetically and electrically measured surfaces are highlighted and discussed and accompanied by measurement results on a roughness artefact.

  4. Interpreting the probe-surface interaction of surface measuring instruments, or what is a surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard; Weckenmann, Albert; Hartmann, Wito; Coupland, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    When using dimensional measuring instruments it is assumed that there is a property of the object, which we call surface, that is present before during and after the measurement, i.e. the surface is a fundamental property of an object that can, by appropriate means, be used to measure geometry. This paper will attempt to show that the fundamental property ‘surface’ does not exist in any simple form and that all the information we can have about a surface is the measurement data, which will include measurement uncertainty. Measurement data, or what will be referred to as the measured surface, is all that really exists. In this paper the basic physical differences between mechanically, electromagnetically and electrically measured surfaces are highlighted and discussed and accompanied by measurement results on a roughness artefact. (paper)

  5. Measurement of aerogel performance for ring image Cherenkov detector of HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanesaka, Jiro; Zhang Linfeng; Sato, Fumiko; Suetsugu, Kentaro; Sakami, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Toshiaki

    1999-01-01

    The first experiment of ring image Cherenkov detector (RICH) used aerogel in the world was reported in this paper. We built RICH using aerogel as illuminant for HERMES. The refractive index and size of all aerogel tiles were measured in order to select them for construction of RICH. The select conditions of tile were 113.1 -4 , the dispersion of refractive index of aerogel tile, which condition was fitted to the accuracy of Cherenkov light emission angle of RICH. The mean thickness, transmission and reflection of tile, the thickness of corner of tile (thickness of surface), the refractive index dependence on position and temperature were measured. The effect of thickness of tile on the shift of Cherenkov emission angle was 6.1% the maximum value per one tile and 0.18% mean value of center. The effect of position dependence of refractive index on the Cherenkov light emission angle was agreed with the effect of dispersion of thickness of tile. The transmission and reflection of tile were almost same as the theoretical value. (S.Y.)

  6. Overview of the Standard Model Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yanwen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration is engaged in precision measurement of fundamental Standard Model parameters, such as the W boson mass, the weak-mixing angle or the strong coupling constant. In addition, the production cross-sections of a large variety of final states involving high energetic jets, photons as well as single and multi vector bosons are measured multi differentially at several center of mass energies. This allows to test perturbative QCD calculations to highest precision. In addition, these measurements allow also to test models beyond the SM, e.g. those leading to anomalous gauge couplings. In this talk, we give a broad overview of the Standard Model measurement campaign of the ATLAS collaboration, where selected topics will be discussed in more detail.

  7. Measurements of the Higgs boson properties with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tomoto, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Slide draft for the Crimea 2013 workshop. The subject of the talk will be measurements of the Higgs boson properties, including the spin, mass, signal strength, and couplings of a new boson discovered in 2012 at the ATLAS experiment.

  8. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  9. Measurements of the vector boson production with the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapertosa, A.

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution Functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z boson cross sections are also measured at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new measurements of Z boson plus jets cross sections, differential in several kinematic variables, in proton-proton collision data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The measurements are compared to state-of-the art theory predictions. They are sensitive to higher-order pQCD effects, probe flavour and mass schemes and can be used to constrain the proton structure. In addition, a new measurement of the splitting scales of the kt jet-clustering algorithm for final states containing a Z boson candidate at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented.

  10. Efficiency and rate capability studies of the time-of-flight detector for isochronous mass measurements of stored short-lived nuclei with the FRS-ESR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, Natalia; Fabian, Benjamin; Diwisch, Marcel; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Geissel, Hans; Ayet San Andrés, Samuel; Dickel, Timo; Knöbel, Ronja; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Sun, Baohua; Weick, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) detector is used for Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) with the projectile fragment separator FRS and the heavy-ion storage ring ESR. Exotic nuclei are spatially separated in flight with the FRS at about 70% of the speed of light and are injected into the ESR. The revolution times of the stored ions circulating in the ESR are measured with a thin transmission foil detector. When the ions penetrate the thin detector foil, secondary electrons (SEs) are emitted from the surface and provide the timing information in combination with microchannel plate (MCP) detectors. The isochronous transport of the SEs is performed by perpendicular superimposed electric and magnetic fields. The detection efficiency and the rate capability of the TOF detector have been studied in simulations and experiments. As a result the performance of the TOF detector has been improved substantially: (i) The SE collection efficiency was doubled by use of an optimized set of electric and magnetic field values; now SEs from almost the full area of the foil are transmitted to the MCP detectors. (ii) The rate capability of the TOF detector was improved by a factor of four by the use of MCPs with 5 μm pore size. (iii) With these MCPs and a carbon foil with a reduced thickness of 10 μg/cm 2 the number of recorded revolutions in the ESR has been increased by nearly a factor of 10. The number of recorded revolutions determine the precision of the IMS experiments. Heavy-ion measurements were performed with neon ions at 322 MeV/u and uranium fission fragments at about 370 MeV/u. In addition, measurements with an alpha source were performed in the laboratory with a duplicate of the TOF detector.

  11. Precision measurements of electroweak observables with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vittori, Camilla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration measured the di-lepton mass range up to the TeV scale as well as the triple differential cross-section measurement as a function of Mll, dilepton rapidity and cosθ defined in the Collins-Soper frame. This measurement provides sensitivity to the PDFs and the weak mixing angle. The latest results of the ATLAS collaboration will be presented. A second important observable in the electroweak sector is the W boson mass in order to test the overall consistency of the Standard Model. Since the discovery of a Higgs Boson, the the W boson mass is predicted to 7 MeV precision, while the world average of all measurements is 15 MeV, making the improved measurement an important goal. Large samples of leptonic decays of W and Z bosons were collected with efficient single lepton triggers in the 7 TeV data set correspo...

  12. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  13. Dose Measurements on the BION-M1 satellite applying passive detector packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradi, Andrea; Berger, Thomas; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kubancak, Jan; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Ambrozova, Iva; Tolochek, Raisa; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Szabo, Julianna

    A passive detector package was developed in the past years in the Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Science to detect cosmic ray particles, to determine their flux and dose. It consists of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) and plastic solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). In the frame of a scientific co-operation between the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) fourteen packages were flow within the new BION-M1 satellite program together with biological samples and detector packages from other participants. Two packages were located outside and the rest ones inside the recoverable capsule. Comparing to the previous BION and similar FOTON experiments, (all together 17 successful ones), this flight was a “champion” with the highest altitude (575 km), orbital inclination (64.9°) and flight duration (30 days). The external exposure provided a unique possibility to study not only the elevated level of cosmic rays but also the behavior of the detector packages in extreme circumstances as low temperature and pressure. The paper will summarize the construction of the detector packages, the calibration and evaluation processes, as well as, the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and the mean quality factor. These quantities will be compared taking into consideration their location inside and outside the capsule and to the results of other participants. Also some comparison of results to the previous BION and FOTON flights and contemporary measurements on the ISS will be presented.

  14. Beam test measurements on GaAs pixel detectors at various angles of incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunschweig, W.; Breibach, J.; Graessel, D.; Koenig, St.; Kubicki, Th.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Rente, C.; Roeper, Ch.; Siedling, R.; Syben, O.; Tenbusch, F.; Toporowski, M.; Xiao, W.J

    1999-08-01

    A GaAs pixel detector constructed in Aachen has been tested in a 4 GeV electron beam at DESY. The experimental setup allowed tilting the detector with respect to the beam line with angles of incidence from 0 deg. to 45 deg. . The sensor-array consisted of 8 x 16 pixels with a size of 125 x 125{mu}m{sup 2} each. The detector was made of a 250{mu}m thick Freiberger SI-GaAs wafer. An improved contact was formed on the backside, allowing safe operation of the detector in the soft breakdown regime. A double metal technique allowed bonding the single pixels linearly to the readout-chip. Using the the fast PreMux128 preamplifier multiplexer chip ({tau}{sub p} = 40ns) a signal to noise ratio of 29 was obtained for a beam angle of incidence of 0 deg. increasing up to 38 for 45 deg. The spatial resolution obtained with an angle of incidence of 45 deg. was (9.0 {+-} 6.0){mu}m while the resolution of the untilted detector is equal to the digital one (36.1{mu}m). For these testbeam-measurements the detector was connected to the electronics via wire-bonds. For future experiments bump-bonding connections are required. The results of a process for the formation of bump-bond connections on GaAs pixeldetectors are shown.

  15. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiacono, Laura Jean [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  16. The CENNS-10 liquid argon detector to measure CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayloe, R.

    2018-04-01

    The COHERENT collaboration is deploying a suite of low-energy detectors in a low-background corridor of the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) on an array of nuclear targets employing different detector technologies. A measurement of CEvNS on different nuclei will test the N2-dependence of the CEvNS cross section and further the physics reach of the COHERENT effort. The first step of this program has been realized recently with the observation of CEvNS in a 14.6 kg CsI detector. Operation and deployment of Ge and NaI detectors are also underway. A 22 kg, single-phase, liquid argon detector (CENNS-10) started data-taking in Dec. 2016 and will provide results on CEvNS from a lighter nucleus. Initial results indicate that light output, pulse-shape discrimination, and background suppression are sufficient for a measurement of CEvNS on argon.

  17. A novel silicon drift detector with two dimensional drift time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijzen, E.A.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Hollander, R.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Van den Bogaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    Until now silicon drift detectors with two dimensional position resolution made use of drift time measurement in one dimension only. The resolution in the other dimension was obtained by dividing the collecting anode into small pixels. In this paper we present a new type of drift detector that uses drift time measurements for both dimensions. The design consists of concentric quadrilateral closed strips with a small collecting anode in the centre. At first electrons will travel perpendicular to the strips until they reach a diagonal. Then they will proceed along this diagonal until they are collected at the centre. Position resolution in two dimensions can be obtained when both the time the electrons need to reach the diagonal and the time they need to reach the centre are measured. The latter is obtained from the collecting anode, the former from a diagonal strip present at the back side of the detector. Compared to common 2D drift detectors this detector offers the advantage of a small amount of readout electronics. It also has the advantage of having just one small collecting anode with a very low capacitance, resulting in low noise and therefore in a good energy resolution. ((orig.))

  18. Correlated background and impact on the measurement of θ13 with the Double Chooz detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoto, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment uses antineutrinos emitted from the Chooz nuclear power plant (France) to measure the oscillation mixing parameter θ 13 . By using two detectors at different baselines, a precise measurement of antineutrinos disappearance is anticipated. The Far detector has been taking physics data since April 2011, while the Near detector is under construction. Data from April 13, 2011 to March 30, 2012 taken with the Far detector only have been analyzed and an indication for antineutrino disappearance, consistent with the current neutrino oscillation hypothesis, has been found. The best fit value for the neutrino mixing parameter sin 2 (2θ 13 ) is 0.109 ± 0.030(stat.) ± 0.025(syst.). This thesis present an accurate description of the Double Chooz experiment, with particular emphasis on the Far detector and its acquisition system. The main focus of the thesis is the accurate study of the correlated background affecting the Double Chooz antineutrinos sample and its impact on the measurement of the mixing parameter θ 13 . A general overview of the current experimental scenario which aim to the characterization of the neutrino oscillation is also provided, focusing on the recent results obtained in this field. (author) [fr

  19. Measurements of the vector boson production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lapertosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of $W$ and $Z$ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for $W^+$, $W^{-}$ and $Z$ bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the $Z$ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution Functions, in particular the strange density are found. $Z$ boson cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. ...

  20. Measurements of the Vector boson production with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lapertosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/γ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for W+, W− and Z/γ bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/γ∗ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. The ATLAS ...

  1. Portable cadmium telluride detectors and their applicability for external measurement of 51Cr-EDTA clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojsen, J.; Groth, S.; Rossing, N.

    1981-01-01

    The combination of portable cadmium telluride detectors and a solid state memory have been examined with reference to point and volume source sensitivities and the equivalent, effective detector thickness. Based on the i.v. injection of 51 Cr-EDTA, the glomerular filtration rate in 23 patients has been measured by external detection of the disappearance rate of the tracer and only one blood sample. Correlation to conventional blood sampling technique is r = 0.992. The glomerular filtration rate determined from the externally measured disappearance rate constant only, is discussed. (author)

  2. Charged-particle multiplicities measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Anthony Keith; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements are presented from proton-proton collisions at different centre-of-mass energies in the range of 0.9 to 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, and the relationship between the mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured. The results are corrected for detector effects and are presented at the particle-level. The results are compared to various Monte Carlo event generator models.

  3. Measurement of the top quark mass with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Salamanna, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    An overview is presented of the measurements of the top quark mass performed by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC with an integrated luminosity varying between 35 pb$^{-1}$ and 4.7 fb$^{-1}$. Different techniques are used to measure the top quark mass looking at events in all three signatures: fully-hadronic, lepton+jets and di-leptonic ones. The most precise measurement, using a template method on lepton+jets events, yields a top quark mass of 174.5 $\\pm$ 0.6 (stat) $\\pm$ 2.3 (syst) GeV. The dominant systematic uncertainties are related to the determination of the $b-$jet energy scale and the modelling of additional radiation accompanying the $t\\bar{t}$ pair production.

  4. Measurements of ttbar+X using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The large centre-of-mass energy available at the proton-proton collider LHC allows for the copious production of top quark pairs in association with other final state particles at high transverse momentum. The ATLAS experiment has measured several final state observables that are sensitive to additional radiation in top anti-top quark final states. Results on the top production in association with W and Z bosons at both 8 and 13 TeV are presented along with measurements of the cross section for production with an associated isolated photon. Analyses probing the top pair production with additional QCD radiation include the multiplicity of jets for various transverse momentum thresholds in the 13 TeV data. These measurements are compared to modern Monte Carlo generators based on NLO QCD matrix element or LO multi-leg matrix elements.

  5. Measurements of ttbar+X using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00053352; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The large centre-of-mass energy available at the proton-proton collider LHC allows for the copious production of top quark pairs in association with other final state particles at high transverse momentum. The ATLAS experiment has measured several final state observables that are sensitive to additional radiation in top-anti-top quark final states. Results on the top production in association with W and Z bosons at both 8 and 13 TeV are presented along with measurements of the cross section for production with an associated isolated photon at 8 TeV. Analyses probing the top pair production with additional QCD radiation include the multiplicity of jets for various transverse momentum thresholds in the 13 TeV data. These measurements are compared to modern Monte Carlo generators based on NLO QCD matrix element or LO multi-leg matrix elements.

  6. Surface resistivity measurement of plasma treated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D.; Pigram, P.J.; Liesegang, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Resistivity of insulators is an important property of materials used within the integrated circuit and packaging industries. The measurement of electrical resistivity of insulator materials in the surface region in this work is interpreted through observations of surface charge decay. A self-field driven and diffusion charge transport theory is used to model the process and resistivity values obtained computationally. Data for the charge decay of surface charged samples are collected by suspending them inside a coaxial cylinder connected to an electrometer. Samples used have been low density polyethylene LDPE sheet, both pristine and surface treated. Some samples have been treated by air plasma at low vacuum pressures for different periods of time; others have been washed in ethyl acetate and then plasma treated before the resistivity measurement. The sets of resistivity measurements form the various treatments are compared below. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has also been used to investigate and account for the observed variations in surface resistivity

  7. Precision Measurements of Top Quark Production with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00362178; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. It is the only quark that decays before it hadronises which gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This overview will focus on a few recent precision top quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC: Fiducial top pair and single top production cross-sections including differential distributions will be presented and compared with QCD predictions. The results include the first top quark measurements at 13 TeV using data from LHC Run 2.

  8. Precision measurements of top quark production with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Stolte, Philipp; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. As it is the only quark that decays before it hadronizes, this gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This talk will focus on a few recent precision top quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration: fiducial top pair and single top production cross sections including differential distributions will be presented and compared with QCD predictions. The results include the first top quark measurements at 13 TeV using data from LHC run 2.

  9. Electron and photon energy measurement calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Manzoni, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electron and photon is paramount for many ATLAS physics analysis. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed in-situ using a large statistics of Z->ee events. The results obtained with the pp collisions data recorded in 2015 and 2016 at sqrt(s)= 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb-1 and 2.7 fb-1 respectively , as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales, are presented.

  10. Electron and photon energy measurement calibration with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00436885; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An accurate calibration of the energy measurement of electrons and photons is paramount for many ATLAS physics analyses. The calibration of the energy measurement is performed $in$-$situ$ using a large statistics of $Z \\rightarrow ee$ events. The results obtained with the $pp$ collisions data recorded in 2015 and 2016 at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ and 2.7 fb$^{-1}$ respectively, as well as the corresponding uncertainties on the electron and photon energy scales, are presented

  11. Di-boson production measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Laurent; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements diboson production cross sections in proton-proton interactions at 7 and 8 TeV are reported from the ATLAS experiment. The cross section results are measured in phase space regions defined by the decay kinematics and then extrapolated to the full phase spaces. Cross sections for WV (V=W or Z) production in the leptonic or semileptonic channels are compared to (N)NLO predictions of the Standard Model and are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. First LHC Run-2 results will be included if available.

  12. Particle identification in phoswich detectors by signal width measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, L.; Hoefman, M.; Seip, M.; Wilschut, H.W.E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Particle identification based on pulse shape information has been investigated. The standard method entails integration with different time windows to sample various parts of the pulse shape, As an alternative, we propose to combine a single integration over the pulse shape with a measurement of the

  13. Circular polarization measurements with a Ge(Li) detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1969-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in measurements of the degree of circular polarization of gamma transitions to bound states of 33S, 36Cl, 49Ti, 56Mn, 57Fe, 60Co and 64Cu following the capture of polarized thermal neutrons. Spin values have been determined on the basis of these results....

  14. Heavy flavour and quarkonia measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gallus, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Charm and bottom quarks provide a powerful tool to study the properties of the hot, dense medium created in heavy ion collisions, and in particular may help differentiate between initial and final state effects in large collision systems. Measurements of open heavy flavour particle and quarkonia production, including their prompt and non-prompt components, and their correlations with light hadrons, build a path to understanding how heavy quarks propagate through the quark-gluon plasma. Additionally, an important component in these studies is the comparison between large and small collision systems. In this talk, ATLAS presents results on measurements of quarkonia production in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV, including separated prompt and non-prompt particle yields and a new measurement of the anisotropic flow of the J/Psi. The flow measurement provides information on the stage at which charmonium states are formed during the system evolution, thus giving insights on the effects that modify their production. Add...

  15. Heavy Flavour Cross Section Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Chris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS measurements of heavy flavour production are presented using b-hadron decays to the D*muX final state, inclusive D(*) meson production, inclusive electron and muon production and b-jet tagging. The results are compared with QCD calculations. This is a review talk prepared for the BEACH 2012 conference, 23-28 July 2012.

  16. Surface Tension Measurements with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy, Nicolas-Alexandre; Denis, Zakari; Lavaud, Maxime; Grolleau, Adrian; Dufour, Nicolas; Deblais, Antoine; Delabre, Ulysse

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly used in higher education and at university in mechanics, acoustics, and even thermodynamics as they offer a unique way to do simple science experiments. In this article, we show how smartphones can be used in fluid mechanics to measure surface tension of various liquids, which could help students understand the concept…

  17. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  18. Optical measurement of surface roughness in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodmann, R.

    1984-11-01

    The measuring system described here is based on the light-scattering method, and was developed by Optische Werke G. Rodenstock, Munich. It is especially useful for rapid non-contact monitoring of surface roughness in production-related areas. This paper outlines the differences between this system and the common stylus instrument, including descriptions of some applications in industry.

  19. Spin correlation and entanglement detection in Cooper pair splitters by current measurements using magnetic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busz, Piotr; Tomaszewski, Damian; Martinek, Jan

    2017-08-01

    We analyze a model of a double quantum dot Cooper pair splitter coupled to two ferromagnetic detectors and demonstrate the possibility of determination of spin correlation by current measurements. We use perturbation theory, taking account of the exchange interaction with the detectors, which leads to complex spin dynamics in the dots. This affects the measured spin and restricts the use of ferromagnetic detectors to the nonlinear current-voltage characteristic regime at the current plateau, where the relevant spin projection is conserved, in contrast to the linear current-voltage characteristic regime, in which the spin information is distorted. Moreover, we show that for separable states the spin correlation can only be determined in a limited parameter regime, much more restricted than in the case of entangled states. We propose an entanglement test based on the Bell inequality.

  20. Semi-empirical approach for calibration of CR-39 detectors in diffusion chambers for radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra A, P.; Lopez H, M. E.; Palacios F, D.; Sajo B, L.; Valdivia, P.

    2016-10-01

    Simulated and measured calibration of PADC detectors is given for cylindrical diffusion chambers employed in environmental radon measurements. The method is based on determining the minimum alpha energy (E min ), average critical angle (<Θ c >), and fraction of 218 Po atoms; the volume of the chamber (f 1 ), are compared to commercially available devices. Radon concentration for exposed detectors is obtained from induced track densities and the well-established calibration coefficient for NRPB monitor. Calibration coefficient of a PADC detector in a cylindrical diffusion chamber of any size is determined under the same chemical etching conditions and track analysis methodology. In this study the results of numerical examples and comparison between experimental calibration coefficients and simulation purpose made code. Results show that the developed method is applicable when uncertainties of 10% are acceptable. (Author)

  1. Semi-empirical approach for calibration of CR-39 detectors in diffusion chambers for radon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra A, P.; Lopez H, M. E. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, San Miguel Lima 32 (Peru); Palacios F, D.; Sajo B, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 89000 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Valdivia, P., E-mail: ppereyr@pucp.edu.pe [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru s/n, Rimac, Lima 25 (Peru)

    2016-10-15

    Simulated and measured calibration of PADC detectors is given for cylindrical diffusion chambers employed in environmental radon measurements. The method is based on determining the minimum alpha energy (E{sub min}), average critical angle (<Θ{sub c}>), and fraction of {sup 218}Po atoms; the volume of the chamber (f{sub 1}), are compared to commercially available devices. Radon concentration for exposed detectors is obtained from induced track densities and the well-established calibration coefficient for NRPB monitor. Calibration coefficient of a PADC detector in a cylindrical diffusion chamber of any size is determined under the same chemical etching conditions and track analysis methodology. In this study the results of numerical examples and comparison between experimental calibration coefficients and simulation purpose made code. Results show that the developed method is applicable when uncertainties of 10% are acceptable. (Author)

  2. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, T., E-mail: btumpa@vecc.gov.in [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Pandit, Deepak [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Das, S.K. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chowdhury, A.; Das, P. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Banerjee, D. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-12-11

    The β–γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  3. Retarding potential and induction charge detectors in tandem for measuring the charge and mass of nanodroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamero-Castano, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The determination of the mass of a nanoparticle via time-of-flight typically requires a direct measurement of its charge. This can be done with a differential retarding potential analyzer and an induction charge detector operating in tandem. The spectrometer described in this article selects a particle with a specified retarding potential from a beam and directs it to an induction charge detector where both its velocity and charge are measured. The retarding potential, velocity, and charge also yield the particle's mass. The particle is analyzed without the need to collect it, and therefore can be employed in a subsequent experiment. The high charge sensitivity of the induction charge detector and the capability for working at low retarding potentials make the characterization of electrosprayed nanodroplets possible for the first time.

  4. Semi-automated, three-dimensional measurement of etched tracks in solid-state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, P.B.; Krischer, W.

    1985-01-01

    We describe a new method for measuring the shapes and sizes of etched tracks in plastic or glass detectors, using a commercial digital image processing system. The method exploits the fact that in transmitted light any portion of the microscopic image of the track is in best focus when it is darkest. A minimization algorithm is used to produce a two-dimensional projected image of the three-dimensional etched track. The locus of points of maximum gradients in the image leads to a closed contour of the projected image. From this gradient image the profile, length and width of the conical etched track are automatically determined. The method is also applicable (a) to a track that penetrates a detector and has been etched until the cones from opposite surfaces are connected and (b) to a track with a curved profile due to a strongly slowing particle. The method is illustrated with measurements of tracks of 1 A GeV uranium ions in Tuffak polycarbonate and in CR-73 polycarbonate and of cosmic ray tracks in a CR-39 detector. (orig.)

  5. Measurements of ttbar+X using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hasib, Ahmed; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The large centre-of-mass energy available at the proton-proton collider LHC allows for the copious production of top quark pairs in association with other final state particles at high transverse momenta. The ATLAS experiment has measured several final state observables that are sensitive to additional radiation in top anti-top quark final states. Results on the top production in association with W and Z bosons are presented as well as top pair production with a photon. Analyses probing top pair production with additional QCD radiation are also presented, including top pair production in association with additional heavy flavour jets. These measurements are compared to predictions of modern Monte Carlo generators based on NLO QCD matrix element or LO multi-leg matrix elements.

  6. Measurements of ttbar+X using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kawade, Kentaro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The large centre-of-mass energy available at the proton-proton collider LHC allows for the copious production of top quark pairs in association with other final state particles at high transverse momenta. The ATLAS experiment has measured several final state observables that are sensitive to additional radiation in top anti-top quark final states. Results on the top production in association with W and Z bosons are presented as well as top pair production with a photon or with b quarks. Analyses probing the top pair production with additional QCD radiation include the multiplicity of jets for various transverse momentum thresholds in the 13 TeV data. These measurements are compared to modern Monte Carlo generators based on NLO QCD matrix element or LO multi-leg matrix elements.

  7. Measurement of photon production cross sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Terron, Juan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the gluon density function of the proton. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons in 20.3 /fb of data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 8TeV and in 6.4 /pb of data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 13TeV, differential in both rapidity and the photon transverse momentum. The measurements are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators.

  8. Measurements of ttbar+X using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yichen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The large integrated luminosity provided by the LHC enables the production of a significant number of top-quark pairs in association with addition jets or additional gauge bosons. The production of top-quark pairs in association with W and Z bosons is presented. The measurement uses events with multiple leptons and in particular probes the coupling between the top quark and the Z boson. The cross-section measurement of photons produced in association with top-quark pairs is also discussed. The production cross-section of top-quark pairs in association with additional light or heavy jets is presented. These process are important backgrounds to searches for new physics and are all compared to the best available theoretical calculations.

  9. Hadronic resonance production measured with the ALICE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Hadronic resonances serve as a unique tool to study the properties of hot and dense matter pro- duced in heavy-ion collisions. These properties can be studied by measuring the ratios of hadronic resonance yields to the yields of longer-lived hadrons which can be used to investigate the re- scattering effects and the chemical freeze-out temperature. Resonance measurements in pp and p–Pb collisions provide a necessary baseline for heavy-ion data and help to disentangle the initial- state effects from medium-induced effects. The ALICE Collaboration has measured resonances such as, K ∗ (892) 0 and φ (1020) in pp, p–Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC energies. These resonances are reconstructed via their hadronic decay channel in a wide momentum range at midrapidity. In this work, we present recent results on the transverse momentum spectra, mean transverse momentum, ratios of resonance production relative to that of long-lived hadrons.

  10. Measurement of thermal radiation using regular glass optics and short-wave infrared detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H W; Eppeldauer, G P

    2008-01-21

    The measurement of thermal radiation from ambient-temperature objects using short-wave infrared detectors and regular glass optics is described. The detectors are chosen to operate in the 2.0 microm to 2.5 microm atmospheric window. Selection of detectors with high shunt resistance along with the 4-stage thermo-electric cooling of the detectors to -85 degrees C results in detectivity, D*, of 4 x 10(13) cm Hz(1/2)/W which is near the background limited performance at 295 K. Furthermore, the use of regular-glass commercial optics to collect the thermal radiation results in diffraction-limited imaging. The use of a radiation thermometer constructed with these elements for the measurement of a blackbody from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C results in noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of thermal sensors also leads to lower sensitivity to the emissivity of the object in determining the temperature of the object. These elements are used to construct a calibrator for an infrared collimator, and such a system demonstrates noise-equivalent irradiances of thermal infrared detectors.

  11. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zang, A; Ballabriga, R; Bisello, F; Campbell, M; Celi, J C; Fauler, A; Fiederle, M; Jensch, M; Kochanski, N; Llopart, X; Michel, N; Mollenhauer, U; Ritter, I; Tennert, F; Wölfel, S; Wong, W; Michel, T

    2015-01-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation wa...

  12. Output factor determination for dose measurements in axial and perpendicular planes using a silicon strip detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Haïdar, Z.; Bocci, A.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Espino, J. M.; Gallardo, M. I.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Ovejero, M. C.; Quesada, J. M.; Arráns, R.; Prieto, M. Ruiz; Vega-Leal, A. Pérez; Nieto, F. J. Pérez

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present the output factor measurements of a clinical linear accelerator using a silicon strip detector coupled to a new system for complex radiation therapy treatment verification. The objective of these measurements is to validate the system we built for treatment verification. The measurements were performed at the Virgin Macarena University Hospital in Seville. Irradiations were carried out with a Siemens ONCOR™ linac used to deliver radiotherapy treatment for cancer patients. The linac was operating in 6 MV photon mode; the different sizes of the fields were defined with the collimation system provided within the accelerator head. The output factor was measured with the silicon strip detector in two different layouts using two phantoms. In the first, the active area of the detector was placed perpendicular to the beam axis. In the second, the innovation consisted of a cylindrical phantom where the detector was placed in an axial plane with respect to the beam. The measured data were compared with data given by a commercial treatment planning system. Results were shown to be in a very good agreement between the compared set of data.

  13. Monte Carlo Studies of two Different Conversion Layers for Neutron Measurements with Medipix Silicon Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 the ventilation system of CNGS failed and investigations showed that the failure was due to Single Event Upset (SEU). Since then there has been increased interest in studies of neutron flux, that can potentially cause SEU. Two Medipix detectors have previously been installed in the CMS cavern on a test basis and have shown to work as intended[1]. More Medipix detectors will be installed to provide high resolution measurements of the particle flux in the vicinity of the CMS, focusing on measurements of the neutron flux. The measurements will provide an important basis to know what precautions to take to avoid another failure due to SEU. The measurements will also constitute a valuably reference to the FLUKA simulations of the general flux in the CMS cavern, that can potentially lead to important corrections of the simulations. Furthermore, measurements from the Medipix detectors will act as a cross check on the hadronic forward detector radiation monitoring system (HF radmon). Bonnos spheres are alread...

  14. Surface dose extrapolation measurements with radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, Martin J; Cheung Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Currie, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of surface dose delivered from radiotherapy x-ray beams for optimal results should be performed both inside and outside the prescribed treatment fields. An extrapolation technique can be used with radiographic film to perform surface dose assessment for open field high energy x-ray beams. This can produce an accurate two-dimensional map of surface dose if required. Results have shown that the surface percentage dose can be estimated within ±3% of parallel plate ionization chamber results with radiographic film using a series of film layers to produce an extrapolated result. Extrapolated percentage dose assessment for 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm square fields was estimated to be 15% ± 2%, 29% ± 3% and 38% ± 3% at the central axis and relatively uniform across the treatment field. The corresponding parallel plate ionization chamber measurements are 16%, 27% and 37%, respectively. Surface doses are also measured outside the treatment field which are mainly due to scattered electron contamination. To achieve this result, film calibration curves must be irradiated to similar x-ray field sizes as the experimental film to minimize quantitative variations in film optical density caused by varying x-ray spectrum with field size. (note)

  15. Time-Resolved Surface Temperature Measurement for Pulsed Ablative Thrusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... The diagnostic draws on heritage from the experimental dynamic crack propagation community which has used photovoltaic infrared detectors to measure temperature rise in materials in the process of fracture...

  16. Novel surface measurement system reading cost savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sword, M.

    1996-05-01

    A new state-of-the-art data acquisition system for the oil and natural gas industries is being marketed by OPSCO`92 Industries Ltd. The unit is portable, it measures surface data which is calibrated to bottom-hole conditions and designed to measure temperature and pressure information without the necessity of sending testing equipment downhole. The Surface Data System (SDS) uses silicon-crystal technology, is mounted in a suitcase size carrying case, and runs off a 12-volt battery enclosure which can be backed up by a small solar panel. The first generation system can handle 16 different channels of information input on a laptop computer. Pressure, pressure differential, temperature, frequency and pulse signals for flow meter measurements are handled by standard sensors. Areas of application include build-up and fall-off tests, pipeline evaluation, pre-frac tests, underbalanced drilling and gas well evaluation. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  17. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This will provide data essential to proton radiography. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neutron/photon calorimeter. The project is on track to meet its technical milestones, though the overall schedule at Fermilab has slipped. The electromagnetic calorimeter and the hadron calorimeter were both assembled and ready for testing with beam in December 2003

  18. Measurements of Vector Boson Fusion with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Calfayan, Philippe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The most recent results on the production of single W and Z bosons with two jets at high invariant mass at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV are presented. Integrated and differential cross sections are measured in many different phase space regions with varying degree of sensitivity to the electroweak production in vector boson fusion. The cross section for the electroweak W boson production has been extracted for both integrated and for the first time differential distributions. The results are compared to state-of-the-art theory predictions and are used to constrain anomalous gauge couplings.

  19. Measurements of the top quark mass with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nisius, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of the top quark mass given are obtained from ATLAS data taken at proton--proton centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV. An extraction of the top quark pole mass ($m_{\\mathrm{top}}^{\\mathrm{pole}}$) at next-to-leading order (NLO) is presented. This result is obtained from normalised differential cross-sections in the $t\\bar{t}\\to\\mbox{dilepton}$ channel leading to: $m_{\\mathrm{top}}^{\\mathrm{pole}} = 173.2 \\pm 0.9 (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.8 (\\mathrm{syst.}) \\pm 1.2 (\\mathrm{theo.})$ GeV. In addition, measurements of $m_{\\mathrm{top}}$ are discussed that are based on the template method performed in three $t\\bar{t}$ decay channels. For all results the uncertainty is dominated by systematic effects. Finally, the 2016 ATLAS combined value of $m_{\\mathrm{top}}$ is: $m_{\\mathrm{top}}=172.84 \\pm 0.34 (\\mathrm{stat.}) \\pm 0.61 (\\mathrm{syst.})$ GeV, with a total uncertainty of 0.70 GeV, i.e.a precision of 0.4$\\%$.

  20. Measurement of photon production cross sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Turra, Ruggero; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the proton structure. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rapidity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential cross sections for isolated photon pairs at 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators. The production of prompt photons in association with jets provides an additional testing ground for perturbative QCD (pQCD) with a hard colourless probe less affected by hadronisation effects than jet production. The ATLAS collaboration has studied the dynamics of isolated-photon plus jet production in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 and 13 TeV, which will be presented and discussed.

  1. Theoretical description of the photopyroelectric technique in the slanted detector configuration for thermal diffusivity measurements in fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Trigos, J.B., E-mail: rjosebruno@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaría 694, Colonia Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D. F. (Mexico); Marín, E. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaría 694, Colonia Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D. F. (Mexico); Mansanares, A.M. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cedeño, E.; Juárez-Gracia, G.; Calderón, A. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaría 694, Colonia Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A model for photopyroelectric thermal characterization of fluids is presented. • A slanted detector configuration is considered with a finite measurement cell. • The mean temperature distribution in the photopyroelectric detector, as function of the beam spot position, is calculated. • The influence of the excitation beam spot size, the thermal diffusion length and size of the sample is discussed. • The high lateral resolution of the method observed in experiments is explain. - Abstract: This work presents an extended description about the theoretical aspects related to the generation of the photopyroelectric signal in a recently proposed wedge-like heat transmission detection configuration, which recreates the well-known Angstrom method (widely used for solid samples) for accurate thermal diffusivity measurement in gases and liquids. The presented model allows for the calculation of the temperature profile detected by the pyroelectric sensor as a function of the excitation beam position, and the study of the influence on it of several parameters, such as spot size, thermal properties of the absorber layer, and geometrical parameters of the measurement cell. Through computer simulations, it has been demonstrated that a narrow temperature distribution is created at the sensor surface, independently of the lateral diffusion of heat taking place at the sample's surface.

  2. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. It is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic final state and the state-of-the-art of the b-jet trigger performance estimation are presented in this contribution.

  3. Measurements of the Vector boson production with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Staroba, Pavel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the vector boson production in $pp$ collisions at $\\textbf{LHC}$ form important part of physics programme of the $\\textbf{ATLAS}$ Collaboration. More than 50 publications dealing with this topic have been published up to now. All aspects of W/Z physics studied at hadron colliders are covered. Predictions of Standard model are usually tested at least at NLO accuracy, NNLO becomes a standard in the more recent publications. Majority of publications use $\\textbf{Run 1}$ data, but the first analyses based on $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ $TeV$ collected during $\\textbf{Run 2}$ period were published recently. Selection of recent results is presented and future perspectives are described.

  4. Flight time beta spectrometer with position sensitive detectors for electronic structure investigation at points of hydrogen adsorption on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, V.S.; Petukhov, V.K.; Burminsky, V.P.; Lubov, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    The basis of flight time beta spectrometer for investigation of electronic emission with energy not over 500 eV have been created. This device will be used for carrying out the first study of electronic structure at the points of hydrogen adsorption through the measuring of spectra of Auger relaxation electrons emitted by the system investigated surface-tritium. The momentum resolution of beta spectrometer accounts for (0,1 - 0,2)% at 'traditional' solid angle equals to 0,25% from 4π sr owing to the use positron sensitive start and stop detectors on a basis of microchannel plates. Taking into consideration that the area of our beta source is minimum 100 times larger as compared to 'traditional' spectrometers and a spectrum here is registered simultaneously over all energy interval containing useful information, we obtain high quality beta spectrometer. (author)

  5. A problem finding in calibration of Si(Au) surface-barrier semiconductor detector and a simple resolved method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhangyong; Ruan Fangfang; Lu Rongchun; Chinese Academy of Sccience, Beijing; Yang Zhihu; Tan Jilian; Shao Caojie; Cai Xiaohong; Zhang Hongqiang; Shao Jianxiong; Cui Ying; Xie Jiangshan; Gao Zhimin

    2007-01-01

    In calibration of Si(Au) surface-barrier semiconductor detector, we find the peak-channel of 241 Am standard radioactive source shift with the position and the size of incident window. The reason may be result from the non-uniformity of Au-layer plated on Si-layer, because it may increase the probability of electron-vacancy pair recombination, but the exact reason is not clear. Dut to this problem is disadvantage to heavy ion-atom impact experiment; we resolve it by fixing up the position and the size of incident window and calibrating two sets of spectrometers, which placed symmetrically in the target room. Thus, this two set of apparatus can measure the back-scattered ions simultaneously in ion-atom impact experiment. We could obtain reliable experimental results by comparing with the two back-scattering spectra. (authors)

  6. Precision half-life measurement of .sup.140 La with Ge-detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich; Belov, A. G.; Brandt, R.; Chaloun, P.; Honusek, Milan; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kulakov, B. A.; Langrock, E. J.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Sosnin, A. N.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Wan, J. S.; Westmeier, W.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 187, - (2002), s. 419-426 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Keywords : radioastive nuclei * Ge-detectors * half- life measurements Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.158, year: 2002

  7. CALIBRATION OF MODIFIED LIULIN DETECTOR FOR COSMIC RADIATION MEASUREMENTS ON-BOARD AIRCRAFT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselová, Dagmar; Ambrožová, Iva; Krist, Pavel; Kubančák, Ján; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 489-492 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Liulin detector * on-board aircraft * cosmic radiation measurement Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  8. An optoelectronic detector for elastic and diffractive scattering measurements in the TOTEM experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Buénerd, M; Vescovi, C

    2000-01-01

    An optoelectronic detector based on a fast phosphor scintillator optically coupled to an image intensifier combined with a CMOS photosensitive array is described and discussed in the perspective of elastic and diffractive scattering measurement in the TOTEM experimental program at the CERN LHC. (10 refs).

  9. A precise measurement of the $W$-boson mass with the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero; Amidei, Dante E; Anastassov, Anton Iankov; Annovi, Alberto; Antos, Jaroslav; Apollinari, Giorgio; Appel, Jeffrey A; Arisawa, Tetsuo; Artikov, Akram Muzafarovich; Asaadi, Jonathan A; Ashmanskas, William Joseph; Auerbach, Benjamin; Aurisano, Adam J; Azfar, Farrukh A; Badgett, William Farris; Bae, Taegil; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barria, Patrizia; Bartos, Pavol; Bauce, Matteo; Bedeschi, Franco; Beecher, Daniel Paul; Behari, Satyajit; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, James Nugent; Benjamin, Douglas P; Beretvas, Andrew F; Bhatti, Anwar Ahmad; Bizjak, Ilija; Bland, Karen Renee; Blumenfeld, Barry J; Bocci, Andrea; Bodek, Arie; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boudreau, Joseph Francis; Boveia, Antonio; Brigliadori, Luca; Bromberg, Carl Michael; Brucken, Erik; Budagov, Ioulian A; Budd, Howard Scott; Burkett, Kevin Alan; Busetto, Giovanni; Bussey, Peter John; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buzatu, Adrian; Calamba, Aristotle; Camarda, Stefano; Campanelli, Mario; Canelli, Florencia; Carls, Benjamin; Carlsmith, Duncan L; Carosi, Roberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Casal Larana, Bruno; Casarsa, Massimo; Castro, Andrea; Catastini, Pierluigi; Cauz, Diego; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Chen, Yen-Chu; Chertok, Maxwell Benjamin; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chlachidze, Gouram; Cho, Kihyeon; Chokheli, Davit; Clark, Allan Geoffrey; Clarke, Christopher Joseph; Convery, Mary Elizabeth; Conway, John Stephen; Corbo, Matteo; Cordelli, Marco; Cox, Charles Alexander; Cox, David Jeremy; Cremonesi, Matteo; Cruz Alonso, Daniel; Cuevas Maestro, Javier; Culbertson, Raymond Lloyd; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Datta, Mousumi; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demortier, Luc M; Deninno, Maria Maddalena; D'Errico, Maria; Devoto, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dittmann, Jay Richard; Donati, Simone; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dorigo, Mirco; Driutti, Anna; Ebina, Koji; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Elagin, Andrey L; Erbacher, Robin D; Errede, Steven Michael; Esham, Benjamin; Eusebi, Ricardo; Farrington, Sinead Marie; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Field, Richard D; Flanagan, Gene U; Forrest, Robert David; Franklin, Melissa EB; Freeman, John Christian; Frisch, Henry J; Funakoshi, Yujiro; Galloni, Camilla; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Garosi, Paola; Gerberich, Heather Kay; Gerchtein, Elena A; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Gibson, Karen Ruth; Ginsburg, Camille Marie; Giokaris, Nikos D; Giromini, Paolo; Giurgiu, Gavril A; Glagolev, Vladimir; Glenzinski, Douglas Andrew; Gold, Michael S; Goldin, Daniel; Golossanov, Alexander; Gomez, Gervasio; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim T; González López, Oscar; Gorelov, Igor V; Goshaw, Alfred T; Goulianos, Konstantin A; Gramellini, Elena; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grosso-Pilcher, Carla; Group, Robert Craig; Hahn, Stephen R; Han, Ji-Yeon; Happacher, Fabio; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Matthew Frederick; Harr, Robert Francis; Harrington-Taber, Timothy; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinrich, Joel G; Herndon, Matthew Fairbanks; Hocker, James Andrew; Hong, Ziqing; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Hou, Suen Ray; Hughes, Richard Edward; Husemann, Ulrich; Hussein, Mohammad; Huston, Joey Walter; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iori, Maurizio; Ivanov, Andrew Gennadievich; James, Eric B; Jang, Dongwook; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha Anjalike; Jeon, Eun-Ju; Jindariani, Sergo Robert; Jones, Matthew T; Joo, Kyung Kwang; Jun, Soon Yung; Junk, Thomas R; Kambeitz, Manuel; Kamon, Teruki; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kasmi, Azeddine; Kato, Yukihiro; Ketchum, Wesley Robert; Keung, Justin Kien; Kilminster, Benjamin John; Kim, DongHee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Soo Bong; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kirby, Michael H; Knoepfel, Kyle James; Kondo, Kunitaka; Kong, Dae Jung; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Kotwal, Ashutosh Vijay; Kreps, Michal; Kroll, IJoseph; Kruse, Mark Charles; Kuhr, Thomas; Kurata, Masakazu; Laasanen, Alvin Toivo; Lammel, Stephan; Lancaster, Mark; Lannon, Kevin Patrick; Latino, Giuseppe; Lee, Hyun Su; Lee, Jaison; Leo, Sabato; Leone, Sandra; Lewis, Jonathan D; Limosani, Antonio; Lipeles, Elliot David; Lister, Alison; Liu, Hao; Liu, Qiuguang; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Lockwitz, Sarah E; Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucà, Alessandra; Lueck, Jan; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Lukens, Patrick Thomas; Lungu, Gheorghe; Lys, Jeremy E; Lysak, Roman; Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Maestro, Paolo; Malik, Sarah Alam; Manca, Giulia; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Marchese, Luigi; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marino, Christopher Phillip; Martínez-Perez, Mario; Matera, Keith; Mattson, Mark Edward; Mazzacane, Anna; Mazzanti, Paolo; McNulty, Ronan; Mehta, Andrew; Mehtala, Petteri; Mesropian, Christina; Miao, Ting; Mietlicki, David John; Mitra, Ankush; Miyake, Hideki; Moed, Shulamit; Moggi, Niccolo; Moon, Chang-Seong; Moore, Ronald Scott; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mukherjee, Aseet; Muller, Thomas; Murat, Pavel A; Mussini, Manuel; Nachtman, Jane Marie; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Naganoma, Junji; Nakano, Itsuo; Napier, Austin; Nett, Jason Michael; Neu, Christopher Carl; Nigmanov, Turgun S; Nodulman, Lawrence J; Noh, Seoyoung; Norniella Francisco, Olga; Nurse, Emily L; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oh, Seog Hwan; Oh, Young-do; Oksuzian, Iuri Artur; Okusawa, Toru; Orava, Risto Olavi; Ortolan, Lorenzo; Pagliarone, Carmine Elvezio; Palencia, Jose Enrique; Palni, Prabhakar; Papadimitriou, Vaia; Parker, William Chesluk; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paulini, Manfred; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Phillips, Thomas J; Piacentino, Giovanni M; Pianori, Elisabetta; Pilot, Justin Robert; Pitts, Kevin T; Plager, Charles; Pondrom, Lee G; Poprocki, Stephen; Potamianos, Karolos Jozef; Pranko, Aliaksandr Pavlovich; Prokoshin, Fedor; Ptohos, Fotios K; Punzi, Giovanni; Ranjan, Niharika; Redondo Fernández, Ignacio; Renton, Peter B; Rescigno, Marco; Riddick, Thomas C; Rimondi, Franco; Ristori, Luciano; Robson, Aidan; Rodriguez, Tatiana Isabel; Rolli, Simona; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roser, Robert Martin; Rosner, Jonathan L; Ruffini, Fabrizio; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Russ, James S; Rusu, Vadim Liviu; Sakumoto, Willis Kazuo; Sakurai, Yuki; Santi, Lorenzo; Sato, Koji; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schlabach, Philip; Schmidt, Eugene E; Schwarz, Thomas A; Scodellaro, Luca; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seidel, Sally C; Seiya, Yoshihiro; Semenov, Alexei; Sforza, Federico; Shalhout, Shalhout Zaki; Shears, Tara G; Shekhar, Ravi; Shepard, Paul F; Shimojima, Makoto; Shochet, Melvyn J; Simonenko, Alexander V; Sliwa, Krzysztof Jan; Smith, John Rodgers; Snider, Frederick Douglas; Song, Hao; Sorin, Maria Veronica; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stancari, Michelle Dawn; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stentz, Dale James; Strologas, John; Sudo, Yuji; Sukhanov, Alexander I; Sun, Siyuan; Suslov, Igor M; Takemasa, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Yuji; Tang, Jian; Tecchio, Monica; Tecker-Shreyber, Irina; Teng, Ping-Kun; Thom, Julia; Thomson, Evelyn Jean; Thukral, Vaikunth; Toback, David A; Tokar, Stanislav; Tollefson, Kirsten Anne; Tomura, Tomonobu; Tonelli, Diego; Torre, Stefano; Torretta, Donatella; Totaro, Pierluigi; Trovato, Marco; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Uozumi, Satoru; Vázquez-Valencia, Elsa Fabiola; Velev, Gueorgui; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Vernieri, Caterina; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Vizán Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Vogel, Marcelo; Volpi, Guido; Wagner, Peter; Wallny, Rainer S; Wang, Song-Ming; Waters, David S; Wester, William Carl; Whiteson, Daniel O; Wicklund, Arthur Barry; Wilbur, Scott; Williams, Hugh H; Wilson, Jonathan Samuel; Wilson, Peter James; Winer, Brian L; Wittich, Peter; Wolbers, Stephen A; Wolfe, Homer; Wright, Thomas Roland; Wu, Xin; Wu, Zhenbin; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yamato, Daisuke; Yang, Tingjun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yu Chul; Yao, Wei-Ming; Yeh, Gong Ping; Yi, Kai; Yoh, John; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yu, Geum Bong; Yu, Intae; Zanetti, Anna Maria; Zeng, Yu; Zhou, Chen; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2014-04-03

    We present a measurement of the $W$-boson mass, $M_W$, using data corresponding to 2.2/fb of integrated luminosity collected in ppbar collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The selected sample of 470126 $W\\to e\

  10. Design of software about turn pattern measurement for the movable radial detector on HIRFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangyang; Song Haihong; Nie Zhenpeng; Tang Jingyu

    2000-01-01

    Object Oriented Programming (OOP) technique is adopted to develop the software in Windows environment of the movable radial probes and turn pattern measurement in SFC and SSC cyclotrons. Many functions such as data acquisition and storage, figure displaying and printing, detector movement are realized in the software to get higher operation efficiency in HIRFL and make the device work more steady

  11. Top quark differential cross-section measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Scornajenghi, Matteo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The most recent results on top quark pairs and single top quark differential cross-sections measurements in proton-proton (pp) collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at $\\sqrt{s}\\,=\\,$8 and 13~TeV are presented. The results are compared to the latest QCD theoretical calculations.

  12. Application of Faraday cup array detector in measurement of electron-beam distribution homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiguo; Wang Jinchuan; Xiao Guoqing; Guo Zhongyan; Wu Lijie; Mao Ruishi; Zhang Li

    2005-01-01

    It is described that a kind of Faraday cup array detector, which consists of Faraday cup, suppressor electrode insulation PCB board, Base etc. The homogeneity of electron-beam distribution is measured and the absorbed dose for the irradiated sample is calculated. The results above provide the important parameters for the irradiation experiment and the improvement for the quality of electron beam. (authors)

  13. Characterization of Detector Response for PROSPECT - A Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Brian; Dolinski, Michelle; Prospect Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Recently, several experiments have reported an approximately 5% deficit of antineutrinos from nuclear reactors when the measured flux is compared with that predicted by current nuclear models. This is termed the ``Reactor Antineutrino Anomaly''. Furthermore, the predicted shape of the antineutrino spectrum is not in agreement with measurements from those experiments. The PROSPECT (Precision Reactor Oscillation and SPECTrum Measurement) collaboration plans to investigate this anomaly and constrain the shape of the spectrum with a high precision, short baseline (7-20m) measurement of the antineutrino spectrum from Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) which will include a search for sterile neutrinos as one possible solution to the anomaly. PROSPECT will utilize a segmented, lithium-loaded liquid scintillator detector and is taking a phased approach to detector design by building progressively larger prototypes of this final detector with several prototypes already constructed and taking data. This poster will report on the ongoing analysis of the detector response of these prototypes including aspects such as position reconstruction, energy resolution, and pulse shape discrimination.

  14. Minimizing Uncertainty in Cryogenic Surface Figure Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    A new facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center is designed to measure with unusual accuracy the surface figure of mirrors at cryogenic temperatures down to 12 K. The facility is currently configured for spherical mirrors with a radius of curvature (ROC) of 600 mm, and apertures of about 150 mm or less. The goals of the current experiment were to 1) Obtain the best possible estimate of test mirror surface figure, S(x,y) at 87 K and 20 K; 2) Obtain the best estimate of the cryo-change, Delta (x,y): the change in surface figure between room temperature and the two cryo-temperatures; and 3) Determine the uncertainty of these measurements, using the definitions and guidelines of the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. A silicon mirror was tested, and the cry-change from room temperature to 20K was found to be 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  15. Fully hadronic ttbar cross section measurement with ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bertella, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production cross section in the fully hadronic final state is characterized by a six jet topology, two of which could be identified as originating from a b-quark using ATLAS b-tagging algorithms. Compared to other decay channels, this final state presents an advantageous larger branching ratio; on the other hand it suffers from a very large QCD multi-jet background, generally difficult to estimate from Monte Carlo simulation and therefore evaluated using data-driven techniques. The analysis is performed using 36pb-1 of pp collisions produced at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The observed upper limit is set at 261 pb at 95% confidence level, where the expected Standard Model cross-section for the ttbar process is 165+11-16 pb. In the future, when the LHC luminosity increases, it is essential, to efficiently trigger on these fully hadronic ttbar events, to use dedicated triggers. An overview of the analysis for ttbar production cross section measurement in the fully hadronic f...

  16. Direct Photon and Neutral Mesons Measurements with the ALICE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Matyja, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC is dedicated to studies of the Quark– Gluon Plasma (QGP) state, which is going to be created in heavy-ion collisions. Both photons and neutral mesons are excellent probes for QGP formation. Photons are produced during the different stages of the expan- sion of the initial hot matter fireball. They do not interact strongly with the medium and passing through it, they carry information on their emis- sion point. The prompt photons which are formed at the early stage of the collision enable us to test perturbative QCD constraining parton distri- butions and fragmentation functions. Looking into the regime of thermal photons, one can extract the temperature of the medium. The medium- induced energy loss of particles can be investigated via the measurement of neutral meson spectra for different centrality classes as well as via neutral meson–hadron correlations. A decrease of the nuclear modification factor ( R AA ) with centrality of the collision is observed. The suppression of th...

  17. Testing of the dual slab verification detector for attended measurements of the BN-350 dry storage casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Richard B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Robert F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The Dual Slab Verification Detector (DSVD) has been developed and built by Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as part of the dry storage safeguards system for the spent fuel from the BN-350 fast reactor. The detector consists of two rows of {sup 3}He tubes embedded in a slab of polyethylene which has been designed to be placed on the outer surface of the dry storage cask. The DSVD will be used to perform measurements of the neutron flux emanating from inside the dry storage cask at several locations around each cask to establish a neutron 'fingerprint' that is sensitive to the contents of the cask. The sensitivity of the fingerprinting technique to the removal of specific amount of nuclear material from the cask is determined by the characteristics of the detector that is used to perform the measurements, the characteristics of the spent fuel being measured, and systematic uncertainties that are associated with the dry storage scenario. MCNPX calculations of the BN-350 dry storage asks and layout have shown that the neutron fingerprint verification technique using measurements from the DSVD would be sensitive to both the amount and location of material that is present within an individual cask. To confirm the performance of the neutron fingerprint technique in verifying the presence of BN-350 spent fuel in dry storage, an initial series of measurements have been performed to test the performance and characteristics of the DSVD. Results of these measurements will be presented and compared with MCNPX results.

  18. Testing of the dual slab verification detector for attended measurements of the BN-350 dry storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Peter A.; Browne, Michael C.; Williams, Richard B.; Parker, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dual Slab Verification Detector (DSVD) has been developed and built by Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as part of the dry storage safeguards system for the spent fuel from the BN-350 fast reactor. The detector consists of two rows of 3 He tubes embedded in a slab of polyethylene which has been designed to be placed on the outer surface of the dry storage cask. The DSVD will be used to perform measurements of the neutron flux emanating from inside the dry storage cask at several locations around each cask to establish a neutron 'fingerprint' that is sensitive to the contents of the cask. The sensitivity of the fingerprinting technique to the removal of specific amount of nuclear material from the cask is determined by the characteristics of the detector that is used to perform the measurements, the characteristics of the spent fuel being measured, and systematic uncertainties that are associated with the dry storage scenario. MCNPX calculations of the BN-350 dry storage asks and layout have shown that the neutron fingerprint verification technique using measurements from the DSVD would be sensitive to both the amount and location of material that is present within an individual cask. To confirm the performance of the neutron fingerprint technique in verifying the presence of BN-350 spent fuel in dry storage, an initial series of measurements have been performed to test the performance and characteristics of the DSVD. Results of these measurements will be presented and compared with MCNPX results.

  19. Measuring Pu in a glove box using portable NaI and germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    A NaI crystal or germanium detector inside a portable lead shield can determine the amount of plutonium in a glove box. The number of counts required are defined and the locations outside the box where the detector needs to be positioned are given. The calculated accuracy for measuring the Pu when these locations are used is within +/-30% for most glove boxes. Other factors that may affect this accuracy, such as γ-ray absorption by glove-box materials, self-absorption by Pu, absorption by equipment in the glove box, and the limits of the counting equipment are also discussed

  20. Radon measurements by etched track detectors applications in radiation protection, earth sciences and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, Saeed A

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to radon gas, which is present in the environment naturally, constitutes over half the radiation dose received by the general public annually. At present, the most widely used method of measuring radon concentration levels throughout the world, both in dwellings and in the field, is by etched track detectors - also known as Solid State Nuclear Detectors (SSNTDs). Although this is not only the most widely used method but is also the simplest and the cheapest, yet there is at present no book available on the market globally, devoted exclusively or largely to the methodology of, and deal

  1. The Use of Low Temperature Detectors for Direct Measurements of the Mass of the Electron Neutrino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nucciotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed many exciting breakthroughs in neutrino physics. The detection of neutrino oscillations has proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. Since low temperature detectors were first proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984, there has been tremendous technical progress: today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required to perform competitive experiments challenging the lowest electron neutrino masses. This paper reviews the thirty-year effort aimed at realizing calorimetric measurements with sub-eV neutrino mass sensitivity using low temperature detectors.

  2. Measuring the attenuation length of water in the CHIPS-M water Cherenkov detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, F.; Bizouard, P. [Aix Marseille University Saint-Jerome, 13013 Marseille (France); Bryant, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Carroll, T.J.; Rijck, S. De [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Germani, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Joyce, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kriesten, B. [Department of Physics, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Marshak, M.; Meier, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Nelson, J.K. [Department of Physics, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Perch, A.J.; Pfützner, M.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Salazar, R. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Thomas, J., E-mail: jennifer.thomas@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Trokan-Tenorio, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Vahle, P. [Department of Physics, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Wade, R. [Avenir Consulting, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Wendt, C. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Whitehead, L.H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-02-01

    The water at the proposed site of the CHIPS water Cherenkov detector has been studied to measure its attenuation length for Cherenkov light as a function of filtering time. A scaled model of the CHIPS detector filled with water from the Wentworth 2W pit, proposed site of the CHIPS deployment, in conjunction with a 3.2 m vertical column filled with this water, was used to study the transmission of 405 nm laser light. Results consistent with attenuation lengths of up to 100 m were observed for this wavelength with filtration and UV sterilization alone.

  3. Electron performance measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2010 LHC proton-proton collision data

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; 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Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; 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Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; 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Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; 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Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; 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Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; 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Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; 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Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-03-09

    Detailed measurements of the electron performance of the ATLAS detector at the LHC are reported, using decays of the Z, W and J/psi particles. Data collected in 2010 at sqrt(s)=7 TeV are used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of almost 40 pb^-1. The inter-alignment of the inner detector and the electromagnetic calorimeter, the determination of the electron energy scale and resolution, and the performance in terms of response uniformity and linearity are discussed. The electron identification, reconstruction and trigger efficiencies, as well as the charge misidentification probability, are also presented.

  4. Measurements of Low Frequency Noise of Infrared Photo-Detectors with Transimpedance Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciura Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method and results of low-frequency noise measurements of modern mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors. A type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice based detector with nBn barrier architecture is compared with a high operating temperature (HOT heterojunction HgCdTe detector. All experiments were made in the range 1 Hz - 10 kHz at various temperatures by using a transimpedance detection system, which is examined in detail. The power spectral density of the nBn’s dark current noise includes Lorentzians with different time constants while the HgCdTe photodiode has more uniform 1/f - shaped spectra. For small bias, the low-frequency noise power spectra of both devices were found to scale linearly with bias voltage squared and were connected with the fluctuations of the leakage resistance. Leakage resistance noise defines the lower noise limit of a photodetector. Other dark current components give raise to the increase of low-frequency noise above this limit. For the same voltage biasing devices, the absolute noise power densities at 1 Hz in nBn are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than in a MCT HgCdTe detector. In spite of this, low-frequency performance of the HgCdTe detector at ~ 230K is still better than that of InAs/GaSb superlattice nBn detector.

  5. Maximum likelihood positioning for gamma-ray imaging detectors with depth of interaction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, Ch.W.; Ros, A.; Monzo, J.M.; Aliaga, R.J.; Ferrando, N.; Martinez, J.D.; Herrero, V.; Esteve, R.; Gadea, R.; Colom, R.J.; Toledo, J.; Mateo, F.; Sebastia, A.; Sanchez, F.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The center of gravity algorithm leads to strong artifacts for gamma-ray imaging detectors that are based on monolithic scintillation crystals and position sensitive photo-detectors. This is a consequence of using the centroids as position estimates. The fact that charge division circuits can also be used to compute the standard deviation of the scintillation light distribution opens a way out of this drawback. We studied the feasibility of maximum likelihood estimation for computing the true gamma-ray photo-conversion position from the centroids and the standard deviation of the light distribution. The method was evaluated on a test detector that consists of the position sensitive photomultiplier tube H8500 and a monolithic LSO crystal (42mmx42mmx10mm). Spatial resolution was measured for the centroids and the maximum likelihood estimates. The results suggest that the maximum likelihood positioning is feasible and partially removes the strong artifacts of the center of gravity algorithm.

  6. ENC Measurement for ASIC Preamp Board as a Detector Module for PET System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nagara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We developed a gamma ray detector with an LuAG:Pr scintillator and an avalanche photodiode as a detector for a positron emission tomography (PET system. Studies have been performed on the influences of gamma irradiation on application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC preamp boards used as a detector module. As a device used in nuclear environments for substantial durations, the ASIC has to have a lifetime long enough to ensure that there will be a negligible failure rate during this period. These front-end systems must meet the requirements for standard positron emission tomography (PET systems. Therefore, an equivalent noise charge (ENC experiment is needed to measure the front-end system's characteristics. This study showed that minimum ENC conditions can be achieved if a shorter shaping time could be applied.

  7. Neutron peak velocity measurements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using novel quartz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Gary; Eckart, Mark; Hartouni, Edward; Hatarik, Robert; Moore, Alastair; Root, Jaben; Sayre, Daniel; Schlossberg, David; Waltz, Cory

    2017-10-01

    In mid-2017 the NIF implemented quartz based neutron time-of-flight (nToF) detectors which have a faster and narrower impulse response function (IRF) relative to traditional scintillator detectors. In this presentation we report on comparisons between fusion neutron first moments as measured by quartz and scintillator based detectors using DT layered implosions at the NIF. We report on the change in precision presaged by the quartz converter and quantify the change in both in shot, line-of-site velocity variability. as well as, shot-to-shot variation. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734511-DRAFT.

  8. A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Francesco; Ferranti, Giacomo; Mahler, Dylan H.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Santamato, Alberto; Sinclair, Gary; Bonneau, Damien; Thompson, Mark G.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2018-04-01

    Optical homodyne detection has found use as a characterisation tool in a range of quantum technologies. So far implementations have been limited to bulk optics. Here we present the optical integration of a homodyne detector onto a silicon photonics chip. The resulting device operates at high speed, up 150 MHz, it is compact and it operates with low noise, quantified with 11 dB clearance between shot noise and electronic noise. We perform on-chip quantum tomography of coherent states with the detector and show that it meets the requirements for characterising more general quantum states of light. We also show that the detector is able to produce quantum random numbers at a rate of 1.2 Gbps, by measuring the vacuum state of the electromagnetic field and applying off-line post processing. The produced random numbers pass all the statistical tests provided by the NIST test suite.

  9. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  10. Description of measurement techniques for surface contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The needs of evaluation of the surface contamination are numerous in the processes of production and management of radioactive waste. The market of radiation protection materials proposes a lot of devices answering to the almost all these needs. These device have however their conditions and particular limits for use. To realize correct measurements it is use the device, the technique and the methods adapted to the need, by taking into account the optimization of economical aspect. (N.C.)

  11. Impact of the neutron detector choice on Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor for subcriticality measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Y.; Cao, Y.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2012-01-01

    In subcritical assemblies, the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used to correct the measured reactivity from different detector positions. In addition to the measuring position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the detector material, the detector size, and the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons. The effective multiplication factor calculated by computer codes in criticality mode slightly differs from the average value obtained from the measurements in the different experimental channels of the subcritical assembly, which are corrected by the Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor. Generally, this difference is due to (1) neutron counting errors; (2) geometrical imperfections, which are not simulated in the calculational model, and (3) quantities and distributions of material impurities, which are missing from the material definitions. This work examines these issues and it focuses on the detector choice and the calculation methodologies. The work investigated the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly of Belarus, which has been operated with three different fuel enrichments in the fast zone either: high (90%) and medium (36%), medium (36%), or low (21%) enriched uranium fuel.

  12. Cosmic-muon characterization and annual modulation measurement with Double Chooz detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahão, T.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Almazan, H.; Buck, C.; Appel, S.; Baussan, E.; Brugière, T.; Bekman, I.; Bezerra, T.J.C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.

    2017-01-01

    A study on cosmic muons has been performed for the two identical near and far neutrino detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, placed at ∼120 and ∼300 m.w.e. underground respectively, including the corresponding simulations using the MUSIC simulation package. This characterization has allowed us to measure the muon flux reaching both detectors to be (3.64 ± 0.04) × 10 −4 cm −2 s −1 for the near detector and (7.00 ± 0.05) × 10 −5 cm −2 s −1 for the far one. The seasonal modulation of the signal has also been studied observing a positive correlation with the atmospheric temperature, leading to an effective temperature coefficient of α T = 0.212 ± 0.024 and 0.355 ± 0.019 for the near and far detectors respectively. These measurements, in good agreement with expectations based on theoretical models, represent one of the first measurements of this coefficient in shallow depth installations.

  13. Cosmic-muon characterization and annual modulation measurement with Double Chooz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, T.; Almazan, H.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Appel, S.; Baussan, E.; Bekman, I.; Bezerra, T. J. C.; Bezrukov, L.; Blucher, E.; Brugière, T.; Buck, C.; Busenitz, J.; Cabrera, A.; Camilleri, L.; Carr, R.; Cerrada, M.; Chauveau, E.; Chimenti, P.; Corpace, O.; Crespo-Anadón, J. I.; Dawson, J. V.; Dhooghe, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Dracos, M.; Etenko, A.; Fallot, M.; Franco, D.; Franke, M.; Furuta, H.; Gil-Botella, I.; Giot, L.; Givaudan, A.; Gögger-Neff, M.; Gómez, H.; Gonzalez, L. F. G.; Goodman, M.; Hara, T.; Haser, J.; Hellwig, D.; Hourlier, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jochum, J.; Jollet, C.; Kale, K.; Kampmann, P.; Kaneda, M.; Kaplan, D. M.; Kawasaki, T.; Kemp, E.; de Kerret, H.; Kryn, D.; Kuze, M.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lane, C.; Laserre, T.; Lastoria, C.; Lhuillier, D.; Lima, H.; Lindner, M.; López-Castaño, J. M.; LoSecco, J. M.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Maeda, J.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Matsubara, T.; Mention, G.; Meregaglia, A.; Miletic, T.; Minotti, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Navas-Nicolás, D.; Novella, P.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Onillon, A.; Oralbaev, A.; Palomares, C.; Pepe, I.; Pronost, G.; Reinhold, B.; Rybolt, B.; Sakamoto, Y.; Santorelli, R.; Schönert, S.; Schoppmann, S.; Sharankova, R.; Sibille, V.; Sinev, V.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, P.; Stahl, A.; Stancu, I.; Stokes, L. F. F.; Strait, M.; Suekane, F.; Sukhotin, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Sun, Y.; Svoboda, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Veyssiere, C.; Vivier, M.; Wagner, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wurm, M.; Yang, G.; Yermia, F.; Zimmer, V.

    2017-02-01

    A study on cosmic muons has been performed for the two identical near and far neutrino detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, placed at ~120 and ~300 m.w.e. underground respectively, including the corresponding simulations using the MUSIC simulation package. This characterization has allowed us to measure the muon flux reaching both detectors to be (3.64 ± 0.04) × 10-4 cm-2s-1 for the near detector and (7.00 ± 0.05) × 10-5 cm-2s-1 for the far one. The seasonal modulation of the signal has also been studied observing a positive correlation with the atmospheric temperature, leading to an effective temperature coefficient of αT = 0.212 ± 0.024 and 0.355 ± 0.019 for the near and far detectors respectively. These measurements, in good agreement with expectations based on theoretical models, represent one of the first measurements of this coefficient in shallow depth installations.

  14. Time-resolved triton burnup measurement using the scintillating fiber detector in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Nishitani, T.; Murakami, S.; Seki, R.; Nakata, M.; Takada, E.; Kawase, H.; Pu, N.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-03-01

    Time-resolved measurement of triton burnup is performed with a scintillating fiber detector system in the deuterium operation of the large helical device. The scintillating fiber detector system is composed of the detector head consisting of 109 scintillating fibers having a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 100 mm embedded in the aluminum substrate, the magnetic registrant photomultiplier tube, and the data acquisition system equipped with 1 GHz sampling rate analogies to digital converter and the field programmable gate array. The discrimination level of 150 mV was set to extract the pulse signal induced by 14 MeV neutrons according to the pulse height spectra obtained in the experiment. The decay time of 14 MeV neutron emission rate after neutral beam is turned off measured by the scintillating fiber detector. The decay time is consistent with the decay time of total neutron emission rate corresponding to the 14 MeV neutrons measured by the neutron flux monitor as expected. Evaluation of the diffusion coefficient is conducted using a simple classical slowing-down model FBURN code. It is found that the diffusion coefficient of triton is evaluated to be less than 0.2 m2 s-1.

  15. Cosmic-muon characterization and annual modulation measurement with Double Chooz detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahão, T.; Anjos, J.C. dos [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil); Almazan, H.; Buck, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Appel, S. [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Baussan, E.; Brugière, T. [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Bekman, I. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Bezerra, T.J.C. [SUBATECH, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Nantes, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44307 Nantes (France); Bezrukov, L. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Blucher, E. [The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Busenitz, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Cabrera, A. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Camilleri, L.; Carr, R. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cerrada, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, CIEMAT, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Chauveau, E. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Chimenti, P., E-mail: hgomez@apc.univ-paris7.fr [Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, Santo André, SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); and others

    2017-02-01

    A study on cosmic muons has been performed for the two identical near and far neutrino detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, placed at ∼120 and ∼300 m.w.e. underground respectively, including the corresponding simulations using the MUSIC simulation package. This characterization has allowed us to measure the muon flux reaching both detectors to be (3.64 ± 0.04) × 10{sup −4} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} for the near detector and (7.00 ± 0.05) × 10{sup −5} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} for the far one. The seasonal modulation of the signal has also been studied observing a positive correlation with the atmospheric temperature, leading to an effective temperature coefficient of α {sub T} = 0.212 ± 0.024 and 0.355 ± 0.019 for the near and far detectors respectively. These measurements, in good agreement with expectations based on theoretical models, represent one of the first measurements of this coefficient in shallow depth installations.

  16. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyons, K.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Maurin, G.; Mazure, A.; Melissas, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pillet, R.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the atmospheric muon flux and the associated depth-intensity relation are measured and compared with previous measurements and Monte Carlo expectations. An evaluation of the systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental and detector parameters is presented.

  17. Measurement of differential cross sections in top pair production with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Husemann, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of differential cross sections for top quark-antiquark production are presented as a function of kinematic variables, jet multiplicities, and event-level observables. The measurements are based on proton-protoncollision data recorded with the CMS detector during Run I of the CERN Large Hadron Collider at center-of-mass energies of7 TeV and 8 TeV.

  18. Charge collection measurements with p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon single pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Scaringella, M.; Petterson, M.K.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Betancourt, C.; Manna, N.; Creanza, D.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.; Borrello, L.; Messineo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The charge collected from beta source particles in single pad detectors produced on p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon wafers has been measured before and after irradiation with 26 MeV protons. After a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1x10 15 cm -2 the collected charge is reduced to 77% at bias voltages below 900 V. This result is compared with previous results from charge collection measurements

  19. Measurement of the $W$ boson mass with the D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; et al.

    2014-01-30

    We give a detailed description of the measurement of the $W$ boson mass, $M_W$, performed on an integrated luminosity of 4.3 fb$^{-1}$, which is based on similar techniques as used for our previous measurement done on an independent data set of 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data. The data were collected using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. This data set yields $1.68\\times 10^6$ $W\\rightarrow e\

  20. A compendium of results from long-range alpha detector soil surface monitoring: June 1992--May 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, S.E.; Bounds, J.A.; Allander, K.S.; Johnson, J.D.; MacArthur, D.W.; Caress, R.W.

    1994-11-01

    Soil surface monitors based on long-range alpha detector (LRAD) technology are being used to monitor alpha contamination at various sites in the Department of Energy complex. These monitors, the large soil-surface monitor (LSSM) and the small soil-surface monitor (SSSM), were used to help characterize sites at Fernald, Ohio, and active or inactive firing sites at Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Monitoring results are presented herein in chronological order

  1. The effect of scattered light sensor orientation on roughness measurement of curved polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    with crossed surface lay to document the robustness of the method. The instrument area-integrating measuring principle (figure 1) is based on a non-coherent light beam of ∅ 0.9 mm and 670 nm wavelength illuminating the measured surface, reflection of the incident light from the surface slopes in spatial......The effect of angular orientation of a scattered light sensor with respect to main curvature and surface lay on roughness measurements is evaluated. A commercial scattered light sensor OS 500-32 from Optosurf GmbH was used. The investigation was performed on polished cylindrical surfaces...... directions, and its acquisition within ± 16º angular range with a linear detector array. From the distribution of the acquired scattered light intensity, a number of statistical parameters describing the surface texture are calculated, where the Aq parameter (variance of the scattered light distribution...

  2. The bursts of high energy events observed by the telescope array surface detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kishigami, S.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, K.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Onogi, R.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, K.; Saito, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Sekino, K.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T. A.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2017-08-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is designed to detect air showers induced by ultra high energy cosmic rays. The TA ground Surface particle Detector (TASD) observed several short-time bursts of air shower like events. These bursts are not likely due to chance coincidence between single shower events. The expectation of chance coincidence is less than 10-4 for five-year's observation. We checked the correlation between these bursts of events and lightning data, and found evidence for correlations in timing and position. Some features of the burst events are similar to those of a normal cosmic ray air shower, and some are not. On this paper, we report the observed bursts of air shower like events and their correlation with lightning.

  3. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  4. Comparison of first-principles MCNP calculations of NaI and BGO detector response functions to measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, G.P.; Schrandt, R.G.; Kriese, J.T.

    1992-09-01

    First-principles NaI and BGO detector response functions calculations made with the MCNP code are compared to measurements. Excellent agreement is achieved for the experiments analyzed. Such calculational methodology can be used to achieve a better understanding of the physics of detector response and to maximize the information content available from measured data

  5. Correlation between the physical performances measured from detectors and the diagnostic image quality in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ponce, H.

    2009-05-01

    In digital mammography two approaches exist to estimate image quality. In the first approach, human observer assesses the lesion detection in mammograms. Unfortunately, such quality assessment is subject to interobserver variability, and requires a large amount of time and human resources. In the second approach, objective and human-independent parameters relating to image spatial resolution and noise (MTF and NPS) are used to evaluate digital detector performance; even if these parameters are objective, they are not directly related to lesion detection. A method leading to image quality assessment which is both human independent, and directly related to lesion detection is very important for the optimal use of mammographic units. This Ph.D thesis presents the steps towards such a method: the computation of realistic virtual images using an 'X ray source/digital detector' model taking into account the physical parameters of the detector (spatial resolution and noise measurements) measured under clinical conditions. From results obtained in this work, we have contributed to establish the link between the physical characteristics of detectors and the clinical quality of the image for usual exposition conditions. Furthermore, we suggest the use of our model for the creation of virtual images, in order to rapidly determine the optimal conditions in mammography, which usually is a long and tedious experimental process. This is an essential aspect to be taken into account for radioprotection of patients, especially in the context of organized mass screening of breast cancer. (author)

  6. Fission distribution measurements of Atucha's fuel pellets with solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricabarra, M.D. Bovisio de; Waisman, Dina.

    1979-08-01

    Distribution of fissions in a UO 2 rod has been measured by means of solid state detectors. Mica muscovite and Makrofol-N detectors were used in the experiment. The merits of mica muscovite relative to the Makrofol-N for the detection of fission fragments have been verified. However both fission track detectors closely agree (0,5%) in the final fission distribution of the UO 2 rod. Sensitivity of the detectors shows to be linear in the range between 50.000and 360.000 fission tracks per square centimeter. Due to the high spatial resolution this method is better than any other technique. Determination were made in UO 2 pellets similar to the fuel element of the Atucha reactor. The average fission rate in the rod has been measured within 0,8% error, and provides an accurate determination for the distribution of fissions in the rod wich is needed for the determination of energy liberated per fission in the natural uranium rod.(author) [es

  7. Detector Response and Beam Line Transmission Measurements with Far-Infrared Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, O; Fröhlich, L

    2005-01-01

    Various activities at the TTF linear accelerator at DESY, Hamburg, that drives the VUV-FEL are geared towards measuring the longitudinal charge distribution of electron bunches with coherent far-infrared radiation. Examples are beam lines transporting synchrotron or transition radiation to interferometers mounted inside or outside the tunnel, and studies of single-shot grating spectrometers. All such approaches require a good understanding of the radiation generation and transport mechanism and of the detector characteristics to extract useful information on the charge distribution. Simulations and measurements of the expected transverse intensity distribution and polarization of synchrotron radiation emitted at the first bunch compressor of TTF have been performed. The transverse intensity scanning provided for the first time at DESY a visual image of the footprint of terahertz radiation. Detector response measurements have been performed at the FELIX facility, Netherlands, for wavelengths between 100-160 mi...

  8. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A pixelated luminosity detector counts coincidences in several three layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to measure the luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point.The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background.A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cerenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fused quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules...

  9. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  10. Measurement of Scattering Cross Section with a Spectrophotometer with an Integrating Sphere Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigalas, A K; Wang, Lili; Karpiak, V; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Choquette, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A commercial spectrometer with an integrating sphere (IS) detector was used to measure the scattering cross section of microspheres. Analysis of the measurement process showed that two measurements of the absorbance, one with the cuvette placed in the normal spectrometer position, and the second with the cuvette placed inside the IS, provided enough information to separate the contributions from scattering and molecular absorption. Measurements were carried out with microspheres with different diameters. The data was fitted with a model consisting of the difference of two terms. The first term was the Lorenz-Mie (L-M) cross section which modeled the total absorbance due to scattering. The second term was the integral of the L-M differential cross section over the detector acceptance angle. The second term estimated the amount of forward scattered light that entered the detector. A wavelength dependent index of refraction was used in the model. The agreement between the model and the data was good between 300 nm and 800 nm. The fits provided values for the microsphere diameter, the concentration, and the wavelength dependent index of refraction. For wavelengths less than 300 nm, the scattering cross section had significant spectral structure which was inversely related to the molecular absorption. This work addresses the measurement and interpretation of the scattering cross section for wavelengths between 300 nm and 800 nm.

  11. Measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy with the future KM3NeT/ORCA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofestaedt, Jannik

    2017-02-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined by measuring the energy- and zenith-angle-dependent oscillation pattern of few-GeV atmospheric neutrinos that have traversed the Earth. This measurement is the main science goal of KM3NeT/ORCA ('Oscillation Research with Cosmics in the Abyss'), a planned multi-megaton underwater Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. A key task is the reconstruction of shower-like events induced by electron neutrinos in charged-current interactions, which substantially affect the neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity. In this thesis, numerous aspects of the expected neutrino detection performance of the planned ORCA detector are investigated. A new reconstruction algorithm for neutrino-induced shower-like events is developed. Excellent reconstruction accuracies are achieved, with a neutrino energy resolution better than 26%/24%, and a median neutrino direction resolution better than 11 /9 for electron neutrinos/antineutrinos in charged-current interactions with energies above 7 GeV. It is shown that these resolutions are close to the reconstruction accuracy limits imposed by intrinsic fluctuations in the Cherenkov light signatures. These intrinsic resolution limits are based on generic assumptions about event reconstruction in Cherenkov detectors and are derived as part of this thesis. Differences in event reconstruction capabilities between water- and ice-based Cherenkov detectors are discussed. The configuration of existing trigger algorithms is optimised for the ORCA detector. Based on the developed shower reconstruction, a detector optimisation study of the photosensor density is performed. In addition, it is shown that optical background noise in the deep Mediterranean Sea is not expected to compromise the feasibility of the neutrino mass hierarchy measurement with ORCA. Together, these investigations contribute significantly to the estimated neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity of ORCA published in the 'Letter of

  12. Measuring the θ13 mixing angle with the two Double Chooz detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Valerian

    2016-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment aims at accurately measuring the value of the θ 13 leptonic mixing angle. To this intent, the experiment makes the most of two identical detectors - filled with gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator - observing ν e -bar's released by the two 4.25 GWth nuclear reactors of the French Chooz power plant. The so-called 'far detector' - located at an average distance of 1050 m from the two nuclear cores - has been taking data since April 2011. The 'near detector' - at an average distance of 400 m from the cores - has monitored the reactor since December 2014. The θ 13 mixing parameter leads to an energy dependent disappearance of ν e -bar's as they propagate from the nuclear cores to the detection sites, which allows for a fit of the sin 2 2θ 13 value. By reason of correlations between the detectors and an iso-flux layout, the detection systematics and the ν e -bar flux uncertainty impairing the θ 13 measurement are dramatically suppressed. In consequence, the precision of the θ 13 measurement is dominated by the uncertainty on the backgrounds and the relative normalisation of the ν e -bar-rates. The main background originates from the decay of β n -emitters - generated by μ-spallation - within the detector itself. The energy spectra of these cosmogenic isotopes have been simulated and complemented by a diligent error treatment. These predictions have been successfully compared to the corresponding data spectra, extracted by means of an active veto, whose performance has been studied at both sites. The rate of cosmogenic background remaining within the ν e -bar candidates has also been assessed. Additionally, the normalisation of the ν e -bar rates, bound to the number of target protons within each detector, has been evaluated. All this work was part of the first Double Chooz multi-detector results, yielding sin 2 2θ 13 =0.111 ± 0.018. (author) [fr

  13. Top quark production cross-section measurements with the ATLAS detector at EPS-HEP 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Christopher Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential top-quark pair and single-top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV are presented. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. Differential measurements of the kinematic properties of the top-quark production are also discussed. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-quark pair production in the TeV regime.

  14. Measurements of the top quark mass using the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Melini, Davide; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark mass is a fundamental parameter of the Standard Model (SM). Thus measuring its value with the highest possible precision is important. The latest top quark mass measurements performed on data collected with the ATLAS detector are presented. In particular, results on standard top mass measurements are presented for the fully hadronic and fully leptonic $t\\bar t\\ $ decay modes. Also top quark pole mass measurements from $t\\bar t\\ $ inclusive cross section and $t\\bar t\\ $ + 1 jet differential cross section are shown.

  15. Source-to-detector distance and beam center do not affect radiographic measurements of acetabular morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Ashton H. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Hoover, Kevin B. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Radiology, 1250 E Marshall St. 3rd Floor, PO Box 980615, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Multiple radiographic acquisition techniques have been evaluated for their effect on measurements of acetabular morphology. This cadaveric study examined the effect of two acquisition parameters not previously evaluated: beam center position and source-to-detector distance. This study also evaluated the effect of reader differences on measurements. Following calibration of measurements between two readers using five clinical radiographs (training), radiographs were obtained from two cadavers using four different source-to-detector distances and three different radiographic centers for a total of 12 radiographic techniques (experimental). Two physician readers acquired four types of measurements from each cadaver radiograph: lateral center edge angle, peak-to-edge distance, Sharp's angle, and the Tonnis angle. All measurements were evaluated for intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), kappa statistics for hip dysplasia, and factors that resulted in measurement differences using a mixed statistical model. After training of the two physician readers, there was strong agreement in their hip morphology measurements (ICC 0.84-0.93), agreement in the presence of hip dysplasia (κ = 0.58-1.0), and no measurement difference between physician readers (p = 0.12-1.0). Experimental cadaver measurements showed moderate-to-strong agreement of the readers (ICC 0.74-0.93) and complete agreement on dysplasia (κ = 1). After accounting for reader and radiographic technique, there was no difference in hip morphology measurements (p = 0.83-0.99). In this cadaveric study, measurements of hip morphology were not affected by varying source-to-detector distance or beam center. We conclude that these acquisition parameters are not likely to affect the diagnosis of hip dysplasia in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  17. Calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewig, J.; Eifler, M.

    2017-06-01

    The ISO standards which are related to the calibration of areal surface topography measuring instruments are the ISO 25178-6xx series which defines the relevant metrological characteristics for the calibration of different measuring principles and the ISO 25178-7xx series which defines the actual calibration procedures. As the field of areal measurement is however not yet fully standardized, there are still open questions to be addressed which are subject to current research. Based on this, selected research results of the authors in this area are presented. This includes the design and fabrication of areal material measures. For this topic, two examples are presented with the direct laser writing of a stepless material measure for the calibration of the height axis which is based on the Abbott- Curve and the manufacturing of a Siemens star for the determination of the lateral resolution limit. Based on these results, as well a new definition for the resolution criterion, the small scale fidelity, which is still under discussion, is presented. Additionally, a software solution for automated calibration procedures is outlined.

  18. T2K off-axis near detector νμ flux measurement and absolute momentum scale calibration of the off-axis near detector tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszczyk, F.

    2011-09-01

    In this thesis we present the results from the ν μ energy spectrum measurement at T2K's near detector and T2K's near detector tracker absolute momentum scale calibration. First we review the main historical steps and the current state of the art of neutrino physics as well as the theoretical framework required to understand the thesis physics analyses presented later on. In particular we focus on the neutrino oscillation parametrization and the neutrino-matter interaction models. We then describe T2K, an off-axis long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan which consists of a muon neutrino beam sent from J-PARC to Super- Kamiokande, with a magnetized near detector located at 280 m from the neutrino production site. T2K's main goals are measuring the last unknown angle of the PMNS matrix θ 13 through the search of ν e appearance in the ν μ beam and measuring precisely the atmospheric parameters through muon neutrino disappearance. We briefly describe the detectors, in particular the near detector tracker and its performance. We then present the analyses tools, such as the reconstruction techniques used and how the neutrino charged current interaction events needed for the energy spectrum measurement are selected. The main goal of the thesis, the muon neutrino energy spectrum measurement done with the first T2K data is explained next. We give the motivations for such measurement, the results obtained with the first T2K data sample, and the different systematic errors studied. Finally, the absolute momentum scale calibration of T2K's near detector tractor, done through the reconstruction of the neutral kaon invariant mass, is explained. (author)

  19. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthoff, Moritz; CMS Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixelated luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two-pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fuzed quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All new and upgraded sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Results on their commissioning and essential characteristics using data since the start-up of LHC will be presented.

  20. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2017-02-11

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixelated luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two-pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fuzed quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All new and upgraded sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Results on their commissioning and essential characteristics using data since the start-up of LHC will be presented.

  1. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklavenitis, L.

    1967-10-01

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction 11 B (p,n) 11 C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction 34 S (p,2pn) 32 P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [fr

  2. Measurement of photoelectron yield of the CDEX-10 liquid argon detector prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Hao; Yue, Qian; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Kang, Ke-Jun; Li, Yuan-Jing; Lin, Shin-Ted; Tang, Chang-Jian; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment (CDEX) is a low background experiment at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) designed to directly detect dark matter with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. In the second phase, CDEX-10, which has a 10 kg germanium array detector system, a liquid argon (LAr) anti-Compton active shielding and cooling system is proposed. To study the properties of the LAr detector, a prototype with an active volume of 7 liters of liquid argon was built and operated. The photoelectron yields, as a critically important parameter for the prototype detector, have been measured to be 0.051-0.079 p.e./keV for 662 keV γ rays at different positions. The good agreement between the experimental and simulation results has provided a reasonable understanding and determination of the important parameters such as the surviving fraction of the excimers, the absorption length for 128 nm photons in liquid argon, the reflectivity of Teflon and so on.

  3. Test Beam Performance Measurements for the Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, M.; Hrubec, J.; Steininger, H.; Gädda, A.; Härkönen, J.; Lampén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Winkler, A.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; Baulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Dupasquier, T.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Donckt, M.Vander; Viret, S.; Bonnin, C.; Charles, L.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Tromson, D.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Wlochal, M.; Aldaya, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Bertsche, D.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garcia, J.Garay; Hansen, K.; Haranko, M.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Keaveney, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Pitzl, D.; Reichelt, O.; Savitskyi, M.; Schütze, P.; Sola, V.; Spannagel, S.; Walsh, R.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Klanner, R.; Lapsien, T.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Steinbrück, G.; Vormwald, B.; Wellhausen, J.; Abbas, M.; Amstutz, C.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; Boer, W.De; Butz, E.; Casele, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S.; Husemann, U.; Kornmeyer, A.; Kudella, S.; Muller, Th.; Simonis, H.J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Kiss, T.; Siklér, F.; Tölyhi, T.; Veszprémi, V.; Cariola, P.; Creanza, D.; Palma, M.De; Robertis, G.De; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Costa, S.; Mattia, A.Di; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M.A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Focardi, E.; Dinardo, M.E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R.A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Solestizi, L.Alunni; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Cecchi, C.; Checcucci, B.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Gentsos, C.; Ionica, M.; Leonardi, R.; Manoni, E.; Mantovani, G.; Marconi, S.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Modak, A.; Morozzi, A.; Moscatelli, F.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Postolache, V.; Rossi, A.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Storchi, L.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Bosi, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ceccanti, M.; Ciocci, M.A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M.T.; Ligabue, F.; Magazzu, G.; Mammini, P.; Mariani, F.; Mazzoni, E.; Messineo, A.; Moggi, A.; Morsani, F.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Profeti, A.; Raffaelli, F.; Ragonesi, A.; Rizzi, A.; Soldani, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, I.; Albert, E.; Auzinger, G.; Berruti, G.; Bonnaud, J.; Daguin, J.; D'Auria, A.; Detraz, S.; Dondelewski, O.; Engegaard, B.; Faccio, F.; Frank, N.; Gill, K.; Honma, A.; Kornmayer, A.; Labaza, A.; Manolescu, F.; McGill, I.; Mersi, S.; Michelis, S.; Onnela, A.; Ostrega, M.; Pavis, S.; Peisert, A.; Pernot, J.F.; Petagna, P.; Postema, H.; Rapacz, K.; Sigaud, C.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Verlaat, B.; Vichoudis, P.; Zwalinski, L.; Bachmair, F.; Becker, R.; di Calafiori, D.; Casal, B.; Berger, P.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Arbol, P.Martinez Ruiz del; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M.; Perozzi, L.; Roeser, U.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D.; Amsler, C.; Bösiger, K.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Maier, R.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H.C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Chen, P.H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.S.; Lu, R.S.; Moya, M.; Tsai, J.F.; Tzeng, Y.M.; Cussans, D.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Newbold, D.; Hobson, P.; Reid, I.D.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Dauncey, P.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Magnan, A.M.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D.M.; Uchida, K.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Flores, C.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Squires, M.; Thomson, J.; Yohay, R.; Burt, K.; Ellison, J.; Hanson, G.; Olmedo, M.; Si, W.; Yates, B.R.; Dominguez, A.; Bartek, R.; Bentele, B.; Cumalat, J.P.; Ford, W.T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S.R.; Apresyan, A.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J.N.; Canepa, A.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Christian, D.; Cooper, W.E.; Deptuch, G.; Derylo, G.; Gingu, C.; Grünendahl, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hoff, J.; Howell, J.; Hrycyk, M.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Kahlid, F.; Kwan, S.; Lei, C.M.; Lipton, R.; Sá, R.Lopes De; Liu, T.; Los, S.; Matulik, M.; Merkel, P.; Nahn, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Schneider, B.; Sellberg, G.; Shenai, A.; Siehl, K.; Spiegel, L.; Tran, N.; Uplegger, L.; Voirin, E.; Berry, D.R.; Chen, X.; Ennesser, L.; Evdokimov, A.; Gerber, C.E.; Makauda, S.; Mills, C.; Gonzalez, I.D.Sandoval; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.J.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.S.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bubna, M.; Hinton, N.; Jones, M.; Miller, D.H.; Shi, X.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Schmitz, E.; Wilson, G.; Ivanov, A.; Mendis, R.; Mitchell, T.; Skhirtladze, N.; Taylor, R.; Anderson, I.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Acosta, J.G.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Summers, D.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D.R.; Fangmeier, C.; Suarez, R.Gonzalez; Monroy, J.; Siado, J.; Bartz, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Vargas, J.E.Ramirez; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; McDermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Zientek, M.; Akgün, B.; Ecklund, K.M.; Kilpatrick, M.; Nussbaum, T.; Zabel, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Johns, W.; Rose, K.

    2017-05-30

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These upgrades allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. In this paper, comprehensive test beam studies are presented which have been conducted to verify the design and to quantify the performance of the new detector assemblies in terms of tracking efficiency and spatial resolution. Under optimal conditions, the tracking efficiency has been determined to be ($99.95 \\pm 0.05$) \\%, while the intrinsic spatial resolution has been measured to be ($4.80 \\pm 0.25$) $\\mu$m and ($7.99 \\pm 0.21$...

  4. Ultra-wide frequency response measurement of an optical system with a DC photo-detector

    KAUST Repository

    Kuntz, Katanya B.

    2017-01-09

    Precise knowledge of an optical device\\'s frequency response is crucial for it to be useful in most applications. Traditional methods for determining the frequency response of an optical system (e.g. optical cavity or waveguide modulator) usually rely on calibrated broadband photo-detectors or complicated RF mixdown operations. As the bandwidths of these devices continue to increase, there is a growing need for a characterization method that does not have bandwidth limitations, or require a previously calibrated device. We demonstrate a new calibration technique on an optical system (consisting of an optical cavity and a high-speed waveguide modulator) that is free from limitations imposed by detector bandwidth, and does not require a calibrated photo-detector or modulator. We use a low-frequency (DC) photo-detector to monitor the cavity\\'s optical response as a function of modulation frequency, which is also used to determine the modulator\\'s frequency response. Knowledge of the frequency-dependent modulation depth allows us to more precisely determine the cavity\\'s characteristics (free spectral range and linewidth). The precision and repeatability of our technique is demonstrated by measuring the different resonant frequencies of orthogonal polarization cavity modes caused by the presence of a non-linear crystal. Once the modulator has been characterized using this simple method, the frequency response of any passive optical element can be determined to a fine resolution (e.g. kilohertz) over several gigahertz.

  5. TORCH: A Large-Area Detector for Precision Time-of-Flight Measurements at LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnew, N.

    The TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) is an innovative high-precision time-of-flight detector which is suitable for large areas, up to tens of square metres, and is being developed for the upgraded LHCb experiment. The TORCH provides a time-of-flight measurement from the imaging of photons emitted in a 1 cm thick quartz radiator, based on the Cherenkov principle. The photons propagate by total internal reflection to the edge of the quartz plane and are then focused onto an array of Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) photon detectors at the periphery of the detector. The goal is to achieve a timing resolution of 15 ps per particle over a flight distance of 10 m. This will allow particle identification in the challenging momentum region up to 20 GeV/c. Commercial MCPs have been tested in the laboratory and demonstrate the required timing precision. An electronics readout system based on the NINO and HPTDC chipset is being developed to evaluate an 8×8 channel TORCH prototype. The simulated performance of the TORCH detector for LHCb is also presented.

  6. Verification of Dosimetry Measurements with Timepix Pixel Detectors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, M.; Pinsky, L. S.; Idarraga-Munoz, J.; Hoang, S. M.; Semones, E.; Bahadori, A.; Stoffle, N.; Rios, R.; Vykydal, Z.; Jakubek, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The current capabilities of modern pixel-detector technology has provided the possibility to design a new generation of radiation monitors. Timepix detectors are semiconductor pixel detectors based on a hybrid configuration. As such, the read-out chip can be used with different types and thicknesses of sensors. For space radiation dosimetry applications, Timepix devices with 300 and 500 microns thick silicon sensors have been used by a collaboration between NASA and University of Houston to explore their performance. For that purpose, an extensive evaluation of the response of Timepix for such applications has been performed. Timepix-based devices were tested in many different environments both at ground-based accelerator facilities such as HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan), and at NSRL (NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, NY), as well as in space on board of the International Space Station (ISS). These tests have included a wide range of the particle types and energies, from protons through iron nuclei. The results have been compared both with other devices and theoretical values. This effort has demonstrated that Timepix-based detectors are exceptionally capable at providing accurate dosimetry measurements in this application as verified by the confirming correspondence with the other accepted techniques.

  7. Reflectance measurements of PTFE, Kapton, and PEEK for xenon scintillation light for the LZ detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, M.; Batista, E.; Haefner, J.; Lorenzon, W.; Morton, D.; Neff, A.; Okunawo, M.; Pushkin, K.; Sander, A.; Stephenson, S.; Wang, Y.; LZ Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    LZ (LUX-Zeplin) is an international collaboration that will look for dark matter candidates, WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), through direct detection by dual-phase time projection chamber (TPC) using liquid xenon. The LZ detector will be located nearly a mile underground at SURF, South Dakota, shielded from cosmic background radiation. Seven tons active mass of liquid xenon will be used for detecting the weak interaction of WIMPs with ordinary matter. Over three years of operation it is expected to reach the ultimate sensitivity of 2x10-48 cm2 for a WIMP mass of 50 GeV. As for many other rare event searches, high light collection efficiency is essential for LZ detector. Moreover, in order to achieve greater active volume for detection as well as reduce potential backgrounds, thinner detector walls without significant loss in reflectance are desired. Reflectance measurements of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Kapton, and PEEK for xenon scintillation light (178 nm), conducted at the University of Michigan using the Michigan Xenon Detector (MiX) will be presented. The University of Michigan, LZ Collaboration, The US Department of Energy.

  8. Measurement of the charm and beauty structure functions using the H1 vertex detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Aldaya Martin, M. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (RO)] (and others)

    2009-06-15

    Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e{sup -}p and e{sup +}p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5{<=}Q{sup 2}{<=}2000 GeV{sup 2} and Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002{<=}x{<=}0.05. The data were collected with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. The numbers of charm and beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions. (orig.)

  9. Measurements of low energy observables in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Low energy phenomena have been studied in detail at the LHC, providing important input for improving models of non-perturbative QCD effects. The ATLAS collaboration has performed several new measurements in this sector: We present charged-particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event, measured by the ATLAS detector in proton- -proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo generators. In addition, we present studies on the correlated hadron production, as they are an important source for information on the early stages of hadron formation. In particular, an analysis of the momentum difference between charged hadrons in high–energy proton–proton collisions is performed in order to study coherent particle production. The results are compared to the predictions of a helical QCD string fragmenting model. ATLAS has also studied the production of neutral strange particles inside and outside li...

  10. Measurement and analysis of field-induced crystallographic texture using curved position-sensitive diffraction detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Hugh; Daniels, John E.; Studer, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines measurement and analysis methodologies created for determining the structural responses of electroceramics to an electric field. A sample stage is developed to apply electric fields to ceramic materials at elevated temperatures during neutron diffraction experiments. The tested...... employing a curved positive sensitive detector. Methodologies are proposed to account for the geometrical effects when vector fields are applied to textured materials with angularly dispersive detector geometries. Representative results are presented for the ferroelectric (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-6%BaTiO3 (BNT-6BT......) which show both phase transformation and ferroelectric domain texturing under the application of an electric field. This experimental and analysis approach is well suited for time-resolved measurements such as stroboscopic and in situ studies on a variety of electro-active materials....

  11. Plane-parallel chamber as detector for time-of-flight measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, V A; Boyarinov, S V

    2002-01-01

    To arrange time-of-flight measurements in terms of the ALICE experiment one designed a system of gas detectors to record minimal-ionizing particles (MIP). Detector system is based on a plane-parallel gas-filled chamber (PPC) operating under gas intensification avalanche-type regime. One presents the results of simulation of gas discharge in PPC and evaluates the accuracy of measurement of MIP time-of-flight. One analyzes the test results of performances of PPC of various dimensions and with working gas medium various compositions. One detected correlation of flight time and of signal amplitude of PPC. One stresses, as well, positive effect of admission of electronegative additions into gas mixture. PPC time resolution constitutes 200-250 ps and MIP recording efficiency - exactly 70-90%

  12. Measurement of the Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions with the ALICE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Carminati, Federico; Morsch, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The dissertation discusses the pseudorapidity density dNch/deta and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles in high-energy proton-proton collisions with the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The theoretical framework for the description of multi-particle production is explained and measurements of other experiments at center-of-mass energies from 6 GeV to 1.8 TeV are discussed. Analyses for both measurements with two different detectors (silicon pixel detector and time-projection chamber) are described and the associated systematic errors are evaluated. The analyses take experimental effects like for example acceptance, secondary-particle production, and trigger efficiency into account. The multiplicity distribution is unfolded with two different methods: one based on the minimization of a chi2-function, the other on Bayes' theorem. Predictions for the distributions up to the highest LHC energy of 14 TeV are discussed.

  13. Measurement of the Charm and Beauty Structure Functions using the H1 Vertex Detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, FD; Alexa, C; Alimujiang, K; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Asmone, A; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cassol-Brunner, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D -J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Lytkin, L; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H -U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Preda, T; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H -C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, Arnd E; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; Zus, R

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e-p and e+p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb^-1. The numbers of charm and beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions.

  14. Measurement of the charm and beauty structure functions using the H1 vertex detector at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Preda, T.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G.; Zus, R.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Alimujiang, K.; Antunovic, B.; Bartel, W.; Brandt, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cholewa, A.; Deak, M.; Boer, Y. de; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grell, B.R.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Janssen, M.E.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Knutsson, A.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kutak, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, J.; Marti, L.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nozicka, M.; Olsson, J.E.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Rurikova, Z.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Sefkow, F.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Driesch, M. von den; Wissing, C.; Wuensch, E.; Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Eliseev, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Loktionova, N.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y.; Asmone, A.; Stella, B.; Backovic, S.; Dubak, A.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Volchinski, V.; Zohrabyan, H.; Barrelet, E.; Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Bizot, J.C.; Brisson, V.; Delcourt, B.; Jacquet, M.; Li, G.; Pascaud, C.; Tran, T.H.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Boudry, V.; Moreau, F.; Specka, A.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Mudrinic, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Smiljanic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Newman, P.R.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Brinkmann, M.; Habib, S.; List, B.; Pokorny, B.; Toll, T.; Bruncko, D.; Cerny, V.; Ferencei, J.; Murin, P.; Tomasz, F.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Chekelian, V.; Dossanov, A.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Kogler, R.; Liptaj, A.; Olivier, B.; Raspiareza, A.; Shushkevich, S.; Bystritskaya, L.; Efremenko, V.; Fedotov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Lubimov, V.; Ozerov, D.; Petrukhin, A.; Rostovtsev, A.; Zhokin, A.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Trinh, T.N.; Vallee, C.; Cerny, K.; Pejchal, O.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Coughlan, J.A.; Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Cozzika, G.; Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Cvach, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kluge, T.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D.; Rahmat, A.J.; Daum, K.; Meyer, H.; Del Degan, M.; Grab, C.; Leibenguth, G.; Sauter, M.; Zimmermann, T.; Delvax, J.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Marage, P.; Mozer, M.U.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Mechelen, P. van; Dodonov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Povh, B.; Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R.; Falkiewicz, A.; Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J.; Glushkov, I.; Henschel, H.; Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T.; Piec, S.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Sloan, T.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Jung, A.W.; Krueger, K.; Lendermann, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Urban, K.; Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Joensson, L.; Osman, S.; Kapichine, M.; Makankine, A.; Morozov, A.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V.; Tchoulakov, V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Thompson, G.; Traynor, D.; Martyn, H.U.; Mueller, K.; Nowak, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Schoening, A.; South, D.; Wegener, D.; Tsakov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive charm and beauty cross sections are measured in e - p and e + p neutral current collisions at HERA in the kinematic region of photon virtuality 5≤Q 2 ≤2000 GeV 2 and Bjorken scaling variable 0.0002≤x≤0.05. The data were collected with the H1 detector in the years 2006 and 2007 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 189 pb -1 . The numbers of charm and beauty events are determined using variables reconstructed by the H1 vertex detector including the impact parameter of tracks to the primary vertex and the position of the secondary vertex. The measurements are combined with previous data and compared to QCD predictions. (orig.)

  15. Identification of Pu isotopes by measurement of Q-value with cryogenic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Y. S.; Kim, M. S.; Le, J. S.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lee, H. J.; Yoon, W. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic detectors using heat generation below 1 K have become an attractive alternative because of their outstanding energy resolution. Significant improvement in gamma spectroscopy has been achieved with high resolution transition edge sensors (TESs) for nuclear material analysis. In alpha spectroscopy, superior resolution to that of conventional detectors has been also demonstrated. Since all the deposited energy can be converted into thermal energy by surrounding a radioactive source with metal foil, alpha energy can be measured without any correction for selfattenuation. Accompanying electrons, x-rays, and/or γ-rays are also converted into thermal energy. Thus measurement of alpha decay in 4π geometry returns the Q value, the total decay energy, independent of decay branches without loss of energy and count, enabling Q spectroscopy.

  16. Seasonal slope surface deformation measured with TLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, L; Smethurst, J; Powrie, W; Sellaiya, A

    2014-01-01

    In temperate European climates, soil water removal due to vegetation transpiration peaks in summer and soil rewetting from higher levels of precipitation occurs in winter. In clays of high plasticity, the seasonal cycles of drying and wetting cause the soil to experience a volumetric change, resulting in seasonal shrinking and swelling. For a clay slope exhibiting volume change, such behaviour can lead to excessive deformation and could contribute to strain-softening and progressive slope failure. This can in turn cause traffic disruption and loss of life if roads and railways are founded on or surrounded by such slopes. This paper discusses the driving forces of seasonal surface movement, in particular the role of vegetation, and presents the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to measure the surface movement of a lightly vegetated London Clay slope near Newbury, UK. Two TLS scans were carried out in early and late summer respectively, representing relative wet and dry conditions of the slope. Continuous field measurements of soil water content in upper layers of the slope were obtained from TDR ThetaProbes already installed at the site. The water content data are used to support the results obtained from TLS by indicating the likely volumetric change in the soil due to loss of water

  17. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M J; Bond, E J; Clancy, T J; Eckart, M J; Khater, H Y; Glebov, V Yu

    2012-10-01

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator∕photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y(n)) measurements from below 10(9) (DD) to nearly 10(15) (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y(n) precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of ± 10% and precision of ± 1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y(n) measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  18. Spectral Light Measurements in Microbenthic Phototrophic Communities with a Fiberoptic Microprobe Coupled to a Sensitive Diode-Array Detector Rid A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUHL, M.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    as compared to incident light. IR light thus reached 200% of incident light at the sediment surface. Maximal light penetration was found for IR light, whereas visible light was strongly attenuated in the upper 0-2 mm of the sediment. Measurements of photon scalar irradiance (400-700 nm) were combined......A diode array detector system for microscale light measurements with fiber-optic microprobes was developed; it measures intensities of 400-900-nm light over >6 orders of magnitude with a spectral resolution of 2-5 nm. Fiber-optic microprobes to measure field radiance or scalar irradiance were...... coupled to the detector system and used for spectral light measurements in hypersaline microbial mats and in laminated phototrophic communities of coastal sediments. The vertical distribution of major photopigments of microalgae, cyanobacteria, and anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria could be identified from...

  19. Surface treatment effects on the I-V characteristics of HgCdTe LW infrared photovoltaic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaohui; Liao, Qingjun; Zhu, Jianmei; He, Gaoyin; Wang, Jianxin; He, Min; Hu, Xiaoning

    2012-10-01

    The weakness of HgCdTe materials is a weak Hg-Te bond, which results in bulk, surface and interface instabilities. Usual surface preparation methods for bulk HgCdTe wafers are chemical etch with bromine-in-methanol (Br-MeOH). Because the bromine etch forms Te-enrich HgCdTe surface due to the depletion of Hg and Cd. This Te-enrich surface layer is easily oxidized when exposed to air or acids, and this native oxide is one of the main reasons degrading the passivation properties. Besides the surface of the material will have more damages during the ion implantation, which is used to process a junction. In this way, appropriate surface passivation is required and is very important for HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors. This paper presents the different surface treatment methods on the I-V characteristics of HgCdTe infrared photovoltaic detectors. The results of the experiments show that the performance of the diodes with surface treatment by the bromine-in-ethanol etching and lactic acid in glycol solution oxidation is better than other diodes, which have no surface treatment or only bromine-in-ethanol etching. So it proves that the process of surface treatment in appropriate methods can improve the quality of surface passivation.

  20. Combined Measurements of the Properties of the Higgs Boson Using the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saxon, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The couplings of the Higgs boson are presented, as measured at the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are made with 5/fb of pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and 20/fb of collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. A combination is made betwen the $h \\to \\gamma\\gamma$, $h \\to ZZ^*$, $h\\to WW^*$, $h\\to b\\bar b$, and $h \\to \\tau \\tau$ channels. Results include the ratios of fermionic and vector couplings to the Higgs boson, a measurement of the custodial symmetry in the Higgs sector, and a limit on invisible or unobserved decays.

  1. Precision measurement of the K{sub S} meson lifetime with the KLOE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche dell' Univ. ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Lab. Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Universita ' Tor Vergata' , Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Univ. ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F.; Taccini, C. [Dipt. di Fisica dell' Univ. Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); De Angelis, A. [Univ. of Udine (Italy); LIP/IST, INFN Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); De Maria, M. [Univ. di Udine (Italy); IUAV, Venezia (Italy); Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg - Univ. Mainz, Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Inst. for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Lab. Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN (Italy); State Univ. of New York, Physics Dept., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Martini, M. [Lab. Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipt. di Energetica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); Univ. Guglielmo Marconi, Dipt. di Scienza e Tecnologie applicate, Roma (Italy); Patera, V. [Lab. Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipt. di Energetica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy)] [and others

    2011-03-15

    Using a large sample of pure, slow, short lived K{sup 0} mesons collected with KLOE detector at DA{phi}NE, we have measured the K{sub S} lifetime. From a fit to the proper time distribution we find {tau}(K{sub S})=(89.562 {+-}0.029{sub stat}{+-}0.043{sub syst}) ps. This is the most precise measurement to date of the short lived K{sup 0} meson lifetime, in good agreement with the world average derived from previous measurements. We observe no dependence of the lifetime on the direction of the K{sub S} in galactic coordinates. (orig.)

  2. Two-detector cross-correlation noise technique and its application in measuring reactor kinetic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Guiping; Peng Feng; Yi Jieyi

    1988-01-01

    The two-detector cross-correlation noise technique is a new method of measuring reactor kinetic parameters developed in the sixties. It has the advantages of non-perturbation in core, high signal to noise ratio, low space dependent effect, and simple and reliable in measurement. A special set of cross-correlation analyzer has been prepared for measuring kinetic parameters of several reactor assemblies, such as the High Flux Engineering Test Reactor, its zero power mock up facility and a low enriched uranium light water lattice zero power facility

  3. Precision measurement of the KS meson lifetime with the KLOE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G.; Archilli, F.; Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F.; Taccini, C.; Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L.; De Angelis, A.; De Maria, M.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S.; Di Donato, C.; Kulikov, V.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Valente, P.

    2011-01-01

    Using a large sample of pure, slow, short lived K 0 mesons collected with KLOE detector at DAΦNE, we have measured the K S lifetime. From a fit to the proper time distribution we find τ(K S )=(89.562 ±0.029 stat ±0.043 syst ) ps. This is the most precise measurement to date of the short lived K 0 meson lifetime, in good agreement with the world average derived from previous measurements. We observe no dependence of the lifetime on the direction of the K S in galactic coordinates. (orig.)

  4. Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Doglioni, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the inclusive jet cross section using data collected in 2010 by the ATLAS detector, with a particular focus on the reconstruction and calibration techniques used for jets in this measurement and on the estimate of the systematic uncertainty on their energy scale. The inclusive jet cross section measurement is used as input to fits of parton distribution functions. Although the PDF analysis in this thesis is preliminary and its main purpose is to serve as a proof of principle for future studies, improvements in the knowledge of the gluon density are observed thanks to the inclusion of ATLAS data.

  5. A CVD Diamond Detector for (n,a) Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Christina; Griesmayer, Erich; Guerrero, Carlos

    A novel detector based on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond technology has been developed in the framework of this PhD, for the experimental determination of (n,a) cross-sections at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. The 59Ni(n,a)56Fe cross-section, which is relevant for astrophysical questions as well as for risk-assessment studies in nuclear technology, has been measured in order to validate the applicability of the detector for such experiments. The thesis is divided in four parts. In the introductory part the motivation for measuring (n,a) cross-sections, the experimental challenges for such measurements and the reasons for choosing the CVD diamond technology for the detector are given. This is followed by the presentation of the n_TOF facility, an introduction to neutron-induced nuclear reactions and a brief summary of the interaction of particles with matter. The CVD diamond technology and the relevant matters related to electronics are given as well in this first part of the t...

  6. Calibration of a solid state nuclear track detector for the measurements of volumic activity of Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAKAM, O.K.; LFERDE, M.; BERRADA, M.

    1994-01-01

    Time - integrated measurements of environmental radiation activity are commonly carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors ( SSNTD ). These detectors should be calibrated of volumic activity of radon. This paper reports the results of experiments conducted to calibrate cellulose nitrate films LR - 115 type II used for measurements of volumic activity of radon in indoor air in dwellings and enclosed work areas in Morocco. Calibration measurements were made in laboratory using a calibration chamber and a radon source. The calibration chamber is a cylindric box ( 2613,6 cm sup 3)which we have manufactured of aluminium. The radon source is a natural sample rich of aluminium (17,29 + 0 ,12) Bq/g. The films are placed in detector holder with membrane and exposed inside the calibration chamber to varying concentrations of radon. Following the exposure, the films were chemically etched in sodium hydroxide (2,5 N) at 60 C for 120 minutes. The number of registered alpha particle tracks were counted with an optical microscope. In the used etching conditions, the removed mean thickness is in the order of 6 micro m. Therefore, we have normalized the track density to this value . We obtained a calibration factor of 0, 58 tracks . cm sup -2/ K Bq . h . m sup -3 . 1 tab.; 1 fig.; 2 refs. (author)

  7. Scintillation Detector for the Measurement of Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Rays on the Super-TIGER Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the design and construction of the scintillation detectors for the Super-TIGER experiment. Super-TIGER is a large-area (5.4sq m) balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the abundances of cosmic-ray nuclei between Z= 10 and Z=56. It is based on the successful TIGER experiment that flew in Antarctica in 2001 and 2003. Super-TIGER has three layers of scintillation detectors, two Cherenkov detectors and a scintillating fiber hodoscope. The scintillation detector employs four wavelength shifter bars surrounding the edges of the scintillator to collect the light from particles traversing the detector. PMTs are optically coupled at both ends of the bars for light collection. We report on laboratory performance of the scintillation counters using muons. In addition we discuss the design challenges and detector response over this broad charge range including the effect of scintilator saturation.

  8. Spatial response of synthetic microDiamond and diode detectors measured with kilovoltage synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Duncan J; Beveridge, Toby; Lehmann, Joerg; Oliver, Christopher P; Stevenson, Andrew W; Livingstone, Jayde

    2018-02-01

    To map the spatial response of four solid-state radiation detectors of types commonly used for radiotherapy dosimetry. PTW model 60016 Diode P, 60017 Diode E, 60018 Diode SRS, and 60019 microDiamond detectors were radiographed using a high resolution conventional X-ray system. Their spatial response was then investigated using a 0.1 mm diameter beam of 95 keV average energy photons generated by a synchrotron. The detectors were scanned through the beam while their signal was recorded as a function of position, to map the response. These 2D response maps were created in both the end-on and side-on orientations. The results show the location and size of the active region. End-on, the active area was determined to be centrally located and within 0.2 mm of the manufacturer's specified diameter. The active areas of the 60016 Diode P, 60017 Diode E, 60018 Diode SRS detectors are uniform to within approximately 5%. The 60019 microDiamond showed local variations up to 30%. The extra-cameral signal in the microDiamond was calculated from the side-on scan to be approximately 8% of the signal from the active element. The spatial response of four solid-state detectors has been measured. The technique yielded information about the location and uniformity of the active area, and the extra-cameral signal, for the beam quality used. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Medical Physics © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced without prior written permission. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be directed in the first instance to John Wiley & Sons Ltd of The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex P019 8SQ UNITED KINGDOM; alternatively to ARPANSA.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Spectroscopic Detectors for LEU Hold-up Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nutter, Greg [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-06

    The hold-up measurement of low-enriched uranium materials may require use of alternate detector types relative to the measurement of highly enriched uranium. This is in part due to the difference in process scale (i.e., the components are generally larger for low-enriched uranium systems), but also because the characteristic gamma-ray lines from 235U used for assay of highly enriched uranium will be present at a much reduced intensity (on a per gram of uranium basis) at lower enrichments. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory examined the performance of several standard detector types, e.g., NaI(Tl), LaBr3(Ce), and HPGe, to select a suitable candidate for measuring and quantifying low-enriched uranium hold-up in process pipes and equipment at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant. Detector characteristics, such as energy resolution (full width at half maximum) and net peak count rates at gamma ray energies spanning a range of 60–1332 keV, were measured for the above-mentioned detector types using the same sources and in the same geometry. Uranium enrichment standards (Certified Reference Material no. 969 and Certified Reference Material no. 146) were measured using each of the detector candidates in the same geometry. The net count rates recorded by each detector at 186 keV and 1,001 keV were plotted as a function of enrichment (atom percentage). Background measurements were made in unshielded and shielded configurations under both ambient and elevated conditions of 238U activity. The highly enriched uranium hold-up measurement campaign at the Portsmouth plant was performed on process equipment that had been cleaned out. Therefore, in most cases, the thickness of the uranium deposits was less than the “infinite thickness” for the 186 keV gamma rays to be completely self-attenuated. Because of this, in addition to measuring the 186 keV gamma, the 1,001 keV gamma ray from 234mPa—a daughter of 238U in secular

  10. Sea Surface Temperatures (SST): Significance and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. F.

    2006-05-01

    Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth's surface and control the global climate. Quoted global mean temperature values and trends, largely based on land thermometers, differ substantially -" mainly because of uncertainties about SST. The ongoing controversy about the relative importance of natural climate changes and Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) revolves mainly around disparities between temperature trends of the atmosphere and surface (in the tropics and SH, i.e. mostly SST). Accurate measurement of SST is difficult. Geographic coverage is poor and there are many different techniques, each with its own problems and uncertainties: Water temperatures from buckets and ship-engine inlets; fixed and floating buoys; air temperatures from shipboard and island stations; and remote sensing from satellites using IR and microwaves. As is evident, each technique refers to a different level below the air-water interface. Drifter buoys (at around 50 cm) measure temperatures in the euphotic layers that are generally warmer than the bulk mixed layer sampled by ships (typically around 10 m). The IR emission arises from a 10-micron-thick skin that interacts dynamically with the underlying "mixed layer." The microwave data depend also on emissivity and therefore on surface roughness and sea state. SST data derived from corals provide some support for instrumental data but are not conclusive. The majority of corals show a warming trend since 1979; others show cooling or are ambiguous. There are different ways of interpreting this result. Physical optics dictates that the downwelling IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed in the first instance within the skin. Only direct measurements can establish how much of this energy is shared with the bulk mixed layer (to which the usual SST values refer.). SST controls evaporation and therefore global precipitation. SST influences tropical cyclones and sea-level rise; but there is lively debate on those issues. Changes in

  11. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  12. Simulating measures of wood density through the surface by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Arno H.; Braga, Mario R.M.S.S.; Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Carneiro, Clemente J.G.; Penna, Ariane G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo code (MCNP-4C) was used to simulate a nuclear densimeter for measuring wood densities nondestructively. An Americium source (E = 60 keV) and a NaI (Tl) detector were placed on a wood block surface. Results from MCNP shown that scattered photon fluxes may be used to determining wood densities. Linear regressions between scattered photons fluxes and wood density were calculated and shown correlation coefficients near unity. (author)

  13. Measurements and TCAD Simulations of Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage Effects

    CERN Document Server

    F. Moscatelli; G. M. Bilei; A. Morozzi; G.-F. Dalla Betta; R. Mendicino; M. Boscardin; N. Zorzi; L. Servoli; P. Maccagnani

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose the application of a radiation damage model based on the introduction of deep level traps/recombination centers suitable for device level numerical simulation of radiation detectors at very high fluences (e.g. 1÷2×1016 1-MeV equivalent neutrons per square centimeter) combined with a surface damage model developed by using experimental parameters extracted from measurements from gamma irradiated p-type dedicated test structures.

  14. Minimum Bias Measurements with the ATLAS Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, M

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will collide bunches of protons (p) at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 14 TeV and a rate of 40 MHz. The unprecedented collision energy and interaction rate at the LHC will allow us to explore the TeV mass scale and take a major step forward in our understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The initial physics run of the LHC is expected to start in November 2009 and continue until the end of 2010, with collisions at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV, 7 TeV and 10 TeV. ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a 4pi general-purpose detector designed for studying LHC collisions at the particle level. The design and layout of ATLAS are intended to cover the wide spectrum of physics signatures that are possible at the TeV mass scale. Construction and installation of the ATLAS detector at CERN are now complete. This dissertation focuses on measuring the properties of inelastic pp interactions at the LHC with the ATLAS detector. A method for measuring the central pseudorapidity den...

  15. An automated measuring system based on gamma spectrometry with HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mala, Helena; Rulik, Petr; Hyza, Miroslav; Dragounova, Lenka; Helebrant, Jan; Hroznicek, Marek; Jelinek, Pavel; Zak, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An automatic system for unattended gamma spectrometric measurements of bulk samples ( “Gamma Automat”, GA) was developed by the National Radiation Protection Institute and Nuvia, Inc. as a part of a research project. The basic parts include a detection system with two HPGe detectors in the lead shielded chambers, sample changer, sample tray and a control unit. The GA enables counting in two geometries: (i) with cylindrical containers (200 ml) either one placed at the detector face or 2-6 placed around the detector or (II) with Marinelli beakers (600 ml). The shelf can accommodate 180 cylindrical containers or 54 Marinelli beakers. Samples are changed by a robotic arm. The sample data and the analysis required are passed to the GA by a matrix code (generated within the laboratory system) located on the lid of a sample container, whence the GA reads information. Spectrometric analysis is performed automatically after the counting. Current status of GA can be remotely monitored. Information about the activities of the GA, measurement completion or failures of the equipment are automatically generated and sent to a mobile phone and the operator PC. A presentation of the GA is available at https://youtu.be/1lQhfo0Fljo. (orig.)

  16. Accurate measurement of the time delay in the response of the LIGO gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Yoichi; Kalmus, Peter; Matone, Luca; Marka, Szabolcs [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Goetz, Evan [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Myers, Joshua; Savage, Rick; Schwinberg, Paul; Sigg, Daniel [LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); O' Reilly, Brian [LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, LA 70754 (United States); Siemens, Xavier [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Smith, Nicolas, E-mail: aso@caltech.ed [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-03-07

    We present a method to precisely calibrate the time delay in a long baseline gravitational-wave interferometer. An accurate time stamp is crucial for data analysis of gravitational wave detectors, especially when performing coincidence and correlation analyses between multiple detectors. Our method uses an intensity-modulated radiation pressure force to actuate on the mirrors. The time delay is measured by comparing the phase of the signal at the actuation point with the phase of the recorded signal within the calibrated data stream used for gravitational wave searches. Because the signal-injection path is independent of the interferometer's control system, which is used for the standard calibration, this method can be an independent verification of the timing error in the system. A measurement performed with the 4 km interferometer at the LIGO Hanford Observatory shows a 1 mus relative accuracy when averaging over 50 min. Our understanding of the systematic time delay in the detector response has reached the level of 10 mus.

  17. Development of Ge/NbSi detectors for EDELWEISS-II with identification of near-surface events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juillard, A.; Marnieros, S.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Berge, L.; Collin, S.; Fiorucci, S.; Lalu, F.; Dumoulin, L.

    2006-01-01

    The actual limitation of Ge ionization heat cryogenic detectors for direct WIMP detection such as EDELWEISS arises from incomplete charge collection for near-surface events. We present results on Ge/NbSi detectors that are fitted with segmented electrodes and two NbSi Anderson insulator thermometric layers. Three such bolometers were studied in the low-background cryostat of the EDELWEISS collaboration in the LSM: analysis of the athermal signals allows us to identify and reject events occurring in the first millimeter under the electrodes

  18. Impact of Surface Treatment on the Structural and Electronic Properties of Polished CdZnTe Surfaces for Radiation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, Suleyman; Aqariden, F.; Chang, Y.; Grein, C.; Li, Jin; Kioussis, N.

    2013-11-01

    We present the effects of surface treatments on the structural and electronic properties of chemomechanically polished Cd0.9Zn0.1Te before contact deposition. Specifically, polished CdZnTe (CZT) samples were treated with four distinct chemical etchants: (1) bromine methanol (BM), (2) bromine in lactic acid, (3) bromine in methanol followed by bromine-20% lactic acid in ethylene glycol, and (4) hydrochloric acid (HCl). The surface structure and surface electronic properties were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). AFM images showed that three of the four etchants significantly altered the surface morphology and structure of CZT. All etchants created smoother surfaces; however, all except HCl also introduced high densities of defects. HCl was found to not affect the surface structure. XPS measurements indicated that a thick, ˜3 nm to 4 nm, TeO2 layer formed about 1 h after etching; hence, it is very important to process devices immediately after etching to prevent oxide formation.

  19. Well GeHP detector calibration for environmental measurements using reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedjani, A. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Rayonnements et Applications, Université de Jijel, B.P. 98, Oueled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Mavon, C. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon (France); Belafrites, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Rayonnements et Applications, Université de Jijel, B.P. 98, Oueled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Degrelle, D. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon (France); Boumala, D. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Rayonnements et Applications, Université de Jijel, B.P. 98, Oueled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Rius, D. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon (France); Groetz, J.-E., E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon (France)

    2016-12-01

    A well-type detector installed in the Modane underground Laboratory (LSM) can combine both low background and high detection efficiency and it is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of environmental samples. Reference materials such as IAEA-447 (moss-soil), IAEA-RG-Th1 and IAEA-RG-U1 were used for the detector calibration, owing to a chemical composition close to those of the environmental samples. Nevertheless, the matrix effects and the true coincidence summing effects must be corrected from the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE). The FEPE was performed for a wide range of energy by a semi-empirical method using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6), intended for environmental measurements such as lake sediments dating. In the well geometry, the true coincidence summing effects could be very important and correction factors have been computed in three different ways.

  20. Hybrid Detector for the Measurement of Properties of Secondary Cosmic Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, N.; Pasaye, E.; Salazar, H.; Villasenor, L.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the lifetimes of pions, kaons and muons in the secondary cosmic-ray radiation by using a hybrid detector. The detector consists of a container filled with liquid scintillator that produces scintillation light when crossed by charged particles; this container is located atop a water tank that produces Cherenkov light when crossed by charged particles. Both containers have one phototube inside to detect the light produced. The electronics used consists of NIM modules, two digital oscilloscopes and one PC. This equipment is multipurpose and can be conventionally found in any modern physics laboratory. The results obtained for the muon, pion and kaon lifetimes are the following: τμ =2.120±0.02 μs, τπ =24.63±3 ns y τK = 12.52±2 ns in good agreement with the literature

  1. Numerical simulations on efficiency and measurement of capabilities of BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray

    CERN Document Server

    Wen Wan Xin

    2002-01-01

    The energy resolution and time resolution of two phi 75 x 100 BGO detectors for high energy gamma ray newly made were measured with sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co resources. The two characteristic gamma rays of high energy emitted from the thermal neutron capture of germanium in BGO crystal were used for the energy calibration of gamma spectra. The intrinsic photopeak efficiency, single escape probability and double escape probabilities of BGO detectors in photon energy range of 4-30 MeV are numerically calculated with GEANT code. The real count response and count ratio of the uniformly distributed incident photons in energy range of 0-30 MeV are also calculated. The distortion of gamma spectra caused by the photon energy loss extension to lower energy in detection medium is discussed

  2. Segmented scintillation detectors with silicon photomultiplier readout for measuring antiproton annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Sótér, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Barna, D.; Horváth, D.; Hori, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (ASACUSA) experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility of CERN constructed segmented scintillators to detect and track the charged pions which emerge from antiproton annihilations in a future superconducting radiofrequency Paul trap for antiprotons. A system of 541 cast and extruded scintillator bars were arranged in 11 detector modules which provided a spatial resolution of 17 mm. Green wavelength-shifting fibers were embedded in the scintillators, and read out by silicon photomultipliers which had a sensitive area of 1 x 1 mm^2. The photoelectron yields of various scintillator configurations were measured using a negative pion beam of momentum p ~ 1 GeV/c. Various fibers and silicon photomultipliers, fiber end terminations, and couplings between the fibers and scintillators were compared. The detectors were also tested using the antiproton beam of the AD. Nonlinear effects due to the saturation of the silicon photomultiplier were seen a...

  3. Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration

  4. Measurements of timing resolution of ultra-fast silicon detectors with the SAMPIC WTDC

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    The SAMpler for PICosecond time (SAMPIC) chip has been designed by a collaboration including CEA/IRFU/SEDI, Saclay and CNRS/LAL/SERDI, Orsay. It benefits from both the quick response of a time to digital converter (TDC) and the versatility of a waveform digitizer to perform accurate timing measurements. Thanks to the sampled signals, smart algorithms making best use of the pulse shape can be used to maximize time resolution. A software framework has been developed to analyse the SAMPIC output data and extract timing information by using either a constant fraction discriminator or a fast cross-correlation algorithm. SAMPIC timing capabilities together with the software framework have been tested using Gaussian signals generated by a signal generator or by silicon detectors pulsed with an infra-red laser. Under these ideal experimental conditions, the SAMPIC chip has proven to be capable of timing resolutions down to 4 (40) ps with synthesized (silicon detector) signals.

  5. Measurement of B(t→ b)/B(t→Wq) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present a measurement of the ratio of top-quark branching fractions R = Β(t → Wb)/Β(t → Wq) using lepton-plus-jets and dilepton data sets with integrated luminosity of ∼162 pb -1 collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab during Run II of the Tevatron. The measurement is derived from the relative numbers of t(bar t) events with different multiplicity of identified secondary vertices. We set a lower limit of R > 0.61 at 95% confidence level

  6. Method study on spectrum unscrambling of continuous hard X-ray measurement by HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Lin; Tu Jing; Chen Zhihua; Liu Yueheng; Chang Yongfu; Liu Shuhuan

    2007-01-01

    The influence of counts caused by non-photoelectric effect in measured continuous hard X-ray spectrum was corrected. The pure photoelectric spectrum was obtained using the method of improved spectrum stripping technology accompanied by energy respond function of single-energy photon for HPGe detector which had been got in advance, and the real energy spectrum on measurement site was unfolded from the photoelectric spectrum by relative efficiency correction. The reliable method for continuous hard X-ray spectrum scrambling was obtained. (authors)

  7. Measurements of prompt fission gamma-rays and neutrons with lanthanide halide scintillation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Oberstedt, A; Billnert, R; Borcea, R; Brys, T; Chaves, C; Gamboni, T; Geerts, W; Göök, A; Guerrero, C; Hambsch, F-J; Kis, Z; Martinez, T; Oberstedt, S; Szentmiklosi, L; Takács, K; Vivaldi, M

    2014-01-01

    Photons have been measured with lanthanide halide scintillation detectors in coincidence with fission fragments. Using the time-of-flight information, reactions from γ-rays and neutrons could easily be distinguished. In several experiments on $^{252}$Cf(sf), $^{235}$U(n$_{th}$,f) and $^{241}$Pu(n$_{th}$,f) prompt fission γ-ray spectra characteristics were determined with high precision and the results are presented here. Moreover, a measured prompt fission neutron spectrum for $^{235}$U(n$_{th}$,f) is shown in order to demonstrate a new detection technique.

  8. A fission ionization detector for neutron flux measurements at a spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Balestrini, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Brown, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Haight, R.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Laymon, C.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Lee, T.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Lisowski, P.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); McCorkle, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Nelson, R.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Parker, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1993-11-15

    The construction of a neutron flux monitor that can measure absolute neutron intensities in the neutron energy range from below 1 MeV to over 500 MeV is described. The detector consists of an ionization chamber with several thin deposits of fissionable material. The ionization chamber is thin enough that it does not significantly affect the neutron beam and may be left in the neutron flight path during experimental measurements to continuously monitor the beam flux. The use of this monitor at the continuous-energy spallation neutron source at the WNR target area at LAMPF is described. (orig.)

  9. A fission ionization detector for neutron flux measurements at a spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wender, S.A.; Balestrini, S.; Brown, A.; Haight, R.C.; Laymon, C.M.; Lee, T.M.; Lisowski, P.W.; McCorkle, W.; Nelson, R.O.; Parker, W.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a neutron flux monitor that can measure absolute neutron intensities in the neutron energy range from below 1 MeV to over 500 MeV is described. The detector consists of an ionization chamber with several thin deposits of fissionable material. The ionization chamber is thin enough that it does not significantly affect the neutron beam and may be left in the neutron flight path during experimental measurements to continuously monitor the beam flux. The use of this monitor at the continuous-energy spallation neutron source at the WNR target area at LAMPF is described. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of B(t --> Wb)/B(t--> Wq) at the collider detector at fermilab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Arguin, J-F; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barker, G J; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Casarsa, M; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chuang, S; Chung, K; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Cijliak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A G; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cuevas, J; Cruz, A; Culbertson, R; Currat, C; Cyr, D; Dagenhart, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; de Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Donini, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Erdmann, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H-C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R D; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D W; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, D; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M A; Huffman, B T; Huang, Y; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Issever, C; Ivanov, A; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Unel, M Karagoz; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kong, D J; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P M; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, L; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P A Movilla; Muelmenstaedt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, T; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Napora, R; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohsugi, T; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Orejudos, W; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, M A; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Ray, H; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ruiz, A; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stadie, H; Stanitzki, M; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takano, H; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Varganov, A; Vejcik, S; Velev, G; Veszpremi, V; Veramendi, G; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; von der Mey, M; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolter, M; Worcester, M; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wyatt, A; Yagil, A; Yamashita, T; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2005-09-02

    We present a measurement of the ratio of top-quark branching fractions R = B(t --> Wb)/B(t --> Wq), where q can be a b, s, or a d quark, using lepton-plus-jets and dilepton data sets with an integrated luminosity of approximately 162 pb(-1) collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab during Run II of the Tevatron. The measurement is derived from the relative numbers of tt events with different multiplicity of identified secondary vertices. We set a lower limit of R > 0.61 at 95% confidence level.

  11. Measurements of electroweak W jj production and constraints on anomalous gauge couplings with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-07-15

    Measurements of the electroweak production of a W boson in association with two jets at high dijet invariant mass are performed using √(s) = 7 and 8 TeV proton-proton collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding respectively to 4.7 and 20.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector. The measurements are sensitive to the production of a W boson via a triple-gauge-boson vertex and include both the fiducial and differential cross sections of the electroweak process. (orig.)

  12. Charged particle production in p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00287239; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Per-event charged particle spectra and nuclear modification factors are measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in p+Pb interactions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. Results a