WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface deformations numerous

  1. Numerical relationship between surface deformation and a change of groundwater table before and after an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akao, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of earthquakes upon a groundwater flow around a repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. Estimation of a groundwater flow change before and after an earthquake or a volcanic eruption is one of the issues for a long-term safety assessment of the repositories. However, almost any systematic investigation about the causality between a groundwater flow change and an earthquake or an eruption was not found, and as well no estimation formula has been published. The authors succeeded in obtaining a primitive relationship between a groundwater change and an earthquake in this study. The study consists of three stages. First, several survey reports which describe field observation results of groundwater anomalies caused by earthquakes or eruptions have been collected. The necessary data have been read from the literature and systematically arranged. Second, source mechanisms of the corresponding earthquakes were inspected and static displacements at the well positions were calculated by the dislocation theory in the seismology. Third, parametric studies among the parameters of groundwater anomalies and earthquakes were carried out to find a numerical relationship between a couple of them. Then, a preliminary relationship between water table change in a well and static displacement at the well position was found. The authors can conclude that temporary change of water table seems to depend on the norm of displacement vector. In this relationship, the maximum value of water table change would be approximately one hundred times of the displacement

  2. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  3. Influence of Non-linear Radiation Heat Flux on Rotating Maxwell Fluid over a Deformable Surface: A Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M.; Mushtaq, A.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Mathematical model for Maxwell fluid flow in rotating frame induced by an isothermal stretching wall is explored numerically. Scale analysis based boundary layer approximations are applied to simplify the conservation relations which are later converted to similar forms via appropriate substitutions. A numerical approach is utilized to derive similarity solutions for broad range of Deborah number. The results predict that velocity distributions are inversely proportional to the stress relaxation time. This outcome is different from that observed for the elastic parameter of second grade fluid. Unlike non-rotating frame, the solution curves are oscillatory decaying functions of similarity variable. As angular velocity enlarges, temperature rises and significant drop in the heat transfer coefficient occurs. We note that the wall slope of temperature has an asymptotically decaying profile against the wall to ambient ratio parameter. From the qualitative view point, temperature ratio parameter and radiation parameter have similar effect on the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, radiation parameter has a definite role in improving the cooling process of the stretching boundary. A comparative study of current numerical computations and those from the existing studies is also presented in a limiting case. To our knowledge, the phenomenon of non-linear radiation in rotating viscoelastic flow due to linearly stretched plate is just modeled here.

  4. Plastic Deformation of Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2013-01-01

    of metal components. An optimization of processes and material parameters must be based on a quantification of stress and strain gradients at the surface and in near surface layer where the structural scale can reach few tens of nanometers. For such fine structures it is suggested to quantify structural...... parameters by TEM and EBSD and apply strength-structural relationships established for the bulk metal deformed to high strains. This technique has been applied to steel deformed by high energy shot peening and a calculated stress gradient at or near the surface has been successfully validated by hardness...

  5. Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  6. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninnemann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.)

  7. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninnemann, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Konstant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincare upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function. (orig.).

  8. Numerical Modeling of Subglacial Sediment Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    may cause mass loss in the near future to exceed current best estimates. Ice flow in larger ice sheets focuses in fast-moving streams due to mechanical non-linearity of ice. These ice streams often move at velocities several magnitudes larger than surrounding ice and consequentially constitute...... glaciers move by deforming their sedimentary beds. Several modern ice streams, in particular, move as plug flows due to basal sediment deformation. An intense and long-winded discussion about the appropriate description for subglacial sediment mechanics followed this discovery, with good reason...... incompatible with commonly accepted till rheology models. Variation in pore-water pressure proves to cause reorganization in the internal stress network and leads to slow creeping deformation. The rate of creep is non-linearly dependent on the applied stresses. Granular creep can explain slow glacial...

  9. Numerical simulation of large deformation polycrystalline plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, K.; Neale, K.W.; Wu, P.D.; MacEwen, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A finite element model based on crystal plasticity has been developed to simulate the stress-strain response of sheet metal specimens in uniaxial tension. Each material point in the sheet is considered to be a polycrystalline aggregate of FCC grains. The Taylor theory of crystal plasticity is assumed. The numerical analysis incorporates parallel computing features enabling simulations of realistic models with large number of grains. Simulations have been carried out for the AA3004-H19 aluminium alloy and the results are compared with experimental data. (author)

  10. Realistic deformable 3D numeric phantom for transcutaneous ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fernando Mitsuyama; Moraes, Matheus Cardoso; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi, E-mail: fernando.okara@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2017-01-15

    Introduction: Numerical phantoms are important tools to design, calibrate and evaluate several methods in various image-processing applications, such as echocardiography and mammography. We present a framework for creating ultrasound numerical deformable phantoms based on Finite Element Method (FEM), Linear Isomorphism and Field II. The proposed method considers that the scatterers map is a property of the tissue; therefore, the scatterers should move according to the tissue strain. Methods: First, a volume representing the target tissue is loaded. Second, parameter values, such as Young's Modulus, scatterers density, attenuation and scattering amplitudes are inserted for each different regions of the phantom. Then, other parameters related to the ultrasound equipment, such as ultrasound frequency and number of transducer elements, are also defined in order to perform the ultrasound acquisition using Field II. Third, the size and position of the transducer and the pressures that are applied against the tissue are defined. Subsequently, FEM is executed and deformation is computed. Next, 3D linear isomorphism is performed to displace the scatterers according to the deformation. Finally, Field II is carried out to generate the non-deformed and deformed ultrasound data. Results: The framework is evaluated by comparing strain values obtained the numerical simulation and from the physical phantom from CIRS. The mean difference between both phantoms is lesser than 10%. Conclusion: The acoustic and deformation outcomes are similar to those obtained using a physical phantom. This framework led to a tool, which is available online and free of charges for educational and research purposes. (author)

  11. Numerical modeling of the Indo-Australian intraplate deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Vincent; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2014-05-01

    The Indo-Australian plate is perhaps the best example of wide intraplate deformation within an oceanic plate. The deformation is expressed by an unusual level of intraplate seismicity, including magnitude Mw > 8 events, large-scale folding and deep faulting of the oceanic lithosphere and reactivation of extinct fracture zones. The deformation pattern and kinematic data inversions suggest that the Indo-Australian plate can be viewed as a composite plate made of three rigid component plates - India, Capricorn, Australia - separated by wide and diffuse boundaries undergoing either extensional or compressional deformation. We tested this model using the SHELLS numerical code (Kong & Bird, 1995). The Indo-Australian plate is modeled by a mesh of 5281 spherical triangular finite elements. Mesh edges parallel the major extinct fracture zones so that they can be reactivated by reducing their friction rates. Strength of the plate is defined by the age of the lithosphere and seafloor topography. Model boundary conditions are only defined by the plate velocities predicted by the rotation vectors between rigid components of the Indo-Australian plate and their neighboring plates. Since the mesh limits all belong to rigid plates with fully defined Euler vectors, no conditions are imposed on the location, extent and limits of the diffuse and deforming zones. Using MORVEL plate velocities (DeMets et al., 2010), predicted deformation patterns are very consistent with that observed. Pre-existing structures of the lithosphere play an important role in the intraplate deformation and its distribution. The Chagos Bank focuses most of the extensional deformation between the Indian and Capricorn plates. Agreement between models and observation improves by weakening fossil fracture zones relative to the surrounding crust; however only limited sections of FZ's accommodate deformation. The reactivation of the Eocene FZ's in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) and Wharton Basin (WB) explains the

  12. Photon density of states for deformed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emig, T

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to the Helmholtz spectrum for arbitrarily shaped boundaries and a rather general class of boundary conditions is introduced. We derive the boundary induced change of the density of states in terms of the free Green's function from which we obtain both perturbative and non-perturbative results for the Casimir interaction between deformed surfaces. As an example, we compute the lateral electrodynamic Casimir force between two corrugated surfaces over a wide parameter range. Universal behaviour, fixed only by the largest wavelength component of the surface shape, is identified at large surface separations. This complements known short distance expansions which are also reproduced

  13. Crustal deformation mechanism in southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Insights from numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Indo-Asian collision developed the complicated crustal deformation around the southeastern Tibetan plateau. Numerous models have proposed to explain the crustal deformation, but the mechanism remains controversial, especially the increasing multi-geophysics data, which demonstrate the existence of lower velocity, lower resistivity and high conductivity, implying that lower crustal flow is responsible for the crustal deformation, arguing for the lower crust flow model. To address the relations between the crust flow and the surface deformation, we employ a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite model to investigate the possible influence on the surface deformation, and discuss the stress field distribution under the model. Our preliminary results suggest that lower crustal flow plays an important role in crustal deformation in southeastern Tibetan plateau. The best fitting is achieved when the flow velocity of the lower crust is approximately 10-11 mm/a faster than that of the upper crust. Crustal rheological properties affect regional crustal deformation, when the viscosity of the middle and lower crust in the South China block reaches 1022 and 1023 Pa.s, respectively; the predicted match observations well, especially for the magnitude within the South China block. The maximum principal stress field exhibits clear zoning, gradually shifting from an approximately east-west orientation in the northern Bayan Har block to southeast in the South China block, southwest in the western Yunnan block, and a radially divergent distribution in the Middle Yunnan and Southern Yunnan blocks.

  14. On infinitesimal conformai deformations of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Степановна Федченко

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new form of basic equations for conformai deformations is found. The equations involve tensor fields of displacement vector only. Conditions for trivial deformations as well as infinitesimal conformai deformations are studied.

  15. Numerical modelling of stresses and deformations in casting processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1997-01-01

    Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method......Keywords: Stresses and deformations, casting, governing equations, thermal strain, control volume method...

  16. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the direct numerical simulation of a fully-developed turbulent channel flow with deformed bubbles were conducted by means of the refined MARS method, turbulent Reynolds number 150, and Bubble Reynolds number 120. As the results, large-scale wake motions were observed round the bubbles. At the bubble located region, mean velocity was degreased and turbulent intensities and Reynolds shear stress were increased by the effects of the large-scale wake motions round bubbles. On the other hands, near wall region, bubbles might effect on the flow laminarlize and drag reduction. Two types of drag coefficient of bubble were estimated from the accelerated velocity of bubble and correlation equation as a function of Particle Reynolds number. Empirical correlation equation might be overestimated the drag effects in this Particle Reynolds number range. (author)

  17. A Numerical Analysis on the Local Deformation of a Spacer Grid Structure for Nuclear Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Myung-Geun; Na, Geum Ju; Kim, Jong-Bong; Shin, Hyunho

    2016-01-01

    The result of a preliminary numerical investigation on local deformation characteristics of a multi-layered spacer-grid structure with five guide tubes is reported based on implicit finite element analysis. For the numerical analysis, displacements of top and bottom cross sections of each guide tube in a single-layer model were constrained while a lateral displacement was imposed on the single layer. Unlike the impact hammer test that is generally employed to characterize the deformation characteristics of the space-grid structure, the buckling phenomenon occurs locally in this study; it takes place at the inner grids around each tube and the degree of bucking is more apparent for tubes near the lateral surface where the lateral displacement was imposed. (paper)

  18. Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers

    KAUST Repository

    Sraj, Ihab

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution induced by optical stretchers on a cell encapsulating a nucleus of different optical properties. These optical forces are shape dependent and can deform real non-rigid objects; thus resulting in dynamically changing distributions with cell and nucleus deformation. A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is a common biological cell that is of interest to the biomedical community because of its use in recombinant protein therapeutics and is an example of a nucleated cell. To this end, we model CHO cells as two concentric three-dimensional elastic capsules immersed in a fluid where the hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the immersed boundary method. We vary the inner capsule size to simulate different nucleus sizes. Our results show that the presence of a nucleus has a major effect on the force distribution on the cell surface and consequently on its net deformation. Scattering and gradient forces are reported for different nucleus sizes and the effect of nucleus size on the cell deformation is discussed quantitatively. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Dielectrophoretic deformation of thin liquid films induced by surface charge patterns on dielectric substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, C.W.J.; Kuijpers, C.J.; Zeegers, J.C.H.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the deformation of thin liquid films induced by surface charge patterns at the solid–liquid interface quantitatively by experiments and numerical simulations. We deposited a surface charge distribution on dielectric substrates by applying potential differences between a conductive liquid

  20. Surface deformation in volcanic rift zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, D.D.; Delaney, P.T.; Duffield, W.A.; Endo, E.T.; Okamura, A.T.

    1983-01-01

    The principal conduits for magma transport within rift zones of basaltic volcanoes are steeply dipping dikes, some of which feed fissure eruptions. Elastic displacements accompanying a single dike emplacement elevate the flanks of the rift relative to a central depression. Concomitant normal faulting may transform the depression into a graben thus accentuating the topographic features of the rift. If eruption occurs the characteristic ridge-trough-ridge displacement profile changes to a single ridge, centered at the fissure, and the erupted lava alters the local topography. A well-developed rift zone owes its structure and topography to the integrated effects of many magmatic rifting events. To investigate this process we compute the elastic displacements and stresses in a homogeneous, two-dimensional half-space driven by a pressurized crack that may breach the surface. A derivative graphical method permits one to estimate the three geometric parameters of the dike (height, inclination, and depth-to-center) and the mechanical parameter (driving pressure/rock stiffness) from a smoothly varying displacement profile. Direct comparison of measured and theoretical profiles may be used to estimate these parameters even if inelastic deformation, notably normal faulting, creates discontinuities in the profile. Geological structures (open cracks, normal faults, buckles, and thrust faults) form because of stresses induced by dike emplacement and fissure eruption. Theoretical stress states associated with dilation of a pressurized crack are used to interpret the distribution and orientation of these structures and their role in rift formation. ?? 1983.

  1. Numerical model of the influence function of deformable mirrors based on Bessel Fourier orthogonal functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shun; Zhang Sijiong

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model is presented to simulate the influence function of deformable mirror actuators. The numerical model is formed by Bessel Fourier orthogonal functions, which are constituted of Bessel orthogonal functions and a Fourier basis. A detailed comparison is presented between the new Bessel Fourier model, the Zernike model, the Gaussian influence function and the modified Gaussian influence function. Numerical experiments indicate that the new numerical model is easy to use and more accurate compared with other numerical models. The new numerical model can be used for describing deformable mirror performances and numerical simulations of adaptive optics systems. (research papers)

  2. Discrete Surface Evolution and Mesh Deformation for Aircraft Icing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David; Tong, Xiaoling; Arnoldus, Qiuhan; Collins, Eric; McLaurin, David; Luke, Edward; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2013-01-01

    Robust, automated mesh generation for problems with deforming geometries, such as ice accreting on aerodynamic surfaces, remains a challenging problem. Here we describe a technique to deform a discrete surface as it evolves due to the accretion of ice. The surface evolution algorithm is based on a smoothed, face-offsetting approach. We also describe a fast algebraic technique to propagate the computed surface deformations into the surrounding volume mesh while maintaining geometric mesh quality. Preliminary results presented here demonstrate the ecacy of the approach for a sphere with a prescribed accretion rate, a rime ice accretion, and a more complex glaze ice accretion.

  3. Low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel; the role of plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    : - plastic deformation of metastable austenitic stainless steels leads to the development of strain-induced martensite, which compromises the uniformity and the homogeneity of the expanded austenite zone. - during low temperature surface engineering composition and stress profiles develop. On numerical......Thermochemical surface engineering by nitriding of austenitic stainless steel transforms the surface zone into expanded austenite, which improves the wear resistance of the stainless steel while preserving the stainless behavior. As a consequence of the thermochemical surface engineering, huge...

  4. Case study on ground surface deformation induced by CO2 injection into coal seam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Tang Chun'an

    2010-01-01

    To monitor a geomechanical response of injecting CO 2 into relatively shallow coal seams, tiltmeters were set as an array to cover the ground surface area surrounding the injection well, and to measure the ground deformation during a well fracturing stimulation and a short-term CO 2 injection test. In this paper, an attempt to establish a quantitative relationship between the in-situ coal swelling and the corresponding ground deformation was made by means of numerical simulation study. (authors)

  5. Deformation data modeling through numerical models: an efficient method for tracking magma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charco, M.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Galán del Sastre, P.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, multivariate collected data and robust physical models at volcano observatories are becoming crucial for providing effective volcano monitoring. Nevertheless, the forecast of volcanic eruption is notoriously difficult. Wthin this frame one of the most promising methods to evaluate the volcano hazard is the use of surface ground deformation and in the last decades many developments in the field of deformation modeling has been achieved. In particular, numerical modeling allows realistic media features such as topography and crustal heterogeneities to be included, although it is still very time cosuming to solve the inverse problem for near-real time interpretations. Here, we present a method that can be efficiently used to estimate the location and evolution of magmatic sources base on real-time surface deformation data and Finite Element (FE) models. Generally, the search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region and the Green functions for all the array components have to be precomputed. We propose a FE model for the pre-computation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain which eventually will lead to a better description of the status of the volcanic area. The number of Green functions is reduced here to the number of observational points by using their reciprocity relationship. We present and test this methodology with an optimization method base on a Genetic Algorithm. Following synthetic and sensitivity test to estimate the uncertainty of the model parameters, we apply the tool for magma tracking during 2007 Kilauea volcano intrusion and eruption. We show how data inversion with numerical models can speed up the source parameters estimations for a given volcano showing signs of unrest.

  6. Topology-preserving quantum deformation with non-numerical parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukhadiev, Marat; Grigoryan, Suren; Lipacheva, Ekaterina

    2013-11-01

    We introduce a class of compact quantum semigroups, that we call semigroup deformations of compact Abelian qroups. These objects arise from reduced semigroup -algebras, the generalization of the Toeplitz algebra. We study quantum subgroups, quantum projective spaces and quantum quotient groups for such objects, and show that the group is contained as a compact quantum subgroup in the deformation of itself. The connection with the weak Hopf algebra notion is described. We give a grading on the -algebra of the compact quantum semigroups constructed.

  7. Investigation of surface deformations by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecevit, F.N.; Guven, H.; Aydin, R.

    1990-01-01

    Surface deformations of rigid bodies produced by thermal as well as mechanical strains have been investigated using double-exposure holographic interferometry. The recorded interference fringes have been discussed qualitatively. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  8. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  9. Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers

    KAUST Repository

    Sraj, Ihab; Francois, Joshua; Marr, David W M; Eggleton, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution

  10. Deformation of two-phase aggregates using standard numerical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretz, Thibault; Yamato, Philippe; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2013-04-01

    Geodynamic problems often involve the large deformation of material encompassing material boundaries. In geophysical fluids, such boundaries often coincide with a discontinuity in the viscosity (or effective viscosity) field and subsequently in the pressure field. Here, we employ popular implementations of the finite difference and finite element methods for solving viscous flow problems. On one hand, we implemented finite difference method coupled with a Lagrangian marker-in-cell technique to represent the deforming fluid. Thanks to it Eulerian nature, this method has a limited geometric flexibility but is characterized by a light and stable discretization. On the other hand, we employ the Lagrangian finite element method which offers full geometric flexibility at the cost of relatively heavier discretization. In order to test the accuracy of the finite difference scheme, we ran large strain simple shear deformation of aggregates containing either weak of strong circular inclusion (1e6 viscosity ratio). The results, obtained for different grid resolutions, are compared to Lagrangian finite element results which are considered as reference solution. The comparison is then used to establish up to which strain can finite difference simulations be run given the nature of the inclusions (dimensions, viscosity) and the resolution of the Eulerian mesh.

  11. Free surface deformation and heat transfer by thermocapillary convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael; Basting, Steffen; Bänsch, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    Knowing the location of the free liquid/gas surface and the heat transfer from the wall towards the fluid is of paramount importance in the design and the optimization of cryogenic upper stage tanks for launchers with ballistic phases, where residual accelerations are smaller by up to four orders of magnitude compared to the gravity acceleration on earth. This changes the driving forces drastically: free surfaces become capillary dominated and natural or free convection is replaced by thermocapillary convection if a non-condensable gas is present. In this paper we report on a sounding rocket experiment that provided data of a liquid free surface with a nonisothermal boundary condition, i.e. a preheated test cell was filled with a cold but storable liquid in low gravity. The corresponding thermocapillary convection (driven by the temperature dependence of the surface tension) created a velocity field directed away from the hot wall towards the colder liquid and then in turn back at the bottom towards the wall. A deformation of the free surface resulting in an apparent contact angle rather different from the microscopic one could be observed. The thermocapillary flow convected the heat from the wall to the liquid and increased the heat transfer compared to pure conduction significantly. The paper presents results of the apparent contact angle as a function of the dimensionless numbers (Weber-Marangoni and Reynolds-Marangoni number) as well as heat transfer data in the form of a Nusselt number. Experimental results are complemented by corresponding numerical simulations with the commercial software Flow3D and the inhouse code Navier.

  12. Surface Spectroscopic Signatures of Mechanical Deformation in HDPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Shawn C; Stanley, Steven K; Hanson, Joshua J; Smith, Stacey J; Patterson, James E

    2018-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) has been extensively studied, both as a model for semi-crystalline polymers and because of its own industrial utility. During cold drawing, crystalline regions of HDPE are known to break up and align with the direction of tensile load. Structural changes due to deformation should also manifest at the surface of the polymer, but until now, a detailed molecular understanding of how the surface responds to mechanical deformation has been lacking. This work establishes a precedent for using vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy to investigate changes in the molecular-level structure of the surface of HDPE after cold drawing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to confirm that the observed surface behavior corresponds to the expected bulk response. Before tensile loading, the VSFG spectra indicate that there is significant variability in the surface structure and tilt of the methylene groups away from the surface normal. After deformation, the VSFG spectroscopic signatures are notably different. These changes suggest that hydrocarbon chains at the surface of visibly necked HDPE are aligned with the direction of loading, while the associated methylene groups are oriented with the local C 2 v symmetry axis roughly parallel to the surface normal. Small amounts of unaltered material are also found at the surface of necked HDPE, with the relative amount of unaltered material decreasing as the amount of deformation increases. Aspects of the nonresonant SFG response in the transition zone between necked and undeformed polymer provide additional insight into the deformation process and may provide the first indication of mechanical deformation. Nonlinear surface spectroscopy can thus be used as a noninvasive and nondestructive tool to probe the stress history of a HPDE sample in situations where X-ray techniques are not available or not applicable. Vibrational sum-frequency generation thus has great potential as a platform for

  13. Surface flow in severe plastic deformation of metals by sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahato, A; Yeung, H; Chandrasekar, S; Guo, Y

    2014-01-01

    An in situ study of flow in severe plastic deformation (SPD) of surfaces by sliding is described. The model system – a hard wedge sliding against a metal surface – is representative of surface conditioning processes typical of manufacturing, and sliding wear. By combining high speed imaging and image analysis, important characteristics of unconstrained plastic flow inherent to this system are highlighted. These characteristics include development of large plastic strains on the surface and in the subsurface by laminar type flow, unusual fluid-like flow with vortex formation and surface folding, and defect and particle generation. Preferred conditions, as well as undesirable regimes, for surface SPD are demarcated. Implications for surface conditioning in manufacturing, modeling of surface deformation and wear are discussed

  14. Numerical modeling of intraplate seismicity with a deformable loading plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, B. D.; Capitanio, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    We use finite element modeling to investigate on the stress loading-unloading cycles and earthquakes occurrence in the plate interiors, resulting from the interactions of tectonic plates along their boundary. We model a visco-elasto-plastic plate embedding a single or multiple faults, while the tectonic stress is applied along the plate boundary by an external loading visco-elastic plate, reproducing the tectonic setting of two interacting lithospheres. Because the two plates deform viscously, the timescale of stress accumulation and release on the faults is self-consistently determined, from the boundary to the interiors, and seismic recurrence is an emerging feature. This approach overcomes the constraints on recurrence period imposed by stress (stress-drop) and velocity boundary conditions, while here it is unconstrained. We illustrate emerging macroscopic characteristics of this system, showing that the seismic recurrence period τ becomes shorter as Γ and Θ decreases, where Γ = ηI/ηL the viscosity ratio of the viscosities of the internal fault-embedded to external loading plates, respectively, and Θ = σY/σL the stress ratio of the elastic limit of the fault to far-field loading stress. When the system embeds multiple, randomly distributed faults, stress transfer results in recurrence period deviations, however the time-averaged recurrence period of each fault show the same dependence on Γ and Θ, illustrating a characteristic collective behavior. The control of these parameters prevails even when initial pre-stress was randomly assigned in terms of the spatial arrangement and orientation on the internal plate, mimicking local fluctuations. Our study shows the relevance of macroscopic rheological properties of tectonic plates on the earthquake occurrence in plate interiors, as opposed to local factors, proposing a viable model for the seismic behavior of continent interiors in the context of large-scale, long-term deformation of interacting tectonic

  15. Fluid Surface Deformation by Objects in the Cheerios Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoi; Miller, Michael; Mandre, Shreyas; Mandre Lab Team

    2012-11-01

    Small objects floating on a fluid/air interface deform of the surface depending on material surface properties, density, and geometry. These objects attract each other through capillary interactions, a phenomenon dubbed the ``cheerios effect.'' The attractive force and torque exerted on these objects by the interface can be estimated if the meniscus deformation is known. In addition, the floating objects can also rotate due to such an interaction. We present a series of experiments focused on visualizing the the motions of the floating objects and the deformation of the interface. The experiments involve thin laser-cut acrylic pieces attracting each other on water in a large glass petri dish and a camera set-up to capture the process. Furthermore, optical distortion of a grid pattern is used to visualize the water surface deformation near the edge of the objects. This study of the deformation of the water surface around a floating object, of the attractive/repulsive forces, and of post-contact rotational dynamics are potentially instrumental in the study of colloidal self-assembly.

  16. GRINDING OF SURFACES WITH COATINGS FORMED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC FACING WITH SURFACE PLASTIC DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. A. Mrochek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation results on machining of surfaces having a coating formed by electromagnetic facing with surface plastic deformation and using abrasive and diamond wheels having a porous metal binder with orientated drains.

  17. Numerical simulation of deformation and failure processes of a complex technical object under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. I.; Shabalin, I. I.; Shabalin, T. I.

    2018-04-01

    The main points of development of numerical tools for simulation of deformation and failure of complex technical objects under nonstationary conditions of extreme loading are presented. The possibility of extending the dynamic method for construction of difference grids to the 3D case is shown. A 3D realization of discrete-continuum approach to the deformation and failure of complex technical objects is carried out. The efficiency of the existing software package for 3D modelling is shown.

  18. Numerical studies of the deformation of salt bodies with embedded carbonate stringers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Many salt bodies contain large carbonate or anhydrite inclusions (so-called rafts, floaters or stringers) and these respond to the movements of the salt in a variety of ways, including displacement, folding and fracturing. The process of the movement and deformation of salt bodies and embedded carbonate or anhydrite inclusions has not been fully understood. In particular, no numerical research has been done to simulate the brittle deformation of individual stringers in the initial phases of s...

  19. Numerical investigation of the deformation mechanism of a bubble or a drop rising or falling in another fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Han; Yang Yongming; Hu Yüe; Zhang Huisheng; Zhang Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method for simulating the motion and deformation of an axisymmetric bubble or drop rising or falling in another infinite and initially stationary fluid is developed based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the frame of two incompressible and immiscible viscous fluids under the action of gravity, taking into consideration of surface tension effects. A comparison of the numerical results by this method with those by other works indicates the validity of the method. In the frame of inviscid and incompressible fluids without taking into consideration of surface tension effects, the mechanisms of the generation of the liquid jet and the transition from spherical shape to toroidal shape during the bubble or drop deformation, the increase of the ring diameter of the toroidal bubble or drop and the decrease of its cross-section area during its motion, and the effects of the density ratio of the two fluids on the deformation of the bubble or drop are analysed both theoretically and numerically. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  20. Numerical Analysis of Small Deformation of Flexible Helical Flagellum of Swimming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yasunari; Goto, Tomonobu

    Formulations are conducted to numerically analyze the effect of flexible flagellum of swimming bacteria. In the present model, a single-flagellate bacterium is assumed to consist of a rigid cell body of the prolate spheroidal shape and a flexible flagellum of the helical form. The resistive force theory is applied to estimate the force exerted on the flagellum. The torsional as well as the bending moments determine the curvature and the torsion of the deformed flagellum according to the Kirchhoff model for an elastic rod. The unit tangential vector along the deformed flagellum is calculated by applying evolution equations for space curves, and also a deformed shape of the flagellum is obtained.

  1. Numerical simulation of bubble deformation in magnetic fluids by finite volume method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Bubble deformation in magnetic fluids under magnetic field is investigated numerically by an interface capturing method. The numerical method consists of a coupled level-set and VOF (Volume of Fluid) method, combined with conservation CIP (Constrained Interpolation Profile) method with the self-correcting procedure. In the present study considering actual physical properties of magnetic fluid, bubble deformation under given uniform magnetic field is analyzed for internal magnetic field passing through a magnetic gaseous and liquid phase interface. The numerical results explain the mechanism of bubble deformation under presence of given magnetic field. - Highlights: • A magnetic field analysis is developed to simulate the bubble dynamics in magnetic fluid with two-phase interface. • The elongation of bubble increased with increasing magnetic flux intensities due to strong magnetic normal force. • Proposed technique explains the bubble dynamics, taking into account of the continuity of the magnetic flux density.

  2. Initial surface deformations during impact on a liquid pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, W.; Hendrix, M.H.W.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2015-01-01

    A tiny air bubble can be entrapped at the bottom of a solid sphere that impacts onto a liquid pool. The bubble forms due to the deformation of the liquid surface by a local pressure buildup inside the surrounding gas, as also observed during the impact of a liquid drop on a solid wall. Here, we

  3. Surface deformation during an action potential in pearled cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussel, Matan; Fillafer, Christian; Ben-Porath, Gal; Schneider, Matthias F.

    2017-11-01

    Electric pulses in biological cells (action potentials) have been reported to be accompanied by a propagating cell-surface deformation with a nanoscale amplitude. Typically, this cell surface is covered by external layers of polymer material (extracellular matrix, cell wall material, etc.). It was recently demonstrated in excitable plant cells (Chara braunii) that the rigid external layer (cell wall) hinders the underlying deformation. When the cell membrane was separated from the cell wall by osmosis, a mechanical deformation, in the micrometer range, was observed upon excitation of the cell. The underlying mechanism of this mechanical pulse has, to date, remained elusive. Herein we report that Chara cells can undergo a pearling instability, and when the pearled fragments were excited even larger and more regular cell shape changes were observed (˜10 -100 μ m in amplitude). These transient cellular deformations were captured by a curvature model that is based on three parameters: surface tension, bending rigidity, and pressure difference across the surface. In this paper these parameters are extracted by curve-fitting to the experimental cellular shapes at rest and during excitation. This is a necessary step to identify the mechanical parameters that change during an action potential.

  4. Large scale deformation of the oceanic lithosphere: insights from numerical modeling of the Indo-Australian intraplate deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, J.; Brandon, V.

    2011-12-01

    The large-scale deformation observed in the Indo-Australian plate seems to challenge tenets of plate tectonics: plate rigidity and narrow oceanic plate boundaries. Its distribution along with kinematic data inversions however suggest that the Indo-Australian plate can be viewed as a composite plate made of three rigid component plates - India, Capricorn, Australia - separated by wide and diffuse boundaries either extensional or compressional. We tested this model using the SHELLS numerical code (Kong & Bird, 1995) where the Indo-Australian plate was meshed into 5281 spherical triangular finite elements. Model boundary conditions are defined only by the plate velocities of the rigid parts of the Indo-Australian plate relative to their neighboring plates. Different plate velocity models were tested. From these boundary conditions, and taking into account the age of the lithosphere, seafloor topography, and assumptions on the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere, SHELLS predicts strain rates within the plate. We also tested the role of fossil fracture zones as potential lithospheric weaknesses. In a first step, we considered different component plate pairs (India/Capricorn, Capricorn/Australia, India/Australia). Since the limits of their respective diffuse boundary (i.e. the limits of the rigid component plates) are not known, we let the corresponding edge free. In a second step, we merged the previous meshes to consider the whole Indo-Australian plate. In this case, the velocities on the model boundaries are all fully defined and were set relative to the Capricorn plate. Our models predict deformation patterns very consistent with that observed. Pre-existing structures of the lithosphere play an important role in the intraplate deformation and its distribution. The Chagos Bank focuses the extensional deformation between the Indian and Capricorn plates. Reactivation of fossil fracture zones may accommodate large part of the deformation both in extensional areas, off

  5. Analysis of the Mechanism of Longitudinal Bending Deformation Due to Welding in a Steel Plate by Using a Numerical Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Yan, Jieshen; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Gyu Yeong [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, Yeongcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Welding deformation is a permanent deformation that is caused in structures by welding heat. Welding distortion is the primary cause of reduced productivity, due to welded structural strength degradation, low dimensional accuracy, and appearance. As a result, research and numerous experiments are being carried out to control welding deformation. The aim of this study is to analyze the mechanism of longitudinal bending deformation due to welding. Welding experiments and numerical analyses were performed for this study. The welding experiments were performed on 4 mm and 8.5 mm thickness steel plates, and the numerical analysis was conducted on the welding deformation using the FE software MSC.marc.

  6. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, E M

    2010-01-01

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity. (comment)

  7. Numerical Simulation for Flow Distribution in ACE7 Fuel Assemblies affected by a Spacer Grid Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongpil; Jeong, Ji Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In spite of various efforts to understand hydraulic phenomena in a rod bundle containing deformed rods due to swelling and/or ballooning of clad, the studies for flow blockage due to spacer grid deformation have been limited. In the present work, 3D CFD analysis for flow blockage was performed to evaluate coolant flow within ACE7 fuel assemblies (FAs) containing a FA affected by a spacer grid deformation. The real geometry except for inner grids was used in the simulation and the region including inner grid was replaced by porous media. In the present work, the numerical simulation was performed to predict coolant flow within ACE7 FAs affected by a Mid grid deformation. The 3D CFD result shows that approximately 60 subchannel hydraulic diameter is required to fully recover coolant flow under normal operating condition.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Deformation of Cylindrical Shell Panels to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramajeyathilagam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical investigations on cylindrical shell panels subjected to underwater explosion loading are presented. Experiments were conducted on panels of size 0.8 × 0.6 × 0.00314 m and shell rise-to-span ratios h/l = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1 , using a box model set-up under air backed conditions in a shock tank. Small charges of PEK I explosive were employed. The plastic deformation of the panels was measured for three loading conditions. Finite element analysis was carried out using the CSA/GENSA [DYNA3D] software to predict the plastic deformation for various loading conditions. The analysis included material and geometric non-linearities, with strain rate effects incorporated based on the Cowper-Symonds relation. The numerical results for plastic deformation are compared with those from experiments.

  9. a Research on Monitoring Surface Deformation and Relationships with Surface Parameters in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, S. J.; Li, Y. T.; Wang, F.; Li, L.; Ge, Y.; Luo, L.; Zhang, C. L.; Chen, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    The Qinghai Tibetan Plateau permafrost has been the largest permafrost region in middle-low latitude in the world for its high altitude. For the large area permafrost, especially surface deformation brought by it, have serious influence on the road engineering, road maintaining and regional economic development. Consequently, it is essential to monitor the surface deformation and study factors that influent it. We monitored an area named Wudaoliang from July 25, 2015 to June 1, 2016 and 15 Sentinel images were obtained during this time. The area we chose is about 35 kilometers long and 2 kilometers wide, and the national road 109 of China passes through the area. The traditional PS-INSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) method is not suitable because less historical images in the research area and leading to the number of PS (Persistent Scatterer) points is not enough to obtain accurate deformation results. Therefore, in this paper, we used another method which named QUASI-PSInSAR (QUASI Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) to acquire deformation for it has the advantage to weaken or eliminate the effects of spatial and temporal correlation, which has proved by other scholar. After processing 15 images in the SARproz software, we got the conclusions that, 1) the biggest deformation velocity in the whole area was about 127.9mm/year and about 109.3 mm/year in the road; 2) apparent deformation which have surface deformation more than 30mm/year was about 1.7Km in the road. Meanwhile, soil moisture(SM), Land surface temperature (LST) and surface water(SW), which are primary parameters of the land surface over the same time were reversed by using Sentinel data, Landsat data and ZY-3 data, respectively. After analyzing SM, LST , SW and deformation, we obtained that wet areas which had bigger SM, lower LST and more SW, had greater percentage of severe deformation than arid areas; besides, deformation pattern were

  10. Numerical simulation of time-dependent deformations under hygral and thermal transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelfstra, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Some basic concepts of numerical simulation of the formation of the microstructure of HCP are outlined. The aim is to replace arbitrary terms like aging by more realistic terms like bond density in the xerogel and bonds between hydrating particles of HCP. Actual state parameters such as temperature, humidity and degree of hydration can be determined under transient hygral and thermal conditions by solving numerically a series of appropriate coupled differential equations with given boundary conditions. Shrinkage of a composite structure without crack formation, based on calculated moisture distributions, has been determined with numerical concrete codes. The influence of crack formation, tensile strain-hardening and softening on the total deformation of a quasi-homogeneous drying material has been studied by means of model based on FEM. The difference between shrinkage without crack formation and shrinkage with crack formation can be quantified. Drying shrinkage and creep of concrete cannot be separated. The total deformation depends on the superimposed stress fields. Transient hygral deformation can be realistically predicted if the concept of point properties is applied rigorously. Transient thermal deformation has to be dealt with in the same way. (orig./HP)

  11. Deformation and stability of surface states in Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarian, Mehdi; Lu, Yuan-Ming; Randeria, Mohit

    2018-04-01

    The unusual surface states of topological semimetals have attracted a lot of attention. Recently, we showed [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 8648 (2016), 10.1073/pnas.1524787113] that for a Dirac semimetal (DSM) arising from band inversion, such as Na3Bi and Cd3As2 , the expected double Fermi arcs on the surface are not topologically protected. Quite generally, the arcs deform into states similar to those on the surface of a strong topological insulator. Here we address two questions related to deformation and stability of surface states in DSMs. First, we discuss why certain perturbations, no matter how large, are unable to destroy the double Fermi arcs. We show that this is related to a certain extra (particle-hole) symmetry, which is nongeneric in materials. Second, we discuss situations in which the surface states are completely destroyed without breaking any symmetry or impacting the bulk Dirac nodes. We are not aware of any experimental or density functional theory (DFT) candidates for a material which is a bulk DSM without any surface states, but our results clearly show that this is possible.

  12. Sensing surface mechanical deformation using active probes driven by motor proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nitta, Takahiro; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Sada, Kazuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Studying mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials has been challenging due to the difficulty in separating surface deformation from the bulk elasticity of the materials. Here, we introduce a new approach for studying the surface mechanical deformation of a soft material by utilizing a large number of self-propelled microprobes driven by motor proteins on the surface of the material. Information about the surface mechanical deformation of the soft material is obtained through changes in mobility of the microprobes wandering across the surface of the soft material. The active microprobes respond to mechanical deformation of the surface and readily change their velocity and direction depending on the extent and mode of surface deformation. This highly parallel and reliable method of sensing mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials is expected to find applications that explore surface mechanics of soft materials and consequently would greatly benefit the surface science. PMID:27694937

  13. Gravitational and tectonic forces controlling the post-collisional deformation and present-day stress of the Alps. Insights from numerical modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Munt, I.; Garcia-Gastellanos, D.; Negredo, A.; Platt, J.

    2005-01-01

    We perform numerical modeling to investigate the mechanisms leading to the postcollisional tectonic evolution of the Alps. We model the lithospheric deformation as a viscous thin sheet with vertically averaged rheology and coupled with surface mass transport. The applied kinematic boundary

  14. Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, M. G.

    2014-06-17

    This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, M. G.; Munch, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the influence of plastic deformations in fatigue and crack process by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimian, Mohammad.

    1981-06-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze, by numerical simulation the characteristics of the stresses and deformations at the bottom of cracks when plasticity is taken into account. This analysis is performed as from theoretical results laid down in the literature and makes it possible to understand the different solutions obtained from Hencky's deformation law or from the incremental theory. The role of plastic deformation is discussed in depth in the study of fatigue cracks. The problems linked to the fixed crack are studied in the first two chapters. The problems linked to the propagation of cracks are discussed in the following chapters. The fourth chapter is an application of the preceding results and knowledge to fatigue [fr

  17. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  18. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  19. Local deformation behavior of surface porous polyether-ether-ketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathan T; Torstrick, F Brennan; Safranski, David L; Guldberg, Robert E; Gall, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Surface porous polyether-ether-ketone has the ability to maintain the tensile monotonic and cyclic strength necessary for many load bearing orthopedic applications while providing a surface that facilitates bone ingrowth; however, the relevant deformation behavior of the pore architecture in response to various loading conditions is not yet fully characterized or understood. The focus of this study was to examine the compressive and wear behavior of the surface porous architecture using micro Computed Tomography (micro CT). Pore architectures of various depths (~0.5-2.5mm) and pore sizes (212-508µm) were manufactured using a melt extrusion and porogen leaching process. Compression testing revealed that the pore architecture deforms in the typical three staged linear elastic, plastic, and densification stages characteristic of porous materials. The experimental moduli and yield strengths decreased as the porosity increased but there was no difference in properties between pore sizes. The porous architecture maintained a high degree of porosity available for bone-ingrowth at all strains. Surface porous samples showed no increase in wear rate compared to injection molded samples, with slight pore densification accompanying wear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Plastic Deformation in Two-turn Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mitsak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a number of investigations in recent years reporting on the structure and properties of materials deformed to super plastic deformation (SPD. During SPD new textures can be formed and abnormal characteristics are displayed, attracting a growing research interest.¶ Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE is a method often used to obtain large plastic strains. However, according to experimental results, there is a large tensile stress in the sample during deformation, which may lead in some cases, to cracking in metallic alloys and large curvature in polymeric materials. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the ECAE process can be conducted at high temperatures. But this contributes significantly to a decreased level of plastic deformation induced in the sample. Hence, a tool with multi-pass seems to be a very appropriate solution. In this paper, a new geometry die composed of two elbows has been simulated by finite element method aiming to provide an insight into the mechanisms of deformation and to determine the optimum geometry of the tool. The numerical results show that the length and the section of the second channel play a significant role on the homogeneity of the plastic strain distribution. It has been found that good homogeneity was obtained when the second channel has the same section as that of the entrance and the exit channels and with a length equal to three times of its width.

  1. Numerical analysis of thermal deformation in laser beam heating of a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Kim, Yong-Rae; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Line heating is a widely used process for plate forming or thermal straightening. Flame heating and induction heating are the traditional heating processes used by industry for line heating. However, these two heating processes are ineffective when used on small steel plates. Thus, the laser beam heating with various power profiles were carried out in this study. A comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental results found a significant difference in the thermal deformation when apply a different power profile of laser beam heating. The one-sinusoid power profile produced largest thermal deformation in this study. The laser beam heating process was simulated by established a combined heat source model, and simulated results were compared with experimental results to confirm the model’s accuracy. The mechanism of thermal deformation was investigated and the effects of model parameters were studied intensively with the finite element method. Thermal deformation was found to have a significant relationship with the amount of central zone plastic deformation. Scientists and engineers could use this study’s verified model to select appropriate parameters in laser beam heating process. Moreover, by using the developed laser beam model, the analysis of welding residual stress or hardness could also be investigated from a power profile point of view.

  2. A deformable surface model for real-time water drop animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yizhong; Wang, Huamin; Wang, Shuai; Tong, Yiying; Zhou, Kun

    2012-08-01

    A water drop behaves differently from a large water body because of its strong viscosity and surface tension under the small scale. Surface tension causes the motion of a water drop to be largely determined by its boundary surface. Meanwhile, viscosity makes the interior of a water drop less relevant to its motion, as the smooth velocity field can be well approximated by an interpolation of the velocity on the boundary. Consequently, we propose a fast deformable surface model to realistically animate water drops and their flowing behaviors on solid surfaces. Our system efficiently simulates water drop motions in a Lagrangian fashion, by reducing 3D fluid dynamics over the whole liquid volume to a deformable surface model. In each time step, the model uses an implicit mean curvature flow operator to produce surface tension effects, a contact angle operator to change droplet shapes on solid surfaces, and a set of mesh connectivity updates to handle topological changes and improve mesh quality over time. Our numerical experiments demonstrate a variety of physically plausible water drop phenomena at a real-time rate, including capillary waves when water drops collide, pinch-off of water jets, and droplets flowing over solid materials. The whole system performs orders-of-magnitude faster than existing simulation approaches that generate comparable water drop effects.

  3. Effect of deformation on the thermal conductivity of granular porous media with rough grain surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Roohollah; Hejazi, S. Hossein; Sahimi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfer in granular porous media is an important phenomenon that is relevant to a wide variety of problems, including geothermal reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery by thermal methods. Resistance to flow of heat in the contact area between the grains strongly influences the effective thermal conductivity of such porous media. Extensive experiments have indicated that the roughness of the grains' surface follows self-affine fractal stochastic functions, and thus, the contact resistance cannot be accounted for by models based on smooth surfaces. Despite the significance of rough contact area, the resistance has been accounted for by a fitting parameter in the models of heat transfer. In this Letter we report on a study of conduction in a packing of particles that contains a fluid of a given conductivity, with each grain having a rough self-affine surface, and is under an external compressive pressure. The deformation of the contact area depends on the fractal dimension that characterizes the grains' rough surface, as well as their Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with experimental data. Deformation of granular porous media with grains that have rough self-affine fractal surface is simulated. Thermal contact resistance between grains with rough surfaces is incorporated into the numerical simulation of heat conduction under compressive pressure. By increasing compressive pressure, thermal conductivity is enhanced more in the grains with smoother surfaces and lower Young's modulus. Excellent qualitative agreement is obtained with the experimental data.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Strength and Deformation Behavior of Cataclastic Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Shao, J. F.; Xu, W. Y.; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, W.

    2015-05-01

    This work is devoted to characterization of the deformation and strength properties of cataclastic sandstones. Before conducting mechanical tests, the physical properties were first examined. These sandstones are characterized by a loose damaged microstructure and poorly cemented contacts. Then, a series of mechanical tests including hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial compression tests were performed to study the mechanical strength and deformation of the sandstones. The results obtained show nonlinear stress-strain responses. The initial microcracks are closed at hydrostatic stress of 2.6 MPa, and the uniaxial compressive strength is about 0.98 MPa. Under triaxial compression, there is a clear transition from volumetric compressibility to dilatancy and a strong dependency on confining pressure. Based on the experimental evidence, an elastoplastic model is proposed using a linear yield function and a nonassociated plastic potential. There is good agreement between numerical results and experimental data.

  5. Numerical simulation of deformation of dynamic mesh in the human vocal tract model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řidký Václav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of the acoustic signal generation in the human vocal tract is a very complex problem. The computational mesh is not static; it is deformed due to vibration of vocal folds. Movement of vocal folds is in this case prescribed as function of translation and rotation. A new boundary condition for the 2DOF motion of the vocal folds was implemented in OpenFOAM, an open-source software package based on finite volume method Work is focused on the dynamic mesh and deformation of structured meshes in the computation a package OpenFOAM. These methods are compared with focus onquality of the mesh (non-orthogonality, aspect ratio and skewness.

  6. Numerical simulation of ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper, based on examples from the author's contribution, aims to illustrate the role of ballistic simulations of the interaction between an ion beam and a surface in the characterization of surface properties. Several aspects of the ion-surface interaction have been modelled to various levels of sophistication by computer simulation. Particular emphasis is given to the ion scattering in the impact mode, in the multiple scattering regime and at grazing incidence, as well as to the Auger emission resulting from electronic excitation. Some examples are then given in order to illustrate the use of the combination between simulation and experiment to study the ion-surface interaction and surface properties. Ion-induced Auger emission, the determination of potentials and of overlay structures are discusse. The possibility to tackle dynamical surface properties by menas of a combination between molecular dynamics, ballistic simulations and ion scattering measurements in then briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Contacts et des Structures (LaMCoS), INSA Lyon, 20 Avenue des Sciences, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Li, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, M.Q., E-mail: zc9997242256@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural component. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different applied bonding pressures. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail. - Highlights: • A high quality hollow structural component has been fabricated by diffusion bonding. • Surface asperity deformation not only expands the interfacial contact areas, but also causes deformation heat and defects to improve the atomic diffusion. • Surface asperity deformation introduces the stored energy difference between the two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, leading to strain induced interface grain boundary migration. • The void exerts a dragging force on the interface grain boundary to retard or stop interface grain boundary migration. - Abstract: This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to

  8. Numerical treatment of free surface problems in ferrohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrova, O; Matthies, G; Mitkova, T; Polevikov, V; Tobiska, L

    2006-01-01

    The numerical treatment of free surface problems in ferrohydrodynamics is considered. Starting from the general model, special attention is paid to field-surface and flow-surface interactions. Since in some situations these feedback interactions can be partly or even fully neglected, simpler models can be derived. The application of such models to the numerical simulation of dissipative systems, rotary shaft seals, equilibrium shapes of ferrofluid drops, and pattern formation in the normal-field instability of ferrofluid layers is given. Our numerical strategy is able to recover solitary surface patterns which were discovered recently in experiments

  9. Numerical Study on Deformation and Interior Flow of a Droplet Suspended in Viscous Liquid under Steady Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentao Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A model based on the volume of fluid (VOF method and leaky dielectric theory is established to predict the deformation and internal flow of the droplet suspended in another vicious fluid under the influence of the electric field. Through coupling with hydrodynamics and electrostatics, the rate of deformation and internal flow of the single droplet are simulated and obtained under the different operating parameters. The calculated results show that the direction of deformation and internal flow depends on the physical properties of fluids. The numerical results are compared with Taylor's theory and experimental results by Torza et al. When the rate of deformation is small, the numerical results are consistent with theory and experimental results, and when the rate is large the numerical results are consistent with experimental results but are different from Taylor's theory. In addition, fluid viscosity hardly affects the deformation rate and mainly dominates the deformation velocity. For high viscosity droplet spends more time to attain the steady state. The conductivity ratio and permittivity ratio of two different liquids affect the direction of deformation. When fluid electric properties change, the charge distribution at the interface is various, which leads to the droplet different deformation shapes.

  10. Coupled distinct element-finite element numerical modelling of fluid circulation in deforming sedimentary basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Malz, A.; Donndorf, S.; Kley, J.; Kopp, H.

    2012-04-01

    We develop a coupled numerical model for fluid flow in deforming sedimentary basins. We combine a distinct element method for large deformations of crustal materials, with a finite element method for fluid flow according to a diffusion type equation. The key question in such a model is how to simulate evolving permeabilities due to upper and possibly middle crustal deformation, and the coupled issue of how localisation of deformation in faults and shear zones is itself influenced by fluid flow and fluid pressure and vice versa. Currently our knowledge of these issues is restricted, even sketchy. There are a number of hypotheses, based partly on geological and isotope geochemical observations, such as "seismic pumping" models, and fluid induced weak décollement models for thrust sheet transport which have gained quite wide acceptance. Observations around thrusts at the present day have also often been interpreted as showing deformation induced permeability. However, combining all the physics of these processes into a numerical simulation is a complicated task given the ranges of, in particular time scales of the processes we infer to be operating based on our various observations. We start this task by using an elastic fracture relationship between normal stresses across distinct element contacts (which we consider to be the equivalent of discrete, sliding fractures) and their openness and hence their transmissivity. This relates the mechanical state of the distinct element system to a discrete permeability field. Further than that, the geometry of the mechanical system is used to provide boundary conditions for fluid flow in a diffusion equation which also incorporates the permeability field. The next question we address is how to achieve a feedback between fluid pressures and deformation. We try two approaches: one treats pore space in the DEM as real, and calculates the force exerted locally by fluids and adds this to the force balance of the model; another

  11. Numerical Simulation of Bulging Deformation for Wide-Thick Slab Under Uneven Cooling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenhui; Ji, Cheng; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, the bulging deformation of a wide-thick slab under uneven cooling conditions was studied using finite element method. The non-uniform solidification was first calculated using a 2D heat transfer model. The thermal material properties were derived based on a microsegregation model, and the water flux distribution was measured and applied to calculate the cooling boundary conditions. Based on the solidification results, a 3D bulging model was established. The 2D heat transfer model was verified by the measured shell thickness and the slab surface temperature, and the 3D bulging model was verified by the calculated maximum bulging deflections using formulas. The bulging deformation behavior of the wide-thick slab under uneven cooling condition was then determined, and the effect of uneven solidification, casting speed, and roll misalignment were investigated.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Bulging Deformation for Wide-Thick Slab Under Uneven Cooling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenhui; Ji, Cheng; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the bulging deformation of a wide-thick slab under uneven cooling conditions was studied using finite element method. The non-uniform solidification was first calculated using a 2D heat transfer model. The thermal material properties were derived based on a microsegregation model, and the water flux distribution was measured and applied to calculate the cooling boundary conditions. Based on the solidification results, a 3D bulging model was established. The 2D heat transfer model was verified by the measured shell thickness and the slab surface temperature, and the 3D bulging model was verified by the calculated maximum bulging deflections using formulas. The bulging deformation behavior of the wide-thick slab under uneven cooling condition was then determined, and the effect of uneven solidification, casting speed, and roll misalignment were investigated.

  13. Numerical simulation of binary collisions using a modified surface tension model with particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi

    2009-01-01

    The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation

  14. Numerical modeling of solute transport in deformable unsaturated layered soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil stratification was studied through numerical investigation based on the coupled model of solute transport in deformable unsaturated soil. The theoretical model implied two-way coupled excess pore pressure and soil deformation based on Biot's consolidation theory as well as a one-way coupled volatile pollutant concentration field developed from the advection-diffusion theory. Embedded in the model, the degree of saturation, fluid compressibility, self-weight of the soil matrix, porosity variance, longitudinal dispersion, and linear sorption were computed. Based on simulation results of a proposed three-layer landfill model using the finite element method, the multi-layer effects are discussed with regard to the hydraulic conductivity, shear modulus, degree of saturation, molecular diffusion coefficient, and thickness of each layer. Generally speaking, contaminants spread faster in a stratified field with a soft and highly permeable top layer; soil parameters of the top layer are more critical than the lower layers but controlling soil thicknesses will alter the results. This numerical investigation showed noticeable impacts of stratified soil properties on solute migration results, demonstrating the importance of correctly modeling layered soil instead of simply assuming the averaged properties across the soil profile.

  15. Numerical modelling of surface plasmonic polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Riyadh; AL-Khursan, Amin Habbeb

    2018-06-01

    Extending optoelectronics into the nano-regime seems problematic due to the relatively long wavelengths of light. The conversion of light into plasmons is a possible way to overcome this problem. Plasmon's wavelengths are much shorter than that of light which enables the propagation of signals in small size components. In this paper, a 3D simulation of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation is performed. The Finite integration technique was used to solve Maxwell's equations in the dielectric-metal interface. The results show how the surface plasmon polariton was generated at the grating assisted dielectric-metal interface. SPP is a good candidate for signal confinement in small size optoelectronics which allow high density optical integrated circuits in all optical networks.

  16. Experimental and numerical analysis of microstructured surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Diani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Heat dissipation is one of the most important issues for the reliability of electronics equipment. Up today, air represents the most safe, cheap, and common working fluid for electronics thermal management applications. Due to its poor heat transfer characteristics, air always flow through enhanced surfaces, such as plain and louvered fins, pin fins, offset strip fins and wire screens, in order to increase the heat transfer area and to create turbulence. Recently, metal foams have been propos...

  17. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  18. Oblique interaction of a laminar vortex ring with a non-deformable free surface: Vortex reconnection and breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, S K; Thomas, T G; Coleman, G N

    2011-01-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used to study the interaction of a laminar vortex ring with a non-deformable, free-slip surface at an oblique angle of incidence. The interaction leads to the well-known phenomenon of vortex reconnection. It was found that the reconnection process leads to rapid production of small-scale vortical structures. This phenomenon was found to be related to the kinematics of the reconection process.

  19. A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Pathmanathan, P

    2009-05-01

    Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.

  20. A comparison of numerical methods used for finite element modelling of soft tissue deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Pathmanathan, P; Gavaghan, D; Whiteley, J

    2009-01-01

    Soft tissue deformation is often modelled using incompressible non-linear elasticity, with solutions computed using the finite element method. There are a range of options available when using the finite element method, in particular the polynomial degree of the basis functions used for interpolating position and pressure, and the type of element making up the mesh. The effect of these choices on the accuracy of the computed solution is investigated, using a selection of model problems motivated by typical deformations seen in soft tissue modelling. Model problems are set up with discontinuous material properties (as is the case for the breast), steeply changing gradients in the body force (as found in contracting cardiac tissue), and discontinuous first derivatives in the solution at the boundary, caused by a discontinuous applied force (as in the breast during mammography). It was found that the choice of pressure basis functions is vital in the presence of a material interface, higher-order schemes do not perform as well as may be expected when there are sharp gradients, and in general it is important to take the expected regularity of the solution into account when choosing a numerical scheme. © IMechE 2009.

  1. Numerical simulation of co-seismic deformation of 2011 Japan Mw9. 0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Keliang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic displacements associated with the Mw9. 0 earthquake on March 11, 2011 in Japan are numerically simulated on the basis of a finite-fault dislocation model with PSGRN/PSCMP software. Compared with the inland GPS observation, 90% of the computed eastward, northward and vertical displacements have residuals less than 0.10 m, suggesting that the simulated results can be, to certain extent, used to demonstrate the co-seismic deformation in the near field. In this model, the maximum eastward displacement increases from 6 m along the coast to 30 m near the epicenter, where the maximum southward displacement is 13 m. The three-dimensional display shows that the vertical displacement reaches a maximum uplift of 14.3 m, which is comparable to the tsunami height in the near-trench region. The maximum subsidence is 5.3 m.

  2. A numerical investigation of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effects on bubble deformation under pseudo-nucleate boiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu, Y.Q.; Yan, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effects on nucleate boiling are studied by developing a numerical modelling of EHD effect on bubble deformation in pseudo-nucleate boiling conditions. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to track the interface between the gas-liquid two phases; the user-defined code is written and added to the commercial software FLUENT to solve the electric field and the corresponding electric body force. On this basis, the model is applied to study the EHD effects on heat transfer and fluid flows. An initial air bubble surrounded by liquid CCl 4 and attached to a horizontal superheated wall under the action of electric field is studied. The results of the EHD effect on bubble shape evolution are compared with those of available experiments showing good agreement. The mechanism of EHD enhancement of heat transfer and the EHD induced phenomena including bubble elongation and detachment are analyzed in detail.

  3. Deformation of the Pannonian lithosphere and related tectonic topography: a depth-to-surface analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dombrádi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprints of deep-seated, lithospheric deformation are often recognised on the surface, contributing to topographic evolution, drainage organisation and mass transport. Interactions between deep and surface processes were investigated in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. The lithosphere beneath

  4. Practical Calculation of Thermal Deformation and Manufacture Error uin Surface Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周里群; 李玉平

    2002-01-01

    The paper submits a method to calculate thermal deformation and manufacture error in surface grinding.The author established a simplified temperature field model.and derived the thermal deformaiton of the ground workpiece,It is found that there exists not only a upwarp thermal deformation,but also a parallel expansion thermal deformation.A upwarp thermal deformation causes a concave shape error on the profile of the workpiece,and a parallel expansion thermal deformation causes a dimension error in height.The calculations of examples are given and compared with presented experiment data.

  5. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical deformations in a hot forging tool by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-Cancelos, R.; Varas, F.; Viéitez, I.; Martín, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although programs have been developed for the design of tools for hot forging, its design is still largely based on the experience of the tool maker. This obliges to build some test matrices and correct their errors to minimize distortions in the forged piece. This phase prior to mass production consumes time and material resources, which makes the final product more expensive. The forging tools are usually constituted by various parts made of different grades of steel, which in turn have different mechanical properties and therefore suffer different degrees of strain. Furthermore, the tools used in the hot forging are exposed to a thermal field that also induces strain or stress based on the degree of confinement of the piece. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the assembly is determined by the contact between the different pieces. The numerical simulation allows to analyse different configurations and anticipate possible defects before tool making, thus, reducing the costs of this preliminary phase. In order to improve the dimensional quality of the manufactured parts, the work presented here focuses on the application of a numerical model to a hot forging manufacturing process in order to predict the areas of the forging die subjected to large deformations. The thermo-mechanical model developed and implemented with free software (Code-Aster) includes the strains of thermal origin, strains during forge impact and contact effects. The numerical results are validated with experimental measurements in a tooling set that produces forged crankshafts for the automotive industry. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental tests. Thereby, a very useful tool for the design of tooling sets for hot forging is achieved. (paper)

  6. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical deformations in a hot forging tool by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-Cancelos, R.; Varas, F.; Martín, E.; Viéitez, I.

    2016-03-01

    Although programs have been developed for the design of tools for hot forging, its design is still largely based on the experience of the tool maker. This obliges to build some test matrices and correct their errors to minimize distortions in the forged piece. This phase prior to mass production consumes time and material resources, which makes the final product more expensive. The forging tools are usually constituted by various parts made of different grades of steel, which in turn have different mechanical properties and therefore suffer different degrees of strain. Furthermore, the tools used in the hot forging are exposed to a thermal field that also induces strain or stress based on the degree of confinement of the piece. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the assembly is determined by the contact between the different pieces. The numerical simulation allows to analyse different configurations and anticipate possible defects before tool making, thus, reducing the costs of this preliminary phase. In order to improve the dimensional quality of the manufactured parts, the work presented here focuses on the application of a numerical model to a hot forging manufacturing process in order to predict the areas of the forging die subjected to large deformations. The thermo-mechanical model developed and implemented with free software (Code-Aster) includes the strains of thermal origin, strains during forge impact and contact effects. The numerical results are validated with experimental measurements in a tooling set that produces forged crankshafts for the automotive industry. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental tests. Thereby, a very useful tool for the design of tooling sets for hot forging is achieved.

  7. Strain Localization and Weakening Processes in Viscously Deforming Rocks: Numerical Modeling Based on Laboratory Torsion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehmann, M.; Brune, S.; Nardini, L.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Strain localization is an ubiquitous process in earth materials observed over a broad range of scales in space and time. Localized deformation and the formation of shear zones and faults typically involves material softening by various processes, like shear heating and grain size reduction. Numerical modeling enables us to study the complex physical and chemical weakening processes by separating the effect of individual parameters and boundary conditions. Using simple piece-wise linear functions for the parametrization of weakening processes allows studying a system at a chosen (lower) level of complexity (e.g. Cyprych et al., 2016). In this study, we utilize a finite element model to test two weakening laws that reduce the strength of the material depending on either the I) amount of accumulated strain or II) deformational work. Our 2D Cartesian models are benchmarked to single inclusion torsion experiments performed at elevated temperatures of 900 °C and pressures of up to 400 MPa (Rybacki et al., 2014). The experiments were performed on Carrara marble samples containing a weak Solnhofen limestone inclusion at a maximum strain rate of 2.0*10-4 s-1. Our models are designed to reproduce shear deformation of a hollow cylinder equivalent to the laboratory setup, such that material leaving one side of the model in shear direction enters again on the opposite side using periodic boundary conditions. Similar to the laboratory tests, we applied constant strain rate and constant stress boundary conditions.We use our model to investigate the time-dependent distribution of stress and strain and the effect of different parameters. For instance, inclusion rotation is shown to be strongly dependent on the viscosity ratio between matrix and inclusion and stronger ductile weakening increases the localization rate while decreasing shear zone width. The most suitable weakening law for representation of ductile rock is determined by combining the results of parameter tests with

  8. Local stresses, dyke arrest and surface deformation in volcanic edificesand rift zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Brenner

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies indicate that nearly all eruptions in volcanic edifices and rift zones are supplied with magma through fractures (dykes that are opened by magmatic overpressure. While (inferred dyke injections are frequent during unrest periods, volcanic eruptions are, in comparison, infrequent, suggesting that most dykes become arrested at certain depths in the crust, in agreement with field studies. The frequency of dyke arrest can be partly explained by the numerical models presented here which indicate that volcanic edifices and rift zones consisting of rocks of contrasting mechanical properties, such as soft pyroclastic layers and stiff lava flows, commonly develop local stress fields that encourage dyke arrest. During unrest, surface deformation studies are routinely used to infer the geometries of arrested dykes, and some models (using homogeneous, isotropic half-spaces infer large grabens to be induced by such dykes. Our results, however, show that the dyke-tip tensile stresses are normally much greater than the induced surface stresses, making it difficult to explain how a dyke can induce surface stresses in excess of the tensile (or shear strength while the same strength is not exceeded at the (arrested dyke tip. Also, arrested dyke tips in eroded or active rift zones are normally not associated with dyke-induced grabens or normal faults, and some dykes arrested within a few metres of the surface do not generate faults or grabens. The numerical models show that abrupt changes in Young's moduli(stiffnesses, layers with relatively high dyke-normal compressive stresses (stress barriers, and weak horizontal contacts may make the dyke-induced surface tensile stresses too small for significant fault or graben formation to occur in rift zones or volcanic edifices. Also, these small surface stresses may have no simple relation to the dyke geometry or the depth to its tip. Thus, for a layered crust with weak contacts, straightforward

  9. A numerical model of mantle convection with deformable, mobile continental lithosphere within three-dimensional spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M.

    2010-12-01

    A new numerical simulation model of mantle convection with a compositionally and rheologically heterogeneous, deformable, mobile continental lithosphere is presented for the first time by using three-dimensional regional spherical-shell geometry (Yoshida, 2010, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.). The numerical results revealed that one of major factor that realizes the supercontinental breakup and subsequent continental drift is a pre-existing, weak (low-viscosity) continental margin (WCM) in the supercontinent. Characteristic tectonic structures such as young orogenic belts and suture zones in a continent are expected to be mechanically weaker than the stable part of the continental lithosphere with the cratonic root (or cratonic lithosphere) and yield lateral viscosity variations in the continental lithosphere. In the present-day Earth's lithosphere, the pre-existing, mechanically weak zones emerge as a diffuse plate boundary. However, the dynamic role of the WCM in the stability of continental lithosphere has not been understood in terms of geophysics. In my numerical model, a compositionally buoyant and highly viscous continental assemblage with pre-existing WCMs, analogous to the past supercontinent, is modeled and imposed on well-developed mantle convection whose vigor of convection, internal heating rate, and rheological parameters are appropriate for the Earth's mantle. The visco-plastic oceanic lithosphere and the associated subduction of oceanic plates are incorporated. The time integration of the advection of continental materials with zero chemical diffusion is performed by a tracer particle method. The time evolution of mantle convection after setting the model supercontinent is followed over 800 Myr. Earth-like continental drift is successfully reproduced, and the characteristic thermal interaction between the mantle and the continent/supercontinent is observed in my new numerical model. Results reveal that the WCM protects the cratonic lithosphere from being

  10. Modelling of deformation process for the layer of elastoviscoplastic media under surface action of periodic force of arbitrary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, V. V.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Description of deflected mode for different types of materials under action of external force plays special role for wide variety of applications - from construction mechanics to circuits engineering. This article con-siders the problem of plastic deformation of the layer of elastoviscolastic soil under surface periodic force. The problem was solved with use of the modified lumped parameters approach which takes into account close to real distribution of normal stress in the depth of the layer along with changes in local mechanical properties of the material taking place during plastic deformation. Special numeric algorithm was worked out for computer modeling of the process. As an example of application suggested algorithm was realized for the deformation of the layer of elasoviscoplastic material by the source of external lateral force with the parameters of real technological process of soil compaction.

  11. Geodetic Measurements and Numerical Modeling of the Deformation Cycle for Okmok Volcano, Alaska: 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, S. J.; Feigl, K.; Thurber, C. H.; Lu, Z.; Masterlark, T.

    2011-12-01

    Okmok Volcano is an active caldera located on Umnak Island in the Aleutian Island arc. Okmok, having recently erupted in 1997 and 2008, is well suited for multidisciplinary studies of magma migration and storage because it hosts a good seismic network and has been the subject of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images that span the recent eruption cycle. Interferometric SAR can characterize surface deformation in space and time, while data from the seismic network provides important information about the interior processes and structure of the volcano. We conduct a complete time series analysis of deformation of Okmok with images collected by the ERS and Envisat satellites on more than 100 distinct epochs between 1993 and 2008. We look for changes in inter-eruption inflation rates, which may indicate inelastic rheologic effects. For the time series analysis, we analyze the gradient of phase directly, without unwrapping, using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT) [Feigl and Thurber, 2009]. This approach accounts for orbital and atmospheric effects and provides realistic estimates of the uncertainties of the model parameters. We consider several models for the source, including the prolate spheroid model and the Mogi model, to explain the observed deformation. Using a medium that is a homogeneous half space, we estimate the source depth to be centered at about 4 km below sea level, consistent with the findings of Masterlark et al. [2010]. As in several other geodetic studies, we find the source to be approximately centered beneath the caldera. To account for rheologic complexity, we next apply the Finite Element Method to simulate a pressurized cavity embedded in a medium with material properties derived from body wave seismic tomography. This approach allows us to address the problem of unreasonably large pressure values implied by a Mogi source with a radius of about 1 km by experimenting with larger sources. We also compare the time dependence of the

  12. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  13. Experimental and numerical analyses of different extended surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diani, A; Mancin, S; Zilio, C; Rossetto, L

    2012-01-01

    Air is a cheap and safe fluid, widely used in electronic, aerospace and air conditioning applications. Because of its poor heat transfer properties, it always flows through extended surfaces, such as finned surfaces, to enhance the convective heat transfer. In this paper, experimental results are reviewed and numerical studies during air forced convection through extended surfaces are presented. The thermal and hydraulic behaviours of a reference trapezoidal finned surface, experimentally evaluated by present authors in an open-circuit wind tunnel, has been compared with numerical simulations carried out by using the commercial CFD software COMSOL Multiphysics. Once the model has been validated, numerical simulations have been extended to other rectangular finned configurations, in order to study the effects of the fin thickness, fin pitch and fin height on the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of the extended surfaces. Moreover, several pin fin surfaces have been simulated in the same range of operating conditions previously analyzed. Numerical results about heat transfer and pressure drop, for both plain finned and pin fin surfaces, have been compared with empirical correlations from the open literature, and more accurate equations have been developed, proposed, and validated.

  14. Analysis of the finite deformation response of shape memory polymers: II. 1D calibration and numerical implementation of a finite deformation, thermoelastic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Chen, Yi-Chao

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the analysis of the finite deformation response of a shape memory polymer (SMP). This two-part paper addresses the thermomechanical characterization of SMPs, the derivation of material parameters for a finite deformation phenomenological model, the numerical implementation of such a model, and the predictions from the model with comparisons to experimental data. Part II of this work presents the calibration of a previously developed thermoelastic constitutive model which is capable of handling finite deformations. The model is proposed in a general three-dimensional framework; however, this work focuses on reducing the model to one dimension and subsequently calibrating the model using experimental data obtained in part I. The one-dimensional numerical implementation of the model is presented, including the handling of the system of nonlinear equations and the integral term resulting from the constitutive model. The model is then used to predict the uniaxial shape memory effect. Results indicate good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results, but the predictions do not capture the irrecoverable deformation present at the end of recovery

  15. Comment on 'Surface thermodynamics, surface stress, equations at surfaces and triple lines for deformable bodies'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, E M, E-mail: gutman@bgu.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2010-10-27

    In a recent publication by Olives (2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 085005) he studied 'the thermodynamics and mechanics of the surface of a deformable body, following and refining the general approach of Gibbs' and believed that 'a new definition of the surface stress is given'. However, using the usual way of deriving the equations of Gibbs-Duhem type the author, nevertheless, has fallen into a mathematical discrepancy because he has tried to unite in one equation different thermodynamic systems and 'a new definition of the surface stress' has appeared known in the usual theory of elasticity. (comment)

  16. Estimating surface fluxes using eddy covariance and numerical ogive optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievers, J.; Papakyriakou, T.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2015-01-01

    Estimating representative surface fluxes using eddy covariance leads invariably to questions concerning inclusion or exclusion of low-frequency flux contributions. For studies where fluxes are linked to local physical parameters and up-scaled through numerical modelling efforts, low-frequency con......Estimating representative surface fluxes using eddy covariance leads invariably to questions concerning inclusion or exclusion of low-frequency flux contributions. For studies where fluxes are linked to local physical parameters and up-scaled through numerical modelling efforts, low...

  17. Cytocompatibility evaluation and surface characterization of TiNi deformed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Shri, Dayangku Noorfazidah, E-mail: AWANGSHRI.Dayangku@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koichi [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akiko [Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    Effect of high-pressure torsion (HPT) deformation on biocompatibility and surface chemistry of TiNi was systematically investigated. Ti–50 mol% Ni was subjected to HPT straining for different numbers of turns, N = 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 at a rotation speed of 1 rpm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations after 7 days of cell culture revealed the changes in the surface oxide composition, enrichment of Ti and detection of nitrogen derived from organic molecules in the culture medium. Plating efficiency of L929 cells was slightly increased by HPT deformation though no significant difference was observed. Albumin adsorption was higher in HPT-deformed samples, while vitronectin adsorption was peaked at N = 1. HPT deformation was also found to effectively suppress the Ni ion release from the TiNi samples into the cell culture medium even after the low degree of deformation at N = 0.25. - Highlights: • Nanostructured Ti–50 mol%Ni alloy was produced using high-pressure torsion. • HPT deformation improved L929 growth on TiNi samples. • Changes in surface chemistry were observed in HPT deformed samples. • Protein adsorption behavior was influenced by the surface chemistry. • Ni ion release was suppressed in HPT deformed samples.

  18. Surface Impedance of Copper MOB Depending on the Annealing Temperature and Deformation Degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovoj, V.A.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Stoev, P.I.; Vinogradov, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    Results of researches of influence of annealing temperature and deformation degree on mechanical features of copper MOB are presented. It is shown that minimal surface resistance is observed in copper samples that were subject to pre-deformation and were annealed in the range of temperatures 873...923 K

  19. Mapping reservoir volume changes during cyclic steam stimulation using tiltmeter-based surface deformation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, J.; Davis, E.J.; Roadarmel, W.H.; Wolhart, S.L.; Marsic, S.; Gusek, R.; Wright, C.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Pinnacle Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Brissenden, S.J.; McGillivray, P. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre; Bourne, S.; Hofstra, P. [Shell International E and P, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    Surface deformation measurements have been effectively used to monitor production, waterflooding, waste injection and steam flooding in oil fields, and in cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) applications. It was shown that further information can be obtained from this technique by inverting the surface deformation for the volumetric deformation at the reservoir level, so that the aerial distribution of volumetric distribution can be identified. A poroelastic model calculated deformation resulting from volumetric changes in the reservoir. A linear geophysical model was then formulated to invert the reservoir volumetric deformation from the measured surface deformation. Constraints were applied to resolve the inversion problem. Theoretical surface deformation was calculated after each inversion from the inverted volumetric deformation distribution which best fit the measured information data, or tilt, at the surface. The technique was then applied to real data from a CSS injection project at Shell Canada's Peace River development in northern Alberta, where several pads of horizontal wells have been developed. A total of 50 tiltmeters were used to monitor half of Pad A and 70 tiltmeters were used to monitor Pad B. Monitoring was used to identify and characterize any hydraulic fracturing that was contributing to injection mechanisms in the reservoir. It was noted that inverting the measured surface tilt for the volumetric change at reservoir levels improved the ability to interpret reservoir processes. It was observed that volumetric changes can be non-uniform with some pad areas deforming more than others. It was concluded that deformation-based, reservoir-level monitoring has proven helpful in ongoing efforts to optimize such variables as the length of well laterals, injection rates, lateral spacing and cycle times. 10 refs., 32 figs.

  20. Numerical modeling of the Near Surface Test Facility No. 1 and No. 2 heater tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, G.; Williams, J.; Boonlualohr, P.; Mathews, I.; Mustoe, G.

    1981-01-01

    Thermomechanical predictive calculations have been undertaken for two full scale heater tests No. 1 and No. 2 at the Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) at Hanford, Washington. Numerical predictions were made of the basaltic rock response involving temperatures, displacements, strains and stresses due to energizing the electrical heaters. The basalt rock mass was modeled as an isotropic thermal material but with temperature dependent thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal expansion. The fractured nature of the basalt necessitated that it be modeled as a cross anisotropic medium with a bi-linear locking stress strain relationship. The cross-anisotropic idealization was selected after characterization studies indicated that a vertical columnar structure persisted throughout the test area and no major throughgoing discontinuities were present. The deformational properties were determined from fracture frequency and orientation, joint deformational data, Goodman Jack results and two rock mass classification schemes. Similar deformational moduli were determined from these techniques, except for the Goodman Jack results. The finite element technique was utilized for both the non-linear thermal and mechanical computations. An incremental stiffness method with residual force correction was employed to solve the non-linear problem by piecewise linearization. Two and three dimensional thermomechanical scoping calculations were made to assess the significance of various parameters and associated errors with geometrical idealizations. Both heater tests were modeled as two dimensional axisymmetric geometry with water assumed to be absent. Instrument response was predicted for all of the thermocouples, extensometers, USBM borehole deformation and IRAD gages for the entire duration of both tests

  1. Numerical analysis of some problems related to the mechanics of pneumatic tires: Finite deformation/rolling contact of a viscoelastic cylinder and finite deformation of cord-reinforced rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, J. T.; Becker, E. B.; Lin, T. L.; Hsieh, K. T.

    1984-01-01

    The formulation and numerical analysis of several problems related to the behavior of pneumatic tires are considered. These problems include the general rolling contact problem of a rubber-like viscoelastic cylinder undergoing finite deformations and the finite deformation of cord-reinforced rubber composites. New finite element models are developed for these problems. Numerical results obtained for several representative cases are presented.

  2. Application of the moving frame method to deformed Willmore surfaces in space forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragoda, Thanuja

    2018-06-01

    The main goal of this paper is to use the theory of exterior differential forms in deriving variations of the deformed Willmore energy in space forms and study the minimizers of the deformed Willmore energy in space forms. We derive both first and second order variations of deformed Willmore energy in space forms explicitly using moving frame method. We prove that the second order variation of deformed Willmore energy depends on the intrinsic Laplace Beltrami operator, the sectional curvature and some special operators along with mean and Gauss curvatures of the surface embedded in space forms, while the first order variation depends on the extrinsic Laplace Beltrami operator.

  3. Finite element modelling of shot peening process: Prediction of the compressive residual stresses, the plastic deformations and the surface integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frija, M.; Hassine, T.; Fathallah, R.; Bouraoui, C.; Dogui, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation of the shot peening process using finite element method. The majority of the controlling parameters of the process have been taken into account. The shot peening loading has been characterised by using energy equivalence between the dynamic impact and a static indentation of a peening shot in the treated surface. The behaviour of the subjected material is supposed to be elastic plastic with damage. An integrated law of the damage proposed by Lemaitre and Chaboche has been used. The proposed model leads to obtain the residual stress, the plastic deformation profiles and the surface damage. An application on a shot peened Ni-based super alloy Waspaloy has been carried out. The comparison of the residual stresses, obtained by X-ray diffraction method and by finite element calculation, shows a good correlation. The in-depth profile of the plastic deformations and the superficial damage values are in good agreement with the experimental observations

  4. Image-based numerical simulation of the local cyclic deformation behavior around cast pore in steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Lihe, E-mail: dlhqian@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Cui, Xiaona; Liu, Shuai [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Chen, Minan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); Ma, Penghui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Xie, Honglan [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (China); Zhang, Fucheng [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University (China); Meng, Jiangying [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University (China)

    2016-12-15

    The local cyclic stress/strain responses around an actual, irregular pore in cast Hadfield steel under fatigue loading are investigated numerically, and compared with those around a spherical and an ellipsoidal pore. The actual pore-containing model takes into account the real shape of the pore imaged via high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and combines both isotropic hardening and Bauschinger effects by using the Chaboche's material model, which enables to realistically simulate the cyclic deformation behaviors around actual pore. The results show that the stress and strain energy density concentration factors (K{sub σ} and K{sub E}) around either an actual irregular pore or an idealized pore increase while the strain concentration factor (K{sub ε}) decreases slightly with increasing the number of fatigue cycles. However, all the three parameters, K{sub σ}, K{sub ε} and K{sub E}, around an actual pore are always several times larger than those around an idealized pore, whatever the number of fatigue cycles. It is suggested that the fatigue properties of cast pore-containing materials cannot be realistically evaluated with any idealized pore models. The feasibility of the methodology presented highlights the potential of its application in the micromechanical understanding of fatigue damage phenomena in cast pore-containing materials.

  5. Urban pavement surface temperature. Comparison of numerical and statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrahmen; Bues, Michel; Bouilloud, Ludovic; Martin, Eric; Chancibaut, Katia

    2015-04-01

    The forecast of pavement surface temperature is very specific in the context of urban winter maintenance. to manage snow plowing and salting of roads. Such forecast mainly relies on numerical models based on a description of the energy balance between the atmosphere, the buildings and the pavement, with a canyon configuration. Nevertheless, there is a specific need in the physical description and the numerical implementation of the traffic in the energy flux balance. This traffic was originally considered as a constant. Many changes were performed in a numerical model to describe as accurately as possible the traffic effects on this urban energy balance, such as tires friction, pavement-air exchange coefficient, and infrared flux neat balance. Some experiments based on infrared thermography and radiometry were then conducted to quantify the effect fo traffic on urban pavement surface. Based on meteorological data, corresponding pavement temperature forecast were calculated and were compared with fiels measurements. Results indicated a good agreement between the forecast from the numerical model based on this energy balance approach. A complementary forecast approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square regression (PLS) was also developed, with data from thermal mapping usng infrared radiometry. The forecast of pavement surface temperature with air temperature was obtained in the specific case of urban configurtation, and considering traffic into measurements used for the statistical analysis. A comparison between results from the numerical model based on energy balance, and PCA/PLS was then conducted, indicating the advantages and limits of each approach.

  6. Modeling of the anode surface deformation in high-current vacuum arcs with AMF contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Jia, Shenli; Qin, Kang; Shi, Zongqian

    2016-01-01

    A high-current vacuum arc subjected to an axial magnetic field is maintained in a diffuse status. With an increase in arc current, the energy carried by the arc column to the anode becomes larger and finally leads to the anode temperature exceeding the melting point of the anode material. When the anode melting pool is formed, and the rotational plasma of the arc column delivers its momentum to the melting pool, the anode melting pool starts to rotate and also flow outwards along the radial direction, which has been photographed by some researchers using high-speed cameras. In this paper, the anode temperature and melting status is calculated using the melting and solidification model. The swirl flow of the anode melting pool and deformation of the anode is calculated using the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model with the volume of fraction (VOF) method. All the models are transient 2D axial-rotational symmetric models. The influence of the impaction force of the arc plasma, electromagnetic force, viscosity force, and surface tension of the liquid metal are all considered in the model. The heat flux density injected into the anode and the arc pressure are obtained from the 3D numerical simulation of the high-current vacuum arc using the MHD model, which gives more realistic parameters for the anode simulation. Simulation results show that the depth of the anode melting pool increases with an increase in the arc current. Some droplets sputter out from the anode surface, which is caused by the inertial centrifugal force of the rotational melting pool and strong plasma pressure. Compared with the previous anode melting model without consideration of anode deformation, when the deformation and swirl flow of the anode melting pool are considered, the anode temperature is relatively lower, and just a little more than the melting point of Cu. This is because of liquid droplets sputtering out of the anode surface taking much of the energy away from the anode surface. The

  7. Surface reconstruction and deformation monitoring of stratospheric airship based on laser scanning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kai; Xie, Yongjie; Ye, Hu; Zhang, Song; Li, Yunfei

    2018-04-01

    Due to the uncertainty of stratospheric airship's shape and the security problem caused by the uncertainty, surface reconstruction and surface deformation monitoring of airship was conducted based on laser scanning technology and a √3-subdivision scheme based on Shepard interpolation was developed. Then, comparison was conducted between our subdivision scheme and the original √3-subdivision scheme. The result shows our subdivision scheme could reduce the shrinkage of surface and the number of narrow triangles. In addition, our subdivision scheme could keep the sharp features. So, surface reconstruction and surface deformation monitoring of airship could be conducted precisely by our subdivision scheme.

  8. Surface thickness effects and splitting of multipole excitations in deformed nuclei. [Sum rule, hydrodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christillin, P [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Lipparini, E; Stringari, S [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica, Trento, Italy

    1978-09-25

    A sum-rule approach is used to study the influence of surface thickness upon the splitting of dipole and isoscalar quadrupole energies in deformed nuclei. It is shown that hydrodynamic model results are recovered in the case of a deformed skin thickness. A constant skin thickness leads in the dipole case to slightly different predictions which seem in better agreement with experiments. The splitting of the isoscalar quadrupole mode is not sensitive to the surface thickness shape.

  9. Numerical study of droplet impact and rebound on superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuan; Wu, Yanchen; Woerner, Martin; Frohnapfel, Bettina

    2017-11-01

    Droplet impact and rebound on superhydrophobic surface is an important process in many applications; among them are developing self-cleaning or anti-icing materials and limiting liquid film formation of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) in exhaust gas pipe. In the latter field, rebound of DEF droplet from wall is desired as an effective mean for avoiding or reducing unwanted solid deposition. Our goal is to numerically study influence of surface wettability on DEF droplet impact and rebound behavior. A phase-field method is chosen, which was implemented in OpenFOAM by us and validated for wetting-related interfacial flow problems. In the present contribution we first numerically reproduce relevant experimental studies in literature, to validate the code for droplet impact and rebound problem. There we study droplet-surface contact time, maximum/instantaneous spreading factor and droplet shape evolution. Our numerical results show good agreement with experimental data. Next we investigate for DEF droplets the effects of diameter, impact velocity and surface wettability on rebound behavior and jumping height. Based on Weber number and equilibrium contact angle, two regimes are identified. We show that surface wettability is a deciding factor for achieving rebound event. This work is supported by Foundation ``Friedrich-und-Elisabeth Boysen Stiftung fuer Forschung und Innovation'' (BOY-127-TP1).

  10. Numerical convergence of discrete exterior calculus on arbitrary surface meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2018-02-13

    Discrete exterior calculus (DEC) is a structure-preserving numerical framework for partial differential equations solution, particularly suitable for simplicial meshes. A longstanding and widespread assumption has been that DEC requires special (Delaunay) triangulations, which complicated the mesh generation process especially for curved surfaces. This paper presents numerical evidence demonstrating that this restriction is unnecessary. Convergence experiments are carried out for various physical problems using both Delaunay and non-Delaunay triangulations. Signed diagonal definition for the key DEC operator (Hodge star) is adopted. The errors converge as expected for all considered meshes and experiments. This relieves the DEC paradigm from unnecessary triangulation limitation.

  11. Slip band distribution and morphology in cyclically deformed nickel polycrystals with ion beam mixed surface films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.; Jones, J.W.; Eridon, J.; Was, G.S.; Rehn, L.E.

    1986-08-01

    It is shown that surface modification by ion beam mixing produces potentially beneficial effects on cyclic deformation phenomena associated with fatigue crack initiation. The principal effects of the modifications are to suppress the formation of the notch-peak surface topography of persistent slip bands (PSBs) and inhibit the net extrusion of PSBs from the free surface. The dominant ''failure mode'' of the surface is changed from extrusion and notch formation to surface film rupture

  12. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CONJUGATE HEAT TRANSFER IN AN INSULATED GLASS UNIT (IGU WITH ACCOUNT FOR ITS DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubev Stanislav Sergeevich

    2012-12-01

    The effects of different climatic impacts lead to the deformation of glasses within an IGU (and its vertical cavity, respectively. Deformation of glasses and vertical cavities reduces the thermal resistance of an IGU. A numerical simulation of conjugate heat transfer within an IGU was implemented as part of the research into this phenomenon. Calculations were performed in ANSYS FLUENT CFD package. Basic equations describing the conservation of mass, conservation of momentum (in the Boussinesq approximation, conservation of energy were solved. Also, the radiation of the cavity wall was taken into account. Vertical walls were considered as non-isothermal, while horizontal walls were adiabatic. Calculations were made for several patterns of glass deformations. Calculation results demonstrate that the heat flow over vertical walls intensifies as the distance between centres of IGU glasses is reduced. The temperature in the central area of the hot glass drops.

  13. Correlations between deformations, surface state and leak rate in metal to metal contact; Correlations entre deformations, etat de surface et debit de fuite au contact metal-metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armand, G; Lapujoulade, J; Paigne, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The study of metal to metal contact from the stand-point of the leak rate has been carried on a copper ring located between two hard-steel flanges. The analysis of the results confirms the hysteresis phenomenon already seen. Some curves (leak rate versus force and leak rate versus true deformation) in semi-logarithmic coordinates are straight lines. Likewise some curves (electrical contact resistance versus force) in bi-logarithmic coordinates are straight lines. All these results can be understood by looking at the conductance introduced by the deformations of the micro-geometry of the surfaces in contact. Some tests carried out in rising the temperature confirm these hypothesis. (authors) [French] L'etude du contact metal-metal du point de vue debit de fuite a ete poursuivie en utilisant un anneau de cuivre place entre brides d'acier dur. L'analyse des resultats confirme le phenomene d'hysteresis deja constate, montre l'influence de l'etat de surface des brides et du joint. Certaines courbes (debit de fuite/force et debit de fuite/deformation rationnelle), en coordonnees semi-logarithmiques, sont des droites. De meme, certaines courbes (resistance de contact/force) en coordonnees bi-logarithmiques, sont des droites. Ces resultats s'interpretent en considerant la conductance produite par la deformation des microgeometries des surfaces en contact. Quelques essais d'elevation de temperature confirment ces resultats. (auteurs)

  14. Quantifying cortical surface harmonic deformation with stereovision during open cranial neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-02-01

    Cortical surface harmonic motion during open cranial neurosurgery is well observed in image-guided neurosurgery. Recently, we quantified cortical surface deformation noninvasively with synchronized blood pressure pulsation (BPP) from a sequence of stereo image pairs using optical flow motion tracking. With three subjects, we found the average cortical surface displacement can reach more than 1 mm and in-plane principal strains of up to 7% relative to the first image pair. In addition, the temporal changes in deformation and strain were in concert with BPP and patient respiration [1]. However, because deformation was essentially computed relative to an arbitrary reference, comparing cortical surface deformation at different times was not possible. In this study, we extend the technique developed earlier by establishing a more reliable reference profile of the cortical surface for each sequence of stereo image acquisitions. Specifically, fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied to the dynamic cortical surface deformation, and the fundamental frequencies corresponding to patient respiration and BPP were identified, which were used to determine the number of image acquisitions for use in averaging cortical surface images. This technique is important because it potentially allows in vivo characterization of soft tissue biomechanical properties using intraoperative stereovision and motion tracking.

  15. A new numerical modelling method for deformation behaviour of metallic porous materials using X-ray computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroszko, M., E-mail: m.doroszko@pb.edu.pl; Seweryn, A., E-mail: a.seweryn@pb.edu.pl

    2017-03-24

    Microtomographic devices have limited imaging accuracy and are often insufficient for proper mapping of small details of real objects (e.g. elements of material mesostructures). This paper describes a new method developed to compensate the effect of X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) inaccuracy in numerical modelling of the deformation process of porous sintered 316 L steel. The method involves modification of microtomographic images where the pore shapes are separated. The modification consists of the reconstruction of fissures and small pores omitted by micro-CT scanning due to the limited accuracy of the measuring device. It enables proper modelling of the tensile deformation process of porous materials. In addition, the proposed approach is compared to methods described in the available literature. As a result of numerical calculations, stress and strain distributions were obtained in deformed sintered 316 L steel. Based on the results, macroscopic stress-strain curves were received. Maximum principal stress distributions obtained by the proposed calculation model, indicated specific locations, where the stress reached a critical value, and fracture initiation occurred. These are bridges with small cross sections and notches in the shape of pores. Based on calculation results, the influence of the deformation mechanism of the material porous mesostructures on their properties at the macroscale is described.

  16. A new numerical modelling method for deformation behaviour of metallic porous materials using X-ray computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroszko, M.; Seweryn, A.

    2017-01-01

    Microtomographic devices have limited imaging accuracy and are often insufficient for proper mapping of small details of real objects (e.g. elements of material mesostructures). This paper describes a new method developed to compensate the effect of X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) inaccuracy in numerical modelling of the deformation process of porous sintered 316 L steel. The method involves modification of microtomographic images where the pore shapes are separated. The modification consists of the reconstruction of fissures and small pores omitted by micro-CT scanning due to the limited accuracy of the measuring device. It enables proper modelling of the tensile deformation process of porous materials. In addition, the proposed approach is compared to methods described in the available literature. As a result of numerical calculations, stress and strain distributions were obtained in deformed sintered 316 L steel. Based on the results, macroscopic stress-strain curves were received. Maximum principal stress distributions obtained by the proposed calculation model, indicated specific locations, where the stress reached a critical value, and fracture initiation occurred. These are bridges with small cross sections and notches in the shape of pores. Based on calculation results, the influence of the deformation mechanism of the material porous mesostructures on their properties at the macroscale is described.

  17. Numerical modeling of deformation and vibrations in the construction of large-size fiberglass cooling tower fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanisovich Shmakov Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of deformation processes and the analysis of the fundamental frequencies of the construction of large-size fiberglass cooling tower fan. Obtain the components of the stress-strain state structure based on imported gas dynamic and thermal loads and the form of fundamental vibrations. The analysis of fundamental frequencies, the results of which have been proposed constructive solutions to reduce the probability of failure of the action of aeroelastic forces.

  18. Method of predicting surface deformation in the form of sinkholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudek, M.; Arkuszewski, J.

    1980-06-01

    Proposes a method for predicting probability of sinkhole shaped subsidence, number of funnel-shaped subsidences and size of individual funnels. The following factors which influence the sudden subsidence of the surface in the form of funnels are analyzed: geologic structure of the strata between mining workings and the surface, mining depth, time factor, and geologic disolocations. Sudden surface subsidence is observed only in the case of workings situated up to a few dozen meters from the surface. Using the proposed method is explained with some examples. It is suggested that the method produces correct results which can be used in coal mining and in ore mining. (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  19. Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.

  20. Numerical Calculation of Effect of Elastic Deformation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Rocket

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Laith K.; Chen, Dongyang; Rui, Xiaoting

    2014-01-01

    The application and workflow of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)/Computational Structure Dynamics (CSD) on solving the static aeroelastic problem of a slender rocket are introduced. To predict static aeroelastic behavior accurately, two-way coupling and inertia relief methods are used to calculate the static deformations and aerodynamic characteristics of the deformed rocket. The aerodynamic coefficients of rigid rocket are computed firstly and compared with the experimental data, which ver...

  1. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Low Temperature Surface Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Gaseous Nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of two commercial austenitic stainless steels: AISI 304 and EN 1.4369. The materials were plastically deformed to different equivalent strains by uniaxial...... demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that, in particular, strain-induced martensite has a large influence on the nitrided zone....

  2. 2D numerical modeling of gravity-driven giant-scale deformation processes in the offshore Barreirinhas Basin (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Francesco; Manconi, Andrea; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    Gravity-driven deformation processes at continental passive margins occur at different scales, from small-scale turbidity currents and sediment slides, to large-scale mass transport complexes (MTCs), to the giant-scale deep water fold and thrust belts (DW-FTBs), which affect most or the entire sedimentary sequence. This kind of giant structures, quite widespread in passive margins, may be active for tens of millions of years. In this context, the Brazilian Atlantic margin hosts several well-known DW-FTBs detached on both shale and salt décollement. Despite of their relevant scientific and economic importance, the mechanical processes driving the onset and evolution of these giant-scale structures are still poorly investigated. In this work, we focus on the shale décollement DW-FTB of the Barreirinhas Basin, where the continental slope has been affected by multi-phase gravitational processes since the Late Cretaceous. This DW-FTB consists of a linked fault system of listric normal faults updip and thrust faults downdip, detached over a common concave upward décollement surface. From the onshore extensional to the offshore compressional domain the DW-FTB is about 50 km wide and involve a sedimentary sequence up to 5 km thick. Shortening within the compressional domain is accommodated almost entirely from a single thrust ramp with a large related anticline fold. Previous studies have shown that the main activity phases of the gravitational processes are closely linked to significant increases in the sediment supply within the basin. Indeed, the highest deformation rate, accounting for about 80% of the net strain, occurred in the Upper Miocene following a drainage rearrangement which led to the birth of the modern Amazon River drainage system. The Barreirinhas Basin DW-FTB entails a rather simple geometrical structure, which can be well schematized, therefore is particularly suitable for numerical simulations aimed to study and understand the dynamics of DW-FTB at

  3. Effects of angular dependence of surface diffuseness in deformed nuclei on Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Malov, L.A.; Scamps, G.; Lacroix, D.

    2014-01-01

    The angular dependence of surface diffuseness is further discussed. The results of self-consistent calculations are compared with those obtained with the phenomenological mean-field potential. The rather simple parametrizations are suggested. The effects of surface polarization and hexadecapole deformation on the height of the Coulomb barrier are revealed. (authors)

  4. On the evolution of surface roughness during deformation of polycrystalline aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, WP; van Tijum, Redmer; de Hosson, JTM

    Surface roughening of polycrystalline Al-Mg alloys during tensile deformation is investigated using white light confocal microscopy. Materials are tested that differ only in grain size. A height-height correlation technique is used to analyze the data. The surface obeys self-affine scaling on length

  5. Estimation of Surface Deformation due to Pasni Earthquake Using SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Shahzad, M. I.; Nazeer, M.; Kazmi, J. H.

    2018-04-01

    Earthquake cause ground deformation in sedimented surface areas like Pasni and that is a hazard. Such earthquake induced ground displacements can seriously damage building structures. On 7 February 2017, an earthquake with 6.3 magnitudes strike near to Pasni. We have successfully distinguished widely spread ground displacements for the Pasni earthquake by using InSAR-based analysis with Sentinel-1 satellite C-band data. The maps of surface displacement field resulting from the earthquake are generated. Sentinel-1 Wide Swath data acquired from 9 December 2016 to 28 February 2017 was used to generate displacement map. The interferogram revealed the area of deformation. The comparison map of interferometric vertical displacement in different time period was treated as an evidence of deformation caused by earthquake. Profile graphs of interferogram were created to estimate the vertical displacement range and trend. Pasni lies in strong earthquake magnitude effected area. The major surface deformation areas are divided into different zones based on significance of deformation. The average displacement in Pasni is estimated about 250 mm. Maximum pasni area is uplifted by earthquake and maximum uplifting occurs was about 1200 mm. Some of areas was subsidized like the areas near to shoreline and maximum subsidence was estimated about 1500 mm. Pasni is facing many problems due to increasing sea water intrusion under prevailing climatic change where land deformation due to a strong earthquake can augment its vulnerability.

  6. Orientation and deformation of mineral crystals in tooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Todoh, Masahiro; Niida, Atsushi; Shibuya, Ryota; Kitami, Shunsuke; Tadano, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest material in the human body, and it is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp)-like mineral particles. As HAp has a hexagonal crystal structure, X-ray diffraction methods can be used to analyze the crystal structure of HAp in teeth. Here, the X-ray diffraction method was applied to the surface of tooth enamel to measure the orientation and strain of the HAp crystals. The c-axis of the hexagonal crystal structure of HAp was oriented to the surface perpendicular to the tooth enamel covering the tooth surface. Thus, the strain of HAp at the surface of teeth was measured by X-ray diffraction from the (004) lattice planes aligned along the c-axis. The X-ray strain measurements were conducted on tooth specimens with intact surfaces under loading. Highly accurate strain measurements of the surface of tooth specimens were performed by precise positioning of the X-ray irradiation area during loading. The strains of the (004) lattice plane were measured at several positions on the surface of the specimens under compression along the tooth axis. The strains were obtained as tensile strains at the labial side of incisor tooth specimens. In posterior teeth, the strains were different at different measurement positions, varying from tensile to compressive types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical simulation of porous burners and hole plate surface burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Stevan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the free flame burners the porous medium burners, especially those with flame stabilization within the porous material, are characterized by a reduction of the combustion zone temperatures and high combustion efficiency, so that emissions of pollutants are minimized. In the paper the finite-volume numerical tool for calculations of the non-isothermal laminar steady-state flow, with chemical reactions in laminar gas flow as well as within porous media is presented. For the porous regions the momentum and energy equations have appropriate corrections. In the momentum equations for the porous region an additional pressure drop has to be considered, which depends on the properties of the porous medium. For the heat transfer within the porous matrix description a heterogeneous model is considered. It treats the solid and gas phase separately, but the phases are coupled via a convective heat exchange term. For the modeling of the reaction of the methane laminar combustion the chemical reaction scheme with 164 reactions and 20 chemical species was used. The proposed numerical tool is applied for the analyses of the combustion and heat transfer processes which take place in porous and surface burners. The numerical experiments are accomplished for different powers of the porous and surface burners, as well as for different heat conductivity character is tics of the porous regions.

  8. Numerical Calculation of Effect of Elastic Deformation on Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith K. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application and workflow of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD/Computational Structure Dynamics (CSD on solving the static aeroelastic problem of a slender rocket are introduced. To predict static aeroelastic behavior accurately, two-way coupling and inertia relief methods are used to calculate the static deformations and aerodynamic characteristics of the deformed rocket. The aerodynamic coefficients of rigid rocket are computed firstly and compared with the experimental data, which verified the accuracy of CFD output. The results of the analysis for elastic rocket in the nonspinning and spinning states are compared with the rigid ones. The results highlight that the rocket deformation aspects are decided by the normal force distribution along the rocket length. Rocket deformation becomes larger with increasing the flight angle of attack. Drag and lift force coefficients decrease and pitching moment coefficients increase due to rocket deformations, center of pressure location forwards, and stability of the rockets decreases. Accordingly, the flight trajectory may be affected by the change of these aerodynamic coefficients and stability.

  9. Computational mesh generation for vascular structures with deformable surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, S. de; Laffargue, F.; Breeuwer, M.; Vosse, F.N. van de; Gerritsen, F.A.; Philips Medical Systems, Best

    2006-01-01

    Computational blood flow and vessel wall mechanics simulations for vascular structures are becoming an important research tool for patient-specific surgical planning and intervention. An important step in the modelling process for patient-specific simulations is the creation of the computational mesh based on the segmented geometry. Most known solutions either require a large amount of manual processing or lead to a substantial difference between the segmented object and the actual computational domain. We have developed a chain of algorithms that lead to a closely related implementation of image segmentation with deformable models and 3D mesh generation. The resulting processing chain is very robust and leads both to an accurate geometrical representation of the vascular structure as well as high quality computational meshes. The chain of algorithms has been tested on a wide variety of shapes. A benchmark comparison of our mesh generation application with five other available meshing applications clearly indicates that the new approach outperforms the existing methods in the majority of cases. (orig.)

  10. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Magnetohydrodynamic Flow and Deformation of Electrolyte-Metal Interface in Aluminum Electrolysis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jinsong; Rudshaug, Magne; Droste, Christian; Jorgensen, Robert; Giskeodegard, Nils-Haavard

    2018-06-01

    A computational fluid dynamics based multiphase magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow model for simulating the melt flow and bath-metal interface deformation in realistic aluminum reduction cells is presented. The model accounts for the complex physics of the MHD problem in aluminum reduction cells by coupling two immiscible fluids, electromagnetic field, Lorentz force, flow turbulence, and complex cell geometry with large length scale. Especially, the deformation of bath-metal interface is tracked directly in the simulation, and the condition of constant anode-cathode distance (ACD) is maintained by moving anode bottom dynamically with the deforming bath-metal interface. The metal pad deformation and melt flow predicted by the current model are compared to the predictions using a simplified model where the bath-metal interface is assumed flat. The effects of the induced electric current due to fluid flow and the magnetic field due to the interior cell current on the metal pad deformation and melt flow are investigated. The presented model extends the conventional simplified box model by including detailed cell geometry such as the ledge profile and all channels (side, central, and cross-channels). The simulations show the model sensitivity to different side ledge profiles and the cross-channel width by comparing the predicted melt flow and metal pad heaving. In addition, the model dependencies upon the reduction cell operation conditions such as ACD, current distribution on cathode surface and open/closed channel top, are discussed.

  12. Study on municipal road cracking and surface deformation based on image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haitao; Wang, Shuai; Tan, Jizong

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the digital image recognition technology of concrete structure cracks and deformation of binocular vision technology detection of civil engineering structure have made substantial development. As a result, people's understanding of the road engineering structure cracking and surface deformation recognition gives rise to a new situation. For the research on digital image concrete structure cracking and masonry structure surface deformation recognition technology, the key is to break through in the method, and to improve the traditional recognition technology and mode. Only in this way can we continuously improve the security level of the highway, to adapt to the new requirements of the development of new urbanization and modernization. This thesis focuses on and systematically analyzes the digital image road engineering structure cracking and key technologies of surface deformation recognition and its engineering applications. In addition, we change the concrete structure cracking and masonry structure surface deformation recognition pattern, and realize the breakthrough and innovation of the road structure safety testing means and methods.

  13. Ra and the average effective strain of surface asperities deformed in metal-working processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras; Petersen, A. S

    1975-01-01

    Based upon a slip-line analysis of the plastic deformation of surface asperities, a theory is developed determining the Ra-value (c.l.a.) and the average effective strain in the surface layer when deforming asperities in metal-working processes. The ratio between Ra and Ra0, the Ra-value after...... and before deformation, is a function of the nominal normal pressure and the initial slope γ0 of the surface asperities. The last parameter does not influence Ra significantly. The average effective strain View the MathML sourcege in the deformed surface layer is a function of the nominal normal pressure...... and γ0. View the MathML sourcege is highly dependent on γ0, View the MathML sourcege increasing with increasing γ0. It is shown that the Ra-value and the strain are hardly affected by the normal pressure until interacting deformation of the asperities begins, that is until the limit of Amonton's law...

  14. A Review of Surface Deformation and Strain Measurement Using Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Sze-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.

  15. Experimental constraints on forecasting the location of volcanic eruptions from pre-eruptive surface deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldstrand, Frank; Galland, Olivier; Hallot, Erwan; Burchardt, Steffi

    2018-02-01

    Volcanic eruptions pose a threat to lives and property when volcano flanks and surroundings are densely populated. The local impact of an eruption depends firstly on its location, whether it occurs near a volcano summit, or down on the flanks. Then forecasting, with a defined accuracy, the location of a potential, imminent eruption would significantly improve the assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. Currently, the conventional volcano monitoring methods based on the analysis of surface deformation assesses whether a volcano may erupt but are not implemented to locate imminent eruptions in real time. Here we show how surface deformation induced by ascending eruptive feeders can be used to forecast the eruption location through a simple geometrical analysis. Our analysis builds on the results of 33 scaled laboratory experiments simulating magma intrusions in a brittle crust, during which the intrusion-induced surface deformation was systematically monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. In all the experiments, surface deformation preceding the eruptions resulted in systematic uplift, regardless of the intrusion shape. The analysis of the surface deformation patterns leads to the definition of a vector between the centre of the uplifted zone and the point of maximum uplift, which systematically acted as a precursor to the eruption’s location. The temporal evolution of this vector indicated the direction in which the subsequent eruption would occur and ultimately the location itself, irrespective of the feeder shapes. Our findings represent a new approach on how surface deformation on active volcanoes could be analysed and used prior to an eruption with a real potential to improve hazard mitigation.

  16. Experimental Constraints on Forecasting the Location of Volcanic Eruptions from Pre-eruptive Surface Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Guldstrand

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions pose a threat to lives and property when volcano flanks and surroundings are densely populated. The local impact of an eruption depends firstly on its location, whether it occurs near a volcano summit, or down on the flanks. Then forecasting, with a defined accuracy, the location of a potential, imminent eruption would significantly improve the assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. Currently, the conventional volcano monitoring methods based on the analysis of surface deformation assesses whether a volcano may erupt but are not implemented to locate imminent eruptions in real time. Here we show how surface deformation induced by ascending eruptive feeders can be used to forecast the eruption location through a simple geometrical analysis. Our analysis builds on the results of 33 scaled laboratory experiments simulating the emplacement of viscous magma intrusions in a brittle, cohesive Coulomb crust under lithostatic stress conditions. The intrusion-induced surface deformation was systematically monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. In all the experiments, surface deformation preceding the eruptions resulted in systematic uplift, regardless of the intrusion shape. The analysis of the surface deformation patterns leads to the definition of a vector between the center of the uplifted area and the point of maximum uplift, which systematically acted as a precursor to the eruption's location. The temporal evolution of this vector indicated the direction in which the subsequent eruption would occur and ultimately the location itself, irrespective of the feeder shapes. Our findings represent a new approach on how surface deformation on active volcanoes that are not in active rifts could be analysed and used prior to an eruption with a real potential to improve hazard mitigation.

  17. A numerical method for osmotic water flow and solute diffusion with deformable membrane boundaries in two spatial dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lingxing; Mori, Yoichiro

    2017-12-01

    Osmotic forces and solute diffusion are increasingly seen as playing a fundamental role in cell movement. Here, we present a numerical method that allows for studying the interplay between diffusive, osmotic and mechanical effects. An osmotically active solute obeys a advection-diffusion equation in a region demarcated by a deformable membrane. The interfacial membrane allows transmembrane water flow which is determined by osmotic and mechanical pressure differences across the membrane. The numerical method is based on an immersed boundary method for fluid-structure interaction and a Cartesian grid embedded boundary method for the solute. We demonstrate our numerical algorithm with the test case of an osmotic engine, a recently proposed mechanism for cell propulsion.

  18. Detection of surface deformation and ionospheric perturbation by the North Korea nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. C.; Lee, W. J.; Sohn, D. H.; Lee, D. K.; Jung, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    We used remote sensing data to detect the changes on surface and ionosphere due to the North Korea nuclear test. To analyze the surface deformation before and after the 6th North Korea (NK) nuclear test, we used Satellite Aperture Radar (SAR) images. It was reported that there were some surface deformation with about 10 cm by the 4th test (Wei, 2017) and the 5th test (Jo, 2017) using Interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique. However we could not obtain surface deformation by the 6th test using InSAR with Advanced Land Observation Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) data because of low coherence in the area close to the epicenter. Although the low coherence can be occurred due to several reasons, the main reason may be large deformation in this particular case. Therefore we applied pixel offset method to measure the amount of surface deformation in the area with low coherence. Pixel offset method calculates the deformation in the directions along track and Line-of-Sight (LOS) using cross correlation of intensity of two SAR images before and after the event for a pixel and is used frequently to obtain large deformation of glacier (e.g. Lee et al., 2015). Applying pixel offset method to the area of the 6th NK nuclear test, we obtained about 3 m surface deformation in maximum. It seems that the larger deformation occurs as the mountain slope is steeper.We then analyzed ionospheric perturbation using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data. If acoustic wave by a nuclear test goes up to the ionosphere and disturbs electron density, then the changes in slant total electron content (STEC) may be detected by GNSS satellites. STEC perturbation has been reported in the previous NK nuclear tests (e.g. Park et al., 2011). We analyzed the third order derivatives of STEC for 51 GNSS stations in South Korea and found that some perturbation were appeared at 4 stations about 20 40 minutes after the test.

  19. Macro-carriers of plastic deformation of steel surface layers detected by digital image correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanitsa, D. G., E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Ustinov, A. M., E-mail: artemustinov@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Potekaev, A. I., E-mail: potekaev@spti.tsu.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kopanitsa, G. D., E-mail: georgy.kopanitsa@mail.com [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a study of characteristics of an evolution of deformation fields in surface layers of medium-carbon low-alloy specimens under compression. The experiments were performed on the “Universal Testing Machine 4500” using a digital stereoscopic image processing system Vic-3D. A transition between stages is reflected as deformation redistribution on the near-surface layers. Electronic microscopy shows that the structure of the steel is a mixture of pearlite and ferrite grains. A proportion of pearlite is 40% and ferrite is 60%.

  20. Nuclear-deformation energies according to a liquid-drop model with a sharp surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocki, J.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    We present an atlas of 665 deformation-energy maps and 150 maps of other properties of interest, relevant for nuclear systems idealized as uniformly charged drops endowed with a surface tension. The nuclear shapes are parametrized in terms of two spheres modified by a smoothly fitted quadratic surface of revolution and are specified by three variables: asymmetry, sphere separation, and a neck variable (that goes over into a fragment-deformation variable after scission). The maps and related tables should be useful for the study of macroscopic aspects of nuclear fission and of collisions between any two nuclei in the periodic table

  1. Bayesian estimation of regularization parameters for deformable surface models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.S.; Lehovich, A.; Hanson, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this article the authors build on their past attempts to reconstruct a 3D, time-varying bolus of radiotracer from first-pass data obtained by the dynamic SPECT imager, FASTSPECT, built by the University of Arizona. The object imaged is a CardioWest total artificial heart. The bolus is entirely contained in one ventricle and its associated inlet and outlet tubes. The model for the radiotracer distribution at a given time is a closed surface parameterized by 482 vertices that are connected to make 960 triangles, with nonuniform intensity variations of radiotracer allowed inside the surface on a voxel-to-voxel basis. The total curvature of the surface is minimized through the use of a weighted prior in the Bayesian framework, as is the weighted norm of the gradient of the voxellated grid. MAP estimates for the vertices, interior intensity voxels and background count level are produced. The strength of the priors, or hyperparameters, are determined by maximizing the probability of the data given the hyperparameters, called the evidence. The evidence is calculated by first assuming that the posterior is approximately normal in the values of the vertices and voxels, and then by evaluating the integral of the multi-dimensional normal distribution. This integral (which requires evaluating the determinant of a covariance matrix) is computed by applying a recent algorithm from Bai et. al. that calculates the needed determinant efficiently. They demonstrate that the radiotracer is highly inhomogeneous in early time frames, as suspected in earlier reconstruction attempts that assumed a uniform intensity of radiotracer within the closed surface, and that the optimal choice of hyperparameters is substantially different for different time frames

  2. Complex surface deformation of Akutan volcano, Alaska revealed from InSAR time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; DeGrandpre, Kimberly; Lu, Zhong; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2018-02-01

    Akutan volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc. An intense swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred across the island in 1996. Surface deformation after the 1996 earthquake sequence has been studied using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), yet it is hard to determine the detailed temporal behavior and spatial extent of the deformation due to decorrelation and the sparse temporal sampling of SAR data. Atmospheric delay anomalies over Akutan volcano are also strong, bringing additional technical challenges. Here we present a time series InSAR analysis from 2003 to 2016 to reveal the surface deformation in more detail. Four tracks of Envisat data acquired from 2003 to 2010 and one track of TerraSAR-X data acquired from 2010 to 2016 are processed to produce high-resolution surface deformation, with a focus on studying two transient episodes of inflation in 2008 and 2014. For the TerraSAR-X data, the atmospheric delay is estimated and removed using the common-master stacking method. These derived deformation maps show a consistently uplifting area on the northeastern flank of the volcano. From the TerraSAR-X data, we quantify the velocity of the subsidence inside the caldera to be as high as 10 mm/year, and identify another subsidence area near the ground cracks created during the 1996 swarm.

  3. Numerical simulation of floating bodies in extreme free surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD flow code AMAZON-SC as a numerical wave tank (NWT to study wave loading on a wave energy converter (WEC device in heave motion. This is a surface-capturing method for two fluid flows that treats the free surface as contact surface in the density field that is captured automatically without special provision. A time-accurate artificial compressibility method and high resolution Godunov-type scheme are employed in both fluid regions (air/water. The Cartesian cut cell method can provide a boundary-fitted mesh for a complex geometry with no requirement to re-mesh globally or even locally for moving geometry, requiring only changes to cut cell data at the body contour. Extreme wave boundary conditions are prescribed in an empty NWT and compared with physical experiments prior to calculations of extreme waves acting on a floating Bobber-type device. The validation work also includes the wave force on a fixed cylinder compared with theoretical and experimental data under regular waves. Results include free surface elevations, vertical displacement of the float, induced vertical velocity and heave force for a typical Bobber geometry with a hemispherical base under extreme wave conditions.

  4. Plate Like Convection with Viscous Strain Weakening and Corresponding Surface Deformation Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, L.; Becker, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    How plate tectonic surface motions are generated by mantle convection on Earth and possibly other terrestrial type planets has recently become more readily accessible with fully dynamic convection computations. However, it remains debated how plate-like the behavior in such models truly is, and in particular how the well plate boundary dynamics are captured in models which typically exclude the effects of deformation history and memory. Here, we analyze some of the effects of viscous strain weakening on plate behavior and the interactions between interior convection dynamics and surface deformation patterns. We use the finite element code CitcomCU to model convection in a 3D Cartesian model setup. The models are internally heated, with an Arrhenius-type temperature dependent viscosity including plastic yielding and viscous strain weakening (VSW) and healing (VSWH). VSW can mimic first order features of more complex damage mechanisms such as grain-size dependent rheology. Besides plate diagnostic parameters (Plateness, Mobility, and Toroidal: Poloidal ratio) to analyze the tectonic behavior our models, we also explore how "plate boundaries" link to convective patterns. In a first model series, we analyze general surface deformation patterns without VSW. In the early stages, deformation patterns are clearly co-located with up- and downwelling limbs of convection. Along downwellings strain-rates are high and localized, whereas upwellings tend to lead to broad zones of high deformation. At a more advanced stage, however, the plates' interior is highly deformed due to continuous strain accumulation and resurfaced inherited strain. Including only VSW leads to more localized deformation along downwellings. However, at a more advanced stage plate-like convection fails due an overall weakening of the material. This is prevented including strain healing. Deformation pattern at the surface more closely coincide with the internal convection patterns. The average surface

  5. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with gas pockets using linearized boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongmin; Bose, Sanjeeb; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo; Mani, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are shown to be effective for surface drag reduction under laminar regime by both experiments and simulations (see for example, Ou and Rothstein, Phys. Fluids 17:103606, 2005). However, such drag reduction for fully developed turbulent flow maintaining the Cassie-Baxter state remains an open problem due to high shear rates and flow unsteadiness of turbulent boundary layer. Our work aims to develop an understanding of mechanisms leading to interface breaking and loss of gas pockets due to interactions with turbulent boundary layers. We take advantage of direct numerical simulation of turbulence with slip and no-slip patterned boundary conditions mimicking the superhydrophobic surface. In addition, we capture the dynamics of gas-water interface, by deriving a proper linearized boundary condition taking into account the surface tension of the interface and kinematic matching of interface deformation and normal velocity conditions on the wall. We will show results from our simulations predicting the dynamical behavior of gas pocket interfaces over a wide range of dimensionless surface tensions. Supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Kwanjeong Educational Scholarship Foundation.

  6. Deformation in volcanic areas: a numerical approach for their prediction in Teide volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands); Deformaciones en areas volcanicas: una aproximacin numerica para su prediccion en el volcan Teide (Tenerife, Islas Canarias)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charco, M.; Galan del Sastre, P.

    2011-07-01

    Active volcanic areas study comprises both, observation of physical changes in the natural media and the interpretation of such changes. Nowadays, the application of spatial geodetic techniques, such as GPS (Global Positioning System) or InSAR (Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar), for deformation understanding in volcanic areas, revolutionizes our view of this geodetic signals. Deformation of the Earth's surface reflects tectonic, magmatic and hydrothermal processes at depth. In this way, the prediction of volcanic deformation through physical modelling provides a link between the observation and depth interior processes that could be crucial for volcanic hazards assessment. In this work, we develop a numerical model for elastic deformation study. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is used for the implementation of the numerical model. FEM allows to take into account different morphology, structural characteristics and the mechanical heterogeneities of the medium. Numerical simulations of deformation in Tenerife (Canary Islands) taking into account different medium hypothesis allow us to conclude that the accuracy of the predictions depends on how well the natural system is described. (Author) 22 refs.

  7. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the large deformation bending and folding behavior of magneto-active elastomer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, Robert; VonLockette, Paris R; Roche, Juan; Lofland, Samuel E

    2014-01-01

    This work seeks to provide a framework for the numerical simulation of magneto-active elastomer (MAE) composite structures for use in origami engineering applications. The emerging field of origami engineering employs folding techniques, an array of crease patterns traditionally on a single flat sheet of paper, to produce structures and devices that perform useful engineering operations. Effective means of numerical simulation offer an efficient way to optimize the crease patterns while coupling to the performance and behavior of the active material. The MAE materials used herein are comprised of nominally 30% v/v, 325 mesh barium hexafarrite particles embedded in Dow HS II silicone elastomer compound. These particulate composites are cured in a magnetic field to produce magneto-elastic solids with anisotropic magnetization, e.g. they have a preferred magnetic axis parallel to the curing axis. The deformed shape and/or blocked force characteristics of these MAEs are examined in three geometries: a monolithic cantilever as well as two- and four-segment composite accordion structures. In the accordion structures, patches of MAE material are bonded to a Gelest OE41 unfilled silicone elastomer substrate. Two methods of simulation, one using the Maxwell stress tensor applied as a traction boundary condition and another employing a minimum energy kinematic (MEK) model, are investigated. Both methods capture actuation due to magnetic torque mechanisms that dominate MAE behavior. Comparison with experimental data show good agreement with only a single adjustable parameter, either an effective constant magnetization of the MAE material in the finite element models (at small and moderate deformations) or an effective modulus in the minimum energy model. The four-segment finite element model was prone to numerical locking at large deformation. The effective magnetization and modulus values required are a fraction of the actual experimentally measured values which suggests a

  8. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLEXIBLE BURIED PIPE DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR UNDER VARIOUS BACKFILL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Uğur TERZİ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation characteristics of polyethylene based flexible pipes are different than rigid pipes such as concrete and iron pipes. Deflection patterns and stress-strain behaviors of flexible pipes have strict relation between the engineering properties of backfill and its settlement method. In this study, deformation behavior of a 100 mm HDPE flexible pipe under vertical loads is investigated in laboratory conditions. Steel test box, pressurized membrane, raining system, linear position transducers and strain gauge rosettes are used in the laboratory tests. In order to analyze the buried pipe performance; Masada Derivation Formula which is mostly used by designers is employed. According to the test and mathematical studies, it is understood that relative density of backfill and its settlement method is a considerable effect on buried pipe performance and Masada Derivation method is very efficient for predicting the pipe performance.

  9. Moving Particle Semi-implicit method: a numerical method for thermal hydraulic analysis with topological deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, S.; Oka, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is presented. Partial differential operators in the governing equations, such as gradient and Laplacian, are modeled as particle interactions without grids. A semi-implicit algorithm is used for incompressible flow analysis. In the present study, calculation models of moving solids, thin structures and phase change between liquid and gas are developed. Interaction between breaking waves and a floating solid is simulated using the model of moving solids. Calculations of collapsing water with a vertical thin plate show that water spills out over the plate which is largely deformed. Impingement of water jets on a molten metal pool is analyzed to investigate fundamental processes of vapor explosions. Water, vapor and molten metal are simultaneously calculated with evaporation. This calculation reveals that filaments of the molten metal emerge as the fragmentation process of vapor explosions. The MPS method is useful for complex problems involving moving interfaces even if topological deformations occur. (author)

  10. A connectionist-geostatistical approach for classification of deformation types in ice surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz-Weiss, L. R.; Herzfeld, U. C.; Hale, R. G.; Hunke, E. C.; Bobeck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation is a class of highly non-linear geophysical processes from which one can infer other geophysical variables in a dynamical system. For example, in an ice-dynamic model, deformation is related to velocity, basal sliding, surface elevation changes, and the stress field at the surface as well as internal to a glacier. While many of these variables cannot be observed, deformation state can be an observable variable, because deformation in glaciers (once a viscosity threshold is exceeded) manifests itself in crevasses.Given the amount of information that can be inferred from observing surface deformation, an automated method for classifying surface imagery becomes increasingly desirable. In this paper a Neural Network is used to recognize classes of crevasse types over the Bering Bagley Glacier System (BBGS) during a surge (2011-2013-?). A surge is a spatially and temporally highly variable and rapid acceleration of the glacier. Therefore, many different crevasse types occur in a short time frame and in close proximity, and these crevasse fields hold information on the geophysical processes of the surge.The connectionist-geostatistical approach uses directional experimental (discrete) variograms to parameterize images into a form that the Neural Network can recognize. Recognizing that each surge wave results in different crevasse types and that environmental conditions affect the appearance in imagery, we have developed a semi-automated pre-training software to adapt the Neural Net to chaining conditions.The method is applied to airborne and satellite imagery to classify surge crevasses from the BBGS surge. This method works well for classifying spatially repetitive images such as the crevasses over Bering Glacier. We expand the network for less repetitive images in order to analyze imagery collected over the Arctic sea ice, to assess the percentage of deformed ice for model calibration.

  11. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of stress and deformation of surrounding soil in safety construction of metro station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, I W H; Wang, J A; Au, A S K; Zhou, Y F

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing underground spaces synthetically has become an important task in urban planning and civil engineering in this century. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of technical issues in underground construction and soil engineering, construction safety arouses a great concern in underground construction industry. This paper focused on construction of an underground metro station, numerical analyses are carried out to estimate the possible stresses and deformations of surrounding soil and underground structures under the worse loading conditions to assess the structural design and construction safety. Influences of pit excavation on existing tunnel and surrounding spaces are discussed and the stability of main structure of metro station will be analyzed

  12. Deformation Behavior of Press Formed Shell by Indentation and Its Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation behavior and energy absorbing performance of the press formed aluminum alloy A5052 shells were investigated to obtain the basic information regarding the mutual effect of the shell shape and the indentor. Flat top and hemispherical shells were indented by the flat- or hemispherical-headed indentor. Indentation force in the rising stage was sharper for both shell shapes when the flat indentor was used. Remarkable force increase due to high in-plane compressive stress arisen by the appropriate tool constraint was observed in the early indentation stage, where the hemispherical shell was deformed with the flat-headed indentor. This aspect is preferable for energy absorption performance per unit mass. Less fluctuation in indentation force was achieved in the combination of the hemispherical shell and similar shaped indentor. The consumed energy in the travel length of the indentor equal to the shell height was evaluated. The increase ratio of the energy is prominent when the hemispherical indentor is replaced by a flat-headed one in both shell shapes. Finite element simulation was also conducted. Deformation behaviors were successfully predicted when the kinematic hardening plasticity was introduced in the material model.

  13. The design procedures on brick building against surface ground deformations due to mining and earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, J.; Yang, S. (China University of Mining and Technology (China))

    1992-05-01

    By analysing the effects of ground motion and deformation on surface buildings, and drawing on the experience of damages caused by the Tangshan and Chenhai earthquakes, the authors discuss the design of brick and concrete buildings which are protected against the damaging effects of both earthquakes and mining activities. 5 figs.

  14. An Experimental Comparison of Similarity Assessment Measures for 3D Models on Constrained Surface Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Lulin; Yang, Zhixin

    2010-05-01

    To address the issues in the area of design customization, this paper expressed the specification and application of the constrained surface deformation, and reported the experimental performance comparison of three prevail effective similarity assessment algorithms on constrained surface deformation domain. Constrained surface deformation becomes a promising method that supports for various downstream applications of customized design. Similarity assessment is regarded as the key technology for inspecting the success of new design via measuring the difference level between the deformed new design and the initial sample model, and indicating whether the difference level is within the limitation. According to our theoretical analysis and pre-experiments, three similarity assessment algorithms are suitable for this domain, including shape histogram based method, skeleton based method, and U system moment based method. We analyze their basic functions and implementation methodologies in detail, and do a series of experiments on various situations to test their accuracy and efficiency using precision-recall diagram. Shoe model is chosen as an industrial example for the experiments. It shows that shape histogram based method gained an optimal performance in comparison. Based on the result, we proposed a novel approach that integrating surface constrains and shape histogram description with adaptive weighting method, which emphasize the role of constrains during the assessment. The limited initial experimental result demonstrated that our algorithm outperforms other three algorithms. A clear direction for future development is also drawn at the end of the paper.

  15. Deformation of the Pannonian lithosphere and related tectonic topography: a depth-to-surface analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dombrádi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprints of deep-seated, lithospheric deformation are often recognised on the surface, contributing to topographic evolution, drainage organisation and mass transport. Interactions between deep and surface processes were investigated in the Carpathian-Pannonian region. The lithosphere beneath the Pannonian basin has formerly been extended, significantly stretched and heated up and thus became extremely weak from a rheological point of view. From Pliocene times onward the ‘crème brulee’ ty...

  16. Numerical study of drop spreading on a flat surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Desjardins, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    In this talk, we perform a numerical study of a droplet on a flat surface with special emphasis on capturing the spreading dynamics. The computational methodology employed is tailored for simulating large-scale two-phase flows within complex geometries. It combines a conservative level-set method to capture the liquid-gas interface, a conservative immersed boundary method to represent the solid-fluid interface, and a sub-grid curvature model at the triple-point to implicitly impose the contact angle of the liquid-gas interface. The performance of the approach is assessed in the inertial droplet spreading regime, the viscous spreading regime of high viscosity drops, and with the capillary oscillation of low viscosity droplets.

  17. Numerical simulation of elasto-plastic deformation of composites: evolution of stress microfields and implications for homogenization models

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Segurado, J.; LLorca, J.

    2004-07-01

    The deformation of a composite made up of a random and homogeneous dispersion of elastic spheres in an elasto-plastic matrix was simulated by the finite element analysis of three-dimensional multiparticle cubic cells with periodic boundary conditions. "Exact" results (to a few percent) in tension and shear were determined by averaging 12 stress-strain curves obtained from cells containing 30 spheres, and they were compared with the predictions of secant homogenization models. In addition, the numerical simulations supplied detailed information of the stress microfields, which was used to ascertain the accuracy and the limitations of the homogenization models to include the nonlinear deformation of the matrix. It was found that secant approximations based on the volume-averaged second-order moment of the matrix stress tensor, combined with a highly accurate linear homogenization model, provided excellent predictions of the composite response when the matrix strain hardening rate was high. This was not the case, however, in composites which exhibited marked plastic strain localization in the matrix. The analysis of the evolution of the matrix stresses revealed that better predictions of the composite behavior can be obtained with new homogenization models which capture the essential differences in the stress carried by the elastic and plastic regions in the matrix at the onset of plastic deformation.

  18. Numerically predicting horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison between numerical calculations with use of commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C for the low heat dissipation and high dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation levels. The temperature predictions are 1 degrees C and 6 degrees C lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degrees C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include a experimental uncertainity in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This works demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects, such as axial heat transfer through the spent fuel rods, will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  19. Numerically predicting horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between numerical calculations with use of commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degree C and 23 degree C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation levels. The temperature predictions are 1 degree C and 6 degree C lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degree C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects, such as axial heat transfer through the spent fuel rods, will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  20. Applications of granular-dynamics numerical simulations to asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D. C.; Michel, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Yu, Y.; Ballouz, R.-L.; Matsumura, S.

    2014-07-01

    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a totally different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). (1) We carried out impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes under Earth's gravity [5] and compared the results to laboratory experiments [6] in support of JAXA's Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample-return mission. We tested different projectile shapes and confirmed that the 90-degree cone was the most efficient at excavating mass when impacting 5-mm-diameter glass beads. Results are sensitive to the normal coefficient of restitution and the coefficient of static friction. Preliminary experiments in micro-gravity for similar impact conditions show both the amount of ejected mass and the timescale of the impact process increase, as expected. (2) It has been found (e.g., [7,8]) that ''fresh'' (unreddened) Q-class asteroids have a high probability of recent planetary encounters (˜1 Myr; also see [9]), suggesting that surface refreshening may have occurred due to tidal effects. As an application of the potential effect of tidal interactions, we carried out simulations of Apophis' predicted 2029 encounter with the Earth to see whether regolith motion might occur, using a range of plausible material parameters

  1. Influence of plastic deformation on low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel by gaseous nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of three commercial austenitic stainless steels: AISI 304, EN 1.4369 and Sandvik Nanoflex® with various degrees of austenite stability. The materials were...... analysis, reflected light microscopy and microhardness indentation. The results demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that, in particular, the presence of strain-induced martensite in the initial (deformed) microstructure has a large influence on the nitrided zone....

  2. Numerical Modelling of Metal-Elastomer Spring Nonlinear Response for Low-Rate Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Wojciech

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Advanced knowledge of mechanical characteristics of metal-elastomer springs is useful in their design process and selection. It can also be used in simulating dynamics of machine where such elements are utilized. Therefore this paper presents a procedure for preparing and executing FEM modelling of a single metal-elastomer spring, also called Neidhart’s spring, for low-rate deformations. Elastomer elements were made of SBR rubber of two hardness values: 50°Sh and 70°Sh. For the description of material behaviour the Bergström-Boyce model has been used.

  3. A Combined Experimental and Numerical Modeling Study of the Deformation and Rupture of Axisymmetric Liquid Bridges under Coaxial Stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jinda; Ju, Y Sungtaek

    2015-09-22

    The deformation and rupture of axisymmetric liquid bridges being stretched between two fully wetted coaxial disks are studied experimentally and theoretically. We numerically solve the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations while tracking the deformation of the liquid-air interface using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh method to fully account for the effects of inertia and viscous forces on bridge dynamics. The effects of the stretching velocity, liquid properties, and liquid volume on the dynamics of liquid bridges are systematically investigated to provide direct experimental validation of our numerical model for stretching velocities as high as 3 m/s. The Ohnesorge number (Oh) of liquid bridges is a primary factor governing the dynamics of liquid bridge rupture, especially the dependence of the rupture distance on the stretching velocity. The rupture distance generally increases with the stretching velocity, far in excess of the static stability limit. For bridges with low Ohnesorge numbers, however, the rupture distance stay nearly constant or decreases with the stretching velocity within certain velocity windows due to the relative rupture position switching and the thread shape change. Our work provides an experimentally validated modeling approach and experimental data to help establish foundation for systematic further studies and applications of liquid bridges.

  4. Experimental and numerical analyses of pure copper during ECFE process as a novel severe plastic deformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebrahimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new severe plastic deformation method called equal channel forward extrusion (ECFE process has been proposed and investigated by experimental and numerical approaches on the commercial pure copper billets. The experimental results indicated that the magnitudes of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers micro-hardness have been markedly improved from 114 MPa, 204 MPa and 68 HV as the annealed condition to 269 MPa, 285 MPa and 126 HV after the fourth pass of ECFE process, respectively. In addition, scanning electron microscopy observation of the samples showed that the average grain size of the as-received state which is about 22 μm has been reduced to 1.4 μm after the final pass. The numerical investigation suggested that although one pass ECFE process fabricates material with the mean effective strain magnitude of about 1, the level of imposed effective plastic strain gradually diminishes from the circumference to the center of the deformed billet.

  5. Surface Morphology and Bending Deformation of 2024-T3 Thin Sheets with Laser Peen Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Junfeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser peen forming (LPF is a pure mechanical forming method through accumulated plastic strain, which has been successfully applied in wing components. Experimental investigation has been performed to understand the effect of process parameters such as constraint conditions, sheet thickness and laser energy on surface morphology and bending deformation of 2024-T3 thin sheets of dimensions of 76 mm ×19 mm (length × width. The research results indicated that bulges on the aluminum foil were generated at the bottom surface and not generated at the topmost surface. It was different for transition value of two-way bending deformations of thin sheets after LPF with different constraint conditions. Remain flat thicknesses of thin sheets after LPF were about 1 mm ~ 2 mm for 20 J, 25 J and 30 J. Arc heights and curvatures of 3 mm thickness sheets increased with laser energy and those of 2 mm thickness sheets only made little change. It was found that convex deformation, flat, concave deformation and laser deep drawing for thin sheets with different thicknesses after LPF.

  6. Numerical investigation of compaction of deformable particles with bonded-particle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosta Maksym

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, a novel approach developed for the microscale modelling of particles which undergo large deformations is presented. The proposed method is based on the bonded-particle model (BPM and multi-stage strategy to adjust material and model parameters. By the BPM, modelled objects are represented as agglomerates which consist of smaller ideally spherical particles and are connected with cylindrical solid bonds. Each bond is considered as a separate object and in each time step the forces and moments acting in them are calculated. The developed approach has been applied to simulate the compaction of elastomeric rubber particles as single particles or in a random packing. To describe the complex mechanical behaviour of the particles, the solid bonds were modelled as ideally elastic beams. The functional parameters of solid bonds as well as material parameters of bonds and primary particles were estimated based on the experimental data for rubber spheres. Obtained results for acting force and for particle deformations during uniaxial compression are in good agreement with experimental data at higher strains.

  7. Numerical modeling of the deformations associated with large subduction earthquakes through the seismic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Garaud, J.; Vigny, C.; Cailletaud, G.; Simons, W. J.; Satirapod, C.; Shestakov, N.

    2012-12-01

    A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to model deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes: Sumatra, Japan and Chile. The mesh featuring a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere is refined close to the subduction zones. The model is constrained by 6 years of postseismic data in Sumatra area and over a year of data for Japan and Chile plus preseismic data in the three areas. The coseismic displacements on the subduction plane are inverted from the coseismic displacements using the finite element program and provide the initial stresses. The predicted horizontal postseismic displacements depend upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. Non-dimensionalized by the coseismic displacements, they present an almost uniform value between 500km and 1500km from the trench for elastic plates 80km thick. The time evolution of the velocities is function of the creep law (Maxwell, Burger or power-law creep). Moreover, the forward models predict a sizable far-field subsidence, also with a spatial distribution which varies with the geometry of the asthenosphere and lithosphere. Slip on the subduction interface does not induce such a subsidence. The observed horizontal velocities, divided by the coseismic displacement, present a similar pattern as function of time and distance from trench for the three areas, indicative of similar lithospheric and asthenospheric thicknesses and asthenospheric viscosity. This pattern cannot be fitted with power-law creep in the asthenosphere but indicates a lithosphere 60 to 90km thick and an asthenosphere of thickness of the order of 100km with a burger rheology represented by a Kelvin-Voigt element with a viscosity of 3.1018Pas and μKelvin=μelastic/3. A second Kelvin-Voigt element with very limited amplitude may explain some characteristics of the short time-scale signal. The postseismic subsidence is

  8. Numerical Simulation of Floating Bodies in Extreme Free Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng Zheng; Causon, Derek; Mingham, Clive; Qiang, Ling

    2010-05-01

    A task of the EPSRC funded research project 'Extreme Wave loading on Offshore Wave Energy Devices: a Hierarchical Team Approach' is to investigate the survivability of two wave energy converter (WEC) devices Pelamis and the Manchester Bobber using different CFD approaches. Both devices float on the water surface, generating the electricity from the motion of the waves. In this paper, we describe developments of the AMAZON-SC 3D numerical wave tank (NWT) to study extreme wave loading of a fixed or floating (in Heave motion) structure. The extreme wave formulation as an inlet condition is due to Dalzell (1999) and Ning et. al. (2009) in which a first or second-order Stokes focused wave can be prescribed. The AMAZON-SC 3D code (see e.g. Hu et al. (2009)) uses a cell centred finite volume method of the Godunov-type for the space discretization of the Euler and Navier Stokes equations. The computational domain includes both air and water regions with the air/water boundary captured as a discontinuity in the density field thereby admitting the break up and recombination of the free surface. Temporal discretisation uses the artificial compressibility method and a dual time stepping strategy to maintain a divergence free velocity field. Cartesian cut cells are used to provide a fully boundary-fitted gridding capability on an regular background Cartesian grid. Solid objects are cut out of the background mesh leaving a set of irregularly shaped cells fitted to the boundary. The advantages of the cut cell approach have been outlined previously by Causon et al. (2000, 2001) including its flexibility for dealing with complex geometries whether stationary or in relative motion. The field grid does not need to be recomputed globally or even locally for moving body cases; all that is necessary is to update the local cut cell data at the body contour for as long as the motion continues. The handing of numerical wave paddles and device motion in a NWT is therefore straightforward

  9. Analysis of Shift and Deformation of Planar Surfaces Using the Least Squares Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Matijević

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of measurement developed on the basis of advanced reflectorless distance measurement have paved the way for easier detection and analysis of shift and deformation. A large quantity of collected data points will often require a mathematical model of the surface that fits best into these. Although this can be a complex task, in the case of planar surfaces it is easily done, enabling further processing and analysis of measurement results. The paper describes the fitting of a plane to a set of collected points using the least squares distance, with previously excluded outliers via the RANSAC algorithm. Based on that, a method for analysis of the deformation and shift of planar surfaces is also described.

  10. Transmission-lattice based geometric phase analysis for evaluating the dynamic deformation of a liquid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenxiong; Huang, Xianfu; Liu, Zhanwei

    2014-05-05

    Quantitatively measuring a dynamic liquid surface often presents a challenge due to high transparency, fluidity and specular reflection. Here, a novel Transmission-Lattice based Geometric Phase Analysis (TLGPA) method is introduced. In this method, a special lattice is placed underneath a liquid to be tested and, when viewed from above, the phase of the transmission-lattice image is modulated by the deformation of the liquid surface. Combining this with multi-directional Newton iteration algorithms, the dynamic deformation field of the liquid surface can be calculated from the phase variation of a series of transmission-lattice images captured at different moments. The developed method has the advantage of strong self-adaption ability to initial lattice rotational errors and this is discussed in detail. Dynamic 3D ripples formation and propagation was investigated and the results obtained demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  11. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.; Shao, Y.; Guichen, M.

    2010-01-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Surface severe plastic deformation of AISI 304 via conventional shot peening, severe shot peening and repeening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Okan, E-mail: unalokan78@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Bartın University, Bartın 74100 (Turkey); Varol, Remzi [Mechanical Engineering Department, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta 32200 (Turkey)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • CSP and SSP treatments transform austenite to metastable martensite structure. • Nanograin layer thickness after CSP and SSP is 8 μm and 22 μm, respectively. • Shot peening leads to carbon segregation from coarse to nano grain layer. • Repeening is an effective way to reduce surface roughness. - Abstract: Air blast conventional shot peening (CSP), severe shot peening (SSP) and repeening (RP) as a severe plastic deformation applications on AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel is addressed. Shot peened specimens are investigated based on optical, FESEM and digital microscope. The investigations present the austenite transformation to metastable martensite via mechanical twinning due to plastic deformation with high strain rates. It is found that SSP induces thicker nanograin layer with compared to CSP. In XRD studies, the austenite peaks broaden by means of severe shot peening and FWHM increase reveals the grain size reduction below 25 nm regimes on the surface. In EDAX line analysis of CSP specimen, carbon content increase has been detected from deformed layer through the nanocrystalline layer then the content reduces. The carbon segregation takes place due to the energy level distinction between dislocations and Fe−C bonds. 3d contour digital microscope studies and roughness investigations reveal that SSP has deleterious side effect on the surface roughness and surface flatness. However, RP is an effective way to reduce the surface roughness to reasonable values.

  13. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics; Shao, Y. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). Dept. of Foreign Language; Guichen, M. [Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Dynamic surface deformation of silicone elastomers for management of marine biofouling: laboratory and field studies using pneumatic actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Wang, Qiming; Szott, Lizzy M; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Daniel; Zhao, Xuanhe; López, Gabriel P

    2015-01-01

    Many strategies have been developed to improve the fouling release (FR) performance of silicone coatings. However, biofilms inevitably build on these surfaces over time. Previous studies have shown that intentional deformation of silicone elastomers can be employed to detach biofouling species. In this study, inspired by the methods used in soft-robotic systems, controlled deformation of silicone elastomers via pneumatic actuation was employed to detach adherent biofilms. Using programmed surface deformation, it was possible to release > 90% of biofilm from surfaces in both laboratory and field environments. A higher substratum strain was required to remove biofilms accumulated in the field environment as compared with laboratory-grown biofilms. Further, the study indicated that substratum modulus influences the strain needed to de-bond biofilms. Surface deformation-based approaches have potential for use in the management of biofouling in a number of technological areas, including in niche applications where pneumatic actuation of surface deformation is feasible.

  15. Numerical simulation of flows around deformed aircraft model in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenkov, A. V.; Bosnyakov, S. M.; Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Kuzmina, S. I.; Kursakov, I. A.; Matyash, S. V.; Ishmuratov, F. Z.

    2016-10-01

    To obtain accurate data of calculation method error requires detailed simulation of the experiment in wind tunnel with keeping all features of the model, installation and gas flow. Two examples of such detailed data comparison are described in this paper. The experimental characteristics of NASA CRM model obtained in the ETW wind tunnel (Cologne, Germany), and CFD characteristics of this model obtained with the use of EWT-TsAGI application package are compared. Following comparison is carried out for an airplane model in the T-128 wind tunnel (TsAGI, Russia). It is seen that deformation influence on integral characteristics grows with increasing Re number and, accordingly, the dynamic pressure. CFD methods application for problems of experimental research in the wind tunnel allows to separate viscosity and elasticity effects.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Shock/Detonation-Deformable-Particle Interaction with Constrained Interface Reinitialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan

    2015-06-01

    We will develop a computational model built upon our verified and validated in-house SDT code to provide improved description of the multiphase blast wave dynamics where solid particles are considered deformable and can even undergo phase transitions. Our SDT computational framework includes a reactive compressible flow solver with sophisticated material interface tracking capability and realistic equation of state (EOS) such as Mie-Gruneisen EOS for multiphase flow modeling. The behavior of diffuse interface models by Shukla et al. (2010) and Tiwari et al. (2013) at different shock impedance ratio will be first examined and characterized. The recent constrained interface reinitialization by Shukla (2014) will then be developed to examine if conservation property can be improved. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  17. Characterisation of polycrystal deformation by numerical modelling and neutron diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.

    1997-09-01

    The deformation of polycrystals are modelled using three micron mechanic models; the Taylor model, the Sachs model and Hutchinson's self-consistent (SC) model. The predictions of the rigid plastic Taylor and Sachs models are compared with the predictions of the SC model. As expected, the results of the SC model is about half-way between the upper- and lower-bound models. The influence of the elastic anisotropy is investigated by comparing the SC predictions for aluminium, copper and a hypothetical material (Hybrid) with the elastic anisotropy of copper and the Young's modulus and hardening behaviour of aluminium. It is concluded that the effect of the elastic anisotropy is limited to the very early stages of plasticity, as the deformation pattern is almost identical for the three materials at higher strains. The predictions of the three models are evaluated by neutron diffraction measurements of elastic lattice strains in grain sub-sets within the polycrystal. The two rigid plastic models do not include any material parameters and therefore the predictions of the SC model is more accurate and more detailed than the predictions of the Taylor and Sachs models. The SC model is used to determine the most suitable reflection for technological applications of neutron diffraction, where focus is on the volume average stress state in engineering components. To be able to successfully to convert the measured elastic lattice strains for a specific reflection into overall volume average stresses, there must be a linear relation between the lattice strain of the reflection and the overall stress. According to the model predictions the 311-reflection is the most suitable reflection as it shows the smallest deviations from linearity and thereby also the smallest build-up of residual strains. The model predictions have pin pointed that the selection of the reflection is crucial for the validity of stresses calculated from the measured elastic lattice strains. (au) 14 tabs., 41

  18. Numerical simulations of flapping foil and wing aerodynamics : Mesh deformation using radial basis functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Both biological and engineering scientist have always been intrigued by the flight of insects and birds. For a long time, the aerodynamic mechanism behind flapping insect flight was a complete mystery. Recently, several experimental and numerical flow visualisations were performed to investigate the

  19. Postseismic viscoelastic surface deformation and stress. Part 1: Theoretical considerations, displacement and strain calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1979-01-01

    A model of viscoelastic deformations associated with earthquakes is presented. A strike-slip fault is represented by a rectangular dislocation in a viscoelastic layer (lithosphere) lying over a viscoelastic half-space (asthenosphere). Deformations occur on three time scales. The initial response is governed by the instantaneous elastic properties of the earth. A slower response is associated with viscoelastic relaxation of the lithosphere and a yet slower response is due to viscoelastic relaxation of the asthenosphere. The major conceptual contribution is the inclusion of lithospheric viscoelastic properties into a dislocation model of earthquake related deformations and stresses. Numerical calculations using typical fault parameters reveal that the postseismic displacements and strains are small compared to the coseismic ones near the fault, but become significant further away. Moreover, the directional sense of the deformations attributable to the elastic response, the lithospheric viscoelastic softening, and the asthenospheric viscoelastic flow may differ and depend on location and model details. The results and theoretical arguments suggest that the stress changes accompanying lithospheric relaxation may also be in a different sense than and be larger than the strain changes.

  20. Main Lobe Control of a Beam Tilting Antenna Array Laid on a Deformable Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Mansutti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The projection method (PM is a simple and low-cost pattern recovery technique that already proved its effectiveness in retrieving the radiation properties of different types of arrays that change shape in time. However, when dealing with deformable beam-tilting arrays, this method requires to compute new compensating phase shifts every time that the main lobe is steered, since these shifts depend on both the deformation geometry and the steering angle. This tight requirement causes additional signal processing and complicates the prediction of the array behavior, especially if the deformation geometry is not a priori known: this can be an issue since the PM is mainly used for simple and low-cost systems. In this letter, we propose a simplification of this technique for beam-tilting arrays that requires only basic signal processing. In fact the phase shifts that we use are the sum of two components: one can be directly extracted from strain sensor data that measure surface deformation and the other one can be precomputed according to basic antenna theory. The effectiveness of our approach has been tested on two antennas: a 4 × 4 array (trough full-wave simulations and measurements and on an 8 × 8 array (trough full-wave simulations placed on a doubly wedge-shaped surface with a beam tilt up to 40 degrees.

  1. Surface deformation analysis over Vrancea seismogenic area through radar and GPS geospatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Serban, Florin S.; Teleaga, Delia M.; Mateciuc, Doru N.

    2017-10-01

    Time series analysis of GPS (Global Positioning Systems) and InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) data are important tools for Earth's surface deformation assessment, which can result from a wide range of geological phenomena like as earthquakes, landslides or ground water level changes. The aim of this paper was to identify several types of earthquake precursors that might be observed from geospatial data in Vrancea seismogenic region in Romania. Continuous GPS Romanian network stations and few field campaigns data recorded between 2005-2012 years revealed a displacement of about 5 or 6 millimeters per year in horizontal direction relative motion, and a few millimeters per year in vertical direction. In order to assess possible deformations due to earthquakes and respectively for possible slow deformations, have been used also time series Sentinel 1 satellite data available for Vrancea zone during October 2014 till October 2016 to generate two types of interferograms (short-term and medium- term). During investigated period were not recorded medium or strong earthquakes, so interferograms over test area revealed small displacements on vertical direction (subsidence or uplifts) of 5-10 millimeters per year. Based on GPS continuous network data and satellite Sentinel 1 results, different possible tectonic scenarios were developed. The localization of horizontal and vertical motions, fault slip, and surface deformation of the continental blocks provides new information, in support of different geodynamic models for Vrancea tectonic active region in Romania and Europe.

  2. Skin surface and sub-surface strain and deformation imaging using optical coherence tomography and digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Maiti, R.; Liu, X.; Gerhardt, L. C.; Lee, Z. S.; Byers, R.; Franklin, S. E.; Lewis, R.; Matcher, S. J.; Carré, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Bio-mechanical properties of the human skin deformed by external forces at difference skin/material interfaces attract much attention in medical research. For instance, such properties are important design factors when one designs a healthcare device, i.e., the device might be applied directly at skin/device interfaces. In this paper, we investigated the bio-mechanical properties, i.e., surface strain, morphological changes of the skin layers, etc., of the human finger-pad and forearm skin as a function of applied pressure by utilizing two non-invasive techniques, i.e., optical coherence tomography (OCT) and digital image correlation (DIC). Skin deformation results of the human finger-pad and forearm skin were obtained while pressed against a transparent optical glass plate under the action of 0.5-24 N force and stretching naturally from 90° flexion to 180° full extension respectively. The obtained OCT images showed the deformation results beneath the skin surface, however, DIC images gave overall information of strain at the surface.

  3. Two strategies of lowering surface deformations of internally cooled X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberta, P.; Áč, V.; Hrdý, J.

    2013-01-01

    Internally cooled X-ray optics, like X-ray monochromators and reflecting X-ray mirrors, play a crucial role in defining a beamlines resolution, degree of coherence and flux. A great effort is invested in the development of these optical components. An important aspect of the functionality of high heat load optics is its cooling and its influence on surface deformation. The authors present a study of two different geometrical cooling approaches. Its influence on beam inhomogeneity due to the strain from the manufacturing process is presented. X-ray topographic images and FWHM measurements are presented. FEA simulations of cooling efficiency and surface deformations were performed. The best achieved results are under an enlargement of 0.4μrad of the measured rocking curve

  4. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3 MJ and a 6.3 MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers.

  5. Numerical Methods for the Analysis of Power Transformer Tank Deformation and Rupture Due to Internal Arcing Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chenguang; Hao, Zhiguo; Zhang, Song; Zhang, Baohui; Zheng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Power transformer rupture and fire resulting from an arcing fault inside the tank usually leads to significant security risks and serious economic loss. In order to reveal the essence of tank deformation or explosion, this paper presents a 3-D numerical computational tool to simulate the structural dynamic behavior due to overpressure inside transformer tank. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 17.3MJ and a 6.3MJ arcing fault were simulated on a real full-scale 360MVA/220kV oil-immersed transformer model, respectively. By employing the finite element method, the transformer internal overpressure distribution, wave propagation and von-Mises stress were solved. The numerical results indicate that the increase of pressure and mechanical stress distribution are non-uniform and the stress tends to concentrate on connecting parts of the tank as the fault time evolves. Given this feature, it becomes possible to reduce the risk of transformer tank rupture through limiting the fault energy and enhancing the mechanical strength of the local stress concentrative areas. The theoretical model and numerical simulation method proposed in this paper can be used as a substitute for risky and costly field tests in fault overpressure analysis and tank mitigation design of transformers. PMID:26230392

  6. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  7. Micro-mechanisms of Surface Defects Induced on Aluminum Alloys during Plastic Deformation at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Olufisayo A.

    Near-surface deformed layers developed on aluminum alloys significantly influence the corrosion and tribological behavior as well as reduce the surface quality of the rolled aluminum. The evolution of the near-surface microstructures induced on magnesium containing aluminum alloys during thermomechanical processing has been investigated with the aim generating an understanding of the influence of individual forming parameters on its evolution and examine the microstructure of the roll coating induced on the mating steel roll through material transfer during rolling. The micro-mechanisms related to the various features of near-surface microstructure developed during tribological conditions of the simulated hot rolling process were identified. Thermomechanical processing experiments were performed with the aid of hot rolling (operating temperature: 550 to 460 °C, 4, 10 and 20 rolling pass schedules) and hot forming (operating temperature: 350 to 545 °C, strain rate: 4 x 10-2 s-1) tribo-simulators. The surface, near-surface features and material transfer induced during the elevated temperature plastic deformation were examined and characterized employing optical interferometry, SEM/EDS, FIB and TEM. Near-surface features characterized on the rolled aluminum alloys included; cracks, fractured intermetallic particles, aluminum nano-particles, oxide decorated grain boundaries, rolled-in oxides, shingles and blisters. These features were related to various individual rolling parameters which included, the work roll roughness, which induced the formation of shingles, rolling marks and were responsible for the redistribution of surface oxide and the enhancements of the depth of the near-surface damage. The enhanced stresses and strains experienced during rolling were related to the formation and propagation of cracks, the nanocrystalline structure of the near-surface layers and aluminum nano-particles. The mechanism of the evolution of the near-surface microstructure were

  8. Experimental Investigation of Compliant Wall Surface Deformation in Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Agarwal, Karuna; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    On-going research integrates Tomographic PIV (TPIV) with Mach-Zehnder Interferometry (MZI) to measure the correlations between deformation of a compliant wall and a turbulent channel flow or a boundary layer. Aiming to extend the scope to two-way coupling, in the present experiment the wall properties have been designed, based on a theoretical analysis, to increase the amplitude of deformation to several μm, achieving the same order of magnitude as the boundary layer wall unit (5-10 μm). It requires higher speeds and a softer surface that has a Young's modulus of 0.1MPa (vs. 1Mpa before), as well as proper thickness (5 mm) that maximize the wall response to excitation at scales that fall within the temporal and spatial resolution of the instruments. The experiments are performed in a water tunnel extension to the JHU refractive index matched facility. The transparent compliant surface is made of PDMS molded on the tunnel window, and measurements are performed at friction velocity Reynolds numbers in the 1000-7000 range. MZI measures the 2D surface deformation as several magnifications. The time-resolved 3D pressure distribution is determined by calculating to spatial distribution of material acceleration from the TPIV data and integrating it using a GPU-based, parallel-line, omni-directional integration method. ONR.

  9. Analysis and experimental investigation for collimator reflective mirror surface deformation adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collimator design is essential for meeting the requirements of high-precision telescopes. The collimator diameter should be larger than that of the target for alignment. Special supporting structures are required to reduce the gravitational deformation and control the surface deformation induced by the mounting force when inspecting large-aperture primary mirrors (M1. A ZERODURÂŽ mirror 620 mm in diameter for a collimator was analyzed using the finite element method to obtain the deformation induced by the supporting structures and adjustment mechanism. Zernike polynomials were also adopted to fit the optical surface and separate corresponding aberrations. The computed and measured wavefront aberration configurations for the collimator M1 were obtained complementally. The wavefront aberrations were adjusted using fine adjustment screws using 3D optical path differences map of the mirror surface. Through studies using different boundary conditions and inner ring support positions, it is concluded that the optical performance was excellent under a strong enough supporter. The best adjustment position was attained and applied to the actual collimator M1 to prove the correctness of the simulation results.

  10. Modeling Thermal Transport and Surface Deformation on Europa using Realistic Rheologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneman, D.; Lavier, L.; Becker, T. W.; Soderlund, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Most existing studies of Europa's icy shell model the ice as a Maxwell visco-elastic solid or viscous fluid. However, these approaches do not allow for modeling of localized deformation of the brittle part of the ice shell, which is important for understanding the satellite's evolution and unique geology. Here, we model the shell as a visco-elasto-plastic material, with a brittle Mohr-Coulomb elasto-plastic layer on top of a convective Maxwell viscoelastic layer, to investigate how thermal transport processes relate to the observed deformation and topography on Europa's surface. We use Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC) code, which employs an explicit time-stepping algorithm to simulate deformation processes in Europa's icy shell. Heat transfer drives surface deformation within the icy shell through convection and tidal dissipation due to its elliptical orbit around Jupiter. We first analyze the visco-elastic behavior of a convecting ice layer and the parameters that govern this behavior. The regime of deformation depends on the magnitude of the stress (diffusion creep at low stresses, grain-size-sensitive creep at intermediate stresses, dislocation creep at high stresses), so we calculate effective viscosity each time step using the constitutive stress-strain equation and a combined flow law that accounts for all types of deformation. Tidal dissipation rate is calculated as a function of the temperature-dependent Maxwell relaxation time and the square of the second invariant of the strain rate averaged over each orbital period. After we initiate convection in the viscoelastic layer by instituting an initial temperature perturbation, we then add an elastoplastic layer on top of the convecting layer and analyze how the brittle ice reacts to stresses from below and any resulting topography. We also take into account shear heating along fractures in the brittle layer. We vary factors such as total shell thickness and minimum viscosity, as these parameters are

  11. Monitoring of Land-Surface Deformation in the Karamay Oilfield, Xinjiang, China, Using SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusupujiang Aimaiti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR interferometry is a technique that provides high-resolution measurements of the ground displacement associated with various geophysical processes. To investigate the land-surface deformation in Karamay, a typical oil-producing city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data were acquired for the period from 2007 to 2009, and a two-pass differential SAR interferometry (D-InSAR process was applied. The experimental results showed that two sites in the north-eastern part of the city exhibit a clear indication of land deformation. For a further evaluation of the D-InSAR result, the Persistent Scatterer (PS and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS-InSAR techniques were applied for 21 time series Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT C-band Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR data from 2003 to 2010. The comparison between the D-InSAR and SBAS-InSAR measurements had better agreement than that from the PS-InSAR measurement. The maximum deformation rate attributed to subsurface water injection for the period from 2003 to 2010 was up to approximately 33 mm/year in the line of sight (LOS direction. The interferometric phase change from November 2007 to June 2010 showed a clear deformation pattern, and the rebound center has been expanding in scale and increasing in quantity.

  12. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxwang@xjtu.edu.cn; Zhou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-08-07

    In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E{sup −3}, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.

  13. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  14. On the effectiveness of surface severe plastic deformation by shot peening at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, M.; Fundenberger, J.-J.; Bocher, P.; Grosdidier, T.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of cryogenic temperature (CT) on the graded microstructures obtained by severe shot peening using surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was investigated for two austenitic steels that used different mechanisms for assisting plastic deformation. For the metastable 304L steel, the depth of the hardened region increases because CT promotes the formation of strain induced martensite. Comparatively, for the 310S steel that remained austenitic, the size of the subsurface affected region decreases because of the improved strength of the material at CT but the fine twinned nanostructures results in significant top surface hardening.

  15. Numerical modelling of coupled fluid, heat, and solute transport in deformable fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Reid, J.A.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element code, MOTIF (model of transport in fractured/porous media), developed to model the coupled processes of groundwater flow, heat transport, brine transport, and one-species radionuclide transport in geological media. Three types of elements are available: a 3D continuum element, a planar fracture element that can be oriented in any arbitrary direction in 3D space or pipe flow in 3D space, and a line element for simulating fracture flow in 2D space or pipe flow in 3D space. As a quality-assurance measure, the MOTIF code was verified by comparison of its results with analytical solutions and other published numerical solutions

  16. Optimization of freeform surfaces using intelligent deformation techniques for LED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Annie Shalom; Neumann, Cornelius

    2018-04-01

    For many years, optical designers have great interests in designing efficient optimization algorithms to bring significant improvement to their initial design. However, the optimization is limited due to a large number of parameters present in the Non-uniform Rationaly b-Spline Surfaces. This limitation was overcome by an indirect technique known as optimization using freeform deformation (FFD). In this approach, the optical surface is placed inside a cubical grid. The vertices of this grid are modified, which deforms the underlying optical surface during the optimization. One of the challenges in this technique is the selection of appropriate vertices of the cubical grid. This is because these vertices share no relationship with the optical performance. When irrelevant vertices are selected, the computational complexity increases. Moreover, the surfaces created by them are not always feasible to manufacture, which is the same problem faced in any optimization technique while creating freeform surfaces. Therefore, this research addresses these two important issues and provides feasible design techniques to solve them. Finally, the proposed techniques are validated using two different illumination examples: street lighting lens and stop lamp for automobiles.

  17. Olopatadine Inhibits Exocytosis in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells by Counteracting Membrane Surface Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Besides its anti-allergic properties as a histamine receptor antagonist, olopatadine stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting the release of chemokines. Since olopatadine bears amphiphilic features and is preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane, it would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of olopatadine and other anti-allergic drugs on the membrane capacitance (Cm in rat peritoneal mast cells during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Low concentrations of olopatadine (1 or 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, 100 µM and 1 mM olopatadine almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm. Additionally, these doses completely washed out the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, indicating that olopatadine counteracted the membrane surface deformation induced by exocytosis. As shown by electron microscopy, olopatadine generated inward membrane bending in mast cells. Conclusion: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that olopatadine dose-dependently inhibits the process of exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Such mast cell stabilizing properties of olopatadine may be attributed to its counteracting effects on the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  18. Amphipaths Differentially Modulate Membrane Surface Deformation in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells During Exocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuro Kazama

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Salicylate and chlorpromazine exert differential effects on the chemokine release from mast cells. Since these drugs are amphiphilic and preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membranes, they would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of salicylate and chlorpromazine on the membrane capacitance (Cm during exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on plasma membrane deformation of the cells. Results: Salicylate dramatically accelerated the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm immediately after its application, whereas chlorpromazine significantly suppressed the increase. Treatment with salicylate increased the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, while treatment with chlorpromazine completely washed it out, indicating that both drugs induced membrane surface deformation in mast cells. Conclusion: This study demonstrated for the first time that membrane amphipaths, such as salicylate and chlorpromazine, may oppositely modulate the process of exocytosis in mast cells, as detected by the changes in the Cm. The plasma membrane deformation induced by the drugs was thought to be responsible for their differential effects.

  19. Stability of surface plastic flow in large strain deformation of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Udapa, Anirduh; Sagapuram, Dinakar; Mann, James; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    We examine large-strain unconstrained simple shear deformation in metals using a model two-dimensional cutting system and high-speed in situ imaging. The nature of the deformation mode is shown to be a function of the initial microstructure state of the metal and the deformation geometry. For annealed metals, which exhibit large ductility and strain hardening capacity, the commonly assumed laminar flow mode is inherently unstable. Instead, the imposed shear is accommodated by a highly rotational flow-sinuous flow-with vortex-like components and large-amplitude folding on the mesoscale. Sinuous flow is triggered by a plastic instability on the material surface ahead of the primary region of shear. On the other hand, when the material is extensively strain-hardened prior to shear, laminar flow again becomes unstable giving way to shear banding. The existence of these flow modes is established by stability analysis of laminar flow. The role of the initial microstructure state in determining the change in stability from laminar to sinuous / shear-banded flows in metals is elucidated. The implications for cutting, forming and wear processes for metals, and to surface plasticity phenomena such as mechanochemical Rehbinder effects are discussed.

  20. New insights into the 2012 Emilia (Italy) seismic sequence through advanced numerical modeling of ground deformation InSAR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzani, P.; Castaldo, R.; Solaro, G.; Pepe, S.; Bonano, M.; Casu, F.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Samsonov, S.; Lanari, R.; Sansosti, E.

    2013-05-01

    We provide new insights into the two main seismic events that occurred in 2012 in the Emilia region, Italy. We extend the results from previous studies based on analytical inversion modeling of GPS and RADARSAT-1 InSAR measurements by exploiting RADARSAT-2 data. Moreover, we benefit from the available large amount of geological and geophysical information through finite element method (FEM) modeling implemented in a structural-mechanical context to investigate the impact of known buried structures on the modulation of the ground deformation field. We find that the displacement pattern associated with the 20 May event is consistent with the activation of a single fault segment of the inner Ferrara thrust, in good agreement with the analytical solution. In contrast, the interpretation of the 29 May episode requires the activation of three different fault segments and a block roto-translation of the Mirandola anticline. The proposed FEM-based methodology is applicable to other seismic areas where the complexity of buried structures is known and plays a fundamental role in the modulation of the associated surface deformation pattern.

  1. Numerical convergence of discrete exterior calculus on arbitrary surface meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Discrete exterior calculus (DEC) is a structure-preserving numerical framework for partial differential equations solution, particularly suitable for simplicial meshes. A longstanding and widespread assumption has been that DEC requires special

  2. Numerical analysis of choked converging nozzle flows with surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    numerically investigated by means of a recent computational model that ..... dependent nonlinear formulations, where the solution scheme is most likely to face with .... boundary and geometric conditions, to (15–16), also proves the validity.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Tsunami Generated by Deformable Submarine Slides: Parameterisation of Slide Dynamics for Coupling to Tsunami Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. C.; Collins, G. S.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Mouradian, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical modelling informs risk assessment of tsunami generated by submarine slides; however, for large-scale slides modelling can be complex and computationally challenging. Many previous numerical studies have approximated slides as rigid blocks that moved according to prescribed motion. However, wave characteristics are strongly dependent on the motion of the slide and previous work has recommended that more accurate representation of slide dynamics is needed. We have used the finite-element, adaptive-mesh CFD model Fluidity, to perform multi-material simulations of deformable submarine slide-generated waves at real world scales for a 2D scenario in the Gulf of Mexico. Our high-resolution approach represents slide dynamics with good accuracy, compared to other numerical simulations of this scenario, but precludes tracking of wave propagation over large distances. To enable efficient modelling of further propagation of the waves, we investigate an approach to extract information about the slide evolution from our multi-material simulations in order to drive a single-layer wave propagation model, also using Fluidity, which is much less computationally expensive. The extracted submarine slide geometry and position as a function of time are parameterised using simple polynomial functions. The polynomial functions are used to inform a prescribed velocity boundary condition in a single-layer simulation, mimicking the effect the submarine slide motion has on the water column. The approach is verified by successful comparison of wave generation in the single-layer model with that recorded in the multi-material, multi-layer simulations. We then extend this approach to 3D for further validation of this methodology (using the Gulf of Mexico scenario proposed by Horrillo et al., 2013) and to consider the effect of lateral spreading. This methodology is then used to simulate a series of hypothetical submarine slide events in the Arctic Ocean (based on evidence of historic

  4. Numerical analysis of residual stress of Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy subjected to surface strengthening by shot peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Stegliński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the results of the analysis of the stresses in the Al-Mg5%-Mn1,5%-Sc0,8%-Zr0,4% alloy after shot peening process using solver ANSYSANSYSANSYS LS-Dyna. The computational model illustrates the phenomena occurring as a result of plastic deformation caused by hitting a steel ball on the surface of the analyzed aluminium alloy. We analyzed two input variables: diameter and speed of a ball. The resulting normal stress distribution centred exposes the minimum compressive stress at a position located at a depth point of Belayev 0.125 mm with a value of σ = –345 MPa. Variable parameter shows the correlation of the boundary conditions of minimum stress increase with increasing ball’s diameter and its speed. Selected points of numerical analysis were verified with experimental results.[b]Keywords[/b]: materials science, numerical analysis, metal forming, shot peening, aluminium

  5. Numerical Analyses of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction and Deformation Behaviour of an Upstream Tailings Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Auchar Zardari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the seismic activity of northern Sweden consists of micro-earthquakes occurring near postglacial faults. However, larger magnitude earthquakes do occur in Sweden, and earthquake statistics indicate that a magnitude 5 event is likely to occur once every century. This paper presents dynamic analyses of the effects of larger earthquakes on an upstream tailings dam at the Aitik copper mine in northern Sweden. The analyses were performed to evaluate the potential for liquefaction and to assess stability of the dam under two specific earthquakes: a commonly occurring magnitude 3.6 event and a more extreme earthquake of magnitude 5.8. The dynamic analyses were carried out with the finite element program PLAXIS using a recently implemented constitutive model called UBCSAND. The results indicate that the magnitude 5.8 earthquake would likely induce liquefaction in a limited zone located below the ground surface near the embankment dikes. It is interpreted that stability of the dam may not be affected due to the limited extent of the liquefied zone. Both types of earthquakes are predicted to induce tolerable magnitudes of displacements. The results of the postseismic slope stability analysis, performed for a state after a seismic event, suggest that the dam is stable during both the earthquakes.

  6. Modeling of surface stress effects on bending behavior of nanowires: Incremental deformation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, F.; Huang, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    The surface stress effects on bending behavior of nanowires have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this letter, the incremental deformation theory is first applied to study the surface stress effects upon the bending behavior of the nanowires. Different from other linear continuum approaches, the local geometrical nonlinearity of the Lagrangian strain is considered, therefore, the contribution of the surface stresses is naturally derived by applying the Hamilton's principle, and influence of the surface stresses along all surfaces of the nanowires is captured. It is first shown that the surface stresses along all surfaces have contribution not only on the effective Young's modulus of the nanowires but also on the loading term in the governing equation. The predictions of the effective Young's modulus and the resonance shift of the nanowires from the current method are compared with those from the experimental measurement and other existing approaches. The difference with other models is discussed. Finally, based on the current theory, the resonant shift predictions by using both the modified Euler-Bernoulli beam and the modified Timoshenko beam theories of the nanowires are investigated and compared. It is noticed that the higher vibration modes are less sensitive to the surface stresses than the lower vibration modes.

  7. Direct observation of deformation of nafion surfaces induced by methanol treatment by using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Kazuo; Kuroda, Reiko; Gao Yanfeng; Nagai, Masayuki; Maeda, Yuta

    2008-01-01

    We successfully characterized the effect of methanol treatment on the nanoscopic structures of a nafion film, which is widely used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to repetitively image a particular region of a nafion sample before and after methanol solutions were dropped onto the nafion film and dried in air. When the surface was treated with 20% methanol for 5 min, many nanopores appeared on the surface. The number of nanopores increased when the sample was treated twice or thrice. By repetitive AFM imaging of a particular region of the same sample, we found that the shapes of the nanopores were deformed by the repeated methanol treatment, although the size of the nanopores had not significantly changed. The creation of the nanopores was affected by the concentration of methanol. Our results directly visualized the effects of methanol treatment on the surface structures of a nafion film at nanoscale levels for the first time

  8. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, S.S.; Gold, D.P.; Gardner, T.W.; Slingerland, R.L.; Thornton, C.P.

    1989-10-01

    For the Lancaster, PA seismic zone a multifaceted investigation revealed several manifestations of near-surface, neotectonic deformation. Remote sensing data together with surface geological and geophysical observations, and recent seismicity reveal that the neotectonic deformation is concentrated in a NS-trending fault zone some 50 km in length and 10--20 km in width. Anomalies associated with this zone include distinctive lineament and surface erosional patterns; geologically recent uplift evidenced by elevations of stream terraces along the Susquehanna River; and localized contemporary travertine deposits in streams down-drainage from the inferred active fault zone. In the Moodus seismic zone the frequency of tectonically-controlled lineaments was observed to increase in the Moodus quadrangle compared to adjacent areas and dominant lineament directions were observed that are perpendicular and parallel to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction (N80-85E) recently determined from in-situ stress measurements in a 1.5 km-deep borehole in the seismic zone and from well-constrained earthquake focal mechanisms. 284 refs., 33 figs

  9. Near-surface neotectonic deformation associated with seismicity in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, S.S.; Gold, D.P.; Gardner, T.W.; Slingerland, R.L.; Thornton, C.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Geosciences)

    1989-10-01

    For the Lancaster, PA seismic zone a multifaceted investigation revealed several manifestations of near-surface, neotectonic deformation. Remote sensing data together with surface geological and geophysical observations, and recent seismicity reveal that the neotectonic deformation is concentrated in a NS-trending fault zone some 50 km in length and 10--20 km in width. Anomalies associated with this zone include distinctive lineament and surface erosional patterns; geologically recent uplift evidenced by elevations of stream terraces along the Susquehanna River; and localized contemporary travertine deposits in streams down-drainage from the inferred active fault zone. In the Moodus seismic zone the frequency of tectonically-controlled lineaments was observed to increase in the Moodus quadrangle compared to adjacent areas and dominant lineament directions were observed that are perpendicular and parallel to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress direction (N80-85E) recently determined from in-situ stress measurements in a 1.5 km-deep borehole in the seismic zone and from well-constrained earthquake focal mechanisms. 284 refs., 33 figs.

  10. Three-dimensional surface deformation derived from airborne interferometric UAVSAR: Application to the Slumgullion Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbridge, Brent G.; Burgmann, Roland; Fielding, Eric; Hensley, Scott; Schulz, William

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide surface geodetic measurements with “landslide-wide” spatial coverage, we develop and validate a method for the characterization of 3-D surface deformation using the unique capabilities of the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry system. We apply our method at the well-studied Slumgullion Landslide, which is 3.9 km long and moves persistently at rates up to ∼2 cm/day. A comparison with concurrent GPS measurements validates this method and shows that it provides reliable and accurate 3-D surface deformation measurements. The UAVSAR-derived vector velocity field measurements accurately capture the sharp boundaries defining previously identified kinematic units and geomorphic domains within the landslide. We acquired data across the landslide during spring and summer and identify that the landslide moves more slowly during summer except at its head, presumably in response to spatiotemporal variations in snowmelt infiltration. In order to constrain the mechanics controlling landslide motion from surface velocity measurements, we present an inversion framework for the extraction of slide thickness and basal geometry from dense 3-D surface velocity fields. We find that the average depth of the Slumgullion Landslide is 7.5 m, several meters less than previous depth estimates. We show that by considering a viscoplastic rheology, we can derive tighter theoretical bounds on the rheological parameter relating mean horizontal flow rate to surface velocity. Using inclinometer data for slow-moving, clay-rich landslides across the globe, we find a consistent value for the rheological parameter of 0.85 ± 0.08.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Surface Roughness in a Microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Myung Seob; Byun, Sung Jun; Yoon, Joon Yong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, lattice Boltzmann method(LBM) results for a laminar flow in a microchannel with rough surface are presented. The surface roughness is modeled as an array of rectangular modules placed on the top and bottom surface of a parallel-plate channel. The effects of relative surface roughness, roughness distribution, and roughness size are presented in terms of the Poiseuille number. The roughness distribution characterized by the ratio of the roughness height to the spacing between the modules has a negligible effect on the flow and friction factors. Finally, a significant increase in the Poiseuille number is observed when the surface roughness is considered, and the effects of roughness on the microflow field mainly depend on the surface roughness.

  12. Self-dual Yang-Mills equation and deformation of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serikbaev, N.S.; Myrzakul, K.; Sajymbetova, S.K.; Koshkinbaev, A.D.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2003-01-01

    We show that many integrable systems and integrable spin systems in 2+1 dimensions can be obtained from the (2+1)- dimensional Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi and Gauss-Weingarten equations, respectively. We also show that the (2+1)-dimensional Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi equation which describes the deformation (motion) of surfaces is the exact reduction of the Yang-Mills-Higgs-Bogomolny and self-dual Yang-Mills equations. On the basis of this observation, we suggest that the (2+1)-dimensional Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi equation is a candidate to be integrable, and the associated linear problem (Lax representation) with the spectral parameter is presented. (author)

  13. Surface deformation associated with the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Argentina, earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadinsky-Cade, K.; Reilinger, R.; Isacks, B.

    1985-01-01

    The 1977 Caucete (San Juan) earthquake considered in the present paper occurred near the Sierra Pie de Palo in the Sierras Pampeanas tectonic province of western Argentina. In the study reported, coseismic surface deformation is combined with seismic observations (main shock and aftershocks, both teleseismic and local data) to place constraints on the geometry and slip of the main fault responsible for the 1977 earthquake. The implications of the 1977 event for long-term crustal shortening and earthquake recurrence rates in this region are also discussed. It is concluded that the 1977 Caucete earthquake was accompanied by more than 1 m of vertical uplift.

  14. Numerical analysis of choked converging nozzle flows with surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choked converging nozzle flow and heat transfer characteristics are numerically investigated by means of a recent computational model that integrates the axisymmetric continuity, state, momentum and energy equations. To predict the combined effects of nozzle geometry, friction and heat transfer rates, analyses are ...

  15. Research of state of metal welded joint by deformation and corrosion surface projection parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demchenko Maria Vyacheslavovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At industrial enterprises in building structures and equipment one can see corrosion damage, as well as damage accumulated during operation period. The areas of stress concentration are welded joints as their structure is heterogeneous. From the point of view of the scale hierarchy, the welded joint represents the welded and base metal zones at the meso-macrolevel, the weld zone, the thermal zone, the base metal at the micro-mesolevel, the grain constituents at the nano-microlevel. Borders are the stress concentrators at different scale levels, thus they becomes the most dangerous places of metal structure. Modeling by the molecular dynamics method at the atomic level has shown nanocracks initiation in triple junctions of grain boundaries and on the ledges of the grain boundaries. Due to active development of nanotechnology, it became possible to evaluate the state of the weld metal at the nanoscale, where irreversible changes take place from the very beginning. Existing methods of nondestructive testing can detect damage only at the meso- and macrolevel. Modern equipment makes it possible to use other methods of control and approaches. For example, according to GOST R55046-2012 and R57223-2016, the analysis of the parameters of the surface projection deformation performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy should be taken into account when the evaluation of state of metal pipelines is carried out. However, there is a problem to monitore it due to various factors affecting the surface during operation. The paper proposes an additional method to estimate the state of weld metal at any stage of deformation that uses 3D analysis of the parameters of the «artificial» corrosion relief of surface. During the operation period changes in the stress-strain state and structure of the metal take place, as the result the character and depth of etching of the grains of the structural components and their boundaries change too. Evaluation of the

  16. The distribution of deformation in parallel fault-related folds with migrating axial surfaces: comparison between fault-propagation and fault-bend folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, Francesco; Storti, Fabrizio

    2001-01-01

    In fault-related folds that form by axial surface migration, rocks undergo deformation as they pass through axial surfaces. The distribution and intensity of deformation in these structures has been impacted by the history of axial surface migration. Upon fold initiation, unique dip panels develop, each with a characteristic deformation intensity, depending on their history. During fold growth, rocks that pass through axial surfaces are transported between dip panels and accumulate additional deformation. By tracking the pattern of axial surface migration in model folds, we predict the distribution of relative deformation intensity in simple-step, parallel fault-bend and fault-propagation anticlines. In both cases the deformation is partitioned into unique domains we call deformation panels. For a given rheology of the folded multilayer, deformation intensity will be homogeneously distributed in each deformation panel. Fold limbs are always deformed. The flat crests of fault-propagation anticlines are always undeformed. Two asymmetric deformation panels develop in fault-propagation folds above ramp angles exceeding 29°. For lower ramp angles, an additional, more intensely-deformed panel develops at the transition between the crest and the forelimb. Deformation in the flat crests of fault-bend anticlines occurs when fault displacement exceeds the length of the footwall ramp, but is never found immediately hinterland of the crest to forelimb transition. In environments dominated by brittle deformation, our models may serve as a first-order approximation of the distribution of fractures in fault-related folds.

  17. Numerical simulation of deformation and fracture of space protective shell structures from concrete and fiber concrete under pulse loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radchenko, P A; Batuev, S P; Radchenko, A V; Plevkov, V S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between aircraft Boeing 747-400 and protective shell of nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as complex multilayered cellular structure comprising layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was held three-dimensionally using the author's algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. The dynamics of stress-strain state and fracture of structure were studied. Destruction is described using two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of shell cellular structure—cells start to destruct in unloading wave, originating after output of compression wave to the free surfaces of cells. (paper)

  18. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  19. A numerical assessment of rough surface scattering theories. I - Horizontal polarization. II - Vertical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Kim, Yunjin; Durden, Stephen L.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical evaluation is presented of the regime of validity for various rough surface scattering theories against numerical results obtained by employing the method of moments. The contribution of each theory is considered up to second order in the perturbation expansion for the surface current. Considering both vertical and horizontal polarizations, the unified perturbation method provides best results among all theories weighed.

  20. Influence of slip-surface geometry on earth-flow deformation, Montaguto earth flow, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, L.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Revellio, P.; Grelle, G.; Pinto, F.; Guadagno, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relations between slip-surface geometry and deformational structures and hydrologic features at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy between 1954 and 2010. We used 25 boreholes, 15 static cone-penetration tests, and 22 shallow-seismic profiles to define the geometry of basal- and lateral-slip surfaces; and 9 multitemporal maps to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of normal faults, thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, strike-slip faults, flank ridges, folds, ponds, and springs. We infer that the slip surface is a repeating series of steeply sloping surfaces (risers) and gently sloping surfaces (treads). Stretching of earth-flow material created normal faults at risers, and shortening of earth-flow material created thrust faults, back-tilted surfaces, and ponds at treads. Individual pairs of risers and treads formed quasi-discrete kinematic zones within the earth flow that operated in unison to transmit pulses of sediment along the length of the flow. The locations of strike-slip faults, flank ridges, and folds were not controlled by basal-slip surface topography but were instead dependent on earth-flow volume and lateral changes in the direction of the earth-flow travel path. The earth-flow travel path was strongly influenced by inactive earth-flow deposits and pre-earth-flow drainages whose positions were determined by tectonic structures. The implications of our results that may be applicable to other earth flows are that structures with strikes normal to the direction of earth-flow motion (e.g., normal faults and thrust faults) can be used as a guide to the geometry of basal-slip surfaces, but that depths to the slip surface (i.e., the thickness of an earth flow) will vary as sediment pulses are transmitted through a flow.

  1. The dynamic deformation of a layered viscoelastic medium under surface excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglyamov, Salavat R; Karpiouk, Andrei B; Emelianov, Stanislav Y; Wang, Shang; Li, Jiasong; Larin, Kirill V; Twa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this study the dynamic behavior of a layered viscoelastic medium in response to the harmonic and impulsive acoustic radiation force applied to its surface was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. An analytical solution for a layered viscoelastic compressible medium in frequency and time domains was obtained using the Hankel transform. A special incompressible case was considered to model soft biological tissues. To verify our theoretical model, experiments were performed using tissue-like gel-based phantoms with varying mechanical properties. A 3.5 MHz single-element focused ultrasound transducer was used to apply the radiation force at the surface of the phantoms. A phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography system was used to track the displacements of the phantom surface. Theoretically predicted displacements were compared with experimental measurements. The role of the depth dependence of the elastic properties of a medium in its response to an acoustic pulse at the surface was studied. It was shown that the low-frequency vibrations at the surface are more sensitive to the deep layers than high-frequency ones. Therefore, the proposed model in combination with spectral analysis can be used to evaluate depth-dependent distribution of the mechanical properties based on the measurements of the surface deformation. (paper)

  2. Energy and Momentum Relaxation Times of 2D Electrons Due to Near Surface Deformation Potential Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa, Viktor; Vasko, Fedor; Mitin, Vladimir

    1997-03-01

    The low temperature energy and momentum relaxation rates of 2D electron gas placed near the free or clamped surface of a semi-infinit sample are calculated. To describe the electron-acoustic phonon interaction with allowance of the surface effect the method of elasticity theory Green functions was used. This method allows to take into account the reflection of acoustic waves from the surface and related mutual conversion of LA and TA waves. It is shown that the strength of the deformation potential scattering at low temperatures substantially depends on the mechanical conditions at the surface: relaxation rates are suppressed for the free surface while for the rigid one the rates are enhanced. The dependence of the conductivity on the distance between the 2D layer and the surface is discussed. The effect is most pronounced in the range of temperatures 2 sl pF < T < (2 hbar s_l)/d, where pF is the Fermi momentum, sl is the velocity of LA waves, d is the width of the quantum well.

  3. Ernst Equation and Riemann Surfaces: Analytical and Numerical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    metric tensor components. The first two chapters of this book are devoted to some basic ideas: in the introductory chapter 1 the authors discuss the concept of integrability, comparing the integrability of the vacuum Ernst equation with the integrability of nonlinear equations of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type, while in chapter 2 they describe various circumstances in which the vacuum Ernst equation has been determined to be relevant, not only in connection with gravitation but also, for example, in the construction of solutions of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. It is also in this chapter that one of several equivalent linear systems for the Ernst equation is described. The next two chapters are devoted to Dmitry Korotkin's concept of algebro-geometric solutions of a linear system: in chapter 3 the structure of such solutions of the vacuum Ernst equation, which involve Riemann theta functions of hyperelliptic algebraic curves of any genus, is contrasted with the periodic structure of such solutions of the KdV equation. How such solutions can be obtained, for example, by solving a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem and how the metric tensor of the associated spacetime can be evaluated is described in detail. In chapter 4 the asymptotic behaviour and the similarity structure of the general algebro-geometric solutions of the Ernst equation are described, and the relationship of such solutions to the perhaps more familiar multi-soliton solutions is discussed. The next three chapters are based upon the authors' own published research: in chapter 5 it is shown that a problem involving counter-rotating infinitely thin disks of matter can be solved in terms of genus two Riemann theta functions, while in chapter 6 the authors describe numerical methods that facilitate the construction of such solutions, and in chapter 7 three-dimensional graphs are displayed that depict all metrical fields of the associated spacetime. Finally, in chapter 8, the difficulties associated with

  4. Surface deformation on the west portion of the Chapala lake basin: uncertainties and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hernandez-Marin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate different aspects of land subsidence and ground failures occurring in the west portion of Chapala lake basin. Currently, surface discontinuities seem to be associated with subsiding bowls. In an effort to understand some of the conditioning factors to surface deformation, two sounding cores from the upper sequence (11 m depth were extracted for analyzing physical and mechanical properties. The upper subsoil showed a predominant silty composition and several lenses of pumice pyroclastic sand. Despite the relative predominance of fine soil, the subsoil shows mechanical properties with low clay content, variable water content, low plasticity and variable compressibility index, amongst some others. Some of these properties seem to be influenced by the sandy pyroclastic lenses, therefore, a potential source of the ground failure could be heterogeneities in the upper soil.

  5. Corrosion mechanism of a Ni-based alloy in supercritical water: Impact of surface plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, Mickaël; Marchetti, Loïc; Tabarant, Michel; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The dissolution of Ni and Fe cations occurs during corrosion of Ni-based alloys in SCW. • The nature of the oxide layer depends locally on the alloy microstructure. • The corrosion mechanism changes when cold-work increases leading to internal oxidation. - Abstract: Ni–Fe–Cr alloys are expected to be a candidate material for the generation IV nuclear reactors that use supercritical water at temperatures up to 600 °C and pressures of 25 MPa. The corrosion resistance of Alloy 690 in these extreme conditions was studied considering the surface finish of the alloy. The oxide scale could suffer from dissolution or from internal oxidation. The presence of a work-hardened zone reveals the competition between the selective oxidation of chromium with respect to the oxidation of nickel and iron. Finally, corrosion mechanisms for Ni based alloys are proposed considering the effects of plastically deformed surfaces and the dissolution.

  6. DigiWarp: a method for deformable mouse atlas warping to surface topographic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anand A; Shattuck, David W; Toga, Arthur W [Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Chaudhari, Abhijit J [Department of Radiology, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Li Changqing; Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Dutta, Joyita; Leahy, Richard M, E-mail: anand.joshi@loni.ucla.ed, E-mail: leahy@sipi.usc.ed [Signal and Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)

    2010-10-21

    For pre-clinical bioluminescence or fluorescence optical tomography, the animal's surface topography and internal anatomy need to be estimated for improving the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. The animal's surface profile can be measured by all-optical systems, but estimation of the internal anatomy using optical techniques is non-trivial. A 3D anatomical mouse atlas may be warped to the estimated surface. However, fitting an atlas to surface topography data is challenging because of variations in the posture and morphology of imaged mice. In addition, acquisition of partial data (for example, from limited views or with limited sampling) can make the warping problem ill-conditioned. Here, we present a method for fitting a deformable mouse atlas to surface topographic range data acquired by an optical system. As an initialization procedure, we match the posture of the atlas to the posture of the mouse being imaged using landmark constraints. The asymmetric L{sup 2} pseudo-distance between the atlas surface and the mouse surface is then minimized in order to register two data sets. A Laplacian prior is used to ensure smoothness of the surface warping field. Once the atlas surface is normalized to match the range data, the internal anatomy is transformed using elastic energy minimization. We present results from performance evaluation studies of our method where we have measured the volumetric overlap between the internal organs delineated directly from MRI or CT and those estimated by our proposed warping scheme. Computed Dice coefficients indicate excellent overlap in the brain and the heart, with fair agreement in the kidneys and the bladder.

  7. DigiWarp: a method for deformable mouse atlas warping to surface topographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anand A; Shattuck, David W; Toga, Arthur W; Chaudhari, Abhijit J; Li Changqing; Cherry, Simon R; Dutta, Joyita; Leahy, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    For pre-clinical bioluminescence or fluorescence optical tomography, the animal's surface topography and internal anatomy need to be estimated for improving the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. The animal's surface profile can be measured by all-optical systems, but estimation of the internal anatomy using optical techniques is non-trivial. A 3D anatomical mouse atlas may be warped to the estimated surface. However, fitting an atlas to surface topography data is challenging because of variations in the posture and morphology of imaged mice. In addition, acquisition of partial data (for example, from limited views or with limited sampling) can make the warping problem ill-conditioned. Here, we present a method for fitting a deformable mouse atlas to surface topographic range data acquired by an optical system. As an initialization procedure, we match the posture of the atlas to the posture of the mouse being imaged using landmark constraints. The asymmetric L 2 pseudo-distance between the atlas surface and the mouse surface is then minimized in order to register two data sets. A Laplacian prior is used to ensure smoothness of the surface warping field. Once the atlas surface is normalized to match the range data, the internal anatomy is transformed using elastic energy minimization. We present results from performance evaluation studies of our method where we have measured the volumetric overlap between the internal organs delineated directly from MRI or CT and those estimated by our proposed warping scheme. Computed Dice coefficients indicate excellent overlap in the brain and the heart, with fair agreement in the kidneys and the bladder.

  8. Numerical study of aerodynamic effects on road vehicles lifting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernat, Mihail Victor; Cernat Bobonea, Andreea

    2017-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance analysis of road vehicles depends on the study of engine intake and cooling flow, internal ventilation, tire cooling, and overall external flow as the motion of air around a moving vehicle affects all of its components in one form or another. Due to the complex geometry of these, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flow and lifting surface shapes. The present study, however focuses on the effects of external aerodynamics only, and in particular on the flow over the lifting surfaces of a common compact car, designed especially for this study.

  9. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Low-Temperature Surface Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Gaseous Nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low-temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of two commercial stainless steels: EN 1.4369 and AISI 304. The materials were plastically deformed to several levels of equivalent strain by conventional......, reflected-light microscopy, and microhardness testing. The results demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that the presence of plastic deformation has a significant influence on the morphology of the nitrided case. The presence of strain-induced martensite favors the formation of Cr...

  10. Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows with free surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    We present a new methodology to simulate viscoelastic flows with free-surfaces. These simulations are motivated by the modelling of polymers manufacturing techniques, such as extrusion and injection moulding. One of the consequences of viscoelasticity is that polymeric materials have a “memory...

  11. Computer numeric control subaperture aspheric surface polishing—microroughness evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procháska, František; Polák, Jaroslav; Matoušek, O.; Tomka, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 9 (2014), 092011-092011 ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0079 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : aspheric polishing * optic surface microroughness evaluation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014 http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1901511

  12. Surface deformation induced by magmatic processes at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala revealed by InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, K.; Wauthier, C.

    2017-09-01

    Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala is a continuously active, basaltic volcano with an unstable western flank. Despite continuous activity since 1961, a lack of high temporal resolution geodetic surveying has prevented detailed modeling of Pacaya's underlying magmatic plumbing system. A new, temporally dense dataset of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) RADARSAT-2 images, spanning December 2012 to March 2014, show magmatic deformation before and during major eruptions in January and March 2014. Inversion of InSAR surface displacements using simple analytical forward models suggest that three magma bodies are responsible for the observed deformation: (1) a 4 km deep spherical reservoir located northwest of the summit, (2) a 0.4 km deep spherical source located directly west of the summit, and (3) a shallow dike below the summit. Periods of heightened volcanic activity are instigated by magma pulses at depth, resulting in rapid inflation of the edifice. We observe an intrusion cycle at Pacaya that consists of deflation of one or both magma reservoirs followed by dike intrusion. Intrusion volumes are proportional to reservoir volume loss and do not always result in an eruption. Periods of increased activity culminate with larger dike-fed eruptions. Large eruptions are followed by inter-eruptive periods marked by a decrease in crater explosions and a lack of detected deformation. Co-eruptive flank motion appears to have initiated a new stage of volcanic rifting at Pacaya defined by repeated NW-SE oriented dike intrusions. This creates a positive feedback relationship whereby magmatic forcing from eruptive dike intrusions induce flank motion.

  13. Deformations on Hole and Projectile Surfaces Caused By High Velocity Friction During Ballistic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamış, M. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the deformations caused by the ballistic impact on the MM composites and on projectile surfaces are examined. The hole section and grain deformation of unreinforced targets are also examined after impact. The relatively high complexity of impact problems is caused by the large number of intervening parameters like relative velocity of projectile and target, shape of colliding objects, relative stiffness and masses, time-dependent surface of contact, geometry and boundary conditions and material characteristics. The material used in this investigation are 2024 and 7075 aluminum alloys as matrix reinforced with SiC and Al2O3 particles. The matrix materials are extensively used in defense applications due to its favorable ballistic properties, moderate strength, high corrosion resistance and super plastic potential. Two different composites were produced; one by casting and the other by lamination. The ballistic tests of the composite targets were carried out according to NIJ Standard-0101.04, Temperature 21 °C, RH=65% with 7.62 mm projectiles. The bullet weight was 9.6 g and their muzzle velocities were in the range of 770-800 m/s. The projectiles consisted of a steel core, copper jacket and lead material. The composite targets were positioned 15 m from the rifle. The interaction between projectiles and the target hole created after impact were examined by light microscopy and photography. Different damage and failure mechanisms such as petalling, cracking, spalling, dishing, etc., were observed on the target body. On the other hand, dramatic wear and damages on the projectile surface were also observed. The targets were supported with Al-5083 backing blocks having 40 mm thickness.

  14. Microstructure and Texture in Surface Deformation Layer of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Processed by Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yanxia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural and crystallographic features of the surface deformation layer in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy induced by milling were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM and precession electron diffraction (PED assisted nanoscale orientation mapping. The result shows that the surface deformation layer is composed by the top surface of equiaxed nanograins/ultrafine grains and the subsurface of lamellar nanograins/ultrafine grains surrounded by coarse grain boundary precipitates (GBPs. The recrystallized nanograins/ultrafine grains in the deformation layer show direct evidence that dynamic recrystallization plays an important role in grain refining process. The GBPs and grain interior precipitates (GIPs show a great difference in size and density with the matrix due to the thermally and mechanically induced precipitate redistribution. The crystallographic texture of the surface deformation layer is proved to be a mixture of approximate copper{112}, rotated cube{001} and F {111}. The severe shear deformation of the surface induced by milling is responsible for the texture evolution.

  15. Numerical study of surface plasmon enhanced nonlinear absorption and refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Kik, Pieter G

    2008-07-07

    Maxwell Garnett effective medium theory is used to study the influence of silver nanoparticle induced field enhancement on the nonlinear response of a Kerr-type nonlinear host. We show that the composite nonlinear absorption coefficient, beta(c), can be enhanced relative to the host nonlinear absorption coefficient near the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. This enhancement is not due to a resonant enhancement of the host nonlinear absorption, but rather due to a phase shifted enhancement of the host nonlinear refractive response. The enhancement occurs at the expense of introducing linear absorption, alpha(c), which leads to an overall reduced figure of merit beta(c)/alpha(c) for nonlinear absorption. For thin (< 1 microm) composites, the use of surface plasmons is found to result in an increased nonlinear absorption response compared to that of the host material.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Earthquake-Induced Landslide Using an Improved Discontinuous Deformation Analysis Considering Dynamic Friction Degradation of Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da; Song, Yixiang; Cen, Duofeng; Fu, Guoyang

    2016-12-01

    Discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) as an efficient technique has been extensively applied in the dynamic simulation of discontinuous rock mass. In the original DDA (ODDA), the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is employed as the judgment principle of failure between contact blocks, and the friction coefficient is assumed to be constant in the whole calculation process. However, it has been confirmed by a host of shear tests that the dynamic friction of rock joints degrades. Therefore, the friction coefficient should be gradually reduced during the numerical simulation of an earthquake-induced rockslide. In this paper, based on the experimental results of cyclic shear tests on limestone joints, exponential regression formulas are fitted for dynamic friction degradation, which is a function of the relative velocity, the amplitude of cyclic shear displacement and the number of its cycles between blocks with an edge-to-edge contact. Then, an improved DDA (IDDA) is developed by implementing the fitting regression formulas and a modified removing technique of joint cohesion, in which the cohesion is removed once the `sliding' or `open' state between blocks appears for the first time, into the ODDA. The IDDA is first validated by comparing with the theoretical solutions of the kinematic behaviors of a sliding block on an inclined plane under dynamic loading. Then, the program is applied to model the Donghekou landslide triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The simulation results demonstrate that the dynamic friction degradation of joints has great influences on the runout and velocity of sliding mass. Moreover, the friction coefficient possesses higher impact than the cohesion of joints on the kinematic behaviors of the sliding mass.

  17. Determination of the object surface function by structured light: application to the study of spinal deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buendia, M.; Salvador, R.; Cibrian, R.; Sotoca, J.M.; Laguia, M.

    1999-01-01

    The projection of structured light is a technique frequently used to determine the surface shape of an object. In this paper, a new procedure is described that efficiently resolves the correspondence between the knots of the projected grid and those obtained on the object when the projection is made. The method is based on the use of three images of the projected grid. In two of them the grid is projected over a flat surface placed, respectively, before and behind the object; both images are used for calibration. In the third image the grid is projected over the object. It is not reliant on accurate determination of the camera and projector pair relative to the grid and object. Once the method is calibrated, we can obtain the surface function by just analysing the projected grid on the object. The procedure is especially suitable for the study of objects without discontinuities or large depth gradients. It can be employed for determining, in a non-invasive way, the patient's back surface function. Symmetry differences permit a quantitative diagnosis of spinal deformities such as scoliosis. (author)

  18. The role of crystal orientation and surface proximity in the self-similar behavior of deformed Cu single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Judy W.L., E-mail: pangj@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Behtel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Behtel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Liu Wenjun [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-11-25

    We report on novel 3D spatially resolved X-ray diffraction microscopy studies of self-affine behavior in deformed single crystals. This study extends surface profile measurements of self-affined morphology changes in single crystals during deformation to include local lattice rotations and sub-surface behavior. Investigations were made on the spatial correlation of the local lattice rotations in 8% tensile deformed Cu single crystals oriented with [1 2 3], [1 1 1] and [0 0 1] axes parallel to the tensile axis. The nondestructive depth-resolved measurements were made over a length scale of one to hundreds of micrometers. Self-affined correlation was found both at the surface and below the surface of the samples. A universal exponent for the power-law similar to that observed with surface profile methods is found at the surface of all samples but crystallographically sensitive changes are observed as a function of depth. Correlation lengths of the self-affine behavior vary with the [1 2 3] crystal exhibiting the longest self-affine length scale of 70 {mu}m with only 18 {mu}m for the [1 1 1] and [0 0 1] crystals. These measurements illuminate the transition from surface-like to bulk-like deformation behavior and provide new quantitative information to guide emerging models of self-organized structures in plasticity.

  19. Surface Deformation Associated With a Historical Diking Event in Afar From Correlation of Space and Air-Borne Optical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J.; Peltzer, G.; Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.; Kasser, M.

    2011-12-01

    We present new measurements of the surface deformation associated with the rifting event of 1978 in the Asal-Ghoubbet rift, Republic of Djibouti. The Asal-Ghoubbet rift forms a component of the Afar Depression, a broad extensional region at the junction between the Nubia, Arabia, and Somalia plates, which apart from Iceland, is the only spreading center located above sea-level. The 1978 rifting event was marked by a 2-month sequence of small to moderate earthquakes (Mb ~3-5) and a fissural eruption of the Ardukoba Volcano. Deformation in the Asal rift associated with the event included the reactivation of the main bordering faults and the development of numerous open fissures on the rift floor. The movement of the rift shoulders, measured using ground-based geodesy, showed up to 2.5 m of opening in the N40E direction. Our data include historical aerial photographs from 1962 and 1984 (less than 0.8 m/pixel) along the northern border fault, three KH-9 Hexagon(~8 m/pixel) satellite images from 1973, and recently acquired ASTER (15 m/pixel) and SPOT5 (2.5 m/pixel) data. The measurements are made by correlating pre- and post-event images using the COSI-Corr (Co-registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation) software developed at Caltech. The ortho-rectification of the images is done with a mosaic of a 10 m resolution digital elevation model, made by French Institut Geographique National (IGN), and the SRTM and GDEM datasets. Correlation results from the satellite images indicate 2-3 meters of opening across the rift. Preliminary results obtained using the 1962 and 1984 aerial photographs indicate that a large fraction of the opening occurred on or near Fault γ, which borders the rift to the North. These preliminary results are largely consistent with the ground based measurements made after the event. A complete analysis of the aerial photograph coverage will provide a better characterization of the spatial distribution of the deformation throughout the rift.

  20. Numerical Study of Wind Turbine Wake Modeling Based on a Actuator Surface Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Huai-yang; Xu, Chang; Han, Xing Xing

    2017-01-01

    In the Actuator Surface Model (ALM), the turbine blades are represented by porous surfaces of velocity and pressure discontinuities to model the action of lifting surfaces on the flow. The numerical simulation is implemented on FLUENT platform combined with N-S equations. This model is improved o...

  1. Isolated, slowly evolving, and dynamical trapping horizons: Geometry and mechanics from surface deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Ivan; Fairhurst, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    We study the geometry and dynamics of both isolated and dynamical trapping horizons by considering the allowed variations of their foliating two-surfaces. This provides a common framework that may be used to consider both their possible evolutions and their deformations as well as derive the well-known flux laws. Using this framework, we unify much of what is already known about these objects as well as derive some new results. In particular we characterize and study the ''almost isolated'' trapping horizons known as slowly evolving horizons. It is for these horizons that a dynamical first law holds and this is analogous and closely related to the Hawking-Hartle formula for event horizons

  2. About the non-identity of the technological impact upon its repeat realization in the case of surface plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorov, Veselin I. [University of Rousse, Rousse (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    Discussed are the cases when during the repeated applying surface plastic deformation (SPD) there is a significant manifestation of alternative combinations and otter effect and factors in addition to the factor number of processing runs. Then there are signs of non-identity of their technological impact. except for the influence of the factor frequency of the processing, there are a significant availability of alternative combinations of effects and other factors and there are signs of non-identity of the technological impact. Such combinations occur in relation to: mismatch of the overlaying of contact zones; generation random characteristics of the technological impact; System-driven differences in the condition of contact interaction between the deforming elements and the machined surfaces. Key words: surface plastic deformation.

  3. Comparative study on deformation and mechanical behavior of corroded pipe: Part I–Numerical simulation and experimental investigation under impact load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Man Ryu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments and a numerical simulation were conducted to investigate the deformation and impact behavior of a corroded pipe, as corrosion, fatigue, and collision phenomena frequently occur in subsea pipelines. This study focuses on the deformation of the corrosion region and the variation of the geometry of the pipe under impact loading. The experiments for the impact behavior of the corroded pipe were performed using an impact test apparatus to validate the results of the simulation. In addition, during the simulation, material tests were performed, and the results were applied to the simulation. The ABAQUS explicit finite element analysis program was used to perform numerical simulations for the parametric study, as well as experiment scenarios, to investigate the effects of defects under impact loading. In addition, the modified ASME B31.8 code formula was proposed to define the damage range for the dented pipe.

  4. Historical coseismic surface deformation of fluvial gravel deposits, Schafberg fault, Lower Rhine Graben, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Simon; Friedrich, Anke M.; Gold, Ryan D.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2018-03-01

    Intraplate earthquakes pose a significant seismic hazard in densely populated rift systems like the Lower Rhine Graben in Central Europe. While the locations of most faults in this region are well known, constraints on their seismogenic potential and earthquake recurrence are limited. In particular, the Holocene deformation history of active faults remains enigmatic. In an exposure excavated across the Schafberg fault in the southwestern Lower Rhine Graben, south of Untermaubach, in the epicentral region of the 1756 Düren earthquake ( M L 6.2), we mapped a complex deformation zone in Holocene fluvial sediments. We document evidence for at least one paleoearthquake that resulted in vertical surface displacement of 1.2 ± 0.2 m. The most recent earthquake is constrained to have occurred after 815 AD, and we have modeled three possible earthquake scenarios constraining the timing of the latest event. Coseismic deformation is characterized by vertical offset of sedimentary contacts distributed over a 10-m-wide central damage zone. Faults were identified where they fracture and offset pebbles in the vertically displaced gravel layers and fracture orientation is consistent with the orientation of the Schafberg fault. This study provides the first constraint on the most recent surface-rupturing earthquake on the Schafberg fault. We cannot rule out that this fault acted as the source of the 1756 Düren earthquake. Our study emphasizes the importance of, and the need for, paleoseismic studies in this and other intracontinental regions, in particular on faults with subtle geomorphic expression that would not typically be recognized as being potentially seismically active. Our study documents textural features in unconsolidated sediment that formed in response to coseismic rupturing of the underlying bedrock fault. We suggest that these features, e.g., abundant oriented transgranular fractures in their context, should be added to the list of criteria used to identify a fault

  5. Calculation of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of inner surface into outer one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Uvarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of internal surface into outer one was developed with a use of the kinematic method. The shell material was assumed to be perfectly plastic. The theory of thin shells and the kinematic theorem of limit equilibrium were utilized in this work. Both geometric and physical nonlinearities were taken into account. Dependences for calculating radius of curvature of the intensive deformation zones, value of chain ring deformation and values of the deforming force as a function of axial displacement were determined. Analysis showed the possibility of using a conical shell to absorb energy with high efficiency. Obtained results could be used for calculation and selection of optimal parameters of the energy-absorbing elements in shock absorbers.

  6. A numerical study of three-dimensional droplets spreading on chemically patterned surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the three-dimensional droplets spreading on physically flat chemically patterned surfaces with periodic squares separated by channels. Our model consists of the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard equations with the generalized Navier

  7. Interseismic and coseismic surface deformation deduced from space geodetic observations : with inferences on seismic hazard, tectonic processes, earthquake complexity, and slip distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.G. (Annemarie Gerredina)

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I am concerned with modeling the kinematics of surface deformation using space geodetic observations in order to advance insight in both interseismic and coseismic surface response. To model the surface deformation field I adopt the method of Spakman and Nyst (2002) which resolves the

  8. Ground Deformation and Sources geometry of the 2016 Central Italy Earthquake Sequence Investigated through Analytical and Numerical Modeling of DInSAR Measurements and Structural-Geological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaro, G.; Bonano, M.; Boncio, P.; Brozzetti, F.; Castaldo, R.; Casu, F.; Cirillo, D.; Cheloni, D.; De Luca, C.; De Nardis, R.; De Novellis, V.; Ferrarini, F.; Lanari, R.; Lavecchia, G.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Pepe, S.; Tizzani, P.; Zinno, I.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence started on 24th August with a MW 6.1 event, where the intra-Apennine WSW-dipping Vettore-Gorzano extensional fault system released a destructive earthquake, causing 300 casualties and extensive damage to the town of Amatrice and surroundings. We generated several interferograms by using ALOS and Sentinel 1-A and B constellation data acquired on both ascending and descending orbits to show that most displacement is characterized by two main subsiding lobes of about 20 cm on the fault hanging-wall. By inverting the generated interferograms, following the Okada analytical approach, the modelling results account for two sources related to main shock and more energetic aftershock. Through Finite Element numerical modelling that jointly exploits DInSAR deformation measurements and structural-geological data, we reconstruct the 3D source of the Amatrice 2016 normal fault earthquake which well fit the main shock. The inversion shows that the co-seismic displacement area was partitioned on two distinct en echelon fault planes, which at the main event hypocentral depth (8 km) merge in one single WSW-dipping surface. Slip peaks were higher along the southern half of the Vettore fault, lower along the northern half of Gorzano fault and null in the relay zone between the two faults; field evidence of co-seismic surface rupture are coherent with the reconstructed scenario. The following seismic sequence was characterized by numerous aftershocks located southeast and northwest of the epicenter which decreased in frequency and magnitude until the end of October, when a MW 5.9 event occurred on 26th October about 25 km to the NW of the previous mainshock. Then, on 30th October, a third large event of magnitude MW 6.5 nucleated below the town of Norcia, striking the area between the two preceding events and filling the gap between the previous ruptures. Also in this case, we exploit a large dataset of DInSAR and GPS measurements to investigate

  9. Determination of scattering character and structural parameters of a surface layer according to X-ray data for a film with variable deformation gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyshekov, A.A.; Khapachev, Yu.P.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of the dynamic X-ray diffraction for a crystal with the exponential variation of the deformation is considered. The qualitative criteria of the deformation is considered. The qualitative criteria of the degree of the solvability of the problem of determination of the deformation amplitude and the deformed range thickness on X-ray diffraction results are established. The unambiguous solvability of this problem, is connected with two alternative cases: the slowness condition for the ratio of the surface crystal deformation to the deformed layer thickness or, vice versa, the high value of this ratio. The estimation expressions for the deformed surface layer thickness and the deformation amplitude on the data of angular shifts of the main diffraction maximum and oscillations are obtained for two limit cases [ru

  10. Analysis of recent surface deformation at Ischia Island Volcano (South Italy) via multi-platform monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Mariarosaria; De Martino, Prospero; Castaldo, Raffaele; De Luca, Claudio; Dolce, Mario; Scarpato, Giovanni; Tizzani, Pietro; Zinno, Ivana; Lanari, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Ischia Island is a densely populated volcanic area located in the North-Western sector of the Gulf of Napoli (South Italy), whose activity is characterized by eruptions (the last one occurred in 1302 A.D.), earthquakes (the most disastrous ones occurred in 1881 and in 1883), fumarolic-hydrothermal manifestations and ground deformation. In this work we carry out the surface deformation time-series analysis occurring at the Island by jointly exploiting data collected via two different monitoring systems. In particular, we take advantage from the large amount of periodic and continuous geodetic measurements collected by the GPS (campaign and permanent) stations deployed on the Island and belonging to the INGV-OV monitoring network. Moreover, we benefit from the large, free and open archive of C-band SAR data acquired over the Island by the Sentinel-1 constellation of the Copernicus Program, and processed via the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) technique referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm [Berardino et al., 2002]. We focus on the 2014-2017 time period to analyze the recent surface deformation phenomena occurring on the Island, thus extending a previous study, aimed at investigating the temporal evolution of the ground displacements affecting the Island and limited to the 1992-2003 time interval [Manzo et al., 2006]. The performed integrated analysis provides relevant spatial and temporal information on the Island surface deformation pattern. In particular, it reveals a rather complex deformative scenario, where localized phenomena overlap/interact with a spatially extended deformation pattern that involves many Island sectors, with no evidence of significant uplift phenomena. Moreover, it shows a good agreement and consistency between the different kinds of data, thus providing a clear picture of the recent dynamics at Ischia Island that can be profitably exploited to deeply investigate the physical processes behind the observed

  11. Numerical investigation on the influence of surface tension and viscous force on the bubble dynamics with a CLSVOF method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhiying; Li, Yikai; Huang, Biao; Gao, Deming [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically investigated the rising of bubbles in a quiescent liquid layer. The numerical simulation is performed by solving the incompressible, multiphase Navier-Stokes equations via computational code in axisymmetric coordinates using a Coupled level-set and volume-of-fluid (CLSVOF) method. The numerical results show that the CLSVOF method with a novel algebraic relation between F and f for axisymmetric two-phase flows not only can predict the bubble surface accurately, but also overcome the deficiency in preserving volume conservation. The effects of the Reynolds number Re and the Bond number Bo on the bubble deformation and its motion are investigated. The results show that with the increasing of Re (10 < Re < 150), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal cap to toroidal when Bo = 116. With the increasing of Bo (10 < Bo < 700), the bubble shape transfers from oblate ellipsoidal to toroidal when Re = 30. Although the toroidal bubble shapes are reached in these two cases, the transition modes are different. For the case Bo = 116, the bubble front is pierced by an upward jet from the rear of the bubble. While for the case Re = 30, the rear of the bubble is pierced by a downward jet from the front part.

  12. Surface Deformation Observed by InSAR due to Fluid Injection: a Test Study in the Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F.; Dixon, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The central and eastern U.S. has undergone a dramatic increase in seismicity over the past few years. Many of these recent earthquakes were likely induced by human activities, with underground fluid injection for oil and gas extraction being one of the main contributors. Surface deformation caused by fluid injection has been captured by GPS and InSAR observations in several areas. For example, surface uplift of up to 10 cm due to CO2 injection between 2007 and 2011 was measured by InSAR at an enhanced oil recovery site in west Texas. We are using Texas and Oklahoma as test areas to analyze the potential relationship between surface deformation, underground fluid injection and induced earthquakes. C-band SAR data from ENVISAT and Sentinel-1, and L-band SAR data from ALOS and ALOS-2 are used to form decade-long time series. Based on the surface deformation derived from the time series InSAR data, subsurface volume change and volumetric strain in an elastic half space are estimated. Seismic data provided by the USGS are used to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of earthquakes, and the potential link between surface deformation and induced earthquakes. The trigger mechanism will be combined with forward modeling to predict seismicity and assess related hazard for future study.

  13. Numerical Simulation and Monitoring of Surface Environment Influence of Waterless Sand Layer Shield Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanliang; Han, Tongyin; Shi, Wenjun; Du, Shouji; Qin, Zhichao

    2017-10-01

    The development of urban subway is becoming more and more rapid and plays an increasingly important role. The shield tunneling method has become the first choice for the construction of urban subway tunnel in the construction of urban subway. The paper takes the interval of Shijiazhuang Metro Line 3 Administrative Center Station and Garden Park Station as the engineering background. The establishment of double shield finite difference model by considering the thickness of covering soil, tunnel excavation and excavation at the same time, distance and other factors, the surface deformation, and soil thickness. The ground deformation law is obtained, the surface settlement is inversely proportional to the overburden thickness and the double line spacing, and the gradual excavation is smaller than the synchronous excavation.

  14. A review of the trunk surface metrics used as Scoliosis and other deformities evaluation indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggouris Costas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although scoliosis is characterized by lateral deviation of the spine, a 3D deformation actually is responsible for geometric and morphologic changes in the trunk and rib cage. In a vast related medical literature, one can find quite a few scoliosis evaluation indices, which are based on back surface data and are generally measured along three planes. Regardless the large number of such indices, the literature is lacking a coherent presentation of the underlying metrics, the involved anatomic surface landmarks, the definition of planes and the definition of the related body axes. In addition, the long list of proposed scoliotic indices is rarely presented in cross-reference to each other. This creates a possibility of misunderstandings and sometimes irrational or even wrong use of these indices by the medical society. Materials and methods It is hoped that the current work contributes in clearing up the issue and gives rise to innovative ideas on how to assess the surface metrics in scoliosis. In particular, this paper presents a thorough study on the scoliosis evaluation indices, proposed by the medical society. Results More specifically, the referred indices are classified, according to the type of asymmetry they measure, according to the plane they refer to, according to the importance, and relevance or the level of scientific consensus they enjoy. Conclusions Surface metrics have very little correlation to Cobb angle measurements. Indices measured on different planes do not correlate to each other. Different indices exhibit quite diverging characteristics in terms of observer-induced errors, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Complicated positioning of the patient and ambiguous anatomical landmarks are the major error sources, which cause observer variations. Principles that should be followed when an index is proposed are presented.

  15. Calculation of rectal dose surface histograms in the presence of time varying deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeske, John C.; Spelbring, Danny R.; Vijayakumar, S.; Forman, Jeffrey D.; Chen, George T.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Dose volume (DVH) and dose surface histograms (DSH) of the bladder and rectum are usually calculated from a single treatment planning scan. These DVHs and DSHs will eventually be correlated with complications to determine parameters for normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). However, from day to day, the size and shape of the rectum and bladder may vary. The purpose of this study is to compare a more accurate estimate of the time integrated DVHs and DSHs of the rectum (in the presence of daily variations in rectal shape) to initial DVHs/DSHs. Methods: 10 patients were scanned once per week during the course of fractionated radiotherapy, typically accumulating a total of six scans. The rectum and bladder were contoured on each of the studies. The model used to assess effects of rectal contour deformation is as follows: the contour on a given axial slice (see figure) is boxed within a rectangle. A line drawn parallel to the AP axis through the rectangle equally partitions the box. Starting at the intersection of the vertical line and the rectal contour, points on the contour are marked off representing the same rectal dose point, even in the presence of distortion. Corresponding numbered points are used to sample the dose matrix and create a composite DSH. The model assumes uniform stretching of the rectal contour for any given axial cut, and no twist of the structure or vertical displacement. A similar model is developed for the bladder with spherical symmetry. Results: Normalized DSHs (nDSH) for each CT scan were calculated as well as the time averaged nDSH over all scans. These were compared with the nDSH from the initial planning scan. Individual nDSHs differed by 8% surface area irradiated at the 80% dose level, to as much as 20% surface area in the 70-100% dose range. DSH variations are due to position and shape changes in the rectum during different CT scans. The spatial distribution of dose is highly variable, and depends on the field

  16. Multi-temporal InSAR Datastacks for Surface Deformation Monitoring: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Prati, C.; Rocca, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the last decade extensive processing of thousands of satellite radar scenes acquired by different sensors (e.g. ERS-1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT) has demonstrated how multi-temporal data-sets can be successfully exploited for surface deformation monitoring, by identifying objects on the terrain that have a stable, point-like behaviour. These objects, referred to as Permanent or Persistent Scatterers (PS), can be geo-coded and monitored for movement very accurately, acting as a "natural" geodetic network, integrating successfully continuous GPS data. After a brief analysis of both advantages and drawbacks of InSAR datastacks, the paper presents examples of applications of PS measurements for detecting and monitoring active faults, aquifers and oil/gas reservoirs, using experience in Europe, North America and Japan, and concludes with a discussion on future directions for PSInSAR analysis. Special attention is paid to the possibility of creating deformation maps over wide areas using historical archives of data already available. This second part of the paper will briefly discuss the technical features of the new radar sensors recently launched (namely: TerraSAR-X, RADARSAT-2, and CosmoSkyMed) and their impact on space geodesy, highlighting the importance of data continuity and standardized acquisition policies for almost all InSAR and PSInSAR applications. Finally, recent advances in the algorithms applied in PS analysis, such as detection of "temporary PS", PS characterization and exploitation of distributed scatterers, will be briefly discussed based on the processing of real data.

  17. Hydraulic-fracture growth in dipping anisotropic strata as viewed through the surface deformation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhausen, G.R.; Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.; Gazonas, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Oak Rdige National Laboratory conducted a series of precision ground deformation measurements before, during, and after the generation of several large hydraulic fractures in a dipping member of the Cambrian Conasauga Shale. Each fracture was produced by the injection of approximately 500,000 L of slurry on a single day. Injection depth was 300 m. Leveling surveys were run several days before and several days after the injections. An array of eight high-precision borehole tiltmeters monitored ground deformations continuously for a period of several weeks. Analysis of the leveling and the tilt measurements revealed surface uplifts as great as 25 mm and tilts of tens of microradians during each injection. Furthermore, partial recovery (subsidence) of the ground took place during the days following an injection, accompanied by shifts in the position of maximum resultant uplift. Interpretation of the tilt measurements is consistent with stable widening and extension of hydraulic fractures with subhorizontal orientations. Comparison of the measured tilt patterns with fracture orientations established from logging of observation wells suggests that shearing parallel to the fracture planes accompanied fracture dilation. This interpretation is supported by measured tilts and ground uplifts that were as much as 100 percent greater than those expected from fracture dilation alone. Models of elastically anisotropic overburden rock do not explain the measured tilt patterns in the absence of shear stresses in the fracture planes. This work represents the first large-scale hydraulic-fracturing experiment in which the possible effects of material anisotropy and fracture-parallel shears have been measured and interpreted

  18. Hydraulic-fracture growth in dipping anisotropic strata as viewed through the surface deformation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhausen, G.R.; Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.; Gazonas, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a series of precision ground deformation measurements before, during, and after the generation of several large hydraulic fractures in a dipping member of the Cambrian Conassauga Shale. Each fracture was produced by the injection of approximately 500,000 liters of slurry on a single day. Injection depth was 300 m. Leveling surveys were run several days before and several days after the injections. An array of eight high-precision borehole tiltmeters monitored ground deformations continuously for a period of several weeks. Analysis of the leveling and the tilt measurements revealed surface uplifts as great as 25 mm and tilts of tens of microradians during each injection. Furthermore, partial recovery (subsidence) of the ground took place during the days following an injection, accompanied by shifts in the position of maximum resultant uplift. Interpretation of the tilt measurements is consistent with stable widening and extension of hydraulic fractures with subhorizontal orientations. Comparison of the measured tilt patterns with fracture orientations established from logging of observation wells suggests that shearing parallel to the fracture planes accompanied fracture dilation. This interpretation is supported by measured tilts and ground uplifts that were as much as 100 percent greater than those expected from fracture dilation alone. Models of elastically anisotropic overburden rock do not explain the measured tilt patterns in the absence of shear stresses in the fracture planes. This work represents the first large-scale hydraulic-fracturing experiment in which the possible effects of material anisotropy and fracture-parallel shears have been measured and interpreted

  19. SBAS Analysis of Induced Ground Surface Deformation from Wastewater Injection in East Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Loesch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of Oklahoma has experienced a dramatic increase in the amount of measurable seismic activities over the last decade. The needs of a petroleum-driven world have led to increased production utilizing various technologies to reach energy reserves locked in tight formations and stimulate end-of-life wells, creating significant amounts of undesirable wastewater ultimately injected underground for disposal. Using Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data, we performed a differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS-based analysis over east central Oklahoma to identify ground surface deformation with respect to the location of wastewater injection wells for the period of December 2006 to January 2011. Our results show broad spatial correlation between SBAS-derived deformation and the locations of injection wells. We also observed significant uplift over Cushing, Oklahoma, the largest above ground crude oil storage facility in the world, and a key hub of the Keystone Pipeline. This finding has significant implications for the oil and gas industry due to its close proximity to the zones of increased seismicity attributed to wastewater injection. Results southeast of Drumright, Oklahoma represent an excellent example of the potential of InSAR, identifying a fault bordered by an area of subduction to the west and uplift to the east. This differentiated movement along the fault may help explain the lack of any seismic activity in this area, despite the large number of wells and high volume of fluid injected.

  20. Research of Tool Durability in Surface Plastic Deformation Processing by Burnishing of Steel Without Metalworking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Bobrovskij, N. M.; Melnikov, P. A.; Bobrovskij, I. N.

    2017-05-01

    Modern vector of development of machining technologies aimed at the transition to environmentally safe technologies - “green” technologies. The concept of “green technology” includes a set of signs of knowledge intended for practical use (“technology”). One of the ways to improve the quality of production is the use of surface plastic deformation (SPD) processing methods. The advantage of the SPD is a capability to combine effects of finishing and strengthening treatment. The SPD processing can replace operations: fine turning, grinding or polishing. The SPD is a forceful contact impact of indentor on workpiece’s surface in condition of their relative motion. It is difficult to implement the core technology of the SPD (burnishing, roller burnishing, etc.) while maintaining core technological advantages without the use of lubricating and cooling technology (metalworking fluids, MWF). The “green” SPD technology was developed by the authors for dry processing and has not such shortcomings. When processing with SPD without use of MWF requirements for tool’s durability is most significant, especially in the conditions of mass production. It is important to determine the period of durability of tool at the design stage of the technological process with the purpose of wastage preventing. This paper represents the results of durability research of natural and synthetic diamonds (polycrystalline diamond - ASPK) as well as precision of polycrystalline superabrasive tools made of dense boron nitride (DBN) during SPD processing without application of MWF.

  1. Surface deformation monitoring of Sinabung volcano using multi temporal InSAR method and GIS analysis for affected area assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiya, A.; Aoki, Y.; Anugrah, R. D.

    2018-04-01

    Sinabung Volcano which located in northern part of Sumatera island is part of a hundred active volcano in Indonesia. Surface deformation is detected over Sinabung Volcano and surrounded area since the first eruption in 2010 after 400 years long rest. We present multi temporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time-series method of ALOS-2 L-band SAR data acquired from December 2014 to July 2017 to reveal surface deformation with high spatial resolution. The method includes focusing the SAR data, generating interferogram and phase unwrapping using SNAPHU tools. The result reveal significant deformation over Sinabung Volcano areas at rates up to 10 cm during observation period and the highest deformation occurs in western part which is trajectory of lava. We concluded the observed deformation primarily caused by volcanic activity respectively after long period of rest. In addition, Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis produces disaster affected areas of Sinabung eruption. GIS is reliable technique to estimate the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data and develop scenarios of disaster impacts to inform their contingency and emergency plan. The GIS results include the estimated affected area divided into 3 zones based on pyroclastic lava flow and pyroclastic fall (incandescent rock and ash). The highest impact is occurred in zone II due to many settlements are scattered in this zone. This information will be support stakeholders to take emergency preparation for disaster reduction. The continuation of this high rate of decline tends to endanger the population in next periods.

  2. Effect of accelerated ageing and surface sealing on the permanent deformation of auto-polymerising soft linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joaquim; Takahashi, Jessica; Nuňez, Juliana; Consani, Rafael; Mesquita, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    To compare the effects of different ageing methods on the permanent deformation of two permanent soft liners. The materials selected were auto-polymerising acrylic resin and silicone-based reliners. Sealer coating was also evaluated. Sixty specimens of each reliner were manufactured (12.7 mm diameter and 19 mm length). Specimens were randomly distributed into 12 groups (n = 10) and submitted to one of the accelerated ageing processes. Permanent deformation tests were conducted with a mechanical device described within the American Dental Association specification number 18 with a compressive load of 750 gf applied for 30 s. All data were submitted for statistical analysis. Mann-Whitney test compared the effect of the surface sealer on each material and the permanent deformation of the materials in the same ageing group (p = 0.05). Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests compared all ageing groups of each material (p = 0.05). The silicone-based reliner presented a lower permanent deformation than the acrylic resin-based reliner, regardless of the ageing procedure. The surface sealer coating was effective only for the thermocycled silicone group and the accelerated ageing processes affected only the permanent deformation of the acrylic resin-based material. The silicone-based reliner presented superior elastic properties and the thermocycling was more effective in ageing the materials. © 2010 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Numerical simulation of mechanisms of deformation,failure and energy dissipation in porous rock media subjected to wave stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The pore characteristics,mineral compositions,physical and mechanical properties of the subarkose sandstones were acquired by means of CT scan,X-ray diffraction and physical tests.A few physical models possessing the same pore characteristics and matrix properties but different porosities compared to the natural sandstones were developed.The 3D finite element models of the rock media with varied porosities were established based on the CT image processing of the physical models and the MIMICS software platform.The failure processes of the porous rock media loaded by the split Hopkinson pressure bar(SHPB) were simulated by satisfying the elastic wave propagation theory.The dynamic responses,stress transition,deformation and failure mechanisms of the porous rock media subjected to the wave stresses were analyzed.It is shown that an explicit and quantitative analysis of the stress,strain and deformation and failure mechanisms of porous rocks under the wave stresses can be achieved by using the developed 3D finite element models.With applied wave stresses of certain amplitude and velocity,no evident pore deformation was observed for the rock media with a porosity less than 15%.The deformation is dominantly the combination of microplasticity(shear strain),cracking(tensile strain) of matrix and coalescence of the cracked regions around pores.Shear stresses lead to microplasticity,while tensile stresses result in cracking of the matrix.Cracking and coalescence of the matrix elements in the neighborhood of pores resulted from the high transverse tensile stress or tensile strain which exceeded the threshold values.The simulation results of stress wave propagation,deformation and failure mechanisms and energy dissipation in porous rock media were in good agreement with the physical tests.The present study provides a reference for analyzing the intrinsic mechanisms of the complex dynamic response,stress transit mode,deformation and failure mechanisms and the disaster

  4. Numerical simulation of lead devices for seismic isolation and vibration control on their damping characteristics. Development of lead material model under cyclic large deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Akihiro; Yabana, Shuichi; Borst, Rene de

    2004-01-01

    In order to predict the mechanical properties of lead devices for seismic isolation and vibration control, especially damping behavior under cyclic loading using numerical simulation, cyclic shear loading tests and uniaxial tensile loading tests were performed, and a new material model was proposed with the use of the both test results. Until now, it has been difficult to evaluate mechanical properties of lead material under cyclic loading by uniaxial tensile loading test because local deformations appeared with the small tensile strain. Our shear cyclic loading tests for lead material enabled practical evaluation of its mechanical properties under cyclic large strain which makes it difficult to apply uniaxial test. The proposed material model was implemented into a finite element program, and it was applied to numerical simulation of mechanical properties of lead dampers and rubber bearings with a lead plug. The numerical simulations and the corresponding laboratory loading tests showed good agreement, which proved the applicability of the proposed model. (author)

  5. Micro-deformation measurement on the concrete roadway surface slabs using Fiber Bragg Grating and analysis by computational simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, C M; Gomez, N D [Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano Institucion Universitaria (ITM), Medellin A. A. 54954 (Colombia); Velez, F J, E-mail: claudiaserpa@itm.edu.co [Universidad EAFIT, Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This work shows a non-invasive method for micro-deformation measurements on concrete structures using Bragg grating sensors in optical fibers adhered to the surface. We present the measurements on roadway slabs under a load of 10 kN, and we find an approximated ratio of 2:1 between the deformation registered by the sensors and the values from a computational simulation with the finite element method. We propose the use of these sensors for structural monitoring of the slabs and this installation shape for avoiding bends that can damage the edges in the optical fiber in embebed sensors in vertical shape.

  6. Fermi surface deformation in a simple iron-based superconductor, FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldea, Amalia; Watson, Matthew; Kim, Timur; Haghighirad, Amir; McCollam, Alix; Hoesch, Moritz; Schofield, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    One of the outstanding problems in the field superconductivity is the identification of the normal state out of which superconductivity emerges. FeSe is one of the simplest and most intriguing iron-based superconductors, since in its bulk form it undergoes a structural transition before it becomes superconducting, whereas its single-layer form is believed to be a high-temperature superconductor. The nature of the structural transition, occurring in the absence of static magnetism, is rather unusual and how the electronic structure is stabilized by breaking of the rotational symmetry is the key to understand the superconductivity in bulk FeSe. Here we report angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements on FeSe that gives direct access to the band structure and orbital-dependent effects. We complement our studies on bulk FeSe with low-temperature angular-dependent quantum oscillation measurements using applied magnetic fields that are sufficiently strong to suppress superconductivity and reach the normal state. These studies reveal a strong deformation of Fermi surface through the structural transition driven by electronic correlations and orbital-dependent effects. . This work was supported by EPSRC, UK (EP/I004475/1), Diamond Light Source, UK and HFML, Nijmegen.

  7. Saturation of plastic deformation by swift heavy ion irradiation: Ion hammering vs. surface effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferhati, Redi; Dautel, Knut; Bolse, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Fritzsche, Monika [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Swift heavy ion (SHI) induced plastic deformation is a subject of current research and scientific discussion. This *Ion Hammering* phenomenon was first observed 30 years ago in amorphous materials like metallic glasses. About 10 years ago, Feyh et al. have shown that stress generation and *Ion Hammering* result in self-organization of thin NiO-films on Si-wafers into a sub-micron lamellae-like structure under grazing angle irradiation. The growth of the lamellae was found to saturate as soon as they have reached a thickness of a few hundreds of nm. Here we show our latest results on the restructuring of pre-patterned thin oxide films by SHI under various irradiation conditions. The experiments were performed by employing (in-situ) scanning electron microscopy, and were complemented by (in-situ) energy dispersive x-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy. As we will show, the saturation behavior can be understood as a competition of *Ion Hammering* and surface energy effects, while the unexpected fact, that the initially crystalline films undergo *Ion Hammering* can possibly be attributed to oxygen loss and thus amorphization during irradiation.

  8. Monitoring production using surface deformation: the Hijiori test site and the Okuaizu geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    2002-01-01

    Production in geothermal reservoirs often leads to observable surface displacement. As shown in this paper, there is a direct relationship between such displacement and reservoir dynamics. This relationship is exploited in order to image fluid flow at two geothermal field sites. At the first locality, the Hijiori Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site, 17 tilt meters record deformation associated with a 2.2 km deep injection experiment. Images of fluid migration along a ring fracture system of the collapsed Hijiori caldera are obtained. At the Okuaizu geothermal field, leveling and tilt meter data provide constraints on long- and short-term fluid movement within the reservoir. A set of 119 leveling data suggest that the north-to-northeast trending Takiyagawa fault acts as a barrier to flow. The northwesterly oriented Chinoikezawa and Sarukurazawa faults appear to channel fluid from the southeast. The tilt data from Okuaizu indicate that a fault paralleling the Takiyagawa fault zone acts as a conduit to transient flow, on a time scale of several weeks. The volume strain in a region adjacent to the injection wells reaches a maximum and then decreases with time. The transient propagation of fluid along the fault may be due to pressure build-up, resulting from the re-initiation of injection. (author)

  9. Modeling and simulation of the deformation process of PTFE flexiblestamps for nanoimprint lithography on curved surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Smistrup, K.; Hannibal, Morten

    2015-01-01

    -viscoplastic. This behavior was described in a temperature dependent constitutive model consisting of a Zenerbody for the viscoelastic deformation and the Johnson-Cook model for the description of the viscoplastic deformation. The constitutive model was implemented in the general purpose finite element software ABAQUS...

  10. Numerical Studies of Friction Between Metallic Surfaces and of its Dependence on Electric Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintanis, Evangelos; Marder, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We will present molecular dynamics simulations that explore the frictional mechanisms between clean metallic surfaces. We employ the HOLA molecular dynamics code to run slider-on-block experiments. Both objects are allowed to evolve freely. We recover realistic coefficients of friction and verify the importance of cold-welding and plastic deformations in dry sliding friction. We also find that plastic deformations can significantly affect both objects, despite a difference in hardness. Metallic contacts have significant technological applications in the transmission of electric currents. To explore the effects of the latter to sliding, we had to integrate an electrodynamics solver into the molecular dynamics code. The disparate time scales involved posed a challenge, but we have developed an efficient scheme for such an integration. A limited electrodynamic solver has been implemented and we are currently exploring the effects of currents in the friction and wear of metallic contacts.

  11. An Effective Approach of Teeth Segmentation within the 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Based on Deformable Surface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xutang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extract the pixels of teeth from 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT image, in this paper, a novel 3D segmentation approach based on deformable surface mode is developed for 3D tooth model reconstruction. Different forces are formulated to handle the segmentation problem by using different strategies. First, the proposed method estimates the deformation force of vertex model by simulating the deformation process of a bubble under the action of internal pressure and external force field. To handle the blurry boundary, a “braking force” is proposed deriving from the 3D gradient information calculated by transforming the Sobel operator into three-dimension representation. In addition, a “border reinforcement” strategy is developed for handling the cases with complicate structures. Moreover, the proposed method combines affine cell image decomposition (ACID grid reparameterization technique to handle the unstable changes of topological structure and deformability during the deformation process. The proposed method was performed on 510 CBCT images. To validate the performance, the results were compared with those of two other well-studied methods. Experimental results show that the proposed approach had a good performance in handling the cases with complicate structures and blurry boundaries well, is effective to converge, and can successfully achieve the reconstruction task of various types of teeth in oral cavity.

  12. Numerical analysis of the bucket surface roughness effects in Pelton turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Y X; Zeng, C J; Zhang, J; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    The internal flow of a Pelton turbine is quite complex. It is difficult to analyse the unsteady free water sheet flow in the rotating bucket owing to the lack of a sound theory. Affected by manufacturing technique and silt abrasion during the operation, the bucket surface roughness of Pelton turbine may be too great, and thereby influence unit performance. To investigate the effect of bucket roughness on Pelton turbine performance, this paper presents the numerical simulation of the interaction between the jet and the bucket in a Pelton turbine. The unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with CFX code by using the SST turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. Different magnitude orders of bucket surface roughness were analysed and compared. Unsteady numerical results of the free water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface, torque and unit performance for each bucket surface roughness were generated. The total pressure distribution on bucket surface is used to show the free water sheet flow pattern on bucket surface. By comparing the variation of water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface with different roughness, this paper qualitatively analyses how the bucket surface roughness magnitude influences the impeding effect on free water sheet flow. Comparison of the torque variation of different bucket surface roughness highlighted the effect of the bucket surface roughness on the Pelton turbine output capacity. To further investigate the effect of bucket surface roughness on Pelton turbine performance, the relation between the relative efficiency loss rate and bucket surface roughness magnitude is quantitatively analysed. The result can be used to predict and evaluate the Pelton turbine performance

  13. Numerical analysis of the bucket surface roughness effects in Pelton turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y. X.; Zeng, C. J.; Zhang, J.; Yan, Z. G.; Wang, Z. W.

    2013-12-01

    The internal flow of a Pelton turbine is quite complex. It is difficult to analyse the unsteady free water sheet flow in the rotating bucket owing to the lack of a sound theory. Affected by manufacturing technique and silt abrasion during the operation, the bucket surface roughness of Pelton turbine may be too great, and thereby influence unit performance. To investigate the effect of bucket roughness on Pelton turbine performance, this paper presents the numerical simulation of the interaction between the jet and the bucket in a Pelton turbine. The unsteady three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with CFX code by using the SST turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. Different magnitude orders of bucket surface roughness were analysed and compared. Unsteady numerical results of the free water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface, torque and unit performance for each bucket surface roughness were generated. The total pressure distribution on bucket surface is used to show the free water sheet flow pattern on bucket surface. By comparing the variation of water sheet flow patterns on bucket surface with different roughness, this paper qualitatively analyses how the bucket surface roughness magnitude influences the impeding effect on free water sheet flow. Comparison of the torque variation of different bucket surface roughness highlighted the effect of the bucket surface roughness on the Pelton turbine output capacity. To further investigate the effect of bucket surface roughness on Pelton turbine performance, the relation between the relative efficiency loss rate and bucket surface roughness magnitude is quantitatively analysed. The result can be used to predict and evaluate the Pelton turbine performance.

  14. Estimating local atmosphere-surface fluxes using eddy covariance and numerical Ogive optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievers, Jakob; Papakyriakou, Tim; Larsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Estimating representative surface-fluxes using eddy covariance leads invariably to questions concerning inclusion or exclusion of low-frequency flux contributions. For studies where fluxes are linked to local physical parameters and up-scaled through numerical modeling efforts, low-frequency cont......Estimating representative surface-fluxes using eddy covariance leads invariably to questions concerning inclusion or exclusion of low-frequency flux contributions. For studies where fluxes are linked to local physical parameters and up-scaled through numerical modeling efforts, low...

  15. Physical properties of hydrated tissue determined by surface interferometry of laser-induced thermoelastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Marta L.; Perelman, Lev T.; Itzkan, Irving; Schaffer, Jonathan L.; Feld, Michael S.

    2000-02-01

    Knee meniscus is a hydrated tissue; it is a fibrocartilage of the knee joint composed primarily of water. We present results of interferometric surface monitoring by which we measure physical properties of human knee meniscal cartilage. The physical response of biological tissue to a short laser pulse is primarily thermomechanical. When the pulse is shorter than characteristic times (thermal diffusion time and acoustic relaxation time) stresses build and propagate as acoustic waves in the tissue. The tissue responds to the laser-induced stress by thermoelastic expansion. Solving the thermoelastic wave equation numerically predicts the correct laser-induced expansion. By comparing theory with experimental data, we can obtain the longitudinal speed of sound, the effective optical penetration depth and the Grüneisen coefficient. This study yields information about the laser-tissue interaction and determines properties of the meniscus samples that could be used as diagnostic parameters.

  16. Evaluation and Visualization of Surface Defects - a Numerical and Experimental Study on Sheet-Metal Parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, A.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to predict surface defects in outer panels is of vital importance in the automotive industry, especially for brands in the premium car segment. Today, measures to prevent these defects can not be taken until a test part has been manufactured, which requires a great deal of time and expense. The decision as to whether a certain surface is of acceptable quality or not is based on subjective evaluation. It is quite possible to detect a defect by measurement, but it is not possible to correlate measured defects and the subjective evaluation. If all results could be based on the same criteria, it would be possible to compare a surface by both FE simulations, experiments and subjective evaluation with the same result.In order to find a solution concerning the prediction of surface defects, a laboratory tool was manufactured and analysed both experimentally and numerically. The tool represents the area around a fuel filler lid and the aim was to recreate surface defects, so-called 'teddy bear ears'. A major problem with the evaluation of such defects is that the panels are evaluated manually and to a great extent subjectivity is involved in the classification and judgement of the defects. In this study the same computer software was used for the evaluation of both the experimental and the numerical results. In this software the surface defects were indicated by a change in the curvature of the panel. The results showed good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, the evaluation software gave a good indication of the appearance of the surface defects compared to an analysis done in existing tools for surface quality measurements. Since the agreement between numerical and experimental results was good, this indicates that these tools can be used for an early verification of surface defects in outer panels

  17. Experimental and numerical studies on free surface flow of windowless target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, G.Y.; Gu, H.Y.; Cheng, X.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental and CFD studies on free surface flow have been performed in a scaled windowless target. ► Flow structure inside spallation area can be divided into three typical zones. ► Under large Reynolds number, large scale vortex can be observed. ► CFD studies have been conducted by using both LES and RANS (k-ω SST) turbulence models. ► LES model provides better numerical prediction on free surface behavior and flow transient. - Abstract: The formation and control method of the coolant free surface is one of the key technologies for the design of windowless targets in the accelerator driven system (ADS). In the recent study, experimental and numerical investigations on the free surface flow have been performed in a scaled windowless target by using water as the model fluid. The planar laser induced fluorescence technique has been applied to visualize the free surface flow pattern inside the spallation area. Experiments have been carried out with the Reynolds number in the range of 30,000–50,000. The structure and features of flow vortex have been investigated. The experimental results show that the free surface is vulnerable to the vortex movement. In addition, CFD simulations have been performed under the experimental conditions, using LES and RANS (k-ω SST) turbulence models, respectively. The numerical results of LES model agree qualitatively well with the experimental data related to both flow pattern and free surface behavior.

  18. Numerical generation of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, T.; Miki, K.; Chen, B.C.J.; Sha, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    A new method is presented for numerically generating boundary-fitted coordinate systems for arbitrarily curved surfaces. The three-dimensional surface has been expressed by functions of two parameters using the geometrical modeling techniques in computer graphics. This leads to new quasi-one- and two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations for coordinate transformation. Since the equations involve the derivatives of the surface expressions, the grids geneated by the equations distribute on the surface depending on its slope and curvature. A computer program GRID-CS based on the method was developed and applied to a surface of the second order, a torus and a surface of a primary containment vessel for a nuclear reactor. These applications confirm that GRID-CS is a convenient and efficient tool for grid generation on arbitrarily curved surfaces

  19. Report on Microgravity Experiments of Dynamic Surface Deformation Effects on Marangoni Instability in High-Prandtl-Number Liquid Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Taishi; Nishino, Koichi; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Ueno, Ichiro; Komiya, Atsuki; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; Imaishi, Nobuyuki

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports an overview and some important results of microgravity experiments called Dynamic Surf, which have been conducted on board the International Space Station from 2013 to 2016. The present project mainly focuses on the relations between the Marangoni instability in a high-Prandtl-number (Pr= 67 and 112) liquid bridge and the dynamic free surface deformation (DSD) as well as the interfacial heat transfer. The dynamic free surface deformations of large-scale liquid bridges (say, for diameters greater than 10 mm) are measured with good accuracy by an optical imaging technique. It is found that there are two causes of the dynamic free surface deformation in the present study: the first is the time-dependent flow behavior inside the liquid bridge due to the Marangoni instability, and the second is the external disturbance due to the residual acceleration of gravity, i.e., g-jitter. The axial distributions of DSD along the free surface are measured for several conditions. The critical parameters for the onset of oscillatory Marangoni convection are also measured for various aspect ratios (i.e., relative height to the diameter) of the liquid bridge and various thermal boundary conditions. The characteristics of DSD and the onset conditions of instability are discussed in this paper.

  20. Surface rupture and vertical deformation associated with 20 May 2016 M6 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan; Clark, Dan; King, Tamarah; Quigley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Surface-rupturing earthquakes in stable continental regions (SCRs) occur infrequently, though when they occur in heavily populated regions the damage and loss of life can be severe (e.g., 2001 Bhuj earthquake). Quantifying the surface-rupture characteristics of these low-probability events is therefore important, both to improve understanding of the on- and off-fault deformation field near the rupture trace and to provide additional constraints on earthquake magnitude to rupture length and displacement, which are critical inputs for seismic hazard calculations. This investigation focuses on the 24 August 2016 M6.0 Petermann Ranges earthquake, Northern Territory, Australia. We use 0.3-0.5 m high-resolution optical Worldview satellite imagery to map the trace of the surface rupture associated with the earthquake. From our mapping, we are able to trace the rupture over a length of 20 km, trending NW, and exhibiting apparent north-side-up motion. To quantify the magnitude of vertical surface deformation, we use stereo Worldview images processed using NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline software to generate pre- and post-earthquake digital terrain models with a spatial resolution of 1.5 to 2 m. The surface scarp is apparent in much of the post-event digital terrain model. Initial efforts to difference the pre- and post-event digital terrain models yield noisy results, though we detect vertical deformation of 0.2 to 0.6 m over length scales of 100 m to 1 km from the mapped trace of the rupture. Ongoing efforts to remove ramps and perform spatial smoothing will improve our understanding of the extent and pattern of vertical deformation. Additionally, we will compare our results with InSAR and field measurements obtained following the earthquake.

  1. Global deformation of the Earth, surface mass anomalies, and the geodetic infrastructure required to study these processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, J.; Rietbroek, R.; Gunter, B.; Mark-Willem, J.

    2008-12-01

    Global deformation of the Earth can be linked to loading caused by mass changes in the atmosphere, the ocean and the terrestrial hydrosphere. World-wide geodetic observation systems like GPS, e.g., the global IGS network, can be used to study the global deformation of the Earth directly and, when other effects are properly modeled, provide information regarding the surface loading mass (e.g., to derive geo-center motion estimates). Vice versa, other observing systems that monitor mass change, either through gravitational changes (GRACE) or through a combination of in-situ and modeled quantities (e.g., the atmosphere, ocean or hydrosphere), can provide indirect information on global deformation. In the framework of the German 'Mass transport and mass distribution' program, we estimate surface mass anomalies at spherical harmonic resolution up to degree and order 30 by linking three complementary data sets in a least squares approach. Our estimates include geo-center motion and the thickness of a spatially uniform layer on top of the ocean surface (that is otherwise estimated from surface fluxes, evaporation and precipitation, and river run-off) as a time-series. As with all current Earth observing systems, each dataset has its own limitations and do not realize homogeneous coverage over the globe. To assess the impact that these limitations might have on current and future deformation and loading mass solutions, a sensitivity study was conducted. Simulated real-case and idealized solutions were explored in which the spatial distribution and quality of GPS, GRACE and OBP data sets were varied. The results show that significant improvements, e.g., over the current GRACE monthly gravity fields, in particular at the low degrees, can be achieved when these solutions are combined with present day GPS and OBP products. Our idealized scenarios also provide quantitative implications on how much surface mass change estimates may improve in the future when improved observing

  2. Numerical simulation of liquid film flow on revolution surfaces with momentum integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottoni Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The momentum integral method is applied in the frame of safety analysis of pressure water reactors under hypothetical loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions to simulate numerically film condensation, rewetting and vaporization on the inner surface of pressure water reactor containment. From the conservation equations of mass and momentum of a liquid film arising from condensation of steam upon the inner of the containment during a LOCA in a pressure water reactor plant, an integro-differential equation is derived, referring to an arbitrary axisymmetric surface of revolution. This equation describes the velocity distribution of the liquid film along a meridian of a surface of revolution. From the integro-differential equation and ordinary differential equation of first order for the film velocity is derived and integrated numerically. From the velocity distribution the film thickness distribution is obtained. The solution of the enthalpy equation for the liquid film yields the temperature distribution on the inner surface of the containment. (authors)

  3. Longwall mining and surface deformation – lessons learned from dInSAR measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, Jeanine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available including 1) subsidence related to mining and groundwater abstraction, 2) deformation following earthquake events, 3) monitoring of landslides and slope stability, 4) monitoring the stability of infrastructure and large engineering works, and 5) monitoring...

  4. Subsurface deformation and the role of surface texture—A study with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research has been done by Suh and his co-workers (Suh 1986, 1973; Suh & Saka 1977; ..... Dautzenberg J H, Zaat J H 1973 Quantitative determination of deformation by sliding wear. Wear ... Int. Seminar on Metal Forming Process Design.

  5. Volcanic Surface Deformation in Dominica From GPS Geodesy: Results From the 2007 NSF- REU Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R.; James, S.; Styron, R. H.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C.; Collier, X.; Fauria, K.; Feinstein, R.; Staisch, L.; Williams, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    GPS measurements have been collected on the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles between 2001 and 2007, with five month-long campaigns completed in June of each year supported in part by a NSF REU Site award for the past two years. All GPS data were collected using dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and geodetic-quality antenna, primarily choke rings. Three consecutive 24 hr observation days were normally obtained for each site. Precise station positions were estimated with GIPSY-OASISII using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files. All position estimates were updated to ITRF05 and a revised Caribbean Euler pole was used to place our observations in a CAR-fixed frame. Time series were created to determine the velocity of each station. Forward and inverse elastic half-space models with planar (i.e. dike) and Mogi (i.e. point) sources were investigated. Inverse modeling was completed using a downhill simplex method of function minimization. Selected site velocities were used to create appropriate models for specific regions of Dominica, which correspond to known centers of pre-historic volcanic or recent shallow, seismic activity. Because of the current distribution of GPS sites with robust velocity estimates, we limit our models to possible magmatic activity in the northern, proximal to the volcanic centers of Morne Diablotins and Morne aux Diables, and southern, proximal to volcanic centers of Soufriere and Morne Plat Pays, regions of the island. Surface deformation data from the northernmost sites may be fit with the development of a several km-long dike trending approximately northeast- southwest. Activity in the southern volcanic centers is best modeled by an expanding point source at approximately 1 km depth.

  6. Numerical investigation of room-temperature deformation behavior of a duplex type γTiAl alloy using a multi-scale modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M.R.; Chernova, L.; Bartsch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Room-temperature deformation of a niobium-rich TiAl alloy with duplex microstructure has been numerically investigated. The model links the microstructural features at micro- and meso-scale by the two-level (FE 2 ) multi-scale approach. The deformation mechanisms of the considered phases were described in the micro-mechanical crystal-plasticity model. Initial material parameters for the model were taken from the literature and validated using tensile experiments at macro-scale. For the niobium-rich TiAl alloy further adaptation of the crystal plasticity parameters is proposed. Based on these model parameters, the influences of the grain orientation, grain size, and texture on the global mechanical behavior have been investigated. The contributions of crystal deformation modes (slips and dislocations in the phases) to the mechanical response are also analyzed. The results enable a quantitative prediction of relationships between microstructure and mechanical behavior on global and local scale, including an assessment of possible crack initiation sites. The model can be used for microstructure optimization to obtain better material properties.

  7. Results of measurement of tiles and deformations of the earth surface in the Garni geophysical observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agalovyan, L.A.; Hakhverdyan, L.A.; Pashayan, R.A.; Harutyunyan, L.V.

    2017-01-01

    The data on tiltmeter-deformational observations carried out in the adit of Garni Geophysical Observatory were given for the period of 2015-2016. The primary processing of tiltmeter-deformational observations aiming to create charts of daily and average daily movements of earth crust in the N-S and E-W direction is done. Potential modern movements of earth crust in the territory of Armenia were revealed as a result of correlation with seismicity of the region

  8. The comparison of numerical models of a sandwich panel in the context of the core deformations at the supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozorska, Jolanta; Pozorski, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the problem of static structural behavior of sandwich panels at the supports. The panels have a soft core and correspond to typical structures applied in civil engineering. To analyze the problem, five different 3-D numerical models were created. The results were compared in the context of core compression and stress redistribution. The numerical solutions verify methods of evaluating the capacity of the sandwich panel that are known from the literature.

  9. Detection of hidden stationary deformations of vibrating surfaces by use of time-averaged digital holographic interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Vukicevic, Dalibor

    2004-10-15

    A method of detecting displacements of a surface from its steady-state position to its equilibrium position while it is vibrating has been developed by use of time-average digital holographic interferometry. This method permits extraction of such a hidden deformation by creating two separated systems of interferogram fringes: one corresponding to a time-varying resonantly oscillating optical phase, the other to the stationary phase modification. A mathematical description of the method and illustrative results of experimental verification are presented.

  10. Analyzing the Potential for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Photogrammetry in Estimating Surface Deformations at a Geothermal Fiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Burnett, J.; Sladek, C.; Wing, M.; Feigl, K. L.; Selker, J. S.; Tyler, S.; Team, P.

    2016-12-01

    UAS systems equipped with a variety of spectral imaging devices are increasingly incorporated in spatial environmental assessments of continental surfaces (e.g., digital elevation maps, vegetative coverage classifications, surface temperatures). This presented work performed by the UAS team at the Center for Transformative Environmental Monitoring Programs (AirCTEMPS) examines the potential to measure small (sub-cm) deformation from a geothermal injection experiment at Brady's geothermal field in western Nevada (USA). Areal mapping of the 700 x 270 m area of interest was conducted with a nadir pointing Sony A5100 digital camera onboard an autopiloted quadcopter. A total of 16 ground control points were installed using a TopCon GR3 GPS receiver. Two such mapping campaigns were conducted with one before and one after an anticipated surface deformation event. A digital elevation map (DEM) for each time period was created from over 1500 images having 80% overlap/sidelap by using structure from motion (SfM) via Agisoft Photoscan software. The resulting DEM resolution was 8 mm/pixel with residual aerial triangulation errors was < 5 mm. We present preliminary results from an optimized workflow which achieved errors and average differential DEM heights between campaigns at the cm-scale which is broader than the maximum expected deformation. Despite the disconnect between error and deformation severity, this study presents a unique application of sub-cm UAS-based DEMs and further distinguishes itself by comparing results to concurrent Interferometric Synthetic Radar (InSAR). The intent of our study and presentation of results is to streamline, cross-validate, and share methods to encourage further adoption of UAS imagery into the standard toolkit for environmental surface sensing across spatial scales.

  11. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Low Temperature Surface Hardening of Austenitic and Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels by Gaseous Nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of three commercial austenitic stainless steels: AISI 304, EN 1.4369 and Sandvik Nanoflex® with various degrees of austenite stability. The materials were...... case included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected light microscopy and microhardness. The results demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that, in particular, strain-induced martensite has a large influence on the nitrided zone....

  12. Numerical Analysis of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Finned Surfaces with Cross-inclined Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of numerical research and analyses air-side hydraulic performance of tube bundles with cross inclined fins. The numerical simulation of the fin-tube heat exchanger was performed using the Comsol Femlab software. The results of modeling show the influence of fin inclination angle and tube pitch on hydraulic characteristics of finned surfaces. A series of numerical tests were carried out for tube bundles with different inclination angles (γ =900, 850, 650, 60, the fin pitch u=4 mm. The results indicate that tube bundles with cross inclined fins can significantly enhance the average integral value of the air flow rate in channel between fins in comparison with conventional straight fins. Aerodynamic processes on both sides of modificated channel between inclined fins were analyzed. The verification procedures for received results of numerical modeling with experimental data were performed.

  13. Numerical modeling of time-dependent deformation and induced stresses in concrete pipes constructed in Queenston shale using micro-tunneling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Mohammed Salim Al-Maamori

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of time-dependent deformation (TDD on a tunnel constructed using the micro-tunneling technique in Queenston shale (QS are investigated employing the finite element method. The TDD and strength parameters of the QS were measured from tests conducted on QS specimens soaked in water and lubricant fluids (LFs used in micro-tunneling such as bentonite and polymer solutions. The numerical model was verified using the results of TDD tests performed on QS samples, field measurements of some documented projects, and the closed-form solutions to circular tunnels in swelling rock. The verified model was then employed to conduct a parametric study considering important micro-tunneling design parameters, such as depth and diameter of the tunnel, in situ stress ratio (Ko, and the time lapse prior to replacing LFs with permanent cement grout around the tunnel. It was revealed that the time lapse plays a vital role in controlling deformations and associated stresses developed in the tunnel lining. The critical case of a pipe or tunnel in which the maximum tensile stress develops at its springline occurs when it is constructed at shallow depths in the QS layer. The results of the parametric study were used to suggest recommendations for the construction of tunnels in QS employing micro-tunneling. Keywords: Numerical model, Micro-tunneling, Queenston shale (QS, Lubricant fluids (LFs

  14. TH-CD-207A-03: A Surface Deformation Driven Respiratory Model for Organ Motion Tracking in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Zhen, X; Zhou, L; Gu, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To propose and validate a novel real-time surface-mesh-based internal organ-external surface motion and deformation tracking method for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Deformation vector fields (DVFs) which characterizes the internal and external motion are obtained by registering the internal organ and tumor contours and external surface meshes to a reference phase in the 4D CT images using a recent developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm (TOP). A composite matrix is constructed by combing the estimated internal and external DVFs. Principle component analysis (PCA) is then applied on the composite matrix to extract principal motion characteristics and finally yield the respiratory motion model parameters which correlates the internal and external motion and deformation. The accuracy of the respiratory motion model is evaluated using a 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) synthetic phantom and three lung cancer cases. The center of mass (COM) difference is used to measure the tumor motion tracking accuracy, and the Dice’s coefficient (DC), percent error (PE) and Housdourf’s distance (HD) are used to measure the agreement between the predicted and ground truth tumor shape. Results: The mean COM is 0.84±0.49mm and 0.50±0.47mm for the phantom and patient data respectively. The mean DC, PE and HD are 0.93±0.01, 0.13±0.03 and 1.24±0.34 voxels for the phantom, and 0.91±0.04, 0.17±0.07 and 3.93±2.12 voxels for the three lung cancer patients, respectively. Conclusions: We have proposed and validate a real-time surface-mesh-based organ motion and deformation tracking method with an internal-external motion modeling. The preliminary results conducted on a synthetic 4D NCAT phantom and 4D CT images from three lung cancer cases show that the proposed method is reliable and accurate in tracking both the tumor motion trajectory and deformation, which can serve as a potential tool for real-time organ motion and deformation

  15. TH-CD-207A-03: A Surface Deformation Driven Respiratory Model for Organ Motion Tracking in Lung Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Zhen, X; Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To propose and validate a novel real-time surface-mesh-based internal organ-external surface motion and deformation tracking method for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Deformation vector fields (DVFs) which characterizes the internal and external motion are obtained by registering the internal organ and tumor contours and external surface meshes to a reference phase in the 4D CT images using a recent developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm (TOP). A composite matrix is constructed by combing the estimated internal and external DVFs. Principle component analysis (PCA) is then applied on the composite matrix to extract principal motion characteristics and finally yield the respiratory motion model parameters which correlates the internal and external motion and deformation. The accuracy of the respiratory motion model is evaluated using a 4D NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) synthetic phantom and three lung cancer cases. The center of mass (COM) difference is used to measure the tumor motion tracking accuracy, and the Dice’s coefficient (DC), percent error (PE) and Housdourf’s distance (HD) are used to measure the agreement between the predicted and ground truth tumor shape. Results: The mean COM is 0.84±0.49mm and 0.50±0.47mm for the phantom and patient data respectively. The mean DC, PE and HD are 0.93±0.01, 0.13±0.03 and 1.24±0.34 voxels for the phantom, and 0.91±0.04, 0.17±0.07 and 3.93±2.12 voxels for the three lung cancer patients, respectively. Conclusions: We have proposed and validate a real-time surface-mesh-based organ motion and deformation tracking method with an internal-external motion modeling. The preliminary results conducted on a synthetic 4D NCAT phantom and 4D CT images from three lung cancer cases show that the proposed method is reliable and accurate in tracking both the tumor motion trajectory and deformation, which can serve as a potential tool for real-time organ motion and deformation

  16. Stochastic dislocation kinetics and fractal structures in deforming metals probed by acoustic emission and surface topography measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, A. [Laboratory for the Physics of Strength of Materials and Intelligent Diagnostic Systems, Togliatti State University, Togliatti 445667 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Hybrid Nanostructured Materials, NITU MISiS, Moscow 119490 (Russian Federation); Yasnikov, I. S. [Laboratory for the Physics of Strength of Materials and Intelligent Diagnostic Systems, Togliatti State University, Togliatti 445667 (Russian Federation); Estrin, Y. [Laboratory of Hybrid Nanostructured Materials, NITU MISiS, Moscow 119490 (Russian Federation); Centre for Advanced Hybrid Materials, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-06-21

    We demonstrate that the fractal dimension (FD) of the dislocation population in a deforming material is an important quantitative characteristic of the evolution of the dislocation structure. Thus, we show that peaking of FD signifies a nearing loss of uniformity of plastic flow and the onset of strain localization. Two techniques were employed to determine FD: (i) inspection of surface morphology of the deforming crystal by white light interferometry and (ii) monitoring of acoustic emission (AE) during uniaxial tensile deformation. A connection between the AE characteristics and the fractal dimension determined from surface topography measurements was established. As a common platform for the two methods, the dislocation density evolution in the bulk was used. The relations found made it possible to identify the occurrence of a peak in the median frequency of AE as a harbinger of plastic instability leading to necking. It is suggested that access to the fractal dimension provided by AE measurements and by surface topography analysis makes these techniques important tools for monitoring the evolution of the dislocation structure during plastic deformation—both as stand-alone methods and especially when used in tandem.

  17. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery.

  18. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  19. Numerical analysis on interactions between fluid flow and structure deformation in plate-fin heat exchanger by Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-cheng; Wei, Xiu-ting; Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wei, Zhen-wen

    2018-03-01

    The fluid-structure interaction performance of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) with serrated fins in large scale air-separation equipment was investigated in this paper. The stress and deformation of fins were analyzed, besides, the interaction equations were deduced by Galerkin method. The governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer in PFHE were deduced by finite volume method (FVM). The distribution of strain and stress were calculated in large scale air separation equipment and the coupling situation of serrated fins under laminar situation was analyzed. The results indicated that the interactions between fins and fluid flow in the exchanger have significant impacts on heat transfer enhancement, meanwhile, the strain and stress of fins includes dynamic pressure of the sealing head and flow impact with the increase of flow velocity. The impacts are especially significant at the conjunction of two fins because of the non-alignment fins. It can be concluded that the soldering process and channel width led to structure deformation of fins in the exchanger, and degraded heat transfer efficiency.

  20. Numerical study of the elastic-plastic cyclic deformation of the ''GLOBUS-M'' compact tokamak central solenoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, V.; Kavin, A.; Krivchenkov, Y.; Panin, A.

    1996-01-01

    The ''GLOBUS-M'' is a compact resistive tokamak with a central solenoid (CS) wound around the inner portion of the toroidal field coils. The magnetic field at the solenoid axis amounts to 8.3 T. The CS incorporates two layers of conductor (CuCr copper alloy) baked into insulation. The solenoid is designed to sustain 80,000 energizing. During each loading cycle the solenoid is subjected to the radial forces accompanied with the vertical compression. The most loaded region has been considered and modeled with the use of 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model. The model includes two conductor turns baked into insulation compound, copper cooling tubes and solder. The stress analysis shows that there is some plastic deformation in the copper tube and solder during loading and there is some back plastic deformation in the solder during unloading. The reloading does not cause any change in the solenoid stress-strain state in comparison with the case of loading. The number of cycles to failure has been simulated for all metallic components of the solenoid

  1. Numerical modelling of surface waves generated by low frequency electromagnetic field for silicon refinement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geža, V.; Venčels, J.; Zāģeris, Ģ.; Pavlovs, S.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most perspective methods to produce SoG-Si is refinement via metallurgical route. The most critical part of this route is refinement from boron and phosphorus, therefore, approach under development will address this problem. An approach of creating surface waves on silicon melt’s surface is proposed in order to enlarge its area and accelerate removal of boron via chemical reactions and evaporation of phosphorus. A two dimensional numerical model is created which include coupling of electromagnetic and fluid dynamic simulations with free surface dynamics. First results show behaviour similar to experimental results from literature.

  2. Numerical simulation of cavitation flow characteristic on Pelton turbine bucket surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C. J.; Xiao, Y. X.; Zhu, W.; Yao, Y. Y.; Wang, Z. W.

    2015-01-01

    The internal flow in the rotating bucket of Pelton turbine is free water sheet flow with moving boundary. The runner operates under atmospheric and the cavitation in the bucket is still a controversial problem. While more and more field practice proved that there exists cavitation in the Pelton turbine bucket and the cavitation erosion may occur at the worst which will damage the bucket. So a well prediction about the cavitation flow on the bucket surface of Pelton turbine and the followed cavitation erosion characteristic can effectively guide the optimization of Pelton runner bucket and the stable operation of unit. This paper will investigate the appropriate numerical model and method for the unsteady 3D water-air-vapour multiphase cavitation flow which may occur on the Pelton bucket surface. The computational domain will include the nozzle pipe flow, semi-free surface jet and runner domain. Via comparing the numerical results of different turbulence, cavity and multiphase models, this paper will determine the suitable numerical model and method for the simulation of cavitation on the Pelton bucket surface. In order to investigate the conditions corresponding to the cavitation phenomena on the bucket surface, this paper will adopt the suitable model to simulate the various operational conditions of different water head and needle travel. Then, the characteristics of cavitation flow the development process of cavitation will be analysed in in great detail.

  3. Numerical simulation of cavitation flow characteristic on Pelton turbine bucket surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, C J; Xiao, Y X; Zhu, W; Yao, Y Y; Wang, Z W

    2015-01-01

    The internal flow in the rotating bucket of Pelton turbine is free water sheet flow with moving boundary. The runner operates under atmospheric and the cavitation in the bucket is still a controversial problem. While more and more field practice proved that there exists cavitation in the Pelton turbine bucket and the cavitation erosion may occur at the worst which will damage the bucket. So a well prediction about the cavitation flow on the bucket surface of Pelton turbine and the followed cavitation erosion characteristic can effectively guide the optimization of Pelton runner bucket and the stable operation of unit. This paper will investigate the appropriate numerical model and method for the unsteady 3D water-air-vapour multiphase cavitation flow which may occur on the Pelton bucket surface. The computational domain will include the nozzle pipe flow, semi-free surface jet and runner domain. Via comparing the numerical results of different turbulence, cavity and multiphase models, this paper will determine the suitable numerical model and method for the simulation of cavitation on the Pelton bucket surface. In order to investigate the conditions corresponding to the cavitation phenomena on the bucket surface, this paper will adopt the suitable model to simulate the various operational conditions of different water head and needle travel. Then, the characteristics of cavitation flow the development process of cavitation will be analysed in in great detail

  4. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DRAGREDUCING SURFACE OF A REAL SHARK SKIN*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG De-yuan; LUO Yue-hao; LI Xiang; CHEN Hua-wei

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that shark skin surface can effectively inhabit the occurrence of turbulence and reduce the wall friction,but in order to understand the mechanism of drag reduction, one has to solve the problem of the turbulent flow on grooved-scale surface, and in that respect, the direct numerical simulation is an important tool.In this article, based on the real biological shark skin,the model of real shark skin is built through high-accurate scanning and data processing.The turbulent flow on a real shark skin is comprehensively simulated, and based on the simulation, the drag reduction mechanism is discussed.In addition, in order to validate the drag-reducing effect of shark skin surface, actual experiments were carried out in water tunnel, and the experimental results are approximately consistent with the numerical simulation.

  5. Numerical model simulation of free surface behavior in spallation target of ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiang; Su Guanyu; Cheng Xu

    2012-01-01

    The spallation target in accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) couples the subcritical reactor core with accelerator. The design of a windowless target has to ensure the formation of a stable free surface with desirable shape, to avoid local over- heating of the heavy liquid metal (HLM). To investigate the free surface behavior of the spallation target, OpenFOAM, an opened CFD software platform, was used to simulate the formation and features of the free surface in the windowless target. VOF method was utilized as the interface-capturing methodology. The numerical results were compared to experimental data and numerical results obtained with FLUENT code. The effects of turbulence models were studied and recommendations were made related to application of turbulence models. (authors)

  6. Field Investigation of Surface Deformation Induced by the 2016 Meinong Earthquake and its Implications to Regional Geological Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, De-Cheng; Chuang, Ray Y.; Lin, Ching-Weei

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate mapping results of a newly-identified active folding-associated fault in southwestern Taiwan, which was triggered by the distant ML 6.6 Meinong earthquake in 2016. The 14.6-km-deep main shock occurred in Meinong at 3:57 (GMT +08) on February 6th while a series of 21-27 km deep aftershocks were induced after 160 seconds in Guanmiao, where is 25km NW away from the epicenter of the main shock. The focal mechanism of the Meinong main shock shows a westward oblique thrust with the fault plane of 275°/42°/17° (strike/dip/rake) but Guanmiao aftershocks show the N-S striking eastward normal movement. The study area locates at an on-going fold-and-thrust belt close to the deformation front of Taiwan orogeny with high rates of convergence, uplift and erosion. The geology of SW Taiwan is characterized by the 3-km-thick mudstones with high fluid pressure underlying the loose sedimentary rocks forming mud diapirs or mud-core anticlines. The significance of the Meinong earthquake is (1) aftershocks are far away from the main shock, and (2) the surface cracks partially distributed systematically along lineaments observed from InSAR, which has never been recognized as geological structures before. This study aims to establish possible kinematic processes of shallow deformation induced by the Meinong earthquake. We mapped surface cracks around the lineaments by using hand-held GPS and measured surface cracks by the compass and vernier. Among 249 kinematic data measured from 244 observed surface cracks and ruptures, the type of deformation was mostly identified as dilation or lateral translation and only 4 data were compressional deformation. The overall surface displacement moved to the northwest and west, consistent with the regional coseismic movement. The opening of the surface cracks range from 0.5 to 105 mm and 85% of them are less than 10 mm. Preseismic deformed features such as failure of the retaining wall were also observed along the western and eastern

  7. Study on applicability of numerical simulation to evaluation of gas entrainment due to free surface vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    An onset condition of gas entrainment (GE) due to free surface vortex has been studied to establish a design of sodium-cooled fast reactor with a higher coolant velocity than conventional designs. Numerous investigations have been conducted experimentally and theoretically; however, the universal onset condition of the GE has not been determined yet due to the nonlinear characteristics of the GE. Recently, we have been studying numerical simulation methods as a promising method to evaluate GE, instead of the reliable but costly real-scale tests. In this paper, the applicability of the numerical simulation methods to the evaluation of the GE is discussed. For the purpose, a quasi-steady vortex in a cylindrical tank and a wake vortex (unsteady vortex) in a rectangular channel were numerically simulated using the volume-of-fluid type two-phase flow calculation method. The simulated velocity distributions and free surface shapes of the quasi-steady vortex showed good (not perfect, however) agreements with experimental results when a fine mesh subdivision and a high-order discretization scheme were employed. The unsteady behavior of the wake vortex was also simulated with high accuracy. Although the onset condition of the GE was slightly underestimated in the simulation results, the applicability of the numerical simulation methods to the GE evaluation was confirmed. (author)

  8. Variable near-surface deformation along the Commerce segment of the Commerce geophysical lineament, southeast Missouri to southern Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a plausible link between surface and near-surface tectonic features and the vertical projection of the Commerce geophysical lineament (CGL). The CGL is a 5- to 10-km-wide zone of basement magnetic and gravity anomalies traceable for more than 600 km, extending from Arkansas through southeast Missouri and southern Illinois and into Indiana. Twelve kilometers of high-resolution seismic reflection data, collected at four sites along a 175-km segment of the CGL projection, are interpreted to show varying amounts of deformation involving Tertiary and some Quaternary sediments. Some of the locally anomalous geomorphic features in the northern Mississippi embayment region (i.e., paleoliquefaction features, anomalous directional changes in stream channels, and areas of linear bluff escarpments) overlying the CGL can be correlated with specific faults and/or narrow zones of deformed (faulted and folded) strata that are imaged on high-resolution seismic reflection data. There is an observable change in near-surface deformation style and complexity progressing from the southwest to the northeast along the trace of the CGL. The seismic reflection data collaborate mapping evidence which suggests that this region has undergone a complex history of deformation, some of which is documented to be as young as Quaternary, during multiple episodes of reactivation under varying stress fields. This work, along with that of other studies presented in this volume, points to the existence of at least one major crustal feature outside the currently defined zone of seismic activity (New Madrid Seismic Zone) that should be considered as a significant potential source zone for seismogenic activity within the midcontinent region of the United States. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical simulation on the explosive boiling phenomena on the surface of molten metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Peng Cheng; Wang Qinghua; Pan Liangming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the explosive boiling phenomenon on high temperature surface also the influence of vapor growth rate during explosive boiling, vapor condensation in sub-cooled water and the subsequent effect on flowing and heat transfer. The simulation result indicates that the steam on the molten metal surface grows with very high speed, and it pushes away the sub-cooled water around and causes severe flowing. The steam clusters which block the sub-cooled water to rewet the molten metal surface are appearing at the same time. During the growth, lifting off as well as condensation of the steam clusters, the sub-cooled water around is strongly disturbed, and obvious vortexes appear. Conversely, the vortex will influence the steam cluster detachment and cub-cooled water rewetting the metal surface. This simulation visually displays the complex explosive boiling phenomena on the molten metal surface with high temperature. (authors)

  10. Experimental research on microhardness and wear resistances of pure Cu subjected to surface dynamic plastic deformation by ultrasonic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoxia; He, Yangming

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) has been induced in the surface of pure Cu by ultrasonic impact treating (UIT) with the varied impact current and coverage percentage. The microstructures of the treated surface were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). And the wear resistance of pure Cu was experimentally researched both with the treated and untreated specimens. The effect of DPD on the hardness was also investigated using microhardness tester. The results show that the grains on the top surfaces of pure Cu are highly refined. The maximum depth of the plastic deformation layer is approximately 1400 µm. The larger the current and coverage percentage, the greater of the microhardness and wear resistance the treated surface layer of pure Cu will be. When the impact current is 2 A and coverage percentage is 300%, the microhardness and wear resistance of the treated sample is about 276.1% and 68.8% higher than that of the untreated specimen, respectively. But the properties of the treated sample deteriorate when the UIT current is 3 A and the coverage percentage is 300% because of the formation of a new phase forms in the treated surface.

  11. Laser-induced surface deformation microscope for the study of the dynamic viscoelasticity of plasma membrane in a living cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaku, Toshinori; Yui, Hiroharu

    2018-05-15

    A laser-induced surface deformation (LISD) microscope is developed and applied to measurement of the dynamic relaxation responses of the plasma membrane in a living cell. A laser beam is tightly focused on an optional area of cell surface and the focused light induces microscopic deformation on the surface via radiation pressure. The LISD microscope not only allows non-contact and destruction-free measurement but provides power spectra of the surface responses depending on the frequency of the intensity of the laser beam. An optical system for the LISD is equipped via a microscope, allowing us to measure the relaxation responses in sub-cellular-sized regions of the plasma membrane. In addition, the forced oscillation caused by the radiation pressure for surface deformation extends the upper limit of the frequency range in the obtained power spectra to 106 Hz, which enables us to measure relaxation responses in local regions within the plasma membrane. From differences in power-law exponents at higher frequencies, it is realized that a cancerous cell obeys a weaker single power-law than a normal fibroblast cell. Furthermore, the power spectrum of a keratinocyte cell obeys a power-law with two exponents, indicating that alternative mechanical models to a conventional soft glassy rheology model (where single power-laws explain cells' responses below about 103 Hz) are needed for the understanding over a wider frequency range. The LISD microscope would contribute to investigation of microscopic cell rheology, which is important for clarifying the mechanisms of cell migration and tissue construction.

  12. Numerical analysis of free surface instabilities in the IFMIF lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Moeslang, A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Facility (IFMIF) facility uses a high speed (10-20 m/s) Lithium (Li) jet flow as a target for two 40 MeV/125 mA deuteron beams. The major function of the Li target is to provide a stable Li jet for the production of an intense neutron flux. For the understanding the lithium jet behaviour and elimination of the free-surface flow instabilities a detailed analysis of the Li jet flow is necessary. Different kinds of instability mechanisms in the liquid jet flow have been evaluated and classified based on analytical and experimental data. Numerical investigations of the target free surface flow have been performed. Previous numerical investigations have shown in principle the suitability of CFD code Star- CD for the simulation of the Li-target flow. The main objective of this study is detailed numerical analysis of instabilities in the Li-jet flow caused by boundary layer relaxation near the nozzle exit, transition to the turbulence flow and back wall curvature. A number of CFD models are developed to investigate the formation of instabilities on the target surface. Turbulence models are validated on the experimental data. Experimental observations have shown that the change of the nozzle geometry at the outlet such as a slight divergence of the nozzle surfaces or nozzle edge defects causes the flow separation and occurrence of longitudinal periodic structures on the free surface with an amplitude up to 5 mm. Target surface fluctuations of this magnitude can lead to the penetration of the deuteron beam in the target structure and cause the local overheating of the back plat. Analysis of large instabilities in the Li-target flow combined with the heat distribution in lithium depending on the free surface shape is performed in this study. (orig.)

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid jet impingement on superhydrophobic and hydrophobic convex surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, Ali, E-mail: alikibar@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical and Material Technologies, Kocaeli University, Arslanbey Campus, 41285, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2017-02-15

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to examine the vertical impingement a round liquid jet on the edges of horizontal convex surfaces that were either superhydrophobic or hydrophobic. The experiments examine the effects on the flow behaviour of curvature, wettability, inertia of the jet, and the impingement rate. Three copper pipes with outer diameters of 15, 22, and 35 mm were investigated. The pipes were wrapped with a piece of a Brassica oleracea leaf or a smooth Teflon sheet, which have apparent contact angles of 160° and 113°. The Reynolds number ranged from 1000 to 4500, and the impingement rates of the liquid jets were varied. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results for explaining flow and provide detailed information about the impingement on the surfaces. The liquid jet reflected off the superhydrophobic surfaces for all conditions. However, the jet reflected or deflected off the hydrophobic surface, depending on the inertia of the jet, the curvature of the surface, and the impingement rate. The results suggest that pressure is not the main reason for the bending of the jet around the curved hydrophobic surface. (paper)

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid jet impingement on superhydrophobic and hydrophobic convex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to examine the vertical impingement a round liquid jet on the edges of horizontal convex surfaces that were either superhydrophobic or hydrophobic. The experiments examine the effects on the flow behaviour of curvature, wettability, inertia of the jet, and the impingement rate. Three copper pipes with outer diameters of 15, 22, and 35 mm were investigated. The pipes were wrapped with a piece of a Brassica oleracea leaf or a smooth Teflon sheet, which have apparent contact angles of 160° and 113°. The Reynolds number ranged from 1000 to 4500, and the impingement rates of the liquid jets were varied. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results for explaining flow and provide detailed information about the impingement on the surfaces. The liquid jet reflected off the superhydrophobic surfaces for all conditions. However, the jet reflected or deflected off the hydrophobic surface, depending on the inertia of the jet, the curvature of the surface, and the impingement rate. The results suggest that pressure is not the main reason for the bending of the jet around the curved hydrophobic surface. (paper)

  15. Satellite synthetic aperture radar for monitoring of surface deformation in shallow underground mining environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available . There are also human health-and-safety concerns in potentially unstable areas. To monitor the extent of deforming areas over time, ground-based surveys, including GPS and spirit-levelling techniques, are frequently employed. However, the process is time...

  16. Electrostatic Deformation of Liquid Surfaces by a Charged Rod and a Van De Graaff Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slisko, Josip; García-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Authors of physics textbooks frequently use the deflection of a thin, vertically falling water jet by a charged balloon, comb, or rod as a visually appealing and conceptually relevant example of electrostatic attraction. Nevertheless, no attempts are made to explore whether these charged bodies could cause visible deformation of a horizontal water…

  17. A Numerical Simulation for Prediction of Infrared Radiation Emitted from Plain Surfaces with Different Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakilabadi K.A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, infrared radiation exiting plain surfaces with different geometries is numerically simulated. Surfaces under consideration are assumed to have steady uniform heat generation inside. Moreover, the boundaries of the surfaces are considered to be at the surroundings temperature. Infrared radiation is calculated based on the temperature profile determined for the surface. The temperature profile of the surface is determined assuming the two dimensional heat conduction equations to govern the problem. The physical domain is transformed into the appropriate computational domain and the governing equation is mapped into the suitable forms in the new coordinate system of variables. After that the temperature profile of the surface is computed, the infrared radiation distribution of the surface is evaluated based on the equations given in the manuscript. The temperature profile as well as the IR images are given in the results section. It is concluded that the maximum value of infrared radiation of the surface occurs at the center. Moreover, it is concluded that among surfaces with equal areas, the one having the largest perimeter has the least value of IR at its center.

  18. Numerical analysis of micro-/nanoscale gas-film lubrication of sliding surface with complicated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoe, Yoshiaki; Isono, Susumu; Takeno, Takanori; Yonemura, Shigeru; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Miki, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the friction between a partially polished diamond-coated surface and a metal surface was drastically reduced to zero when they are slid at a few m/s. Since the sliding was noiseless, it seems that the diamond-coated surface was levitated over the counter surface and the sliding mechanism was the gas film lubrication. Recently, the mechanism of levitation of a slider with a micro/nanoscale surface structure on a rotating disk was theoretically clarified [S. Yonemura et al., Tribol. Lett., (2014), doi:10.1007/s11249-014-0368-2]. Probably, the partially polished diamond-coated surface may be levitated by high gas pressure generated by the micro/nanoscale surface structure on it. In this study, in order to verify our deduction, we performed numerical simulations of sliding of partially polished diamond-coated surface by reproducing its complicated surface structure using the data measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). As a result, we obtained the lift force which is large enough to levitate the slider used in the experiment

  19. Numerical analysis of micro-/nanoscale gas-film lubrication of sliding surface with complicated structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagoe, Yoshiaki; Isono, Susumu; Takeno, Takanori [Department of Nanomechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yonemura, Shigeru; Takagi, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Miki, Hiroyuki [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-12-09

    It has been reported that the friction between a partially polished diamond-coated surface and a metal surface was drastically reduced to zero when they are slid at a few m/s. Since the sliding was noiseless, it seems that the diamond-coated surface was levitated over the counter surface and the sliding mechanism was the gas film lubrication. Recently, the mechanism of levitation of a slider with a micro/nanoscale surface structure on a rotating disk was theoretically clarified [S. Yonemura et al., Tribol. Lett., (2014), doi:10.1007/s11249-014-0368-2]. Probably, the partially polished diamond-coated surface may be levitated by high gas pressure generated by the micro/nanoscale surface structure on it. In this study, in order to verify our deduction, we performed numerical simulations of sliding of partially polished diamond-coated surface by reproducing its complicated surface structure using the data measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). As a result, we obtained the lift force which is large enough to levitate the slider used in the experiment.

  20. Three-dimensional deformation response of a NiTi shape memory helical-coil actuator during thermomechanical cycling: experimentally validated numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, B.; Nicholson, D. E.; Saleeb, A. F.; Padula, S. A., II; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators often operate under a complex state of stress for an extended number of thermomechanical cycles in many aerospace and engineering applications. Hence, it becomes important to account for multi-axial stress states and deformation characteristics (which evolve with thermomechanical cycling) when calibrating any SMA model for implementation in large-scale simulation of actuators. To this end, the present work is focused on the experimental validation of an SMA model calibrated for the transient and cyclic evolutionary behavior of shape memory Ni49.9Ti50.1, for the actuation of axially loaded helical-coil springs. The approach requires both experimental and computational aspects to appropriately assess the thermomechanical response of these multi-dimensional structures. As such, an instrumented and controlled experimental setup was assembled to obtain temperature, torque, degree of twist and extension, while controlling end constraints during heating and cooling of an SMA spring under a constant externally applied axial load. The computational component assesses the capabilities of a general, multi-axial, SMA material-modeling framework, calibrated for Ni49.9Ti50.1 with regard to its usefulness in the simulation of SMA helical-coil spring actuators. Axial extension, being the primary response, was examined on an axially-loaded spring with multiple active coils. Two different conditions of end boundary constraint were investigated in both the numerical simulations as well as the validation experiments: Case (1) where the loading end is restrained against twist (and the resulting torque measured as the secondary response) and Case (2) where the loading end is free to twist (and the degree of twist measured as the secondary response). The present study focuses on the transient and evolutionary response associated with the initial isothermal loading and the subsequent thermal cycles under applied constant axial load. The experimental

  1. InSAR observation of seasonal ground surface deformation in permafrost area near Batagay, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagiya, K.; Furuya, M.

    2017-12-01

    Thawing of permafrost can lead to ground deformation. Ground deformation has been studied as a serious problem in the Arctic Ocean coastal area such as Russia for a long time, because the deformation causes damage to architectures at these areas. However, there have been no quantitative observation data, and the spatial and temporal distributions have hardly been investigated. On the other hand, by the recently global warming influence, the importance of organic carbon stored in permafrost is pointed out. Although the release of methane gas is confirmed in some thermokarst lakes, it is very difficult to observe the permafrost in a wide area by field study. Instead, it is technically possible to monitor the subsidence and uplift of the ground over the permafrost area, which could potentially make a significant contribution to the monitoring thawing process of permafrost. In this study, we attempted to detect ground deformation signal in permafrost area by remote sensing using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Using the data of two SAR satellites ALOS and ALOS2 launched by JAXA, we observed recent ground deformation from 2007 to 2016. Particularly recent observations of ALOS2 from 2014 to 2016 discovered distant displacements towards the LOS direction in the northeast region from the town of Batagay,Siberia. The diameter of the displacements area covers about 7.7 km. In this study, we considered that this signal is likely to be due to permafrost thawing, we also investigated the seasonal characteristics and looked back ALOS data of this area. In addition, since the high latitude area, observation results include noise due to the ionosphere, so we tried to remove the noise.

  2. Supersonic flow over a pitching delta wing using surface pressure measurements and numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa HADIDOOLABI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical methods were applied to investigating high subsonic and supersonic flows over a 60° swept delta wing in fixed state and pitching oscillation. Static pressure coefficient distributions over the wing leeward surface and the hysteresis loops of pressure coefficient versus angle of attack at the sensor locations were obtained by wind tunnel tests. Similar results were obtained by numerical simulations which agreed well with the experiments. Flow structure around the wing was also demonstrated by the numerical simulation. Effects of Mach number and angle of attack on pressure distribution curves in static tests were investigated. Effects of various oscillation parameters including Mach number, mean angle of attack, pitching amplitude and frequency on hysteresis loops were investigated in dynamic tests and the associated physical mechanisms were discussed. Vortex breakdown phenomenon over the wing was identified at high angles of attack using the pressure coefficient curves and hysteresis loops, and its effects on the flow features were discussed.

  3. Near-surface structural model for deformation associated with the February 7, 1812, New Madrid, Missouri, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Shedlock, K.M.; Pratt, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    The February 7, 1812, New Madrid, Missouri, earthquake (M [moment magnitude] 8) was the third and final large-magnitude event to rock the northern Mississippi Embayment during the winter of 1811-1812. Although ground shaking was so strong that it rang church bells, stopped clocks, buckled pavement, and rocked buildings up and down the eastern seaboard, little coseismic surface deformation exists today in the New Madrid area. The fault(s) that ruptured during this event have remained enigmatic. We have integrated geomorphic data documenting differential surficial deformation (supplemented by historical accounts of surficial deformation and earthquake-induced Mississippi River waterfalls and rapids) with the interpretation of existing and recently acquired seismic reflection data, to develop a tectonic model of the near-surface structures in the New Madrid, Missouri, area. This model consists of two primary components: a northnorthwest-trending thrust fault and a series of northeast-trending, strike-slip, tear faults. We conclude that the Reelfoot fault is a thrust fault that is at least 30 km long. We also infer that tear faults in the near surface partitioned the hanging wall into subparallel blocks that have undergone differential displacement during episodes of faulting. The northeast-trending tear faults bound an area documented to have been uplifted at least 0.5 m during the February 7, 1812, earthquake. These faults also appear to bound changes in the surface density of epicenters that are within the modern seismicity, which is occurring in the stepover zone of the left-stepping right-lateral strike-slip fault system of the modern New Madrid seismic zone.

  4. Numerical investigation of thermally stratified Williamson fluid flow over a cylindrical surface via Keller box method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, S.; Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.

    Present study is addressed to express the implementation of Keller-Box technique on physical problem in the field of fluid rheology, for this purpose the Williamson fluid flow is considered along a cylindrical stretching surface manifested with temperature stratification. The flow model is translated mathematically in terms of differential equations. Numerical simulation is executed to trace out the solution structure of developed differential system. The graphical outcomes for the flow regime of two different geometries (i-e cylindrical and plane surface) are reported and examined towards involved physical parameters. Furthermore, the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are computed numerically. A remarkable agreement of present study is noticed with the previously published results, which confirms the implementation and validation of Keller-Box scheme and it will serve as a helping source for the future correspondence.

  5. An efficient approach for computing the geometrical optics field reflected from a numerically specified surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.; Rushdi, A.

    1979-01-01

    An approach for computing the geometrical optic fields reflected from a numerically specified surface is presented. The approach includes the step of deriving a specular point and begins with computing the reflected rays off the surface at the points where their coordinates, as well as the partial derivatives (or equivalently, the direction of the normal), are numerically specified. Then, a cluster of three adjacent rays are chosen to define a 'mean ray' and the divergence factor associated with this mean ray. Finally, the ampilitude, phase, and vector direction of the reflected field at a given observation point are derived by associating this point with the nearest mean ray and determining its position relative to such a ray.

  6. Reliability-Based Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes Using Numerical Analysis and Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashzadeh, N.; Duzgun, H. S. B.; Yesiloglu-Gultekin, N.

    2017-08-01

    While advanced numerical techniques in slope stability analysis are successfully used in deterministic studies, they have so far found limited use in probabilistic analyses due to their high computation cost. The first-order reliability method (FORM) is one of the most efficient probabilistic techniques to perform probabilistic stability analysis by considering the associated uncertainties in the analysis parameters. However, it is not possible to directly use FORM in numerical slope stability evaluations as it requires definition of a limit state performance function. In this study, an integrated methodology for probabilistic numerical modeling of rock slope stability is proposed. The methodology is based on response surface method, where FORM is used to develop an explicit performance function from the results of numerical simulations. The implementation of the proposed methodology is performed by considering a large potential rock wedge in Sumela Monastery, Turkey. The accuracy of the developed performance function to truly represent the limit state surface is evaluated by monitoring the slope behavior. The calculated probability of failure is compared with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. The proposed methodology is found to be 72% more efficient than MCS, while the accuracy is decreased with an error of 24%.

  7. Numerical analysis of non-stationary free surface flow in a Pelton bucket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hana, Morten

    1999-07-01

    Computation and analysis of flow in Pelton buckets have been carried out. First a graphical method is investigated and partially improved. In order to decide whether to improve the method further or disregard it in favour of commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, a study on numerical methods for free surface flow was carried out. This part of this work concentrates on the theoretical background for different numerical methods, and describes some practical considerations. Although small programs were created based on the literature survey, but only one reported herein, it was soon found that commonly available numerical codes were favourable in use. A code, RIPPLE, was acquired to study the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in detail. The commercial codes used were Flow-3D and CFX-4. These programs were used in three different cases. First, a simplified 2-dimensional case was verified experimentally. Next, a 3-dimensional fixed jet calculation was carried out. Finally, numerical calculations with relative motion between the jet and buckets were carried out with CFX-4. The conclusion is that commercial CFD codes can replace the graphical method. But careful implementation is needed in order to resolve the special features of Pelton turbines, which are the free surface, the complex geometry and the relative motion between the jet and the bucket.

  8. Experimental and numerical study on free surface behavior of windowless target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guanyu; Gu Hanyang; Cheng Xu

    2012-01-01

    The formation and control method of coolant free surface is one of the key technologies for the design of windowless target in accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS). Experimental and CFD investigations on free surface behavior were performed in a scaled windowless target model by using water as test fluid. Laser induced fluorescence was applied for flow field visualization. The free surface and flow field visualization were obtained at Re=30000-50000. Under high Re conditions, an unsteady vortex pair was obtained. By decreasing Re, the structure of the vortex becomes more turbulent. CFD simulation was performed using LES and kω-SST turbulence models, separately. The numerical results show that LES model can qualitatively reproduce the characteristics of flow field and free surface. (authors)

  9. Numerical modelling of surface subsidence arising from longwall mining of steeply inclined coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, M.A.; Reddish, D.J. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The paper presents results from and the methodology of a numerical modelling investigation into the surface ground movements above longwall mining of inclined and steep seams with varying panel configurations. A modelling approach was developed using a finite difference numercial model Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). On the basis of this methodology, representative surface subsidence profiles were simulated and the results of simulations were validated against the UK data using the Subsidence Engineer`s Handbook (SEH) and influence function methods. Furthermore, the proposed methodology was applied to two UK case histories for validation purposes. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. A Numerical Study on Impact of Taiwan Island Surface Heat Flux on Super Typhoon Haitang (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Three to four tropical cyclones (TCs) by average usually impact Taiwan every year. This study, using the Developmental Tested Center (DTC) version of the Hurricane WRF (HWRF) model, examines the effects of Taiwan’s island surface heat fluxes on typhoon structure, intensity, track, and its rainfall over the island. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the structure and intensity of super Typhoon Haitang. The model, especially, reproduced the looped path and landfall at nearly the ...

  11. Numerical Optimization of Impeller for Backward-Curved Centrifugal Fan by Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Fannian Meng; Quanlin Dong; Yan Wang; Pengfei Wang; Chunxi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A numerical optimum study on three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow in a centrifugal fan with backward-curved blades was performed. The influence of the inlet angle, the outlet blade angle and blade number on aerodynamic performance of the centrifugal fan was analyzed concerning the whole impeller-volute configuration. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on a three-level, three -variable Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used to evaluate the interactive effects of factors such as inlet blade...

  12. On gel electrophoresis of dielectric charged particles with hydrophobic surface: A combined theoretical and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Partha Sarathi; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Gopmandal, Partha Pratim; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical study on the gel electrophoresis of a charged particle incorporating the effects of dielectric polarization and surface hydrophobicity at the particle-liquid interface is made. A simplified model based on the weak applied field and low charge density assumption is also presented and compared with the full numerical model for a nonpolarizable particle to elucidate the nonlinear effects such as double layer polarization and relaxation as well as surface conduction. The main motivation of this study is to analyze the electrophoresis of the surface functionalized nanoparticle with tunable hydrophobicity or charged fluid drop in gel medium by considering the electrokinetic effects and hydrodynamic interactions between the particle and the gel medium. An effective medium approach, in which the transport in the electrolyte-saturated hydrogel medium is governed by the Brinkman equation, is adopted in the present analysis. The governing electrokinetic equations based on the conservation principles are solved numerically. The Navier-slip boundary condition along with the continuity condition of dielectric displacement are imposed on the surface of the hydrophobic polarizable particle. The impact of the slip length on the electrophoresis is profound for a thinner Debye layer, however, surface conduction effect also becomes significant for a hydrophobic particle. Impact of hydrophobicity and relaxation effects are higher for a larger particle. Dielectric polarization creates a reduction in its electrophoretic propulsion and has negligible impact at the thinner Debye length as well as lower gel screening length. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Coevolution of bed surface patchiness and channel morphology: 2. Numerical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter A.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-01-01

    In gravel bed rivers, bed topography and the bed surface grain size distribution evolve simultaneously, but it is not clear how feedbacks between topography and grain sorting affect channel morphology. In this, the second of a pair of papers examining interactions between bed topography and bed surface sorting in gravel bed rivers, we use a two-dimensional morphodynamic model to perform numerical experiments designed to explore the coevolution of both free and forced bars and bed surface patches. Model runs were carried out on a computational grid simulating a 200 m long, 2.75 m wide, straight, rectangular channel, with an initially flat bed at a slope of 0.0137. Over five numerical experiments, we varied (a) whether an obstruction was present, (b) whether the sediment was a gravel mixture or a single size, and (c) whether the bed surface grain size feeds back on the hydraulic roughness field. Experiments with channel obstructions developed a train of alternate bars that became stationary and were connected to the obstruction. Freely migrating alternate bars formed in the experiments without channel obstructions. Simulations incorporating roughness feedbacks between the bed surface and flow field produced flatter, broader, and longer bars than simulations using constant roughness or uniform sediment. Our findings suggest that patches are not simply a by-product of bed topography, but they interact with the evolving bed and influence morphologic evolution.

  14. Numerical investigation of the droplet condensation on the horizontal surface with patterned wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeyong; Lee, Joonsang

    2017-11-01

    The condensation is the one of the efficient heat transfer phenomenon that transfers the heat along an interface between two phases. This condensation is affected by the wettability of surface. Heat transfer rate can be improved by controlling the wettability of surface. Recently, the researches with patterned wettability, which is composed by a combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface, have been performed to improve the heat transfer rate of condensation. In this study, we performed numerical simulation for condensation of droplet on the patterned wettability, and we analyze condensation phenomenon on the wettability pattered surface through the kinetic energy, heat flux curve, and droplet shape in the vicinity of the droplet. When we performed numerical simulations and analyzing the condensation with patterned wettability, we used the lattice Boltzmann method for the base model, and phase change was solved by Peng-Robinson equation of sate. We can find that the droplet is generated at the bottom surface and high condensation rate can be maintained on the patterned wettability. This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1A5A1037668) and BrainKorea21plus.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Safari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature is investigated experimentally and numerically. For laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature, a new and comprehensive method is proposed in this paper. This method contains simple linear irradiating lines and using an analytical method, required process parameters for laser forming of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is proposed. In this method, laser output power, laser scanning speed and laser beam diameter are selected based on laser machine and process limitations. As in the laser forming of a cylindrical surface, parallel irradiating lines are needed; therefore key parameter for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is the number of irradiating lines. Hence, in the proposed analytical method, the required number of irradiating lines for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is suggested. Performance of the proposed method for production of cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is verified with experimental tests. The results show that using proposed analytical method, cylindrical surfaces with any radius of curvature can be produced successfully.

  16. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over a liquid-infused micro-grooved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaehee; Jung, Taeyong; Choi, Haecheon; Kim, John

    2016-11-01

    Recently a superhydrophobic surface has drawn much attention as a passive device to achieve high drag reduction. Despite the high performance promised at ideal conditions, maintaining the interface in real flow conditions is an intractable problem. A non-wetting surface, known as the slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) or the lubricant-impregnated surface (LIS), has shown a potential for drag reduction, as the working fluid slips at the interface but cannot penetrate into the lubricant layer. In the present study, we perform direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over a liquid-infused micro-grooved surface to investigate the effects of this surface on the interfacial slip and drag reduction. The flow rate of water is maintained constant corresponding to Reτ 180 in a fully developed turbulent channel flow, and the lubricant layer is shear-driven by the turbulent water flow. The lubricant layer is also simulated with the assumption that the interface is flat (i.e. the surface tension effect is neglected). The solid substrate in which the lubricant is infused is modelled as straight ridges using an immersed boundary method. DNS results show that drag reduction by the liquid-infused surface is highly dependent on the viscosity of the lubricant.

  17. Numerical investigation of mist/air impingement cooling on ribbed blade leading-edge surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qingfei; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yi-Tung; Wang, Qiuwang; Zeng, Min

    2017-12-01

    The working gas turbine blades are exposed to the environment of high temperature, especially in the leading-edge region. The mist/air two-phase impingement cooling has been adopted to enhance the heat transfer on blade surfaces and investigate the leading-edge cooling effectiveness. An Euler-Lagrange particle tracking method is used to simulate the two-phase impingement cooling on the blade leading-edge. The mesh dependency test has been carried out and the numerical method is validated based on the available experimental data of mist/air cooling with jet impingement on a concave surface. The cooling effectiveness on three target surfaces is investigated, including the smooth and the ribbed surface with convex/concave columnar ribs. The results show that the cooling effectiveness of the mist/air two-phase flow is better than that of the single-phase flow. When the ribbed surfaces are used, the heat transfer enhancement is significant, the surface cooling effectiveness becomes higher and the convex ribbed surface presents a better performance. With the enhancement of the surface heat transfer, the pressure drop in the impingement zone increases, but the incremental factor of the flow friction is smaller than that of the heat transfer enhancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TH-CD-207A-05: Lung Surface Deformation Vector Fields Prediction by Monitoring Respiratory Surrogate Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J; Wang, J; McEwan, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we developed and evaluated a method for predicting lung surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs) based on surrogate signals such as chest and abdomen motion at selected locations and spirometry measurements. Methods: A Patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region at end-expiration (EE) phase was obtained by threshold-based segmentation method. For each patient, a spirometer recorded the flow volume changes of the lungs; and 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2cm X 2cm matrix points over a total area of 34cm X 24cm on the surface of chest and abdomen was used to detect chest wall motions. Preprocessing techniques such as QR factorization with column pivoting (QRCP) were employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal area. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, we developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression (CRR). Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the surface of the lung, and they were optimized during the training process using the all other phases of 4D-CT except the end-inspiration (EI) phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertices locations of a testing data set, which was the EI phase of 4D-CT. Results: For ten lung cancer patients, the deformation vector field of each vertex of lung surface mesh was estimated from the external motion at selected positions on the chest wall surface plus spirometry measurements. The average estimation of 98th percentile of error was less than 1 mm (AP= 0.85, RL= 0.61, and SI= 0.82). Conclusion: The developed predictive model provides a non-invasive approach to derive lung boundary condition. Together with personalized biomechanical respiration modelling, the proposed model can be used to derive the lung tumor motion during radiation therapy accurately from non-invasive measurements.

  19. TH-CD-207A-05: Lung Surface Deformation Vector Fields Prediction by Monitoring Respiratory Surrogate Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); McEwan, A [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we developed and evaluated a method for predicting lung surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs) based on surrogate signals such as chest and abdomen motion at selected locations and spirometry measurements. Methods: A Patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region at end-expiration (EE) phase was obtained by threshold-based segmentation method. For each patient, a spirometer recorded the flow volume changes of the lungs; and 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2cm X 2cm matrix points over a total area of 34cm X 24cm on the surface of chest and abdomen was used to detect chest wall motions. Preprocessing techniques such as QR factorization with column pivoting (QRCP) were employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal area. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, we developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression (CRR). Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the surface of the lung, and they were optimized during the training process using the all other phases of 4D-CT except the end-inspiration (EI) phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertices locations of a testing data set, which was the EI phase of 4D-CT. Results: For ten lung cancer patients, the deformation vector field of each vertex of lung surface mesh was estimated from the external motion at selected positions on the chest wall surface plus spirometry measurements. The average estimation of 98th percentile of error was less than 1 mm (AP= 0.85, RL= 0.61, and SI= 0.82). Conclusion: The developed predictive model provides a non-invasive approach to derive lung boundary condition. Together with personalized biomechanical respiration modelling, the proposed model can be used to derive the lung tumor motion during radiation therapy accurately from non-invasive measurements.

  20. Numerical analysis of interfacial growth and deformation in horizontal stratified two-phase flow by lattice Boltzmann method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebihara, Ken-ichi

    2005-03-01

    Two-phase flow is one of the important phenomena in nuclear reactors and heat exchangers at nuclear plants. It is desired for the optimum design and safe operation of such equipment to understand and predict the two-phase flow phenomenon by numerical analysis. In the present, the two-fluid model is widely used for the numerical analysis of two-phase flow. The numerical analysis method using the two-fluid model solves macroscopic hydrodynamic equations, in which fluid is regarded as continuum, with the boundary conditions at the wall, the inlet and outlet, and the interface between two phases. Since the interfacial and the wall boundary conditions utilized by this method are given as the model, such as the flow regime map and correlation, which is usually constructed on the basis of experimental results, the accuracy of the two-phase flow analysis using the two-fluid model depends on that of the utilized model or the experiment result for modeling. Tremendous progress of the computer performance and the development of new computational methods make the numerical simulation of two-phase flow with the interfacial motion possible in resent years. In such circumstances, the lattice-gas method and the lattice Boltzmann method, which represent fluid by many particles or the particle distribution function on the spatial lattice, was proposed in 1990s and these methods are applied to the numerical simulation of two-phase flow. The main feature of the two-phase fluid model of those methods is the capability of the simulation of two-phase flow without the procedure for tracking the interfacial position and shape owing to the inlet-particle potential generating the interface. Therefore it is expected that the lattice-gas method and the lattice Boltzmann method possess the predictability of the experiment by the numerical analysis of two-phase flow as well as the possibility of giving the substitute of the flow regime map and the correlation used by the two-fluid model. In this

  1. Free surface modelling with two-fluid model and reduced numerical diffusion of the interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strubelj, Luka; Tiselj, Izrok

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The free surface flows are successfully modelled with one of existing free surface models, such as: level set method, volume of fluid method (with/without surface reconstruction), front tracking, two-fluid model (two momentum equations) with modified interphase force and others. The main disadvantage of two-fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows is numerical diffusion of the interface, which can be significantly reduced using the method presented in this paper. Several techniques for reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface have been implemented in the volume of fluid model and are based on modified numerical schemes for advection of volume fraction near the interface. The same approach could be used also for two-fluid method, but according to our experience more successful reduction of numerical diffusion of the interface can be achieved with conservative level set method. Within the conservative level set method, continuity equation for volume fraction is solved and after that the numerical diffusion of the interface is reduced in such a way that the thickness of the interface is kept constant during the simulation. Reduction of the interface diffusion can be also called interface sharpening. In present paper the two-fluid model with interface sharpening is validated on Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Under assumptions of isothermal and incompressible flow of two immiscible fluids, we simulated a system with the fluid of higher density located above the fluid of smaller density in two dimensions. Due to gravity in the system, fluid with higher density moves below the fluid with smaller density. Initial condition is not a flat interface between the fluids, but a sine wave with small amplitude, which develops into a mushroom-like structure. Mushroom-like structure in simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability later develops to small droplets as result of numerical dispersion of interface (interface sharpening

  2. Mapping ground surface deformation using temporarily coherent point SAR interferometry: Application to Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Lu, Zhong; Ding, X.; Jung, H.-S.; Feng, G.; Lee, C.-W.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is an effective tool to detect long-term seismotectonic motions by reducing the atmospheric artifacts, thereby providing more precise deformation signal. The commonly used approaches such as persistent scatterer InSAR (PSInSAR) and small baseline subset (SBAS) algorithms need to resolve the phase ambiguities in interferogram stacks either by searching a predefined solution space or by sparse phase unwrapping methods; however the efficiency and the success of phase unwrapping cannot be guaranteed. We present here an alternative approach – temporarily coherent point (TCP) InSAR (TCPInSAR) – to estimate the long term deformation rate without the need of phase unwrapping. The proposed approach has a series of innovations including TCP identification, TCP network and TCP least squares estimator. We apply the proposed method to the Los Angeles Basin in southern California where structurally active faults are believed capable of generating damaging earthquakes. The analysis is based on 55 interferograms from 32 ERS-1/2 images acquired during Oct. 1995 and Dec. 2000. To evaluate the performance of TCPInSAR on a small set of observations, a test with half of interferometric pairs is also performed. The retrieved TCPInSAR measurements have been validated by a comparison with GPS observations from Southern California Integrated GPS Network. Our result presents a similar deformation pattern as shown in past InSAR studies but with a smaller average standard deviation (4.6 mm) compared with GPS observations, indicating that TCPInSAR is a promising alternative for efficiently mapping ground deformation even from a relatively smaller set of interferograms.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  4. On numerical heat transfer characteristic study of flat surface subjected to variation in geometric thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Siddique Mohammed; Kolawale, Abhijeet Rangnath; Bhise, Ganesh Anurath; Gulhane, Nitin Parashram

    Thermal management in the looming world of electronic packaging system is the most prior and conspicuous issue as far as the working efficiency of the system is concerned. The cooling in such systems can be achieved by impinging air jet over the heat sink as jet impingement cooling is one of the cooling technologies which are widely studied now. Here the modulation in impinging and geometric parameters results in the establishment of the characteristic cooling rate over the target surface. The characteristic cooling curve actually resembles non-uniformity in cooling rate. This non-uniformity favors the area average heat dissipation rate. In order to study the non-uniformity in cooling characteristic, the present study takes an initiative in plotting the local Nusselt number magnitude against the non-dimensional radial distance of the different thickness of target surfaces. For this, the steady temperature distribution over the target surface under the impingement of air jet is being determined numerically. The work is completely inclined towards the determination of critical value of geometric thickness below which the non-uniformity in the Nusselt profile starts. This is done by numerically examining different target surfaces under constant Reynolds number and nozzle-target spacing. The occurrences of non-uniformity in Nusselt profile contributes to over a 42% enhancement in area average Nusselt magnitude. The critical value of characteristic thickness (t/d) reported in the present investigation approximate to 0.05. Below this value, the impingement of air jet generates a discrete pressure zones over the target surface in the form of pressure spots. As a result of this, the air flowing in contact with the target surface experiences a damping potential, in due of which it gets more time and contact with the surface to dissipate heat.

  5. Surface deformation and friction characteristic of nano scratch at ductile-removal regime for optical glass BK7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zhang, Feihu; Ding, Ye; Liu, Lifei

    2016-08-20

    Nano scratch for optical glass BK7 based on the ductile-removal regime was carried out, and the influence rule of scratch parameters on surface deformation and friction characteristic was analyzed. Experimental results showed that, with increase of normal force, the deformation of burrs in the edge of the scratch was more obvious, and with increase of the scratch velocity, the deformation of micro-fracture and burrs in the edge of the scratch was more obvious similarly. The residual depth of the scratch was measured by atomic force microscope. The experimental results also showed that, with increase of normal force, the residual depth of the scratch increased linearly while the elastic recovery rate decreased. Furthermore, with increase of scratch velocity, the residual depth of the scratch decreased while the elastic recovery rate increased. The scratch process of the Berkovich indenter was divided into the cutting process of many large negative rake faces based on the improved cutting model, and the friction characteristic of the Berkovich indenter and the workpiece was analyzed. The analysis showed that the coefficient of friction increased and then tended to be stable with the increase of normal force. Meanwhile, the coefficient of friction decreased with the increase of scratch velocity, and the coefficients, k ln(v) and μ0, were introduced to improve the original formula of friction coefficient.

  6. Using PS-InSAR to detect surface deformation in geothermal areas of West Java in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Yasser; van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; Perissin, Daniele; Saepuloh, Asep

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique is applied in order to investigate the ground deformation in and around two geothermal areas in West Java, Indonesia. Two time-series of ALOS PALSAR and Sentinel-1A acquisitions, covering the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2015-2016, are analysed. The first case study examines the Wayang Windu geothermal zone where the PS-InSAR analysis provides an overview of the surface deformation around a geothermal reservoir. Uplift is observed around the injection wells in the area. The second example involves the use of the PS-InSAR technique over a more recent geothermal system in Patuha field. Again, a pattern of uplift was observed around the only available injection well in the area. Due to the dense vegetation coverage of the geothermal areas in West Java, the longer wavelength ALOS PALSAR data is provides better results by identifying a larger number of PS points. Additionally, experiments have been carried out to compare the resulting deformation with another example of the fluid migration process i.e. water extraction in Bandung basin. The potential of sentinel-1A and ALOS PALSR data are compared in all the experiments.

  7. Influence of surface conditions on fatigue strength through the numerical simulation of microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pecheur, A.; Clavel, M.; Rey, C.; Bompard, P.; Le Pecheur, A.; Curtit, F.; Stephan, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A thermal fatigue test (INTHERPOL) was developed by EDF in order to study the initiation of cracks. These tests are carried out on tubular specimens under various thermal loadings and surface finish qualities in order to give an account of these parameters on crack initiation. The main topic of this study is to test the sensitivity of different fatigue criteria to surface conditions using a micro/macro modelling approach. Therefore a 304L polycrystalline aggregate, used for cyclic plasticity based FE modelling, have been considered as a Representative Volume Element located at the surface and subsurface of the test tube. This aggregate has been cyclically strained according to the results issued from FE simulation of INTHERPOL thermal fatigue experiment. Different surface parameters have been numerically simulated: effects of local microstructure and of grains orientation, effects of machining: metallurgical prehardening, residual stress gradient, and surface roughness. Three different fatigue criteria (Manson Coffin, Fatemi Socie and dissipated energy types), previously fitted at a macro-scale for thermal fatigue of 304L, have been computed at a meso scale, in order to show the surface 'hot spots' features and test the sensitivity of these three criteria to different surface conditions. Results show that grain orientation and neighbouring play an important role on the location of hot spots, and also that the positive effect of pre-straining and the negative effect of roughness on fatigue life are not all similarly predicted by these different fatigue criteria. (authors)

  8. Numerical investigation of three-dimensional single-species plasma equilibria on magnetic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefrancois, Remi G.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Boozer, Allen H.; Kremer, Jason P.

    2005-01-01

    Presented for the first time are numerical solutions to the three-dimensional nonlinear equilibrium equation for single-species plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces and surrounded by an equipotential boundary. The major-radial shift of such plasmas is found to be outward, qualitatively similar to the Shafranov shift of quasineutral plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces. However, this is the opposite of what occurs in the pure toroidal field equilibria of non-neutral plasmas (i.e., in the absence of magnetic surfaces). The effect of varying the number of Debye lengths in the plasma for the three-dimensional (3D) model is in agreement with previous 2D calculations: the potential varies significantly on magnetic surfaces for plasmas with few Debye lengths (a d ), and tends to be constant on surfaces when many Debye lengths are present (a > or approx. 10λ d ). For the case of a conducting boundary that does not conform to the outer magnetic surface, the plasma is shifted towards the conductor and the potential varies significantly on magnetic surfaces near the plasma edge. Debye shielding effects are clearly demonstrated when a nonuniform bias is applied to the boundary. Computed equilibrium profiles are presented for the Columbia Non-Neutral Torus [T. S. Pedersen, A. H. Boozer, J. P. Kermer, R. Lefrancois, F. Dahlgren, N. Pomphrey, W. Reiersen, and W. Dorland, Fusion Sci. Technol. 46, 200 (2004)], a stellarator designed to confine non-neutral plasmas

  9. Measuring Surface Deformation in Glacier Retreated Areas Based on Ps-Insar - Geladandong Glacier as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, B.; Balz, T.

    2018-04-01

    Glaciers are retreating in many parts of the world as a result of global warming. Many researchers consider Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as a reference for climate change by measuring glaciers retreat on the plateau. This retreat resulted in some topographic changes in retreated areas, and in some cases can lead to geohazards as landslides, and rock avalanches, which is known in glacier retreated areas as paraglacial slope failure (PSF). In this study, Geladandong biggest and main glacier mass was selected to estimate surface deformation on its glacier retreated areas and define potential future PSF based on PS-InSAR technique. 56 ascending and 49 descending images were used to fulfill this aim. Geladandong glacier retreated areas were defined based on the maximum extent of the glacier in the little ice age. Results revealed a general uplift in the glacier retreated areas with velocity less than 5mm/year. Obvious surface motion was revealed in seven parts surround glacier retreated areas with high relative velocity reached ±60mm/year in some parts. Four parts were considered as PSF potential motion, and two of them showed potential damage for the main road in the study area in case of rock avalanche into recent glacier lakes that could result in glacier lake outburst flooding heading directly to the road. Finally, further analysis and field investigations are needed to define the main reasons for different types of deformation and estimate future risks of these types of surface motion in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  10. Experimental and numerical study of the effect of rolling parameters on shaft deformation during the longitudinal rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Marek; Trzepiecinski, Tomasz

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of the process of longitudinal rolling of shafts and the geometry of the working section of forming rollers with a secant profile. In addition, the analytical formulae defining the geometry of a roller profile were determined. The experiments were carried out on shafts made of S235JR and C45 structural steels and the MSC.Marc + Mentat program was used for the numerical analysis of the rolling process based on the finite element method. The paper analyses the effect of roller geometry on the changes in value of the widening coefficient and the diameter reduction coefficient for the first forming passage. It was found that the mechanical properties of the shaft material have a slight influence on the widening coefficient. The value of the widening coefficient of the shaft increases with increase in the initial diameter of the shaft. Increasing shaft diameter causes an increase of strain gradient on the cross-section of the shaft.

  11. Stability of Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Layer with Variable Viscosity and deformable Free Surface under Free-Slip condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hafizah Zainal Abidin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady marangoni convection is investigated in ahorizontal layer of fluid with a free-slip bottom heated frombelow and cooled from above. Since the viscosity is temperaturedependentthe consequences of relaxing oberbeck-boussinesqapproximation and free surface deformability are theoreticallyexamined by means of small disturbance analysis. Prediction forthe onset of convection are obtained from the analysis bynumerical technique. The effect of variable viscosity and surfacedeformation on the onset of fluid motion is investigated in detail.It is shown that the critical values of marangoni and wavenumber depend strongly on the viscosity variation and surfacedeformation.

  12. Parameter Identification of Piecewise Linear Plasticity Metal Models Used in Numerical Modeling of Structures Under Plastic Deformation and Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shmeliov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the models of metallic materials used in the calculation of deformation and destruction of engineering structures. The reliability of material models can adequately assess the strength characteristics of the designs of new technology in its designing and certification.The article deals with contingencies and true mechanical properties of materials and presents equations of their relationship. It notes that in the software systems mechanical characteristics of materials are given in the true sense.The paper considers the linear and exponential models of materials, their characteristics, and methods to implement them. It considers the models of Johnson-Cook Steinberg-Guinan, Zerilli-Armstrong, Cowper-Symonds, Gurson-Tvergaard that take into account the strain rate and temperature of the material. Describes their applications, advantages and disadvantages. Considers single- and multi-parameter criteria of materials fracture, the prospects for their use. Gives a rational justification for using a piecewise linear plasticity material model *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY (024, LS-DYNA software package for the engineering industry, and presents its main parameters.A technique to identify parameters of piecewise linear plasticity metal material models has been developed. The technique consists of the stages, based on the equations of transition from the conventional stress and strain values to the true ones. Taking into consideration the stressstrain state in the neck of the sample is a distinctive feature of the technique.Tensile tests of the round material samples have been conducted. To test the developed technique in the software package ANSYS LS-DYNA PC have been made tensile sample modeling and results comparison to show high convergence.Further improvement of the technique can be achieved through the development of a statistical approach to the analysis of the results of a series of tests. This will allow a kind of

  13. Numerical simulation of unsteady free surface flow and dynamic performance for a Pelton turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W; Yan, Z G; Cui, T

    2012-01-01

    Different from the reaction turbines, the hydraulic performance of the Pelton turbine is dynamic due to the unsteady free surface flow in the rotating buckets in time and space. This paper aims to present the results of investigations conducted on the free surface flow in a Pelton turbine rotating buckets. The unsteady numerical simulations were performed with the CFX code by using the Realizable k-ε turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. The unsteady free surface flow patterns and torque varying with the bucket rotating were analysed. The predicted relative performance at five operating conditions was compared with the field test results. The study was also conducted the interactions between the bucket rear and the water jet.

  14. Numerical simulation of unsteady free surface flow and dynamic performance for a Pelton turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y. X.; Cui, T.; Wang, Z. W.; Yan, Z. G.

    2012-11-01

    Different from the reaction turbines, the hydraulic performance of the Pelton turbine is dynamic due to the unsteady free surface flow in the rotating buckets in time and space. This paper aims to present the results of investigations conducted on the free surface flow in a Pelton turbine rotating buckets. The unsteady numerical simulations were performed with the CFX code by using the Realizable k-ε turbulence model coupling the two-phase flow volume of fluid method. The unsteady free surface flow patterns and torque varying with the bucket rotating were analysed. The predicted relative performance at five operating conditions was compared with the field test results. The study was also conducted the interactions between the bucket rear and the water jet.

  15. A numerical investigation of the effect of surface wettability on the boiling curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Yi Hsu

    Full Text Available Surface wettability is recognized as playing an important role in pool boiling and the corresponding heat transfer curve. In this work, a systematic study of pool boiling heat transfer on smooth surfaces of varying wettability (contact angle range of 5° - 180° has been conducted and reported. Based on numerical simulations, boiling curves are calculated and boiling dynamics in each regime are studied using a volume-of-fluid method with contact angle model. The calculated trends in critical heat flux and Leidenfrost point as functions of surface wettability are obtained and compared with prior experimental and theoretical predictions, giving good agreement. For the first time, the effect of contact angle on the complete boiling curve is shown. It is demonstrated that the simulation methodology can be used for studying pool boiling and related dynamics and providing more physical insights.

  16. Numerical analysis of special-shaped surface in abrasive flow machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Zhou, Zengwei; Wu, Guiling; Lu, Hui; Sun, Zhihuai

    2018-03-01

    Solid-liquid two-phase abrasive flow machining is a method to effectively polish the surface of Special-shaped surface parts. Based on the processing characteristics of the abrasive flow machining. The standard model and the pressure-coupled SIMPLEC algorithm are used. The shear force and velocity of the near-wall surface of the runner of the solid-liquid two-phase abrasive machining with different inlet pressure are analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that the inlet pressure has little effect on the velocity, and the shear force has a linear relationship with the inlet pressure. To obtain a better polishing effect, the outlet pressure can be appropriately increased.

  17. Definition of criteria for estimating alternative technologies of increasing quality of rotor shaft neck by electroerosive alloying and surface plastic deformation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsynkovskyy, V.; Kirik, G.; Tarelnyk, V.; Zharkov, P.; Konoplianchenko, Ie; Dovzhyk, M.

    2017-08-01

    There are represented the results of influence of the surface plastic deformation (SPD) methods, namely, diamond smoothing (DS) and ball-rolling surface roughness generation (BSRG) ones on the qualitative parameters (residual stresses, fatigue strength and wear resistance values) of the steel substrate surface layers formed by the electroerosive alloying (EEA) method. There are proposed the most rational methods of deformation and also the composition for electroerosive coatings providing the presence of the favorable residual compressive stresses in the surface layer, increasing fatigue strength and wear resistance values. There are stated the criteria for estimating the alternative variants of the combined technologies and choosing the most rational ones thereof.

  18. Experimental and numerical study on a new multi-effect solar still with enhanced condensation surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Xie, Guo; Zheng, Hongfei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-effect solar still with enhanced condensation surface is designed. • The overall desalination efficiency and performance ratio can reach 0.91 and 1.86. • A numerical model characterizing the heat and mass transfer process is developed. - Abstract: A novel multi-effect solar desalination system with enhanced condensation surface is designed. Compared to traditional solar still, it has two main merits: (1) the application of corrugated shape stacked trays decreases the condensation resistance, thus improves the desalination performance and (2) the simultaneous heating both from the collector in the bottom and coating in the top efficiently uses the solar energy, which increases the freshwater yield. Field test is then carried out to study the temperature and freshwater yield characteristics. It is observed that the solar still can generate freshwater not only in the daytime but also in the night, with the latter taking up about 40% of the total freshwater yield. When the starting temperature is relatively high, the overall desalination efficiency and performance ratio of the equipment can reach 0.91 and 1.86, respectively. Furthermore, a numerical model characterizing the heat and mass transfer process in the solar still is developed. The good agreement between the model prediction and experimental data demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model. For the present solar still, a phenomenon of reverse temperature difference in the second stacked tray is emerged due to the special simultaneous heating pattern, which is also validated by the numerical model

  19. Numerical study of acoustophoretic motion of particles in a PDMS microchannel driven by surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nitesh; Barnkob, Rune; Mao, Zhangming; Kähler, Christian J; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-06-21

    We present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic motion of particles suspended in a liquid-filled PDMS microchannel on a lithium niobate substrate acoustically driven by surface acoustic waves. We employ a perturbation approach where the flow variables are divided into first- and second-order fields. We use impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS microchannel walls and we model the acoustic actuation by a displacement function from the literature based on a numerical study of piezoelectric actuation. Consistent with the type of actuation, the obtained first-order field is a horizontal standing wave that travels vertically from the actuated wall towards the upper PDMS wall. This is in contrast to what is observed in bulk acoustic wave devices. The first-order fields drive the acoustic streaming, as well as the time-averaged acoustic radiation force acting on suspended particles. We analyze the motion of suspended particles driven by the acoustic streaming drag and the radiation force. We examine a range of particle diameters to demonstrate the transition from streaming-drag-dominated acoustophoresis to radiation-force-dominated acoustophoresis. Finally, as an application of our numerical model, we demonstrate the capability to tune the position of the vertical pressure node along the channel width by tuning the phase difference between two incoming surface acoustic waves.

  20. Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiereder, R; Riemann, S; Schilling, R

    2010-01-01

    This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiereder, R; Riemann, S; Schilling, R, E-mail: fiereder@lhm.mw.tum.d [Department of Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen Bolzmannstrasse 15, Garching, 85748 (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiereder, R.; Riemann, S.; Schilling, R.

    2010-08-01

    This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.

  3. Determination of the plastic deformation and residual stress tensor distribution using surface and bulk intrinsic magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Svec, P. Sr.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an unique method to provide the stress calibration curve in steels: performing flaw-less welding in the under examination steel, we obtained to determine the level of the local plastic deformation and the residual stress tensors. These properties where measured using both the X-ray and the neutron diffraction techniques, concerning their surface and bulk stresses type II (intra-grain stresses) respectively, as well as the stress tensor type III by using the electron diffraction technique. Measuring the distribution of these residual stresses along the length of a welded sample or structure, resulted in determining the local stresses from the compressive to tensile yield point. Local measurement of the intrinsic surface and bulk magnetic property tensors allowed for the un-hysteretic correlation. The dependence of these local magnetic tensors with the above mentioned local stress tensors, resulting in a unique and almost un-hysteretic stress calibration curve of each grade of steel. This calibration integrated the steel's mechanical and thermal history, as well as the phase transformations and the presence of precipitations occurring during the welding process.Additionally to that, preliminary results in different grade of steels reveal the existence of a universal law concerning the dependence of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of steels on their plastic deformation and residual stress state, as they have been accumulated due to their mechanical and thermal fatigue and history. This universality is based on the unique dependence of the intrinsic magnetic properties of steels normalized with a certain magnetoelastic factor, upon the plastic deformation or residual stress state, which, in terms, is normalized with their yield point of stress. (authors)

  4. Conceptual and Numerical Modeling of Radionuclide Transport and Retention in Near-Surface Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pique, Angels; Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Molinero, Jorge; Duro, Lara; Berglund, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Scenarios of barrier failure and radionuclide release to the near-surface environment are important to consider within performance and safety assessments of repositories for nuclear waste. A geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is planned at Forsmark, Sweden. Conceptual and numerical reactive transport models were developed in order to assess the retention capacity of the Quaternary till and clay deposits for selected radionuclides, in the event of an activity release from the repository. The elements considered were carbon (C), chlorine (Cl), cesium (Cs), iodine (I), molybdenum (Mo), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), radium (Ra), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), technetium (Tc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). According to the numerical predictions, the repository-derived nuclides that would be most significantly retained are Th, Ni, and Cs, mainly through sorption onto clays, followed by U, C, Sr, and Ra, trapped by sorption and/or incorporation into mineral phases

  5. Does surface roughness influence the primary stability of acetabular cups? A numerical and experimental biomechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cann, Sophie; Galland, Alexandre; Rosa, Benoît; Le Corroller, Thomas; Pithioux, Martine; Argenson, Jean-Noël; Chabrand, Patrick; Parratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Most acetabular cups implanted today are press-fit impacted cementless. Anchorage begins with the primary stability given by insertion of a slightly oversized cup. This primary stability is key to obtaining bone ingrowth and secondary stability. We tested the hypothesis that primary stability of the cup is related to surface roughness of the implant, using both an experimental and a numerical models to analyze how three levels of surface roughness (micro, macro and combined) affect the primary stability of the cup. We also investigated the effect of differences in diameter between the cup and its substrate, and of insertion force, on the cups' primary stability. The results of our study show that primary stability depends on the surface roughness of the cup. The presence of macro-roughness on the peripheral ring is found to decrease primary stability; there was excessive abrasion of the substrate, damaging it and leading to poor primary stability. Numerical modeling indicates that oversizing the cup compared to its substrate has an impact on primary stability, as has insertion force. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of surface deformation and microseismicity applied to radioactive waste disposal through hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Switek, J.; Holzhausen, G.R.; Majer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level liquid nuclear wastes are disposed of at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by the hydrofracture process. Wastes are mixed with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected into shale of low permeability at 300 m depth. The slurry spreads radially along bedding plane fractures before setting as a grout. Different methods for monitoring the location and behavior of the fractures have been investigated. Radioactive grout sheets can be located by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells. Two other methods are based on the fact that the ground surface is deformed by the injection. The first entails surface leveling of a series of benchmarks; uplift up to 2.5 cm occurs. The second method involves use of tiltmeters that are sensitive and measure ground deformation in real time during an injection. Both methods show subsidence during the weeks following an injection. Interpretive models for the tiltmeter data are based on the elastic response of isotropic and anisotropic media to the inflation of a fluid-filled fracture. A fourth monitoring method is based on microseismicity. Geophone arrays were used to characterize the fracture process and to provide initial assessment of the feasibility of using seismic measurements to map the fractures as they form. An evaluation of each method is presented. 8 refs., 6 figs

  7. Monitoring of surface deformation and microseismicity applied to radioactive waste disposal through hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stow, S.H.; Haase, C.S.; Switek, J.; Holzhausen, G.R.; Majer, E.; Applied Geomechanics, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA)

    1985-01-01

    Low-level liquid nuclear wastes are disposed of at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by the hydrofracture process. Wastes are mixed with cement and other additives to form a slurry that is injected into shale of low permeability at 300 m depth. The slurry spreads radially along bedding plane fractures before setting as a grout. Different methods for monitoring the location and behavior of the fractures have been investigated. Radioactive grout sheets can be located by gamma-ray logging of cased observation wells. Two other methods are based on the fact that the ground surface is deformed by the injection. The first entails surface leveling of a series of benchmarks; uplift up to 2.5 cm occurs. The second method involves use of tiltmeters that are sensitive and measure ground deformation in real time during an injection. Both methods show subsidence during the weeks following an injection. Interpretive models for the tiltmeter data are based on the elastic response of isotropic and anisotropic media to the inflation of a fluid-filled fracture. A fourth monitoring method is based on microseismicity. Geophone arrays were used to characterize the fracture process and to provide initial assessment of the feasibility of using seismic measurements to map the fractures as they form. An evaluation of each method is presented

  8. Numerical modeling of the effect of surface topology on the saturated pool nucleate boiling curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study of saturated pool nucleate boiling with an emphasis on the effect of surface topography is presented. The numerical model consisted of solving the three-dimensional transient heat conduction equation within the heater subjected to nucleate boiling over its upper surface. The surface topography model considered the distribution of the cavity and cavity angles based on exponential and normal probability functions. Parametric results showed that the saturated nucleate boiling curve shifted left and became steeper with an increase in the mean cavity radius. The boiling curve was found to be sensitive to the selection of how many cavities were selected for each octagonal cell. A small variation in the statistical parameters, especially cavity radii for smooth surfaces, resulted in noticeable differences in wall superheat for a given heat flux. This result indicated that while the heat transfer coefficient increased with cavity radii, the cavity radii or height alone was not sufficient to characterize the boiling curve. It also suggested that statistical experimental data should consider large samples to characterize the surface topology. The boiling curve shifted to the right when the cavity angle was obtained using a normal distribution. This effect became less important when the number of cavities for each cell was increasing because the probability of the potential cavity with a larger radius in each cell was increased. When the contact angle of the fluid decreased for a given mean cavity radii, the boiling curve shifted to the right. This shift was more pronounced at smaller mean cavity radii and decreased with increasing mean cavity radii

  9. Plastic deformation to enhance plasma-assisted nitriding: On surface contamination induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samih, Youssef; Novelli, Marc; Bolle, Bernard; Allain, Nathalie; Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques; Marcos, Grégory; Czerwiec, Thierry; Grosdidier, Thierry; Thiriet, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent technique leading to the formation of nanostructured layers by the repeated action of impacting balls. While several communications have revealed possible contamination of the SMATed surfaces, the nature of this surface contamination was analyzed in the present contribution for the treatment of an AISI 316L stainless steel. It is shown, by a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Glow Discharge – Optical Emission Spectrometry, that the surface was alloyed with Ti, Al and V coming from the sonotrode that is used to move the balls as well as Zr coming from the zirshot® balls themselves

  10. Plastic deformation to enhance plasma-assisted nitriding: On surface contamination induced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samih, Youssef; Novelli, Marc; Thiriet, Tony; Bolle, Bernard; Allain, Nathalie; Fundenberger, Jean-Jacques; Marcos, Grégory; Czerwiec, Thierry; Grosdidier, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    The Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment is a recent technique leading to the formation of nanostructured layers by the repeated action of impacting balls. While several communications have revealed possible contamination of the SMATed surfaces, the nature of this surface contamination was analyzed in the present contribution for the treatment of an AISI 316L stainless steel. It is shown, by a combination of Transmission Electron Microscopy and Glow Discharge - Optical Emission Spectrometry, that the surface was alloyed with Ti, Al and V coming from the sonotrode that is used to move the balls as well as Zr coming from the zirshot® balls themselves.

  11. Numerical studies on helium cooled divertor finger mock up with sectorial extended surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimza, Sandeep; Satpathy, Kamalakanta; Khirwadkar, Samir; Velusamy, Karupanna

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Studies on heat transfer enhancement for divertor finger mock-up. • Heat transfer characteristics of jet impingement with extended surfaces have been investigated. • Effect of critical parameters that influence the thermal performance of the finger mock-up by CFD approach. • Effect of extended surface in enhancing heat removal potential with pumping power assessed. • Practicability of the chosen design is verified by structural analysis. - Abstract: Jet impinging technique is an advance divertor concept for the design of future fusion power plants. This technique is extensively used due to its high heat removal capability with reasonable pumping power and for safe operation. In this design, plasma-facing components are fabricated with numerous fingers cooled by helium jets to reduce the thermal stresses. The present study is focused towards finding an optimum performance of one such finger mock-up through systematic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Heat transfer characteristics of jet impingement have been numerically investigated with sectorial extended surfaces (SES). The result shows that addition of SES enhances heat removal potential with minimum pumping power. Detailed parametric studies on critical parameters that influence thermal performance of the finger mock-up have been analyzed. Thermo-mechanical analysis has been carried out through finite element based approach to know the state of stress in the assembly as a result of large temperature gradients. It is seen that the stresses are within the permissible limits for the present design. The whole numerical simulation has been carried out using general-purpose CFD software (ANSYS FLUENT, Release 14.0, User Guide, Ansys, Inc., 2011). Benchmark validation studies have been performed against high-heat flux experiments (B. Končar, P. Norajitra, K. Oblak, Appl. Therm. Eng., 30, 697–705, 2010) and a good agreement is noticed between the present simulation and the reported

  12. Numerical modelling of microdroplet self-propelled jumping on micro-textured surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, S. M. Reza; Dolatabadi, Ali; Chun Kim, Kyung

    2015-11-01

    Understanding various stages of single and multiple droplet impact on a super-hydrophobic surface is of interest for many industrial applications such as aerospace industry. In this study, the phenomenon of coalescence induced droplets self-propelled jumping on a micro-textured super-hydrophobic surface is numerically simulated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. This model mimics the scenario of coalescing cloud-sized particles over the surface structure of an aircraft. The VOF coupled with a dynamic contact angle model is used to simulate the coalescence of two equal size droplets, that are initially placed very closed to each other with their interface overlapping with each other's which triggers the incipience of their coalescence. The textured surface is modeled as a series of equally spaced squared pillars, with 111° as the intrinsic contact angle all over the solid contact area. It is shown that the radial velocity of coalescing liquid bridge is reverted to upward direction due to the counter action of the surface to the basal area of droplet in contact. The presence of air beneath the droplet inside micro grooves which aimed at repelling water droplet is also captured in this model. The simulated results are found in good agreement with experimental observations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), Consortium de Recherche et d'innovation en Aerospatiale au Quebec (CRIAQ), Bombardier Aerospace, Pratt Whitney Canada.

  13. Thermal hydraulic numerical investigation of the heavy liquid metal free surface of MYRRHA spallation target experimental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batta, A.; Class, A.

    2015-01-01

    The first advanced design of accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is currently being built in SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium): MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications). The experiment investigates the free surface design of the MYRRHA target. The free surface lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) liquid metal experiment is a full-scale model of the concentric MYRRHA target. The design of the target is combined with CFD simulations using a volume of fluid method accounting for mass transfer across the free surface. The model used has been validated with water experimental results. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. In the current work, we present numerical results of Star- CD simulations employing a high-resolution interface-capturing scheme in conjunction with the cavitation model for the nominal operation conditions. Thermal hydraulic of the target is considered for the nominal flow rate and nominal heat load. Results show that the target has a very stable free surface configuration for the considered flow rate and heat load

  14. Numerical simulation of the double pits stress concentration in a curved casing inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour or sweet oil fields development is common in recent years. Casing and tubing are usually subjected to pitting corrosion because of exposure to the strong corrosion species, such as CO2, H2S, and saline water. When the corrosion pits formed in the casing inner surface, localized stress concentration will occur and the casing strength will be degraded. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the degree of stress concentration factor accurately. This article performed a numerical simulation on double pits stress concentration factor in a curved inner surface using the finite element software ABAQUS. The results show that the stress concentration factor of double pits mainly depends on the ratio of two pits distance to the pit radius (L/R. It should not be only assessed by the absolute distance between the two pits. When the two pits are close and tangent, the maximum stress concentration factor will appear on the inner tangential edges. Stress concentration increased by double pits in a curved casing inner surface is more serious than that in a flat surface. A correction factor of 1.9 was recommended in the curved inner surface double pits stress concentration factor predict model.

  15. Numerical analysis of free-surface flows by using OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Ken; Watanabe, Tadashi; Nishida, Akemi; Takemiya, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent free-surface flows induced by three-dimensional dam break are numerically investigated. It is found that a Second-order Moment Closure (SMC) model is in good agreement with experimental results. An eddy viscosity model becomes less effective because the turbulent dissipation rate is overestimated in the eddy viscosity model. The impact on a vertical wall resulting from a dam break flow is also investigated. The maximum pressure on the wall in the SMC model is higher than that in the laminar model, whereas averaged pressure on the wall in the SMC model is lower than that in the laminar model. (author)

  16. Linear and nonlinear post-processing of numerically forecasted surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casaioli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test different approaches to the statistical post-processing of gridded numerical surface air temperatures (provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts onto the temperature measured at surface weather stations located in the Italian region of Puglia. We consider simple post-processing techniques, like correction for altitude, linear regression from different input parameters and Kalman filtering, as well as a neural network training procedure, stabilised (i.e. driven into the absolute minimum of the error function over the learning set by means of a Simulated Annealing method. A comparative analysis of the results shows that the performance with neural networks is the best. It is encouraging for systematic use in meteorological forecast-analysis service operations.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Surface and Volumetric Cooling using Optimal T- and Y-shaped Flow Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaraju, Srinivas

    2017-11-01

    The layout of T- and V-shaped flow channel networks on a surface can be optimized for minimum pressure drop and pumping power. The results of the optimization are in the form of geometric parameters such as length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. While these flow channels are optimized for minimum pressure drop, they can also be used for surface and volumetric cooling applications such as heat exchangers, air conditioning and electronics cooling. In this paper, an effort has been made to study the heat transfer characteristics of multiple T- and Y-shaped flow channel configurations using numerical simulations. All configurations are subjected to same input parameters and heat generation constraints. Comparisons are made with similar results published in literature.

  18. A numerical study of three-dimensional droplets spreading on chemically patterned surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Hua

    2016-09-26

    We study numerically the three-dimensional droplets spreading on physically flat chemically patterned surfaces with periodic squares separated by channels. Our model consists of the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard equations with the generalized Navier boundary conditions. Stick-slip behavior and con-tact angle hysteresis are observed. Moreover, we also study the relationship between the effective advancing/receding angle and the two intrinsic angles of the surface patterns. By increasing the volume of droplet gradually, we find that the advancing contact line tends gradually to an equiangular octagon with the length ratio of the two adjacent sides equal to a fixed value that depends on the geometry of the pattern.

  19. Numerical simulation of the time-dependent deformation behaviour of clay-stone rock mass at the Tournemire site with 2D and 3D models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutenberg, M.; Lux, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Modern repository research foregrounds physico-chemical processes (mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, chemical) and their interactions taking place in the near field and the far field of the geological system being explored. With regard to load bearing behaviour and preservation of barrier integrity, and with the general objective of complete confinement of the waste in the isolating rock zone, the focus is especially on geomechanical processes induced by excavation - including the influences on and by hydraulic, thermal, and chemical processes - as well as on thermal processes induced by heat generation of the deposited radioactive waste and their effects on mechanical and hydraulic processes. In order to improve assessments of the mechanical stability and, in case of a water saturated rock formation, of the hydraulic effects on the host rock of the repository, suitable physical models for numerical simulations of rock and rock mass behaviour have to be found and to be validated. Because of their radionuclide retention capacity, their low water permeability, and their resistance to water, clay-stone rock masses form a reasonable alternative to e.g. salt rock masses as a host rock for deep geological repositories. In past decades, various working groups at an international level have elaborated a broad experimental and theoretical understanding of the geomechanical and geo-hydraulic behaviour of clay-stones and applied this know-how to geologic repository components, e.g. in the context of engineering studies, or in the back-analysis of field tests. In this context, measurement results revealed a continuing convergence of drift walls lasting for a few years after completion of excavation. Possible reasons for this time-dependent deformation behaviour of the clay-stone rock mass might be: - viscous properties of the material from a phenomenological point of view, meaning a constant stress state leading to increasing

  20. Coupled electrostatic and material surface stresses yield anomalous particle interactions and deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, B. A., E-mail: bkemp@astate.edu; Nikolayev, I. [College of Engineering, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, Arkansas 72467 (United States); Sheppard, C. J. [College of Sciences and Mathematics, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, Arkansas 72467 (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Like-charges repel, and opposite charges attract. This fundamental tenet is a result of Coulomb's law. However, the electrostatic interactions between dielectric particles remain topical due to observations of like-charged particle attraction and the self-assembly of colloidal systems. Here, we show, using both an approximate description and an exact solution of Maxwell's equations, that nonlinear charged particle forces result even for linear material systems and can be responsible for anomalous electrostatic interactions such as like-charged particle attraction and oppositely charged particle repulsion. Furthermore, these electrostatic interactions and the deformation of such particles have fundamental implications for our understanding of macroscopic electrodynamics.

  1. Effect of heating and deformation conditions on the depth of surface defects in alloyed steel rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malygin, R.Z.; Karyakin, B.P.; Grosman, A.B.; Simovskikh, V.N.; Storozhev, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of heating and deformation conditions on the depth change of artificial defects in the 50 KhFA alloyed steel rolling on the 850 blooming and 450 section mill was studied. Quite a definite regularity in the arrangement of defects (cracks and hairlines) along the circumference of the round steel bar and obvious relation with the defect distribution on the bloom faces are established. Oxidation is shown to diminish defect depth while ingot and billet heating especially on the faces under direct firing. Blooms should be placed in the furnace with 90 deg canting in relation to the faces position while ingot heating. Round rolling must be performed with one or several 45 deg strip cantings. The defect depth for the ingots to be rolled without chipping is set up

  2. An automatic rat brain extraction method based on a deformable surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P; Zara, Jason M

    2013-08-15

    The extraction of the brain from the skull in medical images is a necessary first step before image registration or segmentation. While pre-clinical MR imaging studies on small animals, such as rats, are increasing, fully automatic imaging processing techniques specific to small animal studies remain lacking. In this paper, we present an automatic rat brain extraction method, the Rat Brain Deformable model method (RBD), which adapts the popular human brain extraction tool (BET) through the incorporation of information on the brain geometry and MR image characteristics of the rat brain. The robustness of the method was demonstrated on T2-weighted MR images of 64 rats and compared with other brain extraction methods (BET, PCNN, PCNN-3D). The results demonstrate that RBD reliably extracts the rat brain with high accuracy (>92% volume overlap) and is robust against signal inhomogeneity in the images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel deformation mechanism for superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, H.; Sakai, M. (Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science)

    1999-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive creep tests with strain value up to -0.1 for a [beta]-spodumene glass ceramic are conducted at 1060 C. From the observation of microstructural changes between before and after the creep deformations, it is shown that the grain-boundary sliding takes place via cooperative movement of groups of grains rather than individual grains under the large-scale-deformation. The deformation process and the surface technique used in this work are not only applicable to explain the deformation and flow of two-phase ceramics but also the superplastic deformation. (orig.) 12 refs.

  4. Episodic inflation and complex surface deformation of Akutan volcano, Alaska revealed from GPS time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, Kimberly; Wang, Teng; Lu, Zhong; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2017-11-01

    Akutan is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian island arc. Studies involving seismic, GPS, and InSAR data have observed activity and deformation on the island since 1996. In this study we inverted measurements of volcanic deformation, observed using three components of motions at 12 continuous GPS sites to define magma source parameters using Mogi point source, Okada dislocation, and Yang spheroid and ellipsoid models. In order to analyze the evolution of this magma source we split the GPS data into five consecutive time periods, and one period that incorporates all available data. These time periods were designed around two inflation events in 2008 and 2014, when a sudden and significant increase in vertical velocity was observed. Inversion of these time periods independently allowed us to create a magma volume time-series that is related to the physical migration of magma defined by the estimated source parameters. The best fit model parameters resulting from these inversions describes magma storage in the form of an oblate spheroid centered on the northeastern rim of the caldera of Akutan volcano, extending from a depth of 7 km to 8 km, with a length of 3.5 km, a strike of N165°E, and a dip of 63° from the horizontal to the southwest. Our model results were compared with seismic studies and found to support previous interpretations of episodic inflation beneath Akutan volcano with complicated magma storage at intermediate depths. The inflation event observed in 2008 was estimated to be the result of an injection of magma of 0.08 km3 that was followed in 2014 by an additional increase in volume of 0.06 km3. No periods of deflation were observed in the GPS data after these events, and we believe the total volume of magma accumulated in this region, 0.2 km3, remains in a shallow storage system beneath Akutan Volcano.

  5. Extended averaging phase-shift schemes for Fizeau interferometry on high-numerical-aperture spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jan

    2010-08-01

    Phase-shifting Fizeau interferometry on spherical surfaces is impaired by phase-shift errors increasing with the numerical aperture, unless a custom optical set-up or wavelength shifting is used. This poses a problem especially for larger numerical apertures, and requires good error tolerance of the phase-shift method used; but it also constitutes a useful testing facility for phase-shift formulae, because a vast range of phase-shift intervals can be tested in a single measurement. In this paper I show how the "characteristic polynomials" method can be used to generate a phase-shifting method for the actual numerical aperture, and analyse residual cyclical phase errors by comparing a phase map from an interferogram with a few fringes to a phase mpa from a nulled fringe. Unrelated to the phase-shift miscalibration, thirdharmonic error fringes are found. These can be dealt with by changing the nominal phase shift from 90°/step to 60°/step and re-tailoring the evaluation formula for third-harmonic rejection. The residual error has the same frequency as the phase-shift signal itself, and can be removed by averaging measurements. Some interesting features of the characteristic polynomials for the averaged formulae emerge, which also shed some light on the mechanism that generates cyclical phase errors.

  6. Numerical evaluation of state boundary surface through rotation of principal stress axes in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadrnejad, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    In applying shear stress to saturated soil with arbitrary stress paths, the prediction of the exact value of strains is difficult because of mainly its stress path dependent nature. Rotation of the principal stress axes during shearing of the soil is a feature of stress paths associated with many field loading situations. A proper understanding of the effects of principal stress rotation on soil behavior can be provided if the anisotropy existing prior to stress rotation and induced anisotropy due to plastic flow in soil are clearly understood and modeled. A multi laminate based model for soil is developed and used to compute and present the influence of rotation of principal stress axes on the plastic behavior of soil. This is fulfilled by distributing the effects of boundary condition changes into several predefined sampling orientations at one point and summing the micro-results up as the macro-result. The validity of the presented model examined by comparing numerical and test results showing the mentioned aspect. In this paper, the state boundary surface is numerically obtained by a multi laminate based model capable of predicting the behavior of sand under the influences of rotation of the direction of principal stress axes and induced anisotropy. the predicted numerical results are tally in agreement with experiments

  7. Temporal Evolution of Surface Deformation and Magma Sources at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala Revealed by InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnuk, K.; Wauthier, C.

    2016-12-01

    Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala is a persistently active volcano whose western flank is unstable. Despite continuous activity since 1961, a lack of high temporal resolution geodetic surveying has prevented detailed modeling of Pacaya's underlying magmatic plumbing system. A new, temporally dense dataset of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) RADARSAT-2 images, spanning December 2012 to March 2014, shows magmatic deformation before and during major eruptions in January and March 2014. Inverse modeling of InSAR surface displacements suggest that three magma bodies are responsible for observed deformation: (1) a 3.7 km deep spherical reservoir located northwest of the summit, (2) a 0.4 km deep spherical source located directly west of the summit, and (3) a shallow dike below the summit that provides the primary transport pathway for erupted materials. Periods of heightened activity are brought on by magma pulses at depth, which result in rapid inflation of the edifice. We observe an intrusion cycle at Pacaya that consists of deflation of one or both magma reservoirs followed by dike intrusion. Intrusion volumes are proportional to reservoir volume loss, and do not always result in an eruption. Periods of increased activity culminate with larger dike fed eruptions. Large eruptions are followed by inter eruptive periods marked by a decrease in crater explosions and a lack of deformation. A full understanding of magmatic processes at Pacaya is required to assess potential impacts on other aspects of the volcano such as the unstable western flank. Co-eruptive flank motion appears to have initiated a new stage of volcanic rifting at Pacaya defined by repeated NW-SE dike intrusions. This creates a positive feedback relationship whereby magmatic forcing from eruptive dike intrusions induces flank motion

  8. MEASURING SURFACE DEFORMATION IN GLACIER RETREATED AREAS BASED ON PS-INSAR – GELADANDONG GLACIER AS A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohamadi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are retreating in many parts of the world as a result of global warming. Many researchers consider Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau as a reference for climate change by measuring glaciers retreat on the plateau. This retreat resulted in some topographic changes in retreated areas, and in some cases can lead to geohazards as landslides, and rock avalanches, which is known in glacier retreated areas as paraglacial slope failure (PSF. In this study, Geladandong biggest and main glacier mass was selected to estimate surface deformation on its glacier retreated areas and define potential future PSF based on PS-InSAR technique. 56 ascending and 49 descending images were used to fulfill this aim. Geladandong glacier retreated areas were defined based on the maximum extent of the glacier in the little ice age. Results revealed a general uplift in the glacier retreated areas with velocity less than 5mm/year. Obvious surface motion was revealed in seven parts surround glacier retreated areas with high relative velocity reached ±60mm/year in some parts. Four parts were considered as PSF potential motion, and two of them showed potential damage for the main road in the study area in case of rock avalanche into recent glacier lakes that could result in glacier lake outburst flooding heading directly to the road. Finally, further analysis and field investigations are needed to define the main reasons for different types of deformation and estimate future risks of these types of surface motion in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Modified SIMPLE algorithm for the numerical analysis of incompressible flows with free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Ho; Hong, Chun Pyo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    While the SIMPLE algorithm is most widely used for the simulations of flow phenomena that take place in the industrial equipment or the manufacturing processes, it is less adopted for the simulations of the free surface flow. Though the SIMPLE algorithm is free from the limitation of time step, the free surface behavior imposes the restriction on the time step. As a result, the explicit schemes are faster than the implicit scheme in terms of computation time when the same time step is applied to, since the implicit scheme includes the numerical method to solve the simultaneous equations in its procedure. If the computation time of SIMPLE algorithm can be reduced when it is applied to the unsteady free surface flow problems, the calculation can be carried out in the more stable way and, in the design process, the process variables can be controlled based on the more accurate data base. In this study, a modified SIMPLE algorithm is presented for the free surface flow. The broken water column problem is adopted for the validation of the modified algorithm (MoSIMPLE) and for comparison to the conventional SIMPLE algorithm

  10. Formulations by surface integral equations for numerical simulation of non-destructive testing by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The thesis addresses the numerical simulation of non-destructive testing (NDT) using eddy currents, and more precisely the computation of induced electromagnetic fields by a transmitter sensor in a healthy part. This calculation is the first step of the modeling of a complete control process in the CIVA software platform developed at CEA LIST. Currently, models integrated in CIVA are restricted to canonical (modal computation) or axially-symmetric geometries. The need for more diverse and complex configurations requires the introduction of new numerical modeling tools. In practice the sensor may be composed of elements with different shapes and physical properties. The inspected parts are conductive and may contain dielectric or magnetic elements. Due to the cohabitation of different materials in one configuration, different regimes (static, quasi-static or dynamic) may coexist. Under the assumption of linear, isotropic and piecewise homogeneous material properties, the surface integral equation (SIE) approach allows to reduce a volume-based problem to an equivalent surface-based problem. However, the usual SIE formulations for the Maxwell's problem generally suffer from numerical noise in asymptotic situations, and especially at low frequencies. The objective of this study is to determine a version that is stable for a range of physical parameters typical of eddy-current NDT applications. In this context, a block-iterative scheme based on a physical decomposition is proposed for the computation of primary fields. This scheme is accurate and well-conditioned. An asymptotic study of the integral Maxwell's problem at low frequencies is also performed, allowing to establish the eddy-current integral problem as an asymptotic case of the corresponding Maxwell problem. (author) [fr

  11. X-ray Diffraction Investigation of Annealing Behavior of Peened Surface Deformation Layer on Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junjie; Wang, Zhou; Gan, Jin; Yang, Ying; Huang, Feng; Wu, Gang; Meng, Qingshuai

    2018-05-01

    In order to investigate the recrystallization behavior of peened surface deformation layer of precipitation hardening stainless steel, a classic x-ray diffraction line profile analysis, Voigt method, was carried out on peened 17-4PH with different isothermal annealing temperatures. The activation energy of domain boundary migration ( Q a) and the activation energy of microstrain relaxation ( Q b) were calculated by regression analysis in different annealing temperature conditions. The results show that the value of Q a decreases with annealing temperature increasing, which is due to the influence of precipitation (ɛ-Cu) size on the movements of grain and subgrain boundaries. The maximum growth rate of ɛ-Cu particles occurs during 400 to 500 °C interval. Compared with growth behavior of domain size, microstrain relaxation behavior is less sensitive to precipitation particle size. The effects of annealing temperature and time on dislocation density are both significant when annealing temperature is lower than 500 °C. However, the effect of annealing temperature on dislocation density becomes insignificant when annealing temperature is higher than 500 °C. 300 °C annealing temperature only leads to the microstrain relaxation but nearly cannot lead to the domain size growth even if prolonging annealing time. Microstructure enhancement effect still exists in plastic deformation layer when 300 °C annealing temperature lasts for 60 min but nearly disappears when 600 °C annealing temperature lasts for 20 min.

  12. X-ray Diffraction Investigation of Annealing Behavior of Peened Surface Deformation Layer on Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junjie; Wang, Zhou; Gan, Jin; Yang, Ying; Huang, Feng; Wu, Gang; Meng, Qingshuai

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the recrystallization behavior of peened surface deformation layer of precipitation hardening stainless steel, a classic x-ray diffraction line profile analysis, Voigt method, was carried out on peened 17-4PH with different isothermal annealing temperatures. The activation energy of domain boundary migration (Q a) and the activation energy of microstrain relaxation (Q b) were calculated by regression analysis in different annealing temperature conditions. The results show that the value of Q a decreases with annealing temperature increasing, which is due to the influence of precipitation (ɛ-Cu) size on the movements of grain and subgrain boundaries. The maximum growth rate of ɛ-Cu particles occurs during 400 to 500 °C interval. Compared with growth behavior of domain size, microstrain relaxation behavior is less sensitive to precipitation particle size. The effects of annealing temperature and time on dislocation density are both significant when annealing temperature is lower than 500 °C. However, the effect of annealing temperature on dislocation density becomes insignificant when annealing temperature is higher than 500 °C. 300 °C annealing temperature only leads to the microstrain relaxation but nearly cannot lead to the domain size growth even if prolonging annealing time. Microstructure enhancement effect still exists in plastic deformation layer when 300 °C annealing temperature lasts for 60 min but nearly disappears when 600 °C annealing temperature lasts for 20 min.

  13. Deformations of the gyroid and Lidinoid minimal surfaces using flat structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyhaupt, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Mathematically, the challenge in proving the existence of a purported triply periodic minimal surface is in computing parameter values that depend on a system of equations defined by elliptic integrals. This is generally very difficult. In the presence of some symmetry, however, a technique developed by Weber and Wolf can reduce these elliptic integrals to basic algebra and geometry of polygons. These techniques can easily prove the existence of some surfaces and the presence of a family of solutions. Families of surfaces are important mathematically, but recent work by Seddon, et. al., experimentally confirms that these families of surfaces can occur physically as well. In this talk, we give a brief overview of the technique and show how it can be applied to prove the existence of several families of surfaces, including lower symmetry variants of the gyroid and Lidinoid such as the rG, rPD, tG, and rL. We also conjecture a map of the moduli space of triply periodic minimal surfaces of genus 3.

  14. Numerical and experimental determination of surface temperature and moisture evolution in a field soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Olukayode D.; Mendes, Nathan

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge about the dynamics of soil moisture and heat, especially at the surface, provides important insights into the physical processes governing their interactions with the atmosphere, thereby improving the understanding of patterns of climate dynamics. In this context the paper presents the numerical and field experimental results of temperature and moisture evolution, which were measured on the surface of a sandy soil at Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria. An unconditionally stable numerical method was used, which linearizes the vapour concentration driving-potential term giving the moisture exchanged at the boundaries in terms of temperature and moisture content, and simultaneously solves the governing equations for each time step. The model avoids stability problems and limitations to low moisture contents and the usual assumption of constant thermal conductivity. Instantaneous temperature measurements were made at the surface using a thermocouple, while the gravimetric method was employed to determine the volumetric water contents at some specific hours of the experimental period. The observed experimental data compared fairly well with the predicted values, with both having correlation coefficients greater than 0.9 and consequently following a common diurnal trend. The sensitivity of the model was very high to the choice of simulation parameters, especially grid size refinement and time step. While the model underestimated the soil moisture content at 6 a.m. and 10 p.m., the measured temperatures were however overestimated. When compared to moisture content, average errors for temperature were low resulting in a minimal absolute difference in amplitude of 0.81 °C.

  15. GBIS (Geodetic Bayesian Inversion Software): Rapid Inversion of InSAR and GNSS Data to Estimate Surface Deformation Source Parameters and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnardi, M.; Hooper, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Inversions of geodetic observational data, such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements, are often performed to obtain information about the source of surface displacements. Inverse problem theory has been applied to study magmatic processes, the earthquake cycle, and other phenomena that cause deformation of the Earth's interior and of its surface. Together with increasing improvements in data resolution, both spatial and temporal, new satellite missions (e.g., European Commission's Sentinel-1 satellites) are providing the unprecedented opportunity to access space-geodetic data within hours from their acquisition. To truly take advantage of these opportunities we must become able to interpret geodetic data in a rapid and robust manner. Here we present the open-source Geodetic Bayesian Inversion Software (GBIS; available for download at http://comet.nerc.ac.uk/gbis). GBIS is written in Matlab and offers a series of user-friendly and interactive pre- and post-processing tools. For example, an interactive function has been developed to estimate the characteristics of noise in InSAR data by calculating the experimental semi-variogram. The inversion software uses a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm, incorporating the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm with adaptive step size, to efficiently sample the posterior probability distribution of the different source parameters. The probabilistic Bayesian approach allows the user to retrieve estimates of the optimal (best-fitting) deformation source parameters together with the associated uncertainties produced by errors in the data (and by scaling, errors in the model). The current version of GBIS (V1.0) includes fast analytical forward models for magmatic sources of different geometry (e.g., point source, finite spherical source, prolate spheroid source, penny-shaped sill-like source, and dipping-dike with uniform opening) and for dipping faults with uniform

  16. Deformation and instabilities at a free surface of liquid subject to a local rapid evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, Anne

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis first addresses theoretical aspects related to the study of stationary system (the deformation of the liquid-vapour interface) and to the study of the linear stability of this interface, and more particularly the study of the liquid-vapour interface of a fluid heated by electron bombardment in a vacuum enclosure. The author reports the analysis of Landau and Palmer systems, reports the study of the marginal stability of a simplified SILVA (isotopic separation by laser on atomic vapour) system which allows the identification of destabilizing mechanisms, and the comparison between a liquid system heated from underneath with liquid system heated from above. Results are then validated by experimental results. In the next part, the author sets the equations of a SILVA system closer to reality by addressing vapour in a more realistic way. Results of conventional kinetic theory are studied again by analysing sonic evaporation of a liquid. The author reports a study of the linear stability of this system, and reports an attempt to analyse the obtained results [fr

  17. PAF: A software tool to estimate free-geometry extended bodies of anomalous pressure from surface deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, A. G.; Fernández, J.; Cannavò, F.

    2018-02-01

    We present a software package to carry out inversions of surface deformation data (any combination of InSAR, GPS, and terrestrial data, e.g., EDM, levelling) as produced by 3D free-geometry extended bodies with anomalous pressure changes. The anomalous structures are described as an aggregation of elementary cells (whose effects are estimated as coming from point sources) in an elastic half space. The linear inverse problem (considering some simple regularization conditions) is solved by means of an exploratory approach. This software represents the open implementation of a previously published methodology (Camacho et al., 2011). It can be freely used with large data sets (e.g. InSAR data sets) or with data coming from small control networks (e.g. GPS monitoring data), mainly in volcanic areas, to estimate the expected pressure bodies representing magmatic intrusions. Here, the software is applied to some real test cases.

  18. Strain-induced phase transformation at the surface of an AISI-304 stainless steel irradiated to 4.4 dpa and deformed to 0.8% strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, M.N., E-mail: gussevmn@ornl.gov; Field, K.G.; Busby, J.T.

    2014-03-15

    Surface relief due to localized deformation in a 4.4-dpa neutron-irradiated AISI 304 stainless steel was investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron backscattering diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. It was found a body-centered-cubic (BCC) phase (deformation-induced martensite) had formed at the surface of the deformed specimen along the steps generated from dislocation channels. Martensitic hill-like formations with widths of ∼1 μm and depths of several microns were observed at channels with heights greater than ∼150 nm above the original surface. Martensite at dislocation channels was observed in grains along the [0 0 1]–[1 1 1] orientation but not in those along the [1 0 1] orientation.

  19. Strain-induced phase transformation at the surface of an AISI-304 stainless steel irradiated to 4.4 dpa and deformed to 0.8% strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussev, M.N.; Field, K.G.; Busby, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Surface relief due to localized deformation in a 4.4-dpa neutron-irradiated AISI 304 stainless steel was investigated using scanning electron microscopy coupled with electron backscattering diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. It was found a body-centered-cubic (BCC) phase (deformation-induced martensite) had formed at the surface of the deformed specimen along the steps generated from dislocation channels. Martensitic hill-like formations with widths of ∼1 μm and depths of several microns were observed at channels with heights greater than ∼150 nm above the original surface. Martensite at dislocation channels was observed in grains along the [0 0 1]–[1 1 1] orientation but not in those along the [1 0 1] orientation

  20. Deformation behaviour induced by point defects near a Cu(0 0 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said-Ettaoussi, M.; Jimenez-Saez, J.C.; Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In order to attain a satisfactory understanding of many of the properties of metallic surfaces, it is necessary to take into account the distorting effect of self-interstitials and vacancies. The present work is focused on the study of the behaviour of neighbouring atoms around point defects. The conjugate gradient method with an empiric many-body potential has been used to study the point defect-surface interaction. Point defects have been generated at several depths under a Cu(0 0 1) surface and then the whole system driven to the minimum energy state. The displacement field has been obtained in the vicinity to the defect. An energetic analysis is also carried out calculating formation and migration energies

  1. A Numerical Study on Impact of Taiwan Island Surface Heat Flux on Super Typhoon Haitang (2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three to four tropical cyclones (TCs by average usually impact Taiwan every year. This study, using the Developmental Tested Center (DTC version of the Hurricane WRF (HWRF model, examines the effects of Taiwan’s island surface heat fluxes on typhoon structure, intensity, track, and its rainfall over the island. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the structure and intensity of super Typhoon Haitang. The model, especially, reproduced the looped path and landfall at nearly the right position. Sensitive experiments indicated that Taiwan’s surface heat fluxes have significant influence on the super Typhoon Haitang. Compared to sensible heat (SH fluxes, latent heat (LH is the dominant factor affecting the intensity and rainfall, but they showed opposite effects on intensity and rainfall. LH (SH flux of Taiwan Island intensified (weakened Typhoon Haitang’s intensity and structure by transferring more energy from (to surface. However, only LH played a major role in the looped path before the landfall of the Typhoon Haitang.

  2. Numerical investigation of aerodynamic flow actuation produced by surface plasma actuator on 2D oscillating airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Khang Phan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of unsteady flow control over an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. Flow actuation of a turbulent flow over the airfoil is provided by low current DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator which is analytically modeled as an ion pressure force produced in the cathode sheath region. The modeled plasma actuator has an induced pressure force of about 2 kPa under a typical experiment condition and is placed on the airfoil surface at 0% chord length and/or at 10% chord length. The plasma actuator at deep-stall angles (from 5° to 25° is able to slightly delay a dynamic stall and to weaken a pressure fluctuation in down-stroke motion. As a result, the wake region is reduced. The actuation effect varies with different plasma pulse frequencies, actuator locations and reduced frequencies. A lift coefficient can increase up to 70% by a selective operation of the plasma actuator with various plasma frequencies and locations as the angle of attack changes. Active flow control which is a key advantageous feature of the plasma actuator reveals that a dynamic stall phenomenon can be controlled by the surface plasma actuator with less power consumption if a careful control scheme of the plasma actuator is employed with the optimized plasma pulse frequency and actuator location corresponding to a dynamic change in reduced frequency.

  3. Surface characterization of TiNi deformed by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang Shri, Dayangku Noorfazidah [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Koichi, E-mail: tsuchiya.koichi@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akiko [Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Material Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Effect of grain refinements and amorphization by high-pressure torsion (HPT) on surface chemistry was investigated on TiNi. X-ray diffraction and micro-Vickers tests were used to check the phase changes and hardness before and after HPT. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to observe the changes in the natural passive film formation on the surface. Phase analysis reveals the change of crystalline TiNi to nanostructured one with increased hardness with straining by HPT. Grain refinement and amorphization caused by HPT reduce the amount of metallic Ni in the passive films and also increase the thickness of the film.

  4. Effect of machining on the deformability of steel in surface-active medium at lower temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusti, E.Ya.; Babej, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of some machining methods of carbon steel, chromium steel, and chromium nickel steel, and that of low temperatures on the principle characteristics of formability during impact bending in air and a surface-active environment have been studied. The temperature decrease from the ambient to -80 deg is shown to reduce steel formability as evaluated by deflection (f) and to increase the forming force. The variation of these characteristics with lowering temperature, however, is greatly affected by machining process conditions. The FRHT (Friction-Hardening Treatment) on the white layer assures minimum ductility losses, and increases steel strength at low temperatures both in air and in the surface-active environment

  5. Inter-seasonal surface deformations of an active rock glacier imaged with radar and lidar remote sensing; Turtmann valley, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Andrew; Buchli, Thomas; Strozzi, Tazio; Springman, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Inter-seasonal changes in surface deformation were imaged using a portable radar interferometer and terrestrial laser scanner during a series of three campaigns that took place in autumn 2011, summer 2012 and autumn 2012 on a rock glacier located in the Turtmann valley, Switzerland. Satellite radar interferometry (ERS 1 & 2, CosmoSkymed) indicate that accelerated downslope movement of the rock glacier commenced during the 1990s. Due to signal decorrelation associated with the satellite repeat pass time interval, continuous ground-based radar interferometry measurements were undertaken. Results show that the rock glacier accelerated significantly in Summer (Vmax = 6.0cm/25hrs), probably in response to the condition of the subsurface hydrology (e.g. post-peak spring snow melt and/or infiltration of rainfall). In autumn, the displacement velocity was reduced (Vmax = 2.0cm/25hrs). A one year surface difference of the glacier topography, derived from terrestrial laser scanning, provided insight into the rock glacier kinematics. Ongoing research is aimed at integrating surface displacement results with an extensive borehole monitoring system consisting of inclinometers and temperature sensors.

  6. Field and numerical study of wind and surface waves at short fetches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydakov, Georgy; Kuznetsova, Alexandra; Sergeev, Daniil; Papko, Vladislav; Kandaurov, Alexander; Vdovin, Maxim; Troitskaya, Yuliya

    2016-04-01

    Measurements were carried out in 2012-2015 from May to October in the waters of Gorky Reservoir belonging to the Volga Cascade. The methods of the experiment focus on the study of airflow in the close proximity to the water surface. The sensors were positioned at the oceanographic Froude buoy including five two-component ultrasonic sensors WindSonic by Gill Instruments at different levels (0.1, 0.85, 1.3, 2.27, 5.26 meters above the mean water surface level), one water and three air temperature sensors, and three-channel wire wave gauge. One of wind sensors (0.1 m) was located on the float tracking the waveform for measuring the wind speed in the close proximity to the water surface. Basic parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer (the friction velocity u∗, the wind speed U10 and the drag coefficient CD) were calculated from the measured profiles of wind speed. Parameters were obtained in the range of wind speeds of 1-12 m/s. For wind speeds stronger than 4 m/s CD values were lower than those obtained before (see eg. [1,2]) and those predicted by the bulk parameterization. However, for weak winds (less than 3 m/s) CD values considerably higher than expected ones. The new parameterization of surface drag coefficient was proposed on the basis of the obtained data. The suggested parameterization of drag coefficient CD(U10) was implemented within wind input source terms in WAVEWATCH III [3]. The results of the numerical experiments were compared with the results obtained in the field experiments on the Gorky Reservoir. The use of the new drag coefficient improves the agreement in significant wave heights HS [4]. At the same time, the predicted mean wave periods are overestimated using both built-in source terms and adjusted source terms. We associate it with the necessity of the adjusting of the DIA nonlinearity model in WAVEWATCH III to the conditions of the middle-sized reservoir. Test experiments on the adjusting were carried out. The work was supported by the

  7. Characterizing a porous road pavement using surface impedance measurement: a guided numerical inversion procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Gaëlle; Heinkélé, Christophe; Gourdon, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with a numerical procedure to identify the acoustical parameters of road pavement from surface impedance measurements. This procedure comprises three steps. First, a suitable equivalent fluid model for the acoustical properties porous media is chosen, the variation ranges for the model parameters are set, and a sensitivity analysis for this model is performed. Second, this model is used in the parameter inversion process, which is performed with simulated annealing in a selected frequency range. Third, the sensitivity analysis and inversion process are repeated to estimate each parameter in turn. This approach is tested on data obtained for porous bituminous concrete and using the Zwikker and Kosten equivalent fluid model. This work provides a good foundation for the development of non-destructive in situ methods for the acoustical characterization of road pavements.

  8. Direct numerical simulations of a thin liquid film coating an axially oscillating cylindrical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, Matthias; Rohlfs, Wilko; Kneer, Reinhold, E-mail: rohlfs@wsa.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer, RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 6, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Liquid films on cylindrical bodies like wires or fibers disintegrate into droplets if their length exceeds a critical measure (Plateau–Rayleigh instability). Stabilization of such films can be achieved by an axial oscillation of the solid core provided that a suitable combination of forcing amplitude and frequency is given. To investigate the stabilizing effect, direct numerical simulations of the axisymmetric problem are conducted in this study. Thus, a modified volume-of-fluid solver is employed based on the open source library OpenFOAM{sup ®}. The effect of film stabilization is demonstrated and the required conditions for a stable film configuration are found to be in accordance with other studies. Finally, parameter variations are conducted to investigate the influence on the long-term shape of the stabilized film surface. (paper)

  9. Numerical simulations and linear stability analysis of a boundary layer developed on wavy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siconolfi, Lorenzo; Camarri, Simone; Fransson, Jens H. M.

    2015-11-01

    The development of passive methods leading to a laminar to turbulent transition delay in a boundary layer (BL) is a topic of great interest both for applications and academic research. In literature it has been shown that a proper and stable spanwise velocity modulation can reduce the growth rate of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and delay transition. In this study, we investigate numerically the possibility of obtaining a stabilizing effect of the TS waves through the use of a spanwise sinusoidal modulation of a flat plate. This type of control has been already successfully investigated experimentally. An extensive set of direct numerical simulations is carried out to study the evolution of a BL flow developed on wavy surfaces with different geometric characteristics, and the results will be presented here. Moreover, since this configuration is characterized by a slowly-varying flow field in streamwise direction, a local stability analysis is applied to define the neutral stability curves for the BL flow controlled by this type of wall modifications. These results give the possibility of investigating this control strategy and understanding the effect of the free parameters on the stabilization mechanism.

  10. Numerical simulation of electron behavior and beam heating on a material surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioda, K.; Hashidate, Y.; Kumagai, M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of numerical analysis is investigated for the manufacturing processes employing electron beam heating, such as hardening, cutting, and welding. High-energy electrons (10 ∼ 50 keV) impinge upon the surface of a material and diffuse by multiple elastic/nonelastic scattering caused by atoms. Although the electron collisions with atomic nuclei can be treated approximately as elastic, collisions with orbital electrons of atoms are nonelastic. Fast electrons are decelerated in the course of atomic excitation or X-ray radiation, transferring their kinetic energy to the lattice system as thermal energy. In this paper, the difference between the heat-generating density and the electron density is clarified numerically, as well as the penetration depth and the reflection ratio of the electron beam. Calculated results for these quantities show good agreement with the referenced data. In addition, the difference between the penetration depth of the electrons and that of the heat, which has never been discussed in detail before, is clarified

  11. Numerical simulation of hydrogen-air reacting flows in rectangular channels with catalytic surface reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Abou-Ellail, Mohsen M.; Elhaw, Samer; Saeed Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    In this work a prediction was numerically modeled for a catalytically stabilized thermal combustion of a lean homogeneous mixture of air and hydrogen. The mixture flows in a narrow rectangular channel lined with a thin coating of platinum catalyst. The solution using an in-house code is based on the steady state partial differential continuity, momentum and energy conservation equations for the mixture and species involved in the reactions. A marching technique is used along the streamwise direction to solve the 2-D plane-symmetric laminar flow of the gas. Two chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms were included; one for the gas phase reactions consisting of 17 elementary reactions; of which 7 are forward-backward reactions while the other mechanism is for the surface reactions—which are the prime mover of the combustion under a lean mixture condition—consisting of 16 elementary reactions. The results were compared with a former congruent experimental work where temperature was measured using thermocouples, while using PLIF laser for measuring water and hydrogen mole fractions. The comparison showed good agreement. More results for the velocities, mole fractions of other species were carried out across the transverse and along the streamwise directions providing a complete picture of overall mechanism—gas and surface—and on the production, consumptions and travel of the different species. The variations of the average OH mole fraction with the streamwise direction showed a sudden increase in the region where the ignition occurred. Also the rate of reactions of the entire surface species were calculated along the streamwise direction and a surface water production flux equation was derived by calculating the law of mass action's constants from the concentrations of hydrogen, oxygen and the rate of formation of water near the surface.

  12. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  13. Experimental and numerical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and pollution interactions under tidal forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Schaefer, Florian; Kampanis, Nikolaos; Nanou-Giannarou, Aikaterini; Stamou, Anastasios; Falconer, Roger

    2015-04-01

    continuous tide on the coastal side. The integrated surface water-groundwater numerical model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009, Spanoudaki, 2010) was also used in the study, with the numerical model predictions being compared with experimental results, which provide a valuable database for model calibration and validation. IRENE couples the 3D, non-steady state Navier-Stokes equations, after Reynolds averaging and with the assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution, to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. The model uses the finite volume method with a cell-centered structured grid providing thus flexibility and accuracy in simulating irregular boundary geometries. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection-diffusion equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants introduced in a 3D turbulent flow field to the partial differential equation describing the fate and transport of contaminants in 3D transient groundwater flow systems. References Ebrahimi, K., Falconer, R.A. and Lin B. (2007). Flow and solute fluxes in integrated wetland and coastal systems. Environmental Modelling and Software, 22 (9), 1337-1348. Hughes, S.A. (1995). Physical Modelling and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore. Kuan, W.K., Jin, G., Xin, P., Robinson, C. Gibbes, B. and Li. L. (2012). Tidal influence on seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. Water Resources Research, 48 (2), doi:10.1029/2011WR010678. Spanoudaki, K., Stamou, A.I. and Nanou-Giannarou, A. (2009). Development and verification of a 3-D integrated surface water-groundwater model. Journal of Hydrology, 375 (3-4), 410-427. Spanoudaki, K. (2010). Integrated numerical modelling of surface water groundwater systems (in Greek

  14. A new free-surface stabilization algorithm for geodynamical modelling: Theory and numerical tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Morgan, Jason P.; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Rüpke, Lars

    2015-09-01

    The surface of the solid Earth is effectively stress free in its subaerial portions, and hydrostatic beneath the oceans. Unfortunately, this type of boundary condition is difficult to treat computationally, and for computational convenience, numerical models have often used simpler approximations that do not involve a normal stress-loaded, shear-stress free top surface that is free to move. Viscous flow models with a computational free surface typically confront stability problems when the time step is bigger than the viscous relaxation time. The small time step required for stability (develop strategies that mitigate the stability problem by making larger (at least ∼10 Kyr) time steps stable and accurate. Here we present a new free-surface stabilization algorithm for finite element codes which solves the stability problem by adding to the Stokes formulation an intrinsic penalization term equivalent to a portion of the future load at the surface nodes. Our algorithm is straightforward to implement and can be used with both Eulerian or Lagrangian grids. It includes α and β parameters to respectively control both the vertical and the horizontal slope-dependent penalization terms, and uses Uzawa-like iterations to solve the resulting system at a cost comparable to a non-stress free surface formulation. Four tests were carried out in order to study the accuracy and the stability of the algorithm: (1) a decaying first-order sinusoidal topography test, (2) a decaying high-order sinusoidal topography test, (3) a Rayleigh-Taylor instability test, and (4) a steep-slope test. For these tests, we investigate which α and β parameters give the best results in terms of both accuracy and stability. We also compare the accuracy and the stability of our algorithm with a similar implicit approach recently developed by Kaus et al. (2010). We find that our algorithm is slightly more accurate and stable for steep slopes, and also conclude that, for longer time steps, the optimal

  15. Development of a Standardized Methodology for the Use of COSI-Corr Sub-Pixel Image Correlation to Determine Surface Deformation Patterns in Large Magnitude Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliner, C. W. D.; Dolan, J. F.; Hollingsworth, J.; Leprince, S.; Ayoub, F.

    2014-12-01

    Coseismic surface deformation is typically measured in the field by geologists and with a range of geophysical methods such as InSAR, LiDAR and GPS. Current methods, however, either fail to capture the near-field coseismic surface deformation pattern where vital information is needed, or lack pre-event data. We develop a standardized and reproducible methodology to fully constrain the surface, near-field, coseismic deformation pattern in high resolution using aerial photography. We apply our methodology using the program COSI-corr to successfully cross-correlate pairs of aerial, optical imagery before and after the 1992, Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999, Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. This technique allows measurement of the coseismic slip distribution and magnitude and width of off-fault deformation with sub-pixel precision. This technique can be applied in a cost effective manner for recent and historic earthquakes using archive aerial imagery. We also use synthetic tests to constrain and correct for the bias imposed on the result due to use of a sliding window during correlation. Correcting for artificial smearing of the tectonic signal allows us to robustly measure the fault zone width along a surface rupture. Furthermore, the synthetic tests have constrained for the first time the measurement precision and accuracy of estimated fault displacements and fault-zone width. Our methodology provides the unique ability to robustly understand the kinematics of surface faulting while at the same time accounting for both off-fault deformation and measurement biases that typically complicates such data. For both earthquakes we find that our displacement measurements derived from cross-correlation are systematically larger than the field displacement measurements, indicating the presence of off-fault deformation. We show that the Landers and Hector Mine earthquake accommodated 46% and 38% of displacement away from the main primary rupture as off-fault deformation, over a mean

  16. Planation surfaces as a record of medium to large wavelength deformation: the example of the Lake Albert Rift (Uganda) on the East African Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Jean, Braun; Olivier, Dauteuil; Massimo, Dall'Asta

    2016-04-01

    African relief is characterized by planation surfaces, some of them of continental scale. These surfaces are slightly deformed according to different wavelengths (x10 km; x100 km, x1000 km) which record both mantle dynamics (very long wavelength, x 1000 km) and lithosphere deformation (long wavelength deformation, x 100 km). Different types of these planation surfaces are recognized: - Etchplains capped by iron-duricrust which correspond to erosional nearly flat weathered surfaces resulting from the growth of laterites under warm and humid conditions. - Pediments which define mechanical erosional surfaces with concave or rectilinear profiles delimited by upslope scarps connected upstream with the upper landforms. We here focused on the Lake Albert Rift at the northern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System of which the two branches are surimposed on the East-African Dome. Different wavelengths of deformation were characterized based on the 3D mapping of stepped planation surfaces: (1) very long wavelength deformations resulting from the uplift of the East African Dome; (2) long wavelength deformations resulting from the opening of the eastern branch and (3) medium wavelength deformations represented by the uplift of rift shoulders like the Rwenzori Mountains. The paleo-landscape reconstruction of Uganda shows the existence of four generations of landforms dated according to their geometrical relationships with volcanic rocks. A four stepped evolution of the Ugandan landforms is proposed: • 70 - 22 Ma: generation of two weathered planation surfaces (etchplain Uw and Iw). The upper one (Uw) records a very humid period culminating at time of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (70-45 Ma). It corresponds to the African Surface. A first uplift of the East African Dome generates a second lower planation surface (Iw) connected to the Atlantic Ocean base level; • 17-2.7 Ma: planation of large pediplains connected to the local base level induced

  17. Numerical and Theoretical Investigations Concerning the Continuous-Surface-Curvature Effect in Compressor Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Though the importance of curvature continuity on compressor blade performances has been realized, there are two major questions that need to be solved, i.e., the respective effects of curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point and the main surface, and the contradiction between the traditional theory and experimental observations in the effect of those novel leading-edge shapes with smaller curvature discontinuity and sharper nose. In this paper, an optimization method to design continuous-curvature blade profiles which deviate little from datum blades is proposed, and numerical and theoretical analysis is carried out to investigate the continuous-curvature effect on blade performances. The results show that the curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point helps to eliminate the separation bubble, thus improving the blade performance. The main-surface curvature continuity is also beneficial, although its effects are much smaller than those of the blend-point curvature continuity. Furthermore, it is observed that there exist two factors controlling the leading-edge spike, i.e., the curvature discontinuity at the blend point which dominates at small incidences, and the nose curvature which dominates at large incidences. To the authors’ knowledge, such mechanisms have not been reported before, and they can help to solve the sharp-leading-edge paradox.

  18. Surface Deformation by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael E.

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The scientific aims are to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat transfer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. Correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient shall be delivered as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters. The data will be used for benchmarking of commercial CFD codes and the tank design

  19. Direct observation of asperity deformation of specimens with random rough surfaces in upsetting and indentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2006-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system....... The experiments are carried out without lubricant and with lubricant. Specimens used are commercially pure A1100 aluminum with a random rough surface. From these observations, the change in the fraction of real contact area is measured by an image processor. The real contact area ratios in upsetting experiments...

  20. Direct Observation of Asperity Deformation of Specimen with Random Rough Surface in Upsetting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azushima, A.; Kuba, S.; Tani, S.

    2004-01-01

    The trapping behavior of liquid lubricant and contact behavior of asperities at the workpiece-tool interface during upsetting and indentation are observed directly using a compression subpress which consists of a transparent die made of sapphire, a microscope with a CCD camera and a video system....... The experiments are carried out without lubricant and with lubricant. Specimens used are commercially pure A1100 Aluminum with a random rough surface. From this observation, the change in the fraction of real contact area is measured by an image processor. The real contact area ratios in upsetting experiment...

  1. Deformation of Tibetan Crust and Mantle and the Uplift of the Plateau: Insights from Broadband Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, M. R.; Lebedev, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic deployments over the last two decades have produced dense broadband data coverage across the Tibetan Plateau. Yet, the lithospheric dynamics of Tibet is still debated, with very different end-member models advocated to this day. Uncertainties over the anomalies in seismic tomography models contribute to the uncertainty of their interpretations, ranging from the subduction of India as far as northern Tibet to subduction of Asia there and to extreme viscous thickening of the entire Tibetan lithosphere. Within the lithosphere itself, a low-viscosity layer in the mid-lower crust is evidenced by many observations. It is still unclear, however, whether this layer accommodates a large-scale channel flow (which may have uplifted northern and eastern Tibet, according to one model) or if, instead, deformation within it is similar to that observed at the surface (which implies different uplift mechanisms). Broad-band surface waves provide resolving power from the upper crust down to the asthenosphere, for both isotropic-average shear-wave speeds (proxies for composition and temperature) and the radial and azimuthal shear-wave anisotropy (indicative of the patterns of deformation and flow). We measured highly accurate Love- and Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity curves in broad period ranges (up to 5-200 s) for a few tens of pairs and groups of stations across Tibet, combining, in each case, hundreds to thousands of inter-station measurements, made with cross-correlation and waveform-inversion methods. Robust shear-velocity profiles were then determined by series of non-linear inversions, yielding depth-dependent ranges of shear speeds and radial anisotropy consistent with the data. Temperature anomalies in the upper mantle were estimated from shear-velocity ones using accurate petro-physical relationships. Azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle was determined by surface-wave tomography and, also, by sub-array analysis targeting the anisotropy amplitude. Our

  2. Covariance estimation for dInSAR surface deformation measurements in the presence of anisotropic atmospheric noise

    KAUST Repository

    Knospe, Steffen H G

    2010-04-01

    We study anisotropic spatial autocorrelation in differential synthetic aperture radar interferometric (dInSAR) measurements and its impact on geophysical parameter estimations. The dInSAR phase acquired by the satellite sensor is a superposition of different contributions, and when studying geophysical processes, we are usually only interested in the surface deformation part of the signal. Therefore, to obtain high-quality results, we would like to characterize and/or remove other phase components. A stochastic model has been found to be appropriate to describe atmospheric phase delay in dInSAR images. However, these phase delays are usually modeled as being isotropic, which is a simplification, because InSAR images often show directional atmospheric anomalies. Here, we analyze anisotropic structures and show validation results using both real and simulated data. We calculate experimental semivariograms of the dInSAR phase in several European Remote Sensing satellite-1/2 tandem interferograms. Based on the theory of random functions (RFs), we then fit anisotropic variogram models in the spatial domain, employing Matérn-and Bessel-family correlation functions in nested models to represent complex dInSAR covariance structures. The presented covariance function types, in the statistical framework of stationary RFs, are consistent with tropospheric delay models. We find that by using anisotropic data covariance information to weight dInSAR measurements, we can significantly improve both the precision and accuracy of geophysical parameter estimations. Furthermore, the improvement is dependent on how similar the deformation pattern is to the dominant structure of the anisotropic atmospheric signals. © 2009 IEEE.

  3. Identification of tectonic deformations on the south polar surface of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Saumitra; Singh, Priyadarshini

    2015-07-01

    Recent extensional and contractional tectonic features present globally over the lunar surface have been studied to infer lunar crustal tectonism. Investigation of indicators of recent crustal tectonics, such as fault lines, thrust fault scarps, and dislocation of debris along the identified fault planes, primarily using data from the miniature-synthetic aperture radar (mini-SAR) aboard CHANDRAYAAN-1 mission and Narrow angle camera (NAC) images, are the focus of this study. Spatial orientation of these tectonic features helps to elucidate the change in the interior geological dynamics of any planetary body with time. The ability of microwave sensors to penetrate the lunar regolith, along with application of m-χ decomposition method on Mini-SAR data has been used to reveal unique features indicative of hidden tectonics. The m-χ decomposition derived radar images expose hidden lineaments and lobate scarps present within shadowed crater floors as well as over the illuminated regions of the lunar surface. The area around and within Cabeus B crater in the South Polar Region contains lobate scarps, hidden lineaments and debris avalanches (associated with the identified lineaments) indicative of relatively recent crustal tectonism.

  4. Surface deformation effects on stainless steel, Ni, Cu and Mo produced by medium energy He ions irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Florescu, V.; Sarbu, C.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate dose and energy dependence of surface deformation effects (blistering and flaking), different kinds of candidate CTR first wall materials as 12KH18N10T, W-4541, W-4016 and SS-304 stainless steels, Ni, Cu, Mo were irradiated at room temperature with 3.0, 4.7 and 6.8 MeV He + ions at IAP Cyclotron. The effects were investigated by means of a TEMSCAN 200 CX electron microscope and two metallographic Orthoplan Pol Leitz and Olympus microscopes. We observed two dose dependent main phenomena: blistering and flaking (craters). So, blisters occurrence on the irradiated surface is almost instantaneous when a critical dose (number of He ions accumulated in the region at the end of alpha particles range) is reached. Increasing irradiation dose, we reached flaking stage. So, isolated submicronic fissures along grain boundaries were observed on the blister skin, chronologically followed by large (5-20 μm) deep cracks of hundreds of microns in length, blisters opening and, finally, flaking appearance. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. Numerical modelling of surface hydrology and near-surface hydrogeology at Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling SDM. Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosson, Emma (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Gustafsson, Lars-Goeran; Sassner, Mona (DHI Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    SKB is currently performing site investigations at two potential sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report presents results of water flow and solute transport modelling of the Forsmark site. The modelling reported in this document focused on the near-surface groundwater, i.e. groundwater in Quaternary deposits and shallow rock, and surface water systems, and was performed using the MIKE SHE tool. The most recent site data used in the modelling were delivered in the Forsmark 2.3 dataset, which had its 'data freeze' on March 31, 2007. The present modelling is performed in support of the final version of the Forsmark site description that is produced during the site investigation phase. In this work, the hydrological modelling system MIKE SHE has been used to describe near-surface groundwater flow and the contact between groundwater and surface water at the Forsmark site. The surface water system at Forsmark is described with the one-dimensional 'channel flow' modelling tool MIKE 11, which is fully and dynamically integrated with MIKE SHE. The MIKE SHE model was updated with data from the F2.3 data freeze. The main updates concerned the geological description of the saturated zone and the time series data on water levels and surface water discharges. The time series data used as input data and for calibration and validation was extended until the Forsmark 2.3 data freeze (March 31, 2007). The present work can be subdivided into the following four parts: 1. Update of the numerical flow model. 2. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the model parameters. 3. Validation of the calibrated model, followed by evaluation and identification of discrepancies between measurements and model results. 4. Additional sensitivity analysis and calibration in order to resolve the problems identified in point three above. The main actions taken during the calibration can be summarised as follows: 1. The potential evapotranspiration was

  6. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation by combining multiple-aperture interferometry and conventional interferometry: Application to the June 2007 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.-S.; Lu, Z.; Won, J.-S.; Poland, Michael P.; Miklius, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Surface deformation caused by an intrusion and small eruption during June 17-19, 2007, along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, was three-dimensionally reconstructed from radar interferograms acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased-array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (PALSAR) instrument. To retrieve the 3-D surface deformation, a method that combines multiple-aperture interferometry (MAI) and conventional interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques was applied to one ascending and one descending ALOS PALSAR interferometric pair. The maximum displacements as a result of the intrusion and eruption are about 0.8, 2, and 0.7 m in the east, north, and up components, respectively. The radar-measured 3-D surface deformation agrees with GPS data from 24 sites on the volcano, and the root-mean-square errors in the east, north, and up components of the displacement are 1.6, 3.6, and 2.1 cm, respectively. Since a horizontal deformation of more than 1 m was dominantly in the north-northwest-south-southeast direction, a significant improvement of the north-south component measurement was achieved by the inclusion of MAI measurements that can reach a standard deviation of 3.6 cm. A 3-D deformation reconstruction through the combination of conventional InSAR and MAI will allow for better modeling, and hence, a more comprehensive understanding, of the source geometry associated with volcanic, seismic, and other processes that are manifested by surface deformation.

  7. Modeling of Ground Deformation and Shallow Surface Waves Generated by Martian Dust Devils and Perspectives for Near-Surface Structure Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenda, Balthasar; Lognonné, Philippe; Spiga, Aymeric; Kawamura, Taichi; Kedar, Sharon; Banerdt, William Bruce; Lorenz, Ralph; Banfield, Don; Golombek, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the possible seismic signatures of dust devils on Mars, both at long and short period, based on the analysis of Earth data and on forward modeling for Mars. Seismic and meteorological data collected in the Mojave Desert, California, recorded the signals generated by dust devils. In the 10-100 s band, the quasi-static surface deformation triggered by pressure fluctuations resulted in detectable ground-tilt effects: these are in good agreement with our modeling based on Sorrells' theory. In addition, high-frequency records also exhibit a significant excitation in correspondence to dust devil episodes. Besides wind noise, this signal includes shallow surface waves due to the atmosphere-surface coupling and is used for a preliminary inversion of the near-surface S-wave profile down to 50 m depth. In the case of Mars, we modeled the long-period signals generated by the pressure field resulting from turbulence-resolving Large-Eddy Simulations. For typical dust-devil-like vortices with pressure drops of a couple Pascals, the corresponding horizontal acceleration is of a few nm/s2 for rocky subsurface models and reaches 10-20 nm/s2 for weak regolith models. In both cases, this signal can be detected by the Very-Broad Band seismometers of the InSight/SEIS experiment up to a distance of a few hundred meters from the vortex, the amplitude of the signal decreasing as the inverse of the distance. Atmospheric vortices are thus expected to be detected at the InSight landing site; the analysis of their seismic and atmospheric signals could lead to additional constraints on the near-surface structure, more precisely on the ground compliance and possibly on the seismic velocities.

  8. Determination of stamp deformation during imprinting on semi-spherical surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Matschuk, Maria; Pranov, Henrik

    of sol-gel was applied onto spherical injection mold inserts and subsequently imprinted using a flexible stamp. A hard curing step transformed the sol-gel into a quartz-like and durable material. As an example, we present theory and results regarding the imprint of pillar nanostructures on semi......-spherical mold surfaces. Imprints were realized on three different radii of circumferenceof the spherical mold: R = 0.5 mm, R = 1.0 mm, and R = 2 mm. After hard-curing of theimprinted sol-gel, the inserts were used for cold-mold as well as vario-therm injection molding.The polymer replicas and the inserts were...

  9. Earthquakes Versus Surface Deformation: Qualitative and Quantitative Relationships From The Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlides, S.; Caputo, R.

    Historical seismicity of the Aegean Region has been revised in order to associate major earthquakes to specific seismogenic structures. Only earthquakes associated to normal faulting have been considered. All available historical and seismotectonic data relative to co-seismic surface faulting have been collected in order to evaluate the surface rup- ture length (SRL) and the maximum displacement (MD). In order to perform Seismic Hazard analyses, empirical relationships between these parameters and the magnitude have been inferred and the best fitting regression functions have been calculated. Both co-seismic fault rupture lengths and maximum displacements show a logarithmic re- lationships, but our data from the Aegean Region have systematically lower values than the same parameters world-wide though they are similar to those of the East- ern Mediterranean-Middle East region. The upper envelopes of our diagrams (SRL vs Mw and MD vs Mw) have been also estimated and discussed, because they give useful information of the wort-case scenarios; these curces will be also discussed. Further- more, geological and morphological criteria have been used to recognise the tectonic structures along which historical earthquakes occurred in order to define the geolog- ical fault length (GFL). Accordingly, the SRL/GFL ratio seems to have a bimodal distribution with a major peak about 0.8-1.0, indicating that several earthquakes break through almost the entire geological fault length, and a second peak around 0.5, re- lated to the possible segmentation of these major neotectonic faults. In contrast, no relationships can be depicted between the SRL/GFL ratio and the magnitude of the corresponding events.

  10. Numerical simulation of the observed near-surface East India Coastal Current on the continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Shankar, D.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Vinayachandran, P. N.

    2018-06-01

    We simulate the East India Coastal Current (EICC) using two numerical models (resolution 0.1° × 0.1°), an oceanic general circulation model (OGCM) called Modular Ocean Model and a simpler, linear, continuously stratified (LCS) model, and compare the simulated current with observations from moorings equipped with acoustic Doppler current profilers deployed on the continental slope in the western Bay of Bengal (BoB). We also carry out numerical experiments to analyse the processes. Both models simulate well the annual cycle of the EICC, but the performance degrades for the intra-annual and intraseasonal components. In a model-resolution experiment, both models (run at a coarser resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°) simulate well the currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO), but the performance of the high-resolution LCS model as well as the coarse-resolution OGCM, which is good in the EICC regime, degrades in the eastern and northern BoB. An experiment on forcing mechanisms shows that the annual EICC is largely forced by the local alongshore winds in the western BoB and remote forcing due to Ekman pumping over the BoB, but forcing from the EIO has a strong impact on the intra-annual EICC. At intraseasonal periods, local (equatorial) forcing dominates in the south (north) because the Kelvin wave propagates equatorward in the western BoB. A stratification experiment with the LCS model shows that changing the background stratification from EIO to BoB leads to a stronger surface EICC owing to strong coupling of higher order vertical modes with wind forcing for the BoB profiles. These high-order modes, which lead to energy propagating down into the ocean in the form of beams, are important only for the current and do not contribute significantly to the sea level.

  11. Organ Surface Deformation Measurement and Analysis in Open Hepatic Surgery: Method and Preliminary Results From 12 Clinical Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Logan W.; Dumpuri, Prashanth; Chapman, William C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Galloway, Robert L.; Miga, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of soft tissue deformation has been well documented in neurosurgical procedures and is known to compromise the spatial accuracy of image-guided surgery systems. Within the context of image-guided liver surgery (IGLS), no detailed method to study and analyze the observed organ shape change between preoperative imaging and the intraoperative presentation has been developed. Contrary to the studies of deformation in neurosurgical procedures, the majority of deformation in IGLS is i...

  12. Evaluating links between deformation, topography and surface temperature at volcanic domes: Results from a multi-sensor study at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Jacqueline T.; Milillo, Pietro; Varley, Nick; Perissin, Daniele; Pantaleo, Michele; Walter, Thomas R.

    2017-12-01

    Dome building activity is common at many volcanoes and due to the gravitational instability, a dome represents one of the most hazardous volcanic phenomena. Shallow volcanic processes as well as rheological and structural changes of the dome affecting the fluid transport have been linked to transitions in eruptive activity. Also, hydrothermal alteration may affect the structural integrity of the dome, increasing the potential for collapse. However, mapping the deformation and details of fluid escape at the summit of steep sloped volcanoes and integrating these with other types of data is challenging due to difficult access and poor coverage. Here we present for the first time the near-vertical and near-horizontal surface deformation field of a quiescent summit dome and the relationships with degassing and topographic patterns. Our results are derived from high resolution satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) time series based on a year of TerraSAR-X SpotLight acquisitions and Structure from Motion (SfM) processing of overflight infrared data at Volcán de Colima, Mexico. The identified deformation is dominated by localized heterogeneous subsidence of the summit dome exceeding rates of 15 cm/yr, and strongly decreasing over the year 2012, up to the renewal of explosive and extrusive activity in early 2013. We tentatively attribute the deformation to the degassing, cooling and contraction of the dome and shallow conduit material. We also find that the results strongly differ depending on the chosen InSAR time series method, which potentially overprints the true physical complexities of small scale, shallow deformation processes. The combined interpretation of the deformation and infrared data reveals a complex spatial relationship between the degassing pathways and the deformation. While we observe no deformation across the crater rim fumaroles, discontinuities in the deformation field are more commonly observed around the dome rim fumaroles and occasionally on the

  13. Ground surface deformation patterns, magma supply, and magma storage at Okmok volcano, Alaska, from InSAR analysis: 1. Intereruption deformation, 1997–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Dzurisin, Daniel; Biggs, Juliet; Wicks, Charles; McNutt, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Starting soon after the 1997 eruption at Okmok volcano and continuing until the start of the 2008 eruption, magma accumulated in a storage zone centered ~3.5 km beneath the caldera floor at a rate that varied with time. A Mogi-type point pressure source or finite sphere with a radius of 1 km provides an adequate fit to the deformation field portrayed in time-sequential interferometric synthetic aperture radar images. From the end of the 1997 eruption through summer 2004, magma storage increased by 3.2–4.5 × 107 m3, which corresponds to 75–85% of the magma volume erupted in 1997. Thereafter, the average magma supply rate decreased such that by 10 July 2008, 2 days before the start of the 2008 eruption, magma storage had increased by 3.7–5.2 × 107 m3 or 85–100% of the 1997 eruption volume. We propose that the supply rate decreased in response to the diminishing pressure gradient between the shallow storage zone and a deeper magma source region. Eventually the effects of continuing magma supply and vesiculation of stored magma caused a critical pressure threshold to be exceeded, triggering the 2008 eruption. A similar pattern of initially rapid inflation followed by oscillatory but generally slowing inflation was observed prior to the 1997 eruption. In both cases, withdrawal of magma during the eruptions depressurized the shallow storage zone, causing significant volcano-wide subsidence and initiating a new intereruption deformation cycle.

  14. Numerical Design of Ultra-Wideband Printed Antenna for Surface Penetrating Radar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Munir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface penetrating radar (SPR is an imaging device of electromagnetic wave that works by emitting and transmitting a narrow period pulse through the antenna. Due to the use of narrow period pulse, according to the Fourier transform duality, therefore ultra-wideband (UWB antenna becomes one of the most important needs in SPR system. In this paper, a novel UWB printed antenna is proposed to be used for SPR application. Basically, the proposed antenna is developed from a rectangular microstrip antenna fed by symmetric T-shaped. Some investigation methods such as resistive loading, abrupt transition, and ground plane modification are attempted to achieve required characteristics of bandwidth, radiation efficiency, and compactness needed by the system. To obtain the optimum design, the characteristics of proposed antenna are numerically investigated through the physical parameters of antenna. It is shown that proposed antenna deployed on an FR-4 Epoxy substrate with permittivity of 4.3 and thickness of 1.6mm has a compact size of 72.8mm x 60.0mm and a large bandwidth of 50MHz-5GHz which is suitable for SPR application.

  15. Surface streamer propagations on an alumina bead: experimental observation and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo Seok; Kim, Hyun-Ha; Teramoto, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Dae-Woong; Hur, Min; Song, Young-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    A surface streamer in a simplified packed-bed reactor has been studied both experimentally (through time-resolved ICCD imaging) and theoretically (through two-dimensional numerical modeling). The propagation of streamers on an alumina spherical bead without catalytic coating shows three distinct phases—the generation and propagation of a primary streamer (PS) with a moderate velocity and electric field, fast PS acceleration with an enhanced electric field, and slow secondary streamer (SS) propagation. The velocity of the streamer is less than that of propagation in a gaseous media. The electric field and velocity at the streamer front are maximized when a PS propagates during the interval from the midpoint of the bead to the bottom electrode. The SS exhibits a much lower velocity and electric field compared with the PS. The PS velocity is affected by an external applied voltage, especially when it approaches the ground electrode. However, that of the SS remains constant regardless of the voltage change. The simulation shows that the PS exhibits a high electric field mainly created by the space charge induced by electrons, whereas the SS relies on ion movement with electron decay in a charge-filled thin streamer body.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigations of stable crack growth of axial surface flaws in a pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocks, W.; Krafka, H.; Mueller, W.; Wobst, K.

    1988-01-01

    In connection with the problem of the transferability of parameters obtained experimentally with the help of fracture-mechanical test specimens and used for the initiation and the stable propagation of cracks in cases of pulsating stress and of the elasto-plastic behaviour of construction components, a pressure vessel with an inside diameter of 1500 mm, a cylindrical length of 3000 mm and a wall thickness of 40 mm was hydraulically loaded with the help of internal pressure in the first stage, to attain an average crack growth of 1 mm at Δ a ≅, the loading taking place at about 21deg C. This stress-free annealed vessel exhibited an axial semielliptical vibration-induced surface crack about 181 mm long and 20 mm deep, as a test defect, in a welded circular blank made of the steel 20MnMoNi 55. The fractographic analysis of the first stable crack revealed that its growth rate of Δa was highest in the area of transition from the weak to the strong bend of the crack front (55deg m /σ v (average principal stress: σ m , Mises' reference stress: σ v v). A comparison of the experimental with the numerical results from the first stable crack shows that the local stable crack growth Δa cannot be calculated solely with reference to J, because Δa appears to depend essentially on the quotient σ m /σ v . (orig./MM) [de

  17. Numerical Study of High-Speed Droplet Impact on Surfaces and its Physical Cleaning Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita

    2015-11-01

    Spurred by the demand for cleaning techniques of low environmental impact, one favors physical cleaning that does not rely on any chemicals. One of the promising candidates is based on water jets that often involve fission into droplet fragments and collide with target surfaces to which contaminant particles (often micron-sized or even smaller) stick. Hydrodynamic force (e.g., shearing and lifting) arising from the droplet impact will play a role to remove the particles, but its detailed mechanism is still unknown. To explore the role of high-speed droplet impact in physical cleaning, we solve compressible Navier-Stokes equations with a finite volume method that is designed to capture both shocks and material interfaces in accurate and robust manners. Water hammer and shear flow accompanied by high-speed droplet impact at a rigid wall is simulated to evaluate lifting force and rotating torque, which are relevant to the application of particle removal. For the simulation, we use the numerical code recently developed by Computational Flow Group lead by Tim Colonius at Caltech. The first author thanks Jomela Meng for her help in handling the code during his stay at Caltech.

  18. High-resolution numerical modeling of tectonic underplating in circum-Pacific subduction zones: toward a better understanding of deformation in the episodic tremor and slip region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, A.; Angiboust, S.; Gerya, T.; Lacassin, R.; Simoes, M.; Grandin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Study of now-exhumed ancient subduction systems have evidenced km-scale tectonic units of marine sediments and oceanic crust that have been tectonically underplated (i.e. basally accreted) from the downgoing plate to the overriding plate at more than 30-km depth. Such huge mass transfers must have a major impact, both in term of long-term topographic variations and seismic/aseismic deformation in subduction zones. However, the quantification of such responses to the underplating process remains poorly constrained. Using high-resolution visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical models, we present with unprecedented details the dynamics of formation and destruction of underplated complexes in subductions zones. Initial conditions in our experiments are defined in order to fit different subduction systems of the circum-Pacific region where underplating process is strongly suspected (e.g. the Cascadia, SW-Japan, New Zealand, and Chilean subduction zones). It appears that whatever the subduction system considered, underplating of sediments and oceanic crust always occur episodically forming a coherent nappe stacking at depths comprised between 10 and 50 km. At higher depth, a tectonic mélange with a serpentinized mantle wedge matrix developed along the plates interface. The size of these underplated complexes changes according to the subduction system considered. For instance, a 15-km thick nappe stacking is obtained for the N-Chilean subduction zone after a series of underplating events. Such an episodic event lasts 4-5 Myrs and can be responsible of a 2-km high uplift in the forearc region. Subsequent basal erosion of these underplated complexes results in their only partial preservation at crustal and mantle depth, suggesting that, after exhumation, only a tiny section of the overall underplated material can be observed nowadays in ancient subduction systems. Finally, tectonic underplating in our numerical models is systematically associated with (1) an increasing

  19. Numerical simulation of quantum efficiency and surface recombination in HgCdTe IR photon-trapping structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jonathan; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-06-01

    We have investigated the quantum effiency in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon-trapping structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. We have found that the quantum efficiency depends heavily on the passivation of the pillar surface. Pillars passivated with anodicoxide have a large fixed positive charge on the pillar surface. We use our three-dimensional numerical simulation model to study the effect of surface charge and surface recombination velocity on the exterior of the pillars. We then evaluate the quantum efficiency of this structure subject to different surface conditions. We have found that by themselves, the surface charge and surface recombination are detrimental to the quantum efficiency but the quantum efficiency is recovered when both phenomena are present. We will discuss the effects of these phenomena and the trade offs that exist between the two.

  20. 4D very high-resolution topography monitoring of surface deformation using UAV-SfM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapuyt, François; Vanacker, Veerle; Schlunegger, Fritz; Van Oost, Kristof

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, exploratory research has shown that UAV-based image acquisition is suitable for environmental remote sensing and monitoring. Image acquisition with cameras mounted on an UAV can be performed at very-high spatial resolution and high temporal frequency in the most dynamic environments. Combined with Structure-from-Motion algorithm, the UAV-SfM framework is capable of providing digital surface models (DSM) which are highly accurate when compared to other very-high resolution topographic datasets and highly reproducible for repeated measurements over the same study area. In this study, we aim at assessing (1) differential movement of the Earth's surface and (2) the sediment budget of a complex earthflow located in the Central Swiss Alps based on three topographic datasets acquired over a period of 2 years. For three time steps, we acquired aerial photographs with a standard reflex camera mounted on a low-cost and lightweight UAV. Image datasets were then processed with the Structure-from-Motion algorithm in order to reconstruct a 3D dense point cloud representing the topography. Georeferencing of outputs has been achieved based on the ground control point (GCP) extraction method, previously surveyed on the field with a RTK GPS. Finally, digital elevation model of differences (DOD) has been computed to assess the topographic changes between the three acquisition dates while surface displacements have been quantified by using image correlation techniques. Our results show that the digital elevation model of topographic differences is able to capture surface deformation at cm-scale resolution. The mean annual displacement of the earthflow is about 3.6 m while the forefront of the landslide has advanced by ca. 30 meters over a period of 18 months. The 4D analysis permits to identify the direction and velocity of Earth movement. Stable topographic ridges condition the direction of the flow with highest downslope movement on steep slopes, and diffuse

  1. A Constellation of CubeSat InSAR Sensors for Rapid-Revisit Surface Deformation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, L.; Lee, S.; Yun, S. H.; Zebker, H. A.; Stock, J. D.; Wicks, C. W., Jr.; Doe, R.

    2016-12-01

    The 2007 NRC Decadal Survey for Earth Sciences highlights three major Earth surface deformation themes: 1) solid-earth hazards and dynamics; 2) human health and security; and 3) land-use change, ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity. Space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a key change detection tool for addressing these themes. Here, we describe the mission and radar payload design for a constellation of S-band InSAR sensors specifically designed to provide the global, high temporal resolution, sub-cm level deformation accuracy needed to address some of the major Earth system goals. InSAR observations with high temporal resolution are needed to properly monitor certain nonlinearly time-varying features (e.g., unstable volcanoes, active fault lines, and heavily-used groundwater or hydrocarbon reservoirs). Good temporal coverage is also needed to reduce atmospheric artifacts by allowing multiple acquisitions to be averaged together, since each individual SAR measurement is corrupted by up to several cm of atmospheric noise. A single InSAR platform is limited in how often it can observe a given scene without sacrificing global spatial coverage. Multiple InSAR platforms provide the spatial-temporal flexibility required to maximize the science return. However, building and launching multiple InSAR platforms is cost-prohibitive for traditional satellites. SRI International (SRI) and our collaborators are working to exploit developments in nanosatellite technology, in particular the emergence of the CubeSat standard, to provide high-cadence InSAR capabilities in an affordable package. The CubeSat Imaging Radar for Earth Science (CIRES) subsystem, a prototype SAR elec­tronics package developed by SRI with support from a 2014 NASA ESTO ACT award, is specifically scaled to be a drop-in radar solution for resource-limited delivery systems like CubeSats and small airborne vehicles. Here, we present our mission concept and flow-down requirements for a

  2. Simultaneous measurement of dynamic force and spatial thin film thickness between deformable and solid surfaces by integrated thin liquid film force apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xurui; Tchoukov, Plamen; Manica, Rogerio; Wang, Louxiang; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe

    2016-11-09

    Interactions involving deformable surfaces reveal a number of distinguishing physicochemical characteristics that do not exist in interactions between rigid solid surfaces. A unique fully custom-designed instrument, referred to as integrated thin liquid film force apparatus (ITLFFA), was developed to study the interactions between one deformable and one solid surface in liquid. Incorporating a bimorph force sensor with interferometry, this device allows for the simultaneous measurement of the time-dependent interaction force and the corresponding spatiotemporal film thickness of the intervening liquid film. The ITLFFA possesses the specific feature of conducting measurement under a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, with a displacement velocity of deformable surfaces ranging from 2 μm s -1 to 50 mm s -1 . Equipped with a high speed camera, the results of a bubble interacting with hydrophilic and partially hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solutions indicated that ITLFFA can provide information on interaction forces and thin liquid film drainage dynamics not only in a stable film but also in films of the quick rupture process. The weak interaction force was extracted from a measured film profile. Because of its well-characterized experimental conditions, ITLFFA permits the accurate and quantitative comparison/validation between measured and calculated interaction forces and temporal film profiles.

  3. Study on Water Quality of Surface Runoff and Groundwater Runoff on the Basis of Separation by a Numerical Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Kawara, Osami; Fukumoto, Kohji

    1994-01-01

    In this study we investigated the water quality of surface runoff and groundwater runoff from the basins of the Yodo River and the Asahi River based on that separated by a numerical filter. The water quality of the surface runoff is greatly different from the groundwater runoff. The tendency of concentration change in accordance with river discharges is different from each other. The water qtiality of groundwater runoff changes with river discharges clockwise in many cases. The differences of...

  4. A new theory for the static contact between rough, unmated surfaces in non-elastically deforming rock and its implications for rock friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stesky, R. M.; Hannan, S. S.

    The closure behavior of fractures in marble and alabaster is markedly different from that in quartzite. The aperture decreases considerably more under normal stress and remains permanently reduced, for the same ratio of normal stress to unconfined compressive strength. Also, a larger permanent relative contact area develops between the surfaces of marble and alabaster than it does between surfaces of quartzite. The permanent contact area increases at an increasing rate with normal stress in marble and alabaster, unlike the nearly linear increase in quartzite. The failure of surface asperities of calcite and gypsum during closure accounts for these differences. We modeled this process by considering the surfaces to consist of paraboloids lying on a flat plane and having a range of initial heights. Closure occurs by pressing a plane rigid surface against the 'hills', flattening their peaks, keeping the base area of the hills constant. To allow for a changing resistance to deformation, the contact stress is assumed to vary linearly with the shortening strain, to a first approximation. This model was tested against measurements of fracture closure and contact area of rough surfaces of calcite marble with a known initial height distribution of surface peaks. The fit to the data is quite good. In all cases, the model shows that closure is accompanied by a decrease in contact strength of deforming asperities, suggested also by the cataclastic deformation observed petrographically. The number of contact spots and the total length of contact seen in profile are also reasonably well modeled. These results have important implications for our understanding of frictional strength of fractures. The overall resistance to shear along rough surfaces depends upon the product of the shear strength and true area of the contacts, both of which are affected by normal stress. Application of this model approach shows that the initial frictional resistance of some fractures in ductile

  5. Numerical Analysis of Novel Back Surface Field for High Efficiency Ultrathin CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Matin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper numerically explores the possibility of high efficiency, ultrathin, and stable CdTe cells with different back surface field (BSF using well accepted simulator AMPS-1D (analysis of microelectronics and photonic structures. A modified structure of CdTe based PV cell SnO2/Zn2SnO4/CdS/CdTe/BSF/BC has been proposed over reference structure SnO2/Zn2SnO4/CdS/CdTe/Cu. Both higher bandgap materials like ZnTe and Cu2Te and low bandgap materials like As2Te3 and Sb2Te3 have been used as BSF to reduce minority carrier recombination loss at the back contact in ultra-thin CdTe cells. In this analysis the highest conversion efficiency of CdTe based PV cell without BSF has been found to be around 17% using CdTe absorber thickness of 5 μm. However, the proposed structures with different BSF have shown acceptable efficiencies with an ultra-thin CdTe absorber of only 0.6 μm. The proposed structure with As2Te3 BSF showed the highest conversion efficiency of 20.8% ( V,  mA/cm2, and . Moreover, the proposed structures have shown improved stability in most extents, as it was found that the cells have relatively lower negative temperature coefficient. However, the cell with ZnTe BSF has shown better overall stability than other proposed cells with temperature coefficient (TC of −0.3%/°C.

  6. Numerical investigation of radiative properties and surface plasmon resonance of silver nanorod dimers on a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Zhu, QunZhi

    2014-01-01

    When the distance between two silver nanoparticles is small enough, interparticle surface plasmon coupling has a great impact on their radiative properties. It is becoming a promising technique to use in the sensing and imaging. A model based on finite difference time domain method is developed to investigate the effect of the assembled parameters on the radiative properties and the field-enhancement effect of silver nanorod dimer. The numerical results indicate that the radiative properties of silver nanorod dimer are very sensitive to the assembled angle and the polarization orientation of incident wave. There is great difference on the intensity and location of field-enhancement effect for the cases of different assembled angle and polarization. The most intensive field-enhancement effect occurs in the middle of two nanorods when two nanorods is assembled head to head and the polarization orientation parallels to the length axis of nanorods. Moreover, compared with the single nanorod, the wavelength of extinction peak of dimer has a red-shift, and the intensity of field-enhancement effect on the dimer is more intensive than that of single particle. With the increasing of particle length, extinction cross-section of silver nanorod dimer rises, while extinction efficiency and scattering efficiency firstly increase then drop down gradually. In addition, the extinction peaks of silver nanorod dimer on the substrate are smaller than that without the substrate, and their extinction peaks has a red-shift compared with that without the substrate. -- Highlights: ► Radiative properties of silver nanorod dimer are very sensitive to the assembled angle. ► The projective length of nanorod dimer on the polarization orientation is crucial. ► Compared with single nanorod, wavelength of extinction peak of dimer has a red-shift. ► Extinction peaks of dimer on the substrate are smaller than that without the substrate

  7. An efficient approach to the analysis of rail surface irregularities accounting for dynamic train-track interaction and inelastic deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Robin; Torstensson, Peter T.; Kabo, Elena; Larsson, Fredrik

    2015-11-01

    A two-dimensional computational model for assessment of rolling contact fatigue induced by discrete rail surface irregularities, especially in the context of so-called squats, is presented. Dynamic excitation in a wide frequency range is considered in computationally efficient time-domain simulations of high-frequency dynamic vehicle-track interaction accounting for transient non-Hertzian wheel-rail contact. Results from dynamic simulations are mapped onto a finite element model to resolve the cyclic, elastoplastic stress response in the rail. Ratcheting under multiple wheel passages is quantified. In addition, low cycle fatigue impact is quantified using the Jiang-Sehitoglu fatigue parameter. The functionality of the model is demonstrated by numerical examples.

  8. Numerical thermal analysis and optimization of multi-chip LED module using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Hong Yu; Ye, Huai Yu; Chen, Xian Ping; Qian, Cheng; Fan, Xue Jun; Zhang, G.Q.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the heat transfer performance of the multi-chip (MC) LED module is investigated numerically by using a general analytical solution. The configuration of the module is optimized with genetic algorithm (GA) combined with a response surface methodology. The space between chips, the

  9. The Dynamics of an Ongoing Andesitic Eruption: What We Have Learned From Surface Deformation at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, BWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, G.; Herd, R.; Aponte, M.; Dixon, T.; Jansma, P.; Smith, A.

    2002-05-01

    The Soufriere Hills volcano (SHV) CGPS network consists of 6 dual-frequency code-phase receivers, with Dorn-Margolin choke-ring antennae, which share a common RF telemetry network. All GPS data were processed using GIPSY-OASISII to obtain free-network point positions using final orbit, clock, and earth orientation parameters from JPL. Positions were recast into ITRF97 and these positions were used to calculate component velocities. Final site velocities for each site are reported relative a fixed Caribbean reference frame (DeMets et al., 2000). By examination of the individual time series of both the campaign and continuous sites, we have been able to divide the ground deformation observations in several distinct phases, correlated with the type of eruptive behavior manifested at the surface. While the CGPS data is limited in space, and has some important and substantial gaps because of equipment failures (some of which could not be fixed due to hazardous eruptive activity), we find that the entire GPS data set can be usefully discussed in terms of three distinct periods: (1) late 1995 to the end of 1997; (2) early 1998 to late 1999; and (3) early 2000 to the present. The primary criterion used for this distinction is the vertical velocity field. During the first period (1995-1997), all stations show strong subsidence as a function of radial distance from the SH dome (Mattioli et al., 1998). Although there is a data gap between late fall 1997 and the re-establishment of the CGPS network in early 1998, all sites show inflation at about half the rate observed for the previous period of subsidence. Thus periods of significant surface outflow (1995-1997) are strongly correlated with surface subsidence, while periods of no apparent surface magma flux are strongly correlated with ground surface inflation. Although the exact timing is somewhat equivocal, subsidence resumed at all CGPS sites just prior to the emergence of the Millennium Dome in late November to Early

  10. Style of the surface deformation by the 1999 Chichi earthquake at the central segment of Chelungpu fault, Taiwan, with special reference to the presence of the main and subsidiary faults and their progressive deformation in the Tsauton area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Miyawaki, A.; Sawa, H.

    2007-11-01

    We describe the style of surface deformation in the 1999 Chichi earthquake in the central segment of the Chelungpu Fault. The study covers the Kung-fu village, north of Han River, to the south of Tsauton area. A characteristic style of the surface deformation is a convex scarp in profile and sinuous plan view, due to the low angle thrust fault. Two subparallel faults, including the west facing Tsauton West fault, and the east facing Tsauton East fault, limit the western and eastern margin of the Tsauton terraced area. The Tsauton West fault is the continuation of the main Chelungpu fault and the Tsauton East fault is located about 2 km apart. Both faults record larger amounts of vertical displacement on the older terraces. The 1999 surface rupture occurred exactly on a pre-existing fault scarp of the Tsauton West and East faults. Thus, repeated activities of these two faults during the Holocene, possibly since the late Quaternary, are confirmed. The amount of vertical offset of the Tsauton East fault is smaller, and about 40-50% of that of the Tsauton West fault for the pre-existing fault. This indicates that the Tsauton East fault is a subsidiary fault and moved together with the main fault, but accommodated less amount.

  11. Surface deformation as a guide to kinematics and three-dimensional shape of slow-moving, clay-rich landslides, Honolulu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, R.L.; Messerich, J.; Fleming, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Two slow-moving landslides in Honolulu, Hawaii, were the subject of photogrammetric measurements, field mapping, and subsurface investigation to learn whether surface observations can yield useful information consistent with results of subsurface investigation. Mapping focused on structural damage and on surface features such as scarps, shears, and toes. The x-y-z positions of photo-identifiable points were obtained from aerial photographs taken at three different times. The measurements were intended to learn if the shape of the landslide failure surface can be determined from systematic surface observations and whether surface observations about deformation are consistent with photogrammetrically-obtained displacement gradients. Field and aerial photographic measurements were evaluated to identify the boundaries of the landslides, distinguish areas of incipient landslide enlargement, and identify zones of active and passive failure in the landslides. Data reported here apply mainly to the Alani-Paty landslide, a translational, earth-block landslide that damaged property in a 3.4-ha residential area. It began moving in the 1970s and displacement through 1991 totaled 4 m. Thickness, determined from borehole data, ranges from about 7 to 10 m; and the slope of the ground surface averages about 9??. Field evidence of deformation indicated areas of potential landslide enlargement outside the well-formed landslide boundaries. Displacement gradients obtained photogrammetrically and deformation mapping both identified similar zones of active failure (longitudinal stretching) and passive failure (longitudinal shortening) within the body of the landslide. Surface displacement on the landslide is approximately parallel to the broadly concave slip surface.

  12. A theoretical and numerical study of polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, theoretical and numerical results of the polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum are presented for the remote sensing of ocean and soil surfaces. The polarimetric scattered field for rough dielectric surfaces is derived to the second order by the small perturbation method (SPM). It is found that the second-order scattered field is coherent in nature, and its coefficients for different polarizations present the lowest-order corrections to the Fresnel reflection coefficients of the surfaces. In addition, the cross-polarized (HV and VH) components of the coherent fields are reciprocal and not zero for surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum when the azimuth angle of the incident direction is not aligned with the symmetry directions of surfaces. In order to verify the energy conservation condition of the theoretical results, which is important if the theory is to be applied to the passive polarimetry of rough surfaces, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to numerically calculate the polarimetric reflectivities of one-dimensional random rough surfaces which are generated with a prescribed power-law spectrum in the spectral domain and transformed to the spatial domain by the FFT. The surfaces simulated by this approach are periodic with the period corresponding to the low-wavenumber cutoff. To calculate the scattering from periodic dielectric surfaces, the authors present a new numerical technique which applies the Floquet theorem to reduce the problem to one period and does not require the evaluation of one-dimensional periodic Green's function used in the conventional method of moment formulation. Once the scattering coefficients are obtained, the polarimetric Stokes vectors for the emission from the random surfaces are then calculated according to the Kirchhoff's law and are illustrated as functions of relative azimuth observation and row directions. The second-order SPM is also

  13. 3-D numerical simulation on the vibration of liquid sodium's free surface in sodium pool of FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Biao; Yao Zhaohui; Ye Hongkai; Wang Xuefang

    1997-01-01

    This paper succeeds in simulating three-dimensional incompressible flows with free surface, complicated in-flow and out-flow boundary conditions and internal obstacles, and also can treat these fluid flows in arbitrary shape vessel using a partial cell. According to all kinds of the element influencing the free surface's vibration in sodium pool it may give the various wave's form, the highest and lowest position, and the amount of the vibration. This paper introduces the brief principle of VOF numerical method, develops the computational program based on NASA-VOF3D, provides some results about the free surface's vibration in sodium pool of FBR

  14. Water-resources and land-surface deformation evaluation studies at Fort Irwin National Training Center, Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore-Judy, Jill; Dishart, Justine E.; Miller, David; Buesch, David C.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Woolfenden, Linda R.; Cromwell, Geoffrey; Burgess, Matthew K.; Nawikas, Joseph; O'Leary, David; Kjos, Adam; Sneed, Michelle; Brandt, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Army Fort Irwin National Training Center (NTC), in the Mojave Desert, obtains all of its potable water supply from three groundwater basins (Irwin, Langford, and Bicycle) within the NTC boundaries (fig. 1; California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Because of increasing water demands at the NTC, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Army, completed several studies to evaluate water resources in the developed and undeveloped groundwater basins underlying the NTC. In all of the developed basins, groundwater withdrawals exceed natural recharge, resulting in water-level declines. However, artificial recharge of treated wastewater has had some success in offsetting water-level declines in Irwin Basin. Additionally, localized water-quality changes have occurred in some parts of Irwin Basin as a result of human activities (i.e., wastewater disposal practices, landscape irrigation, and/or leaking pipes). As part of the multi-faceted NTC-wide studies, traditional datacollection methods were used and include lithological and geophysical logging at newly drilled boreholes, hydrologic data collection (i.e. water-level, water-quality, aquifer tests, wellbore flow). Because these data cover a small portion of the 1,177 square-mile (mi2 ) NTC, regional mapping, including geologic, gravity, aeromagnetic, and InSAR, also were done. In addition, ground and airborne electromagnetic surveys were completed and analyzed to provide more detailed subsurface information on a regional, base-wide scale. The traditional and regional ground and airborne data are being analyzed and will be used to help develop preliminary hydrogeologic framework and groundwater-flow models in all basins. This report is intended to provide an overview of recent water-resources and land-surface deformation studies at the NTC.

  15. Deformation of the free surface of a conducting fluid in the magnetic field of current-carrying linear conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, N.M.; Zubareva, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic shaping problem is studied for the situation where a cylindrical column of a perfectly conducting fluid is deformed by the magnetic field of a system of linear current-carrying conductors. Equilibrium is achieved due to the balance of capillary and magnetic pressures. Two two-parametric families of exact solutions of the problem are obtained with the help of conformal mapping technique. In accordance with them, the column essentially deforms in the cross section up to its disintegration.

  16. Deformation of the free surface of a conducting fluid in the magnetic field of current-carrying linear conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.

    2017-06-01

    The magnetic shaping problem is studied for the situation where a cylindrical column of a perfectly conducting fluid is deformed by the magnetic field of a system of linear current-carrying conductors. Equilibrium is achieved due to the balance of capillary and magnetic pressures. Two two-parametric families of exact solutions of the problem are obtained with the help of conformal mapping technique. In accordance with them, the column essentially deforms in the cross section up to its disintegration.

  17. Interaction between an elastic structure and free-surface flows: experimental versus numerical comparisons using the PFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelsohn, S. R.; Marti, J.; Souto-Iglesias, A.; Oñate, E.

    2008-12-01

    The paper aims to introduce new fluid structure interaction (FSI) tests to compare experimental results with numerical ones. The examples have been chosen for a particular case for which experimental results are not much reported. This is the case of FSI including free surface flows. The possibilities of the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) [1] for the simulation of free surface flows is also tested. The simulations are run using the same scale as the experiment in order to minimize errors due to scale effects. Different scenarios are simulated by changing the boundary conditions for reproducing flows with the desired characteristics. Details of the input data for all the examples studied are given. The aim is to identifying benchmark problems for FSI including free surface flows for future comparisons between different numerical approaches.

  18. On a free-surface problem with moving contact line: From variational principles to stable numerical approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Ivan; Parolini, Nicola; Verani, Marco

    2018-02-01

    We analyze a free-surface problem described by time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. Surface tension, capillary effects and wall friction are taken into account in the evolution of the system, influencing the motion of the contact line - where the free surface hits the wall - and of the dynamics of the contact angle. The differential equations governing the phenomenon are first derived from the variational principle of minimum reduced dissipation, and then discretized by means of the ALE approach. The numerical properties of the resulting scheme are investigated, drawing a parallel with the physical properties holding at the continuous level. Some instability issues are addressed in detail, in the case of an explicit treatment of the geometry, and novel additional terms are introduced in the discrete formulation in order to damp the instabilities. Numerical tests assess the suitability of the approach, the influence of the parameters, and the effectiveness of the new stabilizing terms.

  19. Numerical simulation of the time-dependent deformation behaviour of clay-stone rock mass at the Tournemire site with 2D and 3D models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutenberg, M.; Lux, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    Clay-stone rock masses are a reasonable alternative to e.g. salt rock masses as a host rock for underground radioactive waste repositories because of their very low permeability as well as their radionuclide retention capacity. Though clay-stone has been explored for many years, there is still a need for further research on its hydro-mechanical behaviour. Convergence measurements over a 4-year period in the tunnel system of the argillaceous Tournemire site in France yielded the presence of a time-dependent deformation behaviour in indurated clay. Moreover, a mine-by test was carried out with extensometer measurements capturing the rock mass deformation during the excavation process of a new gallery in 2003.This work focuses on the validation of a constitutive model by means of a three-dimensional (3D) simulation of the mine-by test. The utilised constitutive model Hou/Lux-T is based on the viscous constitutive model Lubby2 with which time-dependent deformation behaviour of salt rock can appropriately be simulated. It has been adapted to clay-stone by considering anisotropy effects, and in addition it features a strain-dependent fracture and failure criterion. The results of the mine-by-test simulation show that the calculated stresses and deformations in the rock mass seem to behave reasonably under this constitutive model with respect to time-dependency. A comparison of the 3D results to the results of a simplified two-dimensional (2D) simulation confirms the adequacy of using a 2D model with the constitutive model Hou/Lux-T for the setting at hand, described in the text (material parameters, time scale), in order to assess load-bearing capacity and deformability of the gallery near field away from heading face and tunnel crossing. Finally, a comparison of the 3D simulation results to the extensometer measurement results yields the principal ability of the used constitutive model to describe time-dependent evolutions of stresses and deformations during a three

  20. Experimental and numerical study on inlet and outlet conditions of a bulb turbine with considering free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y P; Liao, W L; Feng, H D; Ruan, H; Luo, X Q

    2012-01-01

    For a bulb turbine, it has a low head and a big runner diameter, and the free surface influences the flow at the inlet and outlet of the turbine, which bring many problems such as vibration, cracks and cavitation to the turbine. Therefore, it is difficult to get the precise internal flow characteristics through a numerical simulation with conventional ideal flow conditions. In this paper, both numerical and experimental methods are adopted to investigate the flow characteristics at the inlet and outlet of the bulb turbine with considering free surface. Firstly, experimental and numerical studies in a low head pressure pipeline are conducted, and the corresponding boundary condition according with reality is obtained through the comparison between the model test result and the CFD simulation result. Then, through an analysis of the velocity and pressure fields at the inlet of the bulb turbine at different heads, the flow characteristics and rules at the entrance of the bulb turbine have been revealed with considering free surface; Finally, the performance predictions for a bulb turbine have been conducted by using the obtained flow rules at the inlet as the boundary condition of a turbine, and the causes that lead to non-uniform forces on blades, cavitation and vibration have been illustrated in this paper, which also provide a theory basis for an accurate numerical simulation and optimization design of a bulb turbine.

  1. Numerical analysis for thermal waves in gas generated by impulsive heating of a boundary surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Takayuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1996-01-01

    Thermal wave in gas generated by an impulsive heating of a solid boundary was analyzed numerically by the Differential Algebraic CIP (Cubic Interpolated Propagation) scheme. Numerical results for the ordinary heat conduction equation were obtained with a high accuracy. As for the hyperbolic thermal fluid dynamics equation, the fundamental feature of the experimental results by Brown and Churchill with regard to thermoacoustic convection was qualitatively reproduced by the DA-CIP scheme. (author)

  2. PSInSAR technology and its use for monitoring of the Earth's surface deformation; Technologia PSInSAR a jej vyuzitie na monitorovanie deformacii zemskeho povrchu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batorova, K [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra inzinierskej geologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Method of permanent reflex points (PSInSAR) allows to monitor the time evolution of deformations of the Earth's surface with a millimeter precision. For deformation size determination there are used the maps of movement speed or time delay of line set of data that are obtained by evaluating of SAR images. SAR files must be processed using the basic mathematical calculation presented in the work, with an emphasis on the parameters used in geology. Extensive processing of multiple SAR imagery showed that they can be used during monitoring of the field with an accurate identification of the objects on the Earth's surface, which provide a stable reflection of radar rays transmitted from the satellite. These objects are known as permanent reflection points (PS). PS can be geo-referenced, allowing accurate determination of the movement size of the Earth's surface deformation. In this paper an example of using of PSInSAR technology for monitoring of slope movements on the territory of Slovakia is presented. (authors)

  3. Water surface deformation in strong electrical fields and its influence on electrical breakdown in a metal pin-water electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Graham, Leigh; Groote, Joris de; Vierendeels, Jan; Leys, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Electrical breakdown and water surface deformation in a metal pin-water electrode system with dc applied voltages is studied for small inter-electrode distances (2-12 mm). The radius of curvature of the metal pin is 0.5 cm to exclude corona before breakdown at these small inter-electrode spacings. Calculations of the water surface deformation as a function of the applied voltage and initial inter-electrode spacing are compared with measurements of the water elevation. For distances smaller than 7 mm the calculated stability limit of the water surface corresponds with the experimentally obtained breakdown voltage. It is proved with fast CCD images and calculations of the electrical field distribution that the water surface instability triggers the electrical breakdown in this case. The images show that at breakdown the water surface has a Taylor cone-like shape. At inter-electrode distance of 7 mm and larger the breakdown voltage is well below the water stability limit and the conductive channel at breakdown is formed between the pin electrode and the static water surface. Both cases are discussed and compared

  4. Numerical Calculation of Distribution of Induced Carge Density on Planar Confined Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotov, V.; Druzhchenko, R.; Karazin, V.; Lominadze, J.; Kharadze, F.

    2007-01-01

    The calculation method of distribution of induced charge density on planar surfaces, including fractal structures of Sierpinski carpet type, is propesed. The calculation scheme is based on the fact that simply connected conducting surface of arbitrary geometry is an equipotential surface. (author)

  5. Theory of surface enrichment in disordered monophasic binary alloys. Numerical computations for Ag-Au alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, van R.A.; Boersma, M.A.M.

    1974-01-01

    The regular solution model is used to compute the surface enrichment in the (111)- and (100)-faces of silver-gold alloys. Surface enrichment by silver is predicted to increase if the surface plane becomes less saturated and decreases if one raises the temperature. The possible implications of these

  6. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of crown spike due to coupling effect between bubbles and free surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Rui; Zhang A-Man; Li Shuai

    2014-01-01

    The motion of gas bubbles beneath a free surface will lead to a spike of fluid on the free surface. The distance of the bubbles to the free surface is the key factor to different phenomena. When the inception distance varies in some range, crown phenomenon would happen after the impact of weak buoyancy bubbles, so this kind of spike is defined as crown spike in the present paper. Based on potential flow theory, a three-dimensional numerical model is established to simulate the motion of the free-surface spike generated by one bubble or a horizontal line of two in-phase bubbles. After the downward jet formed near the end of the collapse phase, the simulation of the free surface is performed to study the crown spike without regard to the toroidal bubble's effect. Calculations about the interaction between one bubble and free surface agree well with the experimental results conducted with a high-speed camera, and relative error is within 15%. Crown spike in both single- and two-bubble cases are simulated numerically. Different features and laws of the motion of crown spike, depending on the bubble-boundary distances and the inter-bubble distances, have been investigated

  7. Time-series analysis of surface deformation at Brady Hot Springs geothermal field (Nevada) using interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Akerley, J. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Baluyut, E. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cardiff, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Davatzes, N. C. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science; Feigl, K. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Foxall, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratta, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mellors, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spielman, P. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Wang, H. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zemach, E. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014, by the ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS and TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellite missions to measure and characterize time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada due to extraction of fluids. The long axis of the ~4 km by ~1.5 km elliptical subsiding area coincides with the strike of the dominant normal fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, likely associated with damaged regions where fault segments mechanically interact. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing a high permeability conduit to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We also explore mechanisms that could potentially cause the observed deformation, including thermal contraction of rock, decline in pore pressure and dissolution of minerals over time.

  8. Earth Surface Deformation in the North China Plain Detected by Joint Analysis of GRACE and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renli; Li, Jiancheng; Fok, Hok Sum; Shum, C.K.; Li, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Mass redistribution of the Earth causes variable loading that deforms the solid Earth. While most recent studies using geodetic techniques focus on regions (such as the Amazon basin and the Nepal Himalayas) with large seasonal deformation amplitudes on the order of 1–4 cm due to hydrologic loading, few such studies have been conducted on the regions where the seasonal deformation amplitude is half as large. Here, we use joint GPS and GRACE data to investigate the vertical deformation due to hydrologic loading in the North China Plain, where significant groundwater depletion has been reported. We found that the GPS- and GRACE-derived secular trends and seasonal signals are in good agreement, with an uplift magnitude of 1–2 mm/year and a correlation of 85.0%–98.5%, respectively. This uplift rate is consistent with groundwater depletion rate estimated from GRACE data and in-situ groundwater measurements from earlier report studies; whereas the seasonal hydrologic variation reflects human behavior of groundwater pumping for agriculture irrigation in spring, leading to less water storage in summer than that in the winter season. However, less than 20% of weighted root-mean-squared (WRMS) reductions were detected for all the selected GPS stations when GRACE-derived seasonal deformations were removed from detrended GPS height time series. This discrepancy is probably because the GRACE-derived seasonal signals are large-scale, while the GPS-derived signals are local point measurements. PMID:25340454

  9. Earth surface deformation in the North China Plain detected by joint analysis of GRACE and GPS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renli; Li, Jiancheng; Fok, Hok Sum; Shum, C K; Li, Zhao

    2014-10-22

    Mass redistribution of the Earth causes variable loading that deforms the solid Earth. While most recent studies using geodetic techniques focus on regions (such as the Amazon basin and the Nepal Himalayas) with large seasonal deformation amplitudes on the order of 1-4 cm due to hydrologic loading, few such studies have been conducted on the regions where the seasonal deformation amplitude is half as large. Here, we use joint GPS and GRACE data to investigate the vertical deformation due to hydrologic loading in the North China Plain, where significant groundwater depletion has been reported. We found that the GPS- and GRACE-derived secular trends and seasonal signals are in good agreement, with an uplift magnitude of 1-2 mm/year and a correlation of 85.0%-98.5%, respectively. This uplift rate is consistent with groundwater depletion rate estimated from GRACE data and in-situ groundwater measurements from earlier report studies; whereas the seasonal hydrologic variation reflects human behavior of groundwater pumping for agriculture irrigation in spring, leading to less water storage in summer than that in the winter season. However, less than 20% of weighted root-mean-squared (WRMS) reductions were detected for all the selected GPS stations when GRACE-derived seasonal deformations were removed from detrended GPS height time series. This discrepancy is probably because the GRACE-derived seasonal signals are large-scale, while the GPS-derived signals are local point measurements.

  10. Experimental and numerical investigations of the impingement of an oblique liquid jet onto a superhydrophobic surface: energy transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibar, Ali, E-mail: alikibar@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical and Material Technologies, Kocaeli University, 41285, Arslanbey Campus, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    This study presents the theory of impinging an oblique liquid jet onto a vertical superhydrophobic surface based on both experimental and numerical results. A Brassica oleracea leaf with a 160° apparent contact angle was used for the superhydrophobic surface. Distilled water was sent onto the vertical superhydrophobic surface in the range of 1750–3050 Reynolds number, with an inclination angle of 20°−40°, using a circular glass tube with a 1.75 mm inner diameter. The impinging liquid jet spread onto the surface governed by the inertia of the liquid and then reflected off the superhydrophobic surface due to the surface energy of the spreading liquid. Two different energy approaches, which have time-scale and per-unit length, were performed to determine transformation of the energy. The kinetic energy of the impinging liquid jet was transformed into the surface energy with an increasing interfacial surface area between the liquid and air during spreading. Afterwards, this surface energy of the spreading liquid was transformed into the reflection kinetic energy. (paper)

  11. A contribution to the electron-beam surface-melting process of metallic materials. Numerical simulation and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, A.

    1996-08-01

    For the optimization of the surface melting process it is necessary to make many different experiments. Therefore, the simulation of the surface melting process becomes a major role for the optimization. Most of the simulations, developed for the laser surface melting process, are not usable for the electron-beam surface melting process, because of the different energy input and the possibility of high frequent movement of the electron-beam. In this thesis, a calculation model for electron-beam surface melting is presented. For this numerical simulation a variable volume source is used, which moves in axial direction with the same velocity as the vapor cavity into the material. With this calculation model also the high frequent movement of the electron-beam may be taken into account. The electron-beam diameter is measured with a method of drilling holes with short electron-beam pulses in thin foils. The diameter of the holes depends on the pulse length and reaches a maximal value, which is used for the diameter of the volume source in the calculation. The crack-formation, seen in many treated surfaces, is examined with the Acoustic-Emission Testing. The possibilities of the electron-beam surface melting process are shown with some experiments for different requirements of the treated surfaces, like increasing the hardness, reducing the porosity of a sintered material and the alloying of tin in an aluminium-silicon surface. (author)

  12. A stable high-order perturbation of surfaces method for numerical simulation of diffraction problems in triply layered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Youngjoon, E-mail: hongy@uic.edu; Nicholls, David P., E-mail: davidn@uic.edu

    2017-02-01

    The accurate numerical simulation of linear waves interacting with periodic layered media is a crucial capability in engineering applications. In this contribution we study the stable and high-order accurate numerical simulation of the interaction of linear, time-harmonic waves with a periodic, triply layered medium with irregular interfaces. In contrast with volumetric approaches, High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces (HOPS) algorithms are inexpensive interfacial methods which rapidly and recursively estimate scattering returns by perturbation of the interface shape. In comparison with Boundary Integral/Element Methods, the stable HOPS algorithm we describe here does not require specialized quadrature rules, periodization strategies, or the solution of dense non-symmetric positive definite linear systems. In addition, the algorithm is provably stable as opposed to other classical HOPS approaches. With numerical experiments we show the remarkable efficiency, fidelity, and accuracy one can achieve with an implementation of this algorithm.

  13. Numerical Simulations of the Motion and Deformation of Three RBCs during Poiseuille Flow through a Constricted Vessel Using IB-LBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongyang; Wei, Yikun; Wu, Chuanyu; Sun, Liang; Zheng, Wenguang

    2018-01-01

    The immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) was used to examine the motion and deformation of three elastic red blood cells (RBCs) during Poiseuille flow through constricted microchannels. The objective was to determine the effects of the degree of constriction and the Reynolds (Re) number of the flow on the physical characteristics of the RBCs. It was found that, with decreasing constriction ratio, the RBCs experienced greater forced deformation as they squeezed through the constriction area compared to at other parts of the microchannel. It was also observed that a longer time was required for the RBCs to squeeze through a narrower constriction. The RBCs subsequently regained a stable shape and gradually migrated toward the centerline of the flow beyond the constriction area. However, a sick RBC was observed to be incapable of passing through a constricted vessel with a constriction ratio ≤1/3 for Re numbers below 0.40.

  14. Pneumatic tyres interacting with deformable terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekakos, C. A.; Papazafeiropoulos, G.; O'Boy, D. J.; Prins, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a deformable tyre interacting with a deformable road has been developed with the use of the finite element code ABAQUS (v. 6.13). Two tyre models with different widths, not necessarily identical to any real industry tyres, have been created purely for research use. The behaviour of these tyres under various vertical loads and different inflation pressures is studied, initially in contact with a rigid surface and then with a deformable terrain. After ensuring that the tyre model gives realistic results in terms of the interaction with a rigid surface, the rolling process of the tyre on a deformable road was studied. The effects of friction coefficient, inflation pressure, rebar orientation and vertical load on the overall performance are reported. Regarding the modelling procedure, a sequence of models were analysed, using the coupling implicit - explicit method. The numerical results reveal that not only there is significant dependence of the final tyre response on the various initial driving parameters, but also special conditions emerge, where the desired response of the tyre results from specific optimum combination of these parameters.

  15. Diverse rupture modes for surface-deforming upper plate earthquakes in the southern Puget Lowland of Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen F.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Wells, Ray E.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prehistory of the southern Puget Lowland, in the north-south compressive regime of the migrating Cascadia forearc, reflects diverse earthquake rupture modes with variable recurrence. Stratigraphy and Bayesian analyses of previously reported and new 14C ages in trenches and cores along backthrust scarps in the Seattle fault zone restrict a large earthquake to 1040–910 cal yr B.P. (2σ), an interval that includes the time of the M 7–7.5 Restoration Point earthquake. A newly identified surface-rupturing earthquake along the Waterman Point backthrust dates to 940–380 cal yr B.P., bringing the number of earthquakes in the Seattle fault zone in the past 3500 yr to 4 or 5. Whether scarps record earthquakes of moderate (M 5.5–6.0) or large (M 6.5–7.0) magnitude, backthrusts of the Seattle fault zone may slip during moderate to large earthquakes every few hundred years for periods of 1000–2000 yr, and then not slip for periods of at least several thousands of years. Four new fault scarp trenches in the Tacoma fault zone show evidence of late Holocene folding and faulting about the time of a large earthquake or earthquakes inferred from widespread coseismic subsidence ca. 1000 cal yr B.P.; 12 ages from 8 sites in the Tacoma fault zone limit the earthquakes to 1050–980 cal yr B.P. Evidence is too sparse to determine whether a large earthquake was closely predated or postdated by other earthquakes in the Tacoma basin, but the scarp of the Tacoma fault was formed by multiple earthquakes. In the northeast-striking Saddle Mountain deformation zone, along the western limit of the Seattle and Tacoma fault zones, analysis of previous ages limits earthquakes to 1200–310 cal yr B.P. The prehistory clarifies earthquake clustering in the central Puget Lowland, but cannot resolve potential structural links among the three Holocene fault zones.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Fiber Deformation and Formability in Thermoforming Process Using a Fast-Cure Carbon Prepreg: Effect of Stacking Sequence and Mold Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Daeryeong; Kim, Shino; Lee, Wonoh; Yi, Jin Woo; Um, Moon Kwang; Seong, Dong Gi

    2018-01-01

    A fast-cure carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg was thermoformed against a replicated automotive roof panel mold (square-cup) to investigate the effect of the stacking sequence of prepreg layers with unidirectional and plane woven fabrics and mold geometry with different drawing angles and depths on the fiber deformation and formability of the prepreg. The optimum forming condition was determined via analysis of the material properties of epoxy resin. The non-linear mechanical properties of prepreg at the deformation modes of inter- and intra-ply shear, tensile and bending were measured to be used as input data for the commercial virtual forming simulation software. The prepreg with a stacking sequence containing the plain-woven carbon prepreg on the outer layer of the laminate was successfully thermoformed against a mold with a depth of 20 mm and a tilting angle of 110°. Experimental results for the shear deformations at each corner of the thermoformed square-cup product were compared with the simulation and a similarity in the overall tendency of the shear angle in the path at each corner was observed. The results are expected to contribute to the optimization of parameters on materials, mold design and processing in the thermoforming mass-production process for manufacturing high quality automotive parts with a square-cup geometry. PMID:29883413

  17. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Fiber Deformation and Formability in Thermoforming Process Using a Fast-Cure Carbon Prepreg: Effect of Stacking Sequence and Mold Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeryeong Bae

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A fast-cure carbon fiber/epoxy prepreg was thermoformed against a replicated automotive roof panel mold (square-cup to investigate the effect of the stacking sequence of prepreg layers with unidirectional and plane woven fabrics and mold geometry with different drawing angles and depths on the fiber deformation and formability of the prepreg. The optimum forming condition was determined via analysis of the material properties of epoxy resin. The non-linear mechanical properties of prepreg at the deformation modes of inter- and intra-ply shear, tensile and bending were measured to be used as input data for the commercial virtual forming simulation software. The prepreg with a stacking sequence containing the plain-woven carbon prepreg on the outer layer of the laminate was successfully thermoformed against a mold with a depth of 20 mm and a tilting angle of 110°. Experimental results for the shear deformations at each corner of the thermoformed square-cup product were compared with the simulation and a similarity in the overall tendency of the shear angle in the path at each corner was observed. The results are expected to contribute to the optimization of parameters on materials, mold design and processing in the thermoforming mass-production process for manufacturing high quality automotive parts with a square-cup geometry.

  18. A numerical model of p-n junctions bordering on surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altermatt, P.P.; Aberle, A.G.; Jianhua Zhao; Aihua Wang; Heiser, G. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Photovolatic Engineering

    2002-10-01

    Many solar cell structures contain regions where the emitter p-n junction borders on the surface. If the surface is not well passivated, a large amount of recombination occurs in such regions. This type of recombination is influenced by the electrostatics of both the p-n junction and the surface, and hence it is different from the commonly described recombination phenomena occurring in the p-n junction within the bulk. We developed a two-dimensional model for the recombination mechanisms occurring in emitter p-n junctions bordering on surfaces. The model is validated by reproducing the experimental I-V curves of specially designed silicon solar cells. It is shown under which circumstances a poor surface passivation, near where the p-n junction borders on the surface, reduces the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage. The model can be applied to many other types of solar cells. (author)

  19. Acceleration and support post deformation measurements during surface and tunnel transport of a LHC Short Straight Section

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, O; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    This technical note is a complement to the technical note [1]. The former technical note dealt with the experimental modal analysis and the road transport with transport restraints and special suspension. The present note describes the measured accelerations and support post deformations during road transport at reduced speed without end restraints or special suspension. This note also reports the accelerations and support post deformations during handling and tunnel transport with the dedicated tunnel vehicle. The measured accelerations are compared with the specified acceleration limits.

  20. Numerical simulation of a improving virtual confocal unstable resonator with circular mirrors of spherical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taichun; Fu Hanqing; Du Xiangwan

    1999-01-01

    Based on the analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the unstable resonator with a phase-unifying output coupler, the improving unstable resonator are designed. The numerical simulation results indicate that the improving unstable resonator overcomes disadvantages of that resonator and its far-field intensity focusing is better than the conventional resonator

  1. A rapid numerical method for solving Serre-Green-Naghdi equations describing long free surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrie, N.; Gavrilyuk, S.

    2017-07-01

    A new numerical method for solving the Serre-Green-Naghdi (SGN) equations describing dispersive waves on shallow water is proposed. From the mathematical point of view, the SGN equations are the Euler-Lagrange equations for a ‘master’ lagrangian submitted to a differential constraint which is the mass conservation law. One major numerical challenge in solving the SGN equations is the resolution of an elliptic problem at each time instant. This is the most time-consuming part of the numerical method. The idea is to replace the ‘master’ lagrangian by a one-parameter family of ‘augmented’ lagrangians, depending on a greater number of variables, for which the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are hyperbolic. In such an approach, the ‘master’ lagrangian is recovered by the augmented lagrangian in some limit (for example, when the corresponding parameter is large). The choice of such a family of augmented lagrangians is proposed and discussed. The corresponding hyperbolic system is numerically solved by a Godunov type method. Numerical solutions are compared with exact solutions to the SGN equations. It appears that the computational time in solving the hyperbolic system is much lower than in the case where the elliptic operator is inverted. The new method is applied, in particular, to the study of ‘Favre waves’ representing non-stationary undular bores produced after reflection of the fluid flow with a free surface at an immobile wall.

  2. Efficient numerical methods for simulating surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-08-01

    Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Experimental determination of surface heat transfer coefficient in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath using a numerical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    BACKGROUND: Dry ice-ethanol bath (-78 degree C) have been widely used in low temperature biological research to attain rapid cooling of samples below freezing temperature. The prediction of cooling rates of biological samples immersed in dry ice-ethanol bath is of practical interest in cryopreservation. The cooling rate can be obtained using mathematical models representing the heat conduction equation in transient state. Additionally, at the solid cryogenic-fluid interface, the knowledge of the surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is necessary for the convective boundary condition in order to correctly establish the mathematical problem. The study was to apply numerical modeling to obtain the surface