WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface currents predicted

  1. Predictability of surface currents and fronts off the Mississippi Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, N.D.; Rouse, L.J.; Wiseman, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic coastal region of the lower Mississippi River was examined under varying conditions of wind, river discharge and circulation patterns of the Gulf of Mexico. Nearly 7,000 deep-sea merchant vessels enter the port complex each year and the area boasts the highest concentration of offshore drilling rigs, rendering the Mississippi delta and adjacent coastal areas vulnerable to risk from oil spills. Satellite imagery has been useful in tracking movements of the Mississippi river plume as recognizable turbidity and temperature fronts are formed where river waters encounter ambient shelf waters. Oil spill modelers often base their predictions of oil movement on the surface wind field and surface currents, but past studies have indicated that this can be overly simplistic in regions affected by river flow because river fronts have significant control over the movement of oil in opposition to prevailing winds. Frontal zones, such as those found where river waters meet oceanic waters, are characterized by strong convergence of surface flow. These frontal zones can provide large and efficient traps or natural booms for spilled oil. In an effort to facilitate cleanup operations, this study made use of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) AVHRR satellite imagery of temperature and reflectance to study front locations and their variability in space and time. The main objectives were to quantify surface temperature structure and locations of fronts throughout the year using satellite image data, to map the structure of the Mississippi sediment plume and to assess the forcing factors responsible for its variability over space and time. The final objective was to use in-situ measurements of surface currents together with satellite image data to better understand surface flow in this region of strong and variable currents. It was concluded that the main factors controlling circulation in the Mississippi River outflow region are river discharge and

  2. Nutrient supply, surface currents, and plankton dynamics predict zooplankton hotspots in coastal upwelling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messié, Monique; Chavez, Francisco P.

    2017-09-01

    A simple combination of wind-driven nutrient upwelling, surface currents, and plankton growth/grazing equations generates zooplankton patchiness and hotspots in coastal upwelling regions. Starting with an initial input of nitrate from coastal upwelling, growth and grazing equations evolve phytoplankton and zooplankton over time and space following surface currents. The model simulates the transition from coastal (large phytoplankton, e.g., diatoms) to offshore (picophytoplankton and microzooplankton) communities, and in between generates a large zooplankton maximum. The method was applied to four major upwelling systems (California, Peru, Northwest Africa, and Benguela) using latitudinal estimates of wind-driven nitrate supply and satellite-based surface currents. The resulting zooplankton simulations are patchy in nature; areas of high concentrations coincide with previously documented copepod and krill hotspots. The exercise highlights the importance of the upwelling process and surface currents in shaping plankton communities.

  3. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  4. Evaluation of OSCAR ocean surface current product in the tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Next, the evaluation has been carried out by comparing the OSCAR currents with currents measured by moored buoys ... measurements, to derive the surface current prod- uct, known ... ogy of surface currents based on drifter data. The ... and prediction (RAMA). ..... of satellite derived forcings on numerical ocean model sim-.

  5. Surface current density K: an introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the vector surface of current density K used in electrical insulation studies. K is related to the vector tangential electric field Kt at the surface of a body by the vector equation K=ΓE t where Γ represents the surface conductivity. The author derives a surface continuity...

  6. Surface ionization ion source with high current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Lin Zhizhou; Yu Lihua; Zhan Rongan; Huang Guojun; Wu Jianhua

    1986-04-01

    The working principle and structure of a surface ionization ion source with high current is described systematically. Some technological keypoints of the ion source are given in more detail, mainly including: choosing and shaping of the material of the surface ionizer, heating of the ionizer, distributing of working vapour on the ionizer surface, the flow control, the cooling problem at the non-ionization surface and the ion optics, etc. This ion source has been used since 1972 in the electromagnetic isotope separator with 180 deg angle. It is suitable for separating isotopes of alkali metals and rare earth metals. For instance, in the case of separating Rubidium, the maximum ion current of Rbsup(+) extracted from the ion source is about 120 mA, the maximum ion current accepted by the receiver is about 66 mA, the average ion current is more than 25 mA. The results show that our ion source have advantages of high ion current, good characteristics of focusing ion beam, working stability and structure reliability etc. It may be extended to other fields. Finally, some interesting phenomena in the experiment are disccused briefly. Some problems which should be investigated are further pointed out

  7. Predicting the importance of current papers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how well one can predict the importance of a current paper (a paper that is recently published in the literature). We look at three factors--journal importance, reference importance and author reputation. Citation-based measures of importance are used for all variables. We find that journal importance is the best predictor (explaining 22.3% out of a potential 29.1% of the variance in the data), and that this correlation value varies significantly by discipline. Journal importance is a better predictor of citation in Computer Science than in any other discipline. While the finding supports the present policy of using journal impact statistics as a surrogate for the importance of current papers, it calls into question the present policy of equally weighting current documents in text-based analyses. We suggest that future researchers take into account the expected importance of a document when attempting to describe the cognitive structure of a field.

  8. Electric fields associated with transient surface currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1992-01-01

    The boundary condition to be fulfilled by the potential functions associated with a transient surface current is derived and expressed in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates. From the analysis, it can be deduced that the use of the method of separation of variables is restricted to three ...

  9. Modelling earth current precursors in earthquake prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Di Maio

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theory of earth current precursors of earthquake. A dilatancy-diffusion-polarization model is proposed to explain the anomalies of the electric potential, which are observed on the ground surface prior to some earthquakes. The electric polarization is believed to be the electrokinetic effect due to the invasion of fluids into new pores, which are opened inside a stressed-dilated rock body. The time and space variation of the distribution of the electric potential in a layered earth as well as in a faulted half-space is studied in detail. It results that the surface response depends on the underground conductivity distribution and on the relative disposition of the measuring dipole with respect to the buried bipole source. A field procedure based on the use of an areal layout of the recording sites is proposed, in order to obtain the most complete information on the time and space evolution of the precursory phenomena in any given seismic region.

  10. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  11. Measurement of neoclassically predicted edge current density at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, M. G.; McCarthy, P. J.; Wolfrum, E.; Fischer, R.; Giannone, L.; Burckhart, A.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2012-12-01

    Experimental confirmation of neoclassically predicted edge current density in an ELMy H-mode plasma is presented. Current density analysis using the CLISTE equilibrium code is outlined and the rationale for accuracy of the reconstructions is explained. Sample profiles and time traces from analysis of data at ASDEX Upgrade are presented. A high time resolution is possible due to the use of an ELM-synchronization technique. Additionally, the flux-surface-averaged current density is calculated using a neoclassical approach. Results from these two separate methods are then compared and are found to validate the theoretical formula. Finally, several discharges are compared as part of a fuelling study, showing that the size and width of the edge current density peak at the low-field side can be explained by the electron density and temperature drives and their respective collisionality modifications.

  12. Measurement of neoclassically predicted edge current density at ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, M.G.; McCarthy, P.J.; Wolfrum, E.; Fischer, R.; Giannone, L.; Burckhart, A.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental confirmation of neoclassically predicted edge current density in an ELMy H-mode plasma is presented. Current density analysis using the CLISTE equilibrium code is outlined and the rationale for accuracy of the reconstructions is explained. Sample profiles and time traces from analysis of data at ASDEX Upgrade are presented. A high time resolution is possible due to the use of an ELM-synchronization technique. Additionally, the flux-surface-averaged current density is calculated using a neoclassical approach. Results from these two separate methods are then compared and are found to validate the theoretical formula. Finally, several discharges are compared as part of a fuelling study, showing that the size and width of the edge current density peak at the low-field side can be explained by the electron density and temperature drives and their respective collisionality modifications. (paper)

  13. Predictability of the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur J.; Chereskin, T.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Niiler, P. P.; Moisan, J. R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The physical and biological oceanography of the Southern California Bight (SCB), a highly productive subregion of the California Current System (CCS) that extends from Point Conception, California, south to Ensenada, Mexico, continues to be extensively studied. For example, the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has sampled this region for over 50 years, providing an unparalleled time series of physical and biological data. However, our understanding of what physical processes control the large-scale and mesoscale variations in these properties is incomplete. In particular, the non-synoptic and relatively coarse spatial sampling (70km) of the hydrographic grid does not completely resolve the mesoscale eddy field (Figure 1a). Moreover, these unresolved physical variations exert a dominant influence on the evolution of the ecosystem. In recent years, additional datasets that partially sample the SCB have become available. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements, which now sample upper-ocean velocity between stations, and sea level observations along TOPEX tracks give a more complete picture of the mesoscale variability. However, both TOPEX and ADCP are well-sampled only along the cruise or orbit tracks and coarsely sampled in time and between tracks. Surface Lagrangian drifters also sample the region, although irregularly in time and space. SeaWiFS provides estimates of upper-ocean chlorophyll-a (chl-alpha), usually giving nearly complete coverage for week-long intervals, depending on cloud coverage. Historical ocean color data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) has been used extensively to determine phytoplankton patterns and variability, characterize the primary production across the SCB coastal fronts, and describe the seasonal and interannual variability in pigment concentrations. As in CalCOFI, these studies described much of the observed structures and their variability over relatively large space and

  14. Influence of orographically steered winds on Mutsu Bay surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    Effects of spatially dependent sea surface wind field on currents in Mutsu Bay, which is located at the northern end of Japanese Honshu Island, are investigated using winds derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and a numerical model. A characteristic wind pattern over the bay was evidenced from analysis of 118 SAR images and coincided with in situ observations. Wind is topographically steered with easterly winds entering the bay through the terrestrial gap and stronger wind blowing over the central water toward its mouth. Nearshore winds are weaker due to terrestrial blockages. Using the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigated currents forced by the observed spatially dependent wind field. The predicted current pattern agrees well with available observations. For a uniform wind field of equal magnitude and average direction, the circulation pattern departs from observations demonstrating that vorticity input due to spatially dependent wind stress is essential in generation of the wind-driven current in Mutsu Bay.

  15. Towards an Airframe Noise Prediction Methodology: Survey of Current Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Casper, Jay H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a critical survey of the current airframe noise (AFN) prediction methodologies. Four methodologies are recognized. These are the fully analytic method, CFD combined with the acoustic analogy, the semi-empirical method and fully numerical method. It is argued that for the immediate need of the aircraft industry, the semi-empirical method based on recent high quality acoustic database is the best available method. The method based on CFD and the Ffowcs William- Hawkings (FW-H) equation with penetrable data surface (FW-Hpds ) has advanced considerably and much experience has been gained in its use. However, more research is needed in the near future particularly in the area of turbulence simulation. The fully numerical method will take longer to reach maturity. Based on the current trends, it is predicted that this method will eventually develop into the method of choice. Both the turbulence simulation and propagation methods need to develop more for this method to become useful. Nonetheless, the authors propose that the method based on a combination of numerical and analytical techniques, e.g., CFD combined with FW-H equation, should also be worked on. In this effort, the current symbolic algebra software will allow more analytical approaches to be incorporated into AFN prediction methods.

  16. Surface science principles and current applications

    CERN Document Server

    Taglauer, E; Wandelt, K

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies increasingly rely on low-dimensional physics at interfaces and in thin-films and nano-structures. Surface science holds a key position in providing the experimental methods and theoretical models for a basic understanding of these effects. This book includes case studies and status reports about research topics such as: surface structure determination by tensor-LEED and surface X-ray diffraction; the preparation and detection of low-dimensional electronic surface states; quantitative surface compositional analysis; the dynamics of adsorption and reaction of adsorbates, e.g. kinetic oscillations; the characterization and control of thin-film and multilayer growth including the influence of surfactants; a critical assessment of the surface physics approach to heterogeneous catalysis.

  17. New horizons in predictive toxicology: current status and application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, A. G. E

    2012-01-01

    "In this comprehensive discussion of predictive toxicology and its applications, leading experts express their views on the technologies currently available and the potential for future developments...

  18. Current trends of surface science and catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong Young

    2014-01-01

    Including detail on applying surface science in renewable energy conversion, this book covers the latest results on model catalysts including single crystals, bridging "materials and pressure gaps", and hot electron flows in heterogeneous catalysis.

  19. Towards predictive models for transitionally rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahaman-Elena, Nabil; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    We analyze and model the previously presented decomposition for flow variables in DNS of turbulence over transitionally rough surfaces. The flow is decomposed into two contributions: one produced by the overlying turbulence, which has no footprint of the surface texture, and one induced by the roughness, which is essentially the time-averaged flow around the surface obstacles, but modulated in amplitude by the first component. The roughness-induced component closely resembles the laminar steady flow around the roughness elements at the same non-dimensional roughness size. For small - yet transitionally rough - textures, the roughness-free component is essentially the same as over a smooth wall. Based on these findings, we propose predictive models for the onset of the transitionally rough regime. Project supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

  20. Concentration polarization, surface currents, and bulk advection in a microchannel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Peder; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . A remarkable outcome of the investigations is the discovery of strong couplings between bulk advection and the surface current; without a surface current, bulk advection is strongly suppressed. The numerical simulations are supplemented by analytical models valid in the long channel limit as well...... as in the limit of negligible surface charge. By including the effects of diffusion and advection in the diffuse part of the electric double layers, we extend a recently published analytical model of overlimiting current due to surface conduction....

  1. Predictive Toxicology: Current Status and Future Outlook (EBI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA. Slide presentation at the EBI-EMBL Industry Programme Workshop on Predictive Toxicology and the currently status of Computational Toxicology activities at the US EPA.

  2. Prediction of reservoir compaction and surface subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.A.; Smits, R.M.M.

    1988-06-01

    A new loading-rate-dependent compaction model for unconsolidated clastic reservoirs is presented that considerably improves the accuracy of predicting reservoir rock compaction and surface subsidence resulting from pressure depletion in oil and gas fields. The model has been developed on the basis of extensive laboratory studies and can be derived from a theory relating compaction to time-dependent intergranular friction. The procedure for calculating reservoir compaction from laboratory measurements with the new model is outlined. Both field and laboratory compaction behaviors appear to be described by one single normalized, nonlinear compaction curve. With the new model, the large discrepancies usually observed between predictions based on linear compaction models and actual (nonlinear) field behavior can be explained.

  3. Eddy current analysis by BEM utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    The surface integral equations whose unknowns are the surface electric and magnetic currents are widely used in eddy current analysis. However, when the skin depth is thick, computational error is increased especially in obtaining electromagnetic fields near the edge of the conductor. In order to obtain the electromagnetic field accurately, we propose an approach to solve surface integral equations utilizing loop electric and surface magnetic currents as unknowns. (Author)

  4. Gravity current into an ambient fluid with an open surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungarish, Marius

    2017-11-01

    Consider the steady-state gravity current of height h and density ρ1 that propagates into an ambient motionless fluid of height H and density ρ2 with an upper surface open to the atmosphere (open channel) at high Reynolds number. The current propagates with speed U and causes a depth decrease χ of the top surface. This is a significant extension of Benjamin's (1968) seminal solution for the fixed-top channel χ = 0 . Here the determination of χ is a part of the problem. The dimensionless parameters of the problem are a = h / H and r =ρ2 /ρ1 . We show that a control-volume analysis determines χ = χ / H and Fr = U / (g ' h)1/2 as functions of a , r , where g ' = (r-1 - 1) g is the reduced gravity. The system satisfies balance of volume and momentum (explicitly), and vorticity (implicitly). We present solutions. The predicted flows are in general dissipative, and thus physically valid only for a Frb (a) , but the reduction is not dramatic, typically a few percent. In the Boussinesq r 1 case, χ << 1 while Fr and dissipation are close to Benjamin's values.

  5. The Current State of Predicting Furrow Irrigation Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    There continues to be a need to predict furrow irrigation erosion to estimate on- and off-site impacts of irrigation management. The objective of this paper is to review the current state of furrow erosion prediction technology considering four models: SISL, WEPP, WinSRFR and APEX. SISL is an empiri...

  6. Modelling Monsoons: Understanding and Predicting Current and Future Behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, A; Sperber, K R; Slingo, J M; Meehl, G A; Mechoso, C R; Kimoto, M; Giannini, A

    2008-09-16

    The global monsoon system is so varied and complex that understanding and predicting its diverse behaviour remains a challenge that will occupy modellers for many years to come. Despite the difficult task ahead, an improved monsoon modelling capability has been realized through the inclusion of more detailed physics of the climate system and higher resolution in our numerical models. Perhaps the most crucial improvement to date has been the development of coupled ocean-atmosphere models. From subseasonal to interdecadal timescales, only through the inclusion of air-sea interaction can the proper phasing and teleconnections of convection be attained with respect to sea surface temperature variations. Even then, the response to slow variations in remote forcings (e.g., El Nino-Southern Oscillation) does not result in a robust solution, as there are a host of competing modes of variability that must be represented, including those that appear to be chaotic. Understanding the links between monsoons and land surface processes is not as mature as that explored regarding air-sea interactions. A land surface forcing signal appears to dominate the onset of wet season rainfall over the North American monsoon region, though the relative role of ocean versus land forcing remains a topic of investigation in all the monsoon systems. Also, improved forecasts have been made during periods in which additional sounding observations are available for data assimilation. Thus, there is untapped predictability that can only be attained through the development of a more comprehensive observing system for all monsoon regions. Additionally, improved parameterizations - for example, of convection, cloud, radiation, and boundary layer schemes as well as land surface processes - are essential to realize the full potential of monsoon predictability. Dynamical considerations require ever increased horizontal resolution (probably to 0.5 degree or higher) in order to resolve many monsoon features

  7. QCD predictions for weak neutral current structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jimin

    1987-01-01

    Employing the analytic expression (to the next leading order) for non-singlet component of structure function which the author got from QCD theory and putting recent experiment result of neutral current structure function at Q 2 = 11 (GeV/C) 2 as input, the QCD prediction for neutral current structure function of their scaling violation behaviours was given

  8. Current in heavy-current planar diode with discrete emission surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomyttsev, S.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Pegel', I.V

    1999-01-01

    Dependence of current in a high-current planar diode on the size of emission centres was studied. Essential effect of emission surface microstructure on the current value in the planar diode was demonstrated. It was determined that if the distance between the emitter essentially exceeded their size then current dependence on the ratio of size to the value of the diode gap was an exponential function with 3/2 index. Current dependence on voltage obeyed the exponential law with 3/2 index up to higher voltage values in the planar diode with discrete emission surface in contrast to the case of a planar diode with homogeneous emission surface [ru

  9. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.

    2010-01-01

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  10. The role of surface currents in plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    During plasma instabilities, ''surface currents'' can flow at the interface between the plasma and the surrounding vacuum, and in most cases, they are a harmless symptom of the instability that is causing them. Large instabilities can lead to ''disruptions,'' an abrupt termination of the plasma with the potential to damage the machine in which it is contained. For disruptions, the correct calculation of surface currents is thought to be essential for modelling disruptions properly. Recently, however, there has been debate and disagreement about the correct way to calculate surface currents. The purpose of this paper is to clarify as simply as possible the role of surface currents for plasma confinement and to show that a commonly used representation for surface currents σ-vector with σ-vector=∇I and n-vector, I a scalar function, and n-vector the unit normal to the plasma surface, is only appropriate for the calculation of surface currents that are in magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium. Fortunately, this is the situation thought to be of most relevance for disruption calculations.

  11. Simplified Approach to Predicting Rough Surface Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Stripf, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Turbine vane heat transfer predictions are given for smooth and rough vanes where the experimental data show transition moving forward on the vane as the surface roughness physical height increases. Consiste nt with smooth vane heat transfer, the transition moves forward for a fixed roughness height as the Reynolds number increases. Comparison s are presented with published experimental data. Some of the data ar e for a regular roughness geometry with a range of roughness heights, Reynolds numbers, and inlet turbulence intensities. The approach ta ken in this analysis is to treat the roughness in a statistical sense , consistent with what would be obtained from blades measured after e xposure to actual engine environments. An approach is given to determ ine the equivalent sand grain roughness from the statistics of the re gular geometry. This approach is guided by the experimental data. A roughness transition criterion is developed, and comparisons are made with experimental data over the entire range of experimental test co nditions. Additional comparisons are made with experimental heat tran sfer data, where the roughness geometries are both regular as well a s statistical. Using the developed analysis, heat transfer calculatio ns are presented for the second stage vane of a high pressure turbine at hypothetical engine conditions.

  12. Surface CUrrents from a Diagnostic model (SCUD): Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SCUD data product is an estimate of upper-ocean velocities computed from a diagnostic model (Surface CUrrents from a Diagnostic model). This model makes daily...

  13. Sensitivity of point scale surface runoff predictions to rainfall resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Hearman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of using non-linear, high resolution rainfall, compared to time averaged rainfall on the triggering of hydrologic thresholds and therefore model predictions of infiltration excess and saturation excess runoff at the point scale. The bounded random cascade model, parameterized to three locations in Western Australia, was used to scale rainfall intensities at various time resolutions ranging from 1.875 min to 2 h. A one dimensional, conceptual rainfall partitioning model was used that instantaneously partitioned water into infiltration excess, infiltration, storage, deep drainage, saturation excess and surface runoff, where the fluxes into and out of the soil store were controlled by thresholds. The results of the numerical modelling were scaled by relating soil infiltration properties to soil draining properties, and in turn, relating these to average storm intensities. For all soil types, we related maximum infiltration capacities to average storm intensities (k* and were able to show where model predictions of infiltration excess were most sensitive to rainfall resolution (ln k*=0.4 and where using time averaged rainfall data can lead to an under prediction of infiltration excess and an over prediction of the amount of water entering the soil (ln k*>2 for all three rainfall locations tested. For soils susceptible to both infiltration excess and saturation excess, total runoff sensitivity was scaled by relating drainage coefficients to average storm intensities (g* and parameter ranges where predicted runoff was dominated by infiltration excess or saturation excess depending on the resolution of rainfall data were determined (ln g*<2. Infiltration excess predicted from high resolution rainfall was short and intense, whereas saturation excess produced from low resolution rainfall was more constant and less intense. This has important implications for the accuracy of current hydrological models that use time

  14. Impact of including surface currents on simulation of Indian Ocean variability with the POAMA coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mei; Wang, Guomin; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Impacts on the coupled variability of the Indo-Pacific by including the effects of surface currents on surface stress are explored in four extended integrations of an experimental version of the Bureau of Meteorology's coupled seasonal forecast model POAMA. The first pair of simulations differs only in their treatment of momentum coupling: one version includes the effects of surface currents on the surface stress computation and the other does not. The version that includes the effect of surface currents has less mean-state bias in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue but produces relatively weak coupled variability in the Tropics, especially that related to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The version without the effects of surface currents has greater bias in the Pacific cold tongue but stronger IOD and ENSO variability. In order to diagnose the role of changes in local coupling from changes in remote forcing by ENSO for causing changes in IOD variability, a second set of simulations is conducted where effects of surface currents are included only in the Indian Ocean and only in the Pacific Ocean. IOD variability is found to be equally reduced by inclusion of the local effects of surface currents in the Indian Ocean and by the reduction of ENSO variability as a result of including effects of surface currents in the Pacific. Some implications of these results for predictability of the IOD and its dependence on ENSO, and for ocean subsurface data assimilation are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Satellite Remote Sensing of Ocean Winds, Surface Waves and Surface Currents during the Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Perrie, W. A.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes over the ocean have been observed by spaceborne aperture radar (SAR) since the first SAR images were available in 1978. SAR has high spatial resolution (about 1 km), relatively large coverage and capability for observations during almost all-weather, day-and-night conditions. In this study, seven C-band RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized (VV and VH) ScanSAR wide images from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Hurricane Watch Program in 2017 are collected over five hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate, and Ophelia. We retrieve the ocean winds by applying our C-band Cross-Polarization Coupled-Parameters Ocean (C-3PO) wind retrieval model [Zhang et al., 2017, IEEE TGRS] to the SAR images. Ocean waves are estimated by applying a relationship based on the fetch- and duration-limited nature of wave growth inside hurricanes [Hwang et al., 2016; 2017, J. Phys. Ocean.]. We estimate the ocean surface currents using the Doppler Shift extracted from VV-polarized SAR images [Kang et al., 2016, IEEE TGRS]. C-3PO model is based on theoretical analysis of ocean surface waves and SAR microwave backscatter. Based on the retrieved ocean winds, we estimate the hurricane center locations, maxima wind speeds, and radii of the five hurricanes by adopting the SHEW model (Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Wind) by Zhang et al. [2017, IEEE TGRS]. Thus, we investigate possible relations between hurricane structures and intensities, and especially some possible effects of the asymmetrical characteristics on changes in the hurricane intensities, such as the eyewall replacement cycle. The three SAR images of Ophelia include the north coast of Ireland and east coast of Scotland allowing study of ocean surface currents respond to the hurricane. A system of methods capable of observing marine winds, surface waves, and surface currents from satellites is of value, even if these data are only available in near real-time or from SAR-related satellite images. Insight into high resolution ocean winds

  16. The prediction of the hydrodynamic performance of tidal current turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, B Y; Zhou, L J; Xiao, Y X; Wang, Z W

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays tidal current energy is considered to be one of the most promising alternative green energy resources and tidal current turbines are used for power generation. Prediction of the open water performance around tidal turbines is important for the reason that it can give some advice on installation and array of tidal current turbines. This paper presents numerical computations of tidal current turbines by using a numerical model which is constructed to simulate an isolated turbine. This paper aims at studying the installation of marine current turbine of which the hydro-environmental impacts influence by means of numerical simulation. Such impacts include free-stream velocity magnitude, seabed and inflow direction of velocity. The results of the open water performance prediction show that the power output and efficiency of marine current turbine varies from different marine environments. The velocity distribution should be clearly and the suitable unit installation depth and direction be clearly chosen, which can ensure the most effective strategy for energy capture before installing the marine current turbine. The findings of this paper are expected to be beneficial in developing tidal current turbines and array in the future

  17. Prediction and Migration of Surface-related Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-08-19

    Surface-related resonant multiples can be migrated to achieve better resolution than migrating primary reflections. We now derive the formula for migrating surface-related resonant multiples, and show its super-resolution characteristics. Moreover, a method is proposed to predict surface-related resonant multiples with zero-offset primary reflections. The prediction can be used to indentify and extract the true resonant multiple from other events. Both synthetic and field data are used to validate this prediction.

  18. Airborne Optical Remote Sensing of Ocean Surface Current Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S. P.; Zuckerman, S.; Stuart, G.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate and timely knowledge of open ocean surface currents are needed for a variety of engineering and emergency missions, as well as for improving scientific understanding of ocean dynamics. This paper presents surface current observations from a new airborne current measurement capability called the Remote Ocean Current Imaging System (ROCIS). ROCIS exploits space-time processing of airborne ocean wave imagery to produce real-time maps of surface currents every 1 km along the flight track. Post-processing of the data allows for more in depth sensitivity studies than can be undertaken with the real-time measurements alone, providing swaths of current retrievals at higher spatial resolutions. Currents can be calculated on scales down to 100 m, across swaths 3 km wide, along the entire flight path. Here, we report on results for multiple ROCIS data collection flights over the Gulf of Mexico conducted in 2012, 2014 and 2015. We show comparisons to in situ current measurements, explore performance as a function of altitude, dwell, wind speed, and wave height, and discuss sources of error. We present examples of current retrievals revealing mesoscale and submesoscale variability. Lastly, we present horizontal kinetic energy spectra from select flights covering a range of spatial scales from hundreds of meters to hundreds of kilometers.

  19. Deterministic prediction of surface wind speed variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Drisya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of wind speed is an important aspect of various tasks related to wind energy management such as wind turbine predictive control and wind power scheduling. The most typical characteristic of wind speed data is its persistent temporal variations. Most of the techniques reported in the literature for prediction of wind speed and power are based on statistical methods or probabilistic distribution of wind speed data. In this paper we demonstrate that deterministic forecasting methods can make accurate short-term predictions of wind speed using past data, at locations where the wind dynamics exhibit chaotic behaviour. The predictions are remarkably accurate up to 1 h with a normalised RMSE (root mean square error of less than 0.02 and reasonably accurate up to 3 h with an error of less than 0.06. Repeated application of these methods at 234 different geographical locations for predicting wind speeds at 30-day intervals for 3 years reveals that the accuracy of prediction is more or less the same across all locations and time periods. Comparison of the results with f-ARIMA model predictions shows that the deterministic models with suitable parameters are capable of returning improved prediction accuracy and capturing the dynamical variations of the actual time series more faithfully. These methods are simple and computationally efficient and require only records of past data for making short-term wind speed forecasts within practically tolerable margin of errors.

  20. Climate-Induced Boreal Forest Change: Predictions versus Current Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Amber J.; Tchebakova, Nadezda M.; French, Nancy H. F.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Shugart, Herman H.; Stocks, Brian J.; Sukhinin, Anatoly I.; Parfenova, E. I.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    For about three decades, there have been many predictions of the potential ecological response in boreal regions to the currently warmer conditions. In essence, a widespread, naturally occurring experiment has been conducted over time. In this paper, we describe previously modeled predictions of ecological change in boreal Alaska, Canada and Russia, and then we investigate potential evidence of current climate-induced change. For instance, ecological models have suggested that warming will induce the northern and upslope migration of the treeline and an alteration in the current mosaic structure of boreal forests. We present evidence of the migration of keystone ecosystems in the upland and lowland treeline of mountainous regions across southern Siberia. Ecological models have also predicted a moisture-stress-related dieback in white spruce trees in Alaska, and current investigations show that as temperatures increase, white spruce tree growth is declining. Additionally, it was suggested that increases in infestation and wildfire disturbance would be catalysts that precipitate the alteration of the current mosaic forest composition. In Siberia, five of the last seven years have resulted in extreme fire seasons, and extreme fire years have also been more frequent in both Alaska and Canada. In addition, Alaska has experienced extreme and geographically expansive multi-year outbreaks of the spruce beetle, which had been previously limited by the cold, moist environment. We suggest that there is substantial evidence throughout the circumboreal region to conclude that the biosphere within the boreal terrestrial environment has already responded to the transient effects of climate change. Additionally, temperature increases and warming-induced change are progressing faster than had been predicted in some regions, suggesting a potential non-linear rapid response to changes in climate, as opposed to the predicted slow linear response to climate change.

  1. Flux surface shape and current profile optimization in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrott, D.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Axisymmetric tokamak equilibria of noncircular cross section are analyzed numerically to study the effects of flux surface shape and current profile on ideal and resistive interchange stability. Various current profiles are examined for circles, ellipses, dees, and doublets. A numerical code separately analyzes stability in the neighborhood of the magnetic axis and in the remainder of the plasma using the criteria of Mercier and Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. Results are interpreted in terms of flux surface averaged quantities such as magnetic well, shear, and the spatial variation in the magnetic field energy density over the cross section. The maximum stable β is found to vary significantly with shape and current profile. For current profiles varying linearly with poloidal flux, the highest β's found were for doublets. Finally, an algorithm is presented which optimizes the current profile for circles and dees by making the plasma everywhere marginally stable

  2. Kink modes and surface currents associated with vertical displacement events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Janardhan; Boozer, Allen; Gerhardt, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    The fast termination phase of a vertical displacement event (VDE) in a tokamak is modeled as a sequence of shrinking equilibria, where the core current profile remains constant so that the safety-factor at the axis, qaxis, remains fixed and the qedge systematically decreases. At some point, the n = 1 kink mode is destabilized. Kink modes distort the magnetic field lines outside the plasma, and surface currents are required to nullify the normal component of the B-field at the plasma boundary and maintain equilibrium at finite pressure. If the plasma touches a conductor, the current can be transferred to the conductor, and may be measurable by the halo current monitors. This report describes a practical method to model the plasma as it evolves during a VDE, and determine the surface currents, needed to maintain equilibrium. The main results are that the onset conditions for the disruption are that the growth-rate of the n = 1 kink exceeds half the Alfven time and the associated surface current needed to maintain equilibrium exceeds one half of the core plasma current. This occurs when qedge drops below a low integer, usually 2. Application to NSTX provides favorable comparison with non-axisymmetric halo-current measurements. The model is also applied to ITER and shows that the 2/1 mode is projected to be the most likely cause of the final disruption.

  3. Surface currents in the Canary Basin from drifter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Paduan, Jeffrey D.; Niiler, Pearn P.

    2000-09-01

    Satellite-tracked drifting buoys, deployed in the Canary Basin as part of the Subduction Experiment between July 1991 and October 1993 and the French Semaphore Experiment during October 1993, were used to obtain a description of surface currents and temperature in the Canary Basin. The study focuses on surface water convergence, eddy energy production, and heat transport. The Azores Current associated with the subtropical convergence zone is clearly visible at 34°N, and bifurcates around 22°W, with the major branch of the current circling the Madeira plateau and joining the Canary Current along the continental slope. Eddy kinetic energy maxima are found along the Azores Current. The mean current revealed a region of maximum convergence north of the Azores Current around longitude 29°W occurring with a negative heating anomaly and positive work done by the Reynolds stress. The southward meridional temperature fluxes in the Ekman layer (0-50 m) between 37°W and the African and European coast are estimated between -0.076±0.022×l015 W, produced by mean southward volume transport in our study area. The residual between local surface heat fluxes and horizontal convergence of heat implies a vertical heat convergence process associated with mesoscale temperature and flow fields.

  4. Surface inspection technique with an eddy current testing array probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimizu, Akira; Endo, Hisashi; Tooma, Masahiro; Otani, Kenichi; Ouchi, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Isao; Nonaka, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system has been developed for inspecting weld surfaces of components in the reactor pressure vessel of nuclear plants. The system can be applied to curved surfaces with an ECT array probe, it can discriminate flaws from other signal factors by using a combination of arrayed coils signal-phase. The system is applied to a mock-up of core internal components and the signal discrimination using the signal-phase clearly separated flaw and noise signals. (author)

  5. Mapping the Agulhas Current from space: an assessment of ASAR surface current velocities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, MJ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 2 years of surface current information collected in the Agulhas Current region and derived from the Doppler centroid anomalies of Envisat’s advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) are examined. The sources of errors and potential use of ASAR...

  6. The current state of bearing surfaces in total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpura, A; Kendoff, D; Board, T N

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed the literature on the currently available choices of bearing surface in total hip replacement (THR). We present a detailed description of the properties of articulating surfaces review the understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of existing bearing couples. Recent technological developments in the field of polyethylene and ceramics have altered the risk of fracture and the rate of wear, although the use of metal-on-metal bearings has largely fallen out of favour, owing to concerns about reactions to metal debris. As expected, all bearing surface combinations have advantages and disadvantages. A patient-based approach is recommended, balancing the risks of different options against an individual's functional demands.

  7. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Using cross-sectional data for 76 countries, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on pronoun drop, temperature and monarchies to demonstrate that historical trust levels predict several indicators of current welfare state design, including universalism and high levels of regulatory...... freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...... welfare state universalism to individual trust, although we claim that the important causal link runs from historically trust levels to current welfare state design....

  8. Surface Current Measurements In Terra Nova Bay By Hf Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocco, D.; Falco, P.; Wadhams, P.; Spezie, G.

    We present the preliminary results of a field experiment carried out within frame- work of the CLIMA project of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA) and in cooperation with the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge. Dur- ing the second period (02/12/1999-23/01/2000) of the XV Italian expedition a coastal radar was used to characterize the current field in the area of Terra Nova Bay (TNB). One of the aims of the CLIMA (Climatic Long-term Interactions for the Mass balance in Antarctica) project is to determine the role of the polynya in the sea ice mass bal- ance, water structure and local climate. The OSCR-II experiment was planned in order to provide surface current measurements in the area of TNB polynya, one of the most important coastal polynya of the Ross Sea. OSCR (Ocean Surface Current Radar) is a shore based, remote sensing system designed to measure sea surface currents in coastal waters. Two radar sites (a master and a slave) provide with radial current mea- surements; data combined from both sites yield the total current vector. Unfortunately the master and slave stations did not work together throughout the whole period of the experiment. A description of the experiment and a discussion of the results, will be proposed.

  9. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  10. Surface current equilibria from a geometric point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, R.; Salat, A.

    1993-04-01

    This paper addresses the inverse problem of the existence of surface current MHD equilibria in toroidal geometry with vanishing magnetic field inside. Inverse means that the plasma-vacuum interface rather than the external wall or conductors are given and the latter remain to be determined. This makes a reformulation of the problem possible in geometric terms: What toroidal surfaces with analytic parameterization allow a simple analytic covering by geodesics? If such a covering by geodesics (field lines) exists, their orthogonal trajectories (current lines) also form a simple covering and are described by a function satisfying a nonlinear partial differential equation of the Hamilton-Jacobi type whose coefficients are combinations of the metric elements of the surface. All known equilibria - equilibria with zero and infinite rotational transform and the symmetric ones in the case of finite rotational transform - turn out to be solutions of separable cases of that equation and allow a unified description if the toroidal surface is parametrized in the moving trihedral associated with a closed curve. Analogously to volume current equilibria, the only continuous symmetries compatible with separability are plane, helical and axial symmetry. In the nonseparable case numerical evidence is presented for cases with chaotic behaviour of geodesics, thus restricting possible equilibria for these surfaces. For weak deviation from axisymmetry KAM-type behaviour is observed, i.e. destruction of geodesic coverings with a low rational rotational transform and preservation of those with irrational rotational transform. A previous attempt to establish three-dimensional surface current equilibria on the basis of the KAM theorem is rejected as incomplete, and a complete proof of the existence of equilibria in the weakly nonaxisymmetric case, based on the twist theorem for mappings, is given. Finally, for a certain class of strong deviations from axisymmetry an analytic criterion is

  11. Depletion region surface effects in electron beam induced current measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Paul M.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Yoon, Heayoung P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Gaury, Benoit [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) is a powerful characterization technique which offers the high spatial resolution needed to study polycrystalline solar cells. Current models of EBIC assume that excitations in the p-n junction depletion region result in perfect charge collection efficiency. However, we find that in CdTe and Si samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, there is a reduced and nonuniform EBIC lineshape for excitations in the depletion region. Motivated by this, we present a model of the EBIC response for excitations in the depletion region which includes the effects of surface recombination from both charge-neutral and charged surfaces. For neutral surfaces, we present a simple analytical formula which describes the numerical data well, while the charged surface response depends qualitatively on the location of the surface Fermi level relative to the bulk Fermi level. We find that the experimental data on FIB-prepared Si solar cells are most consistent with a charged surface and discuss the implications for EBIC experiments on polycrystalline materials.

  12. Ion current prediction model considering columnar recombination in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Susumu; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We present a reinforced ion current prediction model in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation. Although our previous model explained the qualitative trend of the measured ion current values, the absolute values of the theoretical curves were about two times as large as the measured values. In order to accurately predict the measured values, we reinforced our model by considering columnar recombination and turbulent diffusion, which affects columnar recombination. Our new model explained the considerable ion loss in the early stage of ion diffusion and narrowed the gap between the theoretical and measured values. The model also predicted suppression of ion loss due to columnar recombination by spraying a high-speed air flow near a contaminated surface. This suppression was experimentally investigated and confirmed. In conclusion, we quantitatively clarified the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and ion current in laminar flow and turbulent pipe flow. (author)

  13. Prediction of Ductile Fracture Surface Roughness Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, Alan; Tvergaard, Viggo; Bouchaud, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    . Ductile crack growth in a thin strip under mode I, overall plane strain, small scale yielding conditions is analyzed. Although overall plane strain loading conditions are prescribed, full 3D analyses are carried out to permit modeling of the three dimensional material microstructure and of the resulting......Experimental observations have shown that the roughness of fracture surfaces exhibit certain characteristic scaling properties. Here, calculations are carried out to explore the extent to which a ductile damage/fracture constitutive relation can be used to model fracture surface roughness scaling...... three dimensional stress and deformation states that develop in the fracture process region. An elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progressively cavitating plastic solid is used to model the material. Two populations of second phase particles are represented: large inclusions with low...

  14. Analysis of surface dark current dependent upon surface passivation in APD based on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hong Joo; Roh, Cheong Hyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hong Goo; Hahn, Cheol-Koo; Kim, Dong Ho; Park, Jung Ho

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the dependence of reverse dark current on two types of surface passivation, one of which is polyimide and the other is SiN x , for InAs quantum dots/GaAs separate absorption, charge, multiplication avalanche photodiode (SACM APD). From the experimental results, we found that dark current was dominated by surface current, and not bulk current. It was also noted that SiN x passivation has a surface current that is lower by three to nine times in magnitude than that in polyimide passivation in the whole range of bias. To analyze the difference in dark current due to the passivation types, we propose the theoretical current components. This shows that the dark current of both passivation types is mainly composed of generation–recombination (G–R) and tunneling components, originating from the surface. However, each component has a different magnitude for passivation types, which can be explained by carrier concentration and trap density. The dependence of dark current on temperature shows the different behaviors between passivation types and supports a theoretical description of current components

  15. Robust Prediction of High Lift Using Surface Vorticity, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FlightStream has been developed a fast, accurate, aerodynamic prediction code based on vorticity computations on the surface of an aircraft. The code, though still a...

  16. Surface characterization of current composites after toothbrush abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rena; Jin, Jian; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Hickel, Reinhard; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the surface roughness and the gloss of current composites before and after toothbrush abrasion. We assessed forty dimensionally standardized composite specimens (n=8/group) from five composites: two nanohybrids (i. e., IPS Empress Direct Enamel and IPS Empress Direct Dentin), two microhybrids (i. e., Clearfil AP-X and Filtek Z250) and one organically modified ceramics (Admira). All of the specimens were polished with 4000-grid silicon carbide papers. Surface roughness was measured with a profilometer and gloss was measured with a glossmeter before and after powered toothbrush abrasion with a 1:1 slurry (dentifrice/tap water) at 12,000 strokes in a toothbrush simulator. There was a significant increase in the surface roughness and a reduction in gloss after toothbrush abrasion in all of the composites except Clearfil AP-X (pgloss (R(2)=0.191, p<0.001).

  17. Multi-Objective Predictive Balancing Control of Battery Packs Based on Predictive Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbiao Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Various balancing topology and control methods have been proposed for the inconsistency problem of battery packs. However, these strategies only focus on a single objective, ignore the mutual interaction among various factors and are only based on the external performance of the battery pack inconsistency, such as voltage balancing and state of charge (SOC balancing. To solve these problems, multi-objective predictive balancing control (MOPBC based on predictive current is proposed in this paper, namely, in the driving process of an electric vehicle, using predictive control to predict the battery pack output current the next time. Based on this information, the impact of the battery pack temperature caused by the output current can be obtained. Then, the influence is added to the battery pack balancing control, which makes the present degradation, temperature, and SOC imbalance achieve balance automatically due to the change of the output current the next moment. According to MOPBC, the simulation model of the balancing circuit is built with four cells in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that MOPBC is not only better than the other traditional balancing control strategies but also reduces the energy loss in the balancing process.

  18. The prediction of BRDFs from surface profile measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.; Leonard, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods of predicting the BRDF of smooth surfaces from profile measurements of their surface finish. The conversion of optical profile data to the BRDF at the same wavelength is essentially independent of scattering models, while the conversion of mechanical measurements, and wavelength scaling in general, are model dependent. Procedures are illustrated for several surfaces, including two from the recent HeNe BRDF round robin, and results are compared with measured data. Reasonable agreement is found except for surfaces which involve significant scattering from isolated surface defects which are poorly sampled in the profile data

  19. Experimental High-Resolution Land Surface Prediction System for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, S.; Bernier, N.; Tong, L.; Mailhot, J.

    2008-05-01

    The 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will take place in Vancouver, Canada, from 12 to 28 February 2010 and from 12 to 21 March 2010, respectively. In order to provide the best possible guidance achievable with current state-of-the-art science and technology, Environment Canada is currently setting up an experimental numerical prediction system for these special events. This system consists of a 1-km limited-area atmospheric model that will be integrated for 16h, twice a day, with improved microphysics compared with the system currently operational at the Canadian Meteorological Centre. In addition, several new and original tools will be used to adapt and refine predictions near and at the surface. Very high-resolution two-dimensional surface systems, with 100-m and 20-m grid size, will cover the Vancouver Olympic area. Using adaptation methods to improve the forcing from the lower-resolution atmospheric models, these 2D surface models better represent surface processes, and thus lead to better predictions of snow conditions and near-surface air temperature. Based on a similar strategy, a single-point model will be implemented to better predict surface characteristics at each station of an observing network especially installed for the 2010 events. The main advantage of this single-point system is that surface observations are used as forcing for the land surface models, and can even be assimilated (although this is not expected in the first version of this new tool) to improve initial conditions of surface variables such as snow depth and surface temperatures. Another adaptation tool, based on 2D stationnary solutions of a simple dynamical system, will be used to produce near-surface winds on the 100-m grid, coherent with the high- resolution orography. The configuration of the experimental numerical prediction system will be presented at the conference, together with preliminary results for winter 2007-2008.

  20. Ka-band Doppler Scatterometer for Measurements of Ocean Vector Winds and Surface Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ocean surface currents impact heat transport, surface momentum and gas fluxes, ocean productivity and marine biological communities. Ocean currents also have social...

  1. Low Current Surface Flashover for Initiation of Electric Propulsion Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dary, Omar G.

    There has been a recent increase in interest in miniaturization of propulsion systems for satellites. These systems are needed to propel micro- and nano-satellites, where platforms are much smaller than conventional satellites and require smaller levels of thrust. Micro-propulsion systems for these satellites are in their infancy and they must manage with smaller power systems and smaller propellant volumes. Electric propulsion systems operating on various types of electric discharges are typically used for these needs. One of the central components of such electrical micropropulsion systems are ignitor subsystems, which are required for creation the breakdown and initiation of the main discharge. Ignitors have to provide reliable ignition for entire lifetime of the micropropulsion system. Electric breakdown in vacuum usually require high voltage potentials of hundreds of kilovolts per mm to induce breakdown. The breakdown voltage can be significantly decreased (down to several kVs per mm) if dielectric surface flashover is utilized. However, classical dielectric surface flashover operates at large electric current (100s of Amperes) and associated with overheating and damage of the electrodes/dielectric assembly after several flashover events. The central idea of this work was to eliminate the damage to the flashover electrode assembly by limiting the flashover currents to low values in milliampere range (Low Current Surface Flashover -LCSF) and utilize LCSF system as an ignition source for the main discharge on the micropropulsion system. The main objective of this research was to create a robust LCSF ignition system, capable producing a large number of surface flashover triggering events without significant damage to the LCSF electrode assembly. The thesis aims to characterize the plasma plume created at LCSF, study electrodes ablation and identify conditions required for robust triggering of main discharge utilized on micro-propulsion system. Conditioning of a

  2. Surface waves on currents with arbitrary vertical shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin K.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.

    2017-04-01

    We study dispersion properties of linear surface gravity waves propagating in an arbitrary direction atop a current profile of depth-varying magnitude using a piecewise linear approximation and develop a robust numerical framework for practical calculation. The method has been much used in the past for the case of waves propagating along the same axis as the background current, and we herein extend and apply it to problems with an arbitrary angle between the wave propagation and current directions. Being valid for all wavelengths without loss of accuracy, the scheme is particularly well suited to solve problems involving a broad range of wave vectors, such as ship waves and Cauchy-Poisson initial value problems. We examine the group and phase velocities over different wavelength regimes and current profiles, highlighting characteristics due to the depth-variable vorticity. We show an example application to ship waves on an arbitrary current profile and demonstrate qualitative differences in the wake patterns between concave down and concave up profiles when compared to a constant shear profile with equal depth-averaged vorticity. We also discuss the nature of additional solutions to the dispersion relation when using the piecewise-linear model. These are vorticity waves, drifting vortical structures which are artifacts of the piecewise model. They are absent for a smooth profile and are spurious in the present context.

  3. Surface current double-heterogeneous multilayer multicell methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanek, J.; Segev, M.

    1991-01-01

    A surface current methodology is developed to respond to the need for treating the various levels of material heterogeneity in a double-heterogeneous multilayer multicell in processing neutron multigroup cross sections in the resonance as well as thermal energy range. First, the basic surface cosine current transport equations to calculate the energy-dependent neutron flux spatial distribution in the multilayered multicell are formulated. Slab, spherical and cylindrical geometries, as well as square and hexagonal lattices and pebble-bed configurations with white or reflective cell boundary conditions, are considered. Second, starting from the surface cosine-current formulation, a two-zone three-layer multicell formalism for reduction of heterogeneous flux expressions to equivalent homogeneous flux expression for table method was developed. This formalism allows an infinite, as well as a limited, number of second-heterogeneity cells within a partial first-heterogeneity cell layer to be considered. Also, the number of the first-and second-heterogeneity cell types is quite general. The 'outer' (right side) as well as 'inner' (left side) Dancoff probabilities can be calculated for any particular layer. An accurate, efficient, and compact interpolation procedure is developed to calculate the basic collision probabilities. These are transmission and escape probabilities for shells in slab, cylindrical, and spherical geometries, as well as Dancoff probabilities for cylinders in square and hexagonal lattices. The use of the interpolation procedure is exemplified in a multilayer multicell approximation for the Dancoff probability, enabling a routine evaluation of the equivalence-based shielded resonance integral in highly complex lattices of slab, cylindrical, or spherical cells. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 10 refs

  4. Surface flaw evaluation by vectorized eddy current testing image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hisashi; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    A method of eddy current testing (ECT) data mapping for surface breaking evaluation is studied. The multicoil ECT probe utilized in this paper consists of Transmit-Receive (TR) type sensors as array elements to obtain the information on crack directions. Switching two directional scans, U- and T- modes, gives two-dimensional vector mapping as ECT images. The ECT signals of the TR type sensor also give the information on crack directions from their variation displayed on the complex number plane. Extracting a complex number component of the signals makes it possible to visualize directions of numerically simulated proximate EDM slits. (author)

  5. Method of predicting surface deformation in the form of sinkholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudek, M.; Arkuszewski, J.

    1980-06-01

    Proposes a method for predicting probability of sinkhole shaped subsidence, number of funnel-shaped subsidences and size of individual funnels. The following factors which influence the sudden subsidence of the surface in the form of funnels are analyzed: geologic structure of the strata between mining workings and the surface, mining depth, time factor, and geologic disolocations. Sudden surface subsidence is observed only in the case of workings situated up to a few dozen meters from the surface. Using the proposed method is explained with some examples. It is suggested that the method produces correct results which can be used in coal mining and in ore mining. (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  6. Surface and near surface defect detection in thick copper EB-welds using eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Lipponen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The surface inspection of thick copper electron beam (EB) welds plays an important role in the acceptance of nuclear fuel disposal. The main reasons to inspect these components are related to potential manufacturing and handling defects. In this work the data acquisition software, visualising tools for eddy current (EC) measurements and eddy current sensors were developed for detection of unwanted defects. The eddy current equipment was manufactured by IZFP and the visualising software in active co-operation with Posiva and IZFP for the inspections. The inspection procedure was produced during the development of the inspection techniques. The inspection method development aims to qualify the method for surface and near surface defect detection and sizing according to ENIQ. The study includes technical justification to be carried out, and compilation of a defect catalogue and experience from measurements within the Posiva's research on issues related to manufacturing. The depth of penetration in copper components in eddy current testing is rather small. To detect surface breaking defects the eddy current inspection is a good solution. A simple approach was adopted using two techniques: higher frequency was used to detect surface defects and to determine the dimensions of the defects except depth, lower frequency was used to detect defects having a ligament and for sizing of deeper surface breaking defects. The higher frequency was 30 kHz and the lower frequency was 200 Hz. The higher frequency probes were absolute bobbing coils and lower frequency probes combined transmitter - several receiver coils. To evaluate both methods, calibration blocks were manufactured by FNS for weld inspections. These calibration specimens mainly consisted of electron discharge machined notches and holes of varying shapes, lengths and diameters in the range of 1 mm to 20 mm of depth. Also one copper lid specimen with 152 defects was manufactured and used for evaluation of weld inspection

  7. Sparse approximation of currents for statistics on curves and surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrleman, Stanley; Pennec, Xavier; Trouvé, Alain; Ayache, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Computing, processing, visualizing statistics on shapes like curves or surfaces is a real challenge with many applications ranging from medical image analysis to computational geometry. Modelling such geometrical primitives with currents avoids feature-based approach as well as point-correspondence method. This framework has been proved to be powerful to register brain surfaces or to measure geometrical invariants. However, if the state-of-the-art methods perform efficiently pairwise registrations, new numerical schemes are required to process groupwise statistics due to an increasing complexity when the size of the database is growing. Statistics such as mean and principal modes of a set of shapes often have a heavy and highly redundant representation. We propose therefore to find an adapted basis on which mean and principal modes have a sparse decomposition. Besides the computational improvement, this sparse representation offers a way to visualize and interpret statistics on currents. Experiments show the relevance of the approach on 34 sets of 70 sulcal lines and on 50 sets of 10 meshes of deep brain structures.

  8. Climate Prediction Center - Outlooks: Current UV Index Forecast Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News Service NOAA Center for Weather and Climate Prediction Climate Prediction Center 5830 University Research Court College Park, Maryland 20740 Page Author: Climate Prediction Center Internet Team Disclaimer

  9. Extended Range Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, A. K.; Abhilash, S.; Borah, N.; Joseph, S.; Chattopadhyay, R.; S, S.; Rajeevan, M.; Mandal, R.; Dey, A.

    2014-12-01

    added value to both deterministic and probability forecast compared to raw SME's and this better skill is probably flows from large spread and improved spread-error relationship. CGMME system is currently capable of generating ER prediction in real time and successfully delivering its experimental operational ER forecast of ISM for the last few years.

  10. Predicting Surface Runoff from Catchment to Large Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting surface runoff from catchment to large region is a fundamental and challenging task in hydrology. This paper presents a comprehensive review for various studies conducted for improving runoff predictions from catchment to large region in the last several decades. This review summarizes the well-established methods and discusses some promising approaches from the following four research fields: (1 modeling catchment, regional and global runoff using lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models, distributed hydrological models, and land surface models, (2 parameterizing hydrological models in ungauged catchments, (3 improving hydrological model structure, and (4 using new remote sensing precipitation data.

  11. Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0162 TR-2017-0162 IMPROVED MODELING AND PREDICTION OF SURFACE WAVE AMPLITUDES Jeffry L. Stevens, et al. Leidos...data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented...SUBTITLE Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-14-C-0225 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  12. Prediction of antigenic epitopes on protein surfaces by consensus scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of antigenic epitopes on protein surfaces is important for vaccine design. Most existing epitope prediction methods focus on protein sequences to predict continuous epitopes linear in sequence. Only a few structure-based epitope prediction algorithms are available and they have not yet shown satisfying performance. Results We present a new antigen Epitope Prediction method, which uses ConsEnsus Scoring (EPCES from six different scoring functions - residue epitope propensity, conservation score, side-chain energy score, contact number, surface planarity score, and secondary structure composition. Applied to unbounded antigen structures from an independent test set, EPCES was able to predict antigenic eptitopes with 47.8% sensitivity, 69.5% specificity and an AUC value of 0.632. The performance of the method is statistically similar to other published methods. The AUC value of EPCES is slightly higher compared to the best results of existing algorithms by about 0.034. Conclusion Our work shows consensus scoring of multiple features has a better performance than any single term. The successful prediction is also due to the new score of residue epitope propensity based on atomic solvent accessibility.

  13. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  14. Predicting Nanocrystal Shape through Consideration of Surface-Ligand Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bealing, Clive R.

    2012-03-27

    Density functional calculations for the binding energy of oleic acid-based ligands on Pb-rich {100} and {111} facets of PbSe nanocrystals determine the surface energies as a function of ligand coverage. Oleic acid is expected to bind to the nanocrystal surface in the form of lead oleate. The Wulff construction predicts the thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the PbSe nanocrystals. The equilibrium shape is a function of the ligand surface coverage, which can be controlled by changing the concentration of oleic acid during synthesis. The different binding energy of the ligand on the {100} and {111} facets results in different equilibrium ligand coverages on the facets, and a transition in the equilibrium shape from octahedral to cubic is predicted when increasing the ligand concentration during synthesis. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Tuning and predicting the wetting of nanoengineered material surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiasa-MacGregor, M.; Mierczynska, A.; Sedev, R.; Vasilev, K.

    2016-02-01

    The wetting of a material can be tuned by changing the roughness on its surface. Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology open exciting opportunities to control macroscopic wetting behaviour. Yet, the benchmark theories used to describe the wettability of macroscopically rough surfaces fail to fully describe the wetting behaviour of systems with topographical features at the nanoscale. To shed light on the events occurring at the nanoscale we have utilised model gradient substrata where surface nanotopography was tailored in a controlled and robust manner. The intrinsic wettability of the coatings was varied from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The measured water contact angle could not be described by the classical theories. We developed an empirical model that effectively captures the experimental data, and further enables us to predict the wetting of surfaces with nanoscale roughness by considering the physical and chemical properties of the material. The fundamental insights presented here are important for the rational design of advanced materials having tailored surface nanotopography with predictable wettability.The wetting of a material can be tuned by changing the roughness on its surface. Recent advances in the field of nanotechnology open exciting opportunities to control macroscopic wetting behaviour. Yet, the benchmark theories used to describe the wettability of macroscopically rough surfaces fail to fully describe the wetting behaviour of systems with topographical features at the nanoscale. To shed light on the events occurring at the nanoscale we have utilised model gradient substrata where surface nanotopography was tailored in a controlled and robust manner. The intrinsic wettability of the coatings was varied from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The measured water contact angle could not be described by the classical theories. We developed an empirical model that effectively captures the experimental data, and further enables us to predict the

  16. Predicting supramolecular self-assembly on reconstructed metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Thomas J.; Barrena, Esther; Ocal, Carmen; Faraudo, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The prediction of supramolecular self-assembly onto solid surfaces is still challenging in many situations of interest for nanoscience. In particular, no previous simulation approach has been capable to simulate large self-assembly patterns of organic molecules over reconstructed surfaces (which have periodicities over large distances) due to the large number of surface atoms and adsorbing molecules involved. Using a novel simulation technique, we report here large scale simulations of the self-assembly patterns of an organic molecule (DIP) over different reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. We show that on particular reconstructions, the molecule-molecule interactions are enhanced in a way that long-range order is promoted. Also, the presence of a distortion in a reconstructed surface pattern not only induces the presence of long-range order but also is able to drive the organization of DIP into two coexisting homochiral domains, in quantitative agreement with STM experiments. On the other hand, only short range order is obtained in other reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. The simulation strategy opens interesting perspectives to tune the supramolecular structure by simulation design and surface engineering if choosing the right molecular building blocks and stabilising the chosen reconstruction pattern.The prediction of supramolecular self-assembly onto solid surfaces is still challenging in many situations of interest for nanoscience. In particular, no previous simulation approach has been capable to simulate large self-assembly patterns of organic molecules over reconstructed surfaces (which have periodicities over large distances) due to the large number of surface atoms and adsorbing molecules involved. Using a novel simulation technique, we report here large scale simulations of the self-assembly patterns of an organic molecule (DIP) over different reconstructions of the Au(111) surface. We show that on particular reconstructions, the molecule

  17. Submerged Fixed Floating Structure under the Action of Surface Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of floating structures has increased with the construction of new sluices for flood control. The overturning moment of floating structure and its influencing factors are the important parameters that determine the structural safety. It is essential to understand the overturning characteristics of these structures in currents. Based on hydrodynamic theory and equilibrium analysis, the hydraulic characteristics of a floating structure are discussed by means of theoretical analysis and experiments. A formula for the overturning moment is developed in terms of the time-averaged pressure on the structure. The corresponding parametric study aims to assess the effects of flow velocities, vertical positions, shape ratios and water levels on the overturning moment. The experimental results show that hydrodynamic factors have a significant influence on the overturning of the structure. Furthermore, a relationship is obtained between the overturning moment and the contributing parameters according to dimensional analysis and the linear fitting method of multidimensional ordinary least squares (OLS. The results predicted by the formula agree with the experimental results, demonstrating the potential for general applicability.

  18. Departure Queue Prediction for Strategic and Tactical Surface Scheduler Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Windhorst, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A departure metering concept to be demonstrated at Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) will integrate strategic and tactical surface scheduling components to enable the respective collaborative decision making and improved efficiency benefits these two methods of scheduling provide. This study analyzes the effect of tactical scheduling on strategic scheduler predictability. Strategic queue predictions and target gate pushback times to achieve a desired queue length are compared between fast time simulations of CLT surface operations with and without tactical scheduling. The use of variable departure rates as a strategic scheduler input was shown to substantially improve queue predictions over static departure rates. With target queue length calibration, the strategic scheduler can be tuned to produce average delays within one minute of the tactical scheduler. However, root mean square differences between strategic and tactical delays were between 12 and 15 minutes due to the different methods the strategic and tactical schedulers use to predict takeoff times and generate gate pushback clearances. This demonstrates how difficult it is for the strategic scheduler to predict tactical scheduler assigned gate delays on an individual flight basis as the tactical scheduler adjusts departure sequence to accommodate arrival interactions. Strategic/tactical scheduler compatibility may be improved by providing more arrival information to the strategic scheduler and stabilizing tactical scheduler changes to runway sequence in response to arrivals.

  19. Predictive model for convective flows induced by surface reactivity contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Scott M.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.; Mani, Ali

    2018-05-01

    Concentration gradients in a fluid adjacent to a reactive surface due to contrast in surface reactivity generate convective flows. These flows result from contributions by electro- and diffusio-osmotic phenomena. In this study, we have analyzed reactive patterns that release and consume protons, analogous to bimetallic catalytic conversion of peroxide. Similar systems have typically been studied using either scaling analysis to predict trends or costly numerical simulation. Here, we present a simple analytical model, bridging the gap in quantitative understanding between scaling relations and simulations, to predict the induced potentials and consequent velocities in such systems without the use of any fitting parameters. Our model is tested against direct numerical solutions to the coupled Poisson, Nernst-Planck, and Stokes equations. Predicted slip velocities from the model and simulations agree to within a factor of ≈2 over a multiple order-of-magnitude change in the input parameters. Our analysis can be used to predict enhancement of mass transport and the resulting impact on overall catalytic conversion, and is also applicable to predicting the speed of catalytic nanomotors.

  20. Computational prediction of chemical reactions: current status and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, Ola; Norrby, Per-Ola; Selmi, Nidhal; Lam, Yu-Hong; Peng, Zhengwei; Sherer, Edward C; Amberg, Willi; Erhard, Thomas; Smyth, Lynette A

    2018-06-01

    Over the past few decades, various computational methods have become increasingly important for discovering and developing novel drugs. Computational prediction of chemical reactions is a key part of an efficient drug discovery process. In this review, we discuss important parts of this field, with a focus on utilizing reaction data to build predictive models, the existing programs for synthesis prediction, and usage of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) to explore chemical reactions. We also outline potential future developments with an emphasis on pre-competitive collaboration opportunities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  2. High performance predictive current control of a three phase VSI: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... current control of a three phase VSI: An experimental assessment ... Voltage source inverter; two level inverter; predictive current control; weighting factor ... Conventionally, for reference current tracking control in a two level VSI, the objective ...

  3. Prediction of incipient flow boiling from a uniformly heated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.T.; Abdelmessih, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of liquid superheat during incipient boiling in a uniformly heated forced convection channel. Experimental data were obtained using Freon 11 as the test medium. Based on existing theories, an analytical method was developed for predicting the point of termination of nucleate boiling, observed during a decreasing heat flux process with a nucleation activated surface. The method may also be used to predict the point of boiling incipience, observed during an increasing heat flux process with a non-activated surface; this point does not appear to have been treated analytically in previous work. It can be shown that some of the existing models are special cases of the present formulation

  4. Numerically predicting horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison between numerical calculations with use of commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C for the low heat dissipation and high dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation levels. The temperature predictions are 1 degrees C and 6 degrees C lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degrees C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include a experimental uncertainity in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This works demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects, such as axial heat transfer through the spent fuel rods, will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  5. Numerically predicting horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison between numerical calculations with use of commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degree C and 23 degree C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation levels. The temperature predictions are 1 degree C and 6 degree C lower than the experimental data for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degree C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects, such as axial heat transfer through the spent fuel rods, will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  6. On the predictability of land surface fluxes from meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Ned; Abramowitz, Gab; Pitman, Andy J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that land surface models (LSMs) are performing poorly when compared with relatively simple empirical models over a wide range of metrics and environments. Atmospheric driving data appear to provide information about land surface fluxes that LSMs are not fully utilising. Here, we further quantify the information available in the meteorological forcing data that are used by LSMs for predicting land surface fluxes, by interrogating FLUXNET data, and extending the benchmarking methodology used in previous experiments. We show that substantial performance improvement is possible for empirical models using meteorological data alone, with no explicit vegetation or soil properties, thus setting lower bounds on a priori expectations on LSM performance. The process also identifies key meteorological variables that provide predictive power. We provide an ensemble of empirical benchmarks that are simple to reproduce and provide a range of behaviours and predictive performance, acting as a baseline benchmark set for future studies. We reanalyse previously published LSM simulations and show that there is more diversity between LSMs than previously indicated, although it remains unclear why LSMs are broadly performing so much worse than simple empirical models.

  7. Eddy current spectroscopy for near-surface residual stress profiling in surface treated nonmagnetic engine alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.

    Recent research results indicated that eddy current conductivity measurements can be exploited for nondestructive evaluation of near-surface residual stresses in surface-treated nickel-base superalloy components. Most of the previous experimental studies were conducted on highly peened (Almen 10-16A) specimens that exhibit harmful cold work in excess of 30% plastic strain. Such high level of cold work causes thermo-mechanical relaxation at relatively modest operational temperatures; therefore the obtained results were not directly relevant to engine manufacturers and end users. The main reason for choosing peening intensities in excess of recommended normal levels was that in low-conductivity engine alloys the eddy current penetration depth could not be forced below 0.2 mm without expanding the measurements above 10 MHz which is beyond the operational range of most commercial eddy current instruments. As for shot-peened components, it was initially felt that the residual stress effect was more difficult to separate from cold work, texture, and inhomogeneity effects in titanium alloys than in nickel-base superalloys. In addition, titanium alloys have almost 50% lower electric conductivity than nickel-base superalloys; therefore require proportionally higher inspection frequencies, which was not feasible until our recent breakthrough in instrument development. Our work has been focused on six main aspects of this continuing research, namely, (i) the development of an iterative inversion technique to better retrieve the depth-dependent conductivity profile from the measured frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC), (ii) the extension of the frequency range up to 80 MHz to better capture the peak compressive residual stress in nickel-base superalloys using a new eddy current conductivity measuring system, which offers better reproducibility, accuracy and measurement speed than the previously used conventional systems, (iii) the lift-off effect on

  8. Surface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean during spring and fall - An altimetry based analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    This communication presents the results of a study aimed at investigating the nature and variability of surface currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean between 5 degrees N and 5 degrees S during spring and fall seasons. Geostrophic surface currents...

  9. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  10. Near-Inertial Surface Currents and their influence on Surface Dispersion in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, M.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.; Howden, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    The continental shelf along the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is transected by the critical latitude (30°N) for inertial motions. At this latitude the inertial period is 24 hours and diurnal surface current oscillations can amplify due to resonance with diurnal wind and tidal forcing. Tidal amplitudes are relatively small in this region although K1 tidal currents can be strong over the shelf west of the DeSoto Canyon where the K1 tide propagates onshore as a Sverdrup wave. Other sources of diurnal motions include internal tidal currents, Poincaré waves, and basin resonance. It is therefore very difficult to separate inertial wind-driven motions from other diurnal motions. Spatiotemporal surface currents were measured using hourly 6 km resolution HF radar data collected in June 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and July 2012 during the Grand Lagrangian Deployment (GLAD). Surface currents were also measured using GLAD GPS-tracked drifters. NDBC buoy wind data were used to determine wind-forcing, and OSU Tidal Inversion Software (OTIS) were used to predict tidal currents. The relative spatiotemporal influence of diurnal wind and tidal forcing on diurnal surface current oscillations is determined through a series of comparative analyses: phase and amplitude of bandpassed timeseries, wavelet analyses, wind-driven inertial oscillation calculations, and tidal current predictions. The wind-driven inertial ocean response is calculated by applying a simple "slab" model where wind-forcing is allowed to excite a layer of low-density water riding over high density water. The spatial variance of diurnal motions are found to be correlated with satellite turbidity imagery indicating that stratification influences the sea surface inertial response to wind-forcing. Surface dispersion is found to be minimized in regions of high diurnal variance suggesting that mean surface transport is restricted in regions of inertial motions associated with stratification.

  11. Predicting the extent of succulent thicket under current and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the distribution records of the facultative CAM succulent shrub Portulacaria afra, and high resolution climate response surfaces, we developed a spatially explicit model of the potential distribution of the species in the Thicket Biome of the eastern and southern Cape, South Africa. The resultant map shows a ...

  12. Prediction of water droplet evaporation on zircaloy surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Young; In, Wang Kee

    2014-01-01

    In the present experimental study, the prediction of water droplet evaporation on a zircaloy surface was investigated using various initial droplet sizes. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first valuable effort for understanding the details of water droplet evaporation on a zircaloy surface. The initial contact diameters of the water droplets tested ranged from 1.76 to 3.41 mm. The behavior (i.e., time-dependent droplet volume, contact angle, droplet height, and contact diameter) and mode-transition time of the water droplet evaporation were strongly influenced by the initial droplet size. Using the normalized contact angle (θ*) and contact diameter (d*), the transitions between evaporation modes were successfully expressed by a single curve, and their criteria were proposed. To predict the temporal droplet volume change and evaporation rate, the range of θ* > 0.25 and d* > 0.9, which mostly covered the whole evaporation period and the initial contact diameter remained almost constant during evaporation, was targeted. In this range, the previous contact angle functions for the evaporation model underpredicted the experimental data. A new contact angle function of a zircaloy surface was empirically proposed, which represented the present experimental data within a reasonable degree of accuracy. (author)

  13. Are we near the predictability limit of tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Matthew; Sardeshmukh, Prashant D.

    2017-08-01

    The predictability of seasonal anomalies worldwide rests largely on the predictability of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Tropical forecast skill is also a key metric of climate models. We find, however, that despite extensive model development, the tropical SST forecast skill of the operational North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) of eight coupled atmosphere-ocean models remains close both regionally and temporally to that of a vastly simpler linear inverse model (LIM) derived from observed covariances of SST, sea surface height, and wind fields. The LIM clearly captures the essence of the predictable SST dynamics. The NMME and LIM skills also closely track and are only slightly lower than the potential skill estimated using the LIM's forecast signal-to-noise ratios. This suggests that the scope for further skill improvement is small in most regions, except in the western equatorial Pacific where the NMME skill is currently much lower than the LIM skill.

  14. Observations of Near-Surface Current Shear Help Describe Oceanic Oil and Plastic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxague, Nathan J. M.; Ö-zgökmen, Tamay M.; Haus, Brian K.; Novelli, Guillaume; Shcherbina, Andrey; Sutherland, Peter; Guigand, Cédric M.; Lund, Björn; Mehta, Sanchit; Alday, Matias; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Plastics and spilled oil pose a critical threat to marine life and human health. As a result of wind forcing and wave motions, theoretical and laboratory studies predict very strong velocity variation with depth over the upper few centimeters of the water column, an observational blind spot in the real ocean. Here we present the first-ever ocean measurements of the current vector profile defined to within 1 cm of the free surface. In our illustrative example, the current magnitude averaged over the upper 1 cm of the ocean is shown to be nearly four times the average over the upper 10 m, even for mild forcing. Our findings indicate that this shear will rapidly separate pieces of marine debris which vary in size or buoyancy, making consideration of these dynamics essential to an improved understanding of the pathways along which marine plastics and oil are transported.

  15. Predicting daylight illuminance on inclined surfaces using sky luminance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.H.W.; Lau, C.C.S.; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Building and Construction

    2005-07-01

    Daylight illuminance, particularly on vertical surfaces, plays a major role in determining and evaluating the daylighting performance of a building. In many parts of the world, however, the basic daylight illuminance data for various vertical planes are not always readily available. The usual method to obtain diffuse illuminance on tilted planes would be based on inclined surface models using data from the horizontal measurements. Alternatively, the diffuse illuminance on a sloping plane can be computed by integrating the luminance distribution of the sky 'seen' by the plane. This paper presents an approach to estimate the vertical outdoor illuminance from sky luminance data and solar geometry. Sky luminance data recorded from January 1999 to December 2001 in Hong Kong and generated by two well-known sky luminance models (Kittler and Perez) were used to compute the outdoor illuminance for the four principal vertical planes (N, E, S and W). The performance of this approach was evaluated against data measured in the same period. Statistical analysis indicated that using sky luminance distributions to predict outdoor illuminance can give reasonably good agreement with measured data for all vertical surfaces. The findings provide an accurate alternative to determine the amount of daylight on vertical as well as other inclined surfaces when sky luminance data are available. (author)

  16. Predictions of of fast wave heating, current drive, and current drive antenna arrays for advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Carter, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the advanced tokamak program is to optimize plasma performance leading to a compact tokamak reactor through active, steady state control of the current profile using non-inductive current drive and profile control. To achieve this objective requires compatibility and flexibility in the use of available heating and current drive systems - ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF), neutral beams, and lower hybrid. For any advanced tokamak, the following are important challenges to effective use of fast waves in various role of direct electron heating, minority ion heating, and current drive: (1) to employ the heating and current drive systems to give self-consistent pressure and current profiles leading to the desired advanced tokamak operating modes; (2) to minimize absorption of the fast waves by parasitic resonances, which limit current drive; (3) to optimize and control the spectrum of fast waves launched by the antenna array for the required mix of simultaneous heating and current drive. The paper addresses these issues using theoretical and computational tools developed at a number of institutions by benchmarking the computations against available experimental data and applying them to the specific case of TPX. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  17. Predictions of fast wave heating, current drive, and current drive antenna arrays for advanced tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Baity, F.W.; Carter, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the advanced tokamak program is to optimize plasma performance leading to a compact tokamak reactor through active, steady state control of the current profile using non-inductive current drive and profile control. To achieve these objectives requires compatibility and flexibility in the use of available heating and current drive systems--ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF), neutral beams, and lower hybrid. For any advanced tokamak, the following are important challenges to effective use of fast waves in various roles of direct electron heating, minority ion heating, and current drive: (1) to employ the heating and current drive systems to give self-consistent pressure and current profiles leading to the desired advanced tokamak operating modes; (2) to minimize absorption of the fast waves by parasitic resonances, which limit current drive; (3) to optimize and control the spectrum of fast waves launched by the antenna array for the required mix of simultaneous heating and current drive. The authors have addressed these issues using theoretical and computational tools developed at a number of institutions by benchmarking the computations against available experimental data and applying them to the specific case of TPX

  18. [Current views on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoxiao; Li, Jing; Qin, Tian; Deng, Aihua; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy has generated many branches during the development for more than 90 years. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) improves SNR by using the interaction between tested materials and the surface of rough metal, as to quickly get higher sensitivity and precision spectroscopy without sample pretreatment. This article describes the characteristic and classification of SERS, and updates the theory and clinical application of SERS. It also summarizes the present status and progress of SERS in various disciplines and illustrates the necessity and urgency of its research, which provides rationale for the application for SERS in microbiology.

  19. Land-surface initialisation improves seasonal climate prediction skill for maize yield forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Prodhomme, Chloe; Zampieri, Matteo; Turco, Marco; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J

    2018-01-22

    Seasonal crop yield forecasting represents an important source of information to maintain market stability, minimise socio-economic impacts of crop losses and guarantee humanitarian food assistance, while it fosters the use of climate information favouring adaptation strategies. As climate variability and extremes have significant influence on agricultural production, the early prediction of severe weather events and unfavourable conditions can contribute to the mitigation of adverse effects. Seasonal climate forecasts provide additional value for agricultural applications in several regions of the world. However, they currently play a very limited role in supporting agricultural decisions in Europe, mainly due to the poor skill of relevant surface variables. Here we show how a combined stress index (CSI), considering both drought and heat stress in summer, can predict maize yield in Europe and how land-surface initialised seasonal climate forecasts can be used to predict it. The CSI explains on average nearly 53% of the inter-annual maize yield variability under observed climate conditions and shows how concurrent heat stress and drought events have influenced recent yield anomalies. Seasonal climate forecast initialised with realistic land-surface achieves better (and marginally useful) skill in predicting the CSI than with climatological land-surface initialisation in south-eastern Europe, part of central Europe, France and Italy.

  20. The current status of biomarkers for predicting toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Sarah; Aubrecht, Jiri; Boekelheide, Kim; Brewster, David W; Vaidya, Vishal S; Anderson, Linnea; Burt, Deborah; Dere, Edward; Hwang, Kathleen; Pacheco, Sara; Saikumar, Janani; Schomaker, Shelli; Sigman, Mark; Goodsaid, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are significant rates of attrition in drug development. A number of compounds fail to progress past preclinical development due to limited tools that accurately monitor toxicity in preclinical studies and in the clinic. Research has focused on improving tools for the detection of organ-specific toxicity through the identification and characterization of biomarkers of toxicity. Areas covered This article reviews what we know about emerging biomarkers in toxicology, with a focus on the 2012 Northeast Society of Toxicology meeting titled ‘Translational Biomarkers in Toxicology.’ The areas covered in this meeting are summarized and include biomarkers of testicular injury and dysfunction, emerging biomarkers of kidney injury and translation of emerging biomarkers from preclinical species to human populations. The authors also provide a discussion about the biomarker qualification process and possible improvements to this process. Expert opinion There is currently a gap between the scientific work in the development and qualification of novel biomarkers for nonclinical drug safety assessment and how these biomarkers are actually used in drug safety assessment. A clear and efficient path to regulatory acceptance is needed so that breakthroughs in the biomarker toolkit for nonclinical drug safety assessment can be utilized to aid in the drug development process. PMID:23961847

  1. Observed Near-Surface Currents Four Super Typhoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-16

    electromagnetic - autonomous profiling explorer (EM-APEX) floats, Surface Velocity Pro- gram(SVP) (Niiler, 2001) drifters, and acoustic Doppler...summer (Chang et al., 2013). For Fr N 1, the response is baroclinic with a wake consisting of the near- inertial waves as the dominant feature. For Fr b...24–141 km), the linear regressionwas fur - ther conducted under category-5 storms between Uobs (unit: m s−1) on the right side of the storm center (30

  2. Current status of the near surface repository in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Rotaru, I.

    2000-01-01

    The radioactive waste management at the Cernavoda NPP is based on collection, pretreatment and storage of all solid wastes. The disposal of operational and decommissioning wastes has been evaluated, based on the results of a research and development programme. A near surface disposal facility was selected and a siting process was implemented. The status of this project and its prospective are discussed in the paper. (author)

  3. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically and...

  4. Applying machine learning to predict patient-specific current CD 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work shows the application of machine learning to predict current CD4 cell count of an HIV-positive patient using genome sequences, viral load and time. A regression model predicting actual CD4 cell counts and a classification model predicting if a patient's CD4 cell count is less than 200 was built using a support ...

  5. Sea surface temperature predictions using a multi-ocean analysis ensemble scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jieshun; Li, Zhongxian; Chen, Haishan; Zeng, Gang

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the global sea surface temperature (SST) predictions by a so-called multiple-ocean analysis ensemble (MAE) initialization method which was applied in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). Different from most operational climate prediction practices which are initialized by a specific ocean analysis system, the MAE method is based on multiple ocean analyses. In the paper, the MAE method was first justified by analyzing the ocean temperature variability in four ocean analyses which all are/were applied for operational climate predictions either at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts or at NCEP. It was found that these systems exhibit substantial uncertainties in estimating the ocean states, especially at the deep layers. Further, a set of MAE hindcasts was conducted based on the four ocean analyses with CFSv2, starting from each April during 1982-2007. The MAE hindcasts were verified against a subset of hindcasts from the NCEP CFS Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) Project. Comparisons suggested that MAE shows better SST predictions than CFSRR over most regions where ocean dynamics plays a vital role in SST evolutions, such as the El Niño and Atlantic Niño regions. Furthermore, significant improvements were also found in summer precipitation predictions over the equatorial eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, for which the local SST prediction improvements should be responsible. The prediction improvements by MAE imply a problem for most current climate predictions which are based on a specific ocean analysis system. That is, their predictions would drift towards states biased by errors inherent in their ocean initialization system, and thus have large prediction errors. In contrast, MAE arguably has an advantage by sampling such structural uncertainties, and could efficiently cancel these errors out in their predictions.

  6. Investigation of the surface current excitation by a relativistic electron electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumenko, G; Shevelev, M; Potylitsyn, A; Popov, Yu; Sukhikh, L

    2010-01-01

    Surface current method and pseudo-photon ones are widely used in the problems of diffraction and transition radiation of relativistic electron in conductive targets. The simple analysis disclosed the contradiction between these methods in respect to the surface current excitation on target surfaces. This contradiction was resolved experimentally by the measurement of a surface current on the upstream and downstream target surfaces in diffraction radiation geometry. The experimental test showed, that no surface current is induced on the target downstream surface under the influence of a relativistic electron electromagnetic field in contrast to the upstream surface. This is important for the understanding of a forward transition and diffraction radiation nature and electromagnetic field evolution in interaction processes.

  7. Poleward propagating subinertial alongshore surface currents off the U.S. West Coast

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung Yong; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Terrill, Eric J.; Jones, Burton; Washburn, Libe; Moline, Mark A.; Paduan, Jeffrey D.; Garfield, Newell; Largier, John L.; Crawford, Greg; Michael Kosro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The network comprising 61 high-frequency radar systems along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) provides a unique, high resolution, and broad scale view of ocean surface circulation. Subinertial alongshore surface currents show poleward propagating signals

  8. Current status of surface water pollution in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.T.; Ghauri, Moin-ud-Din

    2001-01-01

    Eleven years investigations (1988-99) on river Ravi revealed that U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//s at the tail and Q.B. Link canal with capacity of 410 m/sup 3//s are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A decreasing trend has been observed in the DO levels indicating increasing pollution. An increasing trend has been observed in BOD, SS, TDS and Indicators. Even with the discharge of pollution from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and Lahore city BOD at Balkoi was unexpectedly low. Problems confronting environment engineers regarding surface water pollution control has been highlighted and their solutions has been recommended. (author)

  9. A robust empirical seasonal prediction of winter NAO and surface climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Ting, M; Kushner, P J

    2017-03-21

    A key determinant of winter weather and climate in Europe and North America is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic domain. Skilful seasonal forecasting of the surface climate in both Europe and North America is reflected largely in how accurately models can predict the NAO. Most dynamical models, however, have limited skill in seasonal forecasts of the winter NAO. A new empirical model is proposed for the seasonal forecast of the winter NAO that exhibits higher skill than current dynamical models. The empirical model provides robust and skilful prediction of the December-January-February (DJF) mean NAO index using a multiple linear regression (MLR) technique with autumn conditions of sea-ice concentration, stratospheric circulation, and sea-surface temperature. The predictability is, for the most part, derived from the relatively long persistence of sea ice in the autumn. The lower stratospheric circulation and sea-surface temperature appear to play more indirect roles through a series of feedbacks among systems driving NAO evolution. This MLR model also provides skilful seasonal outlooks of winter surface temperature and precipitation over many regions of Eurasia and eastern North America.

  10. Developments in outburst prediction by microseismic monitoring from the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A W; Styles, P; Jones, V K

    1987-01-01

    Violent outbursts of coal and firedamp affect production operations in most of the coal producing countries of the world, often leading to heavy loss of life. Significant changes in the pattern of Welsh outbursts from 1978 onwards are described with a far larger proportion occurring on longwall faces than was previously the case and with a much higher incidence of spontaneous outbursts, which carry a greater risk than those which are deliberately induced. The elaborate defences in use appeared inadequate to deal with the changing circumstances as methane based alarms only operated after the outburst phenomenon had initiated. An earlier warning of an incipient outburst was required and evidence suggested that seismic monitoring might provide this early warning. A surface located seismometer was installed giving radio transmitted signals to a tape recorder in the colliery control room. This provided promising historical records and led to five surface seismometer stations being commissioned feeding signals, suitably treated, to a micro-processor located in the mine control room. The programming of the micro-processor was arranged to give a real time alarm at pre-set levels of seismic activity in defined areas of the mine. Experience with the new predictive tool is described, as well as the use made of the new facility by management, including changed methods of outburst stress relief.

  11. Design and implementation of predictive filtering system for current reference generation of active power filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Tomislav; Milun, Stanko; Petrovic, Goran [FESB University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Machine Engineering and Naval Architecture, R. Boskovica bb, 21000, Split (Croatia)

    2007-02-15

    The shunt active power filters are used to attenuate the harmonic currents in power systems by injecting equal but opposite compensating currents. Successful control of the active filters requires an accurate current reference. In this paper the current reference determination based on predictive filtering structure is presented. Current reference was obtained by taking the difference of load current and its fundamental harmonic. For fundamental harmonic determination with no time delay a combination of digital predictive filter and low pass filter is used. The proposed method was implemented on a laboratory prototype of a three-phase active power filter. The algorithm for current reference determination was adapted and implemented on DSP controller. Simulation and experimental results show that the active power filter with implemented predictive filtering structure gives satisfactory performance in power system harmonic attenuation. (author)

  12. Ocean Surface Current Vectors from MODIS Terra/Aqua Sea Surface Temperature Image Pairs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellites that record imagery of the same sea surface area, at times separated by a few hours, can be used to estimate ocean surface velocity fields based on the...

  13. Improvement of a land surface model for accurate prediction of surface energy and water balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katata, Genki

    2009-02-01

    In order to predict energy and water balances between the biosphere and atmosphere accurately, sophisticated schemes to calculate evaporation and adsorption processes in the soil and cloud (fog) water deposition on vegetation were implemented in the one-dimensional atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO 2 exchange process (SOLVEG2). Performance tests in arid areas showed that the above schemes have a significant effect on surface energy and water balances. The framework of the above schemes incorporated in the SOLVEG2 and instruction for running the model are documented. With further modifications of the model to implement the carbon exchanges between the vegetation and soil, deposition processes of materials on the land surface, vegetation stress-growth-dynamics etc., the model is suited to evaluate an effect of environmental loads to ecosystems by atmospheric pollutants and radioactive substances under climate changes such as global warming and drought. (author)

  14. The role of surface topography in predicting scattering at grazing incidence from optical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, V.; Jones, V.O.; Elson, J.M.; Bennett, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Monochromator design and the design of optical experiments at XUV and X-ray wavelengths are frequently limited by scattering from optical components, yet theoretical treatments are few and untested experimentally. This is partly due to the failure of scattering models used in the visible and near UV when the wavelength becomes comparable to, or smaller than, the topographic features on the surface, and partly it is due to the difficulty in measuring the topography on the required size scale. We briefly review the theoretical problems and prospects for accurately predicting both the magnitude and angular distribution of scattering at grazing incidence from optical surfaces. Experimental methods for determining and representing the surface topography are also reviewed, together with their limitations and ranges of applicability. Finally, the first results of our experiments, conducted recently at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on the angular distribution of scattering by surfaces of known topography are presented and discussed, along with their potential implications for the theory of scattering, and for XUV and X-ray optical components. (orig.)

  15. A hybrid Taguchi-artificial neural network approach to predict surface roughness during electric discharge machining of titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Batish, Ajay [Thapar University, Patiala (India); Singh, Rupinder [GNDEC, Ludhiana (India); Singh, T. P. [Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Pune (India)

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, electric discharge machining process was used for machining of titanium alloys. Eight process parameters were varied during the process. Experimental results showed that current and pulse-on-time significantly affected the performance characteristics. Artificial neural network coupled with Taguchi approach was applied for optimization and prediction of surface roughness. The experimental results and the predicted results showed good agreement. SEM was used to investigate the surface integrity. Analysis for migration of different chemical elements and formation of compounds on the surface was performed using EDS and XRD pattern. The results showed that high discharge energy caused surface defects such as cracks, craters, thick recast layer, micro pores, pin holes, residual stresses and debris. Also, migration of chemical elements both from electrode and dielectric media were observed during EDS analysis. Presence of carbon was seen on the machined surface. XRD results showed formation of titanium carbide compound which precipitated on the machined surface.

  16. Shear flow generation and transport barrier formation on rational surface current sheets in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaogang; Xiao Chijie; Wang Jiaqi

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A thin current sheet with a magnetic field component in the same direction can form the electrical field perpendicularly pointing to the sheet, therefore an ExB flow with a strong shear across the current sheet. An electrical potential well is also found on the rational surface of RFP as well as the neutral sheet of the magnetotail with the E-field pointing to the rational (neutral) surface. Theoretically, a current singularity is found to be formed on the rational surface in ideal MHD. It is then very likely that the sheet current on the rational surfaces will generate the electrical potential well in its vicinity so the electrical field pointing to the sheet. It results in an ExB flow with a strong shear in the immediate neighborhood of the rational surface. It may be the cause of the transport barrier often seen near the low (m, n) rational surfaces with MHD signals. (author)

  17. Current-induced switching of magnetic molecules on topological insulator surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locane, Elina; Brouwer, Piet W.

    2017-03-01

    Electrical currents at the surface or edge of a topological insulator are intrinsically spin polarized. We show that such surface or edge currents can be used to switch the orientation of a molecular magnet weakly coupled to the surface or edge of a topological insulator. For the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator as well as for the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator the application of a well-chosen surface or edge current can lead to a complete polarization of the molecule if the molecule's magnetic anisotropy axis is appropriately aligned with the current direction. For a generic orientation of the molecule a nonzero but incomplete polarization is obtained. We calculate the probability distribution of the magnetic states and the switching rates as a function of the applied current.

  18. Applying machine learning to predict patient-specific current CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple apple

    This work shows the application of machine learning to predict current CD4 cell count of an HIV- .... Pre-processing ... remaining data elements of the PR and RT datasets. ... technique based on the structure of the human brain's neuron.

  19. Evolution of rotating stars. III. Predicted surface rotation velocities for stars which conserve total angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endal, A.S.; Sofia, S.

    1979-01-01

    Predicted surface rotation velocities are presented for Population I stars at 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1.5M/sub sun/. The surface velocities have been computed for three different cases of angular momentum redistribution: no radial redistribution (rotation on decoupled shells), complete redistribution (rigid-body rotation), and partial redistribution as predicted by detailed consideration of circulation currents in rotation stars. The velocities for these cases are compared to each other and to observed stellar rotation rates (upsilon sin i).Near the main sequence, rotational effects can substantially reduce the moment of inertia of a star, so nonrotating models consistently underestimate the expected velocities for evolving stars. The magnitude of these effects is sufficient to explain the large numbers of Be stars and, perhaps, to explain the bimodal distribution of velocities observed for the O stars.On the red giant branch, angular momentum redistribution reduces the surface velocity by a factor of 2 or more, relative to the velocity expected for no radial redistribution. This removes the discrepancy between predicted and observed rotation rates for the K giants and makes it unlikely that these stars lose significant amounts of angular momentum by stellar winds. Our calculations indicate that improved observations (by the Fourier-transform technique) of the red giants in the Hyades cluster can be used to determine how angular momentum is redistributed by convection

  20. Study of surface leakage current of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, YongHe; Zhang, Kai; Cao, MengYi; Zhao, ShengLei; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue; Ma, XiaoHua

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent surface current measurements were performed to analyze the mechanism of surface conductance of AlGaN/GaN channel high-electron-mobility transistors by utilizing process-optimized double gate structures. Different temperatures and electric field dependence have been found in surface current measurements. At low electric field, the mechanism of surface conductance is considered to be two-dimensional variable range hopping. At elevated electric field, the Frenkel–Poole trap assisted emission governs the main surface electrons transportation. The extracted energy barrier height of electrons emitting from trapped state near Fermi energy level into a threading dislocations-related continuum state is 0.38 eV. SiN passivation reduces the surface leakage current by two order of magnitude and nearly 4 orders of magnitude at low and high electric fields, respectively. SiN also suppresses the Frenkel–Poole conductance at high temperature by improving the surface states of AlGaN/GaN. A surface treatment process has been introduced to further suppress the surface leakage current at high temperature and high field, which results in a decrease in surface current of almost 3 orders of magnitude at 476 K

  1. Prediction of Tidal Elevations and Barotropic Currents in the Gulf of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamasari, Rika; Ribal, Agustinus; Kusuma, Jeffry

    2018-03-01

    Tidal elevation and barotropic current predictions in the gulf of Bone have been carried out in this work based on a two-dimensional, depth-integrated Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC-2DDI) model for 2017. Eight tidal constituents which were obtained from FES2012 have been imposed along the open boundary conditions. However, even using these very high-resolution tidal constituents, the discrepancy between the model and the data from tide gauge is still very high. In order to overcome such issues, Green’s function approach has been applied which reduced the root-mean-square error (RMSE) significantly. Two different starting times are used for predictions, namely from 2015 and 2016. After improving the open boundary conditions, RMSE between observation and model decreased significantly. In fact, RMSEs for 2015 and 2016 decreased 75.30% and 88.65%, respectively. Furthermore, the prediction for tidal elevations as well as tidal current, which is barotropic current, is carried out. This prediction was compared with the prediction conducted by Geospatial Information Agency (GIA) of Indonesia and we found that our prediction is much better than one carried out by GIA. Finally, since there is no tidal current observation available in this area, we assume that, when tidal elevations have been fixed, then the tidal current will approach the actual current velocity.

  2. Current practices in corrosion, surface characterization, and nickel leach testing of cardiovascular metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Di Prima, Matthew; Saylor, David; Takai, Erica

    2017-08-01

    In an effort to better understand current test practices and improve nonclinical testing of cardiovascular metallic implants, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) held a public workshop on Cardiovascular Metallic Implants: corrosion, surface characterization, and nickel leaching. The following topics were discussed: (1) methods used for corrosion assessments, surface characterization techniques, and nickel leach testing of metallic cardiovascular implant devices, (2) the limitations of each of these in vitro tests in predicting in vivo performance, (3) the need, utility, and circumstances when each test should be considered, and (4) the potential testing paradigms, including acceptance criteria for each test. In addition to the above topics, best practices for these various tests were discussed, and knowledge gaps were identified. Prior to the workshop, discussants had the option to provide feedback and information on issues relating to each of the topics via a voluntary preworkshop assignment. During the workshop, the pooled responses were presented and a panel of experts discussed the results. This article summarizes the proceedings of this workshop and background information provided by workshop participants. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1330-1341, 2017. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. The prediction of surface temperature in the new seasonal prediction system based on the MPI-ESM coupled climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, J.; Fröhlich, K.; Botzet, M.; Domeisen, D. I. V.; Kornblueh, L.; Notz, D.; Piontek, R.; Pohlmann, H.; Tietsche, S.; Müller, W. A.

    2015-05-01

    A seasonal forecast system is presented, based on the global coupled climate model MPI-ESM as used for CMIP5 simulations. We describe the initialisation of the system and analyse its predictive skill for surface temperature. The presented system is initialised in the atmospheric, oceanic, and sea ice component of the model from reanalysis/observations with full field nudging in all three components. For the initialisation of the ensemble, bred vectors with a vertically varying norm are implemented in the ocean component to generate initial perturbations. In a set of ensemble hindcast simulations, starting each May and November between 1982 and 2010, we analyse the predictive skill. Bias-corrected ensemble forecasts for each start date reproduce the observed surface temperature anomalies at 2-4 months lead time, particularly in the tropics. Niño3.4 sea surface temperature anomalies show a small root-mean-square error and predictive skill up to 6 months. Away from the tropics, predictive skill is mostly limited to the ocean, and to regions which are strongly influenced by ENSO teleconnections. In summary, the presented seasonal prediction system based on a coupled climate model shows predictive skill for surface temperature at seasonal time scales comparable to other seasonal prediction systems using different underlying models and initialisation strategies. As the same model underlying our seasonal prediction system—with a different initialisation—is presently also used for decadal predictions, this is an important step towards seamless seasonal-to-decadal climate predictions.

  4. Smooth Surfaces: A review of current and planned smooth surface technologies for fouling resistance in boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkery, Robert; Baefver, Linda; Davidsson, Kent; Feiler, Adam

    2012-02-15

    Here we have described the basics of boilers, fuels, combustion, flue gas composition and mechanisms of deposition. We have reviewed coating technologies for boiler tubes, including their materials compositions, nano structures and performances. The surface forces in boilers, in particular those relevant to formation of unwanted deposits in boilers have also been reviewed, and some comparative calculations have been included to indicate the procedures needed for further study. Finally practical recommendations on the important considerations in minimizing deposition on boiler surfaces are made

  5. Representation theory of current algebra and conformal field theory on Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiko

    1989-01-01

    We study conformal field theories with current algebra (WZW-model) on general Riemann surfaces based on the integrable representation theory of current algebra. The space of chiral conformal blocks defined as solutions of current and conformal Ward identities is shown to be finite dimensional and satisfies the factorization properties. (author)

  6. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangam Chinnadurai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip, Pulse on time (Ton, Pulse off time (Toff, Water pressure (Wp, Wire feed rate (Wf, Wire tension (Wt, Servo voltage (Sv and Servo feed setting (Sfs, on the Material Removal Rate (MRR and Surface Roughness (SR for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used.

  7. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  8. Prediction of material removal rate and surface roughness for wire electrical discharge machining of nickel using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinnadurai, T.; Vendan, S.A.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on investigating the effects of process parameters, namely, Peak current (Ip), Pulse on time (Ton), Pulse off time (Toff), Water pressure (Wp), Wire feed rate (Wf), Wire tension (Wt), Servo voltage (Sv) and Servo feed setting (Sfs), on the Material Removal Rate (MRR) and Surface Roughness (SR) for Wire electrical discharge machining (Wire-EDM) of nickel using Taguchi method. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is adopted to evolve mathematical relationships between the wire cutting process parameters and the output variables of the weld joint to determine the welding input parameters that lead to the desired optimal wire cutting quality. Besides, using response surface plots, the interaction effects of process parameters on the responses are analyzed and discussed. The statistical software Mini-tab is used to establish the design and to obtain the regression equations. The developed mathematical models are tested by analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) method to check their appropriateness and suitability. Finally, a comparison is made between measured and calculated results, which are in good agreement. This indicates that the developed models can predict the responses accurately and precisely within the limits of cutting parameter being used. (Author)

  9. Seasonal prediction of the Leeuwin Current using the POAMA dynamical seasonal forecast model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendon, Harry H.; Wang, Guomin [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Bureau of Meteorology, PO Box 1289, Melbourne (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    The potential for predicting interannual variations of the Leeuwin Current along the west coast of Australia is addressed. The Leeuwin Current flows poleward against the prevailing winds and transports warm-fresh tropical water southward along the coast, which has a great impact on local climate and ecosystems. Variations of the current are tightly tied to El Nino/La Nina (weak during El Nino and strong during La Nina). Skilful seasonal prediction of the Leeuwin Current to 9-month lead time is achieved by empirical downscaling of dynamical coupled model forecasts of El Nino and the associated upper ocean heat content anomalies off the north west coast of Australia from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) seasonal forecast system. Prediction of the Leeuwin Current is possible because the heat content fluctuations off the north west coast are the primary driver of interannual annual variations of the current and these heat content variations are tightly tied to the occurrence of El Nino/La Nina. POAMA can skilfully predict both the occurrence of El Nino/La Nina and the subsequent transmission of the heat content anomalies from the Pacific onto the north west coast. (orig.)

  10. Prediction and Migration of Surface-related Resonant Multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.; Huang, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Surface-related resonant multiples can be migrated to achieve better resolution than migrating primary reflections. We now derive the formula for migrating surface-related resonant multiples, and show its super-resolution characteristics. Moreover

  11. Surface currents associated with external kink modes in tokamak plasmas during a major disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2017-10-01

    The surface current on the plasma-vacuum interface during a disruption event involving kink instability can play an important role in driving current into the vacuum vessel. However, there have been disagreements over the nature or even the sign of the surface current in recent theoretical calculations based on idealized step-function background plasma profiles. We revisit such calculations by replacing step-function profiles with more realistic profiles characterized by a strong but finite gradient along the radial direction. It is shown that the resulting surface current is no longer a delta-function current density, but a finite and smooth current density profile with an internal structure, concentrated within the region with a strong plasma pressure gradient. Moreover, this current density profile has peaks of both signs, unlike the delta-function case with a sign opposite to, or the same as the plasma current. We show analytically and numerically that such current density can be separated into two parts, with one of them, called the convective current density, describing the transport of the background plasma density by the displacement, and the other part that remains, called the residual current density. It is argued that consideration of both types of current density is important and can resolve past controversies.

  12. Predicting infant cortical surface development using a 4D varifold-based learning framework and local topography-based shape morphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Islem; Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-02-01

    Longitudinal neuroimaging analysis methods have remarkably advanced our understanding of early postnatal brain development. However, learning predictive models to trace forth the evolution trajectories of both normal and abnormal cortical shapes remains broadly absent. To fill this critical gap, we pioneered the first prediction model for longitudinal developing cortical surfaces in infants using a spatiotemporal current-based learning framework solely from the baseline cortical surface. In this paper, we detail this prediction model and even further improve its performance by introducing two key variants. First, we use the varifold metric to overcome the limitations of the current metric for surface registration that was used in our preliminary study. We also extend the conventional varifold-based surface registration model for pairwise registration to a spatiotemporal surface regression model. Second, we propose a morphing process of the baseline surface using its topographic attributes such as normal direction and principal curvature sign. Specifically, our method learns from longitudinal data both the geometric (vertices positions) and dynamic (temporal evolution trajectories) features of the infant cortical surface, comprising a training stage and a prediction stage. In the training stage, we use the proposed varifold-based shape regression model to estimate geodesic cortical shape evolution trajectories for each training subject. We then build an empirical mean spatiotemporal surface atlas. In the prediction stage, given an infant, we select the best learnt features from training subjects to simultaneously predict the cortical surface shapes at all later timepoints, based on similarity metrics between this baseline surface and the learnt baseline population average surface atlas. We used a leave-one-out cross validation method to predict the inner cortical surface shape at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age from the baseline cortical surface shape at birth. Our

  13. Improvement of Surface Temperature Prediction Using SVR with MOGREPS Data for Short and Medium range over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. J.; Choi, R. K.; Ahn, K. D.; Ha, J. C.; Cho, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    As the Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) has operated Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System (MOGREPS) with introduction of Unified Model (UM), many attempts have been made to improve predictability in temperature forecast in last years. In this study, post-processing method of MOGREPS for surface temperature prediction is developed with machine learning over 52 locations in South Korea. Past 60-day lag time was used as a training phase of Support Vector Regression (SVR) method for surface temperature forecast model. The selected inputs for SVR are followings: date and surface temperatures from Numerical Weather prediction (NWP), such as GDAPS, individual 24 ensemble members, mean and median of ensemble members for every 3hours for 12 days.To verify the reliability of SVR-based ensemble prediction (SVR-EP), 93 days are used (from March 1 to May 31, 2014). The result yielded improvement of SVR-EP by RMSE value of 16 % throughout entire prediction period against conventional ensemble prediction (EP). In particular, short range predictability of SVR-EP resulted in 18.7% better RMSE for 1~3 day forecast. The mean temperature bias between SVR-EP and EP at all test locations showed around 0.36°C and 1.36°C, respectively. SVR-EP is currently extending for more vigorous sensitivity test, such as increasing training phase and optimizing machine learning model.

  14. A comparison of radiosity with current methods of sound level prediction in commercial spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, C. Walter, IV; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2002-11-01

    The ray tracing and image methods (and variations thereof) are widely used for the computation of sound fields in architectural spaces. The ray tracing and image methods are best suited for spaces with mostly specular reflecting surfaces. The radiosity method, a method based on solving a system of energy balance equations, is best applied to spaces with mainly diffusely reflective surfaces. Because very few spaces are either purely specular or purely diffuse, all methods must deal with both types of reflecting surfaces. A comparison of the radiosity method to other methods for the prediction of sound levels in commercial environments is presented. [Work supported by NSF.

  15. Study on model current predictive control method of PV grid- connected inverters systems with voltage sag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, N.; Yang, F.; Shang, S. Y.; Tao, T.; Liu, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    According to the limitations of the LVRT technology of traditional photovoltaic inverter existed, this paper proposes a low voltage ride through (LVRT) control method based on model current predictive control (MCPC). This method can effectively improve the photovoltaic inverter output characteristics and response speed. The MCPC method of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter designed, the sum of the absolute value of the predictive current and the given current error is adopted as the cost function with the model predictive control method. According to the MCPC, the optimal space voltage vector is selected. Photovoltaic inverter has achieved automatically switches of priority active or reactive power control of two control modes according to the different operating states, which effectively improve the inverter capability of LVRT. The simulation and experimental results proves that the proposed method is correct and effective.

  16. Where the wild things are: Predicting hotspots of seabird aggregations in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, N.; Jahncke, J.; Herzog, M.P.; Howar, J.; Hyrenbach, K.D.; Zamon, J.E.; Ainley, D.G.; Wiens, J.A.; Morgan, K.; Balance, L.T.; Stralberg, D.

    2011-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an important tool for conservation of marine ecosystems. To be most effective, these areas should be strategically located in a manner that supports ecosystem function. To inform marine spatial planning and support strategic establishment of MPAs within the California Current System, we identified areas predicted to support multispecies aggregations of seabirds ("hotspot????). We developed habitat-association models for 16 species using information from at-sea observations collected over an 11-year period (1997-2008), bathymetric data, and remotely sensed oceanographic data for an area from north of Vancouver Island, Canada, to the USA/Mexico border and seaward 600 km from the coast. This approach enabled us to predict distribution and abundance of seabirds even in areas of few or no surveys. We developed single-species predictive models using a machine-learning algorithm: bagged decision trees. Single-species predictions were then combined to identify potential hotspots of seabird aggregation, using three criteria: (1) overall abundance among species, (2) importance of specific areas ("core area????) to individual species, and (3) predicted persistence of hotspots across years. Model predictions were applied to the entire California Current for four seasons (represented by February, May, July, and October) in each of 11 years. Overall, bathymetric variables were often important predictive variables, whereas oceanographic variables derived from remotely sensed data were generally less important. Predicted hotspots often aligned with currently protected areas (e.g., National Marine Sanctuaries), but we also identified potential hotspots in Northern California/Southern Oregon (from Cape Mendocino to Heceta Bank), Southern California (adjacent to the Channel Islands), and adjacent to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, that are not currently included in protected areas. Prioritization and identification of multispecies hotspots

  17. Optimisation of sea surface current retrieval using a maximum cross correlation technique on modelled sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Céline; Eriksson, Leif; Carvajal, Gisela

    2017-04-01

    Using sea surface temperature from satellite images to retrieve sea surface currents is not a new idea, but so far its operational near-real time implementation has not been possible. Validation studies are too region-specific or uncertain, due to the errors induced by the images themselves. Moreover, the sensitivity of the most common retrieval method, the maximum cross correlation, to the three parameters that have to be set is unknown. Using model outputs instead of satellite images, biases induced by this method are assessed here, for four different seas of Western Europe, and the best of nine settings and eight temporal resolutions are determined. For all regions, tracking a small 5 km pattern from the first image over a large 30 km region around its original location on a second image, separated from the first image by 6 to 9 hours returned the most accurate results. Moreover, for all regions, the problem is not inaccurate results but missing results, where the velocity is too low to be picked by the retrieval. The results are consistent both with limitations caused by ocean surface current dynamics and with the available satellite technology, indicating that automated sea surface current retrieval from sea surface temperature images is feasible now, for search and rescue operations, pollution confinement or even for more energy efficient and comfortable ship navigation.

  18. Observation and modeling of tide- and wind-induced surface currents in Galway Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency radar system has been deployed in Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the west coast of Ireland. The system provides surface currents with fine spatial resolution every hour. Prior to its use for model validation, the accuracy of the radar data was verified through comparison with measurements from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs and a good correlation between time series of surface current speeds and directions obtained from radar data and ADCP data. Since Galway Bay is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, it is subject to relatively windy conditions, and surface currents are therefore strongly wind-driven. With a view to assimilating the radar data for forecasting purposes, a three-dimensional numerical model of Galway Bay, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC, was developed based on a terrain-following vertical (sigma coordinate system. This study shows that the performance and accuracy of the numerical model, particularly with regard to tide- and wind-induced surface currents, are sensitive to the vertical layer structure. Results of five models with different layer structures are presented and compared with radar measurements. A variable vertical structure with thin layers at the bottom and the surface and thicker layers in the middle of the water column was found to be the optimal layer structure for reproduction of tide- and wind-induced surface currents. This structure ensures that wind shear can properly propagate from the surface layer to the sub-surface layers, thereby ensuring that wind forcing is not overdamped by tidal forcing. The vertical layer structure affects not only the velocities at the surface layer but also the velocities further down in the water column.

  19. Observation and modeling of tide- and wind-induced surface currents in Galway Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei REN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high-frequency radar system has been deployed in Galway Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the west coast of Ireland. The system provides surface currents with fine spatial resolution every hour. Prior to its use for model validation, the accuracy of the radar data was verified through comparison with measurements from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs and a good correlation between time series of surface current speeds and directions obtained from radar data and ADCP data. Since Galway Bay is located on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, it is subject to relatively windy conditions, and surface currents are therefore strongly wind-driven. With a view to assimilating the radar data for forecasting purposes, a three-dimensional numerical model of Galway Bay, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC, was developed based on a terrain-following vertical (sigma coordinate system. This study shows that the performance and accuracy of the numerical model, particularly with regard to tide- and wind-induced surface currents, are sensitive to the vertical layer structure. Results of five models using different layer structures are presented and compared with radar measurements. A variable vertical structure with thin layers at the bottom and the surface and thicker layers in the middle of the water column was found to be the optimal layer structure for reproduction of tide- and wind-induced surface currents. This structure ensures that wind shear can properly propagate from the surface layer to the sub-surface layers, thereby ensuring that wind forcing is not overdamped by tidal forcing. The vertical layer structure affects not only the velocities at the surface layer but also the velocities further down in the water column.

  20. Predicting monsoon rainfall and pressure indices from sea surface temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and monsoon rainfall has been examined by using 21 years data set (1967-87) of MOHSST.6 (Met. Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature data set, obtained from U.K. Met...

  1. Predicting geometry of slip surfaces beneath landslides by fuzzy theory. Fuzzy riron wo riyoshita suberimen yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K [Mie Univ., Mie (Japan). Faculty of Biological and Resources

    1991-12-01

    In case a landslide occurs on a slope, grasping the area of influence (location and shape of the slip surface) is required to take a countermeasure against landslides. This paper describes a method developed by the author for predicting a slip surface by utilizing fuzzy theory. The method predicts a slip surface from observations on ground surface displacement vectors, and the validity of the method has been verified through slip experiments conducted on slopes with a centrifugal model experiment device. The developed method for predicting the location of a slip surface well matches the experiment results, indicating the validity of the method. It has been found that the difference between the predicted and observed locations of a slip surface mainly is due to the error of the prediction in the starting and ending locations of the slip surface. It is also pointed out that, in order to improve the prediction of the shape of a slip surface, the observation density must be increased at the location where the shape of the slip surface strongly varies, since the direction of the slip surface is determined by the direction of the ground surface displacement vectors. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Effect of the surface film electric resistance on eddy current detectability of surface cracks in Alloy 600 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saario, T.; Paine, J.P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The most widely used technique for NDE of steam generator tubing is eddy current. This technique can reliably detect cracks grown in sodium hydroxide environment only at depths greater than 50% through wall. However, cracking caused by thiosulphate solutions have been detected and sized at shallower depths. The disparity has been proposed to be caused by the different electric resistance of the crack wall surface films and corrosion products in the cracks formed in different environments. This work was undertaken to clarify the role of surface film electric resistance on the disparity found in eddy current detectability of surface cracks in alloy 600 tubes. The proposed model explaining the above mentioned disparity is the following. The detectability of tightly closed cracks by the eddy current technique depends on the electric resistance of the surface films of the crack walls. The nature and resistance of the films which form on the crack walls during operation depends on the composition of the solution inside the crack and close to the crack location. During cooling down of the steam generator, because of contraction and loss of internal pressurization, the cracks are rather tightly closed so that exchange of electrolyte and thus changes in the film properties become difficult. As a result, the surface condition prevailing at high temperature is preserved. If the environment is such that the films formed on the crack walls under operating conditions have low electric resistance, eddy current technique will fail to indicate these cracks or will underestimate the size of these cracks. However, if the electric resistance of the films is high, a tightly closed crack will resemble an open crack and will be easily indicated and correctly sized by eddy current technique

  3. Surface currents on the plasma-vacuum interface in MHD equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James

    2017-10-01

    The VMEC non-axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code can compute free-boundary equilibria. Since VMEC assumes that magnetic fields within the plasma form closed and nested flux surfaces, the plasma-vacuum interface is a flux surface, and the total magnetic field there has no normal component. VMEC imposes this condition of zero normal field using the potential formulation of Merkel, and solves a Neumann problem for the magnetic potential in the exterior region. This boundary condition necessarily admits the possibility of a surface current on the interface. While this surface current may be small in MHD equilibrium, it is readily computed in terms of the magnetic potentials in both the interior and exterior regions, evaluated on the surface. If only the external magnetic potential is known (as in VMEC), then the surface current can be computed from the discontinuity of the tangential field across the interface. Examples of the surface current for VMEC equilibria will be shown for a zero-pressure stellarator equilibrium. Field-line following of the vacuum magnetic field shows magnetic islands within the plasma region.

  4. Prediction of Nanoparticle and Colloid Attachment on Unfavorable Mineral Surfaces Using Representative Discrete Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauscht, Jacob; Pazmino, Eddy; Johnson, William P

    2015-09-01

    Despite several decades of research there currently exists no mechanistic theory to predict colloid attachment in porous media under environmental conditions where colloid-collector repulsion exists (unfavorable conditions for attachment). It has long been inferred that nano- to microscale surface heterogeneity (herein called discrete heterogeneity) drives colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions. Incorporating discrete heterogeneity into colloid-collector interaction calculations in particle trajectory simulations predicts colloid attachment under unfavorable conditions. As yet, discrete heterogeneity cannot be independently measured by spectroscopic or other approaches in ways directly relevant to colloid-surface interaction. This, combined with the fact that a given discrete heterogeneity representation will interact differently with differently sized colloids as well as different ionic strengths for a given sized colloid, suggests a strategy to back out representative discrete heterogeneity by a comparison of simulations to experiments performed across a range of colloid size, solution IS, and fluid velocity. This has recently been performed for interaction of carboxylate-modified polystyrene latex (CML) microsphere attachment to soda lime glass at pH 6.7 with NaCl electrolyte. However, extension to other surfaces, pH values, and electrolytes is needed. For this reason, the attachment of CML (0.25, 1.1, and 2.0 μm diameters) from aqueous suspension onto a variety of unfavorable mineral surfaces (soda lime glass, muscovite, and albite) was examined for pH values of 6.7 and 8.0), fluid velocities (1.71 × 10(-3) and 5.94 × 10(-3) m s(-1)), IS (6.0 and 20 mM), and electrolytes (NaCl, CaSO4, and multivalent mixtures). The resulting representative heterogeneities (heterodomain size and surface coverage, where heterodomain refers to nano- to microscale attractive domains) yielded colloid attachment predictions that were compared to predictions from existing

  5. Surface capillary currents: Rediscovery of fluid-structure interaction by forced evolving boundary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunbai; Mitra, Ambar K.

    2016-01-01

    Any boundary surface evolving in viscous fluid is driven with surface capillary currents. By step function defined for the fluid-structure interface, surface currents are found near a flat wall in a logarithmic form. The general flat-plate boundary layer is demonstrated through the interface kinematics. The dynamics analysis elucidates the relationship of the surface currents with the adhering region as well as the no-slip boundary condition. The wall skin friction coefficient, displacement thickness, and the logarithmic velocity-defect law of the smooth flat-plate boundary-layer flow are derived with the advent of the forced evolving boundary method. This fundamental theory has wide applications in applied science and engineering.

  6. Disturbance estimator based predictive current control of grid-connected inverters

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Khafaji, Ahmed Samawi Ghthwan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The work presented in my thesis considers one of the modern discrete-time control approaches based on digital signal processing methods, that have been developed to improve the performance control of grid-connected three-phase inverters. Disturbance estimator based predictive current control of grid-connected inverters is proposed. For inverter modeling with respect to the design of current controllers, we choose the d-q synchronous reference frame to make it easier to understand an...

  7. Mechanistic variables can enhance predictive models of endotherm distributions: the American pika under current, past, and future climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Paul D; Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Kearney, Michael; Yahn, Jeremiah M; Porter, Warren P

    2017-03-01

    How climate constrains species' distributions through time and space is an important question in the context of conservation planning for climate change. Despite increasing awareness of the need to incorporate mechanism into species distribution models (SDMs), mechanistic modeling of endotherm distributions remains limited in this literature. Using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an example, we present a framework whereby mechanism can be incorporated into endotherm SDMs. Pika distribution has repeatedly been found to be constrained by warm temperatures, so we used Niche Mapper, a mechanistic heat-balance model, to convert macroclimate data to pika-specific surface activity time in summer across the western United States. We then explored the difference between using a macroclimate predictor (summer temperature) and using a mechanistic predictor (predicted surface activity time) in SDMs. Both approaches accurately predicted pika presences in current and past climate regimes. However, the activity models predicted 8-19% less habitat loss in response to annual temperature increases of ~3-5 °C predicted in the region by 2070, suggesting that pikas may be able to buffer some climate change effects through behavioral thermoregulation that can be captured by mechanistic modeling. Incorporating mechanism added value to the modeling by providing increased confidence in areas where different modeling approaches agreed and providing a range of outcomes in areas of disagreement. It also provided a more proximate variable relating animal distribution to climate, allowing investigations into how unique habitat characteristics and intraspecific phenotypic variation may allow pikas to exist in areas outside those predicted by generic SDMs. Only a small number of easily obtainable data are required to parameterize this mechanistic model for any endotherm, and its use can improve SDM predictions by explicitly modeling a widely applicable direct physiological effect

  8. Mechanistic variables can enhance predictive models of endotherm distributions: The American pika under current, past, and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Paul; Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik; Briscoe, Natalie; Kearney, Michael T.; Yahn, Jeremiah; Porter, Warren P.

    2017-01-01

    How climate constrains species’ distributions through time and space is an important question in the context of conservation planning for climate change. Despite increasing awareness of the need to incorporate mechanism into species distribution models (SDMs), mechanistic modeling of endotherm distributions remains limited in this literature. Using the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as an example, we present a framework whereby mechanism can be incorporated into endotherm SDMs. Pika distribution has repeatedly been found to be constrained by warm temperatures, so we used Niche Mapper, a mechanistic heat-balance model, to convert macroclimate data to pika-specific surface activity time in summer across the western United States. We then explored the difference between using a macroclimate predictor (summer temperature) and using a mechanistic predictor (predicted surface activity time) in SDMs. Both approaches accurately predicted pika presences in current and past climate regimes. However, the activity models predicted 8–19% less habitat loss in response to annual temperature increases of ~3–5 °C predicted in the region by 2070, suggesting that pikas may be able to buffer some climate change effects through behavioral thermoregulation that can be captured by mechanistic modeling. Incorporating mechanism added value to the modeling by providing increased confidence in areas where different modeling approaches agreed and providing a range of outcomes in areas of disagreement. It also provided a more proximate variable relating animal distribution to climate, allowing investigations into how unique habitat characteristics and intraspecific phenotypic variation may allow pikas to exist in areas outside those predicted by generic SDMs. Only a small number of easily obtainable data are required to parameterize this mechanistic model for any endotherm, and its use can improve SDM predictions by explicitly modeling a widely applicable direct physiological effect

  9. Model Predictive Current Control for High-Power Grid-Connected Converters with Output LCL Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delpino, Hernan Anres Miranda; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    A model predictive control strategy for a highpower, grid connected 3-level neutral clamped point converter is presented. Power losses constraints set a limit on commutation losses so reduced switching frequency is required, thus producing low frequency current harmonics. To reduce these harmonics...

  10. 'Will I want these stickers tomorrow?' Preschoolers' ability to predict current and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema

    2017-11-01

    Between 3 and 5 years of age, children develop the ability to plan for their own and others' future needs; however, they have great difficulty predicting future needs that conflict with current ones. Importantly, this ability has only been tested in the domain of physiological states (e.g., thirst). Therefore, it is still an open question whether in a different context preschoolers can disengage from their current needs to secure a different future one. In a Resource Allocation task, 4- and 5-year-olds had to distribute three types of rewards between themselves and another child for either 'right now' or 'tomorrow'. Children's current needs were manipulated by providing them (or not) with their preferred reward at beginning of the task. Only 5-year-olds could predict future needs that conflict with their current ones and act accordingly. Younger children's performance is discussed in the context of temporal and social distance. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? By the age of 4, children can plan for their own and others' future needs. Seven-year-old children still have difficulty predicting future physiological needs that conflict with their current ones. What does this study add? In a Resource Allocation task, preschoolers had to share rewards with another child for 'right now' or 'tomorrow'. Children's current needs were manipulated by providing them (or not) with their preferred reward. This study shows that 5-year-olds can predict future (non-physiological) needs that conflict with their current ones. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. The Current and Future Use of Ridge Regression for Prediction in Quantitative Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Vlaming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a considerable amount of research on the use of regularization methods for inference and prediction in quantitative genetics. Such research mostly focuses on selection of markers and shrinkage of their effects. In this review paper, the use of ridge regression for prediction in quantitative genetics using single-nucleotide polymorphism data is discussed. In particular, we consider (i the theoretical foundations of ridge regression, (ii its link to commonly used methods in animal breeding, (iii the computational feasibility, and (iv the scope for constructing prediction models with nonlinear effects (e.g., dominance and epistasis. Based on a simulation study we gauge the current and future potential of ridge regression for prediction of human traits using genome-wide SNP data. We conclude that, for outcomes with a relatively simple genetic architecture, given current sample sizes in most cohorts (i.e., N<10,000 the predictive accuracy of ridge regression is slightly higher than the classical genome-wide association study approach of repeated simple regression (i.e., one regression per SNP. However, both capture only a small proportion of the heritability. Nevertheless, we find evidence that for large-scale initiatives, such as biobanks, sample sizes can be achieved where ridge regression compared to the classical approach improves predictive accuracy substantially.

  12. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  13. Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In drive systems the most used control structure is the cascade control with an inner torque, i.e. current and an outer speed control loop. The fairly small converter switching frequency in high power applications, e.g. wind turbines lead to modest speed control performance. An improvement bring...... the use of a current controller which takes into account the discrete states of the inverter, e.g. DTC or a more modern approach: Model Predictive Direct Current Control (MPDCC). Moreover overshoots and oscillations in the speed are not desired in many applications, since they lead to mechanical stress...

  14. Prediction of transverse asymmetries in MHD ducts with zero net Hall current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swean, T.F. Jr.; Oliver, D.A.; Maxwell, C.D.; Demetriades, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    A new class of fluid-electrical asymmetries in MHD generator channel flow are predicted. It is shown that the existence of interelectrode asymmetries is not confined to generators in which there exists a nonzero net axial current, but rather they are induced even in the case of the Faraday generators. Also demonstrated is the impact of these asymmetries upon the generator and diffuser flow. It is concluded that in MHD generators, the net axial current in the cross plane is identically zero, while at any given point in the plane, the local Hall current density is in general nonzero

  15. Developing mathematical models to predict tensile properties of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, M.; Jayabalan, V.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding process of titanium alloy is frequently gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass GTA welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. Many considerations come into the picture and one need to carefully balance various pulse current parameters to arrive at an optimum combination. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models to predict tensile properties of pulsed current GTA welded titanium alloy weldments. Four factors, five level, central composite, rotatable design matrix is used to optimise the required number of experiments. The mathematical models have been developed by response surface method (RSM). The adequacy of the models has been checked by ANOVA technique. By using the developed mathematical models, the tensile properties of the joints can be predicted with 99% confidence level

  16. Developing mathematical models to predict tensile properties of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, M. [Department of Production Engineering, Sathyabama University, Old Mamallapuram Road, Chennai 600 119 (India)], E-mail: manianmb@rediffmail.com; Jayabalan, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: jbalan@annauniv.edu; Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding process of titanium alloy is frequently gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass GTA welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. Many considerations come into the picture and one need to carefully balance various pulse current parameters to arrive at an optimum combination. Hence, in this investigation an attempt has been made to develop mathematical models to predict tensile properties of pulsed current GTA welded titanium alloy weldments. Four factors, five level, central composite, rotatable design matrix is used to optimise the required number of experiments. The mathematical models have been developed by response surface method (RSM). The adequacy of the models has been checked by ANOVA technique. By using the developed mathematical models, the tensile properties of the joints can be predicted with 99% confidence level.

  17. Predictive Measures of Locomotor Performance on an Unstable Walking Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Caldwell, E. E.; Batson, C. D.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Goel, R.; Wood, S. J.; Cohen, H. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion requires integration of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory information to produce the appropriate motor output to control movement. The degree to which these sensory inputs are weighted and reorganized in discordant sensory environments varies by individual and may be predictive of the ability to adapt to novel environments. The goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to inform the design of training countermeasures designed to enhance the ability of astronauts to adapt to gravitational transitions improving balance and locomotor performance after a Mars landing and enhancing egress capability after a landing on Earth.

  18. Accurate Modelling of Surface Currents and Internal Tides in a Semi-enclosed Coastal Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. E.; Soontiens, N. K.; Dunn, M. B. H.; Liu, J.; Olson, E.; Halverson, M. J.; Pawlowicz, R.

    2016-02-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a deep (400 m), strongly stratified, semi-enclosed coastal sea on the west coast of North America. We have configured a baroclinic model of the Strait of Georgia and surrounding coastal waters using the NEMO ocean community model. We run daily nowcasts and forecasts and publish our sea-surface results (including storm surge warnings) to the web (salishsea.eos.ubc.ca/storm-surge). Tides in the Strait of Georgia are mixed and large. The baroclinic model and previous barotropic models accurately represent tidal sea-level variations and depth mean currents. The baroclinic model reproduces accurately the diurnal but not the semi-diurnal baroclinic tidal currents. In the Southern Strait of Georgia, strong internal tidal currents at the semi-diurnal frequency are observed. Strong semi-diurnal tides are also produced in the model, but are almost 180 degrees out of phase with the observations. In the model, in the surface, the barotropic and baroclinic tides reinforce, whereas the observations show that at the surface the baroclinic tides oppose the barotropic. As such the surface currents are very poorly modelled. Here we will present evidence of the internal tidal field from observations. We will discuss the generation regions of the tides, the necessary modifications to the model required to correct the phase, the resulting baroclinic tides and the improvements in the surface currents.

  19. Current error vector based prediction control of the section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Junjie, E-mail: hongjjie@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Liyi, E-mail: liliyi@hit.edu.cn [Dept. Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Zong Zhijian; Liu Zhongtu [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The structure of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM) is new. {yields} A new current control method CEVPC is employed in this motor. {yields} The sectional power supply method is different to the others and effective. {yields} The performance gets worse with voltage and current limitations. - Abstract: To include features such as greater thrust density, higher efficiency without reducing the thrust stability, this paper proposes a section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM), whose iron core is continuous, whereas winding is divided. The discrete system model of the motor is derived. With the definition of the current error vector and selection of the value function, the theory of the current error vector based prediction control (CEVPC) for the motor currents is explained clearly. According to the winding section feature, the motion region of the mover is divided into five zones, in which the implementation of the current predictive control method is proposed. Finally, the experimental platform is constructed and experiments are carried out. The results show: the current control effect has good dynamic response, and the thrust on the mover remains constant basically.

  20. Prediction of fluid velocity slip at solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Todd, Billy; Daivis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    methods, it allows us to directly compute the intrinsic wall-fluid friction coefficient rather than an empirical friction coefficient that includes all sources of friction for planar shear flow. The slip length predicted by our method is in excellent agreement with the slip length obtained from direct...

  1. Predicting fire severity using surface fuels and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela G. Sikkink; Robert E. Keane

    2012-01-01

    Fire severity classifications have been used extensively in fire management over the last 30 years to describe specific environmental or ecological impacts of fire on fuels, vegetation, wildlife, and soils in recently burned areas. New fire severity classifications need to be more objective, predictive, and ultimately more useful to fire management and planning. Our...

  2. Comparison of HF radar measurements with Eulerian and Lagrangian surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrs, Johannes; Sperrevik, Ann Kristin; Christensen, Kai Håkon; Broström, Göran; Breivik, Øyvind

    2015-05-01

    High-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean currents are compared with in situ measurements to conclude if the radar observations include effects of surface waves that are of second order in the wave amplitude. Eulerian current measurements from a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler and Lagrangian measurements from surface drifters are used as references. Directional wave spectra are obtained from a combination of pressure sensor data and a wave model. Our analysis shows that the wave-induced Stokes drift is not included in the HF radar-derived currents, that is, HF radars measure the Eulerian current. A disputed nonlinear correction to the phase velocity of surface gravity waves, which may affect HF radar signals, has a magnitude of about half the Stokes drift at the surface. In our case, this contribution by nonlinear dispersion would be smaller than the accuracy of the HF radar currents, hence no conclusion can be made. Finally, the analysis confirms that the HF radar data represent an exponentially weighted vertical average where the decay scale is proportional to the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

  3. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  4. Wind effect on currents in a thin surface layer of coastal waters faced open-sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masanao; Isozaki, Hisaaki; Isozaki, Tokuju; Nemoto, Masashi; Hasunuma, Keiichi; Kitamura, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Two-years of continuous observation of wind and current were carried out to investigate the relationship between them in the coastal waters off Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Three instruments to measure the current were set in a thin surface layer of 3 m above the strong pycnocline, which is a common feature in coastal waters. Both of the power spectra of wind and currents showed very similar features, an outstanding high peak at 24-hour period and a range of high peaks longer than several-days period. The long term variation of the wind field always contained north-wind component, which contributed to forming the southward current along the shore throughout the year. A high correlation coefficient (0.64) was obtained between the wind and the current at a depth of 0.5 m on the basis of the two-year observation. Harmonic analysis revealed that an outstanding current with 24-hour period was the S 1 component (meteorological tide), and was driven by land and sea breezes. These breezes also contained solar tidal components such as K 1 , P 1 and S 2 . These wind components added their own wind driven currents on the original tidal currents. This meant that land and sea breezes generated wind driven currents with solar tidal periods which behaved like astronomical tidal currents. As result, coastal currents contained pseudo tidal currents which behaved like astronomical tidal currents. (author)

  5. Surface modification of TA2 pure titanium by low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yukui

    2011-01-01

    Surface integrity changes of TA2 pure titanium including surface topography, microstructure and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated by different techniques of low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatments (LEHCPEBTs). The surface topography was characterized by SEM. Moreover, the TEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TA2 pure titanium by LEHCPEBTs. The surface roughness was modified by electron beam treatment and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM and TEM. The results show that the surface finish obtains good polishing quality and there is no phase transformation but the dislocations by LEHCPEBT. Furthermore, the nanohardness in the surface modified layer is improved. The remelt and fine-grain microstructure of surface layer caused by LEHCPEBTs are the main polishing mechanism and the reason of modification of surface topography and the increment in nanohardness is mainly due to the dislocations and fine grains in the modified layer induced by LEHCPEBT.

  6. Models for prediction of global solar radiation on horizontal surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of global solar radiation continues to play a fundamental role in solar engineering systems and applications. This paper compares various models for estimating the average monthly global solar radiation on horizontal surface for Akure, Nigeria, using solar radiation and sunshine duration data covering years ...

  7. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the present...

  8. Predicting Nanocrystal Shape through Consideration of Surface-Ligand Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bealing, Clive R.; Baumgardner, William J.; Choi, Joshua J.; Hanrath, Tobias; Hennig, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Density functional calculations for the binding energy of oleic acid-based ligands on Pb-rich {100} and {111} facets of PbSe nanocrystals determine the surface energies as a function of ligand coverage. Oleic acid is expected to bind

  9. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Land Surface Air Temperature Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A station observation-based global land monthly mean surface air temperature dataset at 0.5 x 0.5 latitude-longitude resolution for the period from 1948 to the...

  10. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xie, Fengqin; Cao, Maoyong; Zhong, Mingming

    2017-07-01

    To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA) sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor), magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  11. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayu Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor, magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  12. Prediction of SFL Interruption Performance from the Results of Arc Simulation during High-Current Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Woun-Jea

    2015-09-01

    The design and development procedures of SF6 gas circuit breakers are still largely based on trial and error through testing although the development costs go higher every year. The computation cannot cover the testing satisfactorily because all the real processes arc not taken into account. But the knowledge of the arc behavior and the prediction of the thermal-flow inside the interrupters by numerical simulations are more useful than those by experiments due to the difficulties to obtain physical quantities experimentally and the reduction of computational costs in recent years. In this paper, in order to get further information into the interruption process of a SF6 self-blast interrupter, which is based on a combination of thermal expansion and the arc rotation principle, gas flow simulations with a CFD-arc modeling are performed during the whole switching process such as high-current period, pre-current zero period, and current-zero period. Through the complete work, the pressure-rise and the ramp of the pressure inside the chamber before current zero as well as the post-arc current after current zero should be a good criterion to predict the short-line fault interruption performance of interrupters.

  13. Deep and surface circulation in the Northwest Indian Ocean from Argo, surface drifter, and in situ profiling current observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, S. A.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Wang, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The northwest Indian Ocean is a region of complex circulation and atmospheric influence. The Persian (Arabian) Gulf and Red Sea contribute toward the complexity of the region. This study encompasses the surface and deep circulation in the region ranging from 0°N-35°N and 40°E-80°E from January 2002-December 2009. Emphasis is in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea (roughly from 21°N-26°N and 56°E-63°E) using a variety of in situ and observation data sets. While there is a lot known about the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, little is known about the Oman Sea. Circulation in the northwest Indian Ocean is largely influenced by seasonal monsoon winds. From the winter monsoon to the summer monsoon, current direction reverses. Marginal sea inflow and outflow are also seasonally variable, which greatly impacts the physical water mass properties in the region. In situ and observation data sets include data from Argo floats (US GODAE), surface drifters (AOML) and an observation system consisting of 4 independent moorings and a cabled ocean observatory in the Oman Sea. The observing system in the Oman Sea was installed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. beginning in 2005, and measures current, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity, using the Aanderaa Recording Doppler Current Profiler (RDCP) 600 and the Aanderaa Recording Current Meter (RCM) 11. The cabled ocean observatory measures dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity between 65 m and 1000 m and reports in real-time. Argo floats in the region have a parking depth range from 500 m to 2000 m. At 1000 m depth, 98% of the velocity magnitudes range from less than 1 cm/s to 20 cm/s. The Somali Current and Northeast/Southwest Monsoon Currents are present, reversing from summer to winter. At 2000 m depth, the Somali and Monsoon Currents are still present but have smaller velocities with 98% ranging from less than 1 cm/s to 13 cm/s. At both 1000 m and 2000 m, larger velocities occur

  14. An Information Retrieval Approach for Robust Prediction of Road Surface States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Kwanho

    2017-01-28

    Recently, due to the increasing importance of reducing severe vehicle accidents on roads (especially on highways), the automatic identification of road surface conditions, and the provisioning of such information to drivers in advance, have recently been gaining significant momentum as a proactive solution to decrease the number of vehicle accidents. In this paper, we firstly propose an information retrieval approach that aims to identify road surface states by combining conventional machine-learning techniques and moving average methods. Specifically, when signal information is received from a radar system, our approach attempts to estimate the current state of the road surface based on the similar instances observed previously based on utilizing a given similarity function. Next, the estimated state is then calibrated by using the recently estimated states to yield both effective and robust prediction results. To validate the performances of the proposed approach, we established a real-world experimental setting on a section of actual highway in South Korea and conducted a comparison with the conventional approaches in terms of accuracy. The experimental results show that the proposed approach successfully outperforms the previously developed methods.

  15. Surface conductivity of Mercury provides current closure and may affect magnetospheric symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We study what effect a possible surface conductivity of Mercury has on the closure of magnetospheric currents by making six runs with a quasi-neutral hybrid simulation. The runs are otherwise identical but use different synthetic conductivity models: run 1 has a fully conducting planet, run 2 has a poorly conducting planet ( m and runs 3-6 have one of the hemispheres either in the dawn-dusk or day-night directions, conducting well, the other one being conducting poorly. Although the surface conductivity is not known from observations, educated guesses easily give such conductivity values that magnetospheric currents may close partly within the planet, and as the conductivity depends heavily on the mineral composition of the surface, the possibility of significant horizontal variations cannot be easily excluded. The simulation results show that strong horizontal variations may produce modest magnetospheric asymmetries. Beyond the hybrid simulation, we also briefly discuss the possibility that in the nightside there may be a lack of surface electrons to carry downward current, which may act as a further source of surface-related magnetospheric asymmetry. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (planetary magnetospheres; current systems; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.6

  16. Eddy current array probe for detection of surface breaking cracks in the extrados of feeder bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Cassidy, R.A.; Chaplin, K.; Martin, P.; Bureau, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    A new eddy current array probe has been implemented as a straightforward and promising technique for detection of outer diameter (OD) surface-breaking cracks on the extrados of feeder bends. The design is based on previous work performed at AECL, which had demonstrated that eddy current probes with laterally displaced transmit-receive coils can overcome some of the limitations of inspecting ferritic steel components for surface-breaking cracks. The Feeder Integrity Joint Program-CANDU Owners Group Inc. (FIJP-COG) Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team members commissioned AECL to work in collaboration with the probe manufacturer ZETEC, to develop a field usable eddy current array probe. The objective was to acquire a technique with the following capabilities: fast scanning non-contact inspection technique for surface breaking discontinuities; full inspection of the bend extrados OD surface in a single scan; ability to inspect first and second bends with similar settings and capabilities; permanent record for future reference; axial and circumferential crack detection in a single scan; capability to detect OD surface-breaking cracks, which can provide additional information to that provided by ultrasonic testing (UT) for flaw characterization, and detection threshold: Surface breaking cracks equivalent to a 0.5 mm deep, 10 mm long EDM notch located on the OD of the bend extrados. This paper discusses the basis for probe design, summarizes the experimental work to evaluate probe capabilities and analyzes the results from the field trial. (author)

  17. Eddy current array probe for detection of surface breaking cracks in the extrados of feeder bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Cassidy, R.A.; Chaplin, K. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: obrutskyl@aecl.ca; Martin, P. [NB Power, Point Lepreau NGS, Point Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: PMartin@nbpower.com; Bureau, J.F. [Zetec, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: jean-francois.bureau@zetec.com

    2006-07-01

    A new eddy current array probe has been implemented as a straightforward and promising technique for detection of outer diameter (OD) surface-breaking cracks on the extrados of feeder bends. The design is based on previous work performed at AECL, which had demonstrated that eddy current probes with laterally displaced transmit-receive coils can overcome some of the limitations of inspecting ferritic steel components for surface-breaking cracks. The Feeder Integrity Joint Program-CANDU Owners Group Inc. (FIJP-COG) Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team members commissioned AECL to work in collaboration with the probe manufacturer ZETEC, to develop a field usable eddy current array probe. The objective was to acquire a technique with the following capabilities: fast scanning non-contact inspection technique for surface breaking discontinuities; full inspection of the bend extrados OD surface in a single scan; ability to inspect first and second bends with similar settings and capabilities; permanent record for future reference; axial and circumferential crack detection in a single scan; capability to detect OD surface-breaking cracks, which can provide additional information to that provided by ultrasonic testing (UT) for flaw characterization, and detection threshold: Surface breaking cracks equivalent to a 0.5 mm deep, 10 mm long EDM notch located on the OD of the bend extrados. This paper discusses the basis for probe design, summarizes the experimental work to evaluate probe capabilities and analyzes the results from the field trial. (author)

  18. Conductivity Profile Determination by Eddy Current for Shot Peened Superalloy Surfaces Toward Residual Stress Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system

  19. Magnetic islands and singular currents at rational surfaces in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizu, J., E-mail: joaquim.loizu@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Hudson, S.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Using the recently developed multiregion, relaxed MHD (MRxMHD) theory, which bridges the gap between Taylor's relaxation theory and ideal MHD, we provide a thorough analytical and numerical proof of the formation of singular currents at rational surfaces in non-axisymmetric ideal MHD equilibria. These include the force-free singular current density represented by a Dirac δ-function, which presumably prevents the formation of islands, and the Pfirsch-Schlüter 1/x singular current, which arises as a result of finite pressure gradient. An analytical model based on linearized MRxMHD is derived that can accurately (1) describe the formation of magnetic islands at resonant rational surfaces, (2) retrieve the ideal MHD limit where magnetic islands are shielded, and (3) compute the subsequent formation of singular currents. The analytical results are benchmarked against numerical simulations carried out with a fully nonlinear implementation of MRxMHD.

  20. Test data on electrical contacts at high surface velocities and high current densities for homopolar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.; Tolk, K.M.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Test data is presented for one grade of copper graphite brush material, Morganite CMlS, over a wide range of surface velocities, atmospheres, and current densities that are expected for fast discharge (<100 ms) homopolar generators. The brushes were run on a copper coated 7075-T6 aluminum disk at surface speeds up to 277 m/sec. One electroplated copper and three flame sprayed copper coatings were used during the tests. Significant differences in contact voltage drops and surface mechanical properties of the copper coatings were observed

  1. Ocean current surface measurement using dynamic elevations obtained by the GEOS-3 radar altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Remote Sensing of the ocean surface from the GEOS-3 satellite using radar altimeter data has confirmed that the altimeter can detect the dynamic ocean topographic elevations relative to an equipotential surface, thus resulting in a reliable direct measurement of the ocean surface. Maps of the ocean dynamic topography calculated over a one month period and with 20 cm contour interval are prepared for the last half of 1975. The Gulf Stream is observed by the rapid slope change shown by the crowding of contours. Cold eddies associated with the current are seen as roughly circular depressions.

  2. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces. (paper)

  3. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  4. High Predictive Skill of Global Surface Temperature a Year Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, C. K.; Colman, A.; Kennedy, J. J.; Knight, J.; Parker, D. E.; Stott, P.; Smith, D. M.; Boucher, O.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the high skill of real-time forecasts of global surface temperature a year ahead issued by the UK Met Office, and their scientific background. Although this is a forecasting and not a formal attribution study, we show that the main instrumental global annual surface temperature data sets since 1891 are structured consistently with a set of five physical forcing factors except during and just after the second World War. Reconstructions use a multiple application of cross validated linear regression to minimise artificial skill allowing time-varying uncertainties in the contribution of each forcing factor to global temperature to be assessed. Mean cross validated reconstructions for the data sets have total correlations in the range 0.93-0.95,interannual correlations in the range 0.72-0.75 and root mean squared errors near 0.06oC, consistent with observational uncertainties.Three transient runs of the HadCM3 coupled model for 1888-2002 demonstrate quite similar reconstruction skill from similar forcing factors defined appropriately for the model, showing that skilful use of our technique is not confined to observations. The observed reconstructions show that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) likely contributed to the re-commencement of global warming between 1976 and 2010 and to global cooling observed immediately beforehand in 1965-1976. The slowing of global warming in the last decade is likely to be largely due to a phase-delayed response to the downturn in the solar cycle since 2001-2, with no net ENSO contribution. The much reduced trend in 2001-10 is similar in size to other weak decadal temperature trends observed since global warming resumed in the 1970s. The causes of variations in decadal trends can be mostly explained by variations in the strength of the forcing factors. Eleven real-time forecasts of global mean surface temperature for the year ahead for 2000-2010, based on broadly similar methods, provide an independent test of the

  5. Remote sensing of surface currents in the Fraser River plume with the SeaSonde HF radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.; Hardy, J.S.; Tinis, S.E.

    1994-09-01

    The SeaSonde 12.5-MHz radar system was deployed to measure surface currents in the Juan de Fuca Strait in July 1992. Reliable data were obtained from the two radars installed, and successful trials were conducted with the Infosat satellite link to transmit data from the remote site. Data recovery from the SeaSonde was generally good, with maximum ranges varying from 15 km to over 30 km. Sea echo return strength at both radars was correlated with wind, consistent with lower Bragg scattering at lower wind speeds. A simple surface current forecasting algorithm, based on decomposing the signal into tidal and residual bands, was examined. It was found that tides account for the greatest portion of currents in the study area, and could be forecasted out to 48 h with 1-2 d of input data. The nonpredictable, fluctuating part of the current signal was isolated and its statistics were calculated. The algorithm tests showed that the SeaSonde data can be used to measure and predict the slowly varying tidal and mean flow velocities, as well as the random part of the signal, both of which are important in oil spill modelling. Surface flow patterns and time-series data from the SeaSonde measurements, and from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, were compared from an oil spill modelling perspective. In general, surface flow patterns from the model were smoother than those observed. The differences were most noticeable in the cross-channel direction. The radar data indicate that a flow-dependent eddy viscosity formulation, with coefficients calibrated to reproduce the features observed with the radar, would improve agreement and yield a good model for data assimilation. 21 refs., 478 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Body surface area prediction in normal, hypermuscular, and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Michael C; Spalding, Paul B; Gutierrez, Juan C; Balkan, Wayne; Namias, Nicholas; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Zimmers, Teresa A

    2009-05-15

    Accurate determination of body surface area (BSA) in experimental animals is essential for modeling effects of burn injury or drug metabolism. Two-dimensional surface area is related to three-dimensional body volume, which in turn can be estimated from body mass. The Meeh equation relates body surface area to the two-thirds power of body mass, through a constant, k, which must be determined empirically by species and size. We found older values of k overestimated BSA in certain mice; thus we determined empirically k for various strains of normal, obese, and hypermuscular mice. BSA was computed from digitally scanned pelts and nonlinear regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit k. The empirically determined k for C57BL/6J mice of 9.82 was not significantly different from other inbred and outbred mouse strains of normal body composition. However, mean k of the nearly spheroid, obese lepr(db/db) mice (k = 8.29) was significantly lower than for normals, as were values for dumbbell-shaped, hypermuscular mice with either targeted deletion of the myostatin gene (Mstn) (k = 8.48) or with skeletal muscle specific expression of a dominant negative myostatin receptor (Acvr2b) (k = 8.80). Hypermuscular and obese mice differ substantially from normals in shape and density, resulting in considerably altered k values. This suggests Meeh constants should be determined empirically for animals of altered body composition. Use of these new, improved Meeh constants will allow greater accuracy in experimental models of burn injury and pharmacokinetics.

  7. Biodiversity in environmental assessment-current practice and tools for prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontier, Mikael; Balfors, Berit; Moertberg, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity. Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are essential instruments used in physical planning to address such problems. Yet there are no well-developed methods for quantifying and predicting impacts of fragmentation on biodiversity. In this study, a literature review was conducted on GIS-based ecological models that have potential as prediction tools for biodiversity assessment. Further, a review of environmental impact statements for road and railway projects from four European countries was performed, to study how impact prediction concerning biodiversity issues was addressed. The results of the study showed the existing gap between research in GIS-based ecological modelling and current practice in biodiversity assessment within environmental assessment

  8. Surface current measurements in Juan de Fuca Strait using the SeaSonde HF [high frequency] radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1994-09-01

    The shore-based SeaSonde high-frequency (HF) radar was deployed for three weeks in summer 1993 to measure surface currents in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Experimental objectives included documenting the complex flow regime generated by large tides and the brackish plume of the Fraser River, and determining the radar performance under low-wind, low-salinity conditions. The radar data showed that surface flows are dominated by the plume jet formed by the Fraser River outflow, giving rise to recurring, energetic eddies with scales of 8-12 km, strong flow meanders, and convergent fronts. These features were continuously modulated by the along-channel tidal flows. Comparisons with a detailed numerical model hindcast gave good correlation between observed and predicted flow fields, especially at tidal and low frequencies. Radar return was found to be correlated with local winds and radar performance was independent of salinity variations in the plume. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a map of the radar scattering characteristics of the ocean surface on a capillary wave scale. ERS-1 satellite and airborne SAR images for July 28, 1993 were obtained and surface features were examined in the context of the HF radar current fields. Results show that SAR images alone cannot reliably provide the dynamical data required in this region by oil spill models. Under certain conditions, however, the radar imagery offers valuable physical information on phenomena affecting oil slick development. Interpretation of SAR imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing information would offer more quantitative prediction data. 28 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab

  9. Modelling of crater formation on anode surface by high-current vacuum arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yunbo; Wang, Zhenxing; Jiang, Yanjun; Ma, Hui; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Jianhua; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2016-11-01

    Anode melting and crater formation significantly affect interruption of high-current vacuum arcs. The primary objective of this paper is to theoretically investigate the mechanism of anode surface crater formation, caused by the combined effect of surface heating during the vacuum arc and pressure exerted on the molten surface by ions and electrons from the arc plasma. A model of fluid flow and heat transfer in the arc anode is developed and combined with a magnetohydrodynamics model of the vacuum arc plasma. Crater formation is observed in simulation for a peak arcing current higher than 15 kA on 40 mm diam. Cu electrodes spaced 10 mm apart. The flow of liquid metal starts after 4 or 5 ms of arcing, and the maximum velocities are 0.95 m/s and 1.39 m/s for 20 kA and 25 kA arcs, respectively. This flow redistributes thermal energy, and the maximum temperature of the anode surface does not remain in the center. Moreover, the condition for the liquid droplet formation on the anode surfaces is developed. The solidification process after current zero is also analyzed. The solidification time has been found to be more than 3 ms after 25 kA arcing. The long solidification time and sharp features on crater rims induce Taylor cone formation.

  10. On the surface recombination current of metal-insulator semiconductor inversion layer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto M.

    1981-01-01

    voltages Voc were found to be lower than for ~ cells. The measured differences in Voc were higher than expected from the dark characteristics which is explained as a difference in the surface recombination current due to a higher interface state density Nss of ~ cells. Journal of Applied Physics...

  11. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong

    2016-06-23

    While recent reports have demonstrated that oxide-derived Cu-based electrodes exhibit high selectivity for CO2 reduction at low overpotential, the low catalytic current density (<2 mA/cm2 at -0.45 V vs. RHE) still largely limits its applications for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open frameworks, the resulting Cu foam electrodes prepared at higher temperatures exhibit enhanced electrochemically active surface area and distinct surface structures. In particular, the Cu foam electrode prepared at 500 °C exhibits an extremely high geometric current density of ~9.4 mA/cm2 in CO2-satrurated 0.1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution and achieving ~39% CO and ~23% HCOOH Faradaic efficiencies at -0.45 V vs. RHE. The high activity and significant selectivity enhancement are attributable to the formation of abundant grain-boundary supported active sites and preferable (100) and (111) facets as a result of reconstruction of Cu surface facets. This work demonstrates that the structural integration of Cu foam with open 3D frameworks and the favorable surface structures is a promising strategy to develop an advanced Cu electrocatalyst that can operate at high current density and low overpotential for CO2 reduction.

  12. Predicting scour beneath subsea pipelines from existing small free span depths under steady currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Y. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An equation was developed to predict current-induced scour beneath subsea pipelines in areas with small span depths, S. Current equations for scour prediction are only applicable to partially buried pipelines. The existence of small span depths (i.e. S/D < 0.3 are of concern because the capacity for scour is higher at smaller span depths. Furthermore, it is impractical to perform rectification works, such as installing grout bags, under a pipeline with a small S/D. Full-scale two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach and the Shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model. To predict the occurrence of scour, the computed maximum bed shear stress beneath the pipe was converted to the dimensionless Shields parameter, and compared with the critical Shields parameter based on the mean sediment grain size. The numerical setup was verified, and a good agreement was found between model-scale CFD data and experimental data. Field data were obtained to determine the mean grain size, far field current velocity and to measure the span depths along the surveyed pipe length. A trend line equation was fitted to the full-scale CFD data, whereby the maximum Shields parameter beneath the pipe can be calculated based on the undisturbed Shields parameter and S/D.

  13. Predicting the behavioural impact of transcranial direct current stimulation: issues and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archy Otto De Berker

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The transcranial application of weak currents to the human brain has enjoyed a decade of success, providing a simple and powerful tool for non-invasively altering human brain function. However, our understanding of current delivery and its impact upon neural circuitry leaves much to be desired. We argue that the credibility of conclusions drawn with tDCS is contingent upon realistic explanations of how tDCS works, and that our present understanding of tDCS limits the technique’s use to localize function in the human brain. We outline two central issues where progress is required: the localization of currents, and predicting their functional consequence. We encourage experimenters to eschew simplistic explanations of mechanisms of transcranial current stimulation. We suggest the use of individualized current modelling, together with computational neurostimulation to inform mechanistic frameworks in which to interpret the physiological impact of tDCS. We hope that through mechanistically richer descriptions of current flow and action, insight into the biological processes by which transcranial currents influence behaviour can be gained, leading to more effective stimulation protocols and empowering conclusions drawn with tDCS.

  14. Various categories of defects after surface alloying induced by high current pulsed electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Dian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Guangze, E-mail: oaktang@hit.edu.cn [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Gu, Le [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Mingren [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Four kinds of defects are found during surface alloying by high current electron beam. • Exploring the mechanism how these defects appear after irradiation. • Increasing pulsing cycles will help to get good surface quality. • Choosing proper energy density will increase surface quality. - Abstract: High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is an attractive advanced materials processing method which could highly increase the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, how to eliminate different kinds of defects during irradiation by HCPEB especially in condition of adding new elements is a challenging task. In the present research, the titanium and TaNb-TiW composite films was deposited on the carburizing steel (SAE9310 steel) by DC magnetron sputtering before irradiation. The process of surface alloying was induced by HCPEB with pulse duration of 2.5 μs and energy density ranging from 3 to 9 J/cm{sup 2}. Investigation of the microstructure indicated that there were several forms of defects after irradiation, such as surface unwetting, surface eruption, micro-cracks and layering. How the defects formed was explained by the results of electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results also revealed that proper energy density (∼6 J/cm{sup 2}) and multi-number of irradiation (≥50 times) contributed to high quality of alloyed layers after irradiation.

  15. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu, E-mail: sde@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-12-31

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  16. Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes using pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Dipankar; Neogi, Sudarsan; De, Sirshendu

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature plasma treatment using pulsed direct current discharge of nitrogen gas was employed to enhance hydrophilicity of the polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, structure, hydrophilicity, and membrane performance. Properties and functional groups on the surface of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes were investigated by contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Effects of plasma conditions, namely, pulsed voltage, duty cycle and treatment time on increase in membrane hydrophilicity were studied. Permeability of treated membrane was increased by 47% and it was retained up to 70 days. Surface etching due to plasma treatment was confirmed by weight loss of the treated membranes. Due to surface etching, average pore size increased and rejection of 200 kDa polyethylene glycol decreased to about 70% for the treated membrane. Oxygen and nitrogen functional groups were responsible for surface hydrophilicity. - Highlights: • Surface modification of polyacrylonitrile co-polymer membranes by pulsed direct current nitrogen plasma • Hydrophilic functional groups incorporated on the membrane surface • Significant enhancement of the permeability and wettability of the membranes • Water contact angle increased with storage time and finally stabilized.

  17. Development of an aerodyanmic theory capable of predicting surface loads on slender wings with vortex flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, B. B.; Johnson, F. T.

    1976-01-01

    The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company developed an inviscid three-dimensional lifting surface method that shows promise in being able to accurately predict loads, subsonic and supersonic, on wings with leading-edge separation and reattachment.

  18. Observations of the sub-inertial, near-surface East India Coastal Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S. G.; Mukherjee, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present surface current measurements made using two pairs of HF (high-frequency) radars deployed on the east coast of India. The radar data, used in conjunction with data from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements on the shelf and slope off the Indian east coast, confirm that the East India Coastal Current (EICC) flows poleward as a deep current during February-March. During the summer monsoon, when the EICC flows poleward, and October-December, when the EICC flows equatorward, the current is shallow (art Ocean General Circulation Model, run at a resolution of 0.1 ° × 0.1 ° , shows that the model is able to simulate only the low-frequency variability.

  19. Binding Ligand Prediction for Proteins Using Partial Matching of Local Surface Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional elucidation of uncharacterized protein structures is an important task in bioinformatics. We report our new approach for structure-based function prediction which captures local surface features of ligand binding pockets. Function of proteins, specifically, binding ligands of proteins, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions of known proteins. To enable partial comparison of binding sites in proteins, a weighted bipartite matching algorithm is used to match pairs of surface patches. The surface patches are encoded with the 3D Zernike descriptors. Unlike the existing methods which compare global characteristics of the protein fold or the global pocket shape, the local surface patch method can find functional similarity between non-homologous proteins and binding pockets for flexible ligand molecules. The proposed method improves prediction results over global pocket shape-based method which was previously developed by our group.

  20. Binding ligand prediction for proteins using partial matching of local surface patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Functional elucidation of uncharacterized protein structures is an important task in bioinformatics. We report our new approach for structure-based function prediction which captures local surface features of ligand binding pockets. Function of proteins, specifically, binding ligands of proteins, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions of known proteins. To enable partial comparison of binding sites in proteins, a weighted bipartite matching algorithm is used to match pairs of surface patches. The surface patches are encoded with the 3D Zernike descriptors. Unlike the existing methods which compare global characteristics of the protein fold or the global pocket shape, the local surface patch method can find functional similarity between non-homologous proteins and binding pockets for flexible ligand molecules. The proposed method improves prediction results over global pocket shape-based method which was previously developed by our group.

  1. AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR THE PREDICTION OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN CO2 LASER CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOŠ MADIĆ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In laser cutting, the cut quality is of great importance. Multiple non-linear effects of process parameters and their interactions make very difficult to predict cut quality. In this paper, artificial intelligence (AI approach was applied to predict the surface roughness in CO2 laser cutting. To this aim, artificial neural network (ANN model of surface roughness was developed in terms of cutting speed, laser power and assist gas pressure. The experimental results obtained from Taguchi’s L25 orthogonal array were used to develop ANN model. The ANN mathematical model of surface roughness was expressed as explicit nonlinear function of the selected input parameters. Statistical results indicate that the ANN model can predict the surface roughness with good accuracy. It was showed that ANNs may be used as a good alternative in analyzing the effects of cutting parameters on the surface roughness.

  2. Harmonic current prediction by impedance modeling of grid-tied inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Heverton A.; Freijedo, Francisco D.; Silva, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    and harmonic voltage profiles. Results reinforce that impedance models can represent with relatively accuracy the harmonic current emitted by the PV plants at the point of common coupling (PCC). Lastly, a stress test is performed to show how a variation in the harmonic voltage phase angle impacts the PV plant...... impedance models when used in harmonic integration studies. It is aimed to estimate the harmonic current contribution as a function of the background harmonic voltages components. Time domain simulations based on detailed and average models are compared with the impedance model developed in frequency domain....... In grids with harmonic voltages, impedance models can predict the current distortion for all active power injection scenarios. Furthermore, measurements in a 1.4 MW PV plant connected in a distributed grid are used to validate the simulation based on impedance models during different power injections...

  3. Predictive Pulse Pattern Current Modulation Scheme for Harmonic Reduction in Three-Phase Multidrive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz

    2016-01-01

    at the rectification stage to synthesize sinusoidal input currents. The input voltage sensing is avoided in order to minimize the number of required sensors, and the grid synchronization also has been implemented based on a common Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) using the DC-link capacitor voltage ripple. Experimental results......The majority of the industrial motor drive systems are equipped with the conventional line-commutated front-end rectifiers, and being one of the main sources of harmonics in the power line. While a parallel combination of these drive units elevates current quality issues, a proper arrangement...... of them can lead to the cancellation of specific harmonics. This paper proposes a new cost-effective harmonic mitigation solution for multi-drive systems using a predictive pulse pattern current modulation control strategy. The proposed technique applies suitable interaction among parallel drive units...

  4. Current psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy are predicted by maltreatment experiences during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Illies, Dominik; Herzig, Cornelia; Schröder, Katharina; Bien, Christian G; Neuner, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in epilepsy patients, it is unknown if childhood maltreatment experiences are elevated compared to the normal population and if early maltreatment is a risk factor for current psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. This is the main purpose of this study. Structured interviews were used to assess current Axis I diagnoses in 120 epilepsy patients from a tertiary Epilepsy Center (34 TLE patients, 86 non-TLE patients). Childhood maltreatment in the family and peer victimization were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' maltreatment scores were compared with those of a representative matched control group. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential impact of childhood maltreatment on current psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy patients. Compared to a matched control group, epilepsy patients had higher emotional and sexual maltreatment scores. Patients with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more family and peer maltreatment than patients without a psychiatric disorder. Family maltreatment scores predicted the likelihood of a current psychiatric disorder. TLE patients did not differ from non-TLE patients according to maltreatment experiences and rates of current psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest that in epilepsy patients emotional and sexual childhood maltreatment is experienced more often than in the normal population and that early maltreatment is a general risk factor for psychiatric comorbidities in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and implementation of predictive current control of three-phase PWM rectifier using space-vector modulation (SVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouafia, Abdelouahab; Gaubert, Jean-Paul; Krim, Fateh

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and implementation of current control of three-phase PWM rectifier based on predictive control strategy. The proposed predictive current control technique operates with constant switching frequency, using space-vector modulation (SVM). The main goal of the designed current control scheme is to maintain the dc-bus voltage at the required level and to achieve the unity power factor (UPF) operation of the converter. For this purpose, two predictive current control algorithms, in the sense of deadbeat control, are developed for direct controlling input current vector of the converter in the stationary α-β and rotating d-q reference frame, respectively. For both predictive current control algorithms, at the beginning of each switching period, the required rectifier average voltage vector allowing the cancellation of both tracking errors of current vector components at the end of the switching period, is computed and applied during a predefined switching period by means of SVM. The main advantages of the proposed predictive current control are that no need to use hysteresis comparators or PI controllers in current control loops, and constant switching frequency. Finally, the developed predictive current control algorithms were tested both in simulations and experimentally, and illustrative results are presented here. Results have proven excellent performance in steady and transient states, and verify the validity of the proposed predictive current control which is compared to other control strategies.

  6. Master Sintering Surface: A practical approach to its construction and utilization for Spark Plasma Sintering prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouchly V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering is a complex thermally activated process, thus any prediction of sintering behaviour is very welcome not only for industrial purposes. Presented paper shows the possibility of densification prediction based on concept of Master Sintering Surface (MSS for pressure assisted Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. User friendly software for evaluation of the MSS is presented. The concept was used for densification prediction of alumina ceramics sintered by SPS.

  7. Surface conductivity of Mercury provides current closure and may affect magnetospheric symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We study what effect a possible surface conductivity of Mercury has on the closure of magnetospheric currents by making six runs with a quasi-neutral hybrid simulation. The runs are otherwise identical but use different synthetic conductivity models: run 1 has a fully conducting planet, run 2 has a poorly conducting planet ( $sigma{=}10^{-8} Omega^{-1}$ m$^{-1}$ and runs 3-6 have one of the hemispheres either in the dawn-dusk or day-night directions, conducting well, the other one being conducting poorly. Although the surface conductivity is not known from observations, educated guesses easily give such conductivity values that magnetospheric currents may close partly within the planet, and as the conductivity depends heavily on the mineral composition of the surface, the possibility of significant horizontal variations cannot be easily excluded. The simulation results show that strong horizontal variations may produce modest magnetospheric asymmetries. Beyond the hybrid simulation, we also briefly discuss the possibility that in the nightside there may be a lack of surface electrons to carry downward current, which may act as a further source of surface-related magnetospheric asymmetry.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (planetary magnetospheres; current systems; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions.6

  8. Prediction of viscosities and surface tensions of fuels using a new corresponding states model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Queimada, A.J.; Rolo, L.I.; Caco, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    While some properties of diesels are cheap, easy and fast to measure, such as densities, others such as surface tensions and viscosities are expensive and time consuming. A new approach that uses some basic information such as densities to predict viscosities and surface tensions is here proposed......) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Study of leakage current behaviour on artificially polluted surface of ceramic insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Reddy, B.; Nagabhushana, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study concerning to the leakage current behaviour on artificially polluted ceramic insulator surface. From the present study it was observed that there is a reasonably well-defined inception of current i.e. scintillations at a finite voltage. The corresponding voltages for extinction of the current are in the range of 0.8 kV to 2.1 kV. Obviously, the dry band formed in the immediate vicinity of the pin prevents smooth current flow as the voltage rises from zero. Only when the voltage is adequate it causes a flashover of the dray band and current starts flowing. As is common in similar current extinction phenomena, here also, the extinction voltages are significantly lower than the inception voltages. Further, the voltage-current curves invariably show hysteresis-the leakage currents are lower in the reducing portion of the voltage. This is obviously due to drying of the wet pollutant layer thereby increasing its resistance. It is believed that this is the first time that such a direct quantitative evidence of drying in individual half cycles is experimentally visualized

  10. Determining the near-surface current profile from measurements of the wave dispersion relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin; Maxwell, Peter; Aesøy, Eirik; Ellingsen, Simen

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced Doppler shifts of waves can yield information about the background mean flow, providing an attractive method of inferring the current profile in the upper layer of the ocean. We present measurements of waves propagating on shear currents in a laboratory water channel, as well as theoretical investigations of inversion techniques for determining the vertical current structure. Spatial and temporal measurements of the free surface profile obtained using a synthetic Schlieren method are analyzed to determine the wave dispersion relation and Doppler shifts as a function of wavelength. The vertical current profile can then be inferred from the Doppler shifts using an inversion algorithm. Most existing algorithms rely on a priori assumptions of the shape of the current profile, and developing a method that uses less stringent assumptions is a focus of this study, allowing for measurement of more general current profiles. The accuracy of current inversion algorithms are evaluated by comparison to measurements of the mean flow profile from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and a discussion of the sensitivity to errors in the Doppler shifts is presented.

  11. Surface Temperature Prediction of a Bridge for Tactical Decision Aide Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Roadway And Piling Surface Temperature Predictions (No Radiosity Incident on Lower Surface) Compared to Temperature Estimates...Heat gained from water = Heat lost by long wave radiosity radiation. Algebraically, with the conduction term expressed in the same manner as for...5 10 15 20 LOCAL TIME (hrs.) Figure 8. Effect of No Radiosity Incident on Lower Surface. 37 U 8a M OT U% 60-- 0- o.. 20- 0- 1 T I I 5 10 15 20 LOCAL

  12. Near-surface current meter array measurements of internal gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    We have developed various processing algorithms used to estimate the wave forms produced by hydrodynamic Internal Waves. Furthermore, the estimated Internal Waves are used to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) which relates the current and strain rate subsurface fields to surface scattering phenomenon imaged by radar. Following a brief discussion of LLNL`s measurement platform (a 10 sensor current meter array) we described the generation of representative current and strain rate space-time images from measured or simulated data. Then, we present how our simulation capability highlighted limitations in estimating strain rate. These limitations spurred the application of beamforming techniques to enhance our estimates, albeit at the expense of collapsing our space-time images to 1-D estimates. Finally, we discuss progress with regard to processing the current meter array data captured during the recent Loch Linnhe field trials.

  13. The coupling of mechanical dynamics and induced currents in plates and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenburger, D.W.; Bialek, J.M.

    1986-10-01

    Significant mechanical reactions and deflections may be produced when electrical eddy currents induced in a conducting structure by transformer-like electromotive forces interact with background magnetic fields. Additional eddy currents induced by structural motion through the background fields modify both the mechanical and electrical dynamic behavior of the system. The observed effects of these motional eddy currents are sometimes referred to as magnetic damping and magnetic stiffness. This paper addresses the coupled structural deformation and eddy currents in flat plates and simple two-dimensional surfaces in three-space. A coupled system of equations has been formulated using finite element techniques for the mechanical aspects and a mesh network method for the electrical aspects of the problem

  14. Ultrafast terahertz control of extreme tunnel currents through single atoms on a silicon surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelic, Vedran; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Nguyen, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    scanning tunnelling microscopy (THz-STM) in ultrahigh vacuum as a new platform for exploring ultrafast non-equilibrium tunnelling dynamics with atomic precision. Extreme terahertz-pulse-driven tunnel currents up to 10(7) times larger than steady-state currents in conventional STM are used to image...... terahertz-induced band bending and non-equilibrium charging of surface states opens new conduction pathways to the bulk, enabling extreme transient tunnel currents to flow between the tip and sample.......Ultrafast control of current on the atomic scale is essential for future innovations in nanoelectronics. Extremely localized transient electric fields on the nanoscale can be achieved by coupling picosecond duration terahertz pulses to metallic nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate terahertz...

  15. Preface: Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancho, Ana M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; López, Cristóbal; Turiel, Antonio; Wiggins, Stephen; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The third edition of the international workshop Nonlinear Processes in Oceanic and Atmospheric Flows was held at the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (ICMAT) in Madrid from 6 to 8 July 2016. The event gathered oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, physicists, and applied mathematicians sharing a common interest in the nonlinear dynamics of geophysical fluid flows. The philosophy of this meeting was to bring together researchers from a variety of backgrounds into an environment that favoured a vigorous discussion of concepts across different disciplines. The present Special Issue on Current perspectives in modelling, monitoring, and predicting geophysical fluid dynamics contains selected contributions, mainly from attendants of the workshop, providing an updated perspective on modelling aspects of geophysical flows as well as issues on prediction and assimilation of observational data and novel tools for describing transport and mixing processes in these contexts. More details on these aspects are discussed in this preface.

  16. Modeling and evaluating of surface roughness prediction in micro-grinding on soda-lime glass considering tool characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Gong, Yadong; Wang, Jinsheng

    2013-11-01

    The current research of micro-grinding mainly focuses on the optimal processing technology for different materials. However, the material removal mechanism in micro-grinding is the base of achieving high quality processing surface. Therefore, a novel method for predicting surface roughness in micro-grinding of hard brittle materials considering micro-grinding tool grains protrusion topography is proposed in this paper. The differences of material removal mechanism between convention grinding process and micro-grinding process are analyzed. Topography characterization has been done on micro-grinding tools which are fabricated by electroplating. Models of grain density generation and grain interval are built, and new predicting model of micro-grinding surface roughness is developed. In order to verify the precision and application effect of the surface roughness prediction model proposed, a micro-grinding orthogonally experiment on soda-lime glass is designed and conducted. A series of micro-machining surfaces which are 78 nm to 0.98 μm roughness of brittle material is achieved. It is found that experimental roughness results and the predicting roughness data have an evident coincidence, and the component variable of describing the size effects in predicting model is calculated to be 1.5×107 by reverse method based on the experimental results. The proposed model builds a set of distribution to consider grains distribution densities in different protrusion heights. Finally, the characterization of micro-grinding tools which are used in the experiment has been done based on the distribution set. It is concluded that there is a significant coincidence between surface prediction data from the proposed model and measurements from experiment results. Therefore, the effectiveness of the model is demonstrated. This paper proposes a novel method for predicting surface roughness in micro-grinding of hard brittle materials considering micro-grinding tool grains protrusion

  17. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-11-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance.

  18. Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Shengzhi; Gao, Bo; Wu, Aimin; Zou, Jianxin; Qin, Ying; Dong, Chuang; An, Jian; Guan, Qingfeng

    2005-01-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) is now developing as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. When concentrated electron flux transferring its energy into a very thin surface layer within a short pulse time, superfast processes such as heating, melting, evaporation and consequent solidification, as well as dynamic stress induced may impart the surface layer with improved physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This paper presents our research work on surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy with HCPEB of working parameters as electron energy 27 keV, pulse duration ∼1 μs and energy density ∼2.2 J/cm 2 per pulse. Investigations performed on carbon steel T8, mold steel D2 and magnesium alloy AZ91HP have shown that the most pronounced changes of phase-structure state and properties occurring in the near-surface layers, while the thickness of the modified layer with improved microhardness (several hundreds of micrometers) is significantly greater than that of the heat-affected zone. The formation mechanisms of surface cratering and non-stationary hardening effect in depth are discussed based on the elucidation of non-equilibrium temperature filed and different kinds of stresses formed during pulsed electron beam melting treatment. After the pulsed electron beam treatments, samples show significant improvements in measurements of wear and corrosion resistance

  19. Basic research into eddy current testing of austenetic weld joints and surface claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.

    1976-01-01

    The result of research work has shown that the eddy-current testing method can be used for austenetic steel up to 10 mm thick to detect cracks in the material. An exception to this are laminations if they are parallel to the surface. Cracks in the various geometrical positions in the test specimen produce different results in the x-y plot. They are influenced by the direction of the material cracks. Research into the influence the geometric parameters have on the indications shows that the eddy-current method provides clearer interpretations of material cracks than any other non-destructive test method known. (orig.) [de

  20. A numerical study of wave-current interaction through surface and bottom stresses: Coastal ocean response to Hurricane Fran of 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L.; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Wu, K.

    2003-02-01

    A three-dimensional wave-current coupled modeling system is used to examine the influence of waves on coastal currents and sea level. This coupled modeling system consists of the wave model-WAM (Cycle 4) and the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). The results from this study show that it is important to incorporate surface wave effects into coastal storm surge and circulation models. Specifically, we find that (1) storm surge models without coupled surface waves generally under estimate not only the peak surge but also the coastal water level drop which can also cause substantial impact on the coastal environment, (2) introducing wave-induced surface stress effect into storm surge models can significantly improve storm surge prediction, (3) incorporating wave-induced bottom stress into the coupled wave-current model further improves storm surge prediction, and (4) calibration of the wave module according to minimum error in significant wave height does not necessarily result in an optimum wave module in a wave-current coupled system for current and storm surge prediction.

  1. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2014-08-01

    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability of alternating current discharges between water drops on insulation surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, S M; Lin, F C

    2006-01-01

    Discharges between water drops are important in the ageing of hydrophobic outdoor insulators. They may also be important in the processes leading up to flashover of these insulators in high pollution conditions. This paper considers discharges between drops when a limited alternating current is available, as experienced by an ageing insulator in service. A phenomenon is identified in which the length of a discharge between two drops is reduced through a particular type of distortion of the drops. This is visually characterized as a liquid protrusion from each of a pair of water drops along the insulator surface. This process is distinct from vibration of the drops, general distortion of their shape and the very fast emission of jet streams seen in very high fields. The process depends upon the discharge current, the resistivity of the moisture and the hydrophobicity of the insulation surface

  3. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadin, V. V., E-mail: fvv@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, M. I., E-mail: aleut@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Seversk Technological Institute, Branch of State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Seversk, 636036 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, V. Ye., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Aleutdinova, V. A., E-mail: valery-aleut@yandex.ru [National Research St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  4. Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The widely used cascade speed and torque controllers have a limited control performance in most high power applications due to the low switching frequency of power electronic converters and the convenience to avoid speed overshoots and oscillations for lifetime considerations. Model Predictive...... Direct Current Control (MPDCC) leads to an increase of torque control performance taking into account the discrete nature of inverters but temporary offsets and poor responses to load torque variations are still issues in speed control. A load torque estimator is proposed in this paper in order...

  5. Prediction of burnout of a conduction-cooled BSCCO current lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, S.Y.; Cha, Y.S.; Niemann, R.C.; Hull, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A one-dimensional heat conduction model is employed to predict burnout of a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 current lead. The upper end of the lead is assumed to be at 77 K and the lower end is at 4 K. The results show that burnout always occurs at the warmer end of the lead. The lead reaches its burnout temperature in two distinct stage. Initially, the temperature rises slowly when part of the lead is in flux-flow state. As the local temperature reaches the critical temperature, it begins to increase sharply. Burnout time depends strongly on flux-flow resistivity

  6. Station-keeping control of an unmanned surface vehicle exposed to current and wind disturbances

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda, Edoardo I.; Qu, Huajin; Bertaska, Ivan R.; von Ellenrieder, Karl D.

    2017-01-01

    Field trials of a 4 meter long, 180 kilogram, unmanned surface vehicle (USV) have been conducted to evaluate the performance of station-keeping heading and position controllers in an outdoor marine environment disturbed by wind and current. The USV has a twin hull configuration and a custom-designed propulsion system, which consists of two azimuthing thrusters, one for each hull. Nonlinear proportional derivative, backstepping and sliding mode feedback controllers were tested in winds of abou...

  7. Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Volume 1 Current Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Bovensiepen, Uwe; Wolf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This two-volume work covers ultrafast structural and electronic dynamics of elementary processes at solid surfaces and interfaces, presenting the current status of photoinduced processes. Providing valuable introductory information for newcomers to this booming field of research, it investigates concepts and experiments, femtosecond and attosecond time-resolved methods, as well as frequency domain techniques. The whole is rounded off by a look at future developments.

  8. Detection of milled 100Cr6 steel surface by eddy current and incremental permeance methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy; Neslušan, M.; Stupakov, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 87, Apr (2017), s. 15-23 ISSN 0963-8695 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA ČR GA13-18993S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Eddy currents * hard milling * incremental permeance * magnetic materials * surface characterization Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2016

  9. Unsupervised Classification of Surface Defects in Wire Rod Production Obtained by Eddy Current Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saludes-Rodil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An unsupervised approach to classify surface defects in wire rod manufacturing is developed in this paper. The defects are extracted from an eddy current signal and classified using a clustering technique that uses the dynamic time warping distance as the dissimilarity measure. The new approach has been successfully tested using industrial data. It is shown that it outperforms other classification alternatives, such as the modified Fourier descriptors.

  10. Risk assessment based on current release standards for radioactive surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1993-09-01

    Standards for uncontrolled releases of radioactive surface contamination have been in existence in the United States for about two decades. Such standards have been issued by various agencies, including the US Department of Energy. This paper reviews the technical basis of published standards, identifies areas in need of revision, provides risk interpretations based on current technical knowledge and the regulatory environment, and offers suggestions for improvements

  11. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Elshayeb

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. Objectives The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Methods Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. Results A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax − b. Minimum bactericidal concentration’s predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n ex and the predictive coefficient R2 > 0 < 1 are approximately alike. It was assumed that resistant bacteria occurred with a constant rate of antibiotic doses during the whole experimental period. Thus, the number of sensitive bacteria decreases at the same rate as resistant occur following term to the modified predictive model which solved computationally. Conclusion This study assesses the prediction of multi-drug resistance among S. Typhi isolates by applying low cost materials and simple statistical methods suitable for the most frequently used antibiotics as typhoid empirical therapy. Therefore, bacterial surveillance systems should be implemented to present data on the aetiology and current

  12. Poleward propagating subinertial alongshore surface currents off the U.S. West Coast

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2013-12-01

    The network comprising 61 high-frequency radar systems along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) provides a unique, high resolution, and broad scale view of ocean surface circulation. Subinertial alongshore surface currents show poleward propagating signals with phase speeds of O(10) and O(100-300) km d -1 that are consistent with historical in situ observations off the USWC and that can be possibly interpreted as coastally trapped waves (CTWs). The propagating signals in the slow mode are partly observed in southern California, which may result from scattering and reflection of higher-mode CTWs due to curvature of shoreline and bathymetry near Point Conception, California. On the other hand, considering the order of the phase speed in the slow mode, the poleward propagating signals may be attributed to alongshore advection or pressure-driven flows. A statistical regression of coastal winds at National Data Buoy Center buoys on the observed surface currents partitions locally and remotely wind-forced components, isolates footprints of the equatorward propagating storm events in winter off the USWC, and shows the poleward propagating signals year round. Key Points A unique resource to examine synoptic-scale alongshore variability Isolation of equatorward wind events in winter using a statistical model Poleward propagating surface signals year-round © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  14. Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.C.; Hao, S.Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm 2 and pulse duration 2.5 μs. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic α phase and Mg 17 Al 12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth ∼15 μm. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg 3.1 Al 0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg 17 Al 12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

  15. Predictive Trailing-Edge Modulation Average Current Control in DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LASCU, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates predictive digital average current control (PDACC in dc/dc converters using trailing-edge modulation (TEM. The study is focused on the recurrence duty cycle equation and then stability analysis is performed. It is demonstrated that average current control using trailing-edge modulation is stable on the whole range of the duty cycle and thus design problems are highly reduced. The analysis is carried out in a general manner, independent of converter topology and therefore the results can then be easily applied for a certain converter (buck, boost, buck-boost, etc.. The theoretical considerations are confirmed for a boost converter first using the MATLAB program based on state-space equations and finally with the CASPOC circuit simulation package.

  16. A Grid Connected Transformerless Inverter and its Model Predictive Control Strategy with Leakage Current Elimination Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fallah Ardashir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new single phase transformerless Photovoltaic (PV inverter for grid connected systems. It consists of six power switches, two diodes, one capacitor and filter at the output stage. The neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal of the source. This results in constant common mode voltage and zero leakage current. Model Predictive Controller (MPC technique is used to modulate the converter to reduce the output current ripple and filter requirements. The main advantages of this inverter are compact size, low cost, flexible grounding configuration. Due to brevity, the operating principle and analysis of the proposed circuit are presented in brief. Simulation and experimental results of 200W prototype are shown at the end to validate the proposed topology and concept. The results obtained clearly verifies the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application for grid connected PV systems.

  17. Development of chipless, wireless current sensor system based on giant magnetoimpedance magnetic sensor and surface acoustic wave transponder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondalkar, Vijay V; Li, Xiang; Park, Ikmo; Yang, Sang Sik; Lee, Keekeun

    2018-02-05

    A chipless, wireless current sensor system was developed using a giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) magnetic sensor and one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line for real-time power monitoring in a current-carrying conductor. The GMI sensor has a high-quality crystalline structure in each layer, which contributes to a high sensitivity and good linearity in a magnetic field of 3-16 Oe. A 400 MHz RF energy generated from the interdigital transducer (IDT)-type reflector on the one-port SAW delay line was used as an activation source for the GMI magnetic sensor. The one-port SAW delay line replaces the presently existing transceiver system, which is composed of thousands of transistors, thus enabling chipless and wireless operation. We confirmed a large variation in the amplitude of the SAW reflection peak with a change in the impedance of the GMI sensor caused by the current flow through the conductor. Good linearity and sensitivity of ~0.691 dB/A were observed for currents in the range 1-12 A. Coupling of Mode (COM) modeling and impedance matching analysis were also performed to predict the device performance in advance and these were compared with the experimental results.

  18. Dilution and Ferrite Number Prediction in Pulsed Current Cladding of Super-Duplex Stainless Steel Using RSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlimi, Abbas; Shamanian, Morteza; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-12-01

    Super-duplex stainless steels have an excellent combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance at relatively low temperatures and can be used as a coating to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of low carbon and low alloy steels. Such coatings can be produced using weld cladding. In this study, pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process was utilized to deposit super-duplex stainless steel on high strength low alloy steel substrates. In such claddings, it is essential to understand how the dilution affects the composition and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel layer in order to be able to estimate its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In the current study, the effect of pulsed current gas tungsten arc cladding process parameters on the dilution and ferrite number of super-duplex stainless steel clad layer was investigated by applying response surface methodology. The validity of the proposed models was investigated by using quadratic regression models and analysis of variance. The results showed an inverse relationship between dilution and ferrite number. They also showed that increasing the heat input decreases the ferrite number. The proposed mathematical models are useful for predicting and controlling the ferrite number within an acceptable range for super-duplex stainless steel cladding.

  19. Numerical Studies of Friction Between Metallic Surfaces and of its Dependence on Electric Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintanis, Evangelos; Marder, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We will present molecular dynamics simulations that explore the frictional mechanisms between clean metallic surfaces. We employ the HOLA molecular dynamics code to run slider-on-block experiments. Both objects are allowed to evolve freely. We recover realistic coefficients of friction and verify the importance of cold-welding and plastic deformations in dry sliding friction. We also find that plastic deformations can significantly affect both objects, despite a difference in hardness. Metallic contacts have significant technological applications in the transmission of electric currents. To explore the effects of the latter to sliding, we had to integrate an electrodynamics solver into the molecular dynamics code. The disparate time scales involved posed a challenge, but we have developed an efficient scheme for such an integration. A limited electrodynamic solver has been implemented and we are currently exploring the effects of currents in the friction and wear of metallic contacts.

  20. Prediction of leakage current of non-ceramic insulators in early aging period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hag, Ayman H. [Electrical Engineering Department, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Jahromi, Ali Naderian [Kinectrics Inc., Transmission and Distribution Technologies, Toronto (Canada); Sanaye-Pasand, Majid [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Tehran (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    The paper presents a neural network based prediction technique for the leakage current (LC) of non-ceramic insulators during salt-fog test. Nearly 50 distribution class silicone rubber (SIR) insulators with three different voltage classes have been tested in a salt-fog chamber, where the LC has been continuously recorded for at least 100 h. A boundary for early aging period is defined by the rate of change of the LC instead of a fixed threshold value. Consequently, the Gaussian radial basis network has been adopted to predict the level of LC at the early stage of aging of the SIR insulators and is compared with a classical network. The initial values of LC and its rate of change at 10 min intervals for the first 5 h are selected as the input to the network, and the final value of LC of the early aging period is considered as the output of the network. It is found that Gaussian radial basis function network with a random optimizing training method is an appropriate network to predict the LC with a 3.5-5.3% accuracy, if the training data and the testing data are selected from the same type of SIR insulators. (author)

  1. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshayeb, Ayman A; Ahmed, Abdelazim A; El Siddig, Marmar A; El Hussien, Adil A

    2017-11-14

    Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax - b). Minimum bactericidal concentration's predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n e x ) and the predictive coefficient R 2  > 0 current antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of community-acquired agents causing outbreaks.

  2. CONTROLLING INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON SOLAR WIND OUTFLOW: AN INVESTIGATION USING CURRENT SHEET SOURCE SURFACE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poduval, B., E-mail: bpoduval@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    This Letter presents the results of an investigation into the controlling influence of large-scale magnetic field of the Sun in determining the solar wind outflow using two magnetostatic coronal models: current sheet source surface (CSSS) and potential field source surface. For this, we made use of the Wang and Sheeley inverse correlation between magnetic flux expansion rate (FTE) and observed solar wind speed (SWS) at 1 au. During the period of study, extended over solar cycle 23 and beginning of solar cycle 24, we found that the coefficients of the fitted quadratic equation representing the FTE–SWS inverse relation exhibited significant temporal variation, implying the changing pattern of the influence of FTE on SWS over time. A particularly noteworthy feature is an anomaly in the behavior of the fitted coefficients during the extended minimum, 2008–2010 (CRs 2073–2092), which is considered due to the particularly complex nature of the solar magnetic field during this period. However, this variation was significant only for the CSSS model, though not a systematic dependence on the phase of the solar cycle. Further, we noticed that the CSSS model demonstrated better solar wind prediction during the period of study, which we attribute to the treatment of volume and sheet currents throughout the corona and the more accurate tracing of footpoint locations resulting from the geometry of the model.

  3. Influence of an External DC Electric Current on Plasma Cleaning Rate: an Application on the Enlarged Plasma-Surface Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xaplanteris, Constantine L.; Filippaki, Eleni D.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades many researchers have been occupied with other plasma applications apart from the big challenge which the thermonuclear fusion poses. Many experiments have been carried out on the plasma behavior in contact with a solid surface; when the surface material consists of chemical compounds (e.g. oxides of metals), then the plasma chemistry takes place. The present paper contains the final experimental and theoretical work of Plasma Laboratory at “Demokritos , which consists of an elaboration of plasma sheath parameters adapted to experimental conditions, a suitable choice of plasma gases (either H 2 or N 2 ), and an electric potential current enforcement on objects. Additionally, a brief theory is given to explain the results, with a short reference to both boundary phenomena in thermonuclear reactors and low pressure plasma of glow discharges, so as to reveal the similarities and differences of these two cases. An extensive examination of the treated objects by X-ray diffraction method (XRD) gives results in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Using this improvement on plasma restoration system, (a combination of electric current on metallic object into suitable plasma), it is shown that better results can be achieved on the cleaning and conservation of archaeological objects. (plasma technology)

  4. Improvement of gas entrainment prediction method. Introduction of surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Sakai, Takaaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Uchibori, Akihiro; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Monji, Hideaki; Xu, Yongze

    2010-01-01

    A gas entrainment (GE) prediction method has been developed to establish design criteria for the large-scale sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) systems. The prototype of the GE prediction method was already confirmed to give reasonable gas core lengths by simple calculation procedures. However, for simplification, the surface tension effects were neglected. In this paper, the evaluation accuracy of gas core lengths is improved by introducing the surface tension effects into the prototype GE prediction method. First, the mechanical balance between gravitational, centrifugal, and surface tension forces is considered. Then, the shape of a gas core tip is approximated by a quadratic function. Finally, using the approximated gas core shape, the authors determine the gas core length satisfying the mechanical balance. This improved GE prediction method is validated by analyzing the gas core lengths observed in simple experiments. Results show that the analytical gas core lengths calculated by the improved GE prediction method become shorter in comparison to the prototype GE prediction method, and are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the experimental data under different temperature and surfactant concentration conditions are reproduced by the improved GE prediction method. (author)

  5. Computation of antenna pattern correlation and MIMO performance by means of surface current distribution and spherical wave theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the stringent demand for an accurate prediction of MIMO channel capacity and diversity performance in wireless communications, more effective and suitable models that account for real antenna radiation behavior have to be taken into account. One of the main challenges is the accurate modeling of antenna correlation that is directly related to the amount of channel capacity or diversity gain which might be achieved in multi element antenna configurations. Therefore spherical wave theory in electromagnetics is a well known technique to express antenna far fields by means of a compact field expansion with a reduced number of unknowns that was recently applied to derive an analytical approach in the computation of antenna pattern correlation. In this paper we present a novel and efficient computational technique to determine antenna pattern correlation based on the evaluation of the surface current distribution by means of a spherical mode expansion.

  6. InterProSurf: a web server for predicting interacting sites on protein surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Surendra S.; Schein, Catherine H.; Oezguen, Numan; Power, Trevor D.; Braun, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Summary A new web server, InterProSurf, predicts interacting amino acid residues in proteins that are most likely to interact with other proteins, given the 3D structures of subunits of a protein complex. The prediction method is based on solvent accessible surface area of residues in the isolated subunits, a propensity scale for interface residues and a clustering algorithm to identify surface regions with residues of high interface propensities. Here we illustrate the application of InterProSurf to determine which areas of Bacillus anthracis toxins and measles virus hemagglutinin protein interact with their respective cell surface receptors. The computationally predicted regions overlap with those regions previously identified as interface regions by sequence analysis and mutagenesis experiments. PMID:17933856

  7. Response Surface Design Model to Predict Surface Roughness when Machining Hastelloy C-2000 using Uncoated Carbide Insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, N H; Rahman, M M; Kadirgama, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents to develop of the response surface design model to predict the surface roughness for end-milling operation of Hastelloy C-2000 using uncoated carbide insert. Mathematical model is developed to study the effect of three input cutting parameters includes the feed rate, axial depth of cut and cutting speed. Design of experiments (DOE) was implemented with the aid of the statistical software package. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been performed to verify the fit and adequacy of the developed mathematical model. The result shows that the feed rate gave the more effect on the both prediction values of Ra compared to the cutting speed and axial depth of cut. SEM and EDX analyses were performed in different cutting conditions. It can be concluded that the feed rate and cutting force give the higher impact to influence the machining characteristics of surface roughness. Thus, the optimizing the cutting conditions are essential in order to improve the surface roughness in machining of Hastlelloy C-2000.

  8. Thinking outside the boxes: Using current reading models to assess and treat developmental surface dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Caroline; Cupples, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Improving the reading performance of children with developmental surface dyslexia has proved challenging, with limited generalisation of reading skills typically reported after intervention. The aim of this study was to provide tailored, theoretically motivated intervention to two children with developmental surface dyslexia. Our objectives were to improve their reading performance, and to evaluate the utility of current reading models in therapeutic practice. Detailed reading and cognitive profiles for two male children with developmental surface dyslexia were compared to the results obtained by age-matched control groups. The specific area of single-word reading difficulty for each child was identified within the dual route model (DRM) of reading, following which a theoretically motivated intervention programme was devised. Both children showed significant improvements in single-word reading ability after training, with generalisation effects observed for untrained words. However, the assessment and intervention results also differed for each child, reinforcing the view that the causes and consequences of developmental dyslexia, even within subtypes, are not homogeneous. Overall, the results of the interventions corresponded more closely with the DRM than other current reading models, in that real word reading improved in the absence of enhanced nonword reading for both children.

  9. Modeling of the anode surface deformation in high-current vacuum arcs with AMF contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Jia, Shenli; Qin, Kang; Shi, Zongqian

    2016-01-01

    A high-current vacuum arc subjected to an axial magnetic field is maintained in a diffuse status. With an increase in arc current, the energy carried by the arc column to the anode becomes larger and finally leads to the anode temperature exceeding the melting point of the anode material. When the anode melting pool is formed, and the rotational plasma of the arc column delivers its momentum to the melting pool, the anode melting pool starts to rotate and also flow outwards along the radial direction, which has been photographed by some researchers using high-speed cameras. In this paper, the anode temperature and melting status is calculated using the melting and solidification model. The swirl flow of the anode melting pool and deformation of the anode is calculated using the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model with the volume of fraction (VOF) method. All the models are transient 2D axial-rotational symmetric models. The influence of the impaction force of the arc plasma, electromagnetic force, viscosity force, and surface tension of the liquid metal are all considered in the model. The heat flux density injected into the anode and the arc pressure are obtained from the 3D numerical simulation of the high-current vacuum arc using the MHD model, which gives more realistic parameters for the anode simulation. Simulation results show that the depth of the anode melting pool increases with an increase in the arc current. Some droplets sputter out from the anode surface, which is caused by the inertial centrifugal force of the rotational melting pool and strong plasma pressure. Compared with the previous anode melting model without consideration of anode deformation, when the deformation and swirl flow of the anode melting pool are considered, the anode temperature is relatively lower, and just a little more than the melting point of Cu. This is because of liquid droplets sputtering out of the anode surface taking much of the energy away from the anode surface. The

  10. Interannual Variations of Surface Currents and Transports in the Sicily Channel Derived From Coastal Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebri, Fatma; Zakardjian, Bruno; Birol, Florence; Bouffard, Jérôme; Jullion, Loïc.; Sammari, Cherif

    2017-11-01

    A 20 year coastal altimetry data set (X-TRACK) is used, for the first time, to gain insight into the long-term interannual variations of the surface circulation in the Sicily Channel. First, a spectral along with a time/space diagram analysis are applied to the monthly means. They reveal a regionally coherent current patterns from track to track with a marked interannual variability that is unequally shared between the Atlantic Tunisian Current and Atlantic Ionian Stream inflows in the Sicily Channel and the Bifurcation Tyrrhenian Current outflow northeast of Sicily. Second, an empirical altimetry-based transport-like technique is proposed to quantify volume budgets inside the closed boxes formed by the crossing of the altimetry tracks and coastlines over the study area. A set of hydrographic measurements is used to validate the method. The inferred altimetry transports give a well-balanced mean eastward Atlantic Waters baroclinic flow of 0.4 Sv and standard deviations of 0.2 Sv on a yearly basis throughout the Sicily Channel and toward the Ionian Sea, which is fairly coherent with those found in the literature. Furthermore, the analysis allows to quantify the intrusions of Atlantic Waters over the Tunisian Shelf (0.12 ± 0.1 Sv) and highlights two main modes of variability of the main surface waters path over the Sicily Channel through the Bifurcation Atlantic Tunisian Current and Atlantic Ionian Stream systems. Some physical mechanisms are finally discussed with regards to changes in the observed currents and transports.

  11. Solar Atmosphere to Earth's Surface: Long Lead Time dB/dt Predictions with the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Manchester, W.; Savani, N.; Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Jin, M.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The future of space weather prediction depends on the community's ability to predict L1 values from observations of the solar atmosphere, which can yield hours of lead time. While both empirical and physics-based L1 forecast methods exist, it is not yet known if this nascent capability can translate to skilled dB/dt forecasts at the Earth's surface. This paper shows results for the first forecast-quality, solar-atmosphere-to-Earth's-surface dB/dt predictions. Two methods are used to predict solar wind and IMF conditions at L1 for several real-world coronal mass ejection events. The first method is an empirical and observationally based system to estimate the plasma characteristics. The magnetic field predictions are based on the Bz4Cast system which assumes that the CME has a cylindrical flux rope geometry locally around Earth's trajectory. The remaining plasma parameters of density, temperature and velocity are estimated from white-light coronagraphs via a variety of triangulation methods and forward based modelling. The second is a first-principles-based approach that combines the Eruptive Event Generator using Gibson-Low configuration (EEGGL) model with the Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM). EEGGL specifies parameters for the Gibson-Low flux rope such that it erupts, driving a CME in the coronal model that reproduces coronagraph observations and propagates to 1AU. The resulting solar wind predictions are used to drive the operational Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) for geospace. Following the configuration used by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center, this setup couples the BATS-R-US global magnetohydromagnetic model to the Rice Convection Model (RCM) ring current model and a height-integrated ionosphere electrodynamics model. The long lead time predictions of dB/dt are compared to model results that are driven by L1 solar wind observations. Both are compared to real-world observations from surface magnetometers at a variety of geomagnetic latitudes

  12. Fuel particles in the Chernobyl cooling pond: current state and prediction for remediation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, A.; Konoplev, A.; Smith, J.; Laptev, G.; Voitsekhovich, O.

    2009-01-01

    During the coming years, a management and remediation strategy for the Chernobyl cooling pond (CP) will be implemented. Remediation options include a controlled reduction in surface water level of the cooling pond and stabilisation of exposed sediments. In terrestrial soils, fuel particles deposited during the Chernobyl accident have now almost completely disintegrated. However, in the CP sediments the majority of 90 Sr activity is still in the form of fuel particles. Due to the low dissolved oxygen concentration and high pH, dissolution of fuel particles in the CP sediments is significantly slower than in soils. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the Pond, significant areas of sediments will be drained and exposed to the air. This will significantly enhance the dissolution rate and, correspondingly, the mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will increase with time. The rate of acidification of exposed bottom sediments was predicted on the basis of acidification of similar soils after liming. Using empirical equations relating the fuel particle dissolution rate to soil and sediment pH allowed prediction of fuel particle dissolution and 90 Sr mobilisation for different remediation scenarios. It is shown that in exposed sediments, fuel particles will be almost completely dissolved in 15-25 years, while in parts of the cooling pond which remain flooded, fuel particle dissolution will take about a century

  13. High Performance Carbon Nanotube Yarn Supercapacitors with a Surface-Oxidized Copper Current Collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daohong; Wu, Yunlong; Li, Ting; Huang, Yin; Zhang, Aiqing; Miao, Menghe

    2015-11-25

    Threadlike linear supercapacitors have demonstrated high potential for constructing fabrics to power electronic textiles (eTextiles). To improve the cyclic electrochemical performance and to produce power fabrics large enough for practical applications, a current collector has been introduced into the linear supercapcitors to transport charges produced by active materials along the length of the supercapacitor with high efficiency. Here, we first screened six candidate metal filaments (Pt, Au, Ag, AuAg, PtCu, and Cu) as current collectors for carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn-based linear supercapacitors. Although all of the metal filaments significantly improved the electrochemical performance of the linear supercapacitor, two supercapacitors constructed from Cu and PtCu filaments, respectively, demonstrate far better electrochemical performance than the other four supercapacitors. Further investigation shows that the surfaces of the two Cu-containing filaments are oxidized by the surrounding polymer electrolyte in the electrode. While the unoxidized core of the Cu-containing filaments remains highly conductive and functions as a current collector, the resulting CuO on the surface is an electrochemically active material. The linear supercapacitor architecture incorporating dual active materials CNT + Cu extends the potential window from 1.0 to 1.4 V, leading to significant improvement to the energy density and power density.

  14. RIKEN 200 kV high current implanter for metal surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, M.; Yoshida, K.; Sakudo, N.

    1985-01-01

    A high current, metal ion implanter was constructed in order to aid the formation of a new metastable surface alloy. This implanter, called a RIKEN 200 kV high current implanter, is a modified Lintott high current machine (Series III), which has the advantages of having its own microwave ion source and an extra target chamber. The microwave discharge ion source without a hot-filament has a comparatively long lifetime because the chloride ions and radicals in a plasma during discharge of metal chlorides might prevent metal to deposit on the inner walls of the discharge chamber by bombarding and chemically cleaning them. An extra target chamber for metal modification is able to control the surface composition by utilizing the sputtering effect of the ion beam during ion implantation. The use of this ion source and the extra target chamber is suggested to be suitable for the production of metallic ions and for the implantation into metals. The case study will be introduced for TI implantation into Fe. (orig.)

  15. Eddy current technique for detecting and sizing surface cracks in steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecco, V.S.; Carter, J.R.; Sullivan, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Cracking has occurred in pressure vessel nozzles and girth welds due to thermal fatigue. Pipe welds, welds in support structures, and welds in reactor vault liner panels in nuclear facilities have failed because of cracks. Cracking can also occur in turbine rotor bore surfaces due to high cycle fatigue. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and other surface NDT methods are used to detect cracks but cannot be used for depth sizing. Crack depth can be measured with various NDT methods such as ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), potential drop, and eddy current. The TOFD technique can be difficult to implement on nozzle welds and is best suited for sizing deep cracks (>5 mm). The conventional eddy current method is easy to implement, but crack sizing is normally limited to shallow cracks ( 2 mm) cracks. Eddy current testing (ET) techniques are readily amenable to remote/automatic inspections. These new probes could augment present magnetic particle (MT) and dye penetrant (PT) testing through provision of reliable defect depth information. Reliable crack sizing permits identification of critical cracks for plant life extension and licensing purposes. In addition, performing PT and MT generates low level radioactive waste in some inspection applications in nuclear facilities. Replacing these techniques with ET for some components will eliminate some of this radioactive waste. (author)

  16. Prediction of surface tension of binary mixtures with the parachor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parachor method for the estimation of the surface tension of binary mixtures is modified by considering temperature-dependent values of the parachor parameters. The temperature dependence is calculated by a least-squares fit of pure-solvent surface tension data to the binary parachor equation utilizing the Peng-Robinson equation of state for the calculation of equilibrium densities. A very good agreement between experimental binary surface tension data and the predictions of the modified parachor method are found for the case of the mixtures of carbon dioxide and butane, benzene, and cyclohexane, respectively. The surface tension is also predicted for three refrigerant mixtures, i.e. propane, isobutane, and chlorodifluoromethane, with carbon dioxide.

  17. Evaluating empirical/analytical techniques to predict structural integrity of pipe containing surface flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, W.G.; Server, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    Data from flat-plate specimens containing either triangular-, ellipsoidal- or rectangular-shaped surface flaws were evaluated by several potential analytical techniques. These techniques were modified as needed to predict conditions for initiation of subcritical crack growth, for the defect to penetrate the 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) wall thickness, and for instability (plastic or unstable). The modified analytical techniques developed from the plate specimens were then used to make predictions which are compared with test results obtained from pipe specimens containing triangular-shaped surface flaws

  18. Experimental study of the surface thermal signature of gravity currents: application to the assessment of lava flow effusion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

    2011-12-01

    During an effusive volcanic eruption, the crisis management is mainly based on the prediction of lava flows advance and its velocity. As the spreading of lava flows is mainly controlled by its rheology and the eruptive mass flux, the key question is how to evaluate them during the eruption (rather than afterwards.) A relationship between the heat flux lost by the lava at its surface and the eruption rate is likely to exist, based on the first-order argument that higher eruption rates should correspond to larger power radiated by a lava flow. The semi-empirical formula developed by Harris and co-workers (e.g. Harris et al., Bull. Volc. 2007) is currently used to estimate lava flow rate from satellite surveys yielding the surface temperatures and area of the lava flow field. However, this approach is derived from a static thermal budget of the lava flow and does not explicitly model the time-evolution of the surface thermal signal. Here we propose laboratory experiments and theoretical studies of the cooling of a viscous axisymmetric gravity current fed at constant flux rate. We first consider the isoviscous case, for which the spreading is well-know. The experiments using silicon oil and the theoretical model both reveal the establishment of a steady surface thermal structure after a transient time. The steady state is a balance between surface cooling and heat advection in the flow. The radiated heat flux in the steady regime, a few days for a basaltic lava flow, depends mainly on the effusion rate rather than on the viscosity. In this regime, one thermal survey of the radiated power could provide a consistent estimate of the flow rate if the external cooling conditions (wind) are reasonably well constrained. We continue to investigate the relationship between the thermal radiated heat flux and the effusion rate by using in the experiments fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity (glucose syrup) or undergoing solidification while cooling (PEG wax). We observe a

  19. Noether Current of the Surface Term of Einstein-Hilbert Action, Virasoro Algebra, and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhas Ranjan Majhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A derivation of Noether current from the surface term of Einstein-Hilbert action is given. We show that the corresponding charge, calculated on the horizon, is related to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Also using the charge, the same entropy is found based on the Virasoro algebra and Cardy formula approach. In this approach, the relevant diffeomorphisms are found by imposing a very simple physical argument: diffeomorphisms keep the horizon structure invariant. This complements similar earlier results (Majhi and Padmanabhan (2012 (arXiv:1204.1422 obtained from York-Gibbons-Hawking surface term. Finally we discuss the technical simplicities and improvements over the earlier attempts and also various important physical implications.

  20. Individualized model predicts brain current flow during transcranial direct-current stimulation treatment in responsive stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhishek; Baker, Julie M; Bikson, Marom; Fridriksson, Julius

    2011-07-01

    Although numerous published reports have demonstrated the beneficial effects of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) on task performance, fundamental questions remain regarding the optimal electrode configuration on the scalp. Moreover, it is expected that lesioned brain tissue will influence current flow and should therefore be considered (and perhaps leveraged) in the design of individualized tDCS therapies for stroke. The current report demonstrates how different electrode configurations influence the flow of electrical current through brain tissue in a patient who responded positively to a tDCS treatment targeting aphasia. The patient, a 60-year-old man, sustained a left hemisphere ischemic stroke (lesion size = 87.42 mL) 64 months before his participation. In this study, we present results from the first high-resolution (1 mm(3)) model of tDCS in a brain with considerable stroke-related damage; the model was individualized for the patient who received anodal tDCS to his left frontal cortex with the reference cathode electrode placed on his right shoulder. We modeled the resulting brain current flow and also considered three additional reference electrode positions: right mastoid, right orbitofrontal cortex, and a "mirror" configuration with the anode over the undamaged right cortex. Our results demonstrate the profound effect of lesioned tissue on resulting current flow and the ability to modulate current pattern through the brain, including perilesional regions, through electrode montage design. The complexity of brain current flow modulation by detailed normal and pathologic anatomy suggest: (1) That computational models are critical for the rational interpretation and design of individualized tDCS stroke-therapy; and (2) These models must accurately reproduce head anatomy as shown here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical current density of BiSrCaCuO superconductors: effect of surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konczykowski, M.; Chikumoto, N.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of surface barriers on vortex motion in BiSrCaCuO-2212 high-temperature superconducting crystals is summarized. Characteristic features of this phenomenon appear in the hysteresis loop (shape of its ascending and descending branches), in the effect of 2.5 MeV electron irradiation, and in flux creep measurements (magnetization dependence to the crystal lateral dimension, size of the flux-creep barrier and the crossover as a function of temperature and time persistent current density). (A.B.). 25 refs., 3 figs

  2. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... Promontory (Southern Adriatic, Italy). The network has been operational since May 2013 and covers an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Quality Assessment (QA) procedures are applied for the systems deployment and maintenance and Quality Control (QC) procedures...

  3. ac electrokinetic micropumps: The effect of geometrical confinement, Faradaic current injection, and nonlinear surface capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bruus, Henrik; Ajdari, A.

    2006-01-01

    therefore extend the latter theories to account for three experimentally relevant effects: (i) vertical confinement of the pumping channel, (ii) Faradaic currents from electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, and (iii) nonlinear surface capacitance of the Debye layer. We report here that these effects......Recent experiments have demonstrated that ac electrokinetic micropumps permit integrable, local, and fast pumping (velocities similar to mm/s) with low driving voltage of a few volts only. However, they also displayed many quantitative and qualitative discrepancies with existing theories. We...

  4. Analytical Modeling Of The Steinmetz Coefficient For Single-Phase Transformer Eddy Current Loss Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aly Saandy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents to an analytical calculation methodology of the Steinmetz coefficient applied to the prediction of Eddy current loss in a single-phase transformer. Based on the electrical circuit theory the active power consumed by the core is expressed analytically in function of the electrical parameters as resistivity and the geometrical dimensions of the core. The proposed modeling approach is established with the duality parallel series. The required coefficient is identified from the empirical Steinmetz data based on the experimented active power expression. To verify the relevance of the model validations both by simulations with two in two different frequencies and measurements were carried out. The obtained results are in good agreement with the theoretical approach and the practical results.

  5. Model-Based Prediction of Pulsed Eddy Current Testing Signals from Stratified Conductive Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian Hai; Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Woong Ji; Kim, Hak Joon; Chung, Jong Duk

    2011-01-01

    Excitation and propagation of electromagnetic field of a cylindrical coil above an arbitrary number of conductive plates for pulsed eddy current testing(PECT) are very complex problems due to their complicated physical properties. In this paper, analytical modeling of PECT is established by Fourier series based on truncated region eigenfunction expansion(TREE) method for a single air-cored coil above stratified conductive structures(SCS) to investigate their integrity. From the presented expression of PECT, the coil impedance due to SCS is calculated based on analytical approach using the generalized reflection coefficient in series form. Then the multilayered structures manufactured by non-ferromagnetic (STS301L) and ferromagnetic materials (SS400) are investigated by the developed PECT model. Good prediction of analytical model of PECT not only contributes to the development of an efficient solver but also can be applied to optimize the conditions of experimental setup in PECT

  6. The interaction of pulsed eddy current with metal surface crack for various coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.-C.; Tai, C.-C.

    2002-01-01

    We study the interaction of pulsed eddy current (PEC) with metal surface cracks using various coils that have different geometric sizes. In the previous work, we have showed that the PEC technique can be used to inspect electrical-discharge-machined (EDM) notches with depth from 0.5 mm to 9 mm. The results showed that the relationship between PEC signals and crack depth is obvious. In this work, we further try a series of coils with different radii, heights, turns and shapes. We will discuss the effects of these coil parameters on the PEC signal. Some other critical problems of PEC measurements such as signal drift that caused by heating effect of coil currents will be studied. We also show more experiments on fatigue cracks to demonstrate the capability of PEC technique for cracks inspection

  7. Tidal analysis of surface currents in the Porsanger fjord in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Jankowski, Andrzej; Cieszyńska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation we describe surface currents in the Porsanger fjord (Porsangerfjorden) located in the European Arctic in the vicinity of the Barents Sea. Our analysis is based on data collected in the summer of 2014 using High Frequency radar system. Our interest in this fjord comes from the fact that this is a region of high climatic sensitivity. One of our long-term goals is to develop an improved understanding of the undergoing changes and interactions between this fjord and the large-scale atmospheric and oceanic conditions. In order to derive a better understanding of the ongoing changes one must first improve the knowledge about the physical processes that create the environment of the fjord. The present study is the first step in this direction. Our main objective in this presentation is to evaluate the importance of tidal forcing. Tides in the Porsanger fjord are substantial, with tidal range on the order of about 3 meters. Tidal analysis attributes to tides about 99% of variance in sea level time series recorded in Honningsvåg. The most important tidal component based on sea level data is the M2 component (amplitude of ~90 cm). The S2 and N2 components (amplitude of ~ 20 cm) also play a significant role in the semidiurnal sea level oscillations. The most important diurnal component is K1 with amplitude of about 8 cm. Tidal analysis lead us to the conclusion that the most important tidal component in observed surface currents is also the M2 component. The second most important component is the S2 component. Our results indicate that in contrast to sea level, only about 10 - 20% of variance in surface currents can be attributed to tidal currents. This means that about 80-90% of variance can be credited to wind-induced and geostrophic currents. This work was funded by the Norway Grants (NCBR contract No. 201985, project NORDFLUX). Partial support for MS comes from the Institute of Oceanology (IO PAN).

  8. Formulations by surface integral equations for numerical simulation of non-destructive testing by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigneron, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    The thesis addresses the numerical simulation of non-destructive testing (NDT) using eddy currents, and more precisely the computation of induced electromagnetic fields by a transmitter sensor in a healthy part. This calculation is the first step of the modeling of a complete control process in the CIVA software platform developed at CEA LIST. Currently, models integrated in CIVA are restricted to canonical (modal computation) or axially-symmetric geometries. The need for more diverse and complex configurations requires the introduction of new numerical modeling tools. In practice the sensor may be composed of elements with different shapes and physical properties. The inspected parts are conductive and may contain dielectric or magnetic elements. Due to the cohabitation of different materials in one configuration, different regimes (static, quasi-static or dynamic) may coexist. Under the assumption of linear, isotropic and piecewise homogeneous material properties, the surface integral equation (SIE) approach allows to reduce a volume-based problem to an equivalent surface-based problem. However, the usual SIE formulations for the Maxwell's problem generally suffer from numerical noise in asymptotic situations, and especially at low frequencies. The objective of this study is to determine a version that is stable for a range of physical parameters typical of eddy-current NDT applications. In this context, a block-iterative scheme based on a physical decomposition is proposed for the computation of primary fields. This scheme is accurate and well-conditioned. An asymptotic study of the integral Maxwell's problem at low frequencies is also performed, allowing to establish the eddy-current integral problem as an asymptotic case of the corresponding Maxwell problem. (author) [fr

  9. Prediction of Experimental Surface Heat Flux of Thin Film Gauges using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Shrutidhara; Sahoo, Niranjan; Unal, Aynur

    2018-05-01

    Precise quantification of surface heat fluxes in highly transient environment is of paramount importance from the design point of view of several engineering equipment like thermal protection or cooling systems. Such environments are simulated in experimental facilities by exposing the surface with transient heat loads typically step/impulsive in nature. The surface heating rates are then determined from highly transient temperature history captured by efficient surface temperature sensors. The classical approach is to use thin film gauges (TFGs) in which temperature variations are acquired within milliseconds, thereby allowing calculation of surface heat flux, based on the theory of one-dimensional heat conduction on a semi-infinite body. With recent developments in the soft computing methods, the present study is an attempt for the application of intelligent system technique, called adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to recover surface heat fluxes from a given temperature history recorded by TFGs without having the need to solve lengthy analytical equations. Experiments have been carried out by applying known quantity of `impulse heat load' through laser beam on TFGs. The corresponding voltage signals have been acquired and surface heat fluxes are estimated through classical analytical approach. These signals are then used to `train' the ANFIS model, which later predicts output for `test' values. Results from both methods have been compared and these surface heat fluxes are used to predict the non-linear relationship between thermal and electrical properties of the gauges that are exceedingly pertinent to the design of efficient TFGs. Further, surface plots have been created to give an insight about dimensionality effect of the non-linear dependence of thermal/electrical parameters on each other. Later, it is observed that a properly optimized ANFIS model can predict the impulsive heat profiles with significant accuracy. This paper thus shows the

  10. Measuring currents, ice drift, and waves from space: the Sea surface KInematics Multiscale monitoring (SKIM) concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Aksenov, Yevgueny; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bertino, Laurent; Brandt, Peter; Caubet, Eric; Chapron, Bertrand; Collard, Fabrice; Cravatte, Sophie; Delouis, Jean-Marc; Dias, Frederic; Dibarboure, Gérald; Gaultier, Lucile; Johannessen, Johnny; Korosov, Anton; Manucharyan, Georgy; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Menendez, Melisa; Monnier, Goulven; Mouche, Alexis; Nouguier, Frédéric; Nurser, George; Rampal, Pierre; Reniers, Ad; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Stopa, Justin; Tison, Céline; Ubelmann, Clément; van Sebille, Erik; Xie, Jiping

    2018-05-01

    We propose a satellite mission that uses a near-nadir Ka-band Doppler radar to measure surface currents, ice drift and ocean waves at spatial scales of 40 km and more, with snapshots at least every day for latitudes 75 to 82°, and every few days for other latitudes. The use of incidence angles of 6 and 12° allows for measurement of the directional wave spectrum, which yields accurate corrections of the wave-induced bias in the current measurements. The instrument's design, an algorithm for current vector retrieval and the expected mission performance are presented here. The instrument proposed can reveal features of tropical ocean and marginal ice zone (MIZ) dynamics that are inaccessible to other measurement systems, and providing global monitoring of the ocean mesoscale that surpasses the capability of today's nadir altimeters. Measuring ocean wave properties has many applications, including examining wave-current interactions, air-sea fluxes, the transport and convergence of marine plastic debris and assessment of marine and coastal hazards.

  11. Measuring currents, ice drift, and waves from space: the Sea surface KInematics Multiscale monitoring (SKIM concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ardhuin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a satellite mission that uses a near-nadir Ka-band Doppler radar to measure surface currents, ice drift and ocean waves at spatial scales of 40 km and more, with snapshots at least every day for latitudes 75 to 82°, and every few days for other latitudes. The use of incidence angles of 6 and 12° allows for measurement of the directional wave spectrum, which yields accurate corrections of the wave-induced bias in the current measurements. The instrument's design, an algorithm for current vector retrieval and the expected mission performance are presented here. The instrument proposed can reveal features of tropical ocean and marginal ice zone (MIZ dynamics that are inaccessible to other measurement systems, and providing global monitoring of the ocean mesoscale that surpasses the capability of today's nadir altimeters. Measuring ocean wave properties has many applications, including examining wave–current interactions, air–sea fluxes, the transport and convergence of marine plastic debris and assessment of marine and coastal hazards.

  12. The role of current characteristics of the arc evaporator in formation of the surface metal-coating composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plikhunov, V V; Petrov, L M; Grigorovich, K V

    2016-01-01

    The influence of current characteristics of the vacuum arc evaporator on the interaction process of plasma streams with the surface under treatment during generation of the physicochemical properties of the formed metal-coating composite is considered. It is shown that the interaction of plasma streams with the processed surface provides surface heating, defects elimination, change in energy properties, and mass transfer of plasma stream elements activating surface diffusion processes whose intensity is evaluated by the arc current magnitude and location of the processed surface relative to the cathode axis. (paper)

  13. Application of current and future satellite missions to hydrologic prediction in transboundary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Clark, E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2010-12-01

    More than 256 major global river basins, which cover about 45% of the continental land surface, are shared among two or more countries. The flow of such a large part of the global runoff across international boundaries has led to tension in many cases between upstream and downstream riparian countries. Among many examples, this is the case of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra Rivers, which cross the boundary between India and Bangladesh. Hydrological data (river discharge, reservoir storage) are viewed as sensitive by India (the upstream country) and are therefore not shared with Bangladesh, which can only monitor river discharge and water depth at the international border crossing. These measurements only allow forecasting of floods in the interior and southern portions of the country two to three days in advance. These forecasts are not long enough either for agricultural water management purposes (for which knowledge of upstream reservoir storage is essential) or for disaster preparedness purposes. Satellite observations of river spatial extent, surface slope, reservoir area and surface elevation have the potential to make tremendous changes in management of water within the basins. In this study, we examine the use of currently available satellite measurements (in India) and in-situ measurements in Bangladesh to increase forecast lead time in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers. Using nadir altimeters, we find that it is possible to forecast the discharge of the Ganges River at the Bangladesh border with lead time 3 days and mean absolute error of around 25%. On the Ganges River, 2-day forecasts are possible with a mean absolute error of around 20%. When combined with optical/infra-red MODIS images, it is possible to map water elevations along the river and its floodplain upstream of the boundary, and to compute water storage. However, the high frequency of clouds in this region results in relatively large errors in the water mask. Due to the nadir altimeter

  14. Linear surface photoelectric effect of gold in intense laser field as a possible high-current electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, G.; Horvath, Z.G.; Toth, C.; Fotakis, C.; Hontzopoulos, E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were conducted on radiation-induced electron emission processes on a gold target surface with a high-intensity (2 MW/cm 2 ) KrF laser (λ = 248 nm). The single photon surface photoelectric emission obtained can be used for high-current density electron sources. The measured polarization dependence of electron current shows the dominance of the surface-type effect over that of the volume type, thereby making it possible to optimize the short, high-density electron current creation conditions. The advantage of the grazing light incidence and the multiphoton photoeffect giving rise to a 500 A/cm 2 electron current has been demonstrated

  15. Novel structures of oxygen adsorbed on a Zr(0001) surface predicted from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Beijing computational science research center, Beijing,100084 (China); Wang, Jianyun [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Lv, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Gao, Xingyu [Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing, 100088 (China); CAEP Software Center for High Performance Numerical Simulation, Beijing, 100088 (China); Zhao, Yafan [CAEP Software Center for High Performance Numerical Simulation, Beijing, 100088 (China); Wang, Yanchao, E-mail: wyc@calypso.cn [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Beijing computational science research center, Beijing,100084 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Song, Haifeng, E-mail: song_haifeng@iapcm.ac.cn [Laboratory of Computational Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing, 100088 (China); CAEP Software Center for High Performance Numerical Simulation, Beijing, 100088 (China); Ma, Yanming [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Beijing computational science research center, Beijing,100084 (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Two stable structures of O adsorbed on a Zr(0001) surface are predicted with SLAM. • A stable structure of O adsorbed on a Zr(0001) surface is proposed with MLAM. • The calculated work function change is agreement with experimental value. - Abstract: The structures of O atoms adsorbed on a metal surface influence the metal properties significantly. Thus, studying O chemisorption on a Zr surface is of great interest. We investigated O adsorption on a Zr(0001) surface using our newly developed structure-searching method combined with first-principles calculations. A novel structural prototype with a unique combination of surface face-centered cubic (SFCC) and surface hexagonal close-packed (SHCP) O adsorption sites was predicted using a single-layer adsorption model (SLAM) for a 0.5 and 1.0 monolayer (ML) O coverage. First-principles calculations based on the SLAM revealed that the new predicted structures are energetically favorable compared with the well-known SFCC structures for a low O coverage (0.5 and 1.0 ML). Furthermore, on basis of our predicted SFCC + SHCP structures, a new structure within multi-layer adsorption model (MLAM) was proposed to be more stable at the O coverage of 1.0 ML, in which adsorbed O atoms occupy the SFCC + SHCP sites and the substitutional octahedral sites. The calculated work functions indicate that the SFCC + SHCP configuration has the lowest work function of all known structures at an O coverage of 0.5 ML within the SLAM, which agrees with the experimental trend of work function with variation in O coverage.

  16. Lower hybrid current drive: an overview of simulation models, benchmarking with experiment, and predictions for future devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonoli, P.T.; Barbato, E.; Imbeaux, F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) simulation and modeling. We first discuss modules used for wave propagation, absorption, and current drive with particular emphasis placed on comparing exact numerical solutions of the Fokker Planck equation in 2-dimension with solution methods that employ 1-dimensional and adjoint approaches. We also survey model predictions for LHCD in past and present experiments showing detailed comparisons between simulated and observed current drive efficiencies and hard X-ray profiles. Finally we discuss several model predictions for lower hybrid current profile control in proposed next step reactor options. (authors)

  17. Strongly lensed neutral hydrogen emission: detection predictions with current and future radio interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, R. P.; Obreschkow, D.; Heywood, I.

    2015-09-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides some of the deepest views of the Universe, enabling studies of high-redshift galaxies only possible with next-generation facilities without the lensing phenomenon. To date, 21-cm radio emission from neutral hydrogen has only been detected directly out to z ˜ 0.2, limited by the sensitivity and instantaneous bandwidth of current radio telescopes. We discuss how current and future radio interferometers such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will detect lensed H I emission in individual galaxies at high redshift. Our calculations rely on a semi-analytic galaxy simulation with realistic H I discs (by size, density profile and rotation), in a cosmological context, combined with general relativistic ray tracing. Wide-field, blind H I surveys with the SKA are predicted to be efficient at discovering lensed H I systems, increasingly so at z ≳ 2. This will be enabled by the combination of the magnification boosts, the steepness of the H I luminosity function at the high-mass end, and the fact that the H I spectral line is relatively isolated in frequency. These surveys will simultaneously provide a new technique for foreground lens selection and yield the highest redshift H I emission detections. More near term (and existing) cm-wave facilities will push the high-redshift H I envelope through targeted surveys of known lenses.

  18. The artificial object detection and current velocity measurement using SAR ocean surface images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, Boris; Strotov, Valery; Ershov, Maksim; Muraviev, Vadim; Feldman, Alexander; Smirnov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Due to the fact that water surface covers wide areas, remote sensing is the most appropriate way of getting information about ocean environment for vessel tracking, security purposes, ecological studies and others. Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is extensively used for control and monitoring of the ocean surface. Image data can be acquired from Earth observation satellites, such as TerraSAR-X, ERS, and COSMO-SkyMed. Thus, SAR image processing can be used to solve many problems arising in this field of research. This paper discusses some of them including ship detection, oil pollution control and ocean currents mapping. Due to complexity of the problem several specialized algorithm are necessary to develop. The oil spill detection algorithm consists of the following main steps: image preprocessing, detection of dark areas, parameter extraction and classification. The ship detection algorithm consists of the following main steps: prescreening, land masking, image segmentation combined with parameter measurement, ship orientation estimation and object discrimination. The proposed approach to ocean currents mapping is based on Doppler's law. The results of computer modeling on real SAR images are presented. Based on these results it is concluded that the proposed approaches can be used in maritime applications.

  19. Multifrequency eddy current examination for surface defects detection of hot steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshima, Tatsuo; Sakamoto, Takahide; Takahashi, Akio; Miyata, Kenichi.

    1985-01-01

    Multifrequency eddy current testing method using probe coils has been studied for surface defects detection in hot steel products at high temperature over the magnetic Curie point. The conventional signal processing method is not available for suppression of an undesirable signal caused by lift-off variation or unevenness in inspected surfaces, because the undesirable signal pattern is similar to a defect signal pattern. In order to suppress the undesirable signal a new dual frequency signal processing method using three phase rotators has been developed, and was applied to several hot steel inspections. The results are as follows. 1. In the rotating eddy current machine for hot steel rods, the lift-off variation signal caused by a wobble of rods or the difference between rotating center and pass center of rods can be suppressed. A long seam or crack whose depth is more than 0.5mm can be detected. 2. In the hot inspection for continuously cast slabs, the signal caused by oscillation mark whose depth is under 1 mm can be suppressed. A fine transversal crack whose depth is 2 mm can be detected. 3. In the hot inspection for round billets, the lift-off variation signal caused by oval shape can be eliminated, and a crack which is deeper than 1.5 mm can be clearly detected. The detectability of defects can be improved by the analysis of dual frequency signal pattern. (author)

  20. Finite Element Simulation of Shot Peening: Prediction of Residual Stresses and Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariépy, Alexandre; Perron, Claude; Bocher, Philippe; Lévesque, Martin

    Shot peening is a surface treatment that consists of bombarding a ductile surface with numerous small and hard particles. Each impact creates localized plastic strains that permanently stretch the surface. Since the underlying material constrains this stretching, compressive residual stresses are generated near the surface. This process is commonly used in the automotive and aerospace industries to improve fatigue life. Finite element analyses can be used to predict residual stress profiles and surface roughness created by shot peening. This study investigates further the parameters and capabilities of a random impact model by evaluating the representative volume element and the calculated stress distribution. Using an isotropic-kinematic hardening constitutive law to describe the behaviour of AA2024-T351 aluminium alloy, promising results were achieved in terms of residual stresses.

  1. Luminescence evolution from alumina ceramic surface before flashover under direct and alternating current voltage in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Yi-Bo; Song, Bai-Peng; Mu, Hai-Bao, E-mail: haibaomu@xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: gjzhang@xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Guan-Jun, E-mail: haibaomu@xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: gjzhang@xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Li, Feng; Wang, Meng [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The luminescence evolution phenomena from alumina ceramic surface in vacuum under high voltage of direct and alternating current are reported, with the voltage covering a large range from far below to close to the flashover voltage. Its time resolved and spatial distributed behaviors are examined by a photon counting system and an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) together with a digital camera, respectively. The luminescence before flashover exhibits two stages as voltage increasing, i.e., under a relative low voltage (Stage A), the luminescence is ascribed to radiative recombination of hetero-charges injected into the sample surface layer by Schottky effect; under a higher voltage (Stage B), a stable secondary electron emission process, resulting from the Fowler-Nordheim emission at the cathode triple junction (CTJ), is responsible for the luminescence. Spectrum analysis implies that inner secondary electrons within the surface layer of alumina generated during the SSEE process also participate in the luminescence of Stage B. A comprehensive interpretation of the flashover process is formulated, which might promote a better understanding of flashover issue in vacuum.

  2. LIGSITEcsc: predicting ligand binding sites using the Connolly surface and degree of conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder Michael

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying pockets on protein surfaces is of great importance for many structure-based drug design applications and protein-ligand docking algorithms. Over the last ten years, many geometric methods for the prediction of ligand-binding sites have been developed. Results We present LIGSITEcsc, an extension and implementation of the LIGSITE algorithm. LIGSITEcsc is based on the notion of surface-solvent-surface events and the degree of conservation of the involved surface residues. We compare our algorithm to four other approaches, LIGSITE, CAST, PASS, and SURFNET, and evaluate all on a dataset of 48 unbound/bound structures and 210 bound-structures. LIGSITEcsc performs slightly better than the other tools and achieves a success rate of 71% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion The use of the Connolly surface leads to slight improvements, the prediction re-ranking by conservation to significant improvements of the binding site predictions. A web server for LIGSITEcsc and its source code is available at scoppi.biotec.tu-dresden.de/pocket.

  3. Surface Complexation Modeling in Variable Charge Soils: Prediction of Cadmium Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Marchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intrinsic equilibrium constants for 22 representative Brazilian Oxisols were estimated from a cadmium adsorption experiment. Equilibrium constants were fitted to two surface complexation models: diffuse layer and constant capacitance. Intrinsic equilibrium constants were optimized by FITEQL and by hand calculation using Visual MINTEQ in sweep mode, and Excel spreadsheets. Data from both models were incorporated into Visual MINTEQ. Constants estimated by FITEQL and incorporated in Visual MINTEQ software failed to predict observed data accurately. However, FITEQL raw output data rendered good results when predicted values were directly compared with observed values, instead of incorporating the estimated constants into Visual MINTEQ. Intrinsic equilibrium constants optimized by hand calculation and incorporated in Visual MINTEQ reliably predicted Cd adsorption reactions on soil surfaces under changing environmental conditions.

  4. Pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in the EU. Part 1: Some comments on the current procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Martin; Diesner, Mirjam; Großmann, Dietlinde; Guerniche, Djamal; Hommen, Udo; Klein, Michael; Kubiak, Roland; Müller, Alexandra; Priegnitz, Jan; Reichenberger, Stefan; Thomas, Kai; Trapp, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    In 2001, the European Commission introduced a risk assessment project known as FOCUS (FOrum for the Coordination of pesticide fate models and their USe) for the surface water risk assessment of active substances in the European Union. Even for the national authorisation of plant protection products (PPPs), the vast majority of EU member states still refer to the four runoff and six drainage scenarios selected by the FOCUS Surface Water Workgroup. However, our study, as well as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), has stated the need for various improvements. Current developments in pesticide exposure assessment mainly relate to two processes. Firstly, predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides are calculated by introducing model input variables such as weather conditions, soil properties and substance fate parameters that have a probabilistic nature. Secondly, spatially distributed PECs for soil-climate scenarios are derived on the basis of an analysis of geodata. Such approaches facilitate the calculation of a spatiotemporal cumulative distribution function (CDF) of PECs for a given area of interest and are subsequently used to determine an exposure concentration endpoint as a given percentile of the CDF. For national PPP authorisation, we propose that, in the future, exposure endpoints should be determined from the overall known statistical PEC population for an area of interest, and derived for soil and climate conditions specific to the particular member state. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Numerical simulation of the observed near-surface East India Coastal Current on the continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Shankar, D.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Vinayachandran, P. N.

    2018-06-01

    We simulate the East India Coastal Current (EICC) using two numerical models (resolution 0.1° × 0.1°), an oceanic general circulation model (OGCM) called Modular Ocean Model and a simpler, linear, continuously stratified (LCS) model, and compare the simulated current with observations from moorings equipped with acoustic Doppler current profilers deployed on the continental slope in the western Bay of Bengal (BoB). We also carry out numerical experiments to analyse the processes. Both models simulate well the annual cycle of the EICC, but the performance degrades for the intra-annual and intraseasonal components. In a model-resolution experiment, both models (run at a coarser resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°) simulate well the currents in the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO), but the performance of the high-resolution LCS model as well as the coarse-resolution OGCM, which is good in the EICC regime, degrades in the eastern and northern BoB. An experiment on forcing mechanisms shows that the annual EICC is largely forced by the local alongshore winds in the western BoB and remote forcing due to Ekman pumping over the BoB, but forcing from the EIO has a strong impact on the intra-annual EICC. At intraseasonal periods, local (equatorial) forcing dominates in the south (north) because the Kelvin wave propagates equatorward in the western BoB. A stratification experiment with the LCS model shows that changing the background stratification from EIO to BoB leads to a stronger surface EICC owing to strong coupling of higher order vertical modes with wind forcing for the BoB profiles. These high-order modes, which lead to energy propagating down into the ocean in the form of beams, are important only for the current and do not contribute significantly to the sea level.

  6. A hybrid model to predict the onset of gas entrainment with surface tension effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, W.; Bowden, R.C.; Hassan, I.G.; Kadem, L.

    2008-01-01

    The onset of gas entrainment, in a single downward oriented discharge from a stratified gas-liquid region with was modeled. The assumptions made in the development of the model reduced the problem to that of a potential flow. The discharge was modeled as a point-sink. Through use of the Kelvin-Laplace equation the model included the effects of surface tension. The resulting model required further knowledge of the flow field, specifically the dip radius of curvature prior to the onset of gas entrainment. The dip shape and size was investigated experimentally and correlations were provided to characterize the dip in terms of the discharge Froude number. The experimental correlation was used in conjunction with the theoretical model to predict the critical height. The results showed that by including surface tension effects the predicted critical height showed excellent agreement with experimental data. Surface tension reduces the critical height through the Bond number

  7. Prediction of the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes by design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasulu, M.; Komaraiah, M.; Rao, C. S. Krishna Prasada

    2013-01-01

    Flow forming is a modern, chipless metal forming process that is employed for the production of thin-walled seamless tubes. Experiments are conducted on AA6082 alloy pre-forms to flow form into thin-walled tubes on a CNC flow-forming machine with a single roller. Design of experiments is used to predict the surface roughness of flow-formed tubes. The process parameters selected for this study are the roller axial feed, mandrel speed, and roller radius. A standard response surface methodology (RSM) called the Box Behnken design is used to perform the experimental runs. The regression model developed by RSM successfully predicts the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes within the range of the selected process parameters.

  8. Prediction of the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes by design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasulu, M. [Government Polytechnic for Women Badangpet, Hyderabad (India); Komaraiah, M. [Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rao, C. S. Krishna Prasada [Bharat Dynamics Limited, Hyderabad (India)

    2013-06-15

    Flow forming is a modern, chipless metal forming process that is employed for the production of thin-walled seamless tubes. Experiments are conducted on AA6082 alloy pre-forms to flow form into thin-walled tubes on a CNC flow-forming machine with a single roller. Design of experiments is used to predict the surface roughness of flow-formed tubes. The process parameters selected for this study are the roller axial feed, mandrel speed, and roller radius. A standard response surface methodology (RSM) called the Box Behnken design is used to perform the experimental runs. The regression model developed by RSM successfully predicts the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes within the range of the selected process parameters.

  9. Predicting Ligand Binding Sites on Protein Surfaces by 3-Dimensional Probability Density Distributions of Interacting Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jhih-Wei; Elumalai, Pavadai; Pitti, Thejkiran; Wu, Chih Yuan; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Peng, Hung-Pin; Yang, An-Suei

    2016-01-01

    Predicting ligand binding sites (LBSs) on protein structures, which are obtained either from experimental or computational methods, is a useful first step in functional annotation or structure-based drug design for the protein structures. In this work, the structure-based machine learning algorithm ISMBLab-LIG was developed to predict LBSs on protein surfaces with input attributes derived from the three-dimensional probability density maps of interacting atoms, which were reconstructed on the query protein surfaces and were relatively insensitive to local conformational variations of the tentative ligand binding sites. The prediction accuracy of the ISMBLab-LIG predictors is comparable to that of the best LBS predictors benchmarked on several well-established testing datasets. More importantly, the ISMBLab-LIG algorithm has substantial tolerance to the prediction uncertainties of computationally derived protein structure models. As such, the method is particularly useful for predicting LBSs not only on experimental protein structures without known LBS templates in the database but also on computationally predicted model protein structures with structural uncertainties in the tentative ligand binding sites. PMID:27513851

  10. Forced synchronization of large-scale circulation to increase predictability of surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mao-Lin; Keenlyside, Noel; Selten, Frank; Wiegerinck, Wim; Duane, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Numerical models are key tools in the projection of the future climate change. The lack of perfect initial condition and perfect knowledge of the laws of physics, as well as inherent chaotic behavior limit predictions. Conceptually, the atmospheric variables can be decomposed into a predictable component (signal) and an unpredictable component (noise). In ensemble prediction the anomaly of ensemble mean is regarded as the signal and the ensemble spread the noise. Naturally the prediction skill will be higher if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is larger in the initial conditions. We run two ensemble experiments in order to explore a way to reduce the SNR of surface winds and temperature. One ensemble experiment is AGCM with prescribing sea surface temperature (SST); the other is AGCM with both prescribing SST and nudging the high-level temperature and winds to ERA-Interim. Each ensemble has 30 members. Larger SNR is expected and found over the tropical ocean in the first experiment because the tropical circulation is associated with the convection and the associated surface wind convergence as these are to a large extent driven by the SST. However, small SNR is found over high latitude ocean and land surface due to the chaotic and non-synchronized atmosphere states. In the second experiment the higher level temperature and winds are forced to be synchronized (nudged to reanalysis) and hence a larger SNR of surface winds and temperature is expected. Furthermore, different nudging coefficients are also tested in order to understand the limitation of both synchronization of large-scale circulation and the surface states. These experiments will be useful for the developing strategies to synchronize the 3-D states of atmospheric models that can be later used to build a super model.

  11. Surface currents in the Bohai Sea derived from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Wang, M.

    2016-02-01

    The first geostationary ocean color satellite sensor, the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard the Korean Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite can monitor and measure ocean phenomena over an area of 2500 × 2500 km2 around the western Pacific region centered at 36°N and 130°E. Hourly measurements during the day around 9:00 to 16:00 local time are a unique capability of GOCI to monitor ocean features of higher temporal variability. In this presentation, we show some recent results of GOCI-derived ocean surface currents in the Bohai Sea using the Maximum Cross-Correlation (MCC) feature tracking method and compare the results with altimetry-inversed tidal current observations produced from Oregon State University (OSU) Tidal Inversion Software (OTIS). The performance of the GOCI-based MCC method is assessed and the discrepancies between the GOCI- and OTIS-derived currents are evaluated. A series of sensitivity studies are conducted with images from various satellite products and of various time differences, MCC adjustable parameters, and influence from other forcings such as wind, to find the best setups for optimal MCC performance. Our results demonstrate that GOCI can effectively provide real-time monitoring of not only water optical, biological, and biogeochemical variability, but also the physical dynamics in the region.

  12. On the sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to remotely sensed marine surface wind data - A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, M. A.; Cardone, V. J.; Halem, M.; Halberstam, I.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation has the objective to assess the potential impact on numerical weather prediction (NWP) of remotely sensed surface wind data. Other investigations conducted with similar objectives have not been satisfactory in connection with a use of procedures providing an unrealistic distribution of initial errors. In the current study, care has been taken to duplicate the actual distribution of information in the conventional observing system, thus shifting the emphasis from accuracy of the data to the data coverage. It is pointed out that this is an important consideration in assessing satellite observing systems since experience with sounder data has shown that improvements in forecasts due to satellite-derived information is due less to a general error reduction than to the ability to fill data-sparse regions. The reported study concentrates on the evaluation of the observing system simulation experimental design and on the assessment of the potential of remotely sensed marine surface wind data.

  13. Growth and predicted productivity of Opuntia ficus-indica for current and elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Garcia de Cortazar, V. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., a prickly pear cactus cultivated worldwide for its fruits and stem segments, can have an annual dry weight productivity exceeding that of many crops. Using a recent introduced environmental productivity index (EPI), the influences of water status, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on its productivity can be predicted. This investigation calculated the water index, the temperature index, and the PAR index, whose product equals EPI, for 169 sites distributed approximately uniformly across the contiguous USA for present climatic conditions as well as for those associated with an elevated CO{sub 2} concentration of 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of O. ficus-indica was directly measured, and low temperature limitations on productivity were considered. The dry weight gain of O. ficus-indica during 6 mo in an environmental growth chamber was 23% greater at 650 compared with 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} and increased as the duration of the wet period increased. For closely spaced plants that lead to a high productivity per unit ground area, EPI averaged about 0.10, except in desert regions where the water index lowered EPI, in the far North or South and at high elevations where the temperature index lowered EPI, and in the Northeast and Northwest where the PAR index lowered EPI. The predicted annual dry weight productivity for O. ficus-indica was 12.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under current conditions, and 16.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under those associated with 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}.

  14. Influence of the surface drag coefficient (young waves) on the current structure of the Berre lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Roux, Bernard; Kharif, Christian; Sukhinov, Alexander; Kotarba, Richard; Fougere, Dominique; Chen, Paul Gang

    2013-04-01

    Due to the shallowness, currents and hydrodynamics of Berre lagoon (South of France) are closely conditioned by the bottom topography, and wind affects the entire water column, as for many other Mediterranean lagoons (Perez-Ruzafa, 2011). Wind stress, which is caused by moving atmospheric disturbance, is known to have a major influence in lagoon water circulation. According to the numerical simulation for the main directions of the wind: N-NW, S-SE and W (wind speed of 80 km/h) it is observed that the current is maximal alongshore in the wind direction; the bottom nearshore current being larger in shallower area. This fact is coherent with fundamental principle of wind-driven flows in closed or partially closed basins which states that in shallow water the dominant force balance is between surface wind stress and bottom friction, yielding a current in the direction of the wind (Mathieu et al, 2002, Hunter and Hearn, 1987; Hearn and Hunter,1990). A uniform wind stress applied at the surface of a basin of variable depth sets up a circulation pattern characterized by relatively strong barotropic coastal currents in the direction of the wind, with return flow occurring over the deeper regions (Csanady, 1967; Csanady, 1971). One of the key parameters characterizing the wind stress formulation is a surface drag coefficient (Cds). Thus, an effect of a surface drag coefficient, in the range 0.0016 - 0.0032, will be analyzed in this work. The value of surface drag coefficient Cds = 0.0016 used in our previous studies (Alekseenko et al., 2012), would correspond to mature waves (open sea). But, in the case of semi-closed lagoonal ecosystem, it would be more appropriate to consider "young waves" mechanism. A dependency of this coefficient in terms of the wind speed is given by Young (1999) in both cases of mature waves and young waves. For "young waves" generated at a wind speed of 80 km/h, Cds = 0.0032. So, the influence of Cds on the vertical profile of the velocity in the

  15. Prediction of acute respiratory disease in current and former smokers with and without COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Russell P; Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A A; Santorico, Stephanie A; Make, Barry J; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John E; Washko, George R; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J Michael; Hersh, Craig P; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K; van Beek, Edwin J R; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD.

  16. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  17. Nonequilibrium Molecular Simulations of New Ionic Lubricants at Metallic Surfaces: Prediction of the Friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Ana C F; Pádua, Agílio A H; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2013-03-12

    We report nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of ionic liquids interacting with metallic surfaces. A specific set of interaction parameters for ionic liquids composed of alkylammonium cations and alkylsulfonate anions with an iron surface, which has been previously developed (J. Chem. Theory Comput.2012, 8, 3348) is used here. We develop a procedure for a quantitative prediction of the friction coefficient at different loads and shear rates. The simulated friction coefficient agrees very well with the available experimental ones. The dependence of friction on the load, shear velocity, surface topology, and length of alkyl side chains in the ionic liquid is also investigated. The changes in the frictional forces are explained in terms of the specific arrangements and orientations of groups forming the ionic liquid at the vicinity of the surface.

  18. Reconstruction and downscaling of Eastern Mediterranean OSCAR satellite surface current data using DINEOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianou, Stavros; Georgiou, Georgios; Hajimitsis, Diofantos; Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    During the last decade, Rixen (2005) and Alvera-Azkarate (2010) presented the DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) method, a EOF-based technique to reconstruct missing data in satellite images. The application of DINEOF method, proved to provide relative success in various experimental trials (Wang and Liu, 2013; Nikolaidis et al., 2013;2014), and tends to be an effective and computationally affordable solution, on the problem of data reconstruction, for missing data from geophysical fields, such as chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperatures or salinity and geophysical fields derived from satellite data. Implementation of this method in a GIS system will provide with a more complete, integrated approach, permitting the expansion of the applicability over various aspects. This may be especially useful in studies where various data of different kind, have to be examined. For this purpose, in this study we have implemented and present a GIS toolbox that aims to automate the usage of the algorithm, incorporating the DINEOF codes provided by GHER (GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research Group of University of Liege) into the ArcGIS®. ArcGIS® is a well known standard on Geographical Information Systems, used over the years for various remote sensing procedures, in sea and land environment alike. A case-study of filling the missing satellite derived current data in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea area, for a monthly period is analyzed, as an example for the effectiveness and simplicity of the usage of this toolbox. The specific study focuses to OSCAR satellite data (http://www.oscar.noaa.gov/) collected by NOAA/NESDIS Operational Surface Current Processing and Data Center, from the respective products of OSCAR Project Office Earth and Space Research organization, that provides free online access to unfiltered (1/3 degree) resolution. All the 5-day mean products data coverage were successfully reconstructed. KEY WORDS: Remote Sensing, Cyprus

  19. Data fusion analysis of a surface direct-current resistivity and well pick data set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. This report discusses the results of evaluating a surface direct-current (dc) resistivity and well-pick data set using two methods: data fusion technology and commercially available software (i.e., RESIX Plus from Interpex Ltd., Golden, Colorado), the conventional method of analysis. The report compares the two technologies; describes the survey, procedures, and results; and includes conclusions and recommendations. The surface dc resistivity and well-pick data set had been acquired by PNL from a study performed in May 1993 at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska. The resistivity survey data were acquired to map the top of permafrost in support of a hydrogeologic study. This data set provided an excellent opportunity to test and refine the dc resistivity capabilities of the DFW; previously, the data fusion software was untested on dc resistivity data. The DFW was used to evaluate the dc resistivity survey data and to produce a 3-dimensional earth model of the study area

  20. Current status and new trends in the methodology of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Danchiv, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the status of the safety assessment methodology at the end of IAEA CRP 'Application of Safety Assessment Methodology for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM)', and the new trends outlined at the launch of the follow-up project 'Practical Implementation of Safety Assessment Methodologies in a Context of Safety Case of Near-Surface Facilities (PRISM)'. Over the duration of the ASAM project, the ISAM methodology was confirmed as providing a good framework for conducting safety assessment calculations. In contrast, ASAM project identified the limitations of the ISAM methodology as currently formulated. The major limitations are situated in the area of the use of safety assessment for informing practical decisions about alternative waste and risk management strategies for real disposal sites. As a result of the limitation of the ISAM methodology, the PRISM project is established as an extension of the ISAM and ASAM projects. Based on the outcomes of the ASAM project, the main objective of the PRISM project are: 1 - to develop an overview of what constitutes an adequate safety case and safety assessment with a view to supporting decision making processes; 2 - to provide practical illustrations of how the safety assessment methodology could be used for addressing some specific issues arising from the ASAM project and national cases; 3 - to support harmonization with the IAEA's international safety standards. (authors)

  1. Uncertainties in predicting rice yield by current crop models under a wide range of climatic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Yin, X.; Zhu, Y.; Boote, K.; Adam, M.; Bregaglio, S.; Buis, S.; Confalonieri, R.; Fumoto, T.; Gaydon, D.; Marcaida III, M.; Nakagawa, H.; Oriol, P.; Ruane, A.C.; Ruget, F.; Singh, B.; Singh, U.; Tang, L.; Yoshida, H.; Zhang, Z.; Bouman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting rice (Oryza sativa) productivity under future climates is important for global food security. Ecophysiological crop models in combination with climate model outputs are commonly used in yield prediction, but uncertainties associated with crop models remain largely unquantified. We

  2. Combined Molecular Dynamics Simulation-Molecular-Thermodynamic Theory Framework for Predicting Surface Tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sresht, Vishnu; Lewandowski, Eric P; Blankschtein, Daniel; Jusufi, Arben

    2017-08-22

    A molecular modeling approach is presented with a focus on quantitative predictions of the surface tension of aqueous surfactant solutions. The approach combines classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations with a molecular-thermodynamic theory (MTT) [ Y. J. Nikas, S. Puvvada, D. Blankschtein, Langmuir 1992 , 8 , 2680 ]. The MD component is used to calculate thermodynamic and molecular parameters that are needed in the MTT model to determine the surface tension isotherm. The MD/MTT approach provides the important link between the surfactant bulk concentration, the experimental control parameter, and the surfactant surface concentration, the MD control parameter. We demonstrate the capability of the MD/MTT modeling approach on nonionic alkyl polyethylene glycol surfactants at the air-water interface and observe reasonable agreement of the predicted surface tensions and the experimental surface tension data over a wide range of surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration. Our modeling approach can be extended to ionic surfactants and their mixtures with both ionic and nonionic surfactants at liquid-liquid interfaces.

  3. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxwang@xjtu.edu.cn; Zhou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-08-07

    In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E{sup −3}, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.

  4. Prediction of Human Drug Targets and Their Interactions Using Machine Learning Methods: Current and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Abhigyan; Kumari, Priyanka; Chaube, Radha

    2018-01-01

    Identification of drug targets and drug target interactions are important steps in the drug-discovery pipeline. Successful computational prediction methods can reduce the cost and time demanded by the experimental methods. Knowledge of putative drug targets and their interactions can be very useful for drug repurposing. Supervised machine learning methods have been very useful in drug target prediction and in prediction of drug target interactions. Here, we describe the details for developing prediction models using supervised learning techniques for human drug target prediction and their interactions.

  5. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-infected patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi SG

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shweta Gupta Rathi, Anasua Ganguly Kapoor, Swathi Kaliki Operation Eyesight Universal Institute for Eye Cancer, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure. OSSN has been reported as the first presenting sign of HIV/AIDS in 26%–86% cases, and seropositivity is noted in 38%–92% OSSN patients. Mean age at presentation of OSSN has dropped to the third to fourth decade in HIV-positive patients in developing countries. HIV-infected patients reveal large aggressive tumors, higher-grade malignancy, higher incidence of corneal, scleral, and orbital invasion, advanced-stage T4 tumors, higher need for extended enucleation/exenteration, and increased risk of tumor recurrence. Current management of OSSN in HIV-positive individuals is based on standard treatment guidelines described for OSSN in the general population, as there is little information available about various treatment modalities or their outcomes in patients with HIV. OSSN can occur at any time in the disease course of HIV/AIDS, and no significant trend has been discovered between CD4 count and grade of OSSN. Furthermore, the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on OSSN is controversial. The current recommendation is to conduct HIV screening in all cases presenting with OSSN to rule out undiagnosed HIV infection. Patient counseling is crucial, with emphasis on regular follow-up to address

  6. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-infected patients: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Shweta Gupta; Ganguly Kapoor, Anasua; Kaliki, Swathi

    2018-01-01

    Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure. OSSN has been reported as the first presenting sign of HIV/AIDS in 26%-86% cases, and seropositivity is noted in 38%-92% OSSN patients. Mean age at presentation of OSSN has dropped to the third to fourth decade in HIV-positive patients in developing countries. HIV-infected patients reveal large aggressive tumors, higher-grade malignancy, higher incidence of corneal, scleral, and orbital invasion, advanced-stage T4 tumors, higher need for extended enucleation/exenteration, and increased risk of tumor recurrence. Current management of OSSN in HIV-positive individuals is based on standard treatment guidelines described for OSSN in the general population, as there is little information available about various treatment modalities or their outcomes in patients with HIV. OSSN can occur at any time in the disease course of HIV/AIDS, and no significant trend has been discovered between CD4 count and grade of OSSN. Furthermore, the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on OSSN is controversial. The current recommendation is to conduct HIV screening in all cases presenting with OSSN to rule out undiagnosed HIV infection. Patient counseling is crucial, with emphasis on regular follow-up to address high recurrence rates and early presentation to an ophthalmologist for of any symptoms in the unaffected eye. Effective evidence-based interventions are needed to allow early diagnosis

  7. A New Small Drifter for Shallow Water Basins: Application to the Study of Surface Currents in the Muggia Bay (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Nasello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new small drifter prototype for measuring current immediately below the free surface in a water basin is proposed in this paper. The drifter dimensions make it useful for shallow water applications. The drifter transmits its GPS location via GSM phone network. The drifter was used to study the trajectory of the surface current in the Muggia bay, the latter containing the industrial harbor of the city of Trieste (Italy. The analysis has been carried out under a wide variety of wind conditions. As regards the behavior of the drifter, the analysis has shown that it is well suited to detect the water current since its motion is marginally affected by the wind. The study has allowed detecting the main features of the surface circulation within the Muggia bay under different meteorological conditions. Also, the study has shown that the trajectory of the surface current within the bay is weakly affected by the Coriolis force.

  8. Surface modification of TC4 titanium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) with different pulsed energy densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yu-kui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The hardness changes were determined by nanoindention method. •The surface integrity changes were investigated by different techniques. •The mechanism was analyzed based on AFM and TEM investigations. -- Abstract: Surface changes including surface topography and nanohardness distribution along surface layer were investigated for TC4 titanium alloy by different energy densities of high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB). The surface topography was characterized by SEM and AFM, and cross-sectional TEM observation was performed to reveal the surface modification mechanism of TC4 titanium alloy by HCPEB. The surface roughness was modified by HCPEB and the polishing mechanism was analyzed by studying the cross section microstructure of electron beam treated specimens by SEM. The fine grain structure inherited from the rapid solidification of the melted layer as well as the strain hardening of the sub-surface are two of the factors responsible the increase in nanohardness

  9. Dose Prediction for surface nuclear explosions: case studies for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nur tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Dose prediction method RAPS after surface nuclear explosion has been developed by using the empirical dose function of USA nuclear test. This method which provides us external total dose, dose rate at any distant, at any time for any yield of nuclear explosion, is useful for radiation protection in case of nuclear events such as terrorism and nuclear war. The validity of RAPS has been confirmed by application to historical surface nuclear test explosions. The first test case study which was done for the first test explosion of the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site on August 29th 1949, shows a good agreement with luminescence dosimetry on a brick. This dose prediction method was applied nuclear tests in Lop Nur. The results indicate dangerous nuclear radiation influences including fatal risk in the wide Uygur area. (author)

  10. Stage I surface crack formation in thermal fatigue: A predictive multi-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterstock, S.; Robertson, C.; Sauzay, M.; Aubin, V.; Degallaix, S.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale numerical model is developed, predicting the formation of stage I cracks, in thermal fatigue loading conditions. The proposed approach comprises 2 distinct calculation steps. Firstly, the number of cycles to micro-crack initiation is determined, in individual grains. The adopted initiation model depends on local stress-strain conditions, relative to sub-grain plasticity, grain orientation and grain deformation incompatibilities. Secondly, 2-4 grains long surface cracks (stage I) is predicted, by accounting for micro-crack coalescence, in 3 dimensions. The method described in this paper is applied to a 500 grains aggregate, loaded in representative thermal fatigue conditions. Preliminary results provide quantitative insight regarding position, density, spacing and orientations of stage I surface cracks and subsequent formation of crack networks. The proposed method is fully deterministic, provided all grain crystallographic orientations and micro-crack linking thresholds are specified. (authors)

  11. Prediction of abrupt reservoir compaction and surface subsidence due to pore collapse in carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, R.M.M.; de Waal, A.; van Kooten, J.F.C.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure has been developed to predict the abrupt in-situ compaction and the associated surface subsidence above high-porosity carbonate fields showing pore collapse. The approach is based on an extensive laboratory compaction study in which the effects of carbonate type, porosity, core preparation, pore saturant, horizontal to vertical stress ratio and loading rate on the pore collapse behaviour were investigated. For each carbonate type a trendline was established describing the relationship between the porosity after collapse and the vertical effective stress. This trendline concept, in combination with existing subsidence models, enables reservoir compaction and surface subsidence to be predicted on the basis of wireline porosity logs. Static and dynamic elastic constants were found to be uncorrelated during pore collapse. The position of the trendline depends strongly on carbonate type, pore saturant, loading rate and stress ratio. Therefore procedures are given to derive the correct in-situ trendline from laboratory compaction experiments.

  12. Prediction of abrupt reservoir compaction and surface subsidence caused by pore collapse in carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, R.M.M.; De Waal, J.A.; Van Kootan, J.F.C.

    1988-06-01

    A new procedure has been developed to predict the abrupt in-situ compaction and the associated surface subsidence above high-porosity carbonate fields that show pore collapse. The approach is based on an extensive laboratory compaction study in which the effects of carbonate type, porosity, core preparation, pore saturant, horizontal/vertical stress ratio, and loading rate on pore-collapse behavior were investigated. For a number of carbonate types, a trendline was established that describes the relationship between the porosity after collapse and the vertical effective stress. This trendline concept, in combination with existing subsidence models, enables reservoir compaction and surface subsidence to be predicted on the basis of wireline porosity logs. Static and dynamic elastic constants were found to be uncorrelated during pore collapse. The position of the trendline depends strongly on carbonate type, pore saturant, loading rate, and stress ratio. Therefore, procedures are given to derive the correct in-situ trendline from laboratory compaction experiments.

  13. Predicting East African spring droughts using Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Hoell, Andrew; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Blade, Ileana; Liebmann, Brant; Roberts, Jason B.; Robertson, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    In southern Ethiopia, Eastern Kenya, and southern Somalia poor boreal spring rains in 1999, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 contributed to severe food insecurity and high levels of malnutrition. Predicting rainfall deficits in this region on seasonal and decadal time frames can help decision makers support disaster risk reduction while guiding climate-smart adaptation and agricultural development. Building on recent research that links more frequent droughts to a stronger Walker Circulation, warming in the Indo-Pacific warm pool, and an increased western Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, we explore the dominant modes of East African rainfall variability, links between these modes and sea surface temperatures, and a simple index-based monitoring-prediction system suitable for drought early warning.

  14. Predicting the minimum liquid surface tension activity of pseudomonads expressing biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I U; Deeni, Y; Hapca, S M; McLaughlin, K; Spiers, A J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria produce a variety of biosurfactants capable of significantly reducing liquid (aqueous) surface tension (γ) with a range of biological roles and biotechnological uses. To determine the lowest achievable surface tension (γMin ), we tested a diverse collection of Pseudomonas-like isolates from contaminated soil and activated sludge and identified those expressing biosurfactants by drop-collapse assay. Liquid surface tension-reducing ability was quantitatively determined by tensiometry, with 57 isolates found to significantly lower culture supernatant surface tensions to 24·5-49·1 mN m(-1) . Differences in biosurfactant behaviour determined by foaming, emulsion and oil-displacement assays were also observed amongst isolates producing surface tensions of 25-27 mN m(-1) , suggesting that a range of structurally diverse biosurfactants were being expressed. Individual distribution identification (IDI) analysis was used to identify the theoretical probability distribution that best fitted the surface tension data, which predicted a γMin of 24·24 mN m(-1) . This was in agreement with predictions based on earlier work of published mixed bacterial spp. data, suggesting a fundamental limit to the ability of bacterial biosurfactants to reduce surface tensions in aqueous systems. This implies a biological restriction on the synthesis and export of these agents or a physical-chemical restriction on their functioning once produced. Numerous surveys of biosurfactant-producing bacteria have been conducted, but only recently has an attempt been made to predict the minimum liquid surface tension these surface-active agents can achieve. Here, we determine a theoretical minimum of 24 mN m(-1) by statistical analysis of tensiometry data, suggesting a fundamental limit for biosurfactant activity in bacterial cultures incubated under standard growth conditions. This raises a challenge to our understanding of biosurfactant expression, secretion and function, as well as

  15. Predicting the Occurrence of Cave-Inhabiting Fauna Based on Features of the Earth Surface Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Mary C; Doctor, Daniel H; Niemiller, Matthew L; Weary, David J; Young, John A; Zigler, Kirk S; Culver, David C

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  16. Suppression of Lateral Diffusion and Surface Leakage Currents in nBn Photodetectors Using an Inverted Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Savich, G. R.; Marozas, B. T.; Wicks, G. W.

    2018-02-01

    Surface leakage and lateral diffusion currents in InAs-based nBn photodetectors have been investigated. Devices fabricated using a shallow etch processing scheme that etches through the top contact and stops at the barrier exhibited large lateral diffusion current but undetectably low surface leakage. Such large lateral diffusion current significantly increased the dark current, especially in small devices, and causes pixel-to-pixel crosstalk in detector arrays. To eliminate the lateral diffusion current, two different approaches were examined. The conventional solution utilized a deep etch process, which etches through the top contact, barrier, and absorber. This deep etch processing scheme eliminated lateral diffusion, but introduced high surface current along the device mesa sidewalls, increasing the dark current. High device failure rate was also observed in deep-etched nBn structures. An alternative approach to limit lateral diffusion used an inverted nBn structure that has its absorber grown above the barrier. Like the shallow etch process on conventional nBn structures, the inverted nBn devices were fabricated with a processing scheme that only etches the top layer (the absorber, in this case) but avoids etching through the barrier. The results show that inverted nBn devices have the advantage of eliminating the lateral diffusion current without introducing elevated surface current.

  17. [Current seroprevalence, vaccination and predictive value of liver enzymes for hepatitis B among refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Annika; Solbach, Philipp; Cornberg, Markus; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Behrens, Georg M N; Jablonka, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    Currently only vague estimates exist for the seroprevalence and vaccination status for viral hepatitis B (HBV) in refugees arriving in Germany during the current refugee crisis. To assess the prevalence of hepatitis B in refugees arriving in northern Germany in 2015. In a cross-sectional study in 793 patients from all age groups tests for serological markers of hepatitis B virus infection (HBsAg, anti-HBc) and liver enzymes (ALT, AST, bilirubin, γGT, alkaline phosphatase) were performed in August 2015 at six reception centers in northern Germany. In 258 patients anti-HBs antibodies were assessed additionally. Of the tested refugees, 76.7 % were male, the median age was 28.8 ± 11.4 years, and 7.8 % were children under the age of 18. The overall prevalence of HBsAg and total anti-HBc was 2.3 % and 14.0 % respectively (2.5 % and 14.5 % in men; 1.2 % and 13.5 % in women). Prevalence was highest in 35 to 49-year-old patients for HBsAg (3.1 %) and for refugees over 50 years for anti-HBc (38 %). No immunity to Hepatitis B was found in 62 %, 18.6 % had been vaccinated against Hepatitis B, while 50 % of children aged up to 15 years (n = 12) had been vaccinated. Positive predictive values of elevated AST and ALT for detection of HBsAg was 0 and 0.016, respectively. Only two patients with a positive HBsAg had elevated transaminases. This study showed a high prevalence of HBsAg in a German refugee sample in comparison to the general German population. Liver enzymes are not an appropriate tool for screening for hepatitis B virus infection.

  18. The effect of cathode bias (field effect) on the surface leakage current of CdZnTe detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Chen, C.M.H.; Cook, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    Surface resistivity is an important parameter of multi-electrode CZT detectors such as coplanar-grid, strip, or pixel detectors. Low surface resistivity results in a high leakage current and affects the charge collection efficiency in the areas near contacts. Thus, it is always desirable to have ...

  19. Ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) and Superstorm Sandy (2012): Coupled model predictions and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Forecasting hurricane impacts of extreme winds and flooding requires accurate prediction of hurricane structure and storm-induced ocean surface waves days in advance. The waves are complex, especially near landfall when the hurricane winds and water depth varies significantly and the surface waves refract, shoal and dissipate. In this study, we examine the spatial structure, magnitude, and directional spectrum of hurricane-induced ocean waves using a high resolution, fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model and observations. The coupled model predictions of ocean surface waves in Hurricane Ike (2008) over the Gulf of Mexico and Superstorm Sandy (2012) in the northeastern Atlantic and coastal region are evaluated with the NDBC buoy and satellite altimeter observations. Although there are characteristics that are general to ocean waves in both hurricanes as documented in previous studies, wave fields in Ike and Sandy possess unique properties due mostly to the distinct wind fields and coastal bathymetry in the two storms. Several processes are found to significantly modulate hurricane surface waves near landfall. First, the phase speed and group velocities decrease as the waves become shorter and steeper in shallow water, effectively increasing surface roughness and wind stress. Second, the bottom-induced refraction acts to turn the waves toward the coast, increasing the misalignment between the wind and waves. Third, as the hurricane translates over land, the left side of the storm center is characterized by offshore winds over very short fetch, which opposes incoming swell. Landfalling hurricanes produce broader wave spectra overall than that of the open ocean. The front-left quadrant is most complex, where the combination of windsea, swell propagating against the wind, increasing wind-wave stress, and interaction with the coastal topography requires a fully coupled model to meet these challenges in hurricane wave and surge prediction.

  20. An Analytical Model for Prediction of Magnetic Flux Leakage from Surface Defects in Ferromagnetic Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical model is proposed to predict magnetic flux leakage (MFL signals from the surface defects in ferromagnetic tubes. The analytical expression consists of elliptic integrals of first kind based on the magnetic dipole model. The radial (Bz component of leakage fields is computed from the cylindrical holes in ferromagnetic tubes. The effectiveness of the model has been studied by analyzing MFL signals as a function of the defect parameters and lift-off. The model predicted results are verified with experimental results and a good agreement is observed between the analytical and the experimental results. This analytical expression could be used for quick prediction of MFL signals and also input data for defect reconstructions in inverse MFL problem.

  1. Calibration and combination of monthly near-surface temperature and precipitation predictions over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luis R. L.; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Coelho, Caio A. S.

    2018-02-01

    A Bayesian method known as the Forecast Assimilation (FA) was used to calibrate and combine monthly near-surface temperature and precipitation outputs from seasonal dynamical forecast systems. The simple multimodel (SMM), a method that combines predictions with equal weights, was used as a benchmark. This research focuses on Europe and adjacent regions for predictions initialized in May and November, covering the boreal summer and winter months. The forecast quality of the FA and SMM as well as the single seasonal dynamical forecast systems was assessed using deterministic and probabilistic measures. A non-parametric bootstrap method was used to account for the sampling uncertainty of the forecast quality measures. We show that the FA performs as well as or better than the SMM in regions where the dynamical forecast systems were able to represent the main modes of climate covariability. An illustration with the near-surface temperature over North Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea and Middle-East in summer months associated with the well predicted first mode of climate covariability is offered. However, the main modes of climate covariability are not well represented in most situations discussed in this study as the seasonal dynamical forecast systems have limited skill when predicting the European climate. In these situations, the SMM performs better more often.

  2. Image analysis from surface scanning with an absolute eddy current coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaoui, P.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work is to implement processing and analysis tools applied to eddy current imaging. These cartographies are issued from steam generator tubes testing using an absolute coil. The first is to eliminate the perturbations due to probe lift-off changes which generate low frequency oscillations on the image. The principle of the processing is to rebuild a complete surface of the noise using only the points around the defect area. The geometric origin of these perturbations led to a model based on sinusoidal functions. The method consists of gradually decomposing the image into a sum of basic sinusoidal surfaces. In order to take into account all kind of cartographies (especially rolling zone) some preprocessing must be applied. The results obtained with this 'cartography flattening'are satisfactory and the phase of analysis could begin with good condition of signal ratio. The second part of this work dealt with the choice and the perfection of image processing tools which would fit the most with the defect characterization. The aim of this characterization is to give the orientation and main size of the detected defect. A morphological skeleton representation has been chosen to illustrate the defect architecture and to allow sizing. A set of tools has been elaborated to obtain an (automatic) processing according to threshold. The results for single defect are satisfactory since the sizing error is around ± 25% and orientation is nearly always correctly given. The processing for area with several defects is more complex and new complementary research directions are proposed. (author)

  3. Localization of endocardial ectopic activity by means of noninvasive endocardial surface current density reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Dakun; Liu Chenguang; Eggen, Michael D; He Bin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Iaizzo, Paul A, E-mail: binhe@umn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, MN (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Localization of the source of cardiac ectopic activity has direct clinical benefits for determining the location of the corresponding ectopic focus. In this study, a recently developed current-density (CD)-based localization approach was experimentally evaluated in noninvasively localizing the origin of the cardiac ectopic activity from body-surface potential maps (BSPMs) in a well-controlled experimental setting. The cardiac ectopic activities were induced in four well-controlled intact pigs by single-site pacing at various sites within the left ventricle (LV). In each pacing study, the origin of the induced ectopic activity was localized by reconstructing the CD distribution on the endocardial surface of the LV from the measured BSPMs and compared with the estimated single moving dipole (SMD) solution and precise pacing site (PS). Over the 60 analyzed beats corresponding to ten pacing sites (six for each), the mean and standard deviation of the distance between the locations of maximum CD value and the corresponding PSs were 16.9 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively. In comparison, the averaged distance between the SMD locations and the corresponding PSs was slightly larger (18.4 {+-} 3.4 mm). The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the stimulus site also showed high consistency with the endocardial potential maps estimated by a minimally invasive endocardial mapping system. The present experimental results suggest that the CD method is able to locate the approximate site of the origin of a cardiac ectopic activity, and that the distribution of the CD can portray the propagation of early activation of an ectopic beat.

  4. Leakage current characterization for estimating the conditions of non-ceramic insulators' surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hag, Ayman H. [Electrical Engineering Department, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirate)

    2007-03-15

    In this work both detection of the beginning of dry-band arcing and correlating the average value of leakage current (LC) with non-ceramic insulator surface damage have been investigated. Silicone rubber insulators were tested in salt-fog under different voltage and conductivity levels. The autocorrelation function (ACF) was calculated for both the fundamental and third harmonic components of LC during the early aging period (EAP). It has been observed that distinct differences exist in the behavior of both the fundamental and that of the third harmonic components of the LC during EAP. Although the fundamental component of the LC begins to grow immediately after starting the test, the third harmonic requires a much longer period of time to begin. Dry-band arcing is highly correlated with distortion in the LC and hence to its third harmonic component. But it has been observed that the level of the fundamental component of LC at which the third harmonic component started to increase is different from one case to another. As such, it is more appropriate to use the ACF of the third harmonic component of LC as an indication of dry-band arcing rather than a simple threshold value. Moreover, the average value of LC during late aging period (LAP) was correlated with the damage of non-ceramic insulators. It has been found that the average level of both the fundamental and third harmonic component of LC is well correlated with the different degrees of damage of non-ceramic insulators' surface. (author)

  5. Surface roughness prediction of particulate composites using artificial neural networks in turning operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors, e.g. cutting speed and feed rate, affect the surface roughness in machining process. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network model was used to forecast surface roughness with related inputs, including cutting speed and feed rate. The output of the ANN model input parameters related to the machined surface roughness parameters. In this research, twelve samples of experimental data were used to train the network. Moreover, four other experimental tests were implemented to test the network. The study concludes that ANN was a reliable and accurate method for predicting machining parameters in CNC turning operation of Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites (PAMCs specimens with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% filler. The aim of this work is to decrease the production cost and consequently increase the production rate of these materials for industry without any trial and error method procedure.

  6. Monte Carlo prediction of crater formation by single ion impact on solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martin, A.M.C.; Dominguez-Vazquez, J.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Collins, R.; Gras-Marti, A.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the topography changes following the impact of one energetic ion on the plane surface of a monatomic amorphous solid. This is done in two stages. The first is a Monte Carlo calculation of the sputter yield and interior distribution relocated atoms, with no compensation for local departures from equilibrium density. In the second stage there is a systematic relaxation of the solid, in which the density returns to its previous constant value and a crater develops in the surface. Two alternative methods of carrying out stage two are compared. In the first the solid is subdivided into cells within which relaxation is carried out normal to the surface, as in previous one-dimensional studies. The second method treats the solid as a 3-dimensional incompressible medium. Both seem to reproduce quite well the main features found experimentally. (orig.)

  7. A Sensorless Predictive Current Controlled Boost Converter by Using an EKF with Load Variation Effect Elimination Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qiaoling; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Qiao; Zou, Xuecheng

    2015-04-28

    To realize accurate current control for a boost converter, a precise measurement of the inductor current is required to achieve high resolution current regulating. Current sensors are widely used to measure the inductor current. However, the current sensors and their processing circuits significantly contribute extra hardware cost, delay and noise to the system. They can also harm the system reliability. Therefore, current sensorless control techniques can bring cost effective and reliable solutions for various boost converter applications. According to the derived accurate model, which contains a number of parasitics, the boost converter is a nonlinear system. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is proposed for inductor current estimation and output voltage filtering. With this approach, the system can have the same advantages as sensored current control mode. To implement EKF, the load value is necessary. However, the load may vary from time to time. This can lead to errors of current estimation and filtered output voltage. To solve this issue, a load variation elimination effect elimination (LVEE) module is added. In addition, a predictive average current controller is used to regulate the current. Compared with conventional voltage controlled system, the transient response is greatly improved since it only takes two switching cycles for the current to reach its reference. Finally, experimental results are presented to verify the stable operation and output tracking capability for large-signal transients of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Alternating current impedance spectroscopic analysis of biofunctionalized vertically-aligned silica nanospring surface for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timalsina, Yukta P.

    In this dissertation, a process of vertically-aligned (silica) nanosprings (VANS) based biosensor development is presented. Alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy has been used to analyze sensor response as a function of saline phosphate (SP) buffer and biological solutions. The sensor is a parallel plate capacitor consisting of two glass substrates coated with indium tin oxide (ITO), where the VANS [or randomly-aligned nanosprings (RANS)] grown on one substrate serve as the dielectric spacer layer. The response of a VANS device as a function of ionic concentration in SP buffer was examined and an equivalent circuit model was developed. The results demonstrated that VANS sensors exhibited greater sensitivity to the changes in SP concentration relative to the ITO sensors, which serve as controls. The biofunctionalized VANS surface via physisorption and the cross-linker method demonstrates the repeatability, specificity, and selectivity of the binding. The physisorption of biotinylated immunoglobulin G (B-IgG) onto the VANS surface simplifies the whole sensing procedure for the detection of glucose oxidase, since the avidin-conjugated glucose oxidase (Av-GOx) can directly be immobilized on the B-IgG. The cross linker method involves the covalent attachment of antibodies onto the functionalized VANS surface via imine bond. The experiments revealed that the VANS sensor response is solely the result of the interaction of target molecule i.e. mouse IgG with the probe layer, i.e. goat antimouse IgG (GalphaM IgG). It was determined that VANS-based sensors exhibit a greater magnitude of change between successive bio-layers relative to the controls above 100 Hz, which indicates that the addition of biomolecules inhibits the diffusion of ions and changes the effective dielectric response of the VANS via biomolecular polarization. The study of ionic transport in nanosprings suggested that conductance follows a scaling law. It was demonstrated that a VANS-based device

  9. Mapping sub-surface geostrophic currents from altimetry and a fleet of gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Chiggiato, J.; Schroeder, K.

    2013-04-01

    Integrating the observations gathered by different platforms into a unique physical picture of the environment is a fundamental aspect of networked ocean observing systems. These are constituted by a spatially distributed set of sensors and platforms that simultaneously monitor a given ocean region. Remote sensing from satellites is an integral part of present ocean observing systems. Due to their autonomy, mobility and controllability, underwater gliders are envisioned to play a significant role in the development of networked ocean observatories. Exploiting synergism between remote sensing and underwater gliders is expected to result on a better characterization of the marine environment than using these observational sources individually. This study investigates a methodology to estimate the three dimensional distribution of geostrophic currents resulting from merging satellite altimetry and in situ samples gathered by a fleet of Slocum gliders. Specifically, the approach computes the volumetric or three dimensional distribution of absolute dynamic height (ADH) that minimizes the total energy of the system while being close to in situ observations and matching the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) observed from satellite at the sea surface. A three dimensional finite element technique is employed to solve the minimization problem. The methodology is validated making use of the dataset collected during the field experiment called Rapid Environmental Picture-2010 (REP-10) carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Center-NURC during August 2010. A marine region off-shore La Spezia (northwest coast of Italy) was sampled by a fleet of three coastal Slocum gliders. Results indicate that the geostrophic current field estimated from gliders and altimetry significantly improves the estimates obtained using only the data gathered by the glider fleet.

  10. Enhancement of tunneling current in phosphorene tunnel field effect transistors by surface defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan; Fan, Zhi-Qiang; Gong, Jian; Chen, Jie-Zhi; ManduLa, Huhe; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Yang, Shen-Yuan; Jiang, Xiang-Wei

    2018-02-21

    The effects of the staggered double vacancies, hydrogen (H), 3d transition metals, for example cobalt, and semiconductor covalent atoms, for example, germanium, nitrogen, phosphorus (P) and silicon adsorption on the transport properties of monolayer phosphorene were studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. It was observed that the performance of the phosphorene tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) with an 8.8 nm scaling channel length could be improved most effectively, if the adatoms or vacancies were introduced at the source channel interface. For H and P doped devices, the upper limit of on-state currents of phosphorene TFETs were able to be quickly increased to 2465 μA μm -1 and 1652 μA μm -1 , respectively, which not only outperformed the pristine sample, but also met the requirements for high performance logic applications for the next decade in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). It was proved that the defect-induced band gap states make the effective tunneling path between the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) much shorter, so that the carriers can be injected easily from the left electrode, then transfer to the channel. In this regard, the tunneling properties of phosphorene TFETs can be manipulated using surface defects. In addition, the effects of spin polarization on the transport properties of doped phosphorene TFETs were also rigorously considered, H and P doped TFETs could achieve a high ON current of 1795 μA μm -1 and 1368 μA μm -1 , respectively, which is closer to realistic nanodevices.

  11. An iterative model for the steady state current distribution in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop an iterative model for the analysis of the current distribution in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a circuit network modeling approach. This iterative model divides the VCSEL structure into numerous annular elements and uses a circuit network consisting of resistors and diodes. The measured sheet resistance of the p-distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the measured sheet resistance of the layers under the oxide layer, and two empirical adjustable parameters are used as inputs to the iterative model to determine the resistance of each resistor. The two empirical values are related to the anisotropy of the resistivity of the p-DBR structure. The spontaneous current, stimulated current, and surface recombination current are accounted for by the diodes. The lateral carrier transport in the quantum well region is analyzed using drift and diffusion currents. The optical gain is calculated as a function of wavelength and carrier density from fundamental principles. The predicted threshold current densities for these VCSELs match the experimentally measured current densities over the wavelength range of 0.83 mum to 0.86 mum with an error of less than 5%. This model includes the effects of the resistance of the p-DBR mirrors, the oxide current-confining layer and spatial hole burning. Our model shows that higher sheet resistance under the oxide layer reduces the threshold current, but also reduces the current range over which single transverse mode operation occurs. The spatial hole burning profile depends on the lateral drift and diffusion of carriers in the quantum wells but is dominated by the voltage drop across the p-DBR region. To my knowledge, for the first time, the drift current and the diffusion current are treated separately. Previous work uses an ambipolar approach, which underestimates the total charge transferred in the quantum well region, especially under the oxide region. However, the total

  12. Prediction Surface Morphology of Nanostructure Fabricated by Nano-Oxidation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Ching; Chang, Ho; Kuo, Chin-Guo; Li, Jeen-Fong; You, Yong-Chin

    2015-12-04

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for visualization of a nano-oxidation technique performed on diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. Experiments of the nano-oxidation technique of the DLC thin film include those on nano-oxidation points and nano-oxidation lines. The feature sizes of the DLC thin film, including surface morphology, depth, and width, were explored after application of a nano-oxidation technique to the DLC thin film under different process parameters. A databank for process parameters and feature sizes of thin films was then established, and multiple regression analysis (MRA) and a back-propagation neural network (BPN) were used to carry out the algorithm. The algorithmic results are compared with the feature sizes acquired from experiments, thus obtaining a prediction model of the nano-oxidation technique of the DLC thin film. The comparative results show that the prediction accuracy of BPN is superior to that of MRA. When the BPN algorithm is used to predict nano-point machining, the mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE) of depth, left side, and right side are 8.02%, 9.68%, and 7.34%, respectively. When nano-line machining is being predicted, the MAPEs of depth, left side, and right side are 4.96%, 8.09%, and 6.77%, respectively. The obtained data can also be used to predict cross-sectional morphology in the DLC thin film treated with a nano-oxidation process.

  13. Prediction of Sea Surface Temperature Using Long Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Wang, Hui; Dong, Junyu; Zhong, Guoqiang; Sun, Xin

    2017-10-01

    This letter adopts long short-term memory(LSTM) to predict sea surface temperature(SST), which is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to use recurrent neural network to solve the problem of SST prediction, and to make one week and one month daily prediction. We formulate the SST prediction problem as a time series regression problem. LSTM is a special kind of recurrent neural network, which introduces gate mechanism into vanilla RNN to prevent the vanished or exploding gradient problem. It has strong ability to model the temporal relationship of time series data and can handle the long-term dependency problem well. The proposed network architecture is composed of two kinds of layers: LSTM layer and full-connected dense layer. LSTM layer is utilized to model the time series relationship. Full-connected layer is utilized to map the output of LSTM layer to a final prediction. We explore the optimal setting of this architecture by experiments and report the accuracy of coastal seas of China to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, we also show its online updated characteristics.

  14. ECMWF seasonal forecast system 3 and its prediction of sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockdale, Timothy N.; Anderson, David L.T.; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Ferranti, Laura; Mogensen, Kristian; Palmer, Timothy N.; Molteni, Franco; Vitart, Frederic [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Doblas-Reyes, Francisco [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Institut Catala de Ciencies del Clima (IC3), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    The latest operational version of the ECMWF seasonal forecasting system is described. It shows noticeably improved skill for sea surface temperature (SST) prediction compared with previous versions, particularly with respect to El Nino related variability. Substantial skill is shown for lead times up to 1 year, although at this range the spread in the ensemble forecast implies a loss of predictability large enough to account for most of the forecast error variance, suggesting only moderate scope for improving long range El Nino forecasts. At shorter ranges, particularly 3-6 months, skill is still substantially below the model-estimated predictability limit. SST forecast skill is higher for more recent periods than earlier ones. Analysis shows that although various factors can affect scores in particular periods, the improvement from 1994 onwards seems to be robust, and is most plausibly due to improvements in the observing system made at that time. The improvement in forecast skill is most evident for 3-month forecasts starting in February, where predictions of NINO3.4 SST from 1994 to present have been almost without fault. It is argued that in situations where the impact of model error is small, the value of improved observational data can be seen most clearly. Significant skill is also shown in the equatorial Indian Ocean, although predictive skill in parts of the tropical Atlantic are relatively poor. SST forecast errors can be especially high in the Southern Ocean. (orig.)

  15. Surface Crack Detection for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials Using Pulsed Eddy Current Based on Rectangular Differential Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the surface defect inspection of carbon fiber reinforced composite, the differential and the direct measurement finite element simulation models of pulsed eddy current flaw detection were built. The principle of differential pulsed eddy current detection was analyzed and the sensitivity of defect detection was compared through two kinds of measurements. The validity of simulation results was demonstrated by experiments. The simulation and experimental results show that the pulsed eddy current detection method based on rectangular differential probe can effectively improve the sensitivity of surface defect detection of carbon fiber reinforced composite material.

  16. Transport of contaminants by Arctic sea ice and surface ocean currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirman, S.

    1995-01-01

    Sea ice and ocean currents transport contaminants in the Arctic from source areas on the shelves, to biologically active regions often more than a thousand kilometers away. Coastal regions along the Siberian margin are polluted by discharges of agricultural, industrial and military wastes in river runoff, from atmospheric deposition and ocean dumping. The Kara Sea is of particular concern because of deliberate dumping of radioactive waste, as well as the large input of polluted river water. Contaminants are incorporated in ice during suspension freezing on the shelves, and by atmospheric deposition during drift. Ice releases its contaminant load through brine drainage, surface runoff of snow and meltwater, and when the floe disintegrates. The marginal ice zone, a region of intense biological activity, may also be the site of major contaminant release. Potentially contaminated ice from the Kara Sea is likely to influence the marginal ice zones of the Barents and Greenland seas. From studies conducted to date it appears that sea ice from the Kara Sea does not typically enter the Beaufort Gyre, and thus is unlikely to affect the northern Canadian and Alaskan margins

  17. MHD stability analysis of axisymmetric surface current model tokamaks close to the spheromak regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Toshihisa; Kaji, Ikuo; Fukai, Ichiro; Kito, Masafumi.

    1984-01-01

    In the toroidal coordinates, a stability analysis is presented for very low-aspect-ratio tokamaks with circular cross section which is described by a surface current model (SCM) of axisymmetric equilibria. The energy principle determining the stability of plasma is treated without any expansion of aspect ratio. Numerical results show that, owing to the occurrence of the non-axisymmetric (n=1) unstable modes, there exists no MHD-stable ideal SCM spheromak characterized by zero external toroidal vacuum field. Instead, a stable spheromak-type plasma which comes to the ideal SCM spheromak is provided by the configuration with a very weak external toroidal field. Close to the spheromak regime (1.0 1 aspect ratio< = 1.1), the minimum safety factor and the critical β-values increase mo notonically with aspect ratio decreasing from a large value, and curves of βsub(p) versus β in the marginal stability approach to an ideal SCM spheromak line βsub(p)=β. (author)

  18. Project CONVERGE: Initial Results From the Mapping of Surface Currents in Palmer Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statscewich, H.; Kohut, J. T.; Winsor, P.; Oliver, M. J.; Bernard, K. S.; Cimino, M. A.; Fraser, W.

    2016-02-01

    The Palmer Deep submarine canyon on the Western Antarctic Peninsula provides a conduit for upwelling of relatively warm, nutrient rich waters which enhance local primary production and support a food web productive enough to sustain a large top predator biomass. In an analysis of ten years of satellite-tagged penguins, Oliver et al. (2013) showed that circulation features associated with tidal flows may be a key driver of nearshore predator distributions. During diurnal tides, the penguins feed close to their breeding colonies and during semi-diurnal tides, the penguins make foraging trips to the more distant regions of Palmer Deep. It is hypothesized that convergent features act to concentrate primary producers and aggregate schools of krill that influence the behavior of predator species. The initial results from a six month deployment of a High Frequency Radar network in Palmer Deep are presented in an attempt to characterize and quantify convergent features. During a three month period from January through March 2015, we conducted in situ sampling consisting of multiple underwater glider deployments, small boat acoustic surveys of Antarctic krill, and penguin ARGOS-linked satellite telemetry and time-depth recorders (TDRs). The combination of real-time surface current maps with adaptive in situ sampling introduces High Frequency Radar to the Antarctic in a way that allows us to rigorously and efficiently test the influence of local tidal processes on top predator foraging ecology.

  19. Frequency Optimization for Enhancement of Surface Defect Classification Using the Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mengbao; Wang, Qi; Cao, Binghua; Ye, Bo; Sunny, Ali Imam; Tian, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    Eddy current testing is quite a popular non-contact and cost-effective method for nondestructive evaluation of product quality and structural integrity. Excitation frequency is one of the key performance factors for defect characterization. In the literature, there are many interesting papers dealing with wide spectral content and optimal frequency in terms of detection sensitivity. However, research activity on frequency optimization with respect to characterization performances is lacking. In this paper, an investigation into optimum excitation frequency has been conducted to enhance surface defect classification performance. The influences of excitation frequency for a group of defects were revealed in terms of detection sensitivity, contrast between defect features, and classification accuracy using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and a support vector machine (SVM). It is observed that probe signals are the most sensitive on the whole for a group of defects when excitation frequency is set near the frequency at which maximum probe signals are retrieved for the largest defect. After the use of KPCA, the margins between the defect features are optimum from the perspective of the SVM, which adopts optimal hyperplanes for structure risk minimization. As a result, the best classification accuracy is obtained. The main contribution is that the influences of excitation frequency on defect characterization are interpreted, and experiment-based procedures are proposed to determine the optimal excitation frequency for a group of defects rather than a single defect with respect to optimal characterization performances. PMID:27164112

  20. SCO shipments from Rocky Flats - Experience and current practice [Surface Contaminated Object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, Gary; Morris, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Decommissioning activities at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) are expected to generate approximately 251,000 cubic meters of low-level radioactive waste. Almost half of this will be characterized and shipped as the Department of Transportation ''Surface Contaminated Object'' (SCO) shipping class. In the 2 years since an SCO characterization method was implemented, almost 11,000 of the 18,000 cubic meters of low-level waste were SCO. RFETS experience to-date using an SCO waste characterization method has shown significant time and cost savings, reduced errors, and enhanced employee safety. SCO waste is characterized prior to packaging, near the point of generation, by any of the site's 300 Radiological Control Technicians using inexpensive radiological control survey instruments. This reduces on-site waste container moves and eliminates radiometric analysis at centrally located drum or crate counters. Containers too large for crate counters can also be characterized. Current instrumentation is not adequate to take full advantage of the SCO regulations. Future improvements in the SCO characterization and shipping process are focused on use of larger and/or reusable containers, extended-range instruments, and additional statistical methods, so that the full extent of the SCO regulations can be used

  1. Prediction of iodide adsorption on oxides by surface complexation modeling with spectroscopic confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takahiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2009-04-15

    A deficiency in environmental iodine can cause a number of health problems. Understanding how iodine is sequestered by materials is helpful for evaluating and developing methods for minimizing human health effects related to iodine. In addition, (129)I is considered to be strategically important for safety assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal. To assess the long-term stability of disposed radioactive waste, an understanding of (129)I adsorption on geologic materials is essential. Therefore, the adsorption of I(-) on naturally occurring oxides is of environmental concern. The surface charges of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) in NaI electrolyte solutions were measured by potentiometric acid-base titration. The surface charge data were analyzed by means of an extended triple-layer model (ETLM) for surface complexation modeling to obtain the I(-) adsorption reaction and its equilibrium constant. The adsorption of I(-) was determined to be an outer-sphere process from ETLM analysis, which was consistent with independent X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) observation of I(-) adsorbed on HFO. The adsorption equilibrium constants for I(-) on beta-TiO(2) and gamma-Al(2)O(3) were also evaluated by analyzing the surface charge data of these oxides in NaI solution as reported in the literature. Comparison of these adsorption equilibrium constants for HFO, beta-TiO(2), and gamma-Al(2)O(3) based on site-occupancy standard states permitted prediction of I(-) adsorption equilibrium constants for all oxides by means of the Born solvation theory. The batch adsorption data for I(-) on HFO and amorphous aluminum oxide were reasonably reproduced by ETLM with the predicted equilibrium constants, confirming the validity of the present approach. Using the predicted adsorption equilibrium constants, we calculated distribution coefficient (K(d)) values for I(-) adsorption on common soil minerals as a function of pH and ionic strength.

  2. Evaluation on surface current observing network of high frequency ground wave radars in the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Shi, Junqiang; Qiao, Fangli

    2018-05-01

    Due to the high cost of ocean observation system, the scientific design of observation network becomes much important. The current network of the high frequency radar system in the Gulf of Thailand has been studied using a three-dimensional coastal ocean model. At first, the observations from current radars have been assimilated into this coastal model and the forecast results have improved due to the data assimilation. But the results also show that further optimization of the observing network is necessary. And then, a series of experiments were carried out to assess the performance of the existing high frequency ground wave radar surface current observation system. The simulated surface current data in three regions were assimilated sequentially using an efficient ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation scheme. The experimental results showed that the coastal surface current observation system plays a positive role in improving the numerical simulation of the currents. Compared with the control experiment without assimilation, the simulation precision of surface and subsurface current had been improved after assimilated the surface currents observed at current networks. However, the improvement for three observing regions was quite different and current observing network in the Gulf of Thailand is not effective and a further optimization is required. Based on these evaluations, a manual scheme has been designed by discarding the redundant and inefficient locations and adding new stations where the performance after data assimilation is still low. For comparison, an objective scheme based on the idea of data assimilation has been obtained. Results show that all the two schemes of observing network perform better than the original network and optimal scheme-based data assimilation is much superior to the manual scheme that based on the evaluation of original observing network in the Gulf of Thailand. The distributions of the optimal network of radars could be a

  3. Electron-beam induced current characterization of back-surface field solar cells using a chopped scanning electron microscope beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, K. L.; Cheng, L.-J.

    1984-01-01

    A chopped electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique for the chacterization of back-surface field (BSF) solar cells is presented. It is shown that the effective recombination velocity of the low-high junction forming the back-surface field of BSF cells, in addition to the diffusion length and the surface recombination velocity of the surface perpendicular to both the p-n and low-high junctions, can be determined from the data provided by a single EBIC scan. The method for doing so is described and illustrated. Certain experimental considerations taken to enhance the quality of the EBIC data are also discussed.

  4. Prediction of lateral surface, volume and sphericity of pomegranate using MLP artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rohani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fast and accurate determination of geometrical properties of agricultural products has many applications in agricultural operations like planting, cultivating, harvesting and post-harvesting. Calculations related to storing, shipping and storage-coating materials as well as peeling time and surface-microbial concentrations are some applications of estimating product volume and surface area. Sphericity is also a parameter by which the shape differences between fruits, vegetables, grains and seeds can be quantified. This parameter is important in grading systems and inspecting rolling capability of agricultural products. Bayram presented a new dimensional method and equation to calculate the sphericity of certain shapesand some granular food materials (Bayram, 2005. Kumar and Mathew proposed atheoretically soundmethod for estimating the surface area of ellipsoidal food materials (Kumar and Mathew, 2003. Clayton et al. used non-linear regression models for calculation of apple surface area using the fruit mass or volume (Clayton et al., 1995. Humeida and Hobani predicted surface area and volume of pomegranates based on the weight and geometrical diametermean (Humeida and Hobani, 1993. Wang and Nguang designeda low cost sensor system to automatically compute the volume and surface area of axi-symmetricagricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes and tamarillos (Wang and Nguang, 2007. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique as an alternative method to predict the volume, surface area and sphericity of pomegranates. Materials and methods: The water displacement method (WDM was used for measuring the actual volume of pomegranates. Also, the sphericity and surface area are computed by using analytical methods. In this study, the neural MLP models were designed based upon the three nominal diameters of pomegranatesas variable inputs, while the output model consisted

  5. A study of direct-current surface discharge plasma for a Mach 3 supersonic flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jichul

    A direct-current, non-equilibrium surface glow discharge plasma in the presence of a Mach 2.85 flow is studied experimentally for flow control applications. The discharge is generated with pin-like electrodes flush mounted on a ceramic plate with sustaining currents from 25 mA to 300 mA. In the presence of a supersonic flow, two distinct discharge modes - diffuse and constricted - are observed depending on the flow and discharge operating conditions. In cathode upstream location, both diffuse and constricted discharges are observed while in cathode downstream location, the discharge mostly exhibits either constricted mode or bistable mixed mode. The effect of the discharge on the flow ("plasma actuation'') is characterized by the appearance of a weak shock wave in the vicinity of the discharge. The shock is observed at low powers (˜10 W) for the diffuse discharge mode but is absent for the higher power (˜100 W) constricted mode. High speed laser schlieren imaging suggests that the diffuse mode plasma actuation is rapid as it occurs on a time scale that is less than 100 microsec. Rotational (gas) and vibrational temperatures within the discharge are estimated by emission spectral line fits of N 2 and N+2 rovibronic bands near 365-395 nm. The electronic temperatures are estimated by using the Boltzmann plot method for Fe(I) atomic lines. Rotational temperatures are found to be high (˜1500 K) in the absence of a flow but drop sharply (˜500 K) in the presence of a supersonic flow for both the diffuse and constricted discharge modes. The vibrational and electronic temperatures are measured to be about 3000 K and 1.25 eV (14500 K), respectively, and these temperatures are the same with and without flow. The gas (rotational) temperature spatial profiles above the cathode surface are found to be similar for the diffuse and constricted modes indicating that dilatational effects due to gas heating are similar. However, complete absence of flow actuation for the

  6. Prediction method of long-term reliability in improving residual stresses by means of surface finishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Takehiko; Hirano, Shinro; Chigusa, Naoki; Okano, Shigetaka; Saida, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Surface finishing methods, such as Water Jet Peening (WJP), have been applied to welds in some major components of nuclear power plants as a counter measure to Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). In addition, the methods of surface finishing (buffing treatment) is being standardized, and thus the buffing treatment has been also recognized as the well-established method of improving stress. On the other hand, the long-term stability of peening techniques has been confirmed by accelerated test. However, the effectiveness of stress improvement by surface treatment is limited to thin layers and the effect of complicated residual stress distribution in the weld metal beneath the surface is not strictly taken into account for long-term stability. This paper, therefore, describes the accelerated tests, which confirmed that the long-term stability of the layer subjected to buffing treatment was equal to that subjected to WJP. The long-term reliability of very thin stress improved layer was also confirmed through a trial evaluation by thermal elastic-plastic creep analysis, even if the effect of complicated residual stress distribution in the weld metal was excessively taken into account. Considering the above findings, an approach is proposed for constructing the prediction method of the long-term reliability of stress improvement by surface finishing. (author)

  7. Development of incident progress prediction technologies for nuclear emergency preparedness. Current status and future subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Kusunoki, Takayoshi; Kawasaki, Ikuo; Yanagi, Chihiro; Kinoshita, Ikuo; Iwasaki, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear licensees are required to maintain a prediction system during normal condition for using a nuclear emergency by the Basic Plan for Disaster Prevention of government. With prediction of the incident progress, if the present condition of nuclear power plant is understood appropriately and it grows more serious with keeping the present situation, it is in predicting what kind of situation will be occurred in the near future, choosing the effective countermeasures against the coming threat, and understanding the time available of intervention time. Following the accident on September 30 1999 in the nuclear fuel fabrication facility in Tokai Village of Ibaraki Prefecture, the Institute of Nuclear Safety System started development of incident progress prediction technologies for nuclear emergency preparedness. We have performed technical applications and made improvements in nuclear emergency exercises and verified the developed systems using the observed values of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. As a result, our developed Incident Progress Prediction System was applied to nuclear emergency exercises and we accumulated knowledge and experience by which we improved the system to make predictions more rapidly and more precisely, including for example, the development of a prediction method for leak size of reactor coolant. On the other hand, if a rapidly progressing incident occurs, since end users need simple and quick predictions about the public's protection and evacuation areas, we developed the Radioactive Materials Release, Radiation Dose and Radiological Protection Area Prediction System which changed solving an inverse problem into a forward problem solution. In view of the water-level-decline incident of the spent fuel storage facility at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the spent fuel storage facility water level and the water temperature evaluation tool were improved. Such incident progress prediction technologies were

  8. Predicting the effect of surface texture on the qualitative form of prehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian John Flatters

    Full Text Available Reach-to-grasp movements change quantitatively in a lawful (i.e. predictable manner with changes in object properties. We explored whether altering object texture would produce qualitative changes in the form of the precontact movement patterns. Twelve participants reached to lift objects from a tabletop. Nine objects were produced, each with one of three grip surface textures (high-friction, medium-friction and low-friction and one of three widths (50 mm, 70 mm and 90 mm. Each object was placed at three distances (100 mm, 300 mm and 500 mm, representing a total of 27 trial conditions. We observed two distinct movement patterns across all trials--participants either: (i brought their arm to a stop, secured the object and lifted it from the tabletop; or (ii grasped the object 'on-the-fly', so it was secured in the hand while the arm was moving. A majority of grasps were on-the-fly when the texture was high-friction and none when the object was low-friction, with medium-friction producing an intermediate proportion. Previous research has shown that the probability of on-the-fly behaviour is a function of grasp surface accuracy constraints. A finger friction rig was used to calculate the coefficients of friction for the objects and these calculations showed that the area available for a stable grasp (the 'functional grasp surface size' increased with surface friction coefficient. Thus, knowledge of functional grasp surface size is required to predict the probability of observing a given qualitative form of grasping in human prehensile behaviour.

  9. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  10. Assessing Confidence in Pliocene Sea Surface Temperatures to Evaluate Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Haywood, Alan M.; Hill, Daniel J.; Dolan, Aisling. M.; Chan, Wing-Le; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Chandler, Mark A.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    In light of mounting empirical evidence that planetary warming is well underway, the climate research community looks to palaeoclimate research for a ground-truthing measure with which to test the accuracy of future climate simulations. Model experiments that attempt to simulate climates of the past serve to identify both similarities and differences between two climate states and, when compared with simulations run by other models and with geological data, to identify model-specific biases. Uncertainties associated with both the data and the models must be considered in such an exercise. The most recent period of sustained global warmth similar to what is projected for the near future occurred about 3.33.0 million years ago, during the Pliocene epoch. Here, we present Pliocene sea surface temperature data, newly characterized in terms of level of confidence, along with initial experimental results from four climate models. We conclude that, in terms of sea surface temperature, models are in good agreement with estimates of Pliocene sea surface temperature in most regions except the North Atlantic. Our analysis indicates that the discrepancy between the Pliocene proxy data and model simulations in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic, where models underestimate warming shown by our highest-confidence data, may provide a new perspective and insight into the predictive abilities of these models in simulating a past warm interval in Earth history.This is important because the Pliocene has a number of parallels to present predictions of late twenty-first century climate.

  11. The current and future use of ridge regression for prediction in quantitative genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Vlaming, Ronald; Groenen, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been a considerable amount of research on the use of regularization methods for inference and prediction in quantitative genetics. Such research mostly focuses on selection of markers and shrinkage of their effects. In this review paper, the use of ridge regression for prediction in quantitative genetics using single-nucleotide polymorphism data is discussed. In particular, we consider (i) the theoretical foundations of ridge regression, (ii) its link to...

  12. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Vicca; M. Bahn; M. Estiarte; E. E. van Loon; R. Vargas; G. Alberti; P. Ambus; M. A. Arain; C. Beier; L. P. Bentley; W. Borken; N. Buchmann; S. L. Collins; G. de Dato; J. S. Dukes; C. Escolar; P. Fay; G. Guidolotti; P. J. Hanson; A. Kahmen; G. Kröel-Dulay; T. Ladreiter-Knauss; K. S. Larsen; E. Lellei-Kovacs; E. Lebrija-Trejos; F. T. Maestre; S. Marhan; M. Marshall; P. Meir; Y. Miao; J. Muhr; P. A. Niklaus; R. Ogaya; J. Peñuelas; C. Poll; L. E. Rustad; K. Savage; A. Schindlbacher; I. K. Schmidt; A. R. Smith; E. D. Sotta; V. Suseela; A. Tietema; N. van Gestel; O. van Straaten; S. Wan; U. Weber; I. A. Janssens

    2014-01-01

    As a key component of the carbon cycle, soil CO2 efflux (SCE) is being increasingly studied to improve our mechanistic understanding of this important carbon flux. Predicting ecosystem responses to climate change often depends an extrapolation of current relationships between ecosystem processes and their climatic drivers to conditions not yet experienced by the...

  13. Current and future perspectives on the development, evaluation and application of in silico approaches for predicting toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safety-related problems continue to be one of the major reasons of attrition in drug development. Non-testing approaches to predict toxicity could form part of the solution. This review provides a perspective of current status of non-testing approaches available for the predictio...

  14. Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicca, S.; Bahn, M.; Estiarte, M.

    2014-01-01

    dependencies of SCE. Hence, the most justified answer to the question of whether current moisture responses of SCE can be extrapolated to predict SCE under altered precipitation regimes is 'no' - as based on the most reliable data sets available. We strongly recommend that future experiments focus more...

  15. Formation Mechanism of Micropores on the Surface of Pure Aluminum Induced by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yang; Cai Jie; Wan Ming-Zhen; Lv Peng; Guan Qing-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of micropores formed on the surface of polycrystalline pure aluminum under high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) irradiation is explained. It is discovered that dispersed micropores with sizes of 0.1–1 μm on the irradiated surface of pure aluminum can be successfully fabricated after HCPEB irradiation. The dominant formation mechanism of the surface micropores should be attributed to the formation of supersaturation vacancies within the near surface during the HCPEB irradiation and the migration of vacancies along grain boundaries and/or dislocations towards the irradiated surface. It is expected that the HCPEB technique will become a new method for the rapid synthesis of surface porous materials. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  16. The effect of cathode bias (field effect) on the surface leakage current of CdZnTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Hubert Chen, C.M.; Cook, W.R.; Harrison, F.A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Schindler, S.M.; Stahle, C.M.; Parker, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    Surface resistivity is an important parameter of multi-electrode CZT detectors such as coplanar-grid, strip, or pixel detectors. Low surface resistivity results in a high leakage current and affects the charge collection efficiency in the areas near contacts. Thus, it is always desirable to have the surface resistivity of the detector as high as possible. In the past the most significant efforts were concentrated to develop passivation techniques for CZT detectors. However, as we found, the field-effect caused by a bias applied on the cathode can significantly reduce the surface resistivity even though the detector surface was carefully passivated. In this paper we illustrate that the field-effect is a common feature of the CZT multi-electrode detectors, and discuss how to take advantage of this effect to improve the surface resistivity of CZT detectors

  17. Blending of Radial HF Radar Surface Current and Model Using ETKF Scheme For The Sunda Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujiasih, Subekti; Riyadi, Mochammad; Wandono, Dr; Wayan Suardana, I.; Nyoman Gede Wiryajaya, I.; Nyoman Suarsa, I.; Hartanto, Dwi; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary study of data blending of surface current for Sunda Strait-Indonesia has been done using the analysis scheme of the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF). The method is utilized to combine radial velocity from HF Radar and u and v component of velocity from Global Copernicus - Marine environment monitoring service (CMEMS) model. The initial ensemble is based on the time variability of the CMEMS model result. Data tested are from 2 CODAR Seasonde radar sites in Sunda Strait and 2 dates such as 09 September 2013 and 08 February 2016 at 12.00 UTC. The radial HF Radar data has a hourly temporal resolution, 20-60 km of spatial range, 3 km of range resolution, 5 degree of angular resolution and spatial resolution and 11.5-14 MHz of frequency range. The u and v component of the model velocity represents a daily mean with 1/12 degree spatial resolution. The radial data from one HF radar site is analyzed and the result compared to the equivalent radial velocity from CMEMS for the second HF radar site. Error checking is calculated by root mean squared error (RMSE). Calculation of ensemble analysis and ensemble mean is using Sangoma software package. The tested R which represents observation error covariance matrix, is a diagonal matrix with diagonal elements equal 0.05, 0.5 or 1.0 m2/s2. The initial ensemble members comes from a model simulation spanning a month (September 2013 or February 2016), one year (2013) or 4 years (2013-2016). The spatial distribution of the radial current are analyzed and the RMSE values obtained from independent HF radar station are optimized. It was verified that the analysis reproduces well the structure included in the analyzed HF radar data. More importantly, the analysis was also improved relative to the second independent HF radar site. RMSE of the improved analysis is better than first HF Radar site Analysis. The best result of the blending exercise was obtained for observation error variance equal to 0.05 m2/s2. This study is

  18. 3D transient model to predict temperature and ablated areas during laser processing of metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak. B. Naghshine

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser processing is one of the most popular small-scale patterning methods and has many applications in semiconductor device fabrication and biomedical engineering. Numerical modelling of this process can be used for better understanding of the process, optimization, and predicting the quality of the final product. An accurate 3D model is presented here for short laser pulses that can predict the ablation depth and temperature distribution on any section of the material in a minimal amount of time. In this transient model, variations of thermal properties, plasma shielding, and phase change are considered. Ablation depth was measured using a 3D optical profiler. Calculated depths are in good agreement with measured values on laser treated titanium surfaces. The proposed model can be applied to a wide range of materials and laser systems.

  19. Predicting wettability behavior of fluorosilica coated metal surface using optimum neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour-Gorjikolaie, Mehran; Valipour Motlagh, Naser

    2018-02-01

    The interaction between variables, which are effective on the surface wettability, is very complex to predict the contact angles and sliding angles of liquid drops. In this paper, in order to solve this complexity, artificial neural network was used to develop reliable models for predicting the angles of liquid drops. Experimental data are divided into training data and testing data. By using training data and feed forward structure for the neural network and using particle swarm optimization for training the neural network based models, the optimum models were developed. The obtained results showed that regression index for the proposed models for the contact angles and sliding angles are 0.9874 and 0.9920, respectively. As it can be seen, these values are close to unit and it means the reliable performance of the models. Also, it can be inferred from the results that the proposed model have more reliable performance than multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function based models.

  20. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  1. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: Delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007-Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  2. Predicting the impact of vegetations in open channels with different distributaries' operations on water surface profile using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeen, Mostafa A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Most of the open water irrigation channels in Egypt suffer from the infestation of aquatic weeds, especially the submerged ones that cause numerous hydraulic problems for the open channels themselves and their water distributaries such as increasing water losses, obstructing water flow, and reducing channels' water distribution efficiencies. Accurate simulation and prediction of flow behavior in such channels is very essential for water distribution decision makers. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven to be very successful in the simulation of several physical phenomena, in general, and in the water research field in particular. Therefore, the current study aims towards introducing the utilization of ANN in simulating the impact of vegetation in main open channel, which supplies water to different distributaries, on the water surface profile in this main channel. Specifically, the study, presented in the current paper utilizes ANN technique for the development of various models to simulate the impact of different submerged weeds' densities, different flow discharges, and different distributaries operation scheduling on the water surface profile in an experimental main open channel that supplies water to different distributaries. In the investigated experiment, the submerged weeds were simulated as branched flexible elements. The investigated experiment was considered as an example for implementing the same methodology and technique in a real open channel system. The results showed that the ANN technique is very successful in simulating the flow behavior of the pre-mentioned open channel experiment with the existence of the submerged weeds. In addition, the developed ANN models were capable of predicting the open channel flow behavior in all the submerged weeds' cases that were considered in the ANN development process

  3. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M Mohan; Gorin, Alexander [School of Engineering and Science, Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia); Abou-El-Hossein, K A, E-mail: mohan.m@curtin.edu.my [Mechanical and Aeronautical Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elegebeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  4. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M Mohan; Gorin, Alexander; Abou-El-Hossein, K A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  5. A residual life prediction model based on the generalized σ -N curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongwen AN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate change rule of the residual life of structure under random repeated load, firstly, starting from the statistic meaning of random repeated load, the joint probability density function of maximum stress and minimum stress is derived based on the characteristics of order statistic (maximum order statistic and minimum order statistic; then, based on the equation of generalized σ -N curved surface, considering the influence of load cycles number on fatigue life, a relationship among minimum stress, maximum stress and residual life, that is the σmin(n- σmax(n-Nr(n curved surface model, is established; finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by a practical case. The result shows that the proposed model can reflect the influence of maximum stress and minimum stress on residual life of structure under random repeated load, which can provide a theoretical basis for life prediction and reliability assessment of structure.

  6. Developing Metamodels for Fast and Accurate Prediction of the Draping of Physical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Esben Toke; Forrester, AIJ.; Lund, Erik

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the use of methods from the meta- or surrogate modeling literature, for building models predicting the draping of physical surfaces, is examined. An example application concerning modeling of the behavior of a variable shape mold is treated. Four different methods are considered...... and local variants, are compared in terms of accuracy and numerical efficiency on data sets of different sizes for the treated application. It is shown that the POD-based methods are vastly superior to models based on kriging alone, and that the use of a difference model structure is advantageous...

  7. Influence of current density on surface morphology and properties of pulse plated tin films from citrate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Das, Siddhartha; Das, Karabi, E-mail: karabi@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Bulk polycrystalline tin films have been processed by pulse electrodeposition technique from a simple solution containing triammonium citrate and stannous chloride. The cathodic investigations have been carried out by galvanostatic methods. As deposited samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis of the deposited films shows microcrystalline grains having β-Sn form. The surface morphology is very rough at lower current density, but becomes smooth at higher current density, and exhibits pyramid type morphology at all the current densities. The effect of current density on microhardness, melting behavior, and electrical resistivity are also reported here.

  8. Interleaved Buck Converter with Variable Number of Active Phases and a Predictive Current Sharing Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Garcia, O.; Oliver, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of an interleaved Buck converter is typically low at light load conditions because of the switching losses in each of the switching stages. Improvements in the converter efficiency can be achieved by dynamically changing the number of active phases depending on the load current....... This paper addresses the issues related to the transient response of the converter when the number of active phases is changed by a digital control scheme. The problem arises because the current in the individual phases of the interleaved Buck converter will not be equal immediately after the controller has...... changed the number of active phases. This paper proposes a current equalisation scheme that adjusts the duty cycle of each phase in a manner that ensures equal average inductor current in all active phases in one or two PWM periods. The current equalisation scheme relies on the measurement of the output...

  9. Translation of Land Surface Model Accuracy and Uncertainty into Coupled Land-Atmosphere Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, Joseph A.; Kumar, Sujay; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Zhou, Shuija

    2012-01-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) Interactions playa critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface heat and moisture budgets, as well as controlling feedbacks with clouds and precipitation that lead to the persistence of dry and wet regimes. Recent efforts to quantify the strength of L-A coupling in prediction models have produced diagnostics that integrate across both the land and PBL components of the system. In this study, we examine the impact of improved specification of land surface states, anomalies, and fluxes on coupled WRF forecasts during the summers of extreme dry (2006) and wet (2007) land surface conditions in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. The improved land initialization and surface flux parameterizations are obtained through the use of a new optimization and uncertainty estimation module in NASA's Land Information System (US-OPT/UE), whereby parameter sets are calibrated in the Noah land surface model and classified according to a land cover and soil type mapping of the observation sites to the full model domain. The impact of calibrated parameters on the a) spinup of the land surface used as initial conditions, and b) heat and moisture states and fluxes of the coupled WRF Simulations are then assessed in terms of ambient weather and land-atmosphere coupling along with measures of uncertainty propagation into the forecasts. In addition, the sensitivity of this approach to the period of calibration (dry, wet, average) is investigated. Finally, tradeoffs of computational tractability and scientific validity, and the potential for combining this approach with satellite remote sensing data are also discussed.

  10. Translation of Land Surface Model Accuracy and Uncertainty into Coupled Land-Atmosphere Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, J. A.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Harrison, K. W.; Zhou, S.

    2012-12-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface heat and moisture budgets, as well as controlling feedbacks with clouds and precipitation that lead to the persistence of dry and wet regimes. Recent efforts to quantify the strength of L-A coupling in prediction models have produced diagnostics that integrate across both the land and PBL components of the system. In this study, we examine the impact of improved specification of land surface states, anomalies, and fluxes on coupled WRF forecasts during the summers of extreme dry (2006) and wet (2007) land surface conditions in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. The improved land initialization and surface flux parameterizations are obtained through the use of a new optimization and uncertainty estimation module in NASA's Land Information System (LIS-OPT/UE), whereby parameter sets are calibrated in the Noah land surface model and classified according to a land cover and soil type mapping of the observation sites to the full model domain. The impact of calibrated parameters on the a) spinup of the land surface used as initial conditions, and b) heat and moisture states and fluxes of the coupled WRF simulations are then assessed in terms of ambient weather and land-atmosphere coupling along with measures of uncertainty propagation into the forecasts. In addition, the sensitivity of this approach to the period of calibration (dry, wet, average) is investigated. Finally, tradeoffs of computational tractability and scientific validity, and the potential for combining this approach with satellite remote sensing data are also discussed.

  11. Current Options for Measuring the Surface Temperature of Dairy Cattle in a Stable Technology: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Švejdová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regular measurement of the body surface temperature can help to assess the health status of animals. There are many technological possibilities of contactless temperature measurement of body surface. The important thing is to find the right part of the body whose temperature will point to the first possible symptoms and immediately react to the first signs of the disease. Disagreements about how to measure body surface temperature and accuracy of the method can occur when different measures are used. We review work showing possibilities of contactless surface temperature measurements using 1 thermography, 2 electronic transponders and 3 other possibilities of measuring the body surface temperature of dairy cattle. For example, when we scan the surface temperature with the thermal imager there can operate in individual animals confounding factors such as the nature or degree of muscular coat, which may significantly affect the results.

  12. Surface energy balances of three general circulation models: Current climate and response to increasing atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, W.J.; Gutzler, D.S.; Portman, D.; Wang, W.C.

    1988-04-01

    The surface energy balance simulated by state-of-the-art general circulation models at GFDL, GISS and NCAR for climates with current levels of atmospheric CO 2 concentration (control climate) and with twice the current levels. The work is part of an effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess climate simulations produced by these models. The surface energy balance enables us to diagnose differences between models in surface temperature climatology and sensitivity to doubling CO 2 in terms of the processes that control surface temperature. Our analysis compares the simulated balances by averaging the fields of interest over a hierarchy of spatial domains ranging from the entire globe down to regions a few hundred kilometers across

  13. A Methylmercury Prediction Too For Surface Waters Across The Contiguous United States (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Booth, N.; Lutz, M.; Fienen, M. N.; Saltman, T.

    2009-12-01

    About 20 years ago, researchers at a few locations across the globe discovered high levels of mercury in fish from remote settings lacking any obvious mercury source. We now know that for most locations atmospheric deposition is the dominant mercury source, and that mercury methylation is the key process that translates low mercury loading rates into relatively high levels in top predators of aquatic food webs. Presently, almost all US states have advisories for elevated levels of mercury in sport fish, and as a result there is considerable public awareness and concern for this nearly ubiquitous contaminant issue. In some states, “statewide” advisories have been issued because elevated fish mercury levels are so common, or the state has no effective way to monitor thousands of lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and streams. As such, resource managers and public health officials have limited options for informing the public on of where elevated mercury concentrations in sport fish are more likely to occur than others. This project provides, for the first time, a national map of predicted (modeled) methylmercury concentrations in surface waters, which is the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of mercury in the environment. The map is the result of over two decades of research that resulted in the formulation of conceptual models of the mercury methylation process, which is strongly governed by environmental conditions - specifically hydrologic landscapes and water quality. The resulting predictive map shows clear regional trends in the distribution of methylmercury concentrations in surface waters. East of the Mississippi, the Gulf and southeastern Atlantic coast, the northeast, the lower Mississippi valley, and Great Lakes area are predicted to have generally higher environmental methylmercury levels. Higher-elevation, well-drained areas of Appalachia are predicted to have relatively lower methylmercury abundance. Other than the prairie pothole region, in the western

  14. Observing the Agulhas Current with sea surface temperature and altimetry data: challenges and perspectives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Krug, Marjolaine, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Agulhas Current is a challenging region for satellite remote sensing observations. Strong evaporation rates above the current core and the Retroflection reduce the number of cloud-free observations from Infra-Red sensors, while microwave...

  15. Surface and subsurface geostrophic current variability in the Indian Ocean from altimetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Cadden, D.D.H.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Chambers, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N.

    the World Ocean Atlas 2005. The results of this method were validated with currents measured using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers moored along the equator at 77 degrees E, 83 degrees E, and 93 degrees E. The measured and computed currents compared...

  16. Fatigue Life Prediction in Rapid Die Casting - Preliminary Work in View of Current Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan Huat Ng; Grote, Karl-Heinrich; Baehr, Ruediger

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulation technique as a prediction tool is slowly adopted in metal casting industry for predicting design modelling solidification analysis. The reasons for this activity is found in the need to further enhance the geometrical design and mechanical properties of the tool design and the correct prediction methodology to fulfil industrial needs. The present state of numerical simulation capabilities in rapid die casting technologies is reviewed and the failure mode mechanisms of thermal fatigue, aimed at developing a numerical simulation with a systematic design guidance for predicting the thermal cyclic loading analysis and improvement is presented along with several other methods. The economic benefits of a numerical simulation technique in die casting are limited to tool life time, mechanical properties and design guidance. The extensive computer capabilities of a numerical simulation with a systematic design guidance methodology are exploited to provide a solution for flexible design, mechanical properties and mould life time. Related research carried out worldwide by different organisations and academic institutions are discussed

  17. Use of a commercial heat transfer code to predict horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    Radioactive spent fuel assemblies are a source of hazardous waste that will have to be dealt with in the near future. It is anticipated that the spent fuel assemblies will be transported to disposal sites in spent fuel transportation casks. In order to design a reliable and safe transportation cask, the maximum cladding temperature of the spent fuel rod arrays must be calculated. A comparison between numerical calculations using commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4 degree C and 23 degree C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower for the low and medium heat dissipation levels, but higher at the high heat dissipation. The temperature differences are 1 degree C and 6 degree C for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16 degree C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases

  18. Amplification of surface acoustic waves by transverse electric current in piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulyaev, Yuri V.

    1974-01-01

    acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...

  19. Surface electric fields and geomagnetically induced currents in the Scottish Power grid during the 30 October 2003 geomagnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Alan W.P.; McKay, Allan J.; Clarke, Ellen; Reay, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    A surface electric field model is used to estimate the UK surface E field during the 30 October 2003 severe geomagnetic storm. This model is coupled with a power grid model to determine the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) through the Scottish part of the UK grid. Model data are compared with GIC measurements at four sites in the power network. During this storm, measured and modeled GIC levels exceeded 40 A, and the surface electric field reached 5 V/km at sites in ...

  20. Pesticide volatilization from soil and plant surfaces: Measurements at different scales versus model predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, A.

    2003-07-01

    Simulation of pesticide volatilization from plant and soil surfaces as an integral component of pesticide fate models is of utmost importance, especially as part of the PEC (predicted environmental concentrations) models used in the registration procedures for pesticides. Experimentally determined volatilization rates at different scales were compared to model predictions to improve recent approaches included in European registration models. To assess the influence of crucial factors affecting volatilization under well-defined conditions, a laboratory chamber was set-up and validated. Aerodynamic conditions were adjusted to fulfill the requirements of the German guideline on assessing pesticide volatilization for registration purposes. At the semi-field scale, volatilization rates were determined in a wind-tunnel study after soil surface application of pesticides to gleyic cambisol. The following descending order of cumulative volatilization was observed: chlorpyrifos > parathion-methyl > terbuthylazine > fenpropimorph. Parameterization of the models PEARL (pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales) and PELMO (pesticide leaching model) was performed to mirror the experimental boundary conditions. (orig.)

  1. Comparisons Between Model Predictions and Spectral Measurements of Charged and Neutral Particles on the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald M.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Boettcher, Stephan; Boehm, Eckart; Guo, Jingnan; hide

    2014-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012. RAD is a particle detector that measures the energy spectrum of charged particles (10 to approx. 200 MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (approx 8 to 200 MeV). The data obtained on the surface of Mars for 300 sols are compared to the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used. For describing the daily column depth of atmosphere, daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) are implemented into transport calculations. Particle flux at RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere depends on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD "E" dosimetry detector by the rest of the instrument. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and suggest that future radiation environments on Mars can be predicted accurately. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to astronauts for the planning of various mission scenarios

  2. Prediction of Outside Surface Aluminium Tank Corrosion on TRIGA Mark - IIResearch Reactor Bandung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of outside surface aluminium tank corrosion on researchreactor design which coated by epoxy paint, has been assessed. The new TRIGAMark - II Bandung research reactor tank design separated by 3 section arebottom, middle and upper section then inserted into the existing old reactor.The separation carried out caused by the space constraint on top of old tank,so that the novel tank impossible inserted into old tank all at once. Thespace between novel and old tank is 10 mm. After bottom and middle section oftank welded then followed by epoxy painting and inserted partially into oldtank. From then on the middle and upper section welded and followed by epoxypainting then inserted into old tank. Based on prediction result, that theroot cause of corrosion would be took place on welding and on imperfectlyepoxy painting area. The outside surface novel tank would be generated by thereaction between imperfectly epoxy painting area and the highly basecondition on cement grout that available on novel and old tank gap. (author)

  3. Prediction of allosteric sites on protein surfaces with an elastic-network-model-based thermodynamic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji Guo; Qi, Li Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Zhu, Yan Ying; Du, Hui Jing; Hou, Yan Xue; Hao, Rui; Wang, Ji Hua

    2014-08-01

    Allostery is a rapid and efficient way in many biological processes to regulate protein functions, where binding of an effector at the allosteric site alters the activity and function at a distant active site. Allosteric regulation of protein biological functions provides a promising strategy for novel drug design. However, how to effectively identify the allosteric sites remains one of the major challenges for allosteric drug design. In the present work, a thermodynamic method based on the elastic network model was proposed to predict the allosteric sites on the protein surface. In our method, the thermodynamic coupling between the allosteric and active sites was considered, and then the allosteric sites were identified as those where the binding of an effector molecule induces a large change in the binding free energy of the protein with its ligand. Using the proposed method, two proteins, i.e., the 70 kD heat shock protein (Hsp70) and GluA2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor, were studied and the allosteric sites on the protein surface were successfully identified. The predicted results are consistent with the available experimental data, which indicates that our method is a simple yet effective approach for the identification of allosteric sites on proteins.

  4. Prediction of Surface Roughness in End Milling Process Using Intelligent Systems: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Badie Sharkawy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is presented to model surface roughness in end milling process. Three types of intelligent networks have been considered. They are (i radial basis function neural networks (RBFNs, (ii adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs, and (iii genetically evolved fuzzy inference systems (G-FISs. The machining parameters, namely, the spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut have been used as inputs to model the workpiece surface roughness. The goal is to get the best prediction accuracy. The procedure is illustrated using experimental data of end milling 6061 aluminum alloy. The three networks have been trained using experimental training data. After training, they have been examined using another set of data, that is, validation data. Results are compared with previously published results. It is concluded that ANFIS networks may suffer the local minima problem, and genetic tuning of fuzzy networks cannot insure perfect optimality unless suitable parameter setting (population size, number of generations etc. and tuning range for the FIS, parameters are used which can be hardly satisfied. It is shown that the RBFN model has the best performance (prediction accuracy in this particular case.

  5. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  6. A probabilistic method for the estimation of ocean surface currents from short time series of HF radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Grilli, Stéphan T.

    2018-01-01

    We present a new method for inverting ocean surface currents from beam-forming HF radar data. In contrast with the classical method, which inverts radial currents based on shifts of the main Bragg line in the radar Doppler spectrum, the method works in the temporal domain and inverts currents from the amplitude modulation of the I and Q radar time series. Based on this principle, we propose a Maximum Likelihood approach, which can be combined with a Bayesian inference method assuming a prior current distribution, to infer values of the radial surface currents. We assess the method performance by using synthetic radar signal as well as field data, and systematically comparing results with those of the Doppler method. The new method is found advantageous for its robustness to noise at long range, its ability to accommodate shorter time series, and the possibility to use a priori information to improve the estimates. Limitations are related to current sign errors at far-ranges and biased estimates for small current values and very short samples. We apply the new technique to a data set from a typical 13.5 MHz WERA radar, acquired off of Vancouver Island, BC, and show that it can potentially improve standard synoptic current mapping.

  7. Using Google Earth Surface Metrics to Predict Plant Species Richness in a Complex Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Block

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Google Earth provides a freely available, global mosaic of high-resolution imagery from different sensors that has become popular in environmental and ecological studies. However, such imagery lacks the near-infrared band often used in studying vegetation, thus its potential for estimating vegetation properties remains unclear. In this study, we assess the potential of Google Earth imagery to describe and predict vegetation attributes. Further, we compare it to the potential of SPOT imagery, which has additional spectral information. We measured basal area, vegetation height, crown cover, density of individuals, and species richness in 60 plots in the oak forests of a complex volcanic landscape in central Mexico. We modelled each vegetation attribute as a function of surface metrics derived from Google Earth and SPOT images, and selected the best-supported linear models from each source. Total species richness was the best-described and predicted variable: the best Google Earth-based model explained nearly as much variation in species richness as its SPOT counterpart (R2 = 0.44 and 0.51, respectively. However, Google Earth metrics emerged as poor predictors of all remaining vegetation attributes, whilst SPOT metrics showed potential for predicting vegetation height. We conclude that Google Earth imagery can be used to estimate species richness in complex landscapes. As it is freely available, Google Earth can broaden the use of remote sensing by researchers and managers in low-income tropical countries where most biodiversity hotspots are found.

  8. Species Diversity and Functional Prediction of Surface Bacterial Communities on Aging Flue-Cured Tobaccos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Zhao, Hongwei; Xiang, Haiying; Wu, Lijun; Men, Xiao; Qi, Chang; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Yi; Xian, Mo

    2018-06-05

    Microbes on aging flue-cured tobaccos (ATFs) improve the aroma and other qualities desirable in products. Understanding the relevant organisms would picture microbial community diversity, metabolic potential, and their applications. However, limited efforts have been made on characterizing the microbial quality and functional profiling. Herein, we present our investigation of the bacterial diversity and predicted potential genetic capability of the bacteria from two AFTs using 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) software. The results show that dominant bacteria from AFT surfaces were classified into 48 genera, 36 families, and 7 phyla. In addition, Bacillus spp. was found prevalent on both ATFs. Furthermore, PICRUSt predictions of bacterial community functions revealed many attractive metabolic capacities in the AFT microbiota, including several involved in the biosynthesis of flavors and fragrances and the degradation of harmful compounds, such as nicotine and nitrite. These results provide insights into the importance of AFT bacteria in determining product qualities and indicate specific microbial species with predicted enzymatic capabilities for the production of high-efficiency flavors, the degradation of undesirable compounds, and the provision of nicotine and nitrite tolerance which suggest fruitful areas of investigation into the manipulation of AFT microbiota for AFT and other product improvements.

  9. Molecular adsorption of alkanes on platinum surfaces: A predictive theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinnett, J.A.; Madix, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption probabilities of methane and propane on Pt(111), and propane on Pt(110)-(1x2) have been successfully predicted for a wide range of incident energies and angles with classical stochastic trajectory simulations, using a pairwise additive Morse methyl endash platinum potential previously developed from the measured trapping probabilities of ethane on Pt(111). These predictions, along with those for ethane adsorption on Pt(110)endash(1x2), comprise a unified model for the molecular adsorption of alkanes on platinum surfaces. The simulations show the initial trapping probabilities of methane and propane on Pt(111) are determined to within approximately 10% by the fate of the first bounce. They also indicate that at normal incidence on Pt(111) energy conversions from perpendicular translational motion to both cartwheeling rotation and lattice phonons play increasingly important roles in increasing the trapping probability as the alkane increases in size and molecular weight. For methane itself excitation of parallel translational momentum after the first bounce serves as the most effective energy storage mechanism which facilitates trapping, whereas for propane cartwheel rotational motion plays the dominant role. Excessive excitation of these modes of motion, however, can cause scattering on subsequent bounces by reconversion of the energy into perpendicular translational energy. Collisions of methane with the hollow and bridge sites on the Pt(111) surface appear less effective in trapping than do atop sites. The simulations also suggest excitation of the C endash C endash C bending mode of propane has little effect on the trapping of propane on platinum surfaces for beam energies below 55 kJ/mol. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Prediction of porosity of food materials during drying: Current challenges and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardder, Mohammad U H; Kumar, C; Karim, M A

    2017-07-18

    Pore formation in food samples is a common physical phenomenon observed during dehydration processes. The pore evolution during drying significantly affects the physical properties and quality of dried foods. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration when predicting transport processes in the drying sample. Characteristics of pore formation depend on the drying process parameters, product properties and processing time. Understanding the physics of pore formation and evolution during drying will assist in accurately predicting the drying kinetics and quality of food materials. Researchers have been trying to develop mathematical models to describe the pore formation and evolution during drying. In this study, existing porosity models are critically analysed and limitations are identified. Better insight into the factors affecting porosity is provided, and suggestions are proposed to overcome the limitations. These include considerations of process parameters such as glass transition temperature, sample temperature, and variable material properties in the porosity models. Several researchers have proposed models for porosity prediction of food materials during drying. However, these models are either very simplistic or empirical in nature and failed to consider relevant significant factors that influence porosity. In-depth understanding of characteristics of the pore is required for developing a generic model of porosity. A micro-level analysis of pore formation is presented for better understanding, which will help in developing an accurate and generic porosity model.

  11. Numerical prediction of a dip effect in the critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khawaja, U.; Benkraouda, M.; Obaidat, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have conducted extensive series of molecular dynamic simulations on the properties of the critical current density in systems with periodic square arrays of pinning sites. The density of the pinning sites was kept fixed while the density of vortices, pinning strength, and temperature were varied several times. At zero temperature, we have observed a substantial dip in the critical current density that occurs only at a fixed value of the vortex density and for specific values of pinning strength. We have found that the occurrence of the dip depends mainly on the initial positions of the vortices with respect to the positions of the pinning sites. At the dip, we have found that the interstitial vortices form moving channels leading to the observed drop in the critical current density

  12. ProtPOS: a python package for the prediction of protein preferred orientation on a surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Jimmy C F; Mak, Pui-In; Siu, Shirley W I

    2016-08-15

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulation is a promising technique to investigate the energetics and dynamics in the protein-surface adsorption process which is of high relevance to modern biotechnological applications. To increase the chance of success in simulating the adsorption process, favorable orientations of the protein at the surface must be determined. Here, we present ProtPOS which is a lightweight and easy-to-use python package that can predict low-energy protein orientations on a surface of interest. It combines a fast conformational sampling algorithm with the energy calculation of GROMACS. The advantage of ProtPOS is it allows users to select any force fields suitable for the system at hand and provide structural output readily available for further simulation studies. ProtPOS is freely available for academic and non-profit uses at http://cbbio.cis.umac.mo/software/protpos Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. shirleysiu@umac.mo. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Comparison of CFD Predictions with Shuttle Global Flight Thermal Imagery and Discrete Surface Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.; Tang, chun Y.; Palmer, Grant E.; Hyatt, Andrew J.; Wise, Adam J.; McCloud, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Surface temperature measurements from the STS-119 boundary-layer transition experiment on the space shuttle orbiter Discovery provide a rare opportunity to assess turbulent CFD models at hypersonic flight conditions. This flight data was acquired by on-board thermocouples and by infrared images taken off-board by the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) team, and is suitable for hypersonic CFD turbulence assessment between Mach 6 and 14. The primary assessment is for the Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence models in the DPLR and LAURA CFD codes, respectively. A secondary assessment is made of the Shear-Stress Transport (SST) two-equation turbulence model in the DPLR code. Based upon surface temperature comparisons at eleven thermocouple locations, the algebraic-model turbulent CFD results average 4% lower than the measurements for Mach numbers less than 11. For Mach numbers greater than 11, the algebraic-model turbulent CFD results average 5% higher than the three available thermocouple measurements. Surface temperature predictions from the two SST cases were consistently 3 4% higher than the algebraic-model results. The thermocouple temperatures exhibit a change in trend with Mach number at about Mach 11; this trend is not reflected in the CFD results. Because the temperature trends from the turbulent CFD simulations and the flight data diverge above Mach 11, extrapolation of the turbulent CFD accuracy to higher Mach numbers is not recommended.

  14. Uncertainty in solid precipitation and snow depth prediction for Siberia using the Noah and Noah-MP land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Zupanski, Milija

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the uncertainties associated with land surface processes in an ensemble predication context. Specifically, we compare the uncertainties produced by a coupled atmosphere-land modeling system with two different land surface models, the Noah- MP land surface model (LSM) and the Noah LSM, by using the Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF) data assimilation system as a platform for ensemble prediction. We carried out 24-hour prediction simulations in Siberia with 32 ensemble members beginning at 00:00 UTC on 5 March 2013. We then compared the model prediction uncertainty of snow depth and solid precipitation with observation-based research products and evaluated the standard deviation of the ensemble spread. The prediction skill and ensemble spread exhibited high positive correlation for both LSMs, indicating a realistic uncertainty estimation. The inclusion of a multiple snowlayer model in the Noah-MP LSM was beneficial for reducing the uncertainties of snow depth and snow depth change compared to the Noah LSM, but the uncertainty in daily solid precipitation showed minimal difference between the two LSMs. The impact of LSM choice in reducing temperature uncertainty was limited to surface layers of the atmosphere. In summary, we found that the more sophisticated Noah-MP LSM reduces uncertainties associated with land surface processes compared to the Noah LSM. Thus, using prediction models with improved skill implies improved predictability and greater certainty of prediction.

  15. Estimating Advective Near-surface Currents from Ocean Color Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    on the SuomiNational Polar-Orbiting Partner- ship (S- NPP ) satellite. The GOCI is the world’s first geostationary orbit satellite sensor over the...radiance Lwn at several wave - lengths. These spectral Lwn channels are used to derive several in- water bio-optical properties (Lee, Carder, & Arnone...the same surface flow, it is the inter-product similarities, instead of the differences, that are more likely to stand for the surface advection. If

  16. Behavioral response of cave and surface Asellus aquaticus to water current

    OpenAIRE

    Dacar, Maja

    2017-01-01

    There are many questions regarding what influences the emergence of new species. Firstly and above all, is the appearance of differences within a certain specie, where a certain part is isolated from the group and continues its own evolution. One of these differences appear between the surface- and cave-dwelling Asellus aquaticus, as the ability to hold on to their surface. The discovery of these differences was carried out using a method of experiment, namely on the cave-dwelling Asellus ...

  17. THE DYNAMIC INTERACTION OF THE MOVING CONTACTING SURFACES AT THE EXAMPLE OF THE ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK CURRENT COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Babiak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of mutual moving and contacting of surfaces of current collecting pantograph elements and contact network is considered taking into account the particularities of inf1uence of speed and acceleration parameters, determination of which will allow to forecast mathematically the wear-out degree of contacting elements.

  18. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  19. Left Atrial Sphericity Index Predicts Early Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation After Direct-Current Cardioversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmanagic, Armin; Möller, Sören; Osmanagic, Azra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attempts to achieve rhythm control using direct-current cardioversion (DCC) are common in those with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Although often successful, AF recurs within 1 month in as many as 57% of patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether a baseline left atri...

  20. Accurate Prediction of Transimpedances and Equivalent Input Noise Current Densities of Tuned Optical Receiver Front Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing Zhong

    1991-01-01

    Novel analytical expressions have been derived for calculating transimpedances and equivalent input noise current densities of five tuned optical receiver front ends based on PIN diode and MESFETs or HEMTs. Miller's capacitance, which has been omitted in previous studies, has been taken...

  1. Predicting Trophic Interactions and Habitat Utilization in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Foraging patterns: model-data comparison . Simulated (colored circles) and observed (black circles) foraging locations for male sea lion individuals off...focusing on trophic interactions affecting habitat utilization and foraging patterns of California sea lions (CSL) in the California Current Large Marine...by considering patterns of covariability between environmental variables (e.g., temperature, primary production) and foraging patterns and success of

  2. Using Landsat-derived disturbance history (1972-2010) to predict current forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Pflugmacher; Warren B. Cohen; Robert E. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is currently the most accurate method for remote estimation of forest structure, but it has limited spatial and temporal coverage. Conversely, Landsat data are more widely available, but exhibit a weaker relationship with structure under medium to high leaf area conditions. One potentially valuable means of enhancing the relationship between Landsat reflectance...

  3. A two-dimensional finite element model of front surface current flow in cells under non-uniform, concentrated illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, A.; Domenech-Garret, J.L.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I. [Departament de Medi Ambient i C.S., University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E25198 (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    A two-dimensional finite element model of current flow in the front surface of a PV cell is presented. In order to validate this model we perform an experimental test. Later, particular attention is paid to the effects of non-uniform illumination in the finger direction which is typical in a linear concentrator system. Fill factor, open circuit voltage and efficiency are shown to decrease with increasing degree of non-uniform illumination. It is shown that these detrimental effects can be mitigated significantly by reoptimization of the number of front surface metallization fingers to suit the degree of non-uniformity. The behavior of current flow in the front surface of a cell operating at open circuit voltage under non-uniform illumination is discussed in detail. (author)

  4. A Review of Additive Mixed-Electric Discharge Machining: Current Status and Future Perspectives for Surface Modification of Biomedical Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul’Azeez Abdu Aliyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment remained a key solution to numerous problems of synthetic hard tissues. The basic methods of implant surface modification include various physical and chemical deposition techniques. However, most of these techniques have several drawbacks such as excessive cost and surface cracks and require very high sintering temperature. Additive mixed-electric discharge machining (AM-EDM is an emerging technology which simultaneously acts as a machining and surface modification technique. Aside from the mere molds, dies, and tool fabrication, AM-EDM is materializing to finishing of automobiles and aerospace, nuclear, and biomedical components, through the concept of material migrations. The mechanism of material transfer by AM-EDM resembles electrophoretic deposition, whereby the additives in the AM-EDM dielectric fluids are melted and migrate to the machined surface, forming a mirror-like finishing characterized by extremely hard, nanostructured, and nanoporous layers. These layers promote the bone in-growth and strengthen the cell adhesion. Implant shaping and surface treatment through AM-EDM are becoming a key research focus in recent years. This paper reports and summarizes the current advancement of AM-EDM as a potential tool for orthopedic and dental implant fabrication. Towards the end of this paper, the current challenges and future research trends are highlighted.

  5. Application of eddy current inversion technique to the sizing of defects in Inconel welds with rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Noritaka; Machida, Eiji; Janousek, Ladislav; Rebican, Mihai; Chen, Zhenmao; Miya, Kenzo

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the applicability of eddy current inversion techniques to the sizing of defects in Inconel welds with rough surfaces. For this purpose, a plate Inconel weld specimen, which models the welding of a stub tube in a boiling water nuclear reactor is fabricated, and artificial notches machined into the specimen. Eddy current inspections using six different eddy current probes are conducted and efficiencies were evaluated for the six probes for weld inspection. It is revealed that if suitable probes are applied, an Inconel weld does not cause large noise levels during eddy current inspections even though the surface of the weld is rough. Finally, reconstruction of the notches is performed using eddy current signals measured using the uniform eddy current probe that showed the best results among the six probes in this study. A simplified configuration is proposed in order to consider the complicated configuration of the welded specimen in numerical simulations. While reconstructed profiles of the notches are slightly larger than the true profiles, quite good agreements are obtained in spite of the simple approximation of the configuration, which reveals that eddy current testing would be an efficient non-destructive testing method for the sizing of defects in Inconel welds

  6. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available 80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na. We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring

  7. Hall Current Plasma Source Having a Center-Mounted or a Surface-Mounted Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Rafael A. (Inventor); Williams, John D. (Inventor); Moritz, Jr., Joel A. (Inventor); Farnell, Casey C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A miniature Hall current plasma source apparatus having magnetic shielding of the walls from ionized plasma, an integrated discharge channel and gas distributor, an instant-start hollow cathode mounted to the plasma source, and an externally mounted keeper, is described. The apparatus offers advantages over other Hall current plasma sources having similar power levels, including: lower mass, longer lifetime, lower part count including fewer power supplies, and the ability to be continuously adjustable to lower average power levels using pulsed operation and adjustment of the pulse duty cycle. The Hall current plasma source can provide propulsion for small spacecraft that either do not have sufficient power to accommodate a propulsion system or do not have available volume to incorporate the larger propulsion systems currently available. The present low-power Hall current plasma source can be used to provide energetic ions to assist the deposition of thin films in plasma processing applications.

  8. Surface quality prediction model of nano-composite ceramics in ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID mirror grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bo; Chen, Fan; Jia, Xiao-feng; Zhao, Chong-yang; Wang, Xiao-bo [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonic vibration-assisted Electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding is a highly efficient and highly precise machining method. The surface quality prediction model in ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID mirror grinding was studied. First, the interaction between grits and workpiece surface was analyzed according to kinematic mechanics, and the surface roughness model was developed. The variations in surface roughness under different parameters was subsequently calculated and analyzed by MATLAB. Results indicate that compared with the ordinary ELID grinding, ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID grinding is superior, because it has more stable and better surface quality and has an improved range of ductile machining.

  9. Remote sensing of ocean surface currents: a review of what is being observed and what is being assimilated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio; García-Ladona, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    Ocean currents play a key role in Earth's climate - they impact almost any process taking place in the ocean and are of major importance for navigation and human activities at sea. Nevertheless, their observation and forecasting are still difficult. First, no observing system is able to provide direct measurements of global ocean currents on synoptic scales. Consequently, it has been necessary to use sea surface height and sea surface temperature measurements and refer to dynamical frameworks to derive the velocity field. Second, the assimilation of the velocity field into numerical models of ocean circulation is difficult mainly due to lack of data. Recent experiments that assimilate coastal-based radar data have shown that ocean currents will contribute to increasing the forecast skill of surface currents, but require application in multidata assimilation approaches to better identify the thermohaline structure of the ocean. In this paper we review the current knowledge in these fields and provide a global and systematic view of the technologies to retrieve ocean velocities in the upper ocean and the available approaches to assimilate this information into ocean models.

  10. Using reweighting and free energy surface interpolation to predict solid-solid phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Natalie P.; Dybeck, Eric C.; Shirts, Michael R.

    2018-04-01

    Many physical properties of small organic molecules are dependent on the current crystal packing, or polymorph, of the material, including bioavailability of pharmaceuticals, optical properties of dyes, and charge transport properties of semiconductors. Predicting the most stable crystalline form at a given temperature and pressure requires determining the crystalline form with the lowest relative Gibbs free energy. Effective computational prediction of the most stable polymorph could save significant time and effort in the design of novel molecular crystalline solids or predict their behavior under new conditions. In this study, we introduce a new approach using multistate reweighting to address the problem of determining solid-solid phase diagrams and apply this approach to the phase diagram of solid benzene. For this approach, we perform sampling at a selection of temperature and pressure states in the region of interest. We use multistate reweighting methods to determine the reduced free energy differences between T and P states within a given polymorph and validate this phase diagram using several measures. The relative stability of the polymorphs at the sampled states can be successively interpolated from these points to create the phase diagram by combining these reduced free energy differences with a reference Gibbs free energy difference between polymorphs. The method also allows for straightforward estimation of uncertainties in the phase boundary. We also find that when properly implemented, multistate reweighting for phase diagram determination scales better with the size of the system than previously estimated.

  11. Prediction of surface roughness in turning of Ti-6Al-4V using cutting parameters, forces and tool vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Neelesh Kumar; Andhare, Atul B.; Andhale, Sandip; Raju Abraham, Roja

    2018-04-01

    Present work deals with prediction of surface roughness using cutting parameters along with in-process measured cutting force and tool vibration (acceleration) during turning of Ti-6Al-4V with cubic boron nitride (CBN) inserts. Full factorial design is used for design of experiments using cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as design variables. Prediction model for surface roughness is developed using response surface methodology with cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, resultant cutting force and acceleration as control variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to find out significant terms in the model. Insignificant terms are removed after performing statistical test using backward elimination approach. Effect of each control variables on surface roughness is also studied. Correlation coefficient (R2 pred) of 99.4% shows that model correctly explains the experiment results and it behaves well even when adjustment is made in factors or new factors are added or eliminated. Validation of model is done with five fresh experiments and measured forces and acceleration values. Average absolute error between RSM model and experimental measured surface roughness is found to be 10.2%. Additionally, an artificial neural network model is also developed for prediction of surface roughness. The prediction results of modified regression model are compared with ANN. It is found that RSM model and ANN (average absolute error 7.5%) are predicting roughness with more than 90% accuracy. From the results obtained it is found that including cutting force and vibration for prediction of surface roughness gives better prediction than considering only cutting parameters. Also, ANN gives better prediction over RSM models.

  12. Investigation of surface related leakage current in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, J.K., E-mail: janeshkaushik@sspl.drdo.in [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Delhi 110054 (India); Balakrishnan, V.R.; Mongia, D.; Kumar, U.; Dayal, S. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Delhi 110054 (India); Panwar, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Muralidharan, R. [Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560012 (India)

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the study of surface-related mechanisms to explain the high reverse leakage current observed in the in-house fabricated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivated AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors. We propose that the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface in the un-gated regions provides an additional leakage path between the gate and source/drain and may constitute a large component of reverse current. This surface related leakage component of current exhibits both temperature and electric field dependence and its Arrhenius behavior has been experimentally verified using Conductance Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and temperature dependent reverse leakage current measurements. A thin interfacial amorphous semiconductor layer formed due to inter diffusion at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface has been presumed as the source for this surface related leakage. We, therefore, conclude that optimum Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} deposition conditions and careful surface preparation prior to passivation can limit the extent of surface leakage and can thus vastly improve the device performance. - Highlights: • Enhanced leakage in AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors after passivation • Experimental evidence of the presence of extrinsic traps at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN interface • Electron hopping in shallower extended defects and band tail traps at the interface. • Reduction in current collapse due to the virtual gate inhibition by this conduction • However, limitation on the operating voltages due to decrease in breakdown voltage.

  13. Fluorine-plasma surface treatment for gate forward leakage current reduction in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wanjun; Zhang Jing; Zhang Bo; Chen, Kevin Jing

    2013-01-01

    The gate forward leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is investigated. It is shown that the current which originated from the forward biased Schottky-gate contributed to the gate forward leakage current. Therefore, a fluorine-plasma surface treatment is presented to induce the negative ions into the AlGaN layer which results in a higher metal—semiconductor barrier. Consequently, the gate forward leakage current shrinks. Experimental results confirm that the gate forward leakage current is decreased by one order magnitude lower than that of HEMT device without plasma treatment. In addition, the DC characteristics of the HEMT device with plasma treatment have been studied. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Finite element model predicts current density distribution for clinical applications of tDCS and tACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toralf eNeuling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been applied in numerous scientific studies over the past decade. However, the possibility to apply tDCS in therapy of neuropsychiatric disorders is still debated. While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been approved for treatment of major depression in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, tDCS is not as widely accepted. One of the criticisms against tDCS is the lack of spatial specificity. Focality is limited by the electrode size (35 cm2 are commonly used and the bipolar arrangement. However, a current flow through the head directly from anode to cathode is an outdated view. Finite element (FE models have recently been used to predict the exact current flow during tDCS. These simulations have demonstrated that the current flow depends on tissue shape and conductivity. Toface the challenge to predict the location, magnitude and direction of the current flow induced by tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS, we used a refined realistic FE modeling approach. With respect to the literature on clinical tDCS and tACS, we analyzed two common setups for the location of the stimulation electrodes which target the frontal lobe and the occipital lobe, respectively. We compared lateral and medial electrode configuration with regard to theirusability. We were able to demonstrate that the lateral configurations yielded more focused stimulation areas as well as higher current intensities in the target areas. The high resolution of our simulation allows one to combine the modeled current flow with the knowledge of neuronal orientation to predict the consequences of tDCS and tACS. Our results not only offer a basis for a deeper understanding of the stimulation sites currently in use for clinical applications but also offer a better interpretation of observed effects.

  15. Experimental study on magnetically insulated transmission line electrode surface evolution process under MA/cm current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, PengFei; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Hu, Yang; Yang, HaiLiang; Sun, Jiang; Wang, Liangping; Cong, Peitian [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The design of high-current density magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is a difficult problem of current large-scale Z-pinch device. In particular, a thorough understanding of the MITL electrode surface evolution process under high current density is lacking. On the “QiangGuang-I” accelerator, the load area possesses a low inductance short-circuit structure with a diameter of 2.85 mm at the cathode, and three reflux columns with a diameter of 3 mm and uniformly distributed circumference at the anode. The length of the high density MITL area is 20 mm. A laser interferometer is used to assess and analyze the state of the MITL cathode and anode gap, and their evolution process under high current density. Experimental results indicate that evident current loss is not observed in the current density area at pulse leading edge, and peak when the surface current density reaches MA/cm. Analysis on electrode surface working conditions indicates that when the current leading edge is at 71.5% of the peak, the total evaporation of MITL cathode structure can be realized by energy deposition caused by ohmic heating. The electrode state changes, and diffusion conditions are reflected in the laser interferometer image. The MITL cathode area mainly exists in metal vapor form. The metal vapor density in the cathode central region is higher than the upper limit of laser penetration density (∼4 × 10{sup 21}/cm{sup 3}), with an expansion velocity of ∼0.96 km/s. The metal vapor density in the electrode outer area may lead to evident distortion of fringes, and its expansion velocity is faster than that in the center area (1.53 km/s).

  16. GaInAsP/InP lateral-current-injection distributed feedback laser with a-Si surface grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Takahiko; Okumura, Tadashi; Ito, Hitomi; Koguchi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Daisuke; Atsumi, Yuki; Kang, Joonhyun; Osabe, Ryo; Amemiya, Tomohiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Arai, Shigehisa

    2011-01-31

    We fabricated a novel lateral-current-injection-type distributed feedback (DFB) laser with amorphous-Si (a-Si) surface grating as a step to realize membrane lasers. This laser consists of a thin GaInAsP core layer grown on a semi-insulating InP substrate and a 30-nm-thick a-Si surface layer for DFB grating. Under a room-temperature continuous-wave condition, a low threshold current of 7.0 mA and high efficiency of 43% from the front facet were obtained for a 2.0-μm stripe width and 300-μm cavity length. A small-signal modulation bandwidth of 4.8 GHz was obtained at a bias current of 30 mA.

  17. A Review of Current Machine Learning Methods Used for Cancer Recurrence Modeling and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Geralyn M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type has become a necessity in cancer research. A major challenge in cancer management is the classification of patients into appropriate risk groups for better treatment and follow-up. Such risk assessment is critically important in order to optimize the patient’s health and the use of medical resources, as well as to avoid cancer recurrence. This paper focuses on the application of machine learning methods for predicting the likelihood of a recurrence of cancer. It is not meant to be an extensive review of the literature on the subject of machine learning techniques for cancer recurrence modeling. Other recent papers have performed such a review, and I will rely heavily on the results and outcomes from these papers. The electronic databases that were used for this review include PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Query terms used include “cancer recurrence modeling”, “cancer recurrence and machine learning”, “cancer recurrence modeling and machine learning”, and “machine learning for cancer recurrence and prediction”. The most recent and most applicable papers to the topic of this review have been included in the references. It also includes a list of modeling and classification methods to predict cancer recurrence.

  18. Current Controversies in the Prediction, Diagnosis, and Management of Cerebral Vasospasm: Where Do We Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs in approximately 30,000 persons in the United States each year. Around 30 percent of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage suffer from cerebral ischemia and infarction due to cerebral vasospasm, a leading cause of treatable death and disability following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods used to predict, diagnose, and manage vasospasm are the topic of recent active research. This paper utilizes a comprehensive review of the recent literature to address controversies surrounding these topics. Evidence regarding the effect of age, smoking, and cocaine use on the incidence and outcome of vasospasm is reviewed. The abilities of different computed tomography grading schemes to predict vasospasm in the aftermath of subarachnoid hemorrhage are presented. Additionally, the utility of different diagnostic methods for the detection and visualization of vasospasm, including transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and CT perfusion imaging is discussed. Finally, the recent literature regarding interventions for the prophylaxis and treatment of vasospasm, including hyperdynamic therapy, albumin, calcium channel agonists, statins, magnesium sulfate, and endothelin antagonists is summarized. Recent studies regarding each topic were reviewed for consensus recommendations from the literature, which were then presented.

  19. Current controversies in the prediction, diagnosis, and management of cerebral vasospasm: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Zuckerman, Scott L; Mocco, J

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs in approximately 30,000 persons in the United States each year. Around 30 percent of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage suffer from cerebral ischemia and infarction due to cerebral vasospasm, a leading cause of treatable death and disability following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods used to predict, diagnose, and manage vasospasm are the topic of recent active research. This paper utilizes a comprehensive review of the recent literature to address controversies surrounding these topics. Evidence regarding the effect of age, smoking, and cocaine use on the incidence and outcome of vasospasm is reviewed. The abilities of different computed tomography grading schemes to predict vasospasm in the aftermath of subarachnoid hemorrhage are presented. Additionally, the utility of different diagnostic methods for the detection and visualization of vasospasm, including transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and CT perfusion imaging is discussed. Finally, the recent literature regarding interventions for the prophylaxis and treatment of vasospasm, including hyperdynamic therapy, albumin, calcium channel agonists, statins, magnesium sulfate, and endothelin antagonists is summarized. Recent studies regarding each topic were reviewed for consensus recommendations from the literature, which were then presented.

  20. A study of surface diffusion with the scanning tunneling microscope from fluctuations of the tunneling current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, Lozano [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-01-12

    The transport of atoms or molecules over surfaces has been an important area of study for several decades now, with its progress generally limited by the available experimental techniques to characterize the phenomena. A number of methods have been developed over the years to measure surface diffusion yet only very few systems have been characterized to this day mainly due to the physical limitations inherent in these available methods. Even the STM with its astonishing atomically-resolved images of the surface has been limited in terms of its capability to determine mass transport properties. This is because the STM is inherently a ``slow`` instrument, i.e., a finite time is needed for signal averaging in order to produce the image. A need exists for additional surface diffusion measurement techniques, ideally ones which are able to study varied systems and measure a wide range of diffusion rates. The STM (especially because of its highly local nature) presents itself as a promising tool to conduct dynamical studies if its poor time resolution during ``normal operation`` can somehow be overcome. The purpose of this dissertation is to introduce a new technique of using the STM to measure adatom mobility on surfaces -- one with a capacity to achieve excellent time resolution.

  1. Current brood size and residual reproductive value predict brood desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R. J. S.; Cotter, S. C.; Kilner, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory suggests that offspring desertion can be an adaptive reproductive strategy, in which parents forgo the costly care of an unprofitable current brood to save resources for future reproduction. In the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, parents commonly abandon their offspring to the care of others, resulting in female-only care, male-only care, brood parasitism, and the care of offspring sired by satellite males. Furthermore, when there is biparental care, males routin...

  2. An Algorithm for Surface Current Retrieval from X-band Marine Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxi Shen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel current inversion algorithm from X-band marine radar images is proposed. The routine, for which deep water is assumed, begins with 3-D FFT of the radar image sequence, followed by the extraction of the dispersion shell from the 3-D image spectrum. Next, the dispersion shell is converted to a polar current shell (PCS using a polar coordinate transformation. After removing outliers along each radial direction of the PCS, a robust sinusoidal curve fitting is applied to the data points along each circumferential direction of the PCS. The angle corresponding to the maximum of the estimated sinusoid function is determined to be the current direction, and the amplitude of this sinusoidal function is the current speed. For validation, the algorithm is tested against both simulated radar images and field data collected by a vertically-polarized X-band system and ground-truthed with measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. From the field data, it is observed that when the current speed is less than 0.5 m/s, the root mean square differences between the radar-derived and the ADCP-measured current speed and direction are 7.3 cm/s and 32.7°, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed procedure, unlike most existing current inversion schemes, is not susceptible to high current speeds and circumvents the need to consider aliasing. Meanwhile, the relatively low computational cost makes it an excellent choice in practical marine applications.

  3. Surface Nano crystallization of 3Cr13 Stainless Steel Induced by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Z.; Zou, H.; Wang, Z.; Ji, I.; Cai, J.; Guan, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The nanocrystalline surface was produced on 3Cr13 martensite stainless steel surface using high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) technique. The structures of the nano crystallized surface were characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Two nano structures consisting of fine austenite grains (50-150 nm) and very fine carbides precipitates are formed in melted surface layer after multiple bombardments via dissolution of carbides and crater eruption. It is demonstrated that the dissolution of the carbides and the formation of the supersaturated Fe (C) solid solution play a determining role on the microstructure evolution. Additionally, the formation of fine austenite structure is closely related to the thermal stresses induced by the HCPEB irradiation. The effects of both high carbon content and high value of stresses increase the stability of the austenite, which leads to the complete suppression of martensitic transformation.

  4. Path Loss Prediction Over the Lunar Surface Utilizing a Modified Longley-Rice Irregular Terrain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foore, Larry; Ida, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    This study introduces the use of a modified Longley-Rice irregular terrain model and digital elevation data representative of an analogue lunar site for the prediction of RF path loss over the lunar surface. The results are validated by theoretical models and past Apollo studies. The model is used to approximate the path loss deviation from theoretical attenuation over a reflecting sphere. Analysis of the simulation results provides statistics on the fade depths for frequencies of interest, and correspondingly a method for determining the maximum range of communications for various coverage confidence intervals. Communication system engineers and mission planners are provided a link margin and path loss policy for communication frequencies of interest.

  5. Power Prediction Model for Turning EN-31 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hameedullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption in turning EN-31 steel (a material that is most extensively used in automotive industry with tungstencarbide tool under different cutting conditions was experimentally investigated. The experimental runs were planned accordingto 24+8 added centre point factorial design of experiments, replicated thrice. The data collected was statisticallyanalyzed using Analysis of Variance technique and first order and second order power consumption prediction models weredeveloped by using response surface methodology (RSM. It is concluded that second-order model is more accurate than thefirst-order model and fit well with the experimental data. The model can be used in the automotive industries for decidingthe cutting parameters for minimum power consumption and hence maximum productivity

  6. Surface Wave Effects on High-Frequency Currents Over a Shelf Edge Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    mean current is Sh2 5 (›Um/›z) 2 5 [(›U/›z)2 1 (›V/›z)2] (Fig. 15). The low-frequency shear is dominated by near- inertial currents and is largest at...a large number of species including corals. Coral reefs are complex, dynamic, and FIG. 15. Squared vertical shear (i.e., Sh2 ) of low-frequency

  7. Anode biofilm transcriptomics reveals outer surface components essential for high density current production in Geobacter sulfurreducens fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Nevin

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 microm biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes.

  8. Assessing allometric models to predict vegetative growth of mango (Mangifera indica; Anacardiaceae) at the current-year branch scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Frédéric; Lauri, Pierre-Éric

    2012-03-01

    Accurate and reliable predictive models are necessary to estimate nondestructively key variables for plant growth studies such as leaf area and leaf, stem, and total biomass. Predictive models are lacking at the current-year branch scale despite the importance of this scale in plant science. We calibrated allometric models to estimate leaf area and stem and branch (leaves + stem) mass of current-year branches, i.e., branches several months old studied at the end of the vegetative growth season, of four mango cultivars on the basis of their basal cross-sectional area. The effects of year, site, and cultivar were tested. Models were validated with independent data and prediction accuracy was evaluated with the appropriate statistics. Models revealed a positive allometry between dependent and independent variables, whose y-intercept but not the slope, was affected by the cultivar. The effects of year and site were negligible. For each branch characteristic, cultivar-specific models were more accurate than common models built with pooled data from the four cultivars. Prediction quality was satisfactory but with data dispersion around the models, particularly for large values. Leaf area and stem and branch mass of mango current-year branches could be satisfactorily estimated on the basis of branch basal cross-sectional area with cultivar-specific allometric models. The results suggested that, in addition to the heteroscedastic behavior of the variables studied, model accuracy was probably related to the functional plasticity of branches in relation to the light environment and/or to the number of growth units composing the branches.

  9. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Influence of Different Surface Modifications on the Photovoltaic Performance and Dark Current of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Weiwei; DAI Songyuan; HU Linhua; ZHANG Changneng; XIAO Shangfeng; LUO Xiangdong; JING Weiping; WANG Kongjia

    2007-01-01

    The TiO2 nanoporous film photoelectrode, as a crucial component of dye-sensitized solar cells, has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties and the dark current were studied by two surface modification methods. One was to apply a compact layer between the conductive glass substrate and nanoporous TiO2 film. Another was to produce TiO2 nanoparticles among the microstructure by TiCU treatment. A suitable concentration and number of times for TiCU treatment were found in our experiment. The dark current is suppressed by surface modifications, leading to a significant improvement in the solar cells performance. An excessive concentration of TiCU will produce more surface states and introduce a larger dark current reversely. The dye is also regarded as a source of charge recombination in dark to some extent, due to an amount of surface protonations introduced by the interfacial link in the conductive glass substrate/dye interface and dye/TiO2 interface.

  11. A Simple Analytical Model for Predicting the Detectable Ion Current in Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using Corona Discharge Ionization Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ansgar Thomas; Kobelt, Tim; Spehlbrink, Hauke; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Corona discharge ionization sources are often used in ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) when a non-radioactive ion source with high ion currents is required. Typically, the corona discharge is followed by a reaction region where analyte ions are formed from the reactant ions. In this work, we present a simple yet sufficiently accurate model for predicting the ion current available at the end of this reaction region when operating at reduced pressure as in High Kinetic Energy Ion Mobility Spectrometers (HiKE-IMS) or most IMS-MS instruments. It yields excellent qualitative agreement with measurement results and is even able to calculate the ion current within an error of 15%. Additional interesting findings of this model are the ion current at the end of the reaction region being independent from the ion current generated by the corona discharge and the ion current in High Kinetic Energy Ion Mobility Spectrometers (HiKE-IMS) growing quadratically when scaling down the length of the reaction region. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes:Results of IPILPS phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson-Sellers, A.; Fischer, M.; Aleinov, I.; McGuffie, K.; Riley, W.J.; Schmidt, G.A.; Sturm, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Irannejad, P.

    2005-10-31

    Phase 1 of isotopes in the Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (iPILPS) compares the simulation of two stable water isotopologues ({sup 1}H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and {sup 1}H{sup 2}H{sup 16}O) at the land-atmosphere interface. The simulations are off-line, with forcing from an isotopically enabled regional model for three locations selected to offer contrasting climates and ecotypes: an evergreen tropical forest, a sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a mixed deciduous wood. Here we report on the experimental framework, the quality control undertaken on the simulation results and the method of intercomparisons employed. The small number of available isotopically-enabled land-surface schemes (ILSSs) limits the drawing of strong conclusions but, despite this, there is shown to be benefit in undertaking this type of isotopic intercomparison. Although validation of isotopic simulations at the land surface must await more, and much more complete, observational campaigns, we find that the empirically-based Craig-Gordon parameterization (of isotopic fractionation during evaporation) gives adequately realistic isotopic simulations when incorporated in a wide range of land-surface codes. By introducing two new tools for understanding isotopic variability from the land surface, the Isotope Transfer Function and the iPILPS plot, we show that different hydrological parameterizations cause very different isotopic responses. We show that ILSS-simulated isotopic equilibrium is independent of the total water and energy budget (with respect to both equilibration time and state), but interestingly the partitioning of available energy and water is a function of the models' complexity.

  13. The Prediction of Surface Tension of Ternary Mixtures at Different Temperatures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khazaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artificial neural network (ANN has been employed to propose a practical model for predicting the surface tension of multi-component mixtures. In order to develop a reliable model based on the ANN, a comprehensive experimental data set including 15 ternary liquid mixtures at different temperatures was employed. These systems consist of 777 data points generally containing hydrocarbon components. The ANN model has been developed as a function of temperature, critical properties, and acentric factor of the mixture according to conventional corresponding-state models. 80% of the data points were employed for training ANN and the remaining data were utilized for testing the generated model. The average absolute relative deviations (AARD% of the model for the training set, the testing set, and the total data points were obtained 1.69, 1.86, and 1.72 respectively. Comparing the results with Flory theory, Brok-Bird equation, and group contribution theory has proved the high prediction capability of the attained model.

  14. Exploratory multivariate modeling and prediction of the physico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoko, Godwin A.; Singh, Kirpal; Balerea, Steven; Kokot, Serge

    2007-03-01

    SummaryPhysico-chemical properties of surface water and groundwater samples from some developing countries have been subjected to multivariate analyses by the non-parametric multi-criteria decision-making methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA. Complete ranking information necessary to select one source of water in preference to all others was obtained, and this enabled relationships between the physico-chemical properties and water quality to be assessed. Thus, the ranking of the quality of the water bodies was found to be strongly dependent on the total dissolved solid, phosphate, sulfate, ammonia-nitrogen, calcium, iron, chloride, magnesium, zinc, nitrate and fluoride contents of the waters. However, potassium, manganese and zinc composition showed the least influence in differentiating the water bodies. To model and predict the water quality influencing parameters, partial least squares analyses were carried out on a matrix made up of the results of water quality assessment studies carried out in Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Egypt, Thailand and India/Pakistan. The results showed that the total dissolved solid, calcium, sulfate, sodium and chloride contents can be used to predict a wide range of physico-chemical characteristics of water. The potential implications of these observations on the financial and opportunity costs associated with elaborate water quality monitoring are discussed.

  15. Semianalytical model predicting transfer of volatile pollutants from groundwater to the soil surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2010-08-15

    Volatilization of toxic organic contaminants from groundwater to the soil surface is often considered an important pathway in risk analysis. Most of the risk models use simplified linear solutions that may overpredict the volatile flux. Although complex numerical models have been developed, their use is restricted to experienced users and for sites where field data are known in great detail. We present here a novel semianalytical model running on a spreadsheet that simulates the volatilization flux and vertical concentration profile in a soil based on the Van Genuchten functions. These widely used functions describe precisely the gas and water saturations and movement in the capillary fringe. The analytical model shows a good accuracy over several orders of magnitude when compared to a numerical model and laboratory data. The effect of barometric pumping is also included in the semianalytical formulation, although the model predicts that barometric pumping is often negligible. A sensitivity study predicts significant fluxes in sandy vadose zones and much smaller fluxes in other soils. Fluxes are linked to the dimensionless Henry's law constant H for H < 0.2 and increase by approximately 20% when temperature increases from 5 to 25 degrees C.

  16. Response surface and neural network based predictive models of cutting temperature in hard turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozammel Mia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to develop the predictive models of average tool-workpiece interface temperature in hard turning of AISI 1060 steels by coated carbide insert. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Artificial Neural Network (ANN were employed to predict the temperature in respect of cutting speed, feed rate and material hardness. The number and orientation of the experimental trials, conducted in both dry and high pressure coolant (HPC environments, were planned using full factorial design. The temperature was measured by using the tool-work thermocouple. In RSM model, two quadratic equations of temperature were derived from experimental data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE were performed to suffice the adequacy of the models. In ANN model, 80% data were used to train and 20% data were employed for testing. Like RSM, herein, the error analysis was also conducted. The accuracy of the RSM and ANN model was found to be ⩾99%. The ANN models exhibit an error of ∼5% MAE for testing data. The regression coefficient was found to be greater than 99.9% for both dry and HPC. Both these models are acceptable, although the ANN model demonstrated a higher accuracy. These models, if employed, are expected to provide a better control of cutting temperature in turning of hardened steel.

  17. Design and testing of a surface switch for the dynamic load current multiplier on the SPHINX microsecond LTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maysonnave, T.; Bayol, F.; Demol, G.; Almeida, T. d'; Morell, A.; Lassalle, F.; Grunenwald, J.; Chuvatin, A.S.; Pecastaing, L.; De Ferron, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    SPHINX is a microsecond linear transformer driver located at Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) Gramat (France), which can deliver a current pulse of 6 MA within 800 ns in a Z-pinch load. Using the concept of the dynamic load current multiplier (DLCM), which was proposed by Chuvatin, we expect to increase the load current above 6 MA, while decreasing its rise time to ∼300 ns. The DLCM developed by the CEA Gramat and International Technologies for High Pulsed Power (ITHPP) is a compact system made up of concentric electrodes (auto-transformer), a dynamic flux extruder (cylindrical wire array), a vacuum convolute (eight post-hole rods), and a closing switch (compact vacuum surface switch). The latter is a key component of the system, which is used to prevent the current from flowing into the load until the inductance builds up due to the implosion of the wire array. This paper presents the design and testing of the DLCM surface switch, resulting from both electrostatic simulations and experiments on the SPHINX generator. These studies, carried out either with or without load (open circuit), were valuable for a first experimental evaluation of the DLCM scheme in a microsecond regime and provided detailed information on the surface switch behavior. (authors)

  18. Investigating the role of wind in generating surface currents over the slope area of the Laptev Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patteson, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    Mixing mechanisms of the Arctic Ocean have profound impacts on sea ice, global ocean dynamics, and arctic communities. This project used a two-year long time series of ocean current velocities collected from eight moorings located on the Eurasian basin, as well as ERA-interim wind data, to compare and assess relationships between current and wind velocities at different depths. Determining the strength of these correlations will further scientific understanding of the degree to which wind influences mixing, with implications for heat flux, diffusion, and sea ice changes. Using statistical analysis, I calculated whether a significant relationship between wind velocity and ocean currents existed beginning at the surface level ( 50m) .The final correlation values, ranging from R = 0.11 to R = 0.28, indicated a weak relationship between wind velocity and ocean currents at the surface for all eight mooring sites. The results for the surface depth imply that correlation likely decreases with increasing depths, and thus further testing of deeper depth levels was unnecessary. This finding suggests that there is another dominant factor at play in the ocean; we postulate that topography exerts a significant influence on subsurface mixing. This study highlights the need for further research of the different mechanisms and their importance in influencing the dynamic structure of the ocean.

  19. Importance and role of grain size in free surface cracking prediction of heavy forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenhua [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Ministry of Education of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Shuhua; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shi, Zhongping [Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Ministry of Education of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Fu, Wantang, E-mail: wtfu@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-02-11

    The importance and role of grain size in predicting surface cracking of heavy forgings were investigated. 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel specimens with four different grain sizes were tensioned between 900 and 1100 °C at a strain rate of 0.1 s{sup −1}. The nucleation sites and crack morphology were analyzed through electron backscatter diffraction analysis, and the fracture morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The nucleation sites were independent of the grain size, and cracks primarily formed at grain boundaries and triple junctions between grains with high Taylor factors. Grains with lower Taylor factors inhibited crack propagation. Strain was found to mainly concentrate near the grain boundaries; thus, a material with a larger grain size cracks more easily because there are fewer grain boundaries. Fine grains can be easily rotated to a lower Taylor factor to further inhibit cracking. The fracture morphology transformed from a brittle to ductile type with a lowering of grain size. At lower temperature, small dimples on the fracture surfaces of specimens with smaller grain sizes were left by single parent grains and the dimple edge was the grain edge. At higher temperature, dimples formed through void coalescence and the dimple edge was the tearing edge. Finally, the relationship between the reduction in area, grain size, and deformation temperature was obtained.

  20. Electron cyclotron current drive predictions for ITER: Comparison of different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marushchenko, N.B.; Maassberg, H.; Beidler, C.D.; Turkin, Yu.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Due to its high localization and operational flexibility, Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) is envisaged for stabilizing the Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) in tokamaks and correcting the rotational transform profile in stellarators. While the spatial location of the electron cyclotron resonant interaction is usually calculated by the ray-tracing technique, numerical tools for calculating the ECCD efficiency are not so common. Two different methods are often applied: i) direct calculation by Fokker-Planck modelling, and ii) by the adjoint approach technique. In the present report we analyze and compare different models used in the adjoint approach technique from the point of view of ITER applications. The numerical tools for calculating the ECCD efficiency developed to date do not completely cover the range of collisional regimes for the electrons involved in the current drive. Only two opposite limits are well developed, collisional and collisionless. Nevertheless, for the densities and temperatures expected for ECCD application in ITER, the collisionless limit model (with trapped particles taken into account) is quite suitable. We analyze the requisite ECCD scenarios with help of the new ray tracing code TRAVIS with the adjoint approach implemented. The (adjoint) Green's function applied for the current drive calculations is formulated with momentum conservation taken into account; this is especially important and even crucial for scenarios, in which mainly bulk electrons are responsible for absorption of the RF power. For comparison, the most common 'high speed limit' model in which the collision operator neglects the integral part and which is approximated by terms valid only for the tail electrons, produces an ECCD efficiency which is an underestimate for some cases by a factor of about 2. In order to select the appropriate model, a rough criterion of 'high speed limit' model applicability is formulated. The results are verified also by

  1. Can radiation therapy treatment planning system accurately predict surface doses in postmastectomy radiation therapy patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Sharon; Back, Michael; Tan, Poh Wee; Lee, Khai Mun; Baggarley, Shaun; Lu, Jaide Jay

    2012-01-01

    Skin doses have been an important factor in the dose prescription for breast radiotherapy. Recent advances in radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and new treatment schemes such as hypofractionated breast therapy have made the precise determination of the surface dose necessary. Detailed information of the dose at various depths of the skin is also critical in designing new treatment strategies. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of surface dose calculation by a clinically used treatment planning system and those measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in a customized chest wall phantom. This study involved the construction of a chest wall phantom for skin dose assessment. Seven TLDs were distributed throughout each right chest wall phantom to give adequate representation of measured radiation doses. Point doses from the CMS Xio® treatment planning system (TPS) were calculated for each relevant TLD positions and results correlated. There were no significant difference between measured absorbed dose by TLD and calculated doses by the TPS (p > 0.05 (1-tailed). Dose accuracy of up to 2.21% was found. The deviations from the calculated absorbed doses were overall larger (3.4%) when wedges and bolus were used. 3D radiotherapy TPS is a useful and accurate tool to assess the accuracy of surface dose. Our studies have shown that radiation treatment accuracy expressed as a comparison between calculated doses (by TPS) and measured doses (by TLD dosimetry) can be accurately predicted for tangential treatment of the chest wall after mastectomy.

  2. Gas quality prediction in ligno-cellulosic biomass gasification in a co-current gas producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Nganhou, J.; Amie Assouh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Our research covers the energetic valuation of the biomass for electricity production. As electrical energy production is the main drive behind a modern economy, we wanted to make our contribution to the debate by describing a tried technique, whose use on an industrial scale can still be perfected, failing control over the basic principles that support the gasification processes called upon in this industry. Our study describes gasification, which is a process to transform a solid combustible into a gas combustible. The resulting gas can be used as combustible in an internal combustion motor and produce electricity. Our work interprets the experimental results of gasification tests conducted on an available and functional experimental centre and the ENSPY's Decentralized Energy Production Lab. The work involved developing a tool to appreciate the results of the gasification of the ligneous biomass from the stoichiometric composition of the combustible to be gasified and the chemical and mathematical bases of the gasification process. It is an investigation with a view to elaborating a mathematical model based on the concept of compatibility. Its original lies in the quality prediction method for the gas obtained through the gasification of a biomass whose chemical composition is known. (authors)

  3. Current and Future Applications of Biomedical Engineering for Proteomic Profiling: Predictive Biomarkers in Neuro-Traumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ganau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aims to summarize the impact of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering in defining clinically meaningful predictive biomarkers in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI, a critical worldwide health problem with an estimated 10 billion people affected annually worldwide. Data were collected through a review of the existing English literature performed on Scopus, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and/or Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only experimental articles revolving around the management of TBI, in which the role of new devices based on innovative discoveries coming from the field of nanotechnology and biomedical engineering were highlighted, have been included and analyzed in this study. Based on theresults gathered from this research on innovative methods for genomics, epigenomics, and proteomics, their future application in this field seems promising. Despite the outstanding technical challenges of identifying reliable biosignatures for TBI and the mixed nature of studies herein described (single cells proteomics, biofilms, sensors, etc., the clinical implementation of those discoveries will allow us to gain confidence in the use of advanced neuromonitoring modalities with a potential dramatic improvement in the management of those patients.

  4. Changing currents: a strategy for understanding and predicting the changing ocean circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, Harry L; Robinson, Carol; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2012-12-13

    Within the context of UK marine science, we project a strategy for ocean circulation research over the next 20 years. We recommend a focus on three types of research: (i) sustained observations of the varying and evolving ocean circulation, (ii) careful analysis and interpretation of the observed climate changes for comparison with climate model projections, and (iii) the design and execution of focused field experiments to understand ocean processes that are not resolved in coupled climate models so as to be able to embed these processes realistically in the models. Within UK-sustained observations, we emphasize smart, cost-effective design of the observational network to extract maximum information from limited field resources. We encourage the incorporation of new sensors and new energy sources within the operational environment of UK-sustained observational programmes to bridge the gap that normally separates laboratory prototype from operational instrument. For interpreting the climate-change records obtained through a variety of national and international sustained observational programmes, creative and dedicated UK scientists should lead efforts to extract the meaningful signals and patterns of climate change and to interpret them so as to project future changes. For the process studies, individual scientists will need to work together in team environments to combine observational and process modelling results into effective improvements in the coupled climate models that will lead to more accurate climate predictions.

  5. Nitrogen oxides emissions from thermal power plants in china: current status and future predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Liu, Kaiyun; Hao, Jiming; Wang, Yan; Gao, Jiajia; Qiu, Peipei; Zhu, Chuanyong

    2013-10-01

    Increasing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the Chinese mainland have been of great concern due to their adverse impacts on regional air quality and public health. To explore and obtain the temporal and spatial characteristics of NOx emissions from thermal power plants in China, a unit-based method is developed. The method assesses NOx emissions based on detailed information on unit capacity, boiler and burner patterns, feed fuel types, emission control technologies, and geographical locations. The national total NOx emissions in 2010 are estimated at 7801.6 kt, of which 5495.8 kt is released from coal-fired power plant units of considerable size between 300 and 1000 MW. The top provincial emitter is Shandong where plants are densely concentrated. The average NOx-intensity is estimated at 2.28 g/kWh, markedly higher than that of developed countries, mainly owing to the inadequate application of high-efficiency denitrification devices such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Future NOx emissions are predicted by applying scenario analysis, indicating that a reduction of about 40% by the year 2020 can be achieved compared with emissions in 2010. These results suggest that NOx emissions from Chinese thermal power plants could be substantially mitigated within 10 years if reasonable control measures were implemented effectively.

  6. Modelling the current distribution and predicted spread of the flea species Ctenocephalides felis infesting outdoor dogs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Rosa; Musella, Vicenzo; Descalzo, Miguel A; Montoya, Ana; Checa, Rocío; Marino, Valentina; Martín, Oihane; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Miró, Guadalupe

    2017-09-19

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015. Bioclimatic zones, covering broad climate and vegetation ranges, were surveyed in relation to their size. The models builded were obtained by negative binomial regression of several environmental variables to show impacts on C. felis infestation prevalence: land cover, bioclimatic zone, mean summer and autumn temperature, mean summer rainfall, distance to urban settlement and normalized difference vegetation index. In the face of climate change, we also simulated the future distributions of C. felis for the global climate model (GCM) "GFDL-CM3" and for the representative concentration pathway RCP45, which predicts their spread in the country. Predictive models for current climate conditions indicated the widespread distribution of C. felis throughout Spain, mainly across the central northernmost zone of the mainland. Under predicted conditions of climate change, the risk of spread was slightly greater, especially in the north and central peninsula, than for the current situation. The data provided will be useful for local veterinarians to design effective strategies against flea infestation and the pathogens transmitted by these arthropods.

  7. Genetic testing to predict sudden cardiac death: current perspectives and future goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia G. Priori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that monogenic traits may predispose young and otherwise healthy individuals to die suddenly. Diseases such as Long QT Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome and Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy are well known causes of arrhythmic death in young individuals. For several years the concept of “genetic predisposition” to sudden cardiac death has been limited to these uncommon diseases. In the last few years clinical data have supported the view that risk of dying suddenly may cluster in families, supporting the hypothesis of a genetic component for sudden cardiac death. In this review I will try to provide an overview of current knowledge about genetics of sudden death. I will approach this topic by discussing first where we stand in the use of genetics for risk stratification and therapy selection in monogenic diseases and I will then move to discuss the contribution of genetics to patient profiling in acquired cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Impurity Deionization Effects on Surface Recombination DC Current-Voltage Characteristics in MOS Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuhui; Jie Binbin; Sah Chihtang

    2010-01-01

    Impurity deionization on the direct-current current-voltage characteristics from electron-hole recombination (R-DCIV) at SiO 2 /Si interface traps in MOS transistors is analyzed using the steady-state Shockley-Read-Hall recombination kinetics and the Fermi distributions for electrons and holes. Insignificant distortion is observed over 90% of the bell-shaped R-DCIV curves centered at their peaks when impurity deionization is excluded in the theory. This is due to negligible impurity deionization because of the much lower electron and hole concentrations at the interface than the impurity concentration in the 90% range. (invited papers)

  9. Interaction of current filaments in dielectric barrier discharges with relation to surface charge distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stollenwerk, L

    2009-01-01

    In a planar, laterally extended dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system operated in glow mode, a filamentary discharge is observed. The filaments tend to move laterally and hence tend to cause collisions. Thereby, usually one collision partner becomes destroyed. In this paper, the collision process and especially the preceding time period is investigated. Beside the luminescence density of the filaments, the surface charge density accumulated between the single breakdowns of the DBD is observed via an optical measurement technique based on the linear electro-optical effect (pockels effect). A ring-like substructure of the surface charge distribution of a single filament is found, which correlates to the filament interaction behaviour. Furthermore, a preferred filament distance is found, suggesting the formation of a filamentary quasi-molecule.

  10. Predictability of rainfall and teleconnections patterns influencing on Southwest Europe from sea surfaces temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, M. N.; Iglesias, I.; Taboada, J. J.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Ramos, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    This work assesses the possibility of doing a forecast of rainfall and the main teleconnections patterns that influences climate in Southwest Europe by using sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). The area under study is located in the NW Iberian Peninsula. This region has a great oceanic influence on its climate and has an important dependency of the water resources. In this way if the different SST patterns are known, the different rainfall situations can be predicted. On the other hand, the teleconnection patterns, which have strong weight on rainfall, are influenced by the SSTA of different areas. In the light of this, the aim of this study is to explore the relationship between global SSTAs, rainfall and the main teleconnection patterns influencing on Europe. The SST data with a 2.0 degree resolution was provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA. A monthly averaged data from 1 January 1951 through December 2006 was considered. The monthly precipitation data from 1951-2006 were obtained from the database CLIMA of the University of Santiago de Compostela with data from the Meteorological State Agency (AEMET) and the Regional Government of Galicia. The teleconnection indices were taken of the Climate Prediction Center of the NOAA between 1950 and 2006. A monthly and seasonal study was analysed considering up to three months of delay in the first case and up to four seasons of delay in the second case. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient r was considered to quantify linear associations between SSTA and precipitation and/or SSTA and teleconnection indices. A test for field-significance was applied considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid to avoid spurious correlations. Analysing the results obtained with the global SSTA and the teleconnection indices, a great number of ocean regions with high correlations can be found. The spatial patterns show very high correlations with Indian Ocean waters

  11. Comparison between the electron cyclotron current drive experiments on DIII-D and predictions for T-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Harvey, R.W.; Luce, T.C.; Matsuda, Kyoko; Moeller, C.P.; Petty, C.C.; Prater, R.; James, R.A.; Giruzzi, G.; Gorelov, Y.; DeHaas, J.

    1990-11-01

    Electron cyclotron current drive has been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak in an experiment in which ∼1 MW of microwave power generated ∼50 kA of non-inductive current. The rf-generated portion was about 15% of the total current. On the T-10 tokamak, more than 3 MW of microwave power will be available for current generation, providing the possibility that all the plasma current could be maintained by this method. Fokker-Planck calculations using the code CQL3D and ray tracing calculations using TORAY have been performed to model both experiments. For DIII-D the agreement between the calculations and measurements is good, producing confidence in the validity of the computational models. The same calculations using the T-10 geometry predict that for n e (0) ∼ 1.8 x 10 13 cm -3 , and T e (0) ∼ 7 keV, 1.2 MW, that is, the power available from only three gyrotrons, could generate as much as 150 kA of non-inductive current. Parameter space scans in which temperature, density and resonance location were varied have been performed to indicate the current drive expected under different experimental conditions. The residual dc electric field was considered in the DIII-D analysis because of its nonlinear effect on the electron distribution, which complicates the interpretation of the results. A 110 GHz ECH system is being installed on DIII-D. Initial operations, planned for late 1991, will use four gyrotrons with 500 kW each and 10 second output pulses. Injection will be from the low field side from launchers which can be steered to heat at the desired location. These launchers, two of which are presently installed, are set at 20 degrees to the radial and rf current drive studies are planned for the initial operation. 8 refs., 10 figs

  12. A Combined EOF/Variational Approach for Mapping Radar-Derived Sea Surface Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    gaps in the gridded SST images, which was successfully applied in Adriatic ( Alvera - Azcarate et al., 2005). Kondrashov and Chil (2006) developed...velocities. Similar to SST analysis (Beckers and Rixen, 2003: Alvera -Azcarate et al.. 2005), these modes are used to fill the gaps in HFR...and selection of the time interval for estimating the covariances becomes important. In the present study the sea surface velocity Alvera -Azcarate

  13. Protein structural transition at negatively charged electrode surfaces. Effects of temperature and current density

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černocká, Hana; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 174, AUG 2015 (2015), s. 356-360 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15479S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00956S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Bovine serum albumin * sensing of surface-attached protein stability * protein structural transition at Hg Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.803, year: 2015

  14. Comparisons of predicted steady-state levels in rooms with extended- and local-reaction bounding surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Murray; Wareing, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A combined beam-tracing and transfer-matrix model for predicting steady-state sound-pressure levels in rooms with multilayer bounding surfaces was used to compare the effect of extended- and local-reaction surfaces, and the accuracy of the local-reaction approximation. Three rooms—an office, a corridor and a workshop—with one or more multilayer test surfaces were considered. The test surfaces were a single-glass panel, a double-drywall panel, a carpeted floor, a suspended-acoustical ceiling, a double-steel panel, and glass fibre on a hard backing. Each test surface was modeled as of extended or of local reaction. Sound-pressure levels were predicted and compared to determine the significance of the surface-reaction assumption. The main conclusions were that the difference between modeling a room surface as of extended or of local reaction is not significant when the surface is a single plate or a single layer of material (solid or porous) with a hard backing. The difference is significant when the surface consists of multilayers of solid or porous material and includes a layer of fluid with a large thickness relative to the other layers. The results are partially explained by considering the surface-reflection coefficients at the first-reflection angles.

  15. Experimental study of neoclassical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Prager, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed experimental study is presented of the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents that are predicted by neoclassical transport theory. In a toroidal octupole, on magnetic surfaces within the separatrix, the observed parallel plasma currents are in excellent quantitative agreement with neoclassical theory with regard to the spatial structure (along a magnetic surface), collisionality dependence and toroidal magnetic field dependence. On magnetic surfaces outside the separatrix, the ion portion of the parallel current is in agreement with neoclassical theory but the electron parallel current is observed to obtain a unidirectional component which deviates from and exceeds the theoretical prediction

  16. Low Overpotential and High Current CO2 Reduction with Surface Reconstructed Cu Foam Electrodess

    KAUST Repository

    Min, Shixiong; Yang, Xiulin; Lu, Ang-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    for large-scale fuel synthesis. Here we report an extremely high current density for CO2 reduction at low overpotential using a Cu foam electrode prepared by air-oxidation and subsequent electroreduction. Apart from possessing three-dimensional (3D) open

  17. Current distribution over the electrode surface in a cylindrical VRLA cell during discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivák, P.; Bača, P.; Calábek, M.; Micka, Karel; Král, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 2 (2006), s. 518-522 ISSN 0378-7753 Grant - others:Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium(ES) N4.2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : grid design * current distribution * cylindrical lead-acid cell Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.521, year: 2006

  18. On the mechanisms of late 20th century sea-surface temperature trends over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Kamenkovich, Igor; Hogg, Andrew M.; Peters, John M.

    2011-11-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), with its associated three-dimensional circulation, plays an important role in global climate. This study concentrates on surface signatures of recent climate change in the ACC region and on mechanisms that control this change. Examination of climate model simulations shows that they match the observed late 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) trends averaged over this region quite well, despite underestimating the observed surface-wind increases. Such wind increases, however, are expected to lead to significant cooling of the region, contradicting the observed SST trends. Motivated by recent theories of the ACC response to variable wind and radiative forcing, the authors used two idealized models to assess contributions of various dynamical processes to the SST evolution in the region. In particular, a high-resolution channel model of the ACC responds to increasing winds by net surface ACC warming due to enhanced mesoscale turbulence and associated heat transports in the mixed layer. These fluxes, modeled, in a highly idealized fashion, via increased lateral surface mixing in a coarse-resolution hybrid climate model, substantially offset zonally non-uniform surface cooling due to air-sea flux and Ekman-transport anomalies. These results suggest that the combination of these opposing effects must be accounted for when estimating climate response to any external forcing in the ACC region.

  19. Excitation of surface waves and electrostatic fields by a RF (radiofrequency systems) wave in a plasma sheath with current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Tapia, C.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown in a one-dimensional model that when a current in a plasma sheath is present, the excitation of surface waves and electrostatic fields by a RF wave is possible in the sheath. This phenomena depends strongly on the joint action of Miller's and driven forces. It is also shown that the action of these forces are carried out at different characteristic times when the wave front travels through the plasma sheath. The influence of the current, in the steady limit, is taken into account by a small functional variation of the density perturbations and generated electrostatic field. (Author)

  20. Liver Surface Nodularity Score Allows Prediction of Cirrhosis Decompensation and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D; Zand, Kevin A; Florez, Edward; Sirous, Reza; Shlapak, Darya; Souza, Frederico; Roda, Manohar; Bryan, Jason; Vasanji, Amit; Griswold, Michael; Lirette, Seth T

    2017-06-01

    Purpose To determine whether use of the liver surface nodularity (LSN) score, a quantitative biomarker derived from routine computed tomographic (CT) images, allows prediction of cirrhosis decompensation and death. Materials and Methods For this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, adult patients with cirrhosis and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score within 3 months of initial liver CT imaging between January 3, 2006, and May 30, 2012, were identified from electronic medical records (n = 830). The LSN score was measured by using CT images and quantitative software. Competing risk regression was used to determine the association of the LSN score with hepatic decompensation and overall survival. A risk model combining LSN scores (<3 or ≥3) and MELD scores (<10 or ≥10) was created for predicting liver-related events. Results In patients with compensated cirrhosis, 40% (129 of 326) experienced decompensation during a median follow-up period of 4.22 years. After adjustment for competing risks including MELD score, LSN score (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.79) was found to be independently predictive of hepatic decompensation. Median times to decompensation of patients at high (1.76 years, n = 48), intermediate (3.79 years, n = 126), and low (6.14 years, n = 152) risk of hepatic decompensation were significantly different (P < .001). Among the full cohort with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis, 61% (504 of 830) died during the median follow-up period of 2.26 years. After adjustment for competing risks, LSN score (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.33) and MELD score (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.11) were found to be independent predictors of death. Median times to death of patients at high (0.94 years, n = 315), intermediate (2.79 years, n = 312), and low (4.69 years, n = 203) risk were significantly different (P < .001). Conclusion The LSN score

  1. Impact of Lake Okeechobee Sea Surface Temperatures on Numerical Predictions of Summertime Convective Systems over South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Splitt, Michael E.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Santos, Pablo; Lazarus, Steven M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, the Florida Institute of Technology, and the NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Office at Miami, FL (MFL) are collaborating on a project to investigate the impact of using high-resolution, 2-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) composites within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) prediction system. The NWS MFL is currently running WRF in real-time to support daily forecast operations, using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical core within the NWS Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) software. Twenty-seven hour forecasts are run daily initialized at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 UTC on a domain with 4-km grid spacing covering the southern half of Florida and adjacent waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. The SSTs are initialized with the NCEP Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses at 1/12deg resolution. The project objective is to determine whether more accurate specification of the lower-boundary forcing over water using the MODIS SST composites within the 4-km WRF runs will result in improved sea fluxes and hence, more accurate e\\olutiono f coastal mesoscale circulations and the associated sensible weather elements. SPoRT conducted parallel WRF EMS runs from February to August 2007 identical to the operational runs at NWS MFL except for the use of MODIS SST composites in place of the RTG product as the initial and boundary conditions over water. During the course of this evaluation, an intriguing case was examined from 6 May 2007, in which lake breezes and convection around Lake Okeechobee evolved quite differently when using the high-resolution SPoRT MODIS SST composites versus the lower-resolution RTG SSTs. This paper will analyze the differences in the 6 May simulations, as well as examine other cases from the summer 2007 in which the WRF

  2. The CAnadian Surface Prediction ARchive (CaSPAr): A Platform to Enhance Environmental Modelling in Canada and Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, B.; Mai, J.; Kornelsen, K. C.; Coulibaly, P. D.; Anctil, F.; Fortin, V.; Leahy, M.; Hall, B.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental models are tools for the modern society for a wide range of applications such as flood and drought monitoring, carbon storage and release estimates, predictions of power generation amounts, or reservoir management amongst others. Environmental models differ in the types of processes they incorporate, where land surface models focus on the energy, water, and carbon cycle of the land and hydrological models concentrate mainly on the water cycle. All these models, however, have in common that they rely on environmental input data from ground observations such as temperature, precipitation and/or radiation to force the model. If the same model is run in forecast mode, numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are needed to replace these ground observations. Therefore, it is critical that NWP data be available to develop models and validate forecast performance. These data are provided by the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) on a daily basis. MSC provides multiple products ranging from large scale global models ( 33km/grid cell) to high resolution pan-Canadian models ( 2.5km/grid cell). Operational products providing forecasts in real-time are made publicly available only at the time of issue through various means with new forecasts issued 2-4 times per day. Unfortunately, long term storage of these data are offline and relatively inaccessible to the research and operational communities. The new Canadian Surface Prediction Archive (CaSPAr) platform is an accessible rolling archive of 10 of MSC's NWP products. The 500TB platform will allow users to extract specific time periods, regions of interest and variables of interest in an easy to access NetCDF format. CaSPAr and community contributed post-processing scripts and tools are being developed such that the users, for example, can interpolate the data due to their needs or auto-generate model forcing files. We will present the CaSPAr platform and provide some insights in the current development of the web

  3. Validation of asphalt mixture pavement skid prediction model and development of skid prediction model for surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pavement skid resistance is primarily a function of the surface texture, which includes both microtexture and macrotexture. Earlier, under the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Research Project 0-5627, the researchers developed a method to p...

  4. Current theoretical models fail to predict the topological complexity of the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eArsuaga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the folding of the human genome is a key challenge of modern structural biology. The emergence of chromatin conformation capture assays ({it e.g.} Hi-C has revolutionized chromosome biology and provided new insights into the three dimensional structure of the genome. The experimental data are highly complex and need to be analyzed with quantitative tools. It has been argued that the data obtained from Hi-C assays are consistent with a fractal organization of the genome. A key characteristic textcolor{red}{of the fractal globule} is the lack of topological complexity (knotting or inter-linking. However, the absence of topological complexity contradicts results from polymer physics showing that the entanglement of long linear polymers in a confined volume increases rapidly with the length and with decreasing volume. textcolor{red}{{it In vivo} and {it in vitro} assays support this claim in some biological systems. We simulate knotted lattice polygons confined inside a sphere and demonstrate that their contact frequencies agree with the human Hi-C data.} We conclude that the topological complexity of the human genome cannot be inferred from current Hi-C data.

  5. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342

  6. Large-eddy-simulation approach in understanding flow structures of 2D turbulent density currents over sloping surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayamatullah, M.; Rao Pillalamarri, Narasimha; Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2018-04-01

    A numerical investigation was performed to understand the flow dynamics of 2D density currents over sloping surfaces. Large eddy simulation was conducted for lock-exchange (L-E) release currents and overflows. 2D Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the Boussinesq approximation. The effects of the lock aspect-ratio (height/length of lock), slope, and Reynolds number on the flow structures and turbulence mixing have been analyzed. Results have confirmed buoyancy within the head of the two-dimensional currents is not conserved which contradicts the classical thermal theory. The lock aspect-ratio dictates the fraction of initial buoyancy which is carried by the head of the current at the beginning of the slumping (horizontal) and accelerating phase (over a slope), which has important implications on turbulence kinetic energy production, and hence mixing in the current. For L-E flows over a slope, increasing slope angle enhances the turbulence production. Increasing slope results in shear reversal within the density current resulting in shear-instabilities. Differences in turbulence production mechanisms and flow structures exist between the L-E and constant-flux release currents resulting in significant differences in the flow characteristics between different releases.

  7. Low-temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel: the current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    a hardened case at the surface, while maintaining the superior corrosion performance. This can be achieved by dissolving colossal amounts of nitrogen and/or carbon without forming nitrides and/or carbides, thus developing so-called expanded austenite. The present work gives an overview over results obtained...... on homogeneous expanded austenite and covers the crystallography for nitrogen- and carbon-stabilised expanded austenite, the solubility for nitrogen and carbon, the diffusion of these interstitials as well as the stability of expanded austenite with respect to nitride and carbide formation. Subsequently...

  8. Distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the current sheet surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrie, N. P., E-mail: kyrie@fpl.gpi.ru; Markov, V. S., E-mail: natalya.kyrie@yandex.ru; Frank, A. G.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the width (the major transverse dimension) of the current sheet have been studied for the first time. The current sheets were formed in discharges in argon and helium in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations. It is found that the temperature of argon ions in both 2D and 3D magnetic configurations is almost uniform over the sheet width and that argon ions are accelerated by the Ampère force. In contrast, the distributions of the electron density and the temperature of helium ions are found to be substantially nonuniform. As a result, in the 2D magnetic configuration, the ion pressure gradient across the sheet width makes a significant contribution (comparable with the Ampère force) to the acceleration of helium ions, whereas in the 3D magnetic configuration, the Ampère force is counterbalanced by the pressure gradient.

  9. Distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the current sheet surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrie, N. P.; Markov, V. S.; Frank, A. G.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of the ion temperature, ion pressure, and electron density over the width (the major transverse dimension) of the current sheet have been studied for the first time. The current sheets were formed in discharges in argon and helium in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations. It is found that the temperature of argon ions in both 2D and 3D magnetic configurations is almost uniform over the sheet width and that argon ions are accelerated by the Ampère force. In contrast, the distributions of the electron density and the temperature of helium ions are found to be substantially nonuniform. As a result, in the 2D magnetic configuration, the ion pressure gradient across the sheet width makes a significant contribution (comparable with the Ampère force) to the acceleration of helium ions, whereas in the 3D magnetic configuration, the Ampère force is counterbalanced by the pressure gradient.

  10. Visualisation of the high-current e-beams on solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomonov, V I; Osipov, V V; Mikhajlov, S G; Lipchak, A I [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Division, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Institute of Electrophysics

    1997-12-31

    Natural minerals such as spodumen, calcite, and Mn-doped apatite crystals may serve as suitable low-cost materials for visualization of high-current electron beams. High-intensity luminescence lasting several tens of minutes has been observed when irradiating natural specimen by electron beams with the current density of 10-1000 A/sq.cm, with energy of 100-300 keV, and pulse duration of 2-50 ns. The luminescent images of the beam cross-section provide information on the beam density profiles, while the images taken in the plane parallel to the beam axis make it possible to estimate the beam penetration depth and, therefore, the beam energy. The method is illustrated by examples of luminescent images taken from the experiment. (J.U.).

  11. Charge and current transport in open field lines turbulence: Influence of plasma-surface boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futtersack, R., E-mail: romain.futtersack@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hagelaar, G. [Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse, LAPLACE, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Ghendrih, Ph.; Simonin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the impact of both parallel and transverse boundary conditions on the current and charge transport in open field line systems using the TOKAM2D code, which solves a minimal model for interchange turbulence. Various limit test cases are discussed and analyzed. In the parallel direction, the sheath conductivity is found to play an essential role in the stabilization of large-scale potential structures, leading to the formation of transport channel or transport barrier respectively for an insulating end wall or a wall with an enhanced sheath conductivity. On another hand, the addition of transverse boundary conditions intrinsically changes the transport characteristics, influencing both radial profiles and probability density functions. It underlines that in some cases a detailed description of the plasma-wall interaction process is required to get a proper description of the current loop pattern that determines electrostatic turbulent transport.

  12. Current Laser Resurfacing Technologies: A Review that Delves Beneath the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissig, Jason; Hamilton, Kristy; Markus, Ramsey

    2012-01-01

    Numerous laser platforms exist that rejuvenate the skin by resurfacing its upper layers. In varying degrees, these lasers improve the appearance of lentigines and rhytides, eliminate photoaging, soften scarring due to acne and other causes, and treat dyspigmentation. Five major classes of dermatologic lasers are currently in common use: ablative and nonablative lasers in both fractionated and unfractionated forms as well as radiofrequency technologies. The gentler nonablative lasers allow for quicker healing, whereas harsher ablative lasers tend to be more effective. Fractionating either laser distributes the effect, increasing the number of treatments but minimizing downtime and complications. In this review article, the authors seek to inform surgeons about the current laser platforms available, clarify the differences between them, and thereby facilitate the identification of the most appropriate laser for their practice. PMID:23904818

  13. Design Guidelines for Impressed-Current Cathodic Protection Systems on Surface-Effect Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    result, design data, particularly regarding current levels and means to avoid overprotection corrosion, and design procedures have been pre- viously...degradation due to overprotection corrosion. To determine the limit of overprotection at high velocity, experiments were run on 1- x 4-inch aluminum... OVERPROTECTION EXPERIMENTS Potential Weight Corrosion mV Loss, g Rate, MPY specimen Appearance 1 •120C • ?5C 52.4 No visible corrosion , -I25O 0

  14. Predictions of Resuspension of Highway Detention Pond Deposits in Interrain Event Periods due to Wind-Induced Currents and Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    -shear stress induced by the return flow near the bed and waves both generated by the wind. Wind statistics for 30 years have been applied for prediction of the annual discharged bulk of suspended solids and associated pollutants; fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo......(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (PAHs) and the heavy metals of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. The current and wave-generated bed-shear stresses entail a discharged bulk of pollutants corresponding to approximately 10% of the annual accumulation of pollutants in the present pond due...

  15. Spatial prediction of near surface soil water retention functions using hydrogeophysics and empirical orthogonal functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Justin; Franz, Trenton E.

    2018-06-01

    The hydrological community often turns to widely available spatial datasets such as the NRCS Soil Survey Geographic database (SSURGO) to characterize the spatial variability of soil properties. When used to spatially characterize and parameterize watershed models, this has served as a reasonable first approximation when lacking localized or incomplete soil data. Within agriculture, soil data has been left relatively coarse when compared to numerous other data sources measured. This is because localized soil sampling is both expensive and time intense, thus a need exists in better connecting spatial datasets with ground observations. Given that hydrogeophysics is data-dense, rapid, non-invasive, and relatively easy to adopt, it is a promising technique to help dovetail localized soil sampling with spatially exhaustive datasets. In this work, we utilize two common near surface geophysical methods, cosmic-ray neutron probe and electromagnetic induction, to identify temporally stable spatial patterns of measured geophysical properties in three 65 ha agricultural fields in western Nebraska. This is achieved by repeat geophysical observations of the same study area across a range of wet to dry field conditions in order to evaluate with an empirical orthogonal function. Shallow cores were then extracted within each identified zone and water retention functions were generated in the laboratory. Using EOF patterns as a covariate, we quantify the predictive skill of estimating soil hydraulic properties in areas without measurement using a bootstrap validation analysis. Results indicate that sampling locations informed via repeat hydrogeophysical surveys, required only five cores to reduce the cross-validation root mean squared error by an average of 64% as compared to soil parameters predicted by a commonly used benchmark, SSURGO and ROSETTA. The reduction to five strategically located samples within the 65 ha fields reduces sampling efforts by up to ∼90% as compared to

  16. A micromechanical four-phase model to predict the compressive failure surface of cement concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caporale,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a micromechanical model is used in order to predict the failure surface of cement concrete subject to multi-axial compression. In the adopted model, the concrete material is schematised as a composite with the following constituents: coarse aggregate (gravel, fine aggregate (sand and cement paste. The cement paste contains some voids which grow during the loading process. In fact, the non-linear behavior of the concrete is attributed to the creation of cracks in the cement paste; the effect of the cracks is taken into account by introducing equivalent voids (inclusions with zero stiffness in the cement paste. The three types of inclusions (namely gravel, sand and voids have different scales, so that the overall behavior of the concrete is obtained by the composition of three different homogenizations; in the sense that the concrete is regarded as the homogenized material of the two-phase composite constituted of the gravel and the mortar; in turn, the mortar is the homogenized material of the two-phase composite constituted of the sand inclusions and a (porous cement paste matrix; finally, the (porous cement paste is the homogenized material of the two-phase composite constituted of voids and the pure paste. The pure paste represents the cement paste before the loading process, so that it does not contain voids or other defects due to the loading process. The abovementioned three homogenizations are realized with the predictive scheme of Mori-Tanaka in conjunction with the Eshelby method. The adopted model can be considered an attempt to find micromechanical tools able to capture peculiar aspects of the cement concrete in load cases of uni-axial and multi-axial compression. Attributing the non-linear behavior of concrete to the creation of equivalent voids in the cement paste provides correspondence with many phenomenological aspects of concrete behavior. Trying to improve this correspondence, the influence of the parameters of the

  17. Enhancing Noah Land Surface Model Prediction Skill over Indian Subcontinent by Assimilating SMOPS Blended Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh S. Nair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, soil moisture assimilation is conducted over the Indian subcontinent, using the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM and the Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS observations by utilizing the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The study is conducted in two stages involving assimilation of soil moisture and simulation of brightness temperature (Tb using radiative transfer scheme. The results of data assimilation in the form of simulated Surface Soil Moisture (SSM maps are evaluated for the Indian summer monsoonal months of June, July, August, September (JJAS using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM AMSR-E soil moisture as reference. Results of comparative analysis using the Global land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS SSM is also discussed over India. Data assimilation using SMOPS soil moisture shows improved prediction over the Indian subcontinent, with an average correlation of 0.96 and average root mean square difference (RMSD of 0.0303 m3/m3. The results are promising in comparison with the GLDAS SSM, which has an average correlation of 0.93 and average RMSD of 0.0481 m3/m3. In the second stage of the study, the assimilated soil moisture is used to simulate X-band brightness temperature (Tb at an incidence angle of 55° using the Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM Radiative transfer Model (RTM. This is aimed to study the sensitivity of the parameterization scheme on Tb simulation over the Indian subcontinent. The result of Tb simulation shows that the CMEM parameterization scheme strongly influences the simulated top of atmosphere (TOA brightness temperature. Furthermore, the Tb simulations from Wang dielectric model and Kirdyashev vegetation model shows better similarity with the actual AMSR-E Tb over the study region.

  18. A Predictive Model of Surface Warfare Officer Retention: Factors Affecting Turnover

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gjurich, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    Junior Surface Warfare Officer retention is in a crisis. The Surface Warfare Officer community anticipates an inability to fill Department Head billets due to the number of junior Surface Warfare Officers leaving military service...

  19. Predictability of the recent slowdown and subsequent recovery of large-scale surface warming using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E.; Steinman, Byron A.; Miller, Sonya K.; Frankcombe, Leela M.; England, Matthew H.; Cheung, Anson H.

    2016-04-01

    The temporary slowdown in large-scale surface warming during the early 2000s has been attributed to both external and internal sources of climate variability. Using semiempirical estimates of the internal low-frequency variability component in Northern Hemisphere, Atlantic, and Pacific surface temperatures in concert with statistical hindcast experiments, we investigate whether the slowdown and its recent recovery were predictable. We conclude that the internal variability of the North Pacific, which played a critical role in the slowdown, does not appear to have been predictable using statistical forecast methods. An additional minor contribution from the North Atlantic, by contrast, appears to exhibit some predictability. While our analyses focus on combining semiempirical estimates of internal climatic variability with statistical hindcast experiments, possible implications for initialized model predictions are also discussed.

  20. Surface soil moisture retrievals from remote sensing: Current status, products & future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Ireland, Gareth; Barrett, Brian

    Advances in Earth Observation (EO) technology, particularly over the last two decades, have shown that soil moisture content (SMC) can be measured to some degree or other by all regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a variety of techniques have been proposed to facilitate this purpose. In this review we provide a synthesis of the efforts made during the last 20 years or so towards the estimation of surface SMC exploiting EO imagery, with a particular emphasis on retrievals from microwave sensors. Rather than replicating previous overview works, we provide a comprehensive and critical exploration of all the major approaches employed for retrieving SMC in a range of different global ecosystems. In this framework, we consider the newest techniques developed within optical and thermal infrared remote sensing, active and passive microwave domains, as well as assimilation or synergistic approaches. Future trends and prospects of EO for the accurate determination of SMC from space are subject to key challenges, some of which are identified and discussed within. It is evident from this review that there is potential for more accurate estimation of SMC exploiting EO technology, particularly so, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches between a variety of EO instruments. Given the importance of SMC in Earth's land surface interactions and to a large range of applications, one can appreciate that its accurate estimation is critical in addressing key scientific and practical challenges in today's world such as food security, sustainable planning and management of water resources. The launch of new, more sophisticated satellites strengthens the development of innovative research approaches and scientific inventions that will result in a range of pioneering and ground-breaking advancements in the retrievals of soil moisture from space.

  1. Current Hormonal Contraceptive Use Predicts Female Extra-Pair and Dyadic Sexual Behavior: Evidence Based on Czech National Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Klapilová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from 1155 Czech women (493 using oral contraception, 662 non-users, obtained from the Czech National Survey of Sexual Behavior, were used to investigate evolutionary-based hypotheses concerning the predictive value of current oral contraceptive (OC use on extra-pair and dyadic (in-pair sexual behavior of coupled women. Specifically, the aim was to determine whether current OC use was associated with lower extra-pair and higher in-pair sexual interest and behavior, because OC use suppresses cyclical shifts in mating psychology that occur in normally cycling women. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP regression and negative binomial models were used to test associations between OC use and these sexual measures, controlling for other relevant predictors (e.g., age, parity, in-pair sexual satisfaction, relationship length. The overall incidence of having had an extra-pair partner or one-night stand in the previous year was not related to current OC use (the majority of the sample had not. However, among the women who had engaged in extra-pair sexual behavior, OC users had fewer one-night stands than non-users, and tended to have fewer partners, than non-users. OC users also had more frequent dyadic intercourse than non-users, potentially indicating higher commitment to their current relationship. These results suggest that suppression of fertility through OC use may alter important aspects of female sexual behavior, with potential implications for relationship functioning and stability.

  2. Studies into the Effects of Surface Roughness on Spatial Eddy-Current Data from Nickel-Based Engine Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.J.; Nakagawa, N.; Wendt, S.E.; Hentscher, S.R.; Nelson, D.L.; Buhr, K.T.; Kilbugh, B.A.; Raithel, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Eddy-current scans have been carried out on two Inconel-718 specimens following the application of various levels of shot peening and heat treatments. The conventional analysis of roughened or shot peened surfaces looks at multi-frequency impedance measurements and interprets the data as a change in conductivity or liftoff. An approach involving the statistical analysis of scanned eddy-current impedance data is suggested as an alternative that may provide a more sensitive way of determining the treatment history of a component. It is possible that an analysis of these statistical distributions in spatial eddy-current data could be used to determine the level of remaining residual stress in engine components

  3. Surface Temperature Variation Prediction Model Using Real-Time Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Vant-Hull, B.; Nazari, R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Combination of climate change and urbanization are heating up cities and putting the lives of millions of people in danger. More than half of the world's total population resides in cities and urban centers. Cities are experiencing urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Hotter days are associated with serious health impacts, heart attaches and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Densely populated cities like Manhattan, New York can be affected by UHI impact much more than less populated cities. Even though many studies have been focused on the impact of UHI and temperature changes between urban and rural air temperature, not many look at the temperature variations within a city. These studies mostly use remote sensing data or typical measurements collected by local meteorological station networks. Local meteorological measurements only have local coverage and cannot be used to study the impact of UHI in a city and remote sensing data such as MODIS, LANDSAT and ASTER have with very low resolution which cannot be used for the purpose of this study. Therefore, predicting surface temperature in urban cities using weather data can be useful.Three months of Field campaign in Manhattan were used to measure spatial and temporal temperature variations within an urban setting by placing 10 fixed sensors deployed to measure temperature, relative humidity and sunlight. Fixed instrument shelters containing relative humidity, temperature and illumination sensors were mounted on lampposts in ten different locations in Manhattan (Vant-Hull et al, 2014). The shelters were fixed 3-4 meters above the ground for the period of three months from June 23 to September 20th of 2013 making measurements with the interval of 3 minutes. These high resolution temperature measurements and three months of weather data were used to predict temperature variability from weather forecasts. This study shows that the amplitude of spatial and temporal variation in temperature for each day can be predicted

  4. Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air temperature and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the pre-monsoon period reveals indicators whether the

  5. An AP endonuclease 1-DNA polymerase beta complex: theoretical prediction of interacting surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexej Abyzov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abasic (AP sites in DNA arise through both endogenous and exogenous mechanisms. Since AP sites can prevent replication and transcription, the cell contains systems for their identification and repair. AP endonuclease (APEX1 cleaves the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. The cleavage, a key step in the base excision repair pathway, is followed by nucleotide insertion and removal of the downstream deoxyribose moiety, performed most often by DNA polymerase beta (pol-beta. While yeast two-hybrid studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays provide evidence for interaction of APEX1 and pol-beta, the specifics remain obscure. We describe a theoretical study designed to predict detailed interacting surfaces between APEX1 and pol-beta based on published co-crystal structures of each enzyme bound to DNA. Several potentially interacting complexes were identified by sliding the protein molecules along DNA: two with pol-beta located downstream of APEX1 (3' to the damaged site and three with pol-beta located upstream of APEX1 (5' to the damaged site. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations, ensuring geometrical complementarity of interfaces, enabled us to predict interacting residues and calculate binding energies, which in two cases were sufficient (approximately -10.0 kcal/mol to form a stable complex and in one case a weakly interacting complex. Analysis of interface behavior during MD simulation and visual inspection of interfaces allowed us to conclude that complexes with pol-beta at the 3'-side of APEX1 are those most likely to occur in vivo. Additional multiple sequence analyses of APEX1 and pol-beta in related organisms identified a set of correlated mutations of specific residues at the predicted interfaces. Based on these results, we propose that pol-beta in the open or closed conformation interacts and makes a stable interface with APEX1 bound to a cleaved abasic site on the 3' side. The method described here can be used for analysis in

  6. Surface EEG-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Closed-Loop System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Carvalho, Sandra; Thibaut, Aurore; Doruk, Deniz; Chen, Chiun-Fan; Schachter, Steven C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocols rely on applying electrical current at a fixed intensity and duration without using surrogate markers to direct the interventions. This has led to some mixed results; especially because tDCS induced effects may vary depending on the ongoing level of brain activity. Therefore, the objective of this preliminary study was to assess the feasibility of an EEG-triggered tDCS system based on EEG online analysis of its frequency bands. Six healthy volunteers were randomized to participate in a double-blind sham-controlled crossover design to receive a single session of 10[Formula: see text]min 2[Formula: see text]mA cathodal and sham tDCS. tDCS trigger controller was based upon an algorithm designed to detect an increase in the relative beta power of more than 200%, accompanied by a decrease of 50% or more in the relative alpha power, based on baseline EEG recordings. EEG-tDCS closed-loop-system was able to detect the predefined EEG magnitude deviation and successfully triggered the stimulation in all participants. This preliminary study represents a proof-of-concept for the development of an EEG-tDCS closed-loop system in humans. We discuss and review here different methods of closed loop system that can be considered and potential clinical applications of such system.

  7. Five year prediction of Sea Surface Temperature in the Tropical Atlantic: a comparison of simple statistical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Laepple, Thomas; Jewson, Stephen; Meagher, Jonathan; O'Shay, Adam; Penzer, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    We are developing schemes that predict future hurricane numbers by first predicting future sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and then apply the observed statistical relationship between SST and hurricane numbers. As part of this overall goal, in this study we compare the historical performance of three simple statistical methods for making five-year SST forecasts. We also present SST forecasts for 2006-2010 using these methods and compare them to forecasts made from two structural time series ...

  8. Sea surface temperature (SST) and surface current data collected from the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race (VOR) from 2011-11-05 to 2012-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0130694)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Navigation, surface current, sea surface temperature, wind, and atmospheric pressure data collected by the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race...

  9. Variability and Predictability of West African Droughts. A Review in the Role of Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Mohino, Elsa; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Caminade, Cyril; Biasutti, Michela; Gaetani, Marco; Garcia-Serrano, J.; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry; Xue, Yongkang; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Sahel experienced a severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s after wet periods in the 1950s and 1960s. Although rainfall partially recovered since the 1990s, the drought had devastating impacts on society. Most studies agree that this dry period resulted primarily from remote effects of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies amplified by local land surface-atmosphere interactions. This paper reviews advances made during the last decade to better understand the impact of global SST variability on West African rainfall at interannual to decadal time scales. At interannual time scales, a warming of the equatorial Atlantic and Pacific/Indian Oceans results in rainfall reduction over the Sahel, and positive SST anomalies over the Mediterranean Sea tend to be associated with increased rainfall. At decadal time scales, warming over the tropics leads to drought over the Sahel, whereas warming over the North Atlantic promotes increased rainfall. Prediction systems have evolved from seasonal to decadal forecasting. The agreement among future projections has improved from CMIP3 to CMIP5, with a general tendency for slightly wetter conditions over the central part of the Sahel, drier conditions over the western part, and a delay in the monsoon onset. The role of the Indian Ocean, the stationarity of teleconnections, the determination of the leader ocean basin in driving decadal variability, the anthropogenic role, the reduction of the model rainfall spread, and the improvement of some model components are among the most important remaining questions that continue to be the focus of current international projects.

  10. Pathological tremor prediction using surface electromyogram and acceleration: potential use in ‘ON-OFF’ demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Verhagen Metman, Leo; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). Approach. The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (Fourier and wavelet) and nonlinear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results. The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance. The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle and the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage.

  11. Pathological tremor prediction using surface EMG and acceleration: potential use in “ON-OFF” demand driven deep brain stimulator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Ishita; Graupe, Daniel; Tuninetti, Daniela; Shukla, Pitamber; Slavin, Konstantin V.; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Corcos, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We present a proof of concept for a novel method of predicting the onset of pathological tremor using non-invasively measured surface electromyogram (sEMG) and acceleration from tremor-affected extremities of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Essential tremor (ET). Approach The tremor prediction algorithm uses a set of spectral (fourier and wavelet) and non-linear time series (entropy and recurrence rate) parameters extracted from the non-invasively recorded sEMG and acceleration signals. Main results The resulting algorithm is shown to successfully predict tremor onset for all 91 trials recorded in 4 PD patients and for all 91 trials recorded in 4 ET patients. The predictor achieves a 100% sensitivity for all trials considered, along with an overall accuracy of 85.7% for all ET trials and 80.2% for all PD trials. By using a Pearson’s chi-square test, the prediction results are shown to significantly differ from a random prediction outcome. Significance The tremor prediction algorithm can be potentially used for designing the next generation of non-invasive closed-loop predictive ON-OFF controllers for deep brain stimulation (DBS), used for suppressing pathological tremor in such patients. Such a system is based on alternating ON and OFF DBS periods, an incoming tremor being predicted during the time intervals when DBS is OFF, so as to turn DBS back ON. The prediction should be a few seconds before tremor re-appears so that the patient is tremor-free for the entire DBS ON-OFF cycle as well as the tremor-free DBS OFF interval should be maximized in order to minimize the current injected in the brain and battery usage. PMID:23658233

  12. Spatial prediction of near surface soil water retention functions using hydrogeophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. P.; Franz, T. E.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrological community often turns to widely available spatial datasets such as SSURGO to characterize the spatial variability of soil across a landscape of interest. This has served as a reasonable first approximation when lacking localized soil data. However, previous work has shown that information loss within land surface models primarily stems from parameterization. Localized soil sampling is both expensive and time intense, and thus a need exists in connecting spatial datasets with ground observations. Given that hydrogeophysics is data-dense, rapid, and relatively easy to adopt, it is a promising technique to help dovetail localized soil sampling with larger spatial datasets. In this work, we utilize 2 geophysical techniques; cosmic ray neutron probe and electromagnetic induction, to identify temporally stable soil moisture patterns. This is achieved by measuring numerous times over a range of wet to dry field conditions in order to apply an empirical orthogonal function. We then present measured water retention functions of shallow cores extracted within each temporally stable zone. Lastly, we use soil moisture patterns as a covariate to predict soil hydraulic properties in areas without measurement and validate using a leave-one-out cross validation analysis. Using these approaches to better constrain soil hydraulic property variability, we speculate that further research can better estimate hydrologic fluxes in areas of interest.

  13. Prediction for human intelligence using morphometric characteristics of cortical surface: partial least square analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J-J; Yoon, U; Yun, H J; Im, K; Choi, Y Y; Lee, K H; Park, H; Hough, M G; Lee, J-M

    2013-08-29

    A number of imaging studies have reported neuroanatomical correlates of human intelligence with various morphological characteristics of the cerebral cortex. However, it is not yet clear whether these morphological properties of the cerebral cortex account for human intelligence. We assumed that the complex structure of the cerebral cortex could be explained effectively considering cortical thickness, surface area, sulcal depth and absolute mean curvature together. In 78 young healthy adults (age range: 17-27, male/female: 39/39), we used the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and the cortical measurements calculated in native space from each subject to determine how much combining various cortical measures explained human intelligence. Since each cortical measure is thought to be not independent but highly inter-related, we applied partial least square (PLS) regression, which is one of the most promising multivariate analysis approaches, to overcome multicollinearity among cortical measures. Our results showed that 30% of FSIQ was explained by the first latent variable extracted from PLS regression analysis. Although it is difficult to