WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface cover called

  1. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1.1092(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In...

  2. Equivelar and d-Covered Triangulations of Surfaces. I

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Frank H.; Sulanke, Thom; Tiwari, Anand K.; Upadhyay, Ashish K.

    2010-01-01

    We survey basic properties and bounds for $q$-equivelar and $d$-covered triangulations of closed surfaces. Included in the survey is a list of the known sources for $q$-equivelar and $d$-covered triangulations. We identify all orientable and non-orientable surfaces $M$ of Euler characteristic $0>\\chi(M)\\geq -230$ which admit non-neighborly $q$-equivelar triangulations with equality in the upper bound $q\\leq\\Bigl\\lfloor\\tfrac{1}{2}(5+\\sqrt{49-24\\chi (M)})\\Bigl\\rfloor$. These examples give rise...

  3. 170 years of debris covered glacier surface evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölg, Nico; Bolch, Tobias; Vieli, Andreas; Bauder, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The local effect of debris layer thickness on ice melt can be studied considering short time periods and is quite well known to date. How the reduced melt, the additional weight of the debris, and the formation of ice cliffs and lakes are linked with the flow behaviour of the glacier is less well understood and much longer time periods are required for such investigations, typically in the order of the response time of the respective glacier, if possible even longer. For this reason we selected to study Zmuttgletscher in the Western Swiss Alps, which today is a heavily debris covered valley glacier. We produced a time series of glacier area, debris cover and surface elevation changes on the basis of 14 old maps and aerial images, 11 orthoimages and additional terrestrial photographs starting at the end of the little ice age (LIA) in 1859. During these 170 years the glacier lost a volume of 52.9*106 m3 (mean thickness change of -89 m) at its tongue while its debris covered area increased from about 14 to 20%. Several periods of variable retreat rates can be discerned and spatially varying change patterns become visible. Commonly the glacier has been retreating, but we can discern locally different elevation change, and also stable to positive periods in the 1980s become visible on different dynamical section of the glacier. Surface features that are commonly linked to debris cover and ice flow have emerged after the end of the LIA. For example, supraglacial thermokarst features become visible in 1880 and are widespread in the lower area of the glacier tongue in 1946. Considering big ice cliffs that are typically related to a realtively high, steep elevation difference and a large surface area, their number has increased somewhat from zero in 1859 to about 15 today. However, its the small ice cliffs, lakes and surface water channels that have emerged and also contribute to stronger melt through either exposed clean ice or ice in contact with water. Elevation

  4. Structure and optical properties of water covered Cu(110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghbanpourasl, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis structural and optical properties of the water covered Cu(110) surface is studied using density functional theory within independent particle approximation. Several stable adsorption structures are studied such as water clusters (monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer and pentamer), different hexagonal monolayers, partially dissociated water monolayers and three different types of chains among them a chain that consists of pentagon rings. For a copper surface in contact with water vapor, the energetically stable H 2 O/OH adsorbed structures are compared thermodynamically using adsorption free energy (change of free energy due to adsorption). Several phase diagrams with respect to temperature and pressure are calculated. It is found that among the large number of energetically stable structures (i.e. structures with positive adsorption energy ) only limited number of them are thermodynamically stable. These thermodynamically stable structures are the class of almost energetically degenerate hexagonal overlayers, one type of partially dissociated water structure that contains Bjerrum defect in the hydrogen bond network and pentagon chain. Since hydrogen atoms are light weight their vibrational effects can be considerable. Zero point vibration decreases the adsorption energy up to 0.1 eV and free energy of adsorbed molecules arising from vibrational degree of freedom can go up to -0.2 eV per adsorbed molecule at 500 Kelvin. However zero point energy and vibrational free energy of adsorbed molecules do not alter relative stability of the adsorbed structures. To account for the long range van der Waals interactions, a semi-empirical scheme is applied. Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS) is a fast and non destructive optical method that can be used to prob the surface in different conditions such as vacuum and electro-chemical environment. Elasto-optic coeficients of bulk are calculated from first principles and the change of the RA spectrum of the bare Cu

  5. Utilization of textile surface covers for stabilizing slopes in brown coal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, K.; Ganz, R.; Taubert, E.; Scheler, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of tests on preventing slope erosion at a spoil bank by covering inclined surfaces with textile. Three polyethylene and one polyamide cloth types with varying mesh size and material elasticity were attached to the ground after seeding of grass plants. Slope erosion and grass growth were evaluated at three-week intervals. Best results were achieved with polyethylene cloth with a 10/20 mm mesh to facilitate grass growth and with low elasticity, which showed the best adaption to the slope of the ground and prevented washout from below. Economic advantages of using surface covers are described as reducing expenditures in labor employed in slope maintenance. A 50% cost saving is estimated, which depends on the availability of low cost ground covers, preferably from waste products. The suitability of textile from magnetic tape scrap will be tested.

  6. Interfacial stability of soil covers on lined surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Gates, T.E.

    1986-04-01

    The factors affecting the interfacial stability of soil covers on geomembranes were examined to determine the maximum stable slopes for soil cover/geomembrane systems. Several instances of instability of soil covers on geomembranes have occurred at tailings ponds, leaving exposed geomembranes with the potential for physical ddamage and possibly chemical and ultraviolet degradation. From an operator's viewpoint, it is desirable to maximize the slope of lined facilities in order to maximize the volume-to-area ratio; however, the likelihood for instability also increases with increasing slope. Frictional data obtained from direct shear tests are compared with stability data obtained using a nine-square-meter (m 2 ) engineering-scale test stand to verify that direct shear test data are valid in slope design calculations. Interfacial frictional data from direct shear tests using high-density polyethylene and a poorly graded sand cover agree within several degrees with the engineering-scale tests. Additional tests with other soils and geomembranes are planned. The instability of soil covers is not always an interfacial problem; soil erosion and limited drainage capacity are additional factors that must be considered in the design of covered slopes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2017-10-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  8. Uncertainty in Land Cover observations and its impact on near surface climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievski, Goran; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Land Cover (LC) and its bio-geo-physical feedbacks are important for the understanding of climate and its vulnerability to changes on the surface of the Earth. Recently ESA has published a new LC map derived by combining remotely sensed surface reflectance and ground-truth observations. For each grid-box at 300m resolution, an estimate of confidence is provided. This LC data set can be used in climate modelling to derive land surface boundary parameters for the respective Land Surface Model (LSM). However, the ESA LC classes are not directly suitable for LSMs, therefore they need to be converted into the model specific surface presentations. Due to different design and processes implemented in various climate models they might differ in the treatment of artificial, water bodies, ice, bare or vegetated surfaces. Nevertheless, usually vegetation distribution in models is presented by means of plant functional types (PFT), which is a classification system used to simplify vegetation representation and group different vegetation types according to their biophysical characteristics. The method of LC conversion into PFT is also called "cross-walking" (CW) procedure. The CW procedure is another source of uncertainty, since it depends on model design and processes implemented and resolved by LSMs. These two sources of uncertainty, (i) due to surface reflectance conversion into LC classes, (ii) due to CW procedure, have been studied by Hartley et al (2016) to investigate their impact on LSM state variables (albedo, evapotranspiration (ET) and primary productivity) by using three standalone LSMs. The present study is a follow up to that work and aims at quantifying the impact of these two uncertainties on climate simulations performed with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) using prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice. The main focus is on the terrestrial water cycle, but the impacts on surface albedo, wind patterns, 2m temperatures

  9. An evaluation of the effect of land use/cover change on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIS) to identified land use/cover types in Lokoja, including their temporal ... Lokoja may witness continuous increase in its radiant surface temperature as the cooling effect of vegetation cover is lost to impervious surfaces that litter the urban ...

  10. ATOMIC POSITIONS ON OXYGEN-COVERED CU(110) SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DORENBOS, G; BREEMAN, M; BOERMA, DO

    The reconstructed Cu(110)-p(2 x 1)O and Cu(110)-c(6 x 2)O surfaces were studied using low-energy ion scattering combined with time of flight. Azimuthal scans were measured with 6 keV Ar ions for recoiling O, scattered Ar and recoiling Cu atoms. Part of the scans were analysed using a newly developed

  11. The relationship of post-fire white ash cover to surface fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Nolan W. Brewer; Alistair M. S. Smith; Penelope Morgan

    2013-01-01

    White ash results from the complete combustion of surface fuels, making it a logically simple retrospective indicator of surface fuel consumption. However, the strength of this relationship has been neither tested nor adequately demonstrated with field measurements. We measured surface fuel loads and cover fractions of white ash and four other surface materials (green...

  12. The seasonal cycle of snow cover, sea ice and surface albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines satellite data used to construct mean snow cover caps for the Northern Hemisphere. The zonally averaged snow cover from these maps is used to calculate the seasonal cycle of zonally averaged surface albedo. The effects of meltwater on the surface, solar zenith angle, and cloudiness are parameterized and included in the calculations of snow and ice albedo. The data allows a calculation of surface albedo for any land or ocean 10 deg latitude band as a function of surface temperature ice and snow cover; the correct determination of the ice boundary is more important than the snow boundary for accurately simulating the ice and snow albedo feedback.

  13. CLPX-Satellite: EO-1 Hyperion Surface Reflectance, Snow-Covered Area, and Grain Size

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of apparent surface reflectance, subpixel snow-covered area and grain size collected from the Hyperion hyperspectral imager. The Hyperion...

  14. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  15. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles...... and the incidence angle modifier were measured for a flat-plate solar collector with the two cover plates. The collector efficiency was increased by 4–6%-points due to the antireflection surfaces, depending on the incidence angle. The thermal advantage with using a glass cover with antireflection surfaces...... was determined for different solar heating systems. Three systems were investigated: solar domestic hot water systems, solar heating systems for combined space heating demand and domestic hot water supply, and large solar heating plants. The yearly thermal performance of the systems was calculated by detailed...

  16. Effects of shrub and tree cover increase on the near-surface atmosphere in northern Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydsaa, Johanne H.; Stordal, Frode; Bryn, Anders; Tallaksen, Lena M.

    2017-09-01

    Increased shrub and tree cover in high latitudes is a widely observed response to climate change that can lead to positive feedbacks to the regional climate. In this study we evaluate the sensitivity of the near-surface atmosphere to a potential increase in shrub and tree cover in the northern Fennoscandia region. We have applied the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-UA land surface module in evaluating biophysical effects of increased shrub cover on the near-surface atmosphere at a fine resolution (5.4 km × 5.4 km). Perturbation experiments are performed in which we prescribe a gradual increase in taller vegetation in the alpine shrub and tree cover according to empirically established bioclimatic zones within the study region. We focus on the spring and summer atmospheric response. To evaluate the sensitivity of the atmospheric response to inter-annual variability in climate, simulations were conducted for two contrasting years, one warm and one cold. We find that shrub and tree cover increase leads to a general increase in near-surface temperatures, with the highest influence seen during the snowmelt season and a more moderate effect during summer. We find that the warming effect is stronger in taller vegetation types, with more complex canopies leading to decreases in the surface albedo. Counteracting effects include increased evapotranspiration, which can lead to increased cloud cover, precipitation, and snow cover. We find that the strength of the atmospheric feedback is sensitive to snow cover variations and to a lesser extent to summer temperatures. Our results show that the positive feedback to high-latitude warming induced by increased shrub and tree cover is a robust feature across inter-annual differences in meteorological conditions and will likely play an important role in land-atmosphere feedback processes in the future.

  17. Surface covering of downed logs: drivers of a neglected process in dead wood ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Dynesius

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many species use coarse woody debris (CWD and are disadvantaged by the forestry-induced loss of this resource. A neglected process affecting CWD is the covering of the surfaces of downed logs caused by sinking into the ground (increasing soil contact, mostly covering the underside of the log, and dense overgrowth by ground vegetation. Such cover is likely to profoundly influence the quality and accessibility of CWD for wood-inhabiting organisms, but the factors affecting covering are largely unknown. In a five-year experiment we determined predictors of covering rate of fresh logs in boreal forests and clear-cuts. Logs with branches were little covered because they had low longitudinal ground contact. For branchless logs, longitudinal ground contact was most strongly related to estimated peat depth (positive relation. The strongest predictor for total cover of branchless logs was longitudinal ground contact. To evaluate the effect on cover of factors other than longitudinal ground contact, we separately analyzed data from only those log sections that were in contact with the ground. Four factors were prominent predictors of percentage cover of such log sections: estimated peat depth, canopy shade (both increasing cover, potential solar radiation calculated from slope and slope aspect, and diameter of the log (both reducing cover. Peat increased cover directly through its low resistance, which allowed logs to sink and soil contact to increase. High moisture and low temperatures in pole-ward facing slopes and under a canopy favor peat formation through lowered decomposition and enhanced growth of peat-forming mosses, which also proved to rapidly overgrow logs. We found that in some boreal forests, peat and fast-growing mosses can rapidly cover logs lying on the ground. When actively introducing CWD for conservation purposes, we recommend that such rapid covering is avoided, thereby most likely improving the CWD's longevity as habitat for many

  18. Spectroscopic ellipsometric investigation of clean and oxygen covered copper single crystal surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanekamp, L.J.; Lisowski, W.F.; Bootsma, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements (400–820 nm) have been performed on clean and oxygen covered Cu(110) and Cu(111) surfaces in an AES-LEED UHV system. The complex dielectric functions of the clean surfaces were calculated from measurements between room temperature and 600 K. In contrast with

  19. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations, and form a continuous barrier over the entire surface area of the liquid. (2) The cover shall be... closure device in the closed position, as applicable. (ii) To remove accumulated sludge or other residues from the bottom of surface impoundment. (2) Opening of a spring-loaded pressure-vacuum relief valve...

  20. Impacts of land cover transitions on surface temperature in China based on satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhen; Liang, Shunlin

    2018-02-01

    China has experienced intense land use and land cover changes during the past several decades, which have exerted significant influences on climate change. Previous studies exploring related climatic effects have focused mainly on one or two specific land use changes, or have considered all land use and land cover change types together without distinguishing their individual impacts, and few have examined the physical processes of the mechanism through which land use changes affect surface temperature. However, in this study, we considered satellite-derived data of multiple land cover changes and transitions in China. The objective was to obtain observational evidence of the climatic effects of land cover transitions in China by exploring how they affect surface temperature and to what degree they influence it through the modification of biophysical processes, with an emphasis on changes in surface albedo and evapotranspiration (ET). To achieve this goal, we quantified the changes in albedo, ET, and surface temperature in the transition areas, examined their correlations with temperature change, and calculated the contributions of different land use transitions to surface temperature change via changes in albedo and ET. Results suggested that land cover transitions from cropland to urban land increased land surface temperature (LST) during both daytime and nighttime by 0.18 and 0.01 K, respectively. Conversely, the transition of forest to cropland tended to decrease surface temperature by 0.53 K during the day and by 0.07 K at night, mainly through changes in surface albedo. Decreases in both daytime and nighttime LST were observed over regions of grassland to forest transition, corresponding to average values of 0.44 and 0.20 K, respectively, predominantly controlled by changes in ET. These results highlight the necessity to consider the individual climatic effects of different land cover transitions or conversions in climate research studies. This short

  1. Surface erosion at disturbed alpine sites: effects of vegetation cover and plant diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Pohl, M.; Alewell, C.; Körner, C.; Buttler, A.; Rixen, C.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between plant diversity and soil stability in disturbed alpine terrain is poorly studied. In this paper, we investigated the influence of plant cover and diversity on water run-off and sediment yield on ski slopes. Rainfall simulations were conducted on a micro-scale (25 x 25 cm) to be able to replicate plots with different degrees of vegetation cover. We selected plots with 10%, 30% and 60% of vegetation cover containing different combinations of plant diversities: (i) grass, (ii) herb, (iii) moss/ lichen, and all combinations of these plant groups. Each combination was replicated five times with an applied rain intensity of 375 ml min-1 for about 5 minutes. As could be expected, percent vegetation cover had a large effect on surface erosion: sediment yield decreased with increasing vegetation cover. However, within the plots with 60% cover, sediment yield was lower at higher plant diversity and functional group diversity. The findings of this study support the view that beside the re-establishment of a closed vegetation cover, plant diversity is a relevant factor to reduce surface erosion at disturbed sites in alpine ecosystems.

  2. Electromagnetic Scattering from Rough Sea Surface with PM Spectrum Covered by an Organic Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui; Guo Li-Xin; Wang An-Qi; Wu Zhen-Sen

    2011-01-01

    The rough sea surface covered by an organic film will cause attenuation of capillarity waves, which implies that the organic films play an important role in rough sea surface processes. We focus on a one-dimensional (1D) rough sea surface with the Pierson—Moskowitz (PM) spectrum distributed to the homogeneous insoluble organic slicks. First, the impact of the organic film on the PM surface spectrum is presented, as well as that of the correlation length, the rms height and slope of the rough sea surface. The damping effect of the organic film changes the physical parameters of the rough sea surface. For example, the organic film will reduce the rms height and slopee of the rough sea surface, which results in the attenuation of the high-frequency components of the PM spectrum leading to modification of the surface PM spectrum. Then, the influence of the organic film on the electromagnetic (EM) scattering coefficients from PM rough sea surface covered by the organic film is investigated and discussed in detail, compared with the clean PM rough sea surface through the method of moments. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  3. GLOBAL CHANGES IN THE SEA ICE COVER AND ASSOCIATED SURFACE TEMPERATURE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Comiso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The trends in the sea ice cover in the two hemispheres have been observed to be asymmetric with the rate of change in the Arctic being negative at −3.8 % per decade while that of the Antarctic is positive at 1.7 % per decade. These observations are confirmed in this study through analyses of a more robust data set that has been enhanced for better consistency and updated for improved statistics. With reports of anthropogenic global warming such phenomenon appears physically counter intuitive but trend studies of surface temperature over the same time period show the occurrence of a similar asymmetry. Satellite surface temperature data show that while global warming is strong and dominant in the Arctic, it is relatively minor in the Antarctic with the trends in sea ice covered areas and surrounding ice free regions observed to be even negative. A strong correlation of ice extent with surface temperature is observed, especially during the growth season, and the observed trends in the sea ice cover are coherent with the trends in surface temperature. The trend of global averages of the ice cover is negative but modest and is consistent and compatible with the positive but modest trend in global surface temperature. A continuation of the trend would mean the disappearance of summer ice by the end of the century but modelling projections indicate that the summer ice could be salvaged if anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are kept constant at the current level.

  4. Linkages between Snow Cover Seasonality, Terrain, and Land Surface Phenology in the Highland Pastures of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henebry, Geoffrey; Tomaszewska, Monika; Kelgenbaeva, Kamilya

    2017-04-01

    In the highlands of Kyrgyzstan, vertical transhumance is the foundation of montane agropastoralism. Terrain attributes, such as elevation, slope, and aspect, affect snow cover seasonality, which is a key influence on the timing of plant growth and forage availability. Our study areas include the highland pastures in Central Tien Shan mountains, specifically in the rayons of Naryn and At-Bashy in Naryn oblast, and Alay and Chong-Alay rayons in Osh oblast. To explore the linkages between snow cover seasonality and land surface phenology as modulated by terrain and variations in thermal time, we use 16 years (2001-2016) of Landsat surface reflectance data at 30 m resolution with MODIS land surface temperature and snow cover products at 1 km and 500 m resolution, respectively, and two digital elevation models, SRTM and ASTER GDEM. We model snow cover seasonality using frost degree-days and land surface phenology using growing degree-days as quadratic functions of thermal time: a convex quadratic (CxQ) model for land surface phenology and a concave quadratic (CvQ) model for snow cover seasonality. From the fitted parameter coefficients, we calculated phenometrics, including "peak height" and "thermal time to peak" for the CxQ models and "trough depth" and "thermal time to trough" for the CvQ models. We explore how these phenometrics change as a function of elevation and slope-aspect interactions and due to interannual variability. Further, we examine how snow cover duration and timing affects the subsequent peak height and thermal time to peak in wetter, drier, and normal years.

  5. Surface treatment systems for concrete in marine environment: Effect of concrete cover thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Farias de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract There are some ways to extend the service life of a reinforced concrete structure. This paper focuses on the extension of the service life by treating the surface of reinforced concrete, specifically on the effect of the concrete cover thickness on the surface treatment system efficacy. Thus, chloride migration tests were performed and diffusion chloride coefficients were calculated. The service life of each case (treated or non-treated concrete was estimated using these data and Fick's second law of diffusion. Results indicated that the thicker the concrete cover is, the greater the efficacy of the concrete surface treatment system will be. The dissemination of this information is important, since it is almost intuitive to think that the effect of a surface treatment system depends only on itself and this study shows the opposite.

  6. Land management and land-cover change have impacts of similar magnitude on surface temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Jammet, M.; Stoy, P.C.; Estel, S.; Pongratz, J.; Ceschia, E.; Churkina, G.; Don, A.; Erb, K.; Ferlicoq, M.; Gielen, B.; Gruenwald, T.; Houghton, R.A.; Klumpp, K.; Knohl, A.; Kolb, T.; Kuemmerle, T.; Laurila, T.; Lohila, A.; Loustau, D.; McGrath, M.J.; Meyfroidt, P.; Moors, E.J.; Naudts, K.; Novick, K.; Otto, J.; Pilegaard, K.; Pio, C.A.; Rambal, S.; Rebmann, C.; Ryder, J.; Suyker, A.E.; Varlagin, A.; Wattenbach, M.; Dolman, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes to land cover (LCC) remain common, but continuing land scarcity promotes the widespread intensification of land management changes (LMC) to better satisfy societal demand for food, fibre, fuel and shelter. The biophysical effects of LCC on surface climate are largely

  7. Surface energy balance of seasonal snow cover for snow-melt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study describes time series analysis of snow-melt, radiation data and energy balance for a seasonal snow cover at Dhundi field station of SASE, which lies in Pir Panjal range of the. N–W Himalaya, for a winter season from 13 January to 12 April 2005. The analysis shows that mean snow surface temperature remains ...

  8. An evaluation of the effect of land use/cover change on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    land use/cover types in Lokoja, including their temporal transformation and association with surface temperatures from the LandSat TM ... Globally, human induced environmental transformation and its attending impacts are mostly .... The following methods were adopted: i) Digital Number (DN) conversion to radiance: ii.

  9. Land management and land-cover change have impacts of similar magnitude on surface temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Jammet, Mathilde; Stoy, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes to land cover (LCC) remain common, but continuing land scarcity promotes the widespread intensification of land management changes (LMC) to better satisfy societal demand for food, fibre, fuel and shelter1. The biophysical effects of LCC on surface climate are largely...

  10. Microwave retrievals of terrestrial precipitation over snow-covered surfaces: A lesson from the GPM satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebtehaj, A. M.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2017-06-01

    Satellites are playing an ever-increasing role in estimating precipitation over remote areas. Improving satellite retrievals of precipitation requires increased understanding of its passive microwave signatures over different land surfaces. Snow-covered surfaces are notoriously difficult to interpret because they exhibit both emission from the land below and scattering from the ice crystals. Using data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite, we demonstrate that microwave brightness temperatures of rain and snowfall transition from a scattering to an emission regime from summer to winter, due to expansion of less emissive snow cover. Evidence suggests that the combination of low- (10-19 GHz) and high-frequency (89-166 GHz) channels provides the maximum amount of information for snowfall detection. The results demonstrate that, using a multifrequency matching method, the probability of snowfall detection can even be higher than rainfall—chiefly because of the information content of the low-frequency channels that respond to the (near) surface temperature.

  11. The role of surface energy fluxes in pan-Arctic snow cover changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaogang; Lettenmaier, Dennis P; Groisman, Pavel Ya; Dery, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    We analyze snow cover extent (SCE) trends in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) northern hemisphere weekly satellite SCE data using the Mann-Kendall trend test and find that North American and Eurasian snow cover in the pan-Arctic have declined significantly in spring and summer over the period of satellite record beginning in the early 1970s. These trends are reproduced, both in trend direction and statistical significance, in reconstructions using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrological model. We find that spring and summer surface radiative and turbulent fluxes generated in VIC have strong correlations with satellite observations of SCE. We identify the role of surface energy fluxes and determine which is most responsible for the observed spring and summer SCE recession. We find that positive trends in surface net radiation (SNR) accompany most of the SCE trends, whereas modeled latent heat (LH) and sensible heat (SH) trends associated with warming on SCE mostly cancel each other, except for North America in spring, and to a lesser extent for Eurasia in summer. In spring over North America and summer in Eurasia, the SH contribution to the observed snow cover trends is substantial. The results indicate that ΔSNR is the primary energy source and ΔSH plays a secondary role in changes of SCE. Compared with ΔSNR and ΔSH, ΔLH has a minor influence on pan-Arctic snow cover changes.

  12. Modeling surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics of a seasonally ice-covered hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Strachan, Ian B; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-04-15

    The thermal dynamics of human created northern reservoirs (e.g., water temperatures and ice cover dynamics) influence carbon processing and air-water gas exchange. Here, we developed a process-based one-dimensional model (Snow, Ice, WAater, and Sediment: SIWAS) to simulate a full year's surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for a moderately large (>500km(2)) boreal hydroelectric reservoir in northern Quebec, Canada. There is a lack of climate and weather data for most of the Canadian boreal so we designed SIWAS with a minimum of inputs and with a daily time step. The modeled surface energy fluxes were consistent with six years of observations from eddy covariance measurements taken in the middle of the reservoir. The simulated water temperature profiles agreed well with observations from over 100 sites across the reservoir. The model successfully captured the observed annual trend of ice cover timing, although the model overestimated the length of ice cover period (15days). Sensitivity analysis revealed that air temperature significantly affects the ice cover duration, water and sediment temperatures, but that dissolved organic carbon concentrations have little effect on the heat fluxes, and water and sediment temperatures. We conclude that the SIWAS model is capable of simulating surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for boreal reservoirs in regions where high temporal resolution climate data are not available. SIWAS is suitable for integration into biogeochemical models for simulating a reservoir's carbon cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Albedo, Land Cover, and Daytime Surface Temperature Variation Across an Urbanized Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trlica, A.; Hutyra, L. R.; Schaaf, C. L.; Erb, A.; Wang, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    Land surface albedo is a key parameter controlling the local energy budget, and altering the albedo of built surfaces has been proposed as a tool to mitigate high near-surface temperatures in the urban heat island. However, most research on albedo in urban landscapes has used coarse-resolution data, and few studies have attempted to relate albedo to other urban land cover characteristics. This study provides an empirical description of urban summertime albedo using 30 m remote sensing measurements in the metropolitan area around Boston, Massachusetts, relating albedo to metrics of impervious cover fraction, tree canopy coverage, population density, and land surface temperature (LST). At 30 m spatial resolution, median albedo over the study area (excluding open water) was 0.152 (0.112-0.187). Trends of lower albedo with increasing urbanization metrics and temperature emerged only after aggregating data to 500 m or the boundaries of individual towns, at which scale a -0.01 change in albedo was associated with a 29 (25-35)% decrease in canopy cover, a 27 (24-30)% increase in impervious cover, and an increase in population from 11 to 386 km-2. The most intensively urbanized towns in the region showed albedo up to 0.035 lower than the least urbanized towns, and mean mid-morning LST 12.6°C higher. Trends in albedo derived from 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements were comparable, but indicated a strong contribution of open water at this coarser resolution. These results reveal linkages between albedo and urban land cover character, and offer empirical context for climate resilient planning and future landscape functional changes with urbanization.

  14. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    In permafrost areas the seasonal snow cover is an important factor on the ground thermal regime. Snow depth and timing are important in ground insulation from the atmosphere, creating different snow patterns and resulting in spatially variable ground temperatures. The aim of this work is to characterize the interactions between ground thermal regimes and snow cover and the influence on permafrost spatial distribution. The study area is the ice-free terrains of northwestern Hurd Peninsula in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station "Juan Carlos I" and Bulgarian Antarctic Station "St. Kliment Ohridski". Air and ground temperatures and snow thickness data where analysed from 4 sites along an altitudinal transect in Hurd Peninsula from 2007 to 2012: Nuevo Incinerador (25 m asl), Collado Ramos (110 m), Ohridski (140 m) and Reina Sofia Peak (275 m). The data covers 6 cold seasons showing different conditions: i) very cold with thin snow cover; ii) cold with a gradual increase of snow cover; iii) warm with thick snow cover. The data shows three types of periods regarding the ground surface thermal regime and the thickness of snow cover: a) thin snow cover and short-term fluctuation of ground temperatures; b) thick snow cover and stable ground temperatures; c) very thick snow cover and ground temperatures nearly constant at 0°C. a) Thin snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show frequent temperature variations, alternating between short-term fluctuations and stable ground temperatures. Nuevo Incinerador displays during most of the winter stable ground temperatures; b) Cold winters with a gradual increase of the snow cover: Nuevo Incinerador, Collado Ramos and Ohridski sites show similar behavior, with a long period of stable ground temperatures; c) Thick snow cover periods: Collado Ramos and Ohridski show long periods of stable ground, while Nuevo Incinerador shows temperatures close to 0°C since the beginning of the winter, due to early snow cover

  15. Progress Report On Techniques Deriving Land Cover And Earth Surface Deformation Information From Polarimetric SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, E.; Chen, E.; Li, Z.; Hong, W.; Xiang, M.; Cloude, S. R.; Papathanassiou, K.; Cao, F.; Zhang, H.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we provide an up-date of activities carried out under the DRAGON collaborative program in a project concerned with the application of Pol-InSAR to deriving land cover and Earth Surface deformation information. This project (ID. 5344) is based around four main scientific topics: Land Cover Analysis, Earth Surface Deformation Monitoring and DEM Extraction, Forest V ertical Structure Parameters Extraction and PolSARpro Software Development. We propose a brief summary of the project objectives and progress to date of each Work Packages, concentrating on different recent developments, original results and important highlights that have been presented during the Dragon2 Mid-Term Results Symposium, that was held on 17-21 May 2010, in Yangshuo, Guilin, P.R. China

  16. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    OpenAIRE

    Labuzova Olga; Noskova Tatyana; Lysenko Maria; Ovcharenko Elena; Papina Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period...

  17. Survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neskovic, N.; Ciric, D.; Perovic, B.

    1982-01-01

    The survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces is considered. The model is based on the momentum approximation. The projectiles are K + ions and the target is the (001)Ni+K surface. The incident energy is 100 eV and the incident angle 5 0 . The interaction potential of the projectile and the target consists of the Born-Mayer, the dipole and the image charge potentials. The transition probability function corresponds to the resonant electron transition to the 4s projectile energy level. (orig.)

  18. Attribution of surface temperature anomalies induced by land use and land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigden, Angela J.; Li, Dan

    2017-07-01

    Land use/land cover changes (LULCC) directly impact the surface temperature by modifying the radiative, physiological, and aerodynamic properties controlling the surface energy and water balances. In this study, we propose a new method to attribute changes in the surface temperature induced by LULCC to changes in radiative and turbulent heat fluxes, with the partition of turbulent fluxes controlled by aerodynamic and surface resistances. We demonstrate that previous attribution studies have overestimated the contribution of aerodynamic resistance by assuming independence between the aerodynamic resistance and the Bowen ratio. Our results further demonstrate that acceptable agreement between modeled and observed temperature anomalies does not guarantee correct attribution by the model. When performing an attribution analysis, the covariance among attributing variables needs to be taken into consideration in order to accurately interpret the results.

  19. A prototype for automation of land-cover products from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Steinwand, D.; Nelson, K.; Coan, M.; Wylie, B. K.; Dahal, D.; Wika, S.; Quenzer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat data records of surface reflectance provide a three-decade history of land surface processes. Due to the vast number of these archived records, development of innovative approaches for automated data mining and information retrieval were necessary. Recently, we created a prototype utilizing open source software libraries for automatically generating annual Anderson Level 1 land cover maps and information products from data acquired by the Landsat Mission for the years 1984 to 2013. The automated prototype was applied to two target areas in northwestern and east-central North Dakota, USA. The approach required the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and two user-input target acquisition year-days. The Landsat archive was mined for scenes acquired within a 100-day window surrounding these target dates, and then cloud-free pixels where chosen closest to the specified target acquisition dates. The selected pixels were then composited before completing an unsupervised classification using the NLCD. Pixels unchanged in pairs of the NLCD were used for training decision tree models in an iterative process refined with model confidence measures. The decision tree models were applied to the Landsat composites to generate a yearly land cover map and related information products. Results for the target areas captured changes associated with the recent expansion of oil shale production and agriculture driven by economics and policy, such as the increase in biofuel production and reduction in Conservation Reserve Program. Changes in agriculture, grasslands, and surface water reflect the local hydrological conditions that occurred during the 29-year span. Future enhancements considered for this prototype include a web-based client, ancillary spatial datasets, trends and clustering algorithms, and the forecasting of future land cover.

  20. Possibility of oil film detection on the ice cover of the sea surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, I.M.; Radomyslskaya, T.M.; Osadchy, V.J.; Rybalka, N.N.; Klementieva, N.Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Ice cover in the Arctic regions makes the application of traditional remote methods of environmental monitoring difficult, and can also prevent the use of probes or other measurement tools. This paper presented a method of detecting oil pollution on ice-covered sea surfaces. The method was able to detect oil films on the lower ice-water boundary from above and below under both natural and artificial illumination. Pollution was detected when the sensor signal, the apparent contrast of oil-ice, and signal-noise ratio exceeded corresponding threshold values. A standard TV system at a low altitude was used to detect oil pollution on pure crystalline ice with a snow cover from 0.6 to 0.8 meters to several meters thick. At higher altitudes, the contrast in oil and water decreased due to the presence of atmospheric haze. Underwater pulsed-laser imaging systems were used to detect oil pollution when ice was covered by with soot, dust, aquatic plants, and phytoplankton pigments. It was concluded that both methods can be used to detect oil on the water-ice boundary. 10 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  1. ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LAND COVER TYPES ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şekertekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  2. Evaluating the effects of historical land cover change on summertime weather and climate in New Jersey: Land cover and surface energy budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichansky, P.S.; Steyaert, L.T.; Walko, R.L.; Waever, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    The 19th-century agrarian landscape of New Jersey (NJ) and the surrounding region has been extensively transformed to the present-day land cover by urbanization, reforestation, and localized areas of deforestation. This study used a mesoscale atmospheric numerical model to investigate the sensitivity of the warm season climate of NJ to these land cover changes. Reconstructed 1880s-era and present-day land cover data sets were used as surface boundary conditions for a set of simulations performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Three-member ensembles with historical and present-day land cover were compared to examine the sensitivity of surface air and dew point temperatures, rainfall, and the individual components of the surface energy budget to these land cover changes. Mean temperatures for the present-day landscape were 0.3-0.6??C warmer than for the historical landscape over a considerable portion of NJ and the surrounding region, with daily maximum temperatures at least 1.0??C warmer over some of the highly urbanized locations. Reforested regions, however, were slightly cooler. Dew point temperatures decreased by 0.3-0.6??C, suggesting drier, less humid near-surface air for the present-day landscape. Surface warming was generally associated with repartitioning of net radiation from latent to sensible heat flux, and conversely for cooling. While urbanization was accompanied by strong surface albedo decreases and increases in net shortwave radiation, reforestation and potential changes in forest composition have generally increased albedos and also enhanced landscape heterogeneity. The increased deciduousness of forests may have further reduced net downward longwave radiation. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Effect of surface BRDF of various land cover types on geostationary observations of tropospheric NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, V.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Irie, H.; Kita, K.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effect of surface reflectance anisotropy, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), on satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2. We assume the geometry of geostationary measurements over Tokyo, which is one of the worst air-polluted regions in East Asia. We calculated air mass factors (AMF) and box AMFs (BAMF) for tropospheric NO2 to evaluate the effect of BRDF by using the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. To model the BRDF effect, we utilized the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products (MOD43B1 and MOD43B2), which provide three coefficients to express the RossThick-LiSparse reciprocal model, a semi-empirical and kernel-based model of BRDF. Because BRDF depends on the land cover type, we also utilized the High Resolution Land-Use and Land-Cover Map of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2), which classifies the ground pixels over Tokyo into six main types: water, urban, paddy, crop, deciduous forest, and evergreen forest. We first develop an empirical model of the three BRDF coefficients for each land cover type over Tokyo and then apply the model to the calculation of land-cover-type-dependent AMFs and BAMFs. Results show that the variability of AMF among the land types is up to several tens of percent, and if we neglect the reflectance anisotropy, the difference with AMFs based on BRDF reaches 10% or more. The evaluation of the BAMFs calculated shows that not considering BRDF will cause large errors if the concentration of NO2 is high close to the surface, although the importance of BRDF for AMFs decreases for large aerosol optical depth (AOD).

  4. Impacts of land use and land cover on surface and air temperature in urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, S.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating urbanization affects regional climate as the result of changing land cover and land use (LCLU). Urban land cover composition may provide valuable insight into relationships among urbanization, air, and land-surface temperature (Ta and LST, respectively). Climate may alter these relationships, where hotter climates experience larger LULC effects. To address these hypotheses we examined links between Ta, LST, LCLU, and vegetation across an urban coastal to desert climate gradient in southern California, USA. Using surface temperature radiometers, continuously measuring LST on standardized asphalt, concrete, and turf grass surfaces across the climate gradient, we found a 7.2°C and 4.6°C temperature decrease from asphalt to vegetated cover in the coast and desert, respectively. There is 131% more temporal variation in asphalt than turf grass surfaces, but 37% less temporal variation in concrete than turf grass. For concrete and turf grass surfaces, temporal variation in temperature increased from coast to desert. Using ground-based thermal imagery, measuring LST for 24 h sequences over citrus orchard and industrial use locations, we found a 14.5°C temperature decrease from industrial to orchard land use types (38.4°C and 23.9°C, respectively). Additionally, industrial land use types have 209% more spatial variation than orchard (CV=0.20 and 0.09, respectively). Using a network of 300 Ta (iButton) sensors mounted in city street trees throughout the region and hyperspectral imagery data we found urban vegetation greenness, measured using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), was negatively correlated to Ta at night across the climate gradient. Contrasting previous findings, the closest coupling between NDVI and Ta is at the coast from 0000 h to 0800 h (highest r2 = 0.6, P urbanized regions of southern California, USA decrease Ta and LST and spatial variation in LST, while built surfaces and land uses have the opposite effect. Furthermore

  5. Polarimetric Signatures from a Crop Covered Land Surface Measured by an L-band Polarimetric Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Skou, Niels

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary results from field measurements of polarimetric azimuth signatures with the EMIRAD L-band polarimetric radiometer, performed over a land test site at the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in Avignon, France. Scans of 180 degrees in azimuth were carried...... out in order to identify an eventual dependence of the Stokes vector on the look-direction. Results indicate a clear signature, for bare soil as well as for the crop-covered surface, and variations of more than 10 K are observed....

  6. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labuzova Olga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period can be more than 300000 thousand rubles.

  7. Adsorption, polymerization and decomposition of acetaldehyde on clean and carbon-covered Rh(111) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Imre; Farkas, Arnold Péter; Szitás, Ádám; Kónya, Zoltán; Kiss, János

    2017-10-01

    The adsorption and dissociation of acetaldehyde were investigated on clean and carbon-covered Rh(111) single crystal surfaces by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and work function (Δφ) measurements. Acetaldehyde is a starting material for the catalytic production of many important chemicals and investigation of its reactions motivated by environmental purposes too. The adsorption of acetaldehyde on clean Rh(111) surface produced various types of adsorption forms. η1-(O)-CH3CHOa and η2-(O,C)-CH3CHOa are developing and characterized by HREELS. η1-CH3CHOa partly desorbed at Tp = 150 K, another part of these species are incorporated in trimer and linear 2D polimer species. The desorption of trimers (at amu 132) were observed in TPD with a peak maximum at Tp = 225 K. Above this temperature acetaldehyde either desorbed or bonded as a stable surface intermediate (η2-CH3CHOa) on the rhodium surface. The molecules decomposed to adsorbed products, and only hydrogen and carbon monoxide were analyzed in TPD. Surface carbon decreased the uptake of adsorbed acetaldehyde, inhibited the formation of polymers, nevertheless, it induced the Csbnd O bond scission and CO formation with 40-50 K lower temperature after higher acetaldehyde exposure.

  8. Critical capture distances for highly charged ions above dielectric covered metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, R.E., E-mail: russell.lake@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Pomeroy, J.M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Sosolik, C.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We model the first stage of the electronic interaction between an ion and a metal surface covered with a thin dielectric layer. Specifically, we seek to answer two questions. (i) As an ion approaches the surface from far away, does the first electron that it captures originate from the exposed dielectric layer or the metal underneath it? (ii) What is the ion's distance from the metal when the first electron is captured? To answer these questions, the classical potential that an electron is subject to during the interaction is calculated. The dielectric film is treated as a continuum with simple band structure. We input the parameters from recent experiments (Co with 1.5 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film) and found that (i) the first capture proceeds from the metal, and (ii) the dielectric film extends the distance threshold for first capture compared to a metal with no film.

  9. Impact of land cover and population density on land surface temperature: case study in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Tan, Yongbin; Ying, Shen; Yu, Zhonghai; Li, Zhen; Lan, Honghao

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization, the standard of living has improved, but changes to the city thermal environment have become more serious. Population urbanization is a driving force of residential expansion, which predominantly influences the land surface temperature (LST). We obtained the land covers and LST maps of Wuhan from Landsat-5 images in 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2009, and discussed the distribution of land use/cover change and LST variation, and we analyzed the correlation between population distribution and LST values in residential regions. The results indicated massive variation of land cover types, which was shown as a reduction in cultivatable land and the expansion of building regions. High-LST regions concentrated on the residential and industrial areas with low vegetation coverage. In the residential region, the population density (PD) had effects on the LST values. Although the area or variation of residential regions was close, lower PD was associated with lower mean LST or LST variation. Thus, decreasing the high-LST regions concentration by reducing the PD may alleviate the urban heat island effect on the residential area. Taken together, these results can provide supports for urban planning projects and studies on city ecological environments.

  10. Analysis of the Intra-City Variation of Urban Heat Island and its Relation to Land Surface/cover Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerçek, D.; Güven, İ. T.; Oktay, İ. Ç.

    2016-06-01

    Along with urbanization, sealing of vegetated land and evaporation surfaces by impermeable materials, lead to changes in urban climate. This phenomenon is observed as temperatures several degrees higher in densely urbanized areas compared to the rural land at the urban fringe particularly at nights, so-called Urban Heat Island. Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is related with urban form, pattern and building materials so far as it is associated with meteorological conditions, air pollution, excess heat from cooling. UHI effect has negative influences on human health, as well as other environmental problems such as higher energy demand, air pollution, and water shortage. Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has long been studied by observations of air temperature from thermometers. However, with the advent and proliferation of remote sensing technology, synoptic coverage and better representations of spatial variation of surface temperature became possible. This has opened new avenues for the observation capabilities and research of UHIs. In this study, "UHI effect and its relation to factors that cause it" is explored for İzmit city which has been subject to excess urbanization and industrialization during the past decades. Spatial distribution and variation of UHI effect in İzmit is analysed using Landsat 8 and ASTER day & night images of 2015 summer. Surface temperature data derived from thermal bands of the images were analysed for UHI effect. Higher temperatures were classified into 4 grades of UHIs and mapped both for day and night. Inadequate urban form, pattern, density, high buildings and paved surfaces at the expanse of soil ground and vegetation cover are the main factors that cause microclimates giving rise to spatial variations in temperatures across cities. These factors quantified as land surface/cover parameters for the study include vegetation index (NDVI), imperviousness (NDISI), albedo, solar insolation, Sky View Factor (SVF), building envelope

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE INTRA-CITY VARIATION OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND AND ITS RELATION TO LAND SURFACE/COVER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gerçek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with urbanization, sealing of vegetated land and evaporation surfaces by impermeable materials, lead to changes in urban climate. This phenomenon is observed as temperatures several degrees higher in densely urbanized areas compared to the rural land at the urban fringe particularly at nights, so-called Urban Heat Island. Urban Heat Island (UHI effect is related with urban form, pattern and building materials so far as it is associated with meteorological conditions, air pollution, excess heat from cooling. UHI effect has negative influences on human health, as well as other environmental problems such as higher energy demand, air pollution, and water shortage. Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has long been studied by observations of air temperature from thermometers. However, with the advent and proliferation of remote sensing technology, synoptic coverage and better representations of spatial variation of surface temperature became possible. This has opened new avenues for the observation capabilities and research of UHIs. In this study, "UHI effect and its relation to factors that cause it" is explored for İzmit city which has been subject to excess urbanization and industrialization during the past decades. Spatial distribution and variation of UHI effect in İzmit is analysed using Landsat 8 and ASTER day & night images of 2015 summer. Surface temperature data derived from thermal bands of the images were analysed for UHI effect. Higher temperatures were classified into 4 grades of UHIs and mapped both for day and night. Inadequate urban form, pattern, density, high buildings and paved surfaces at the expanse of soil ground and vegetation cover are the main factors that cause microclimates giving rise to spatial variations in temperatures across cities. These factors quantified as land surface/cover parameters for the study include vegetation index (NDVI, imperviousness (NDISI, albedo, solar insolation, Sky View Factor (SVF, building

  12. Improved identification of clouds and ice/snow covered surfaces in SCIAMACHY observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Krijger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the ultra-violet, visible and near infra-red wavelength range the presence of clouds can strongly affect the satellite-based passive remote sensing observation of constituents in the troposphere, because clouds effectively shield the lower part of the atmosphere. Therefore, cloud detection algorithms are of crucial importance in satellite remote sensing. However, the detection of clouds over snow/ice surfaces is particularly difficult in the visible wavelengths as both clouds an snow/ice are both white and highly reflective. The SCIAMACHY Polarisation Measurement Devices (PMD Identification of Clouds and Ice/snow method (SPICI uses the SCIAMACHY measurements in the wavelength range between 450 nm and 1.6 μm to make a distinction between clouds and ice/snow covered surfaces, specifically developed to identify cloud-free SCIAMACHY observations. For this purpose the on-board SCIAMACHY PMDs are used because they provide higher spatial resolution compared to the main spectrometer measurements. In this paper we expand on the original SPICI algorithm (Krijger et al., 2005a to also adequately detect clouds over snow-covered forests which is inherently difficult because of the similar spectral characteristics. Furthermore the SCIAMACHY measurements suffer from degradation with time. This must be corrected for adequate performance of SPICI over the full SCIAMACHY time range. Such a correction is described here. Finally the performance of the new SPICI algorithm is compared with various other datasets, such as from FRESCO, MICROS and AATSR, focusing on the algorithm improvements.

  13. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-07

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  14. Surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in ice-free and ice-covered waters

    KAUST Repository

    Solberg, Ingrid

    2013-10-04

    Upward-facing echosounders that provided continuous, long-term measurements were applied to address the surfacing behavior and gas release of the physostome sprat (Sprattus sprattus) throughout an entire winter in a 150-m-deep Norwegian fjord. During ice-free conditions, the sprat surfaced and released gas bubbles at night with an estimated surfacing rate of 3.5 times per fish day-1. The vertical swimming speeds during surfacing were considerably higher (~10 times) than during diel vertical migrations, especially when returning from the surface, and particularly when the fjord was not ice covered. The sprat released gas a few hours after surfacing, suggesting that the sprat gulped atmospheric air during its excursions to the surface. While the surface activity increased after the fjord became ice covered, the records of gas release decreased sharply. The under-ice fish then displayed a behavior interpreted as "searching for the surface" by repeatedly ascending toward the ice, apparently with limited success of filling the swim bladder. This interpretation was supported by lower acoustic target strength in ice-covered waters. The frequent surfacing behavior demonstrated in this study indicates that gulping of atmospheric air is an important element in the life of sprat. While at least part of the population endured overwintering in the ice-covered habitat, ice covering may constrain those physostome fishes that lack a gas-generating gland in ways that remain to be established. 2013 The Author(s).

  15. Potential feedbacks between snow cover, soil moisture and surface energy fluxes in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox Nilsen, Irene; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stordal, Frode

    2017-04-01

    At high latitudes, the snow season has become shorter during the past decades because snowmelt is highly sensitive to a warmer climate. Snowmelt influences the energy balance by changing the albedo and the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes. It further influences the water balance by changing the runoff and soil moisture. In a previous study, we identified southern Norway as a region where significant temperature changes in summer could potentially be explained by land-atmosphere interactions. In this study we hypothesise that changes in snow cover would influence the summer surface fluxes in the succeeding weeks or months. The exceptionally warm summer of 2014 was chosen as a test bed. In Norway, evapotranspiration is not soil moisture limited, but energy limited, under normal conditions. During warm summers, however, such as in 2014, evapotranspiration can be restricted by the available soil moisture. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model we replace the initial ground conditions for 2014 with conditions representative of a snow-poor spring and a snow-rich spring. WRF was coupled to Noah-MP at 3 km horizontal resolution in the inner domain, and the simulations covered mid-May through September 2014. Boundary conditions used to force WRF were taken from the Era-Interim reanalysis. Snow, runoff, soil moisture and soil temperature observational data were provided by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate for validation. The validation shows generally good agreement with observations. Preliminary results show that the reduced snowpack, hereafter "sim1" increased the air temperature by up to 5 K and the surface temperature by up to 10 K in areas affected by snow changes. The increased snowpack, hereafter "sim2", decreased the air and surface temperature by the same amount. These are weekly mean values for the first eight simulation weeks from mid May. Because of the higher net energy available ( 100 Wm-2) in sim 1, both

  16. Calling for a broader conceptualization of diversity: surface and deep diversity in four Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Meredith E; Razack, Saleem; Hanson, Mark D; Slade, Steve; Varpio, Lara; Dore, Kelly L; McKnight, David

    2012-11-01

    Policy groups recommend monitoring and supporting more diversity among medical students and the medical workforce. In Canada, few data are available regarding the diversity of medical students, which poses challenges for policy development and evaluation. The authors examine diversity through a framework of surface (visible) and deep (less visible) dimensions and present data regarding a sample of Canadian medical students. Between 2009 and 2011, nine cohorts from four Canadian medical schools completed the Health Professions Student Diversity Survey (HPSDS) either on paper or online. Items asked each participant's age, gender, gender identity, sexual identity, marital status, ethnicity, rural status, parental income, and disability. Data were analyzed descriptively and compared, when available, with national data. Of 1,892 students invited, 1,552 (82.0%) completed the HPSDS. Students tended to be 21 to 25 years old (68.3%; 1,048/1,534), female (59.0%; 902/1,529), heterosexual (94.6%; 1,422/1,503), single (90.1%; 1,369/1,520), and unlikely to report any disability (96.5%; 1,463/1,516). The majority of students identified with the gender on their birth certificate (99.8%; 1,512/1,515). About half had spent the majority of their lives in urban environments (46.7%; 711/1,521), and most reported parental household incomes of over $100,000/year (57.6%; 791/1,373). Overall, they were overrepresentative of higher-income groups and underrepresentative of populations of Aboriginal, black, or Filipino ethnicities in Canada. The authors propose the development of a National Student Diversity Database to support both locally relevant policies regarding pipeline programs and an examination of current application and selection procedures to identify potential barriers for underrepresented students.

  17. CLPX-Satellite: EO-1 Hyperion Surface Reflectance, Snow-Covered Area, and Grain Size, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of apparent surface reflectance, subpixel snow-covered area, and grain size collected from the Hyperion hyperspectral imager. The Hyperion...

  18. Assimilation of MODIS Snow Cover Fraction Observations into the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally M. Toure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The NASA Catchment land surface model (CLSM is the land model component used for the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA. Here, the CLSM versions of MERRA and MERRA-Land are evaluated using snow cover fraction (SCF observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS. Moreover, a computationally-efficient empirical scheme is designed to improve CLSM estimates of SCF, snow depth, and snow water equivalent (SWE through the assimilation of MODIS SCF observations. Results show that data assimilation (DA improved SCF estimates compared to the open-loop model without assimilation (OL, especially in areas with ephemeral snow cover and mountainous regions. A comparison of the SCF estimates from DA against snow cover estimates from the NOAA Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System showed an improvement in the probability of detection of up to 28% and a reduction in false alarms by up to 6% (relative to OL. A comparison of the model snow depth estimates against Canadian Meteorological Centre analyses showed that DA successfully improved the model seasonal bias from −0.017 m for OL to −0.007 m for DA, although there was no significant change in root-mean-square differences (RMSD (0.095 m for OL, 0.093 m for DA. The time-average of the spatial correlation coefficient also improved from 0.61 for OL to 0.63 for DA. A comparison against in situ SWE measurements also showed improvements from assimilation. The correlation increased from 0.44 for OL to 0.49 for DA, the bias improved from −0.111 m for OL to −0.100 m for DA, and the RMSD decreased from 0.186 m for OL to 0.180 m for DA.

  19. Conceptual design of covering method for the proposed LILW near-surface repository at Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    The disposal concept of the low and intermediate level (LIL) wastes resulting during NPP operation combines both the natural and engineered barriers in order to ensure the safety of the environment and population. Saligny site has been proposed for LIL waste disposal. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that the loess and clay layers are efficient natural barriers against water flow and radionuclide migration through the vadose zone to the local aquifers. At present, the studies on site characterization are concentrated on investigation of the potential factors affecting the long-term integrity of the disposal facility. This analysis showed that surface erosion by wind and water and bio-intrusion by plant roots and burrowing animals could affect the long-term disposal safety. Based on the preliminary erosion results, as well as on the high probability of bio-intrusion by the plant roots and burrowing animals (i.e. moles, mice), different covering systems able to ensure the long-term safety of the repository has been proposed and analyzed. FEHM and HYDRUS 2D water flow simulations have been performed in order to compare their efficiency in the diminution of the infiltration rate in the repository. From this point of view, the covering system combining the capillary barrier and the resistive layer proved to have the best behavior

  20. Hydrological Modelling and data assimilation of Satellite Snow Cover Area using a Land Surface Model, VIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naha, Shaini; Thakur, Praveen K.; Aggarwal, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    The snow cover plays an important role in Himalayan region as it contributes a useful amount to the river discharge. So, besides estimating rainfall runoff, proper assessment of snowmelt runoff for efficient management and water resources planning is also required. A Land Surface Model, VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) is used at a high resolution grid size of 1 km. Beas river basin up to Thalot in North West Himalayas (NWH) have been selected as the study area. At first model setup is done and VIC has been run in its energy balance mode. The fluxes obtained from VIC has been routed to simulate the discharge for the time period of (2003-2006). Data Assimilation is done for the year 2006 and the techniques of Data Assimilation considered in this study are Direct Insertion (D.I) and Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that uses observations of snow covered area (SCA) to update hydrologic model states. The meteorological forcings were taken from 0.5 deg. resolution VIC global forcing data from 1979-2006 with daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature from Climate Research unit (CRU), rainfall from daily variability of NCEP and wind speed from NCEP-NCAR analysis as main inputs and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of 0.25 °. NBSSLUP soil map and land use land cover map of ISRO-GBP project for year 2014 were used for generating the soil parameters and vegetation parameters respectively. The threshold temperature i.e. the minimum rain temperature is -0.5°C and maximum snow temperature is about +0.5°C at which VIC can generate snow fluxes. Hydrological simulations were done using both NCEP and IMD based meteorological Forcing datasets, but very few snow fluxes were obtained using IMD data met forcing, whereas NCEP based met forcing has given significantly better snow fluxes throughout the simulation years as the temperature resolution as given by IMD data is 0.5°C and rainfall resolution of 0.25°C. The simulated discharge has been validated using observed

  1. Land Surface Phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 Global Land Cover Dynamics Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Friedl, Mark A.; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Verma, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Information related to land surface phenology is important for a variety of applications. For example, phenology is widely used as a diagnostic of ecosystem response to global change. In addition, phenology influences seasonal scale fluxes of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and atmosphere. Increasingly, the importance of phenology for studies of habitat and biodiversity is also being recognized. While many data sets related to plant phenology have been collected at specific sites or in networks focused on individual plants or plant species, remote sensing provides the only way to observe and monitor phenology over large scales and at regular intervals. The MODIS Global Land Cover Dynamics Product was developed to support investigations that require regional to global scale information related to spatiotemporal dynamics in land surface phenology. Here we describe the Collection 5 version of this product, which represents a substantial refinement relative to the Collection 4 product. This new version provides information related to land surface phenology at higher spatial resolution than Collection 4 (500-m vs. 1-km), and is based on 8-day instead of 16-day input data. The paper presents a brief overview of the algorithm, followed by an assessment of the product. To this end, we present (1) a comparison of results from Collection 5 versus Collection 4 for selected MODIS tiles that span a range of climate and ecological conditions, (2) a characterization of interannual variation in Collections 4 and 5 data for North America from 2001 to 2006, and (3) a comparison of Collection 5 results against ground observations for two forest sites in the northeastern United States. Results show that the Collection 5 product is qualitatively similar to Collection 4. However, Collection 5 has fewer missing values outside of regions with persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Interannual variability in Collection 5 is consistent with expected ranges of

  2. GEOEPIDERM – AN ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT THAT INTEGRATES SOIL COVER WITH ASSOCIATED LAND SURFACE COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Munteanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new concept of the “Epiderm of the Earth” introduced by the 2006 edition of the WRB-SR, the idea of “geoepiderm” has been developed. Besides its holistic meaning, by including both soil and non-soil materials found in the first 2 meters of the land surface, the term “geoepiderm” has a strong ecological sense, by suggesting similarity with the skin of the living organisms, as such, this concept is fully concordant with that of “Gaia” (Living Earth developed by James Lovelock. According to the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the soil and not soil coverings from the earth surface, ten kinds (classes of ‘geoepiderms” have been identified:1 – Protoderma (Entiderma– the primitive (emerging geoepiderm (mainly non-soil materials; five main subtypes: a Regoderma, b Leptoderma, c Areniderma, d Fluviderma and e Gleyoderma, were identified;2 – Cryoderma (Geliderma – geoepiderm of cold, mainly artic and subartic, regions with mean annual soil temperature <00C (often with perennial frozen subsoil - permafrost:3 – Arididerma – geoepiderm of arid regions and salt affected lands with limited or scarce available moisture; two subtypes: a Desertiderma, b Saliderma4 – Inceptiderma (or Juvenilederma – with 2 subtypes: a Cambiderma – a young (incipiently developed geoepiderm and b Andiderma, geoepiderm developed in volcanic materials;5 – Euderma – nutrient rich geoepiderm with two main subtypes: a Cherniderma (or Molliderma and b Luviderma (or Alfiderma;6 – Oligoderma – geoepiderm with low macro-nutrient and weatherable minerals content with 2 subtypes: a Podziderma (or Spodiderma and b Acriderma (or Ultiderma;7 – Ferriderma (Oxiderma or Senilederma – geoepiderm strongly weathered and with iron and aluminium hydroxides enrichment and low weatherable minerals reserve;8 – Vertiderma (Contractilederma – Contractile geoepiderm, developed from swelling clays;9 – Histoderma (Organiderma

  3. Water Induced Surface Reconstruction of the Oxygen (2x1) covered Ru(0001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Sabine; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Stass, Ingeborg; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-08-06

    Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to study the adsorption of water on a Ru(0001) surface covered with half monolayer of oxygen. The oxygen atoms occupy hcp sites in an ordered structure with (2x1) periodicity. DFT predicts that water is weakly bound to the unmodified surface, 86 meV compared to the ~;;200 meV water-water H-bond. Instead, we found that water adsorption causes a shift of half of the oxygen atoms from hcp sites to fcc sites, creating a honeycomb structure where water molecules bind strongly to the exposed Ru atoms. The energy cost of reconstructing the oxygen overlayer, around 230 meV per displaced oxygen atom, is more than compensated by the larger adsorption energy of water on the newly exposed Ru atoms. Water forms hydrogen bonds with the fcc O atoms in a (4x2) superstructure due to alternating orientations of the molecules. Heating to 185 K results in the complete desorption of the water layer, leaving behind the oxygen honeycomb structure, which is metastable relative to the original (2x1). This stable structure is not recovered until after heating to temperatures close to 260K.

  4. So, How Much of the Earth's Surface Is Covered by Rain Gauges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Chris; Becker, Andreas; Huffman, George J.; Muller, Catherine L.; Joe, Paul; Jackson, Gail; Kirschbaum, Dalia

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of global precipitation, both rainfall and snowfall, is critical to a wide range of users and applications. Rain gauges are indispensable in the measurement of precipitation, remaining the de facto standard for precipitation information across Earths surface for hydrometeorological purposes. However, their distribution across the globe is limited: over land their distribution and density is variable, while over oceans very few gauges exist and where measurements are made, they may not adequately reflect the rainfall amounts of the broader area. Critically, the number of gauges available, or appropriate for a particular study, varies greatly across the Earth owing to temporal sampling resolutions, periods of operation, data latency, and data access. Numbers of gauges range from a few thousand available in nearreal time to about 100,000 for all official gauges, and to possibly hundreds of thousands if all possible gauges are included. Gauges routinely used in the generation of global precipitation products cover an equivalent area of between about 250 and 3,000 m2. For comparison, the center circle of a soccer pitch or tennis court is about 260 m2. Although each gauge should represent more than just the gauge orifice, autocorrelation distances of precipitation vary greatly with regime and the integration period. Assuming each Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC)available gauge is independent and represents a surrounding area of 5-km radius, this represents only about 1 of Earths surface. The situation is further confounded for snowfall, which has a greater measurement uncertainty.

  5. Effect of Rock Fragment Cover on Hydraulics Properties of Surface Flows and Rill Initiation with Simulating Runoff under Natural Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sara kalbali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rock fragments on soil surfaces can also have several contrasting effects on the hydraulics of overland flow and soil erosion processes. Many investigators have found that a cover of rock fragments on a soil surface can decrease its erosion potential compared to bare soil surface (1, 12 and 18. This has mainly been attributed to the protection of the soil surface by rock fragments against the beating action of rain. This leads to a decrease in the intensity of surface sealing, an increase in the infiltration rate, a decrease in the runoff volume and rate, and, hence, a decrease in sediment generation and production for soils covered by rock fragments. Parameters that have been reported to be important for explaining the degree of runoff or soil loss from soils containing rock fragments include the position and size (15, geometry (18, and percentage cover (11 and 12 of rock fragments and the structure of fine earth (16. Surface rock fragment cover is a more important factor for hydroulic properties of surface flows such as flow depth, flow velocity, Manning’s roughness coefficient (n parameter and flow shear stress and geometrics properties of formed rill such as time, location, number, length, width and depth of rill. Surface rock fragment cover is directly affected soil erosion processes in dry area specially in areas that plant can not grow because of sever dryness and salinity. Also, Surface rock fragment prevent the contact of rain drops to aggregates, decreasing physical degradation by decreasing flow velocity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface rock fragment cover on hydraulic properties of surface flows and geometrics properties of formed rill. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 36 field plots of 20 meter length and 0.5 meter width with 3% slope were established in research field of agricultural faculty, Shahrekord University. Before each erosion event, topsoil was tilled

  6. Characterizing the relationship between land use land cover change and land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duy X.; Pla, Filiberto; Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Myint, Soe W.; Caetano, Mario; Kieu, Hoan V.

    2017-02-01

    Exploring changes in land use land cover (LULC) to understand the urban heat island (UHI) effect is valuable for both communities and local governments in cities in developing countries, where urbanization and industrialization often take place rapidly but where coherent planning and control policies have not been applied. This work aims at determining and analyzing the relationship between LULC change and land surface temperature (LST) patterns in the context of urbanization. We first explore the relationship between LST and vegetation, man-made features, and cropland using normalized vegetation, and built-up indices within each LULC type. Afterwards, we assess the impacts of LULC change and urbanization in UHI using hot spot analysis (Getis-Ord Gi∗ statistics) and urban landscape analysis. Finally, we propose a model applying non-parametric regression to estimate future urban climate patterns using predicted land cover and land use change. Results from this work provide an effective methodology for UHI characterization, showing that (a) LST depends on a nonlinear way of LULC types; (b) hotspot analysis using Getis Ord Gi∗ statistics allows to analyze the LST pattern change through time; (c) UHI is influenced by both urban landscape and urban development type; (d) LST pattern forecast and UHI effect examination can be done by the proposed model using nonlinear regression and simulated LULC change scenarios. We chose an inner city area of Hanoi as a case-study, a small and flat plain area where LULC change is significant due to urbanization and industrialization. The methodology presented in this paper can be broadly applied in other cities which exhibit a similar dynamic growth. Our findings can represent an useful tool for policy makers and the community awareness by providing a scientific basis for sustainable urban planning and management.

  7. Stratified distribution of nutrients and extremophile biota within freshwater ice covering the surface of Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Nina A; Belykh, Olga I; Golobokova, Ludmila P; Artemyeva, Olga V; Logacheva, Natalia F; Tikhonova, Irina V; Lipko, Irina A; Kostornova, Tatyana Ya; Parfenova, Valentina V; Khodzher, Tamara V; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Zo, Young-Gun

    2012-02-01

    Biological entities and gradients of selected chemicals within the seemingly barren ice layers covering Lake Baikal were investigated. Ice cores 40-68 cm long were obtained from in shore and offshore sites of Southern Lake Baikal during the cold period of a year (March-April) in 2007 and 2008. In microscopic observations of the melted ice, both algae and bacteria were found in considerable numbers (>10(3) cells/L and >10(4) cells/ml, respectively). Among all organisms found, diatom was generally the most predominant taxon in the ice. Interestingly, both planktonic and benthic algae were present in considerable numbers (2-4×10(4) cells/L). Dominant phototrophic picoplankton were comprised of small green algae of various taxa and cyanobacteria of Synechococcus and Cyanobium. The bacterial community consisted mostly of short rod and cocci cells, either free-living or aggregated. Large numbers of yeast-like cells and actinomycete mycelium were also observed. Concentrations of silica, phosphorus, and nitrate were low by an order of magnitude where biota was abundant. The profile of the ice could be interpreted as vertical stratification of nutrients and biomass due to biological activities. Therefore, the organisms in the ice were regarded to maintain high activity while thriving under freezing conditions. Based on the results, it was concluded that the freshwater ice covering the surface of Lake Baikal is considerably populated by extremophilic microorganisms that actively metabolize and form a detritus food chain in the unique large freshwater ecosystem of Lake Baikal.

  8. Impact of urban cover fraction on SMOS and SMAP surface soil moisture retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, N.; Walker, J. P.; Rudiger, C.; Ryu, D.; Gurney, R.

    2011-12-01

    L-band (~1.4 GHz) microwave radiometry has been widely acknowledged as the most promising technique for surface (top ~5cm) soil moisture observation at regional and global scales, due to its all weather capability, direct relationship to soil moisture, and reduced sensitivity to surface roughness and vegetation. Radiometer observations of microwave emission from the soil surface are used to estimate soil moisture through a radiative transfer model using ancillary information including land cover and soil properties etc. This technique has been applied to the ESA's (European Space Agency) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, the first soil moisture dedicated space mission, launched on 2nd Nov. 2009. Similarly, radiometer techniques will be employed by NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission, in both the passive and active-passive products. However, passive microwave soil moisture retrieval suffers from land surface heterogeneity at coarse scales; with the radiometer footprints of both missions being ~40 km, which is the best spatial resolution currently achievable using current satellite antenna technology. In order to achieve the ~0.04 m3/m3 target volumetric soil moisture accuracies at such scales, microwave contributions of non-soil targets (such as urban areas) within the sensors' field-of-view needs to be considered in the retrieval algorithm error budget and implementation, since the impact could potentially be significant if ignored. Currently there is a lack of knowledge on the microwave behaviour of non-soil targets, with little assessment of their microwave emissions and impact on satellite scale footprints. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to 1) investigate the relationship between urban induced brightness temperature uncertainties and urban fraction, 2) extract urban fraction thresholds for negligible brightness temperature impact by urban areas based on the SMOS and

  9. Determining the Impacts of Land Cover/use Categories on Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT8-OLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Ergene, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to unplanned and uncontrolled expansion of urban areas, rural land cover types have been replaced with artificial materials. As a result of these replacements, a wide range of negative environmental impacts seriously impacting human health, natural areas, ecosystems, climate, energy efficiency, and quality of living in town center. In this study, the impact of land surface temperature with respect to land cover and land use categories is investigated and evaluated for Istanbul, Turkey. Land surface temperature data was extracted from 21 October 2014 dated Landsat 8 OLI data using mono-window algorithm. In order to extract land use/cover information from remotely sensed data wetness, greenness and brightness components were derived using Tasseled Cap Transformation. The statistical relationship between land surface temperature and Tasseled Cap Transformation components in Istanbul was analyzed using the regression methods. Correlation between Land Surface Temperature and Meteorological Stations Temperature calculated %74.49.

  10. DETERMINING THE IMPACTS OF LAND COVER/USE CATEGORIES ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING LANDSAT8-OLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bektas Balcik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to unplanned and uncontrolled expansion of urban areas, rural land cover types have been replaced with artificial materials. As a result of these replacements, a wide range of negative environmental impacts seriously impacting human health, natural areas, ecosystems, climate, energy efficiency, and quality of living in town center. In this study, the impact of land surface temperature with respect to land cover and land use categories is investigated and evaluated for Istanbul, Turkey. Land surface temperature data was extracted from 21 October 2014 dated Landsat 8 OLI data using mono-window algorithm. In order to extract land use/cover information from remotely sensed data wetness, greenness and brightness components were derived using Tasseled Cap Transformation. The statistical relationship between land surface temperature and Tasseled Cap Transformation components in Istanbul was analyzed using the regression methods. Correlation between Land Surface Temperature and Meteorological Stations Temperature calculated %74.49.

  11. Assessing the Impacts of Urbanization-Associated Land Use/Cover Change on Land Surface Temperature and Surface Moisture: A Case Study in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitong Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization-associated land use and land cover (LULC changes lead to modifications of surface microclimatic and hydrological conditions, including the formation of urban heat islands and changes in surface runoff pattern. The goal of the paper is to investigate the changes of biophysical variables due to urbanization induced LULC changes in Indianapolis, USA, from 2001 to 2006. The biophysical parameters analyzed included Land Surface Temperature (LST, fractional vegetation cover, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, impervious fractions evaporative fraction, and soil moisture. Land cover classification and changes and impervious fractions were obtained from the National Land Cover Database of 2001 and 2006. The Temperature-Vegetation Index (TVX space was created to analyze how these satellite-derived biophysical parameters change during urbanization. The results showed that the general trend of pixel migration in response to the LULC changes was from the areas of low temperature, dense vegetation cover, and high surface moisture conditions to the areas of high temperature, sparse vegetation cover, and low surface moisture condition in the TVX space. Analyses of the T-soil moisture and T-NDWI spaces revealed similar changed patterns. The rate of change in LST, vegetation cover, and moisture varied with LULC type and percent imperviousness. Compared to conversion from cultivated to residential land, the change from forest to commercial land altered LST and moisture more intensively. Compared to the area changed from cultivated to residential, the area changed from forest to commercial altered 48% more in fractional vegetation cover, 71% more in LST, and 15% more in soil moisture Soil moisture and NDWI were both tested as measures of surface moisture in the urban areas. NDWI was proven to be a useful measure of vegetation liquid water and was more sensitive to the land cover changes comparing to soil moisture. From a change forest to

  12. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marks; M. D. King

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-y...

  13. Representation of vegetation effects on the snow-covered albedo in the Noah land surface model with multiple physics options

    OpenAIRE

    S. Park; S. K. Park

    2015-01-01

    Snow albedo plays a critical role in calculating the energy budget, but parameterization of the snow surface albedo is still under great uncertainty. It varies with snow grain size, snow cover thickness, snow age, forest shading factor and other variables. Snow albedo of forest is typically lower than that of short vegetation; thus snow albedo is dependent on the spatial distributions of characteristic land cover and on the canopy density and structure. In the No...

  14. Assessing surface water quality and its relation with urban land cover changes in the Lake Calumet area, Greater Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cyril; Weng, Qihao

    2010-05-01

    Urban land use and land cover change significantly affect spatial and temporal patterns of runoff, which in turn impacts surface water quality. With the exponential growth in urban areas over the past three decades, changes in land use and land cover to cater for the growth of cities has been a conspicuous spectacle in urban spaces. The main goal of this study was to assess the impacts of land cover change on runoff and surface water quality using a partial area hydrology framework. The study employed ArcHydro GIS extension and a modified version of Long-Term Hydrologic and Nonpoint Source Pollution model (L-THIA-NPS) in estimating runoff and nonpoint source pollutant concentration around Lake Calumet between 1992 and 2001. Data employed include National Land Cover Data set, rainfall data, digital elevation model (DEM), Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) data, and The United States Environmental Protection Agency's STORET (storage and retrieval) water quality data. The model was able to predict surface water quality reasonably well over the study period. Sensitivity analysis facilitated a manual calibration of the model. Model validation was executed by comparing simulated results following calibration and observed water quality data for the study area. The study demonstrates that the level of concentration of nonpoint source pollutants in surface water within an urban watershed heavily depends on the spatiotemporal variations in areas that contribute towards runoff compared to the spatial extent of change in major land use/land cover.

  15. Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J.; Nash, M.S.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Land cover changes (e.g., forest to grassland) affect albedo, and changes in albedo can influence radiative forcing (warming, cooling). We empirically tested albedo response to land cover change for 130 locations across the continental United States using high resolution (30 m-×-30 m) land cover change data and moderate resolution (~ 500 m-×-500 m) albedo data. The land cover change data spanned 10 years (2001 − 2011) and the albedo data included observations every eight days for 13 years (2001 − 2013). Empirical testing was based on autoregressive time series analysis of snow free albedo for verified locations of land cover change. Approximately one-third of the autoregressive analyses for woody to herbaceous or forest to shrub change classes were not significant, indicating that albedo did not change significantly as a result of land cover change at these locations. In addition, ~ 80% of mean differences in albedo arising from land cover change were less than ± 0.02, a nominal benchmark for precision of albedo measurements that is related to significant changes in radiative forcing. Under snow free conditions, we found that land cover change does not guarantee a significant albedo response, and that the differences in mean albedo response for the majority of land cover change locations were small.

  16. Effect of land cover change on snow free surface albedo across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land cover changes (e.g., forest to grassland) affect albedo, and changes in albedo can influence radiative forcing (warming, cooling). We empirically tested albedo response to land cover change for 130 locations across the continental United States using high resolution (30 m-&t...

  17. Functional levels of floor surface roughness for the prevention of slips and falls: clean-and-dry and soapsuds-covered wet surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Ju; Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Literature has shown a general trend that slip resistance performance improves with floor surface roughness. However, whether slip resistance properties are linearly correlated with surface topographies of the floors or what roughness levels are required for effective slip resistance performance still remain to be answered. This pilot study aimed to investigate slip resistance properties and identify functional levels of floor surface roughness for practical design applications in reducing the risk of slip and fall incidents. A theory model was proposed to characterize functional levels of surface roughness of floor surfaces by introducing a new concept of three distinctive zones. A series of dynamic friction tests were conducted using 3 shoes and 9 floor specimens under clean-and-dry as well as soapsuds-covered slippery wet environments. The results showed that all the tested floor-shoe combinations provided sufficient slip resistances performance under the clean-and-dry condition. A significant effect of floor type (surface roughness) on dynamic friction coefficient (DFC) was found in the soapsuds-covered wet condition. As compared to the surface roughness effects, the shoe-type effects were relatively small. Under the soapsuds-covered wet condition, floors with 50 μm in Ra roughness scale seemed to represent an upper bound in the functional range of floor surface roughness for slip resistance because further increase of surface roughness provided no additional benefit. A lower bound of the functional range for slip resistance under the soapsuds-covered wet condition was estimated from the requirement of DFC > 0.4 at Ra ≅ 17 μm. Findings from this study may have potential safety implications in the floor surface design for reducing slip and fall hazards. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Research on Land Surface Thermal-Hydrologic Exchange in Southern China under Future Climate and Land Cover Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change inevitably leads to changes in hydrothermal circulation. However, thermal-hydrologic exchanging caused by land cover change has also undergone ineligible changes. Therefore, studying the comprehensive effects of climate and land cover changes on land surface water and heat exchanges enables us to well understand the formation mechanism of regional climate and predict climate change with fewer uncertainties. This study investigated the land surface thermal-hydrologic exchange across southern China for the next 40 years using a land surface model (ecosystem-atmosphere simulation scheme (EASS. Our findings are summarized as follows. (i Spatiotemporal variation patterns of sensible heat flux (H and evapotranspiration (ET under the land cover scenarios (A2a or B2a and climate change scenario (A1B are unanimous. (ii Both H and ET take on a single peak pattern, and the peak occurs in June or July. (iii Based on the regional interannual variability analysis, H displays a downward trend (10% and ET presents an increasing trend (15%. (iv The annual average H and ET would, respectively, increase and decrease by about 10% when woodland converts to the cultivated land. Through this study, we recognize that land surface water and heat exchanges are affected greatly by the future climate change as well as land cover change.

  19. Controls on plant functional surface cover types along a precipitation gradient in the Negev Desert of Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.; Veldkamp, A.; Boeken, B.; Breemen, van N.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the controls on functional surface cover types in four catchments along a semi-arid to arid precipitation gradient in the northern Negev Desert of Israel. First, we selected four functional types, based on their unique water use and redistribution functionality: shrubs, Asphodelus

  20. An Automated Algorithm for Producing Land Cover Information from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Acquired Between 1984 and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Holen, C.; Dittmeier, R.; Wika, S.; Steinwand, D.; Dahal, D.; Tolk, B.; Quenzer, R.; Nelson, K.; Wylie, B. K.; Coan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-year land cover mapping from remotely sensed data poses challenges. Producing land cover products at spatial and temporal scales required for assessing longer-term trends in land cover change are typically a resource-limited process. A recently developed approach utilizes open source software libraries to automatically generate datasets, decision tree classifications, and data products while requiring minimal user interaction. Users are only required to supply coordinates for an area of interest, land cover from an existing source such as National Land Cover Database and percent slope from a digital terrain model for the same area of interest, two target acquisition year-day windows, and the years of interest between 1984 and present. The algorithm queries the Landsat archive for Landsat data intersecting the area and dates of interest. Cloud-free pixels meeting the user's criteria are mosaicked to create composite images for training the classifiers and applying the classifiers. Stratification of training data is determined by the user and redefined during an iterative process of reviewing classifiers and resulting predictions. The algorithm outputs include yearly land cover raster format data, graphics, and supporting databases for further analysis. Additional analytical tools are also incorporated into the automated land cover system and enable statistical analysis after data are generated. Applications tested include the impact of land cover change and water permanence. For example, land cover conversions in areas where shrubland and grassland were replaced by shale oil pads during hydrofracking of the Bakken Formation were quantified. Analytical analysis of spatial and temporal changes in surface water included identifying wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota with potential connectivity to ground water, indicating subsurface permeability and geochemistry.

  1. Quantifying the impacts of snow on surface energy balance through assimilating snow cover fraction and snow depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunlei

    2017-10-01

    Seasonal snow plays an important part in Earth's climate system. Snow cover regulates the land surface energy balance through altering the albedo of the land surface. To utilize the satellite-retrieved snow cover fraction (SCF) and snow depth (SD) data sufficiently and avoid inconsistency, this paper developed a very simple but robust quality control method to assimilate Fengyun satellite-retrieved SCF and SD simultaneously. The results show that the assimilation method which this paper implemented can not only utilize the satellite-retrieved SCF and SD data sufficiently but also avoid the inconsistency of them. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the impacts of snow on land surface energy balance using the integrated urban land model. With the increase of the SCF and SD, the net radiation decreased significantly during the day and increased a little at night; the sensible heat flux decreased significantly during the day; the evapotranspiration and ground heat flux decreased during the day too.

  2. Equivelar and d-Covered Triangulations of Surfaces. II. Cyclic Triangulations and Tessellations

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Frank H.

    2010-01-01

    With the $[0,1,2]$-family of cyclic triangulations we introduce a rich class of vertex-transitive triangulations of surfaces. In particular, there are infinite series of cyclic $q$-equivelar triangulations of orientable and non-orientable surfaces for every $q=3k$, $k\\geq 2$, and every $q=3k+1$, $k\\geq 3$. Series of cyclic tessellations of surfaces are derived from these triangulated series.

  3. Surface collisions of formic acid cations HCOOH+ and DCOOD+ with a hydrocarbon-covered stainless steel surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tepnual, T.; Feketeová, L.; Grill, V.; Scheier, P.; Herman, Zdeněk; Märk, T. D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 244, 2-3 (2005), s. 164-170 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : formic acid * surface-induced dissociation * surface-induced reaction Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.090, year: 2005

  4. Potential solar radiation and land cover contributions to digital climate surface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pol; Batalla, Meritxell; Pesquer, Lluís; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Overview: We have designed a series of ad-hoc experiments to study the role of factors that a priori have a strong weight in developing digital models of temperature and precipitation, such as solar radiation and land cover. Empirical test beds have been designed to improve climate (mean air temperature and total precipitation) digital models using statistical general techniques (multiple regression) with residual correction (interpolated with inverse weighting distance). Aim: Understand what roles these two factors (solar radiation and land cover) play to incorporate them into the process of generating mapping of temperature and rainfall. Study area: The Iberian Peninsula and supported in this, Catalonia and the Catalan Pyrenees. Data: The dependent variables used in all experiments relate to data from meteorological stations precipitation (PL), mean temperature (MT), average temperature minimum (MN) and maximum average temperature (MX). These data were obtained monthly from the AEMET (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología). Data series of stations covers the period between 1950 to 2010. Methodology: The idea is to design ad hoc, based on a sample of more equitable space statistician, to detect the role of radiation. Based on the influence of solar radiation on the temperature of the air from a quantitative point of view, the difficulty in answering this lies in the fact that there are lots of weather stations located in areas where solar radiation is similar. This suggests that the role of the radiation variable remains "off" when, instead, we intuitively think that would strongly influence the temperature. We have developed a multiple regression analysis between these meteorological variables as the dependent ones (Temperature and rainfall), and some geographical variables: altitude (ALT), latitude (LAT), continentality (CON) and solar radiation (RAD) as the independent ones. In case of the experiment with land covers, we have used the NDVI index as a proxy of land

  5. Scattering of hyperthermal argon atoms from clean and D-covered Ru surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueta, H.; Gleeson, M.A.; Kleyn, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperthermal Ar atoms were scattered from a Ru(0001) surface held at temperatures of 180, 400 and 600 K, and from a Ru(0001)-(1×1)D surface held at 114 and 180 K. The resultant angular intensity and energy distributions are complex. The in-plane angular distributions have narrow (FWHM ≤ 10°)

  6. Surface energy balance of seasonal snow cover for snow-melt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... surface at this station received a mean short wave radiation of 430 W m−2, out of which 298 W m−2 was re flected back by the snow surface with mean albedo value of 0.70. The high average temperature and more absorption of solar radiation resulted in higher thermal state of the snowpack which was further responsible ...

  7. Optical spectroscopy study of c(4 x 2) Ge (001)-surfaces, covered with atomic Au wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Utz; Meyer, Sebastian; Schaefer, Joerg; Geurts, Jean [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Physikalisches Institut, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Speiser, Eugen; Esser, Norbert [ISAS, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Novel quasi-1D systems like e.g. atomic gold chains on a c(4x2) reconstructed Ge(001)-surfaces enable the investigation of 1D-effects like the possible occurrence of the Luttinger- to Fermi liquid transition. As there is a crucial interplay of the lattice vibrations and the electrical and structural properties on such sensitive systems, phonon dynamics are in the focus of this work. The phonons were addressed by Raman spectroscopy and reveal a clear change from the Ge-oxide layer to the final surface with Au-nano wires. Thermally deoxidizing the Ge-surface under UHV leads to a distinct low-frequency vibration around 65cm-1. Its frequency range and its persistence after Gold deposition in the submonolayer range indicate that this signal is surface related. Additionally, the surface-induced anisotropy of the optical reflectance was complementary investigated by Reflectance-Anisotropy-Spectroscopy (RAS) and IR-ellipsometry.

  8. Variations of Near Surface Energy Balance Caused by Land Cover Changes in the Semiarid Grassland Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun’ou Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the Dynamics of Land System (DLS model to simulating the land cover under the designed scenarios and then analyzes the effects of land cover conversion on energy flux in the semiarid grassland area of China with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results indicate that the grassland will show a steadily upgrowing trend under the coordinated environmental sustainability (CES scenario. Compared to the CES scenario, the rate of increase in grassland cover is lower, while the rate of increase in urban land cover will be higher under the rapid economic growth (REG scenario. Although the conversion from cropland to grassland will reduce the energy flux, the expansion of urban area and decreasing of forestry area will bring about more energy flux. As a whole, the energy flux of near surface will obviously not change under the CES scenario, and the climate therefore will not be possible to be influenced greatly by land cover change. The energy flux under the REG scenario is higher than that under the CES scenario. Those research conclusions can offer valuable information for the land use planning and climate change adaptation in the semiarid grassland area of China.

  9. Electron emission from MOS electron emitters with clean and cesium covered gold surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunver; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Johansson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) electron emitters consisting of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier and a Ti (1 nm)/Au(7 nm) top-electrode, with an active area of 1 cm(2) have been produced and studied with surface science techniques under UHV (ultra high vacuum) conditions and their emission...... characteristics have been investigated. It is known, that deposition of an alkali metal on the emitting surface lowers the work function and increases the emission efficiency. For increasing Cs coverages the surface has been characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS...

  10. Electron emission from MOS electron emitters with clean and cesium covered gold surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Gunver; Thomsen, Lasse Bjorchmar; Johansson, Martin; Hansen, Ole; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2009-01-01

    MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) electron emitters consisting of a Si substrate, a SiO 2 tunnel barrier and a Ti (1 nm)/Au(7 nm) top-electrode, with an active area of 1 cm 2 have been produced and studied with surface science techniques under UHV (ultra high vacuum) conditions and their emission characteristics have been investigated. It is known, that deposition of an alkali metal on the emitting surface lowers the work function and increases the emission efficiency. For increasing Cs coverages the surface has been characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) and work function measurements. Energy spectra of electron emission from the devices under an applied bias voltage have been recorded for the clean Au surface and for two Cs coverages and simultaneous work function curves have been obtained. The electron emission onset is seen to appear at the surface work function. A method for cleaning the ex situ deposited Au top electrodes to a degree satisfactory to surface science studies has been developed, and a threshold for oxide damage by low-energy ion exposure between 0.5 and 1 keV has been determined.

  11. Simulated Effects of Land Cover Conversion on the Surface Energy Budget in the Southwest of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbo Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the coupled WRF/SSiB model, accompanied by a Karst Rocky Desertification (KRD map of the Guizhou Karst Plateau (GKP of China, was applied to detect how the changed vegetation and soil characteristics over the GKP modify the energy balance at the land surface. The results indicated that land degradation led to reduced net radiation by inducing more upward shortwave and longwave radiation, which were associated with increasing surface albedo and temperature, respectively. The KRD also resulted in changed surface energy partitioning into sensible and latent heat fluxes. The latent heat flux at land surface was reduced substantially due to the higher surface albedo and stomatal resistance, the lower Leaf Area Index (LAI and roughness length in the degradation experiment, while the sensible heat flux increased, mainly because of the higher surface temperature. Furthermore, the moisture flux convergence was reduced, owing to the lower atmospheric heating and the relative subsidence. However, compared with the reduced evaporation, the decrease in moisture flux convergence contributed much less to the reduced precipitation. Precipitation strongly affects soil moisture, vegetation growth and phenology, and thus evaporation and convective latent heating, so when precipitation was changed, a feedback loop was created.

  12. INTER-SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF VEGETATION COVER AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION: A CASE STUDY OF ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Ibitolu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study employs Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery to access the inter-seasonal variations of Surface Temperature and Vegetation cover in Ondo State in 2013. Also, air temperature data for year 2013 acquired from 3 synoptic meteorological stations across the state were analyzed. The Single-channel Algorithm was used to extract the surface temperature maps from the digital number embedded within the individual pixel. To understand the spatio-temporal distribution of LST and vegetation across the various landuse types, 200 sample points were randomly chosen, so that each land-use covers 40 points. Imagery for the raining season where unavailable because of the intense cloud cover. Result showed that the lowest air temperature of 20.9°C was in January, while the highest air temperature of 34°C occurred in January and March. There was a significant shift in the vegetation greenness over Ondo State, as average NDVI tend to increase from a weak positive value (0.189 to a moderate value (0.419. The LULC map revealed that vegetation cover occupied the largest area (65% followed by Built-up (26%, Swampy land (4%, Rock outcrop (3% and water bodies (2%. The surface temperature maps revealed that January has the lowest temperature of 10°C experienced in the coastal riverine areas of Ilaje and Igbokoda, while the highest temperature of 39°C observed in September is experienced on the rocky grounds. The study also showed the existence of pockets of Urban Heat Islands (UHI that are well scattered all over the state. This finding proves the capability and reliability of Satellite remote sensing for environmental studies.

  13. Effect of land cover and green space on land surface temperature of a fast growing economic region in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, A.; Kanniah, K. D.; Ho, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Green space must be increased in the development of new cities as green space can moderate temperature in the cities. In this study we estimated the land surface temperature (LST) and established relationships between LST and land cover and various vegetation and urban surface indices in the Iskandar Malaysia (IM) region. IM is one of the emerging economic gateways of Malaysia, and is envisaged to transform into a metropolis by 2025. This change may cause increased temperature in IM and therefore we conducted a study by using Landsat 5 image covering the study region (2,217 km2) to estimate LST, classify different land covers and calculate spectral indices. Results show that urban surface had highest LST (24.49 °C) and the lowest temperature was recorded in, forest, rubber and water bodies ( 20.69 to 21.02°C). Oil palm plantations showed intermediate mean LST values with 21.65 °C. We further investigated the relationship between vegetation and build up densities with temperature. We extracted 1000 collocated pure pixels of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and LST in the study area. Results show a strong and significant negative correlation with (R2= -0.74 and -0.79) respectively between NDVI, NDWI and LST . Meanwhile a strong positive correlation (R2=0.8 and 0.86) exists between NDBI, UI and LST. These results show the importance of increasing green cover in urban environment to combat any adverse effects of climate change.

  14. Thermographic analysis of plasma facing components covered by carbon surface layer in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Tokamaks are reactors based on the thermonuclear fusion energy with magnetic confinement of the plasma. In theses machines, several MW are coupled to the plasma for about 10 s. A large part of this power is directed towards plasma facing components (PFC). For better understanding and control the heat flux transfer from the plasma to the surrounding wall, it is very important to measure the surface temperature of the PFC and to estimate the imposed heat flux. In most of tokamaks using carbon PFC, the eroded carbon is circulating in the plasma and redeposited elsewhere. During the plasma operations, this leads at some locations to the formation of thin or thick carbon layers usually poorly attached to the PFC. These surface layers with unknown thermal properties complicate the calculation of the heat flux from IR surface temperature measurements. To solve this problem, we develop first, inverse method to estimate the heat flux using thermocouple (not sensitive to the carbon surface layers) temperature measurements. Then, we propose a front face pulsed photothermal method allowing an estimation of layers thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity and the thermal contact resistance between the layer and the tile. The principle is to study with an infrared sensor, the cooling of the layer surface after heating by a short laser pulse, this cooling depending on the thermal properties of the successive layers. (author) [fr

  15. Modeling of surface dust concentration in snow cover at industrial area using neural networks and kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, A. P.; Tarasov, D. A.; Buevich, A. G.; Shichkin, A. V.; Tyagunov, A. G.; Medvedev, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Modeling of spatial distribution of pollutants in the urbanized territories is difficult, especially if there are multiple emission sources. When monitoring such territories, it is often impossible to arrange the necessary detailed sampling. Because of this, the usual methods of analysis and forecasting based on geostatistics are often less effective. Approaches based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) demonstrate the best results under these circumstances. This study compares two models based on ANNs, which are multilayer perceptron (MLP) and generalized regression neural networks (GRNNs) with the base geostatistical method - kriging. Models of the spatial dust distribution in the snow cover around the existing copper quarry and in the area of emissions of a nickel factory were created. To assess the effectiveness of the models three indices were used: the mean absolute error (MAE), the root-mean-square error (RMSE), and the relative root-mean-square error (RRMSE). Taking into account all indices the model of GRNN proved to be the most accurate which included coordinates of the sampling points and the distance to the likely emission source as input parameters for the modeling. Maps of spatial dust distribution in the snow cover were created in the study area. It has been shown that the models based on ANNs were more accurate than the kriging, particularly in the context of a limited data set.

  16. A resistance representation of schemes for evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered surfaces for use in atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailovic, D.T.; Pielke, R.A.; Rajkovic, B.; Lee, T.J.; Jeftic, M. (Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia) Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States) Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

    1993-06-01

    In the parameterization of land surface processes, attention must be devoted to surface evaporation, one of the main processes in the air-land energy exchange. One of the most used approaches is the resistance representation which requires the calculation of aerodynamic resistances. These resistances are calculated using K theory for different morphologies of plant communities; then, the performance of the evaporation schemes within the alpha, beta, and their combination approaches that parameterize evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered soil surfaces are discussed. Additionally, a new alpha scheme is proposed based on an assumed power dependence alpha on volumetric soil moisture content and its saturated value. Finally, the performance of the considered and the proposed schemes is tested based on time integrations using real data. The first set was for 4 June 1982, and the second for 3 June 1981 at the experimental site in Rimski Sancevi, Yugoslavia, on chernozem soil, as representative for a bare, and partly plant-covered surface, respectively. 63 refs.

  17. Simulation and Theory of Antibody Binding to Crowded Antigen-Covered Surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano De Michele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a fully flexible coarse-grained model of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies parametrized directly on cryo-EM data and simulate the binding dynamics of many IgGs to antigens adsorbed on a surface at increasing densities. Moreover, we work out a theoretical model that allows to explain all the features observed in the simulations. Our combined computational and theoretical framework is in excellent agreement with surface-plasmon resonance data and allows us to establish a number of important results. (i Internal flexibility is key to maximize bivalent binding, flexible IgGs being able to explore the surface with their second arm in search for an available hapten. This is made clear by the strongly reduced ability to bind with both arms displayed by artificial IgGs designed to rigidly keep a prescribed shape. (ii The large size of IgGs is instrumental to keep neighboring molecules at a certain distance (surface repulsion, which essentially makes antigens within reach of the second Fab always unoccupied on average. (iii One needs to account independently for the thermodynamic and geometric factors that regulate the binding equilibrium. The key geometrical parameters, besides excluded-volume repulsion, describe the screening of free haptens by neighboring bound antibodies. We prove that the thermodynamic parameters govern the low-antigen-concentration regime, while the surface screening and repulsion only affect the binding at high hapten densities. Importantly, we prove that screening effects are concealed in relative measures, such as the fraction of bivalently bound antibodies. Overall, our model provides a valuable, accurate theoretical paradigm beyond existing frameworks to interpret experimental profiles of antibodies binding to multi-valent surfaces of different sorts in many contexts.

  18. LEED crystallography studies of the structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Ir, Pt and Rh crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koestner, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    There have only been a few Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensity analyses carried out to determine the structure of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces; most surface crystallography studies concentrated on the structure of clean unreconstructed or atomic adsorbate-covered transition metal faces. The few molecular adsorption systems already investigated by dynamical LEED are CO on Ni(100), Cu(100) and Pd(100) as well as C 2 H 2 and C 2 H 4 adsorbed on Pt(111). The emphasis of this thesis research has been to extend the applicability of LEED crystallography to the more complicated unit cells found in molecular overlayers on transition metals or in there constructed surfaces of clean transition metals

  19. LEED crystallography studies of the structure of clean and adsorbate-covered Ir, Pt and Rh crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    There have only been a few Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) intensity analyses carried out to determine the structure of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces; most surface crystallography studies concentrated on the structure of clean unreconstructed or atomic adsorbate-covered transition metal faces. The few molecular adsorption systems already investigated by dynamical LEED are CO on Ni(100), Cu(100) and Pd(100) as well as C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ adsorbed on Pt(111). The emphasis of this thesis research has been to extend the applicability of LEED crystallography to the more complicated unit cells found in molecular overlayers on transition metals or in there constructed surfaces of clean transition metals.

  20. Early Onset of Nucleate Boiling on Gas-covered Biphilic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Biao; Yamada, Masayuki; Hidaka, Sumitomo; Liu, Jiewei; Shiomi, Junichiro; Amberg, Gustav; Do-Quang, Minh; Kohno, Masamichi; Takahashi, Koji; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2017-05-17

    For phase-change cooling schemes for electronics, quick activation of nucleate boiling helps safeguard the electronics components from thermal shocks associated with undesired surface superheating at boiling incipience, which is of great importance to the long-term system stability and reliability. Previous experimental studies show that bubble nucleation can occur surprisingly early on mixed-wettability surfaces. In this paper, we report unambiguous evidence that such unusual bubble generation at extremely low temperatures-even below the boiling point-is induced by a significant presence of incondensable gas retained by the hydrophobic surface, which exhibits exceptional stability even surviving extensive boiling deaeration. By means of high-speed imaging, it is revealed that the consequently gassy boiling leads to unique bubble behaviour that stands in sharp contrast with that of pure vapour bubbles. Such findings agree qualitatively well with numerical simulations based on a diffuse-interface method. Moreover, the simulations further demonstrate strong thermocapillary flows accompanying growing bubbles with considerable gas contents, which is associated with heat transfer enhancement on the biphilic surface in the low-superheat region.

  1. The spin-reorientation transition on Ni/Cu(0 0 1) surface covered with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.; Shick, Alexander B.; Schneider, Guenter; Redinger, Josef

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of an H-adlayer on the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of Ni/Cu(0 0 1) making use of the total energy full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method including spin-orbit coupling, and taking into account crystal structure relaxation effects. We find strong influence of H-adlayer on the surface MAE, providing the reduction of spin-reorientation transition critical thickness, in accordance with the recent experiments

  2. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2014-01-01

    The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter), four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (psoil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R = 0.99, psoil erosion control, since no significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (perosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes.

  4. Electronic states on the clean and oxygen-covered molybdenum (110) surface measured using time-of-flight momentum microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, Sergii

    2016-04-20

    Recent experiments discovered a new class of materials called topological insulators and started an extensive investigation in order to find more materials of such type and to understand and explore the opening perspectives in fundamental science and application. These materials exhibit a Dirac-type (massless) electronic state, bridging the fundamental band gap. Surprisingly, a strongly spin-polarized surface state with linear dispersion resembling that of Dirac type was found on the already well-investigated W(110) surface. This rose the question of the existence of the same non-trivial electron state on other metal surfaces. The present work describes the investigation of surface electronic states on the Mo(110) surface, their dispersion and transformation upon surface oxidation. This system is isoelectronic to the case of W(110) but due to the lower atomic number the spin-orbit interaction responsible for local band gap formation is substantially decreased by a factor of 5. The Mo(110) surface was shown to exhibit a linearly dispersing state quite similar to the one on W(110), but within a smaller energy range of 120 meV, with the Dirac point lying in the center of a local band gap in k-space. The experimental investigations were performed with the help of momentum microscopy, using a Ti:sapphire laser in the lab and synchrotron radiation at BESSY II, Berlin. The results show good agreement with theoretical calculations of the band structure and photoemission patterns for clean Mo(110). The fully parallel 3D acquisition scheme allowed to visualize the full surface Brillouin zone of the sample up to few eV binding energy within a single exposure of typically less than 30 min. This opens the door to future time-resolved experiments with maximum detection efficiency.

  5. Radar response to crop residue cover and tillage application on postharvest agricultural surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNairn, Heather

    Les informations sur les pratiques de conservation des sols comme le labourage et la gestion des residus de culture sont requises afin d'estimer avec exactitude les risques d'erosion des sols. Quoique les micro-ondes soient sensibles aux conditions d'humidite et aux proprietes geometriques des surfaces, il n'en demeure pas moins que l'on connait encore peu sur la sensibilite des micro-ondes polarisees lineaires ou des parametres polarimetriques du ROS en fonction des caracteristiques des residus. A partir de donnees prises a l'aide d'un diffusometre monte sur un camion en 1996 et lors d'une mission SIR-C menee en 1994, cette recherche a demontre que les micro-ondes sont sensibles a la fois a la quantite et au type de couverture de residus, de meme qu'a la teneur en eau des residus. La reponse des polarisations croisees lineaires et de plusieurs parametres polarimetriques, incluant la hauteur pedestre, a permis d'observer qu'une diffusion volumique importante avait lieu en presence de vegetation senescente qui se tenait debout et pour les champs non laboures. La diffusion de surface dominait cependant pour les champs avec de faibles quantites de residus et des residus plus fins. La recherche a toutefois demontre que des conditions de surface complexes etaient crees par differentes combinaisons de residus et de pratiques de labourage. Par consequent, il faudra attendre que des donnees multi-polarisees ou polarimetriques soient acquises par les capteurs prevus a bord du satellite canadien RADARSAT-2 et du satellite ENVISAT de l'Agence spatiale europeenne avant de pouvoir completement caracteriser les champs apres la recolte.

  6. Deposition, adhere and remobilization of radioactive nuclide on surface and materials covered on the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanabusa, Tatsuo; Chiba, Masaru; Kurita, Susumu; Sato, Junji; Maki, hiroatsu; Okada, Kikuo; Mori, Hideaki [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of radioactive nuclide released from nuclear installation on human body, new model with retraveling process was developed. This retraveling process was changed by the surface state of the earth, for example, soil, grass (field) and tree. Study method of retraveling of particles adhered on grass and tree into the atmosphere was the following: the relation between particles retraveling rate and wind velocity was observed by a wind tunnel experiment. Then, the retraveling experiment was carried out in the natural environment. The effect of environmental factor on the retraveling rate was studied by comparing two experiments. Then, an experimental equation was derived from these results. We used Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl, Eurya emarginata Makino and Lycopodium clavatum L. as samples of grass, tree and particles, respectably. On grass, the retraveling rate decreased monotonously at the wind tunnel experiment, but it was changed by time at the experiment in the field. When a light set up in the wind tunnel and the capture rate of particle on the surface of grass was measured, the results showed the capture decreased monotonously under no light. However, when the wind tunnel lighted up well, the capture increase 3 times as much as no light. So that, sun light affected on retraveling of particle. (S.Y.)

  7. Scanning tunneling microscopy I general principles and applications to clean and absorbate-covered surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesendanger, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Since the first edition of "Scanning 'funneling Microscopy I" has been pub­ lished, considerable progress has been made in the application of STM to the various classes of materials treated in this volume, most notably in the field of adsorbates and molecular systems. An update of the most recent develop­ ments will be given in an additional Chapter 9. The editors would like to thank all the contributors who have supplied up­ dating material, and those who have provided us with suggestions for further improvements. We also thank Springer-Verlag for the decision to publish this second edition in paperback, thereby making this book affordable for an even wider circle of readers. Hamburg, July 1994 R. Wiesendanger Preface to the First Edition Since its invention in 1981 by G. Binnig, H. Rohrer and coworkers at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has devel­ oped into an invaluable surface analytical technique allowing the investigation of real-space surface structures at th...

  8. Modeling effect of cover condition and soil type on rotavirus transport in surface flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Rabin; Davidson, Paul C; Kalita, Prasanta K; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S

    2017-08-01

    Runoff from animal production facilities contains various microbial pathogens which pose a health hazard to both humans and animals. Rotavirus is a frequently detected pathogen in agricultural runoff and the leading cause of death among children around the world. Diarrheal infection caused by rotavirus causes more than two million hospitalizations and death of more than 500,000 children every year. Very little information is available on the environmental factors governing rotavirus transport in surface runoff. The objective of this study is to model rotavirus transport in overland flow and to compare the model results with experimental observations. A physically based model, which incorporates the transport of infective rotavirus particles in both liquid (suspension or free-floating) and solid phase (adsorbed to soil particles), has been used in this study. Comparison of the model results with experimental results showed that the model could reproduce the recovery kinetics satisfactorily but under-predicted the virus recovery in a few cases when multiple peaks were observed during experiments. Similarly, the calibrated model had a good agreement between observed and modeled total virus recovery. The model may prove to be a promising tool for developing effective management practices for controlling microbial pathogens in surface runoff.

  9. Structural study, by surface differential diffraction of neutrons, of the surface of a nickel powder covered with deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufils, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of the data of a neutron surface differential diffraction experiment, using H positions determined in the literature whenever available, supports the following model: Grains of the studied nickel powder are limited by (20 ± 10)% of (111) faces and 80% of (110) faces. The (110) faces expose (111) and (1¯11) facets because of anisotropic roughening. A new interpretation of the streaks observed in LEED patterns and a discussion of the coverage provides additional arguments in favour of the roughening. On the facets of the rough faces, the D atoms are displaced from the position they would have on a genuine (111) face. They are no longer on a C3 axis. The Ni atoms of the rough faces suffer an average displacement of 0.015 ± 0.015 nm in the [110] outward direction. The shortest NiD distance on the rough face is equal to 0.19 ± 0.015 nm.

  10. The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter, four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (p<0.05. Average runoff yield was 29.5% and 31.3% less than bare-soil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R = 0.99, p<0.05, and the efficiency in runoff reduction by litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by 72.9 and 5.4 times, respectively. The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately 96.7% when rainfall intensity increased from 5.7 to 75.6 mm h-1. Broadleaf and needle leaf litter showed similarly relevant effects on runoff and soil erosion control, since no significant differences (p≤0.05 were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (p<0.05 with sediment yield. These results suggest that the protective role of leaf litter in runoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes.

  11. The Effect of Leaf Litter Cover on Surface Runoff and Soil Erosion in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2014-01-01

    The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter), four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (prunoff yield was 29.5% and 31.3% less than bare-soil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R = 0.99, prunoff reduction by litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by 72.9 and 5.4 times, respectively. The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately 96.7% when rainfall intensity increased from 5.7 to 75.6 mm h−1. Broadleaf and needle leaf litter showed similarly relevant effects on runoff and soil erosion control, since no significant differences (p≤0.05) were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (prunoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes. PMID:25232858

  12. Mechanized covering application in equipment surfaces; Aplicacao mecanizada de revestimento em superficies de equipamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Billy A. de; Broering, Carlos E. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    Facing such challenges, the main objective of this work is to develop automated equipment and new welding procedures to be used to repair tank reservoirs operating in corrosive media. The equipment is expected to be applied directly in the maintenance of petrochemical plants. The project consists on a mechanical displacement device, able to move along a flexible rail, which can be fixed to a concave or convex surface and fitting itself to the geometry. A transversal arm gives it a second movement ability, allowing oscillatory displacements and the exact positioning of the pistol. As it is widely known, the automated welding process results in a considerably increase in productivity and quality, when comparing to the hand made process. Therefore, knowing the parameters involved and adjusted the welding variables to the best values, it is expected to achieve welding free of imperfections, inconsistencies and errors, and able to be repetitive. (author)

  13. Surface water hydrology considerations in predicting radon releases from water-covered areas of uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent study for EPA on radon releases from active uranium mills, the authors examined the potential for advective transport of radon through tailings pond waters along with other radon sources in the mill environment. This paper summarizes the parts of the study that dealt with radon releases from the tailings pond area, and discusses the nature and mechanisms of the radon releases from water-covered areas. A reference tailings impoundment is described according to several distinct physical regions, and the conditions affecting radon transport in each are described. Since radon transport through ponded water has not previously been modeled in detail, simple laboratory experiments were conducted to approximate the characteristic transport parameters. The results of these experiments were then used with parameters describing the tailings pond to assess the overall magnitude of radon release expected from the water-covered pond region. The significance of radon releases from the water-covered areas was estimated by comparison to radon fluxes from other, exposed tailings surfaces

  14. Surface Energy Exchange in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Environment: Flux Partitioning, and Seasonal and Land Cover-Related Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; González-Martínez, T.

    2015-12-01

    Relationships between seasonal climate, land cover and surface energy exchange in tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) environments are poorly understood. Yet, understanding these linkages is essential to evaluating the impacts of land use and climate change on the functioning of these unique ecosystems. In central Veracruz, Mexico, TMCF occurs between 1100 and 2500 m asl. The canopy of this forest consists of a mix of deciduous and broadleaved-evergreen tree species, the former of which shed their leaves for a short period during the dry season. The aim of this study was to quantify the surface energy balance, and seasonal variations therein, for TMCF, as well as for shaded coffee (CO) and sugarcane (SU), two important land uses that have replaced TMCF at lower elevations. Sensible (H) and latent heat (LE) fluxes were measured using eddy covariance and sap flow methods. Other measurements included: micrometeorological variables, soil heat flux, soil moisture and vegetation characteristics. Partitioning of available energy (A) into H and LE showed important seasonal changes as well as differences among land covers. During the wet-season month of July, average midday Bowen ratios for sunny days were lowest and least variable among land covers: 0.5 in TMCF and SU versus 0.7 in CO. However, because of higher A, along with lower Bowen ratio with respect to CO, LE over TMCF was ca. 20% higher compared to CO and SU. During the late dry-season months of March and April, average midday Bowen ratios for sunny days were generally much higher and more variable among land covers. The higher Bowen ratios indicated a reduction of LE under the drier conditions prevailing (low soil moisture and high VPD), something rarely observed in TMCFs. Moreover, because some trees were still partially leafless in March, LE over TMCF was about half that over CO and SU, suggesting an important effect of phenology on energy exchange of this TMCF. Observed differences between seasons and land

  15. How well do we characterize the biophysical effects of vegetation cover change? Benchmarking land surface models against satellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveiller, Gregory; Forzieri, Giovanni; Robertson, Eddy; Georgievski, Goran; Li, Wei; Lawrence, Peter; Ciais, Philippe; Pongratz, Julia; Sitch, Stephen; Wiltshire, Andy; Arneth, Almut; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Changes in vegetation cover can affect the climate by altering the carbon, water and energy cycles. The main tools to characterize such land-climate interactions for both the past and future are land surface models (LSMs) that can be embedded in larger Earth System models (ESMs). While such models have long been used to characterize the biogeochemical effects of vegetation cover change, their capacity to model biophysical effects accurately across the globe remains unclear due to the complexity of the phenomena. The result of competing biophysical processes on the surface energy balance varies spatially and seasonally, and can lead to warming or cooling depending on the specific vegetation change and on the background climate (e.g. presence of snow or soil moisture). Here we present a global scale benchmarking exercise of four of the most commonly used LSMs (JULES, ORCHIDEE, JSBACH and CLM) against a dedicated dataset of satellite observations. To facilitate the understanding of the causes that lead to discrepancies between simulated and observed data, we focus on pure transitions amongst major plant functional types (PFTs): from different tree types (evergreen broadleaf trees, deciduous broadleaf trees and needleleaf trees) to either grasslands or crops. From the modelling perspective, this entails generating a separate simulation for each PFT in which all 1° by 1° grid cells are uniformly covered with that PFT, and then analysing the differences amongst them in terms of resulting biophysical variables (e.g net radiation, latent and sensible heat). From the satellite perspective, the effect of pure transitions is obtained by unmixing the signal of different 0.05° spatial resolution MODIS products (albedo, latent heat, upwelling longwave radiation) over a local moving window using PFT maps derived from the ESA Climate Change Initiative land cover map. After aggregating to a common spatial support, the observation and model-driven datasets are confronted and

  16. A call for surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jensen, Christian S.; Tan, Kian-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The database field is experiencing an increasing need for survey papers. We call on more researchers to set aside time for this important writing activity. The database field is growing in population, scope of topics covered, and the number of papers published. Each year, thousands of new papers ...

  17. Absorption of Nickel, Chromium, and Iron by the Root Surface of Primary Molars Covered with Stainless Steel Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Keinan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to analyze the absorption of metal ions released from stainless steel crowns by root surface of primary molars. Study Design. Laboratory research: The study included 34 primary molars, exfoliated or extracted during routine dental treatment. 17 molars were covered with stainless-steel crowns for more than two years and compared to 17 intact primary molars. Chemical content of the mesial or distal root surface, 1 mm apically to the crown or the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ, was analyzed. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS was used for chemical analysis. Results. Higher amounts of nickel, chromium, and iron (5-6 times were found in the cementum of molars covered with stainless-steel crowns compared to intact molars. The differences between groups were highly significant (<.001. Significance. Stainless-steel crowns release nickel, chromium, and iron in oral environment, and the ions are absorbed by the primary molars roots. The additional burden of allergenic metals should be reduced if possible.

  18. Floor Covering and Surface Identification for Assistive Mobile Robotic Real-Time Room Localization Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gillham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assistive robotic applications require systems capable of interaction in the human world, a workspace which is highly dynamic and not always predictable. Mobile assistive devices face the additional and complex problem of when and if intervention should occur; therefore before any trajectory assistance is given, the robotic device must know where it is in real-time, without unnecessary disruption or delay to the user requirements. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel robust method for determining room identification from floor features in a real-time computational frame for autonomous and assistive robotics in the human environment. We utilize two inexpensive sensors: an optical mouse sensor for straightforward and rapid, texture or pattern sampling, and a four color photodiode light sensor for fast color determination. We show how data relating floor texture and color obtained from typical dynamic human environments, using these two sensors, compares favorably with data obtained from a standard webcam. We show that suitable data can be extracted from these two sensors at a rate 16 times faster than a standard webcam, and that these data are in a form which can be rapidly processed using readily available classification techniques, suitable for real-time system application. We achieved a 95% correct classification accuracy identifying 133 rooms’ flooring from 35 classes, suitable for fast coarse global room localization application, boundary crossing detection, and additionally some degree of surface type identification.

  19. Analysis and modelling of surface Urban Heat Island in 20 Canadian cities under climate and land-cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Abhishek; Eichenbaum, Markus Kalev; Simonovic, Slobodan P

    2018-01-15

    Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) is an urban climate phenomenon that is expected to respond to future climate and land-use land-cover change. It is important to further our understanding of physical mechanisms that govern SUHI phenomenon to enhance our ability to model future SUHI characteristics under changing geophysical conditions. In this study, SUHI phenomenon is quantified and modelled at 20 cities distributed across Canada. By analyzing MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensed surface temperature at the cities over 2002-2012, it is found that 16 out of 20 selected cities have experienced a positive SUHI phenomenon while 4 cities located in the prairies region and high elevation locations have experienced a negative SUHI phenomenon in the past. A statistically significant relationship between observed SUHI magnitude and city elevation is also recorded over the observational period. A Physical Scaling downscaling model is then validated and used to downscale future surface temperature projections from 3 GCMs and 2 extreme Representative Concentration Pathways in the urban and rural areas of the cities. Future changes in SUHI magnitudes between historical (2006-2015) and future timelines: 2030s (2026-2035), 2050s (2046-2055), and 2090s (2091-2100) are estimated. Analysis of future projected changes indicate that 15 (13) out of 20 cities can be expected to experience increases in SUHI magnitudes in future under RCP 2.6 (RCP 8.5). A statistically significant relationship between projected future SUHI change and current size of the cities is also obtained. The study highlights the role of city properties (i.e. its size, elevation, and surrounding land-cover) towards shaping their current and future SUHI characteristics. The results from this analysis will help decision-makers to manage Canadian cities more efficiently under rapidly changing geophysical and demographical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Silica-covered star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles as new electromagnetic nanoresonators for Raman characterisation of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczewski, Jan; Kołątaj, Karol; Pietrasik, Sylwia; Kudelski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    One of the tools used for determining the composition of surfaces of various materials is shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS). SHINERS is a modification of "standard" surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), in which, before Raman spectra are recorded, the surfaces analysed are covered with a layer of plasmonic nanoparticles protected by a very thin layer of a transparent dielectric. The plasmonic cores of the core-shell nanoparticles used in SHINERS measurements generate a local enhancement of the electric field of the incident electromagnetic radiation, whereas the transparent coatings prevent the metal cores from coming into direct contact with the material being analysed. In this contribution, we propose a new type of SHINERS nanoresonators that contain spiky, star-shaped metal cores (produced from a gold/silver alloy). These spiky, star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles have been covered by a layer of silica. The small radii of the ends of the tips of the spikes of these plasmonic nanostructures make it possible to generate a very large enhancement of the electromagnetic field there, with the result that such SHINERS nanoresonators are significantly more efficient than the standard semi-spherical nanostructures. The Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles were synthesised by the reduction of a solution containing silver nitrate and chloroauric acid by ascorbic acid. The final geometry of the nanostructures thus formed was controlled by changing the ratio between the concentrations of AuCl4- and Ag+ ions. The shape of the synthesised star-shaped Au-Ag nanoparticles does not change significantly during the two standard procedures for depositing a layer of silica (by the decomposition of sodium silicate or the decomposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate).

  1. Groundwater Recharge Rates and Surface Runoff Response to Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Semi-arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuor, Steven; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Guzha, Alphonce; Rufino, Mariana; Pelster, David; Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    Conclusive evidence and understanding of the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) on both groundwater recharge and surface runoff is critical for effective management of water resources in semi-arid region as those heavily depend on groundwater resources. However, there is limited quantitative evidence on how changes to LULC in semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions affect the subsurface components of the hydrologic cycle, particularly groundwater recharge. In this study, we reviewed a total of 27 studies (2 modelling and 25 experimental), which reported on pre- and post-land use change groundwater recharge or surface runoff magnitude, and thus allowed to quantify the response of groundwater recharge rates and runoff to LULC. Restoration of bare land induces a decrease in groundwater recharge from 42 % of precipitation to between 6 and 12 % depending on the final LULC. If forests are cleared for rangelands, groundwater recharge increases by 7.8 ± 12.6 %, while conversion to cropland or grassland results in increases of 3.4 ± 2.5 and 4.4 ± 3.3 %, respectively. Rehabilitation of bare land to cropland results in surface runoff reductions of between 5.2 and 7.3 %. The conversion of forest vegetation to managed LULC shows an increase in surface runoff from 1 to 14.1 % depending on the final LULC. Surface runoff is reduced from 2.5 to 1.1 % when grassland is converted to forest vegetation. While there is general consistency in the results from the selected case studies, we conclude that there are few experimental studies that have been conducted in tropical and subtropical semi-arid regions, despite that many people rely heavily on groundwater for their livelihoods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the body of quantitative evidence given the pressure of growing human population and climate change on water resources in the region.

  2. Partial least regression approach to forecast the East Asian winter monsoon using Eurasian snow cover and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lulu; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renhe; Yang, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal prediction of the East Asian (EA) winter monsoon (EAWM) is of great significance yet a challenging issue. In this study, three statistical seasonal prediction models for the EAWM are established using three leading modes of the Eurasian snow cover (ESC), the first leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) and the four leading modes of the combination of the ESC and SST in preceding autumn, respectively. These leading modes are identified by the partial-least square (PLS) regression. The first PLS (PLS1) mode for the ESC features significantly anomalous snow cover in Siberia and Tibetan Plateau regions. The ESC second PLS (PLS2) mode corresponds to large areas of snow cover anomalies in the central Siberia, whereas the third PLS (PLS3) mode a meridional seesaw pattern of ESC. The SST PLS1 mode basically exhibits an El Niño-Southern Oscillation developing phase in equatorial eastern Pacific and significant SST anomalies in North Atlantic. A strong EAWM tends to emerge in a La Niña year concurrent with cold SST anomalies in the North Atlantic, and vice versa. After a 35-year training period (1967-2001), three PLS seasonal prediction models are constructed and the 11-year hindcast is performed for the period of 2002-2012, respectively. The PLS model based on combination of the autumn ESC and SST exhibits the best hindcast skill among the three models, its correlation coefficient between the observation and the hindcast reaching 0.86. This indicates that this physical-based PLS model may provide another practical tool for the EAWM. In addition, the relative contribution of the ESC and SST is also examined by assessing the hindcast skills of the other two PLS models constructed solely by the ESC or SST. Possible physical mechanisms are also discussed.

  3. Spectral reflectance characteristics of different snow and snow-covered land surface objects and mixed spectrum fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.-H.; Zhou, Z.-M.; Wang, P.-J.; Yao, F.-M.; Yang, L.

    2011-01-01

    The field spectroradiometer was used to measure spectra of different snow and snow-covered land surface objects in Beijing area. The result showed that for a pure snow spectrum, the snow reflectance peaks appeared from visible to 800 nm band locations; there was an obvious absorption valley of snow spectrum near 1030 nm wavelength. Compared with fresh snow, the reflection peaks of the old snow and melting snow showed different degrees of decline in the ranges of 300~1300, 1700~1800 and 2200~2300 nm, the lowest was from the compacted snow and frozen ice. For the vegetation and snow mixed spectral characteristics, it was indicated that the spectral reflectance increased for the snow-covered land types(including pine leaf with snow and pine leaf on snow background), due to the influence of snow background in the range of 350~1300 nm. However, the spectrum reflectance of mixed pixel remained a vegetation spectral characteristic. In the end, based on the spectrum analysis of snow, vegetation, and mixed snow/vegetation pixels, the mixed spectral fitting equations were established, and the results showed that there was good correlation between spectral curves by simulation fitting and observed ones(correlation coefficient R2=0.9509).

  4. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  5. Development of a methodology for monthly forecasting of surface fires of Colombia's vegetation cover, an application to north Andean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernandez, Yolanda; Rangel CH, Jesus Orlando

    2004-01-01

    In the present article a methodology is presented for the forecasting of the monthly risk of surface fires of the vegetation cover in Colombia, based on the analysis of meteorological components and variables of climatic and anthropic variability involved in fire risks of the north Andean region. The methodology enables one to regionalize the country, with fire prediction purposes in mind, into ten sub-regions, in each one of which seven height levels are defined to make up separate regions of study. For each of these, a database is built to feed both the logistic regression models and the Poisson models, which identify the variables independent from, and/or associated with the presence or absence of fires

  6. Morphology and grain structure evolution during epitaxial growth of Ag films on native-oxide-covered Si surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Kim, Hong Koo; Perello, David; Yun, Minhee; Kulovits, Andreas; Wiezorek, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanocrystalline Ag films were grown on initially native-oxide-covered Si(001) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Mechanisms of grain growth and morphology evolution were investigated. An epitaxially oriented Ag layer (∼5 nm thick) formed on the oxide-desorbed Si surface during the initial growth phase. After a period of growth instability, characterized as kinetic roughening, grain growth stagnation, and increase of step-edge density, a layer of nanocrystalline Ag grains with a uniform size distribution appeared on the quasi-two-dimensional layer. This hierarchical process of film formation is attributed to the dynamic interplay between incoming energetic Ag particles and native oxide. The cyclic interaction (desorption and migration) of the oxide with the growing Ag film is found to play a crucial role in the characteristic evolution of grain growth and morphology change involving an interval of grain growth stagnation

  7. Sensitivity of Asian and African climate to variations in seasonal insolation, glacial ice cover, sea surface temperature, and Asian orography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenocal, Peter B.; Rind, David

    1993-01-01

    A general circulation model was used to investigate the sensitivity of Asian and African climate to prescribed changes in boundary conditions with the objective of identifying the relative importance of individual high-latitude glacial boundary conditions on seasonal climate and providing a physical basis for interpreting the paleoclimate record. The circulation model is described and results are presented. Insolation forcing increased summer Asian monsoon winds, while increased high-latitude ice cover strengthened winter Asian trade winds causing decreased precipitation. These factors had little effect on African climate. Cooler North Atlantic sea surface temperatures enhanced winter trade winds over North Africa, southern Asian climate was relatively unaffected. Reducing Asian orography enhanced Asian winter circulation while decreasing the summer monsoon. These model results suggest that African and southern Asian climate respond differently to separate elements of high-latitude climate variability.

  8. Surface cover infiltration index: a suggested method to assess infiltration capacity for intrinsic vulnerability in karstic areas in absence of quantitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezcan Levent

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Karst is a hydrogeological environment of importance not only for its water resources potential but also for its scenic and economic potential, thereby increasing the intensity of human impact. The uniqueness of karst in this regard stems from its high sensitivity and vulnerability to imposed pressures and its distinctive response to these pressures. Therefore, a clear definition and formulation of the concept of ‘intrinsic vulnerability’ is essential for the design of vulnerability and/or management criteria of the karstic system as a resource. In this regard, the recharge rate, the amount of water passing through the unsaturated zone into the aquifer, is among the principal attributes of the intrinsic vulnerability. Where data and measurements are available for even large areas, recharge can be evaluated quantitatively on the basis of field measurements and the water balance equation. However, particularly for countries suffering from lack of essential data for a quantitative evaluation of the net recharge rate, the recharge can be estimated using some derived parameters such as the so calledSurface Cover Infiltration Index’ proposed in this paper. The DRASTIC method which is modified by using SCI, soil thickness and precipitation, allows the unique hydrological behavior of karst to be considered by redistributing of the intrinsic vulnerability values on the basis of hydrologic connections between neighboring cells. Following a detailed description of the SCI index and the modification of DRASTIC method for karst aquifers, a case study carried out to demonstrate this method is presented in this paper whose objective is to discuss and thus elaborate the suggested methodology. The Olimpos National Park area was selected because the great variation in lithology, landuse and topography. It was found that the relative vulnerability may vary particularly in the neighborhood of the highly vulnerable cells covered by carbonate rocks. The

  9. Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM. Part II: Analysis of lake surface temperature and ice cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Kheyrollah Pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a study on the impact of remote-sensing Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT observations in the analysis of lake surface state of a numerical weather prediction (NWP model. Data assimilation experiments were performed with the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM, a three-dimensional operational NWP model. Selected thermal remote-sensing LSWT observations provided by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR sensors onboard the Terra/Aqua and ENVISAT satellites, respectively, were included into the assimilation. The domain of our experiments, which focussed on two winters (2010–2011 and 2011–2012, covered northern Europe. Validation of the resulting objective analyses against independent observations demonstrated that the description of the lake surface state can be improved by the introduction of space-borne LSWT observations, compared to the result of pure prognostic parameterisations or assimilation of the available limited number of in-situ lake temperature observations. Further development of the data assimilation methods and solving of several practical issues are necessary in order to fully benefit from the space-borne observations of lake surface state for the improvement of the operational weather forecast. This paper is the second part of a series of two papers aimed at improving the objective analysis of lake temperature and ice conditions in HIRLAM.

  10. Bacteria at glacier surfaces: microbial community structures in debris covered glaciers and cryoconites in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzoni, Roberto; Franzetti, Andrea; Ambrosini, Roberto; D'Agata, Carlo; Senese, Antonella; Minora, Umberto; Tagliaferri, Ilario; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2014-05-01

    Supraglacial debris has an important role in the glacier energy budget and has strong influence on the glacial ecosystem. Sediment derives generally from rock inputs from nesting rockwalls and are abundant and continuous at the surface of debris-covered glaciers (i.e. DCGs; glaciers where the ablation area is mainly covered by rock debris) and sparse and fine on debris-free glaciers (DFGs). Recently, evidence for significant tongue darkening on retreating debris-free glaciers has been drawing increasing attention. Fine particles, the cryoconite, are locally abundant and may form cryoconite holes that are water-filled depressions on the surface of DFGs that form when a thin layer of cryoconite is heated by the sun and melts the underlying ice. There is increasing evidence that cryoconite holes also host highly diverse microbial communities and can significantly contribute to global carbon cycle. However, there is almost no study on microbial communities of the debris cover of DCGs and there is a lack of data from the temporal evolution of the microbial communities in the cryoconites. To fill these gaps in our knowledge we characterized the supraglacial debris of two Italian DCGs and we investigated the temporal evolution of microbial communities on cryoconite holes in DFG. We used the Illumina technology to analyse the V5 and V6 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified from samples collected distances from the terminus of two DCGs (Miage and Belvedere Glaciers - Western Italian Alps). Heterotrophic taxa dominated bacterial communities, whose structure changed during downwards debris transport. Organic carbon of these recently exposed substrates therefore is probably provided more by allochthonous deposition of organic matter than by primary production by autotrophic organisms. We used ARISA fingerprinting and quantitative PCR to describe the structure and the evolution of the microbial communities and to estimate the number of the total

  11. Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, R.F.; Rockwell, B.W.; Haire, S.L.; King, T.V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation

  12. Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Jedlovec, G.; Meyer, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will

  13. Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    City growth influences the development of the urban heat island (UHI), but the effect that local meteorology has on the UHI is less well known. This paper presents some preliminary findings from a study that uses multitemporal Landsat TM and ASTER data to evaluate land cover/land use change (LULCC) over the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) and its Huntsville, AL metropolitan area. Landsat NLCD data for 1992 and 2001 have been used to evaluate LULCC for MSFC and the surrounding urban area. Land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity derived from NLCD data have also been analyzed to assess changes in these parameters in relation to LULCC. Additionally, LULCC, LST, and emissivity have been identified from ASTER data from 2001 and 2011 to provide a comparison with the 2001 NLCD and as a measure of current conditions within the study area. As anticipated, the multi-temporal NLCD and ASTER data show that significant changes have occurred in land covers, LST, and emissivity within and around MSFC. The patterns and arrangement of these changes, however, is significant because the juxtaposition of urban land covers within and outside of MSFC provides insight on what impacts at a local to regional scale, the inter-linkage of these changes potentially have on meteorology. To further analyze these interactions between LULCC, LST, and emissivity with the lower atmosphere, a network of eleven weather stations has been established across the MSFC property. These weather stations provide data at a 10 minute interval, and these data are uplinked for use by MSFC facilities operations and the National Weather Service. The weather data are also integrated within a larger network of meteorological stations across north Alabama. Given that the MSFC weather stations will operate for an extended period of time, they can be used to evaluate how the building of new structures, and changes in roadways, and green spaces as identified in the MSFC master plan for the future, will

  14. Do Surface Energy Fluxes Reveal Land Use/Land Cover Change in South Florida?: A Remote Sensing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Series of changes on land use/ land cover in South Florida resulting from drainage and development activities during early to mid-20th followed by restoration measures since late-20th century have had prominent impacts on hydrologic regime and energy fluxes in the region. Previous results from numerical modeling and MODIS-based analysis have shown a shift in dominance of heat fluxes: from latent to sensible along the axes of urbanization, and an opposite along the axes of restoration. This study implements a slightly modified version of surface energy balance algorithm (SEBAL) on cloud-masked Landsat imageries archived over the period of 30-years combined with ground-meteorological data for South Florida using spatial analysis model in ArcGIS and calculates energy flux components: sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and ground heat flux. The study finally computes variation of Bowen's ratio (BR) and daily evapotranspiration (ET) rate over various land covers for different years. Coexistences are apparent between increased BR and increased intensity of urbanization, and between increased daily ET rates and improved best management practices in agricultural areas. An increase in mean urban BR from 1.67 in 1984 to 3.06 in 2010 show plausible link of BR with urban encroachment of open lands, and expulsion of additional heat by increased population/automobiles/factories/air conditioning units. Likewise, increase in mean agricultural daily ET rates from 0.21 mm/day to 3.60 mm/day between 1984 to 2010 probably shows the effects of improved moisture conditions on the northern farm lands as the results of restoration practices. Once new observed data become available to corroborate these results, remote sensing methods-owing to their greater spatial and temporal details-can be used as assessment measures both for the progress of restoration evaluation and for the extent detection of human-induced climate change.

  15. Debris cover and surface melt at a temperate maritime alpine glacier: Franz Josef Glacier, Southern Alps, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Hagg, Wilfried; Winkler, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    During the last few years, after three decades of generally positive mass balance, Franz Josef Glacier (Southern Alps, New Zealand) has entered into a phase of strong frontal retreat. This development is combined with significant downwasting of the lower glacier tongue and a concurrent increasing emergence of debris on the surface in the ablation zone. Previously, melt rates at Franz Josef Glacier have only been measured on bare ice, so a short-term study in February 2012 saw a network of 11 ablation stakes drilled into locations of varying supraglacial debris thickness on the lower glacier. Direct ablation measurements were accompanied by observations of air temperatures and mapping of debris thickness and its distribution on the lower glacier tongue in order to calculate the potential effect of reduced overall ablation. Mean ablation rates over 9 days varied over the range 1.2-10.1 cm d-1 and were closely related to debris thickness. Air temperatures provided a strong indicator of daily melt rates and by applying a degree-day approach, a range of degree-day factors between 1.1 and 8.1 mm d-1 °C-1 with a mean of 4.4 mm d-1 °C-1 was obtained. These values are comparable with rates reported in other studies. Mapping of the entire ablation zone revealed an area of 0.7 km2 (or 14.3 %) covered by debris of 1-50 cm thickness. Based on measured debris thicknesses and calculated degree-day factors, ablation on those debris-covered areas of the glacier is reduced by a total of 41%. For the entire ablation zone this equates to a 6% overall reduction in melt. This study highlights the usefulness of short-term surveys to gather representative ablation data.

  16. An energy balance model exploration of the impacts of interactions between surface albedo, cloud cover and water vapor on polar amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södergren, A. Helena; McDonald, Adrian J.; Bodeker, Gregory E.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the effects of non-linear interactions between surface albedo, water vapor and cloud cover (referred to as climate variables) on amplified warming of the polar regions, using a new energy balance model. Our simulations show that the sum of the contributions to surface temperature changes due to any variable considered in isolation is smaller than the temperature changes from coupled feedback simulations. This non-linearity is strongest when all three climate variables are allowed to interact. Surface albedo appears to be the strongest driver of this non-linear behavior, followed by water vapor and clouds. This is because increases in longwave radiation absorbed by the surface, related to increases in water vapor and clouds, and increases in surface absorbed shortwave radiation caused by a decrease in surface albedo, amplify each other. Furthermore, our results corroborate previous findings that while increases in cloud cover and water vapor, along with the greenhouse effect itself, warm the polar regions, water vapor also significantly warms equatorial regions, which reduces polar amplification. Changes in surface albedo drive large changes in absorption of incoming shortwave radiation, thereby enhancing surface warming. Unlike high latitudes, surface albedo change at low latitudes are more constrained. Interactions between surface albedo, water vapor and clouds drive larger increases in temperatures in the polar regions compared to low latitudes. This is in spite of the fact that, due to a forcing, cloud cover increases at high latitudes and decreases in low latitudes, and that water vapor significantly enhances warming at low latitudes.

  17. XPS study of the surface chemistry of Ag-covered L-CVD SnO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwoka, M.; Ottaviano, L.; Passacantando, M.; Czempik, G.; Santucci, S.; Szuber, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of SnO 2 thin films prepared by laser chemical vapour deposition (L-CVD) and subsequently covered by Ag atoms just after deposition and after long-term exposed to dry air, subsequent annealing in ultra high vacuum at 400 deg. C and dry air oxidation at 400 deg. C. Using the standard analytical procedure based on atomic sensitivity factors, the variation of surface chemistry defined in terms of the relative concentration of the main components of the films after the above-mentioned procedures has been determined. It was confirmed that after dry air exposure as well as dry air oxidation, the layers undergo an oxidation reaching almost SnO 2 stoichiometry. Besides, during ultra high vacuum annealing, the films undergo reduction to almost SnO stoichiometry. At the same time, Ag atoms deposited at the top of layers diffuse into the subsurface layers. This was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis

  18. Clearance of buildings for demolition: ways to clearance on the standing structure for covered surfaces and inaccessible areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thraenert, S.; Riemann, T.

    2014-01-01

    structure for about half of this area, and until 2014 most of the remaining area will be treated accordingly. However, due to the building design of Wuergassen NPP, not all surfaces are directly accessible to full-area characterization on the standing structure and not all areas can be completely decontaminated in a cost-effective manner. The most prominent structure is the open gap between the turbine foundations and the surrounding turbine building, but similar gaps also exist between the turbine building and, e.g., the reactor building. In addition, the lower basement floors of the RCA buildings consist of several horizontal layers of concrete which, during construction, did not completely bond. As a result, contaminated liquids propagated along the existing boundary surfaces and hot spots up to 100 kBq are now covered by about 0.5 m of low-activity material. For this variety of challenging examples Wuergassen NPP proposed the release process to the competent authority, performed measurements and provided interpretation of the data. The release process is aimed at verifying compliance with the clearance levels on the standing structure. TUV NORD Nuclear is involved in the release process on behalf of the competent authority to expertise the procedure, to supervise the measurements and to review the data evaluation. Regarding the boundary surfaces between two concrete layers it was possible to gain access to the covered surface by fragmenting the upper concrete layer into blocks. The decontaminated surfaces comply with the clearance levels and the decontaminated concrete blocks may remain on site. An existing gap between the turbine building and the reactor building was characterized by using special equipment. It could be shown, that the residual contamination within the gap complies with the clearance levels. If it is not possible to do a complete decontamination according to static reasons, the residual radioactivity can be determined for further use in the dose

  19. Surface lowering of the debris-covered area of Kanchenjunga Glacier in the eastern Nepal Himalaya since 1975, as revealed by Hexagon KH-9 and ALOS satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Damodar; Fujita, Koji; Sakai, Akiko

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the geodetic mass balance of Kanchenjunga Glacier, one of the largest debris-covered glaciers in the easternmost Nepal Himalaya, which possesses a negative mass balance of -0.18 ± 0.17 m w.e. a-1 for the 1975-2010 study period, estimated using digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from Hexagon KH-9 and ALOS PRISM stereo images. Accurate DEMs, with a relative uncertainty of ±5.5 m, were generated from the intensive and manual editing of triangulated irregular network (TIN) models on a stereo MirrorTM/3D Monitor. The glacier ice-flow velocity field was also calculated using a feature-tracking method that was applied to two ALOS orthoimages taken in 2010. The elevation differences between the two DEMs highlight considerable surface lowering across the debris-covered area, and a slight thickening in the accumulation area of Kanchenjunga Glacier between 1975 and 2010. The magnitude and gradient of surface lowering are similar among the six glacier tributaries, even though they are situated at different elevations, which may reflect variations in the ice-flow velocity field. The pattern of surface lowering correlates well with the ice-flow velocity field over the debris-covered portion of the main tributary, suggesting that the glacier dynamics significantly affect surface lowering by altering the emergence velocity along the glacier, particularly in the compressive ablation area. Surface-lowering patterns partially correspond to the supraglacial pond area fraction of the glacier, with enhanced surface lowering observed in areas that possess a larger pond area fraction. These findings support the hypothesis that supraglacial ponds may intensify ice wastage and play a key role in the heterogeneous surface lowering of debris-covered glaciers. The estimated mass loss of Kanchenjunga Glacier is moderate compared with other debris-covered glaciers in neighboring Himalayan regions, which may be due to the lower pond area fraction of Kanchenjunga

  20. Attributing the impacts of land-cover changes in temperate regions on surface temperature and heat fluxes to specific causes: Results from the first LUCID set of simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boisier, J.P.; Noblet-Ducoudré, de N.; Pitman, A.J.; Cruz, F.T.; Delire, C.; Hurk, van den B.J.J.M.; Molen, van der M.K.; Müller, C.; Voldoire, A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface cooling in temperate regions is a common biogeophysical response to historical Land-Use induced Land Cover Change (LULCC). The climate models involved in LUCID show, however, significant differences in the magnitude and the seasonal partitioning of the temperature change. The LULCC-induced

  1. Changes in canopy cover alter surface air and forest floor temperature in a high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny L. Boggs; Steven G. McNulty

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe winter and summer surface air and forest floor temperature patterns and diurnal fluctuations in high-elevation red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forests with different levels of canopy cover. In 1988, a series of 10- x 10-meter plots (control, low nitrogen [N] addition, and high nitrogen addition) were...

  2. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  3. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  4. Variation and significance of surface heat after the mechanical sand control of Qinghai–Tibet Railway was covered with sandy sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Xie

    Full Text Available Mechanical control of drifting sand used to protect the Qinghai–Tibet Railway from sand damage inevitably results in sand deposition, and the change in radiation and heat flux after the ground surface is covered with sandy sediments remains unclear. These variations were studied in this work through field observations along with laboratory analyses and tests. After the ground surface was covered with sandy sediments produced by the mechanical control of sand in the Qinghai–Tibet Railway, the reflectivity increased, and the annual average reflectivity on the surface covered with sandy sediments was higher than that without sandy sediments, with the value increasing by 0.043. Moreover, the surface shortwave radiation increased, whereas the surface net radiation decreased. The annual average value of the surface shortwave radiant flux density on the sandy sediments was higher than that without sandy sediments, with the value increasing by 7.291 W·m−2. The annual average value of the surface net radiant flux density on the sandy sediments decreased by 9.639 W·m−2 compared with that without sandy sediments. The soil heat flux also decreased, and the annual average value of the heat flux in the sandy sediments decreased by 0.375 W·m−2 compared with that without sandy sediments. These variations caused the heat source on the surface of sandy sediments underground to decrease, which is beneficial for preventing permafrost from degradation in the section of sand control of the railway. Keywords: Mechanical control of sand, Sand depositions, Surface radiation, Heat flux, Qinghai–Tibet Railway

  5. Integrated Landsat Image Analysis and Hydrologic Modeling to Detect Impacts of 25-Year Land-Cover Change on Surface Runoff in a Philippine Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Paringit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Landsat MSS and ETM+ images were analyzed to detect 25-year land-cover change (1976–2001 in the critical Taguibo Watershed in Mindanao Island, Southern Philippines. This watershed has experienced historical modifications of its land-cover due to the presence of logging industries in the 1950s, and continuous deforestation due to illegal logging and slash-and-burn agriculture in the present time. To estimate the impacts of land-cover change on watershed runoff, land-cover information derived from the Landsat images was utilized to parameterize a GIS-based hydrologic model. The model was then calibrated with field-measured discharge data and used to simulate the responses of the watershed in its year 2001 and year 1976 land-cover conditions. The availability of land-cover information on the most recent state of the watershed from the Landsat ETM+ image made it possible to locate areas for rehabilitation such as barren and logged-over areas. We then created a “rehabilitated” land-cover condition map of the watershed (re-forestation of logged-over areas and agro-forestation of barren areas and used it to parameterize the model and predict the runoff responses of the watershed. Model results showed that changes in land-cover from 1976 to 2001 were directly related to the significant increase in surface runoff. Runoff predictions showed that a full rehabilitation of the watershed, especially in barren and logged-over areas, will be likely to reduce the generation of a huge volume of runoff during rainfall events. The results of this study have demonstrated the usefulness of multi-temporal Landsat images in detecting land-cover change, in identifying areas for rehabilitation, and in evaluating rehabilitation strategies for management of tropical watersheds through its use in hydrologic modeling.

  6. Observed radiative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau for the past three decades driven by snow cover-induced surface albedo anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaona; Long, Di; Hong, Yang; Liang, Shunlin; Hou, Aizhong

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a sensitive indicator of climate change. Unlike the decreasing snow cover extent and associated weakening of radiative cooling effects for the Northern Hemisphere during recent decades reported by previous studies, snow cover variability over the TP and its impact on the energy budget remain largely unknown. We defined the snow cover-induced radiative forcing (SnRF) as the instantaneous perturbation to Earth's shortwave radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) induced by the presence of snow cover. Here using satellite observations and a radiative kernel approach, we found slightly enhanced SnRF, i.e., a radiative cooling effect on the TP during the past three decades (1982-2014). However, this cooling effect weakened during 2001-2014 because of reduced snow cover at a rate of -0.61% decade-1 and land surface albedo at a rate of -0.72% decade-1. Changes in snow cover fraction are highly correlated with anomalies in land surface albedo (as) over the TP both spatially and temporally. Moreover, the SnRF is closely related to the direct observation of TOA shortwave flux anomalies (R2 = 0.54, p = 0.004) over the TP during 2001-2014. Despite the insignificant interannual variability in SnRF, its intra-annual variability has intensified driven mostly by enhanced SnRF during the snow accumulation season but weakened SnRF during the melt season, indicating greater energy release during the transition between accumulation and melt seasons. This may pose a great challenge to snow meltwater use and flood prediction for transboundary rivers originating from the TP, such as the Brahmaputra River basin.

  7. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for the Quantitative Analysis of Land Cover of Lower Areas of Sindh to Assess the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisar, Maha

    2016-07-01

    Due to the present land use practices and climate variability, drastic shifts in regional climate and land covers are easily seen and their future reduction and gain are too well predicted. Therefore, there is an increasing need for data on land-cover changes at narrow and broad spatial scales. In this study, a remote sensing-based technique for land-cover-change analysis is applied to the lower Sindh areas for the last decade. Landsat satellite products were analyzed on an alternate yearly basis, from 1990 to 2016. Then Land-cover-change magnitudes were measured and mapped for alternate years. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the critical elements in the natural phenomena of surface energy and water balance at local and global extent. However, LST was computed by using Landsat thermal bands via brightness temperature and a vegetation index. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was interpreted and maps were achieved. LST reflected NDVI patterns with complexity of vegetation patterns. Along with this, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was done for classifying 5 major classes of water, vegetation, urban, marshy lands and barren lands with significant map layouts. Pakistan Meteorological Department provided the climate data in which rainfall, temperature and air temperature are included. Once the LST and OBIA are performed, overlay analysis was done to correlate the results of LST with OBIA and LST with meteorological data to ascertain the changes in land covers due to increasing centigrade of LST. However, satellite derived LST was also correlated with climate data for environmental analysis and to estimate Land Surface Temperature for assessing the inverse impacts of climate variability. This study's results demonstrate the land-cover changes in Lower Areas of Sindh including the Indus Delta mostly involve variations in land-cover conditions due to inter-annual climatic variability and temporary shifts in seasonality. However it is too concluded

  8. Adsorption, desorption, and film formation of quinacridone and its thermal cracking product indigo on clean and carbon-covered silicon dioxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherwitzl, Boris; Lassnig, Roman; Truger, Magdalena; Resel, Roland; Leising, Günther; Winkler, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    The evaporation of quinacridone from a stainless steel Knudsen cell leads to the partial decomposition of this molecule in the cell, due to its comparably high sublimation temperature. At least one additional type of molecules, namely indigo, could be detected in the effusion flux. Thermal desorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to study the co-deposition of these molecules on sputter-cleaned and carbon-covered silicon dioxide surfaces. Desorption of indigo appears at temperatures of about 400 K, while quinacridone desorbs at around 510 K. For quinacridone, a desorption energy of 2.1 eV and a frequency factor for desorption of 1 × 10 19 s −1 were calculated, which in this magnitude is typical for large organic molecules. A fraction of the adsorbed quinacridone molecules (∼5%) decomposes during heating, nearly independent of the adsorbed amount, resulting in a surface composed of small carbon islands. The sticking coefficients of indigo and quinacridone were found to be close to unity on a carbon covered SiO 2 surface but significantly smaller on a sputter-cleaned substrate. The reason for the latter can be attributed to insufficient energy dissipation for unfavorably oriented impinging molecules. However, due to adsorption via a hot-precursor state, the sticking probability is increased on the surface covered with carbon islands, which act as accommodation centers.

  9. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, D.; Schaepman-Strub, G.; Bartholomeus, H.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Maximov, T.C.; Berendse, F.

    2011-01-01

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming.

  10. Staining and calculus formation after 0.12% chlorhexidine rinses in plaque-free and plaque covered surfaces: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Batistin Zanatta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Studies concerning side effects of chlorhexidine as related to the presence of plaque are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the side effects of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX on previously plaque-free (control group and plaque-covered surfaces (test group. METHODS: This study had a single-blind, randomized, split-mouth, 21 days-experimental gingivitis design, including 20 individuals who abandoned all mechanical plaque control methods during 25 days. After 4 days of plaque accumulation, the individuals had 2 randomized quadrants cleaned, remaining 2 quadrants with plaque-covered dental surfaces. On the fourth day, the individuals started with 0.12% CHX rinsing lasting for 21 days. Stain index intensity and extent as well as calculus formation were evaluated during the experimental period. RESULTS: Intergroup comparisons showed statistically higher (p<0.05 stain intensity and extent index as well as calculus formation over the study in test surfaces as compared to control surfaces. Thus, 26.19% of test surfaces presented calculus, whereas calculus was observed in 4.52% in control surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of plaque increased 0.12% CHX side effects. These results strengthen the necessity of biofilm disruption prior to the start of CHX mouthrinses in order to reduce side effects.

  11. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank [Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela [Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bartholomeus, Harm [Centre for Geo-Information, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Maximov, Trofim C, E-mail: daan.blok@wur.nl [Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, 41, Lenin Prospekt, Yakutsk, The Republic of Sakha, Yakutia 677980 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  12. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Bartholomeus, Harm; Maximov, Trofim C

    2011-01-01

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  13. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  15. Land Use and Land Cover, Impervious Surface - contains polygons that represent houses, buildings, roads, driveways, sidewalks, pools, patios, parking lots, pavements, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Land Use and Land Cover dataset current as of 2008. Impervious Surface - contains polygons that represent houses, buildings, roads, driveways, sidewalks, pools,...

  16. Call Forecasting for Inbound Call Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vinje

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of inbound call center customer service, the ability to forecast calls is a key element and advantage. By forecasting the correct number of calls a company can predict staffing needs, meet service level requirements, improve customer satisfaction, and benefit from many other optimizations. This project will show how elementary statistics can be used to predict calls for a specific company, forecast the rate at which calls are increasing/decreasing, and determine if the calls may stop at some point.

  17. Impacts of land use and cover change on terrestrial carbon stocks and the micro-climate over urban surface: a case study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Zhan, J.; Bai, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Land use and cover change is the key factor affecting terrestrial carbon stocks and micro-climate, and their dynamics not only in regional ecosystems but also in urbanized areas. Using the typical fast-growing city of Shanghai, China as a case study, this paper explored the relationships between terrestrial carbon stocks, micro-climate and land cover within an urbanized area. The main objectives were to assess variation in soil carbon stocks and local climate conditions across terrestrial land covers with different intensities of urban development, and quantify spatial distribution and dynamic variation of carbon stocks and microclimate in response to urban land use and cover change. On the basis of accurate spatial datasets derived from a series of Landsat TM images during the years 1988 to 2010 and reliable estimates of urban climate and soil carbon stocks using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model, our results showed that carbon stocks per unit area in terrestrial land covers decreased and urban temperature increased with increasing intensity of urban development. Urban land use and cover change and sealing of the soil surface created hotspots for losses in carbon stocks. Total carbon stocks in Shanghai decreased by about 30%-35%, representing a 1.5% average annual decrease, and the temperature increased by about 0.23-0.4°/10a during the past 20 years. We suggested potential policy measures to mitigate negative effects of land use and cover change on carbon stocks and microclimate in urbanized areas.

  18. The adsorption of NO on an oxygen pre-covered Pt(1 1 1) surface: in situ high-resolution XPS combined with molecular beam studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J. F.; Kinne, M.; Fuhrmann, T.; Tränkenschuh, B.; Denecke, R.; Steinrück, H.-P.

    2003-12-01

    Adsorption of NO on a Pt(1 1 1) surface pre-covered with a p(2 × 2) atomic oxygen layer has been studied in situ by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed XPS using third-generation synchrotron radiation at BESSY II, Berlin, combined with molecular beam techniques and ex situ by low energy electron diffraction and temperature-programmed desorption. O 1s XP spectra reveal that an ordered p(2 × 2)-O layer dramatically changes the adsorption behavior of NO as compared to the clean surface. The atomic oxygen occupies fcc hollow sites, and therefore blocks NO adsorption on these sites, which are energetically preferred on clean Pt(1 1 1). As a consequence, NO populates on-top sites at low coverage. At 110 K for higher coverages, NO can additionally adsorb on hcp hollow sites, thereby inducing a shift of the O 1s binding energy of atomic oxygen towards lower energies by about 0.25 eV. The bond strength of the hcp hollow NO species to the substrate is weakened by the presence of atomic oxygen. A sharp p(2 × 2) LEED pattern is observed for NO adsorption on the oxygen pre-covered surface, up to saturation coverage. The total saturation coverage of NO on Pt(1 1 1) pre-covered with varying amounts of oxygen (below 0.25 ML) decreases linearly with the coverage of oxygen. The initial sticking coefficient of NO is reduced from 0.96 on clean Pt(1 1 1) to 0.88 on a p(2 × 2) oxygen pre-covered surface.

  19. Process and associated equipment for decontaminating, cleaning all surfaces which are covered with transferrable contamination of a nuclear nature, without creating other wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiesse, J.-C.G.; Chauvet, S.; Chabert, R.E.; Dezu, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for removing all transferrable contamination of a nuclear nature without creating new nuclear contamination wastes. This process is characterised by the following three stages: spraying and covering the contaminated surfaces with dry ice, without causing any blast; spraying a jet of steam or hot air on to the coated surfaces from very close range; forced ventilation causing total evaporation of the dry ice, bringing about the phenomenon of sublimation. The device for applying the process comprises a dry ice emitter and a spray nozzle for water vapour at a temperature in excess of 70 0 C. (author)

  20. Frozen soil and snow cover with respect to the hydrological land-surface behaviour; Gefrorener Boden und Schneebedeckung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des hydrologischen Verhaltens der Landoberflaeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrach, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2000-07-01

    Investigations of the water and energy cycle in the climate system using atmospheric circulation models require a proper representation of the land surface. The land-surface model SEWAB calculates the vertical exchange of water and energy between the atmosphere and the land-surface. This includes the calculation of runoff from the land-surface into the rivers and of the vertical heat and water fluxes within the soil. The inclusion of soil freezing and thawing and the accumulation and ablation of a snow cover in SEWAB is introduced. Additionally changes in the runoff calculation such as the inclusion of the TOPMODEL-approach to consider orographic effects are made. Applications carried out for various regions of North America show good agreement between model results and measurements. (orig.)

  1. Staining and calculus formation after 0.12% chlorhexidine rinses in plaque-free and plaque covered surfaces: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2010-01-01

    Studies concerning side effects of chlorhexidine as related to the presence of plaque are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the side effects of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on previously plaque-free (control group) and plaque-covered surfaces (test group). This study had a single-blind, randomized, split-mouth, 21 days-experimental gingivitis design, including 20 individuals who abandoned all mechanical plaque control methods during 25 days. After 4 days of plaque accumulation, the individuals had 2 randomized quadrants cleaned, remaining 2 quadrants with plaque-covered dental surfaces. On the fourth day, the individuals started with 0.12% CHX rinsing lasting for 21 days. Stain index intensity and extent as well as calculus formation were evaluated during the experimental period. Intergroup comparisons showed statistically higher (pcontrol surfaces. Thus, 26.19% of test surfaces presented calculus, whereas calculus was observed in 4.52% in control surfaces. The presence of plaque increased 0.12% CHX side effects. These results strengthen the necessity of biofilm disruption prior to the start of CHX mouthrinses in order to reduce side effects.

  2. Comparison between MODIS-derived day and night cloud cover and surface observations over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Tan, Saichun; Shi, Guangyu

    2018-02-01

    Satellite and human visual observation are two of the most important observation approaches for cloud cover. In this study, the total cloud cover (TCC) observed by MODIS onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites was compared with Synop meteorological station observations over the North China Plain and its surrounding regions for 11 years during daytime and 7 years during nighttime. The Synop data were recorded eight times a day at 3-h intervals. Linear interpolation was used to interpolate the Synop data to the MODIS overpass time in order to reduce the temporal deviation between the satellite and Synop observations. Results showed that MODIS-derived TCC had good consistency with the Synop observations; the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.56 in winter to 0.73 in summer for Terra MODIS, and from 0.55 in winter to 0.71 in summer for Aqua MODIS. However, they also had certain differences. On average, the MODIS-derived TCC was 15.16% higher than the Synop data, and this value was higher at nighttime (15.58%-16.64%) than daytime (12.74%-14.14%). The deviation between the MODIS and Synop TCC had large seasonal variation, being largest in winter (29.53%-31.07%) and smallest in summer (4.46%-6.07%). Analysis indicated that cloud with low cloud-top height and small cloud optical thickness was more likely to cause observation bias. Besides, an increase in the satellite view zenith angle, aerosol optical depth, or snow cover could lead to positively biased MODIS results, and this affect differed among different cloud types.

  3. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the Sheriff RMS and E-911 map rolls. Cover is painstakingly maintained interactively by GIS staff. All atom boundaries are snapped to the road centerline cover, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset current as of 2008. Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the...

  4. Effects of impervious cover on the surface water quality and aquatic ecosystem of the Kyeongan stream in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bum-Yeon; Park, Shin-Jeong; Paule, Ma Cristina; Jun, Woosong; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2012-08-01

    The extent of impervious cover in a watershed has been linked to the quality of an urban aquatic environment. The Kyeongan watershed in South Korea was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the total impervious area (TIA) and the aquatic ecosystem of the watershed, including water quality and aquatic life using a relatively high-resolution (0.4 m) image. The TIA was found to be approximately 12% of the watershed, which indicates that the quality of its environment was being adversely affected by it. For water quality, Pearson correlation analyses showed that all water quality parameters studied were found to be positively correlated with TIA at p water quality. Some water quality parameters, such as nitrite (NO2-), total phosphorus, and phosphate (PO4(3-)) were highly affected by discharges from wastewater treatment plants. Water quality data suggest that TIA could be used to predict the water quality of streams. For ecological parameters, the diatom index for organic pollution and trophic diatom index were found to be highly correlated with TIA, whereas physical habitat and benthic macroinvertebrates were poorly correlated with TIA. However, the results indicate that the extent of impervious cover can be a useful indicator for predicting the status of specific ecosystem of streams.

  5. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  6. Evaluation of MODIS Albedo Product (MCD43A) over Grassland, Agriculture and Forest Surface Types During Dormant and Snow-Covered Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhousen; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Chopping, Mark J.; Roman, Miguel O.; Shuai, Yanmin; Woodcock, Curtis E.; Hollinger, David Y.; Fitzjarrald, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/albedo 8 day standard product and products from the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/albedo algorithm, and shows that these products agree well with ground-based albedo measurements during the more difficult periods of vegetation dormancy and snow cover. Cropland, grassland, deciduous and coniferous forests are considered. Using an integrated validation strategy, analyses of the representativeness of the surface heterogeneity under both dormant and snow-covered situations are performed to decide whether direct comparisons between ground measurements and 500-m satellite observations can be made or whether finer spatial resolution airborne or spaceborne data are required to scale the results at each location. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) data are used to generate finer scale representations of albedo at each location to fully link ground data with satellite data. In general, results indicate the root mean square errors (RMSEs) are less than 0.030 over spatially representative sites of agriculture/grassland during the dormant periods and less than 0.050 during the snow-covered periods for MCD43A albedo products. For forest, the RMSEs are less than 0.020 during the dormant period and 0.025 during the snow-covered periods. However, a daily retrieval strategy is necessary to capture ephemeral snow events or rapidly changing situations such as the spring snow melt.

  7. Relationship of post-fire ground cover to surface fuel loads and consumption in longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clint S. Wright

    2014-01-01

    The RxCADRE research team collected multi-scale measurements of pre-, during, and post-fire variables on operational prescribed fires conducted in 2008, 2011, and 2012 in longleaf pine ecosystems in the southeastern USA. Pre- and post-fire surface fuel loads were characterized in alternating pre- and post-fire clip plots systematically established within burn units....

  8. Surface studies on graphite furnace platforms covered with Pd, Rh and Ir as modifiers in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry of tellurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, Juana [Area de Química Analítica, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829 (S3000GL.N), Santa Fe (Argentina); Stripekis, Jorge [Laboratorio de Análisis de Trazas, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires, Av. Eduardo Madero 399 (1106), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonivardi, Adrian [Area de Química Analítica, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829 (S3000GL.N), Santa Fe (Argentina); Tudino, Mabel, E-mail: tudino@qi.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Análisis de Trazas, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of this work is the study of correlations between the efficiency of the distribution of the permanent platinum group modifiers Pd, Rh and Ir over the graphite surface with the aim of improving analytical signal of tellurium. Modifier solution was deposited onto the platform and pyrolysed after drying. In the case of Pd, the physical vaporization/deposition technique was also tested. In order to analyze the differences amongst coverings (morphology, topology and distribution), the graphite surfaces were studied with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microscopy. Micrographs for physical vaporization and pyrolytic deposition of Pd were also analyzed in order to explain the lack of signal obtained for tellurium with the first alternative. Similar micrographs were obtained for pyrolytic deposition of Ir and Rh and then, compared to those of Pd. Ir showed the most homogeneous distribution on the graphite surface and the tallest and sharpest transient. With the aim of improving the analytical signal of tellurium, the correlation between the surface studies and the tellurium transient signal (height, area and shape) is discussed. - Highlights: • Distribution of Rh, Pd and Ir onto graphite furnaces is evaluated by SEM and EDX • Micrographs and spectra showed that surface distribution could influence Te signal. • Ir showed the best signal together with the most homogeneous surface distribution. • Pd-PVD micrographs revealed the absence of graphite and no signal for Te.

  9. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Iron sulfide scales formation on surfaces covered by fabrication produced films. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    This work describes the assays aimed to passivate the steel carbon of the process pipings. This steel is marked by the ASTM A 333 G6 and is chemically similar to those of isotopic exchange towers which corrode in contact with in-water hydrogen sulfide solutions forming iron sulfide protective layers. The differences between both materials lie in the surface characteristics to be passivated. The steel of towers has an internal side covered by paint which shall be removed prior to passivation. The steel's internal side shall be covered by a film formed during the fabrication process and constituted by calcinated wastes and iron oxides (magnetite, hematite and wustite). This film interferes in the formation process of passivating layers of pyrrhotite and pyrite. The possibility to passivate the pipes in their actual state was evaluated since it would result highly laborious and expensive to eliminate the film. (Author) [es

  10. ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL-TEMPORAL VARIATION OF LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE, VEGETATION AND SNOW COVER IN LAR NATIONAL PARK OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arekhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land surface reflectance measured by remote sensing data can be useful in climate change studies. This study attempts to analyze the spatial-temporal extent change of vegetation greenness, Land Surface Temperature (LST, and Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI in late spring at the Lar National Park of Iran using Landsat data. Vegetation indices (VIs, LST, and NDSI maps were calculated for each date (1985, 1994, 2010, and 2015. All VIs have shown an increasing trend from 1985 to 2015 which depicted increase of vegetation. Spectral reflectance of all bands is declining from 1985 to 2015 except in near-infrared (NIR bands. High reflectance in NIR bands is due to increased vegetation greenness. The reduction was seen in the visible bands that show increased vegetation photosynthetic activity. In the short-wave infrared bands (SWIR were observed reduced trend from 1985 to 2015 which is indicate increased vegetation. Also, in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR bands were observed a declining trend which is the result of decreasing soil fraction from 1985 to 2015. LST has increased from 23.27 °C in 1985 to 27.45 °C in 2015. Snow patches were decreased over the study period. In conclusion, VIs and surface reflectance bands are considered the main tool to display vegetation change. Also, high VIs values showed healthy and dense vegetation. The results of our study will provide valuable information in preliminary climate change studies.

  11. Water resistance and surface morphology of synthetic fabrics covered by polysiloxane/acrylate followed by electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    El-Naggar, A M; Mohammed, S S; Alam, E A

    2003-01-01

    Different synthetic fabrics were treated by electron beam surface coating with two formulations based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) oligomers. The water resistance properties were investigated in terms of the percentage of water repellency and absorption. Also, the surface coated fabrics were examined by scanning electron microscopy/microscope (SEM) connected to an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) unit to determine the percentage atomic contents of elements. The results showed that the adhesion of the polysiloxane formulation to the surface depends largely on the kind of acrylate oligomer and textile fabric as indicated by the EDX analysis for silicon. In this regard, PDMS/PS formulation is more compatible with polyester and nylon-6 fabrics than PDMS/PMMA one. However, it was found that PDMS/PMMA formulation is more compatible with cotton/polyester blend than PDMS/PS. The SEM micrographs give further supports to the EDX analysis. On the basis of the perce...

  12. Improving the Accuracy of the Water Surface Cover Type in the 30 m FROM-GLC Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Ji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The finer resolution observation and monitoring of the global land cover (FROM-GLC product makes it the first 30 m resolution global land cover product from which one can extract a global water mask. However, two major types of misclassification exist with this product due to spectral similarity and spectral mixing. Mountain and cloud shadows are often incorrectly classified as water since they both have very low reflectance, while more water pixels at the boundaries of water bodies tend to be misclassified as land. In this paper, we aim to improve the accuracy of the 30 m FROM-GLC water mask by addressing those two types of errors. For the first, we adopt an object-based method by computing the topographical feature, spectral feature, and geometrical relation with cloud for every water object in the FROM-GLC water mask, and set specific rules to determine whether a water object is misclassified. For the second, we perform a local spectral unmixing using a two-endmember linear mixing model for each pixel falling in the water-land boundary zone that is 8-neighborhood connected to water-land boundary pixels. Those pixels with big enough water fractions are determined as water. The procedure is automatic. Experimental results show that the total area of inland water has been decreased by 15.83% in the new global water mask compared with the FROM-GLC water mask. Specifically, more than 30% of the FROM-GLC water objects have been relabeled as shadows, and nearly 8% of land pixels in the water-land boundary zone have been relabeled as water, whereas, on the contrary, fewer than 2% of water pixels in the same zone have been relabeled as land. As a result, both the user’s accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the new water mask (UA = 88.39%, Kappa = 0.87 have been substantially increased compared with those of the FROM-GLC product (UA = 81.97%, Kappa = 0.81.

  13. Debris-covered glacier anomaly? Morphological factors controlling changes in the mass balance, surface area, terminus position, and snow line altitude of Himalayan glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Tartari, Gianni; Nuimura, Takayuki; Sunako, Sojiro; Sakai, Akiko; Fujita, Koji

    2017-08-01

    What are the main morphological factors that control the heterogeneous responses of debris-covered glaciers to climate change in the southern central Himalaya? A debate is open whether thinning rates on debris-covered glaciers are comparable to those of debris-free ones. Previous studies have adopted a deterministic approach, which is indispensable, but is also limiting in that only a few glaciers can be monitored. In this context, we propose a statistical analysis based on a wider glacier population as a complement to these deterministic studies. We analysed 28 glaciers situated on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest in the central southern Himalaya during the period 1992-2008. This study combined data compiled by three distinct studies for a common period and population of glaciers for use in a robust statistical analysis. Generally, surface gradient was the main morphological factor controlling the features and responses of the glaciers to climate change. In particular, the key points that emerged are as follows. 1) Reduced downstream surface gradient is responsible for increased glacier thinning. 2) The development of supraglacial ponds is a further controlling factor of glacier thinning: where supraglacial ponds develop, the glaciers register further surface lowering. 3) Debris coverage and thickness index were not found to be significantly responsible for the development of supraglacial ponds, changes in elevation, or shifts in snow line altitude.

  14. The influence of land cover on surface energy partitioning and evaporative fraction regimes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin E.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Billesbach, Dave P.; Williams, Ian N.; Biraud, Sébastien C.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2017-06-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions are important to climate prediction, but the underlying effects of surface forcing of the atmosphere are not well understood. In the U.S. Southern Great Plains, grassland/pasture and winter wheat are the dominant land covers but have distinct growing periods that may differently influence land-atmosphere coupling during spring and summer. Variables that influence surface flux partitioning can change seasonally, depending on the state of local vegetation. Here we use surface observations from multiple sites in the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Climate Research Facility and statistical modeling at a paired grassland/agricultural site within this facility to quantify land cover influence on surface energy balance and variables controlling evaporative fraction (latent heat flux normalized by the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes). We demonstrate that the radiative balance and evaporative fraction are closely related to green leaf area at both winter wheat and grassland/pasture sites and that the early summer harvest of winter wheat abruptly shifts the relationship between evaporative fraction and surface state variables. Prior to harvest, evaporative fraction of winter wheat is strongly influenced by leaf area and soil-atmosphere temperature differences. After harvest, variations in soil moisture have a stronger effect on evaporative fraction. This is in contrast with grassland/pasture sites, where variation in green leaf area has a large influence on evaporative fraction throughout spring and summer, and changes in soil-atmosphere temperature difference and soil moisture are of relatively minor importance.

  15. Effect of holding time and surface cover in ladles on liquid steel flow in continuous casting tundishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Sahai, Yogeshwar

    1992-03-01

    Mathematical modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer of melt in a typical two-strand slab caster tundish has been done for a complete casting sequence. The complete casting sequence consists of 1 minute of tundish emptying period during the ladle transfer operation followed by 1 minute of tundish filling period by the new ladle and pouring at the normal operating level of the tundish for 46 minutes. The effect of varying ladle stream temperature conditions on the melt flow and heat transfer in the continuous casting tundish has been studied. When the ladle stream temperature decreases appreciably over the casting period, corresponding to heat loss of the melt in the ladle from the top free surface, the incoming melt temperature becomes lower than that of the melt in the bulk of the tundish after about 30 minutes from the start of teeming. This results in melt flow along the bottom of the tundish instead of the normal free surface directed flow. The ladle melt stream temperature shows little variability when the ladle has an insulated top. Corresponding to this situation, the temperature of the incoming melt remains higher than that of the melt in the bulk of the tundish and the normal free surface directed flow is maintained throughout the casting period. The product cast under such condition is expected to have a uniformly low inclusion content. The heat loss condition from the top of the ladle has been shown to be the dominant factor in determining fluid flow and heat-transfer characteristics of the melt in the tundish rather than the holding time of the melt in the ladle.

  16. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  17. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  18. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  19. Force mapping on a partially H-covered Si(111)-(7x7) surface: Influence of tip and surface reactivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yurtsever, A.; Sugimoto, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Abe, M.; Morita, S.; Ondráček, Martin; Pou, P.; Pérez, R.; Jelínek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 15 (2013), "155403-1"-"155403-10" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP204/11/P578; GA ČR GAP204/10/0952; GA AV ČR IAA100100905 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100101207 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * DFT simulations * silicon surface * surface passivation * electrostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013 http://link. aps .org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.87.155403

  20. Role of Surface Wind and Vegetation Cover in Multi-decadal Variations of Dust Emission in the Sahara and Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong; Chin, Mian; Remer, Lorraine A.; Diehl, Thomas L.; Bian, Huisheng; Yu, Hongbin; Brown, Molly E.; Stockwell, William R.

    2016-01-01

    North Africa, the world's largest dust source, is non-uniform, consisting of a permanently arid region (Sahara), a semi-arid region (Sahel), and a relatively moist vegetated region (Savanna), each with very different rainfall patterns and surface conditions. This study aims to better understand the controlling factors that determine the variation of dust emission in North Africa over a 27-year period from 1982 to 2008, using observational data and model simulations. The results show that the model-derived Saharan dust emission is only correlated with the 10-m winds (W10m) obtained from reanalysis data, but the model-derived Sahel dust emission is correlated with both W10m and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) that is obtained from satellite. While the Saharan dust accounts for 82 of the continental North Africa dust emission (1340-1570 Tg year(exp -1) in the 27-year average, the Sahel accounts for 17 with a larger seasonal and inter-annual variation (230-380 Tg year(exp -1), contributing about a quarter of the transatlantic dust transported to the northern part of South America. The decreasing dust emission trend over the 27-year period is highly correlated with W10m over the Sahara (R equals 0.92). Over the Sahel, the dust emission is correlated with W10m (R 0.69) but is also anti-correlated with the trend of NDVI (R equals 0.65). W10m is decreasing over both the Sahara and the Sahel between 1982 and 2008, and the trends are correlated (R equals 0.53), suggesting that Saharan Sahelian surface winds are a coupled system, driving the inter-annual variation of dust emission.

  1. Role of projectile energy and surface work function on charge transfer of negative ions grazing scattering on dissociated H2O-covered Cu(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhu, Yachao; Shi, Yuanqing; Liu, Pinyang; Xiao, Yunqing; Ren, Fei; Chen, Lin; Guo, Yanling; Chen, Ximeng

    2018-01-01

    Shifted Fermi sphere model and parallel velocity effects on clean metals have been verified by a number of previous studies. However, for fast F- and Cl- ions scattering on dissociated water covered Cu(110) at grazing incidence, the negative-ion fraction is projectile dependent and monotonically increases with the increase of impact velocity, which cannot be explained by the conventional parallel velocity effect. The positive-ion fraction increases with the increase of perpendicular velocity, which can be well described by the exponential scaling. Positive ions efficiently formed at large perpendicular velocities strongly suppress the negative ion yield at short distances from the surface, so that negative ions are only formed at large distances. In addition, the large surface work function further promotes a transition between two kinds of parallel velocity effects. The calculation taking into account these contributions is in rough agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Call for volunteers

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...

  3. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  4. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2015-09-18

    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  5. Analysis of land cover change and rainfall on the global land surface water coverage database for 1987-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Takeuchi, W.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, taking into account population density of the world, major river basin was delineated continent wise all over the world using HYDRO1k data. Then, monthly rainfall change from the year 1981 to 2014 and daily LSWC (Land surface water coverage) change from 1987 to 2015 based on each major river basin was computed and compared with each other. A good agreement was found between LSWC pattern and rainfall pattern, showing a seasonal variation characteristic in each year. However, it could be seen that rainfall is not the only factor that bring about change in LSWC. Also, it was found that the change of urban area is very strong. Especially in Yangtze basin, from 2000 to 2012, the urban changed from 0.07% to 0.83%. Moreover, the proportion of cropland increased significantly, especially in Ganges basin increased by 57.64%, grew to nearly 70% from 1992 to 2012. Besides, the trend of consistent growth was showed both in cropland and LSWC. It is indicated that the widespread expansion of cropland may bring about LSWC increasing.

  6. Effectiveness of a ground-surface polymer membrane covering as a method for limiting infiltration into burial trenches at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Maxey Flats Disposal Site (MFDS) was operated as a shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive wastes for a period of 14 years (1963-1977). In 1977, radionuclides were found to be migrating from a closed disposal trench into an adjacent newly constructed trench. This discovery prompted closure of the site. Over time, deterioration of the shale and clay cover on the trenches had resulted from subsidence due to the collapse of buried metallic containers and the decomposition of various organic wastes within the trenches. This subsidence increased infiltration of water into the trenches as surface water was retained over the waste in potholes and small ponds. Although infiltration rates to the waste increased, seepage rates of leachate out of the bottom and sides of the trenches were very slow due to the low permeability of surrounding native shale soils (average hydraulic conductivity 4 x 10 -3 ft/day). In 1981, a program was implemented to correct deficiencies and stabilize the site. This paper describes the effectiveness of one design method where a low permeable (hydraulic conductivity -9 ft/sec) polyvinylchloride membrane cover (PVC) 0.015 to 0.020 inches thick was placed over the burial trenches. The covers were installed over trenches beginning in the fall of 1981. Each trench is equipped with several sumps for the collection and removal of leachate. Water-level data were collected on sumps from five trenches during the study period May 1978 to October 1984, which spanned a period prior to and after installation of the PVC cover. 3 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  7. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  8. Deploying response surface methodology (RSM) and glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) in optimizing warpage on a mobile phone cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X. N.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shazzuan, S.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic injection moulding is a popular manufacturing method not only it is reliable, but also efficient and cost saving. It able to produce plastic part with detailed features and complex geometry. However, defects in injection moulding process degrades the quality and aesthetic of the injection moulded product. The most common defect occur in the process is warpage. Inappropriate process parameter setting of injection moulding machine is one of the reason that leads to the occurrence of warpage. The aims of this study were to improve the quality of injection moulded part by investigating the optimal parameters in minimizing warpage using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO). Subsequent to this, the most significant parameter was identified and recommended parameters setting was compared with the optimized parameter setting using RSM and GSO. In this research, the mobile phone case was selected as case study. The mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time were selected as variables whereas warpage in y-direction was selected as responses in this research. The simulation was carried out by using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2012. In addition, the RSM was performed by using Design Expert 7.0 whereas the GSO was utilized by using MATLAB. The warpage in y direction recommended by RSM were reduced by 70 %. The warpages recommended by GSO were decreased by 61 % in y direction. The resulting warpages under optimal parameter setting by RSM and GSO were validated by simulation in AMI 2012. RSM performed better than GSO in solving warpage issue.

  9. Urban Land Use Land Cover Changes and Their Effect on Land Surface Temperature: Case Study Using Dohuk City in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaylan Rasul Faqe Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban areas has a significant impact on land use by replacing areas of vegetation with residential and commercial areas and their related infrastructure; this escalates the land surface temperature (LST. Rapid urban growth has occurred in Duhok City due to enhanced political and economic growth during the period of this study. The objective is to investigate the effect of land use changes on LST; this study depends on data from three Landsat images (two Landsat 5-TM and Landsat OLI_TIRS-8 from 1990, 2000 and 2016. Supervised classification was used to compute land use/cover categories, and to generate the land surface temperature (LST maps the Mono-window algorithm was used. Images were also used to create the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, normalized difference built-up index (NDBI, normalized difference bareness index (NDBAI and normalized difference water index (NDWI maps. Linear regression analysis was used to generate relationships between LST with NDVI, NDBI, NDBAI and NDWI. The study outcome proves that the changes in land use/cover have a significant role in the escalation of land surface temperatures. The highest temperatures are associated with barren land and built-up areas, ranging from 47°C, 50°C, 56°C while lower temperatures are related to water bodies and forests, ranging from 25°C, 26°C, 29°C respectively, in 1990, 2000 and 2016. This study also proves that NDVI and NDWI correlate negatively with low temperatures while NDBI and NDBAI correlate positively with high temperatures.

  10. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  11. AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION OF LAND COVER USING LANDSAT 8 OLI SURFACE REFLECTANCE PRODUCT AND SPECTRAL PATTERN ANALYSIS CONCEPT - CASE STUDY IN HANOI, VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nguyen Dinh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently USGS released provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance product, which allows conducting land cover mapping over large composed of number of image scenes without necessity of atmospheric correction. In this study, the authors present a new concept for automated classification of land cover. This concept is based on spectral patterns analysis of reflected bands and can be automated using predefined classification rule set constituted of spectral pattern shape, total reflected radiance index (TRRI and ratios of spectral bands. Given a pixel vector B6 = {b1,b2,b3,b4,b5,b6} where b1, b2,...,b6 denote bands 2, 3, ...,7 of OLI sensor respectively. By using the pixel vector B6 we can construct spectral reflectance curve. Each spectral curve is featured by a shape, which can be described in simplified form of an analogue pattern, which is consisted of 15 digits of 0, 1 and 2 showing mutual relative position of spectral vertices. Value of comparison between band i and j is 2 if bj > bi, 1 if bj = bi and 0 if bj i. Simplified spectral pattern is defined by 15 digits as m1,2m1,3m1,4m1,5m1,6m2,3m2,4m2,5m2,6m3,4m3,5m3,6m4,5m4,6m5,6 where mi,j is result of comparison of reflectance between bi and bj and has values of 0, 1 and 2. After construction of SSP for each pixel in the input image, the original image will be decomposed to component images, which contain pixels with the same SRCS pattern. The decomposition can be written analytically by equation A = Σnk=1Ck where A stands for original image with 6 spectral bands, n is number of component images decomposed from A and Ck is component image. For this study, we use Landsat 8 OLI reflectance image LC81270452013352LGN00 and LC81270452015182LGN00. For the decomposition, we use only six reflective bands. Each land cover class is defined by SSP code, threshold values for TRRI and band ratios. Automated classification of land cover was realized with 8 classes: forest, shrub, grass, water, wetland

  12. Comparison of the meteorology and surface energy fluxes of debris-free and debris-covered glaciers in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of the meteorology and energy fluxes of debris-free and debris-covered glaciers is important for understanding the varying response of glaciers to climate change. Field measurements at the debris-free Parlung No. 4 Glacier and the debris-covered 24K Glacier in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau were carried out to compare the meteorology and surface energy fluxes and to understand the factors controlling the melting process. The meteorological comparisons displayed temporally synchronous fluctuations in air temperature, relative humidity, incoming longwave radiation (Lin), but notable differences in precipitation, incoming shortwave radiation (Sin) and wind speed. Under the prevailing regional precipitation and debris conditions, more Lin (42 W/m2) was supplied from warmer and more humid air and more Sin (58 W/m2) was absorbed at the 24K Glacier. The relatively high energy supply led mainly to an increased energy output via turbulent heat fluxes and outgoing longwave radiation, rather than glacier melting beneath the thick debris. The sensitivity experiment showed that melting rates were sensitive to variations in energy supply with debris thicknesses of less than 10 cm. In contrast, energy supply to the ablation zone of the Parlung No. 4 Glacier mainly resulted in snow/ice melting, the magnitude of which was significantly influenced by the energy supplied by Sin and the sensible heat flux.

  13. Modeling Future Land Cover Changes and Their Effects on the Land Surface Temperatures in the Saudi Arabian Eastern Coastal City of Dammam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauhidur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, Saudi cities have experienced rapid urban developments and land use and land cover (LULC changes. These developments will have numerous short- and long-term consequences including increasing the land surface temperature (LST of these cities. This study investigated the effects of LULC changes on the LST for the eastern coastal city of Dammam. Using Landsat imagery, the study first detected the LULC using the maximum likelihood classification method and derived the LSTs for the years 1990, 2002, and 2014. Using the classified results, it then modeled the future LULC for 2026 using the Cellular Automata Markov (CAM model. Finally, using three thematic indices and linear regression analysis, it then modeled the LST for 2026 as well. The built-up area in Dammam increased by 28.9% between 1990 and 2014. During this period, the average LSTs for the LULC classes increased as well, with bare soil and built-up area having the highest LST. By 2026, the urban area is expected to encompass 55% of the city and 98% of the land cover is envisioned to have average LSTs over 41 °C. Such high temperatures will make it difficult for the residents to live in the area.

  14. Comparison on micrometeorology and surface energy fluxes between debris-free and debris-covered glaciers in the southeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Yongjie

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of meteorology and energy fluxes on the debris-free and debris-covered glacier is important for understanding how different glaciers behaviors heterogeneous to regional climate change. Based on the observations during 2016 ablation season at the debris-free Parlung No.4 Glacier and the debris-covered 24K Glacier in southeast Tibetan Plateau, a comparative analysis was made to shed light on the micrometeorology and surface energy fluxes and to gain knowledge about the influencing factors controlling melting process at different type glaciers. The meteorological correlations showed that the variables including air temperature, relative humidity and incoming longwave radiation (Lin) display a regionally synchronous pattern, but there are notable differences in precipitation, incoming shortwave radiation (Sin) and wind speed between two glaciers. The most striking is the difference in precipitation, with 5 times larger in the 24K Glacier. The energy fluxes between two glaciers display contrasting pattern due to different surface conditions and monsoonal precipitation. More Sin was absorbed due to lower debris albedo (0.05) In spite of same amount of total Sin and more Lin (W/m2 larger) was supplied from warm and humidity air at the 24K Glacier. However, such excess energy supply was mainly used to warm the debris temperature, leading to the increase of energy output by outgoing longwave radiation and turbulent heat fluxes, rather than glacier melting. These energy outputs are very sensitive to the debris thickness in which is less than 10 cm and the amount of Sin, leading to significant spatial change of underneath ice melting magnitude. At the debris-free surface at AWS of Parlung No.4 Glacier, surface melting is mainly supplied by net shortwave radiation and turbulent sensible heat fluxes (Hse). Comparing with energy fluxes in 2009, the reduced melting energy in 2016 on the debris-free Parlung No.4 Glacier is attributed to the decrease of Sin and Hse by

  15. MODELLING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND LANDSCAPE PATTERNS OF LAND USE LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION USING MULTI LINEAR REGRESSION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bernales

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The threat of the ailments related to urbanization like heat stress is very prevalent. There are a lot of things that can be done to lessen the effect of urbanization to the surface temperature of the area like using green roofs or planting trees in the area. So land use really matters in both increasing and decreasing surface temperature. It is known that there is a relationship between land use land cover (LULC and land surface temperature (LST. Quantifying this relationship in terms of a mathematical model is very important so as to provide a way to predict LST based on the LULC alone. This study aims to examine the relationship between LST and LULC as well as to create a model that can predict LST using class-level spatial metrics from LULC. LST was derived from a Landsat 8 image and LULC classification was derived from LiDAR and Orthophoto datasets. Class-level spatial metrics were created in FRAGSTATS with the LULC and LST as inputs and these metrics were analysed using a statistical framework. Multi linear regression was done to create models that would predict LST for each class and it was found that the spatial metric “Effective mesh size” was a top predictor for LST in 6 out of 7 classes. The model created can still be refined by adding a temporal aspect by analysing the LST of another farming period (for rural areas and looking for common predictors between LSTs of these two different farming periods.

  16. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  17. L-shell filling of N6+ and O7+ ions from a clean and LiF-covered Au(111) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khemliche, H; Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R

    1999-01-01

    We report on a high-resolution Auger spectroscopy study of the interaction of N6+ and O7+ ions with a clean and a LiF-covered Au(111) target. The electron spectra from collisions on Au(111) and LiF-covered Au(111) are distinctly different. The ones resulting from the interaction with Au(111) covered

  18. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  19. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    What is your definition of “improvement” in this Call for proposals? “Improvement” as used in this call implies all innovations that may be applied by research teams to develop a vaccine that is superior to a current one. Examples of improvement are better adjuvant, vaccine delivery systems or formulations that present ...

  20. Dimensioning large call centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Borst (Sem); A. Mandelbaum; M.I. Reiman

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a framework for asymptotic optimization of a queueing system. The motivation is the staffing problem of call centers with 100's of agents (or more). Such a call center is modeled as an M/M/N queue, where the number of agents~$N$ is large. Within our framework, we determine the

  1. A satellite based scheme for predicting the effects of land cover change on local microclimate and surface hydrology: Development of an operational regional planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Sandra Traci

    Humans have diverse goals for their use of land: mining, water supply, aesthetic enjoyment, recreation, transportation, housing, etc. Any individual living within an actively developing community can look back in time and note how, perhaps slowly but nonetheless dramatically, the total land area dedicated to human use has increased. As our society's basic functioning intensifies, the disappearance of "free" open space is apparent---today, even conservation areas are carefully designated, mapped and controlled. This transition in land use is a result of many individual decisions that occur throughout space and time, often with little concern for the potential impacts on the local environment. Two specific environmental components---the microclimate and surface hydrology---are the focus of this thesis. This study, as well as related tools and bodies of knowledge, should be used to broaden the scientific basis behind land use management decisions. It will be shown that development can induce predictable changes in measures of the local radiant surface temperature and evapotranspiration fraction---as long as certain features of the development are known. Specifically, the vegetation changes that accompany the development must be noted, as well as the initial climatic state of the land parcel. Additionally, plots of runoff vs. rainfall for gauged basins will be interpreted in terms of the proportion of the basin contributing to a storm event's runoff signal. For a particular basin, four distinct runoff responses, separated by season and antecedent moisture conditions, will be distinguished. The response for the non-summer months under typical antecedent moisture conditions will be shown to be the most representative of and responsive to a basin's land use patterns. A scheme that makes use of satellite-derived land cover patterns and other physical attributes of the basin in order to determine this particular runoff response will be presented. The Soil Conservation

  2. Utilization of satellite remote sensing data on land surface characteristics in water and heat balance component modeling for vegetation covered territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    The model of vertical water and heat transfer in the "soil-vegetation-atmosphere" system (SVAT) for vegetation covered territory has been developed, allowing assimilating satellite remote sensing data on land surface condition as well as accounting for heterogeneities of vegetation and meteorological characteristics. The model provides the calculation of water and heat balance components (such as evapotranspiration Ev, soil water content W, sensible and latent heat fluxes and others ) as well as vertical soil moisture and temperature distributions, temperatures of soil surface and foliage, land surface brightness temperature for any time interval within vegetation season. To describe the landscape diversity soil constants and leaf area index LAI, vegetation cover fraction B, and other vegetation characteristics are used. All these values are considered to be the model parameters. Territory of Kursk region with square about 15 thousands km2 situated in the Black Earth zone of Central Russia was chosen for investigation. Satellite-derived estimates of land surface characteristics have been constructed under cloud-free condition basing AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and EOS Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-8, -9 data. The developed technologies of AVHRR data thematic processing have been refined providing the retrieval of surface skin brightness temperature Tsg, air foliage temperature Ta, efficient surface temperature Ts.eff and emissivity E, as well as derivation of vegetation index NDVI, B, and LAI. The linear regression estimators for Tsg, Ta and LAI have been built using representative training samples for 2003-2009 vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data thematic processing to generate named remote sensing products for various dates of the above vegetation seasons. The error statistics of Ta, Ts.eff and Тsg derivation has been investigated for various samples using comparison with in-situ measurements that has given RMS errors in the

  3. Lateral ordering of PTCDA on the clean and the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Fiedler, Benjamin; Bauer, Oliver; Marele, Antonela; Sokolowski, Moritz M

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on the clean and on the oxygen pre-covered Cu(100) surface [referred to as (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100)] by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Our results confirm the (4√2 × 5√2)R45° superstructure of PTCDA/Cu(100) reported by A. Schmidt et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99,11770-11779]. However, contrary to Schmidt et al., we have no indication for a dissociation of the PTCDA upon adsorption, and we propose a detailed structure model with two intact PTCDA molecules within the unit cell. Domains of high lateral order are obtained, if the deposition is performed at 400 K. For deposition at room temperature, a significant density of nucleation defects is found pointing to a strong interaction of PTCDA with Cu(100). Quite differently, after preadsorption of oxygen and formation of the (√2 × 2√2)R45° - 2O/Cu(100) superstructure on Cu(100), PTCDA forms an incommensurate monolayer with a structure that corresponds well to that of PTCDA bulk lattice planes.

  4. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  5. Effects of an Ice Plate Formed by Inundation before the Continuous Snow Cover on Surface Soil Water after Disappearance of the Snow Cover at a Rotational Paddy in a Snowy Cold Region in the Period from Autumn of 2007 to Spring of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shuh; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoshikazu

    When melt water remains on the soil surface for a long time in rotational paddies in Hokkaido, a snowy cold region of Japan, machine work in the early spring is delayed, resulting in growth delay of crops and decrease in income. Ice plates can be made in paddies in Hokkaido by filling the paddies with water before the continuous snow cover, and melt water flows from the edges of the ice plate. It is expected that the surface soil water after disappearance of the snow cover can be reduced if melt water can flow to an underdrain through open channels along the levees in the paddy. In this study, the effects of an ice plate formed by inundation before the continuous snow cover on surface soil water after disappearance of the snow cover at a rotational paddy in the period from autumn of 2007 to spring of 2008 were examined. It was found that the volumetric water content in the ice plate area was lower than that in the conventional area after disappearance of the snow cover.

  6. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  7. Assessing call centers’ success:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Baraka

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a model to evaluate the performance of call centers based on the Delone and McLean Information Systems success model. A number of indicators are identified to track the call center’s performance. Mapping of the proposed indicators to the six dimensions of the D&M model is presented. A Weighted Call Center Performance Index is proposed to assess the call center performance; the index is used to analyze the effect of the identified indicators. Policy-Weighted approach was used to assume the weights with an analysis of different weights for each dimension. The analysis of the different weights cases gave priority to the User satisfaction and net Benefits dimension as the two outcomes from the system. For the input dimensions, higher priority was given to the system quality and the service quality dimension. Call centers decision makers can use the tool to tune the different weights in order to reach the objectives set by the organization. Multiple linear regression analysis was used in order to provide a linear formula for the User Satisfaction dimension and the Net Benefits dimension in order to be able to forecast the values for these two dimensions as function of the other dimensions

  8. Call Center Capacity Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Bang

    is known as skills-based routing. It involves designing the routing policies in a way that results in customers receiving a desired service level such as the waiting time they experience. The emphasis of this thesis is on the design of these policies. The first paper, Queues with waiting time dependent...... infrastructure allows customers to be divided into classes depending on their requests or their value to the call center operator. The agents working in call centers can in the same way be split into groups based on their skills. The discipline of matching calls from different customer classes to agent groups...... service, introduces a novel approach to analyzing queueing systems. This involves using the waiting time of the first customer in line as the primary variable on which the analysis is based. The legacy approach has been to use the number of customers in queue. The new approach facilitates exact analysis...

  9. Transitant per Calle Mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Pérez, Rosanna

    2000-01-01

    RESUM Aquest treball és una lectura crítica de la pel.lícula Calle Mayor, dirigida per Juan Antonio Bardem en 1956, on pretenem analitzar de quina manera el film construeix un agosarat discurs de crítica social. Malgrat les dures limitacions extradiscursives en què la pel.lícula va veure la llum (censura oficial, empresonament del director durant el rodage...), Calle Mayor va aconseguir tractar allò del que no shi podia parlar (crítica sociopolítica) a través dun argument de...

  10. CALLING AQUARIUM LOVERS...

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    CERN's anemones will soon be orphans. We are looking for someone willing to look after the aquarium in the main building, for one year. If you are interested, or if you would like more information, please call 73830. (The anemones living in the aquarium thank you in anticipation.)

  11. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    A collaborating organization is an institution that is not part of the core team managing the research project but contributes to activities of the project. Collaborating organization will not receive nor manage the project funds. 6. What is your definition of “third-party organizations” in this Call for proposals? A third party ...

  12. Call for Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    2014-10-03

    Oct 3, 2014 ... 5.Submission process. 6.Eligibility criteria. 7.Selection Process. 8. Format and requirements. 9.Evaluation criteria. 10.Country clearance requirements. 11. .... It is envisaged that through this call a single consortium will undertake 6-8 projects within a total budget of up to ... principle qualify for IDRC's support.

  13. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  14. To be called upon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2015-01-01

    When Danish Muslims explain what made them decide to travel to the Middle East and take up arms in the wake of the Arab Spring, they say that they were called upon. Displayed on videos on social media, women and sometimes children begged them to come to their rescue. In light of some of the respo...

  15. Pre-fire and post-fire surface fuel and cover measurements collected in the southeastern United States for model evaluation and development - RxCADRE 2008, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Andrew T. Hudak; Susan J. Prichard; Clinton S. Wright; Joseph C. Restaino; Maureen C. Kennedy; Robert E. Vihnanek

    2016-01-01

    A lack of independent, quality-assured data prevents scientists from effectively evaluating predictions and uncertainties in fire models used by land managers. This paper presents a summary of pre-fire and post-fire fuel, fuel moisture and surface cover fraction data that can be used for fire model evaluation and development. The data were collected in the...

  16. ReCall

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Wing Chi

    2012-01-01

    This document focuses on the choreographic process of ReCall, a dance-theatre work that employs choreographic devices through gesture and stories related to the tragedy of September 11th, 2001. The creative process included workshops in dance technique and devising with various collaborators and disciplines. This production was designed to kinesthetically engage the audience through shifting the expectations of the tradition of concert dance.

  17. Measurement of ion species produced due to bombardment of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with hydrocarbons-covered surface of tungsten: Formation of tungsten nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Bhatt, P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Singh, B.K.; Singh, B.; Prajapati, S. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shanker, R., E-mail: shankerorama@gmail.com [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    A laboratory experiment has been performed to study the ions that are produced due to collisions of 450 eV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions with a hydrocarbons-covered surface of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature. Using a TOF mass spectrometry technique, the product ions formed in these collisions have been detected, identified and analyzed. Different ion–surface reaction processes, namely, neutralization, reflection, surface induced dissociation, surface induced chemical reactions and desorption are observed and discussed. Apart from the presence of desorbed aliphatic hydrocarbon and other ions, the mass spectra obtained from the considered collisions show the formation and sputtering of tungsten nitride (WN). A layer of WN on tungsten surface is known to decrease the sputtering of bulk tungsten in fusion devices more effectively than when the tungsten is bombarded with other seeding gases (He, Ar). It is further noted that there is a negligible diffusion of N in the bulk tungsten at room temperature.

  18. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...

  19. FERMILAB: Call for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Several hundred physicists attended a special Fermilab 'All Experimenter's Meeting' on November 20 to hear Director John Peoples call for new Tevatron Collider proposals for the years 2000-2005, when the new Main Injector will be complete. At the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, the CDF and DO experiments are currently completing improvements for Run II to use the Tevatron when the Main Injector is complete later in this decade. New proposals would be aimed at a Collider Run III to follow these CDF and DO efforts

  20. Care and Calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    In Danish hospitals, nurses have been equipped with a mobile work phone to improve their availability and efficiency. On the phones nurses receive internal and external phone conversations, patient calls, and alarms from electronic surveillance equipment. For safety reasons the phones cannot...... reports the findings of an analysis of 144 hours of video data in which nurses were shadowed with a mobile video camera throughout their daily work. Nexus analysis and interaction analysis was used to examine how nurses manage interactions with patients when a mobile work phone rings during...

  1. Evaluation of MODIS albedo product (MCD43A) over grassland, agriculture and forest surface types during dormant and snow-covered periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuosen Wang; Crystal B. Schaaf; Alan H. Strahler; Mark J. Chopping; Miguel O. Román; Yanmin Shuai; Curtis E. Woodcock; David Y. Hollinger; David R. Fitzjarrald

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/albedo 8 day standard product and products from the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/albedo algorithm, and shows that these products agree well with ground-based albedo measurements during the more difficult periods of vegetation dormancy and snow cover. Cropland, grassland, deciduous and...

  2. Effects of surfactant treatments on the wettability of the surface layer and the wetting patterns in a water repellent dune sand with grass cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a new surfactant formulation (Primer R604) for amelioration and management of soil water repellency in a dune sand, as measured with the water drop penetration test, and soil moisture content and wetting rate assessments. A dune sand with grass cover with a

  3. MEDICAL SERVICE - URGENT CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Médical

    2000-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA: EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME: Open 24h/24h 748-49-50 AMG- Association Of Geneva Doctors: Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin 719-61-11 EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 CHILDREN'S EMERGENCIES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112   FRANCE: EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ...

  4. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  5. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  6. Care and calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    is nexus analysis, which allows this thesis to connect the situated interactions recorded on video with the social, cultural, and historical currents influencing them. To zoom in on the situated accomplishment of interactions, nexus analysis is complemented with insights and methods from ethnomethodology......, patients, and mobile work phones. These data were supplemented with participant observations, interviews, photos, documents, and webpages. In the process of logging the video data, only the persons participating in events and the actions being performed were coded. Seven cases in which a single nurse...... they are telephoned during interactions with patients are not universal. Indeed different strategies have evolved in other hospital departments. Not only does this thesis contribute insights into the way nurses manage phone calls during interactions with patients, but by subscribing to a growing body of embodied...

  7. Structure of the Clean and Oxygen-Covered Cu(100) Surface at Room Temperature in the Presence of Methanol Vapor in the 10-200 mTorr Pressure Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Baran; Kersell, Heath; Weatherup, Robert S; Heine, Christian; Crumlin, Ethan J; Friend, Cynthia M; Salmeron, Miquel B

    2018-01-18

    Using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) and high pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HPSTM), we show that in equilibrium with 0.01-0.2 Torr of methanol vapor, at room temperature, the Cu(100) surface is covered with methoxy species forming a c(2 × 2) overlayer structure. In contrast, no methoxy is formed if the surface is saturated with an ordered oxygen layer, even when the methanol pressure is 0.2 Torr. At oxygen coverages below saturation, methanol dissociates and reacts with the atomic oxygen, producing methoxy and formate on the surface, and formaldehyde that desorbs to the gas phase. Unlike the case of pure carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, methanol does not induce the restructuring of the Cu(100) surface. These results provide insight into catalytic anhydrous production of aldehydes.

  8. Soil cover and wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryrear, D.W.

    Wind erosion on agricultural lands can be reduced if the soil surface is protected with crop residues. In evaluating the influence of residues on wind erosion, previous research has expressed residues of various crops as an equivalent of flat, small grain. This becomes difficult as the density of the residue changes with weathering, or as crops other than the major cultivated crops are grown. Soil losses due to wind erosion were determined by covering various percentages of the soil surface with simulated flat residues (wood dowels 3.1 to 25.4 mm in diameter). Covering 20% of the soil surface reduced soil losses 57%, and a 50% cover reduced soil losses 95%. The expression SLR = 1.81 e/sup x/ where x = /sup -0.072% SC/ describes the relationship between soil loss ratio (SLR) and percent soil cover (% SC) with a correlation coefficient of -0.94 (soil cover limits 8 to 80%). The cover can be any nonerodible material such as large clods, gravel, cotton gin trash, or any diameter stick between 3.1 and 25.4 mm. Percent soil cover is easily measured in the field or can be estimated with a minimum of training and experience.

  9. Mapping growth and mortality rates of crevice-dwelling organisms onto a perforated surface: The relevance of `cover' to the carrying capacity of natural and artificial habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddy, J. F.; Stamatopoulos, C.

    1990-07-01

    A theoretical basis is suggested for examining habitat limitations of artificial surfaces for population enhancement of crevice-dwelling, or territorial organisms such as reef fish or lobsters, that takes into account known growth and mortality rates. This approach is compared with the crevice frequency at size in a 'natural' substrate, which, it is assumed, corresponds to fractal expectation. With naturally dissected surfaces, fractal expectation predicts that crevice availability declines with size, so that a 'bottleneck', limits the population of larger-sized individuals, but that natural mortality, or rate of loss of individuals displaced from crevices, will also decline with age. The paper considers a surface perforated with circular niches of a limited number of discrete radii, distributed at random over a surface, without overlap, and considers what is the size frequency of hole radii needed to complete the life history of an infaunal organism with a given mortality and growth schedule, and a constant occupancy rate. Determining a priori crevice frequency at size before constructing an artificial surface, and for a given packing density, distributing the crevices over it in two dimensions, is referred to as 'mapping' the growth and mortality rates onto the surface. Sample calculations are described either for continuous recruitment or where recruitment occurs as a 'pulse' during a specific season, and subsequent cohort growth obeys a common scheduling. It is shown that fractal surfaces limit the production of larger individuals unless migration intervenes, but are more suitable for recruitment enhancement. Using units with a limited size range of perforations is biologically inefficient, and depends on natural recruitment elsewhere for stock replenishment by migration. These calculations are relevant to the design of artificial surfaces, throw light on mechanisms limiting productivity of dissected surfaces, and point to effects of individual niche size on

  10. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  11. A 10-Year Climatology of Cloud Cover and Vertical Distribution Derived from Both Surface and GOES Observations Over the DOE ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, P.; Khaiyer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of a decade of ARM radar-lidar and GOES observations at the SGP site reveal that 0.5 and 4-hr averages of the surface cloud fraction correspond closely to 0.5deg and 2.5deg averages of GOES cloudiness, respectively. The long-term averaged surface and GOES cloud fractions agree to within 0.5%. Cloud frequency increases and cloud amount decreases as the temporal and spatial averaging scales increase. Clouds occurred most often during winter and spring. Single-layered clouds account for 61.5% of the total cloud frequency. There are distinct bimodal vertical distributions of clouds with a lower peak around 1 km and an upper one that varies from 7.5 to 10.8 km between winter and summer, respectively. The frequency of occurrence for nighttime GOES high-cloud tops agree well with the surface observations, but are underestimated during the day.

  12. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstaevel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  13. Response of land surface phenology to variation in tree cover during green-up and senescence periods in the semi-arid savanna of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of land surface phenology is important to understanding changes in landscape ecological processes of semi-arid savannas in Southern Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of variation...

  14. Forecasting summertime surface temperature and precipitation in the Mexico City metropolitan area: sensitivity of the WRF model to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bravo, Clemente; Caetano, Ernesto; Magaña, Víctor

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the frequency and intensity of severe hydrometeorological events in recent decades in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area have motivated the development of weather warning systems. The weather forecasting system for this region was evaluated in sensitivity studies using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for July 2014, a summer time month. It was found that changes in the extent of the urban area and associated changes in thermodynamic and dynamic variables have induced local circulations that affect the diurnal cycles of temperature, precipitation, and wind fields. A newly implemented configuration (land cover update and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA)) of the WRF model has improved the adjustment of the precipitation field to the orography. However, errors related to the depiction of convection due to parameterizations and microphysics remains a source of uncertainty in weather forecasting in this region.

  15. Calling the shots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A.

    2000-04-01

    Sophisticated technologies and tools have come to the aid of the blasting technology industry. These include computer-based blast design, GPS technology and use of electronic detonating. Either emulsion or blends of emulsion and ANFO are being increasingly used as explosives. Contract blasting packages are becoming popular. Electric detonators have been largely replaced by simpler non-electric 'shock tube' initiation systems. These in turn are being replaced by electronic initiation systems which have precise time control. Recent developments or electron detonators from Dynbamit Nobel, African Explosives Ltd. (AEL), Dyno Nobel and Ensigh Bickford are mentioned in the article. Many manufacturers are offering their own charging vehicles with their explosive systems for surface and underground blasting. Dyno Nobel's site sensitised emulsion (SSE) system has a loading ruck, two storage tank containers and two pumps for the emulsion matrix and chemical sensitiser. The ANFO P1-AN/FO trick from Dax Machinery is mounted on an articulated carrier with an on-board compressor. Normet's Charmet machines have a superboom lift and extendable platform and a 1000 t capacity emulsion charging unit. 6 photos

  16. 76 FR 17429 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... debentures subject to ``debenture lock agreements,'' that have been registered on the books of the Bureau of... transfer of debentures covered by the foregoing call will be made on the books maintained by the U.S. Department of the Treasury on or after June 10, 2011. This debenture call does not affect the right of the...

  17. Work function dependence and isotope effect in the production of negative hydrogen ions during sputtering of adsorbed hydrogen on Cs covered Mo(100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The enhancement of the H - yield, during sputtering of adsorbed hydrogen on a Mo(100) surface, by a Cs overlayer was investigated. An exponential dependence of the H - yield on the work function was observed for a wide range of Cs coverages. A simple electron tunneling model was proposed. A large reduction in the ion yield was also observed when D 2 replaced H 2 as the adsorbate

  18. Associating Land Surface Temperature Retrieved From Satellite and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data With Urban Cover and Topography in Aburrá Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, G.; Hoyos Ortiz, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban heat island effect commonly refers to temperature differences between urban areas and their countrysides due to urbanization. These temperature differences are evident at surface, and within the canopy and the boundary layer. This effect is heterogeneous within the city, and responds to urban morphology, prevailing materials, amount of vegetation, among others, which are also important in the urban balance of energy. In order to study the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and urban coverage over Aburrá Valley, which is a narrow valley locate at tropical Andes in northern South America, Landsat 8 mission products of LST, density of vegetation (normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI), and a proxy of soil humidity are derived and used. The results are analyzed from the point of view of dominant urban form and settlement density at scale of neighborhoods, and also from potential downward solar radiation received at the surface. Besides, specific sites were chosen to obtain LST from thermal imaging using an unmanned aerial vehicle to characterize micro-scale patterns and to validate Landast retrievals. Direct relationships between LST, NDVI, soil humidity, and duration of insolation are found, showing the impact of the current spatial distribution of land uses on surface temperature over Aburrá Valley. In general, the highest temperatures correspond to neighborhoods with large, flat-topped buildings in commercial and industrial areas, and low-rise building in residential areas with scarce vegetation, all on the valley bottom. Landsat images are in the morning for the Aburrá Valley, for that reason the coldest temperatures are prevalent at certain orientation of the hillslope, according with the amount of radiation received from sunrise to time of data.

  19. Android: Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK) by Hao Q...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native...2. REPORT TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 02/2016–05/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Android : Call C Functions with the Native

  20. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  1. Escoamento superficial e desagregação do solo em entressulcos em solo franco-argilo-arenoso com resíduos vegetais Interrill surface runoff and soil detachment on a sandy clay loam soil with residue cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemar Antonino Cassol

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A presença de resíduos vegetais sobre a superfície do solo altera as características do escoamento superficial gerado pela chuva e a desagregação e transporte de sedimento resultantes do processo erosivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as condições hidráulicas e as relações de desagregação do solo e de resistência ao escoamento com a presença de resíduos vegetais na erosão em entressulcos. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório, com um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, em parcelas com 0,10 m m-1 de declive sob chuva simulada. O solo foi coberto por resíduos vegetais de palha de soja, nas doses de 0, 0,05, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4 e 0,8 kg m-2. O aumento na cobertura do solo (CS com resíduos vegetais elevou a altura da lâmina de escoamento e a rugosidade hidráulica e reduziu a velocidade média do escoamento, provocada pelo aumento das forças viscosas promovida pela interposição física dos resíduos ao escoamento. O resultado é a redução na taxa de desagregação do solo (Di. A Di foi de 5,35x10-4 kg m-2 s-1 para solo descoberto e 1,50x10-5 kg m-2 s-1 em solo com 100% de cobertura na maior dose de palha. Os modelos de Laflen e potencial foram adequados para estimar o coeficiente de cobertura para resíduo em contato direto com a superfície do solo em função da cobertura do solo.Soil surface cover with crop residue modifies surface flow characteristics, generated by excess rainfall, and soil detachment and sediment transport resulting from the erosion process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hydraulic conditions, detachment and flow resistance on interrill erosion on soil covered with residue. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, on a Hapludult soil at a slope of 0.10 m m-1, under simulated rainfall and soil surface covered with soybean residue at the rates of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 kg m-2. The increase in soil surface cover (SC with residue, caused an increase in water flow

  2. Cover Your Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Cover Your Cough Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... eat nutritious food. Printable formats of “Cover Your Cough” Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your ...

  3. Call Centre- Computer Telephone Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Call centre largely came into being as a result of consumerneeds converging with enabling technology- and by the companiesrecognising the revenue opportunities generated by meetingthose needs thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Regardlessof the specific application or activity of a Call centre, customersatisfaction with the interaction is critical to the revenuegenerated or protected by the Call centre. Physical(v, Call centreset up is a place that includes computer, telephone and supervisorstation. Call centre can be available 24 hours a day - whenthe customer wants to make a purchase, needs information, orsimply wishes to register a complaint.

  4. Performance and effects of land cover type on synthetic surface reflectance data and NDVI estimates for assessment and monitoring of semi-arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Lawrence, Rick L

    2014-01-01

    Federal land management agencies provide stewardship over much of the rangelands in the arid andsemi-arid western United States, but they often lack data of the proper spatiotemporal resolution andextent needed to assess range conditions and monitor trends. Recent advances in the blending of com-plementary, remotely sensed data could provide public lands managers with the needed information.We applied the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to five Landsat TMand concurrent Terra MODIS scenes, and used pixel-based regression and difference image analyses toevaluate the quality of synthetic reflectance and NDVI products associated with semi-arid rangeland. Pre-dicted red reflectance data consistently demonstrated higher accuracy, less bias, and stronger correlationwith observed data than did analogous near-infrared (NIR) data. The accuracy of both bands tended todecline as the lag between base and prediction dates increased; however, mean absolute errors (MAE)were typically ≤10%. The quality of area-wide NDVI estimates was less consistent than either spectra lband, although the MAE of estimates predicted using early season base pairs were ≤10% throughout the growing season. Correlation between known and predicted NDVI values and agreement with the 1:1regression line tended to decline as the prediction lag increased. Further analyses of NDVI predictions,based on a 22 June base pair and stratified by land cover/land use (LCLU), revealed accurate estimates through the growing season; however, inter-class performance varied. This work demonstrates the successful application of the STARFM algorithm to semi-arid rangeland; however, we encourage evaluation of STARFM’s performance on a per product basis, stratified by LCLU, with attention given to the influence of base pair selection and the impact of the time lag.

  5. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  6. acadAR2012 cover

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    behaviour changes due to energy contributions from different surfaces and interfaces, which are normally ...... plants are fascinating; integrated pest management; horizontal gene transfer; screening and production of ... Karnataka. Topics covered: Cities, climate change and green initiative; proteomics in health and disease;.

  7. Cover array string reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Crochemore, Maxime; S. Iliopoulos, Costas; P. Pissis, Solon; Tischler, German

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A proper factor u of a string y is a cover of y if every letter of y is within some occurrence of u in y. The concept generalises the notion of periods of a string. An integer array C is the minimal-cover (resp. maximal-cover) array of y if C[i] is the minimal (resp. maximal) length of covers of y[0.. i], or zero if no cover exists. In this paper, we present a constructive algorithm checking the validity of an array as a minimal-cover or maximal-cover array of some str...

  8. Zirconia with laser-modified microgrooved surface vs. titanium implants covered with melatonin stimulates bone formation. Experimental study in tibia rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Aguilar Salvatierra, Antonio; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Maté Sanchez, Jose Eduardo; Satorres-Nieto, Marta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if zirconia implants with micro-grooved surfaces supplemented with melatonin enhance the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) vs. titanium implants with the same coating. Eighty implants divided in four groups were inserted in the tibia of 20 New Zealand rabbits as follows: (group A) 20 titanium implants; (group B) 20 micro-grooved zirconia implants; (group C) 20 titanium implants supplemented with melatonin and (group D) 20 micro-grooved zirconia implants supplemented with melatonin. Histometric and SEM evaluation of BIC were evaluated after 1 and 4 weeks. At 1 week, group C (29.7 ± 2.4%) and group D (28.9 ± 1.3%) implants showed higher BIC% compared with group A and B (P zirconia melatonin untreated at 4 weeks (P zirconia implants at 1 week. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Fósforo reativo: Arraste superficial sob chuvas simuladas para diferentes coberturas vegetais Reactive phosphorus: Surface transport under simulated rainfall for different vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Gebler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo é um elemento químico chave para a qualidade da água, agindo principalmente como gatilho desencadeador das florações algais. A principal fonte de fósforo nas pequenas bacias rurais advém da agricultura feita nas encostas das bacias, podendo chegar de várias formas ao corpo d’água, porém as formas mais impactantes são o fósforo reativo total e o dissolvido. A forma dissolvida é a que apresenta maiores riscos pois pode percorrer distâncias comparativamente maiores do que o fósforo reativo nos sedimentos em suspensão que podem acabar depositados ao longo do caminho. Portanto, este trabalho visa avaliar se diferentes coberturas do solo por culturas anuais podem interferir no arraste destas formas de fósforo, afetando o risco da degradação dos recursos hídricos das pequenas bacias rurais. Apesar de não ter havido diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, verificou-se sazonalidade ao longo do experimento representando uma estação de cultivo. Isto significa que houve variação do nível de risco, uma vez que, no terço inicial das primeiras chuvas, o risco de arraste de fósforo na enxurrada foi mais elevado em relação a períodos chuvosos mais distantes da época de plantio/fertilização, tornando-se possível avaliar o risco à bacia de forma sazonal e não anual.Phosphorus is a chemical element considered key to water quality, mainly acting as a trigger of algal blooms. The main source of phosphorus in small rural basins is agriculture practiced in the slopes of the basins. This phosphorus can come in various forms to the water body, but the most striking ones are the total and dissolved reactive phosphorus. The dissolved form has higher risks, because it can cover distances comparatively larger than the reactive phosphorus in suspension which can be deposited along the path. This study sought to determine if different coverage of annual crops can interfere in the transport of these forms of phosphorus

  10. Simulation of surface temperature and ice cover of large northern lakes with 1-D models: a comparison with MODIS satellite data and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kheyrollah Pour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake surface temperature (LST and ice phenology were simulated for various points differing in depth on Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake, two large lakes located in the Mackenzie River Basin in Canada's Northwest Territories, using the 1-D Freshwater Lake model (FLake and the Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo over the 2002–2010 period, forced with data from three weather stations (Yellowknife, Hay River and Deline. LST model results were compared to those derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aboard the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. Simulated ice thickness and freeze-up/break-up dates were also compared to in situ observations. Both models showed a good agreement with daily average MODIS LSTs on an annual basis (0.935  ≤  relative index of agreement  ≤  0.984 and 0.94  ≤  mean bias error  ≤  4.83. The absence of consideration of snow on lake ice in FLake was found to have a large impact on estimated ice thicknesses (25 cm thicker on average by the end of winter compared to in situ measurements; 9 cm thicker for CLIMo and break-up dates (6 d earlier in comparison with in situ measurements; 3 d later for CLIMo. The overall agreement between the two models and MODIS LST products during both the open water and ice seasons was good. Remotely sensed data are a promising data source for assimilation into numerical weather prediction models, as they provide the spatial coverage that is not captured by in situ data.

  11. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    While the most common photographs of Earth taken from space show the planet covered in blue water, NASA has managed to produce detailed color images, using satellite imagery, that show the remarkable variation of colors that actually make up the oceanic surface. An ocean s color is determined by the interaction of surface waters with sunlight, and surface waters can contain any number of different particles and dissolved substances, which could then change the color. Then Why Do They Call Earth the Blue Planet? The particles are mostly phytoplankton, the microscopic, single-celled ocean plants that are the primary food source for much marine life. Remote detection of phytoplankton provides information about the uptake and cycling of carbon by the ocean through photosynthesis, as well as the overall health of the water. Inorganic particles and substances dissolved in the water also affect its color, particularly in coastal regions. Satellite images can be used to calculate the concentrations of these materials in surface waters, as well as the levels of biological activity. The satellites allow a global view that is not available from ship or shore. NASA s orbiting satellites offer a unique vantage point for studying the oceans. By resolving the biological, chemical, and physical conditions in surface waters, they have allowed the oceanographic community to make huge leaps in its understanding of oceanographic processes on regional and global fronts. The study of ocean color, in particular, has been integral in helping researchers understand the natural and human-induced changes in the global environment and establishing the role of the oceans in the biochemical cycles of elements that influence the climate and the distribution of life on Earth.

  12. Area-averaged evapotranspiration over a heterogeneous land surface: aggregation of multi-point EC flux measurements with a high-resolution land-cover map and footprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feinan; Wang, Weizhen; Wang, Jiemin; Xu, Ziwei; Qi, Yuan; Wu, Yueru

    2017-08-01

    The determination of area-averaged evapotranspiration (ET) at the satellite pixel scale/model grid scale over a heterogeneous land surface plays a significant role in developing and improving the parameterization schemes of the remote sensing based ET estimation models and general hydro-meteorological models. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) flux matrix provided a unique opportunity to build an aggregation scheme for area-averaged fluxes. On the basis of the HiWATER flux matrix dataset and high-resolution land-cover map, this study focused on estimating the area-averaged ET over a heterogeneous landscape with footprint analysis and multivariate regression. The procedure is as follows. Firstly, quality control and uncertainty estimation for the data of the flux matrix, including 17 eddy-covariance (EC) sites and four groups of large-aperture scintillometers (LASs), were carefully done. Secondly, the representativeness of each EC site was quantitatively evaluated; footprint analysis was also performed for each LAS path. Thirdly, based on the high-resolution land-cover map derived from aircraft remote sensing, a flux aggregation method was established combining footprint analysis and multiple-linear regression. Then, the area-averaged sensible heat fluxes obtained from the EC flux matrix were validated by the LAS measurements. Finally, the area-averaged ET of the kernel experimental area of HiWATER was estimated. Compared with the formerly used and rather simple approaches, such as the arithmetic average and area-weighted methods, the present scheme is not only with a much better database, but also has a solid grounding in physics and mathematics in the integration of area-averaged fluxes over a heterogeneous surface. Results from this study, both instantaneous and daily ET at the satellite pixel scale, can be used for the validation of relevant remote sensing models and land surface process models. Furthermore, this work will be

  13. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories and the ......BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories...... and the effect of categorization on mortality. METHODS: Register-based study in a 2-year period based on emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen combined with nationwide register data. Logistic regression analysis (N = 78,040 individuals) was used for identification...

  14. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the evolution of extracellular surface structures: the freshwater polyp Hydra is covered by a complex fibrous cuticle containing glycosaminoglycans and proteins of the PPOD and SWT (sweet tooth families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Böttger

    Full Text Available The single-cell layered ectoderm of the fresh water polyp Hydra fulfills the function of an epidermis by protecting the animals from the surrounding medium. Its outer surface is covered by a fibrous structure termed the cuticle layer, with similarity to the extracellular surface coats of mammalian epithelia. In this paper we have identified molecular components of the cuticle. We show that its outermost layer contains glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans and we have identified chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate chains. In a search for proteins that could be involved in organising this structure we found PPOD proteins and several members of a protein family containing only SWT (sweet tooth domains. Structural analyses indicate that PPODs consist of two tandem β-trefoil domains with similarity to carbohydrate-binding sites found in lectins. Experimental evidence confirmed that PPODs can bind sulfated glycans and are secreted into the cuticle layer from granules localized under the apical surface of the ectodermal epithelial cells. PPODs are taxon-specific proteins which appear to have entered the Hydra genome by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Their acquisition at the time Hydra evolved from a marine ancestor may have been critical for the transition to the freshwater environment.

  15. Horizontal gene transfer contributed to the evolution of extracellular surface structures: the freshwater polyp Hydra is covered by a complex fibrous cuticle containing glycosaminoglycans and proteins of the PPOD and SWT (sweet tooth) families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Angelika; Doxey, Andrew C; Hess, Michael W; Pfaller, Kristian; Salvenmoser, Willi; Deutzmann, Rainer; Geissner, Andreas; Pauly, Barbara; Altstätter, Johannes; Münder, Sandra; Heim, Astrid; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; McConkey, Brendan J; David, Charles N

    2012-01-01

    The single-cell layered ectoderm of the fresh water polyp Hydra fulfills the function of an epidermis by protecting the animals from the surrounding medium. Its outer surface is covered by a fibrous structure termed the cuticle layer, with similarity to the extracellular surface coats of mammalian epithelia. In this paper we have identified molecular components of the cuticle. We show that its outermost layer contains glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans and we have identified chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate chains. In a search for proteins that could be involved in organising this structure we found PPOD proteins and several members of a protein family containing only SWT (sweet tooth) domains. Structural analyses indicate that PPODs consist of two tandem β-trefoil domains with similarity to carbohydrate-binding sites found in lectins. Experimental evidence confirmed that PPODs can bind sulfated glycans and are secreted into the cuticle layer from granules localized under the apical surface of the ectodermal epithelial cells. PPODs are taxon-specific proteins which appear to have entered the Hydra genome by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Their acquisition at the time Hydra evolved from a marine ancestor may have been critical for the transition to the freshwater environment.

  16. Energy Partitioning in Collisions of Slow Polyatomic Ions with Surfaces: Ethanol Molecular Ions on Surfaces Covered by Self-Assembled Monolayers (CF-SAM, CH-SAM, COOH-SAM)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žabka, Ján; Dolejšek, Zdeněk; Herman, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 45 (2002), s. 10861-10869 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/0351; GA ČR GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : energy partitioning * collisions * surfaces Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.765, year: 2002

  17. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...

  19. Ultrasensitive detection and quantification of E. coli O157:H7 using a giant magneto impedance sensor in an open-surface micro fluidic cavity covered with an antibody-modified gold surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhen; Liu, Yan; Lei, Chong; Sun, Xue-cheng; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We report on a method for ultrasensitive detection and quantification of the pathogen Escherichia coli (E. coli), type O157:H7. It is using a tortuous-shaped giant magneto impedance (GMI) sensor in combination with an open-surface micro fluidic system coated with a gold film for performing the sandwich immuno binding on its surface. Streptavidin-coated super magnetic Dynabeads were loaded with biotinylated polyclonal antibody to capture E. coli O157:H7. The E. coli-loaded Dynabeads are then injected into the microfluidics system where it comes into contact with the surface of gold nanofilm carrying the monoclonal antibody to form the immuno complex. As a result, the GMI ratio is strongly reduced at high frequencies if E. coli O157:H7 is present. The sensor has a linear response in the 50 to 500 cfu·mL −1 concentration range, and the detection limit is 50 cfu·mL −1 at a working frequency of 2.2 MHz. In our perception, this method provides a valuable tool for developing GMI-based micro fluidic sensors systems for ultrasensitive and quantitative analysis of pathogenic bacteria. The method may also be extended to other sensing applications by employing respective immuno reagents. (author)

  20. Your Wake-Up Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Your Wake-Up Call Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of ... months old. Although health care professionals don't know what causes SIDS, they do know ways to ...

  1. (the so called limiting resource).

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An asymmetry in response to rainfall is not surprising in the light of Liebig's law of the minimum, which says that the yield of a crop is determined by the scarcest resource (the so called limiting resource).

  2. When to Call Your Pediatrician

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Home Health Insurance Pediatric Specialists Family Dynamics Media Work & ... Page Content Article Body Is it OK to call my child's pediatrician even if I'm not sure my child is sick? Routine ...

  3. Moisture Re-distribution in Concrete Under Impermeable Coverings

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Niall

    2003-01-01

    It is normally considered safe to apply an impermeable floor covering to concrete surfaces when the surface relative humidity reaches 75% as determined by a surface hygrometer. However, over time, defects can appear on the covering such as blistering of vinyl and rising of tiles from the surface. One cause is the on-going diffusion of the residual moisture deep within the slab to the surface. The covering traps this residual moisture, thus preventing evaporation to the ambient air and gradual...

  4. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  5. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  6. Scalability and Total Recall with Fast CoveringLSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Ninh Dang; Pagh, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    the applicability of LSH in settings requiring precise performance guarantees. Building on the recent theoretical "CoveringLSH" construction that eliminates false negatives, we propose a fast and practical covering LSH scheme for Hamming space called Fast CoveringLSH (fcLSH). Inheriting the design benefits...

  7. Land-cover effects on the fate and transport of surface-applied antibiotics and 17-beta-estradiol on a sandy outwash plain, Anoka County, Minnesota, 2008–09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Jared J.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Rose, Peter J.; Elliott, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    A plot-scale field experiment on a sandy outwash plain in Anoka County in east-central Minnesota was used to investigate the fate and transport of two antibiotics, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and a hormone, 17-beta-estradiol (17BE), in four land-cover types: bare soil, corn, hay, and prairie. The SMZ, SMX, and 17BE were applied to the surface of five plots of each land-cover type in May 2008 and again in April 2009. The cumulative application rate was 16.8 milligrams per square meter (mg/m2) for each antibiotic and 0.6 mg/m2 for 17BE. Concentrations of each chemical in plant-tissue, soil, soil-water, and groundwater samples were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Soil-water and groundwater sampling events were scheduled to capture the transport of SMZ, SMX, and 17BE during two growing seasons. Soil and plant-tissue sampling events were scheduled to identify the fate of the parent chemicals of SMZ, SMX, and 17BE in these matrices after two chemical applications. Areal concentrations (mg/m2) of SMZ and SMX in soil tended to decrease in prairie plots in the 8 weeks after the second chemical application, from April 2009 to June 2009, but not in other land-cover types. During these same 8 weeks, prairie plots produced more aboveground biomass and had extracted more water from the upper 125 centimeters of the soil profile compared to all other land-cover types. Areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in prairie plant tissue did not explain the temporal changes in areal concentrations of these chemicals in soil. The areal concentrations of SMZ and SMX in the aboveground plant tissues in June 2009 and August 2009 were much lower, generally two to three orders of magnitude, than the areal concentrations of these chemicals in soil. Pooling all treatment plot data, the median areal concentration of SMZ and SMX in plant tissues was 0.01 and 0.10 percent of the applied chemical mass compared to 22 and 12 percent in soil

  8. Quantifying uncertainty in genotype calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Benilton S; Louis, Thomas A; Irizarry, Rafael A

    2010-01-15

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are used to discover genes underlying complex, heritable disorders for which less powerful study designs have failed in the past. The number of GWAS has skyrocketed recently with findings reported in top journals and the mainstream media. Microarrays are the genotype calling technology of choice in GWAS as they permit exploration of more than a million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) simultaneously. The starting point for the statistical analyses used by GWAS to determine association between loci and disease is making genotype calls (AA, AB or BB). However, the raw data, microarray probe intensities, are heavily processed before arriving at these calls. Various sophisticated statistical procedures have been proposed for transforming raw data into genotype calls. We find that variability in microarray output quality across different SNPs, different arrays and different sample batches have substantial influence on the accuracy of genotype calls made by existing algorithms. Failure to account for these sources of variability can adversely affect the quality of findings reported by the GWAS. We developed a method based on an enhanced version of the multi-level model used by CRLMM version 1. Two key differences are that we now account for variability across batches and improve the call-specific assessment of each call. The new model permits the development of quality metrics for SNPs, samples and batches of samples. Using three independent datasets, we demonstrate that the CRLMM version 2 outperforms CRLMM version 1 and the algorithm provided by Affymetrix, Birdseed. The main advantage of the new approach is that it enables the identification of low-quality SNPs, samples and batches. Software implementing of the method described in this article is available as free and open source code in the crlmm R/BioConductor package. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Calagem superficial e cobertura de aveia preta antecedendo os cultivos de milho e soja em sistema plantio direto Surface lime application and black oat cover preceding corn and soybean crops under a no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fávero Caires

    2006-02-01

    rendimento de milho, mas não influiu no rendimento de soja, cultivada após o milho, no sistema plantio direto.Cover crop residues mobilize cations and benefit the action of lime applied on the soil surface owing to the release of low molecular weight organic acids from the soluble fraction of residues. However, these effects in no-till system are yet to be confirmed in field studies. A five-year trial was carried out on a no-till dystrophic Rhodic Hapludox in Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, with the aim of evaluating changes in chemical soil attributes, as well as the corn and soybean response to surface application of dolomitic lime (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 t ha-1, with and without black oat cover. Lime rates were applied onto the main plots in November 2000 and the treatments on the subplots consisted of the presence or absence of black oat in 2001 and 2002, preceding corn and soybean crops. Surface-applied lime did not influence the dry matter yield of black oat, which was approximately 4 t ha-1 in both 2001 and 2002 years. Liming did not affect the H+ ions neutralizing capacity (482 mmol c dm-3, the sum of soluble cations (29.5 mmol c L-1 or electric conductivity (1,230 µS cm-1 of the black oat extract either. Liming applied on the soil surface decreased exchangeable Al3+ and increased pH, exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ down to a 10 cm depth. Black oat residue on the soil surface under no-till did not benefit the mobility of surface-applied lime to alleviate subsoil acidity. Surface application of lime did not affect corn mineral nutrition or corn and soybean yields, but decreased Zn and Mn concentrations in soybean leaves. Cover black oat residue raised the P, Ca, and Mg concentrations in the corn and N and P in the soybean leaves and caused a decrease of Mn concentration in the soybean leaves. The black oat cover on the soil surface increased corn yield, but did not affect soybean yield, grown under no-till after corn.

  10. Un/covering: Making Disability Identity Legible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dawn Evans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one aspect of disability identity among people with non-apparent or "invisible" disabilities: the decision to emphasize, remind others about, or openly acknowledge impairment in social settings. I call this process "un/covering," and situate this concept in the sociological and Disability Studies literature on disability stigma, passing, and covering. Drawing on interviews with people who have acquired a non-apparent impairment through chronic illness or injury, I argue that decisions to un/cover (after a disability disclosure has already been made play a pivotal role for this group in developing a strong, positive disability identity and making that identity legible to others. Decisions to pass, cover, or un/cover are ongoing decisions that stitch together the fabric of each person's daily life experiences, thus serving as primary mechanisms for identity negotiation and management.

  11. Integrating heterogeneous healthcare call centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, K M; Reed, W C; Salter, K

    1998-01-01

    In a relatively short period, OHS has absorbed multiple call centers supporting different LOBs from various acquisitions, functioning with diverse standards, processes, and technologies. However, customer and employee satisfaction is predicated on OHS's ability to thoroughly integrate these heterogeneous call centers. The integration was initiated and has successfully progressed through a balanced program of focused leadership and a defined strategy which includes site consolidation, sound performance management philosophies, and enabling technology. Benefits have already been achieved with even more substantive ones to occur as the integration continues to evolve.

  12. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  13. The Wireless Nursing Call System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight into the cha......This paper discusses a research project in which social scientists were involved both as analysts and supporters during a pilot with a new wireless nursing call system. The case thus exemplifies an attempt to participate in developing dependable health care systems and offers insight...

  14. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  15. CARIAA Call - Frequently Asked Questions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    2013-03-28

    Mar 28, 2013 ... The call is open to research teams from academic institutions, private sector organizations with a research mandate, NGOs, civil society organizations, and research-based organizations. UN organizations may not apply as consortium members. CGIAR centres may apply as third parties, contracted by a ...

  16. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  17. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  18. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Recently several national programs have been initiated calling for improving soil health and creating pollinator habitat using cover crops. Opportunities exist for nut growers to do both with the use of cover crops in our nut orchards. Because we can include perennial ground covers as cover crops, we have even more choices than landowners managing cover crops during...

  19. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  20. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  1. Calle y Saberes en Movimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Aguirre Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En México el rezago, el ausentismo, la deserción escolar, el trabajo a temprana edad y el inicio de una vida en la calle, en repetidas ocasiones son consecuencia de un núcleo familiar desarticulado o de una débil relación intrafamiliar, así como de una condición socioeconómica en desventaja. Ante esta problemática, la Secretaría de Educación Pública, instancia gubernamental encargada de garantizar una educación de calidad para la población, trabaja coordinadamente con organizaciones de la sociedad civil e instancias públicas, para la reintegración a los espacios educativos de los niños, niñas y jóvenes en situación de calle.

  2. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Frants H; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T

    2011-10-22

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise.

  3. Armed calling for sur plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Limberto Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most recent work by researcher José Luiz Aidar Prado, Convocações biopolíticas dos dispositivos comunicacionais (freely translated as Biopolitic convoking of communicational dispositives puts the reader straight in the face of the calling to enter circulating discourses. They are directed to all subjects and also accomodate the discourses with urgence for consumption. 

  4. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  5. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  6. Ultrasound call detection in capybara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene S.C. Nogueira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The vocal repertoire of some animal species has been considered a non-invasive tool to predict distress reactivity. In rats ultrasound emissions were reported as distress indicator. Capybaras[ vocal repertoire was reported recently and seems to have ultrasound calls, but this has not yet been confirmed. Thus, in order to check if a poor state of welfare was linked to ultrasound calls in the capybara vocal repertoire, the aim of this study was to track the presence of ultrasound emissions in 11 animals under three conditions: 1 unrestrained; 2 intermediately restrained, and 3 highly restrained. The ultrasound track identified frequencies in the range of 31.8±3.5 kHz in adults and 33.2±8.5 kHz in juveniles. These ultrasound frequencies occurred only when animals were highly restrained, physically restrained or injured during handling. We concluded that these calls with ultrasound components are related to pain and restraint because they did not occur when animals were free of restraint. Thus we suggest that this vocalization may be used as an additional tool to assess capybaras[ welfare.

  7. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  8. Comparative Analysis of Responses of Land Surface Temperature to Long-Term Land Use/Cover Changes between a Coastal and Inland City: A Case of Freetown and Bo Town in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Tarawally

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban growth and its associated expansion of built-up areas are expected to continue through to the twenty second century and at a faster pace in developing countries. This has the potential to increase thermal discomfort and heat-related distress. There is thus a need to monitor growth patterns, especially in resource constrained countries such as Africa, where few studies have so far been conducted. In view of this, this study compares urban growth and temperature response patterns in Freetown and Bo town in Sierra Leone. Multispectral Landsat images obtained in 1998, 2000, 2007, and 2015 are used to quantify growth and land surface temperature responses. The contribution index (CI is used to explain how changes per land use and land cover class (LULC contributed to average city surface temperatures. The population size of Freetown was about eight times greater than in Bo town. Landsat data mapped urban growth patterns with a high accuracy (Overall Accuracy > 80% for both cities. Significant changes in LULC were noted in Freetown, characterized by a 114 km2 decrease in agriculture area, 23 km2 increase in dense vegetation, and 77 km2 increase in built-up area. Between 1998 and 2015, built-up area increased by 16 km2, while dense vegetation area decreased by 14 km2 in Bo town. Average surface temperature increased from 23.7 to 25.5 °C in Freetown and from 24.9 to 28.2 °C in Bo town during the same period. Despite the larger population size and greater built-up extent, as well as expansion rate, Freetown was 2 °C cooler than Bo town in all periods. The low temperatures are attributed to proximity to sea and the very large proportion of vegetation surrounding the city. Even close to the sea and abundant vegetation, the built-up area had an elevated temperature compared to the surroundings. The findings are important for formulating heat mitigation strategies for both inland and coastal cities in developing countries.

  9. data of crank case cover – (CATIA V5 & DELCAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwan Sundi Syahrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surface finish for a machined part which was programmed by two popular Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM software namely as Catia V5 and Delcam (Delcam for Solidworks - DFS by using scanned data obtained from one of the Reverse Engineering methods namely Three-Dimensional (3D scanning process. A crank case cover was chosen as the physical part to be scanned and machined because of its sculptured shape and complex geometry. In this study, simultaneous three-axis machining programs were created and machined using threeaxis Computer Numerical Control (CNC Milling machine; DMC 635 Ecoline. Furthermore, all machining parameters are remained the same for both programs. Initially, the physical crank case cover gone through the first process called scanning process using a 3D scanner; model 700 CX in order to capture the 3D CAD data in points cloud form. The raw scanned data then gone through editing process to obtain better surfaces using Geomagic Studio software. Moreover, the stable and edited CAD model then undergone CAD/CAM programming process for both mentioned software respectively. On the other hand, there were seven random points chosen to be analyzed for the surface roughness analysis. The arithmetic mean value (Ra was used as the roughness value reference using Mitutoyo Surface Tester. Ultimately, it could be concluded that Catia V5 producing better surface finish compared to Delcam software concluded from the analysis carried out as presented in this paper.

  10. A novel assessment of the role of land-use and land-cover change in the global carbon cycle, using a new Dynamic Global Vegetation Model version of the CABLE land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverd, Vanessa; Smith, Benjamin; Nieradzik, Lars; Briggs, Peter; Canadell, Josep

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, terrestrial ecosystems have sequestered around 1.2 PgC y-1, an amount equivalent to 20% of fossil-fuel emissions. This land carbon flux is the net result of the impact of changing climate and CO2 on ecosystem productivity (CO2-climate driven land sink ) and deforestation, harvest and secondary forest regrowth (the land-use change (LUC) flux). The future trajectory of the land carbon flux is highly dependent upon the contributions of these processes to the net flux. However their contributions are highly uncertain, in part because the CO2-climate driven land sink and LUC components are often estimated independently, when in fact they are coupled. We provide a novel assessment of global land carbon fluxes (1800-2015) that integrates land-use effects with the effects of changing climate and CO2 on ecosystem productivity. For this, we use a new land-use enabled Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) version of the CABLE land surface model, suitable for use in attributing changes in terrestrial carbon balance, and in predicting changes in vegetation cover and associated effects on land-atmosphere exchange. In this model, land-use-change is driven by prescribed gross land-use transitions and harvest areas, which are converted to changes in land-use area and transfer of carbon between pools (soil, litter, biomass, harvested wood products and cleared wood pools). A novel aspect is the treatment of secondary woody vegetation via the coupling between the land-use module and the POP (Populations Order Physiology) module for woody demography and disturbance-mediated landscape heterogeneity. Land-use transitions to and from secondary forest tiles modify the patch age distribution within secondary-vegetated tiles, in turn affecting biomass accumulation and turnover rates and hence the magnitude of the secondary forest sink. The resulting secondary forest patch age distribution also influences the magnitude of the secondary forest harvest and clearance fluxes

  11. Such membranes are called “D2-branes”.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Such membranes are called “D2-branes”. D is for “Dirichlet”, the boundary conditions which fix the ends of open strings onto a surface. 2 is for a 2-dimensional surface, a membrane. So we say that open string theory has D2-branes among its excitations. Notes:

  12. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  13. Call for Papers: Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, W.; Gerard, J.-M.

    2003-06-01

    Cavity QED interactions of light and matter have been investigated in a wide range of systems covering the spectrum from microwaves to optical frequencies, using media as diverse as single atoms and semiconductors. Impressive progress has been achieved technologically as well as conceptually. This topical issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is intended to provide a comprehensive account of the current state of the art of cavity QED by uniting contributions from researchers active across this field. As Guest Editors of this topical issue, we invite manuscripts on current theoretical and experimental work on any aspects of cavity QED. The topics to be covered will include, but are not limited to: bulletCavity QED in optical microcavities bulletSemiconductor cavity QED bulletQuantum dot cavity QED bulletRydberg atoms in microwave cavities bulletPhotonic crystal cavity QED bulletMicrosphere resonators bulletMicrolasers and micromasers bulletMicrodroplets bulletDielectric cavity QED bulletCavity QED-based quantum information processing bulletQuantum state engineering in cavities The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 31 July 2003 to allow the topical issue to appear in about February 2004. All papers will be peer-reviewed in accordance with the normal refereeing procedures and standards of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics. Advice on publishing your work in the journal may be found at www.iop.org/journals/authors/jopb. Submissions should ideally be in either standard LaTeX form or Microsoft Word. There are no page charges for publication. In addition to the usual 50 free reprints, the corresponding author of each paper published will receive a complimentary copy of the topical issue. Contributions to the topical issue should if possible be submitted electronically at www.iop.org/journals/jopb. or by e-mail to jopb@iop.org. Authors unable to submit online or by e-mail may send hard copy contributions (enclosing the

  14. Res Cover Oct 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tender parts of the plant are covered with rusty brown star-shaped hairs. Petals are hooded with bifurcated appendages. Stamens are ten of which five are fertile and the rest sterile. They are fused into a hollow cup-like structure. Fruit is dry, indehiscent and is hard and dark when ripe. Bark is used in treating skin diseases ...

  15. August Cover 09 Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    The course will cover topics selected mostly from post-graduate curriculum in the broad areas of classical and quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, special relativity, mathematical methods, and statistical physics. The lectures will be supplemented by discussion and problem sessions. Teachers who wish to participate may ...

  16. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the calls of one of these species, Bufo pardalis. Hewitt, were not analysed by Tandy & Keith. (1972). Furthennore there is some confusion in the literature regarding the mating call of this species. For these reasons this mating call is here clarified. The mating call of B. pardaiis was first described by Ranger (in Hewitt 1935) as ...

  17. Res Cover Sep 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    In primality testing, there is an e±cient test called the Miller{Rabin primality test which is not known to be deterministic, but it can be .... w hich use di®erent ideas and w hich I enjoyed learning about. T hey are allpretty and not too w .... trary but given pair of distinct,odd prim es. In the language of abstract algebra, C R T. 5.

  18. Examination of the relationship between vegetation cover indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods adopted for data collection are field observation and measurement of variables along twelve transects, using the following indices; size of surface cover, tree crown fullness, area covered by litters, tree density and leaf cover index. The physical measurements were carried out on each transect of 50m by 500m.

  19. Seasonal and diurnal calling patterns of Ross and leopards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Rowney, Gayle A.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    The temporal calling patterns of two Antarctic pack ice seals, the leopard and Ross seal, were examined. This included seasonal onset and decline of calling (coinciding with their breeding season) as well as diurnal changes. Understanding of calling behavior has important implications for acoustic surveying, since this allows the number of calls to be related to an index of the number of animals present and to estimate abundance. The monthly changes in diurnal calling and haul-out patterns (measured via satellite telemetry) were compared. Underwater acoustic recordings were made between 14 October 2003 and 10 January 2004 off Mawson, Eastern Antarctica (660 44.243S and 690 48.748E). Recordings were made using an Acoustics Recording Package (ARP by Dr. John Hildebrand, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA) which is designed to sit on the seafloor and passively record acoustic signals. The package was deployed at a depth of 1320.7 m. The sampling rate was 500 Hz and the effective bandwidth from 10 to 250 Hz, covering the bandwidth of only the low-frequency calls of the Ross and leopard seal.

  20. Res Cover Oct 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T his is a m agic square w hose individual 3 £ 3 blocks are also m agic squares. W e call such a m agic square as a sudoku m agic square. For exam ple taking X = 2. 6. 4. 54 59 52. 53 55 57. 58 51 56. 3. 7. 5; w e get the sudoku m agic square: 2. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 4. 44 49 42 34 39 32 84 89 82. 43 45 47 ...

  1. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  2. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  3. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  4. Protection cover against passive missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brepson, R.

    1984-01-01

    This cover comprises a reinforced or prestressed concrete wall covering the surface to protect. This concrete wall is covered by a shock absorbing layer. The shock absorbing layer has a lower floor bearing on the concrete wall, a parallel top plate providing a space between the two floors; metallic braces extend in this space between the two plates with ends are a foot fixed to the lower floor and a head fixed to the top plate. Some braces are oblique and extend in diverse planes, perpendicular to the panels so that top flooring movement causes variation in brace length, and some braces are soft steel dampening tubes, capable of 50% compression by wall folding without axial bending. The present invention aims also at a construction process of such a cover. This invention can be applied to the construction of buildings sheltering dangerous installations such as gas reserves or nuclear reactors [fr

  5. Nuclear reactor coolant and cover gas system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.A.; Redding, A.H.; Tower, S.N.

    1976-01-01

    A core cooling system is disclosed for a nuclear reactor of the type utilizing a liquid coolant with a cover gas above free surfaces of the coolant. The disclosed system provides for a large inventory of reactor coolant and a balanced low pressure cover gas arrangement. A flow restricting device disposed within a reactor vessel achieves a pressure of the cover gas in the reactor vessel lower than the pressure of the reactor coolant in the vessel. The low gas pressure is maintained over all free surfaces of the coolant in the cooling system including a coolant reservoir tank. Reactor coolant stored in the reservoir tank allows for the large reactor coolant inventory provided by the invention

  6. The CALL-SLA Interface: Insights from a Second-Order Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke; Ziegler, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and second language acquisition (SLA) has been studied both extensively, covering numerous subdomains, and intensively, resulting in hundreds of primary studies. It is therefore no surprise that CALL researchers, as in other areas of applied linguistics, have turned in recent…

  7. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.31 Hatch coverings. (a) No cargo... adequate landing area suitable for the prevailing conditions exists. In no event shall such work be done...

  8. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) released the Intercarrier Call Completion/Call... consumers and industry by adopting a rule prohibiting false ring signaling. In the Further Notice of... billed. The Commission adopted rules requiring telecommunications carriers and providers of...

  9. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note: the number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  10. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  11. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  12. How to call the Fire Brigade

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The telephone numbers for the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from "wired" telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.

  13. HOW TO CALL THE CERN FIRE BRIGADE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The telephone numbers of the CERN Fire Brigade are: 74444 for emergency calls 74848 for other calls Note The number 112 will stay in use for emergency calls from 'wired' telephones, however, from mobile phones it leads to non-CERN emergency services.  

  14. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Call for Abstracts

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial, you will learn how to define and open a call for abstracts. When defining a call for abstracts, you will be able to define settings related to the type of questions asked during a review of an abstract, select the users who will review the abstracts, decide when to open the call for abstracts, and more.

  15. Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

  16. Do market participants learn from conference calls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, E.; Verbeeten, F.; Mertens, G.

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether market participants learn from the information that is disseminated during the Q-and-A section of conference calls. Specifically, we investigate whether stock prices react to information on intangible assets provided during conference calls, and whether conference calls

  17. The Rapidly Shrinking Arctic Multiyear Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the most dramatic changes in the Arctic in recent years was the precipitous decline in the perennial ice cover. In 2007, the perennial ice area was 37% lower than climatological average and 28% lower than the previous low established in 2005. In 2008, the perennial ice recovered somewhat because of colder global temperatures but by only about 6% of average value. The trend in the ice area covered by perennial ice is now -12.5% per decade using data from 1979 to 2009 which compared to a previous report of -9% per decade derived from 1979 to 2000 data indicates an accelerated decline. To gain insight into the phenomenon, we studied the mUltiyear ice cover as detected by satellite sensor in winter. The multiyear ice as detected in winter represents ice that has generally survived two summers and therefore the thicker component of the perennial ice cover. Analysis of the thicker multiyear ice types indicates an even more rapid decline of 17% per decade. Such decline in the thick component of the Arctic ice cover that normally survives the summer means an even more vulnerable perennial ice cover. Much of the decline occurred in the western region of the Arctic Basin (Le., Chukchi and Beaufort Seas) where the open water area has been increasing by about 35% per decade. Such increase in low albedo ice free region causes the absorption of considerably more solar heat in the Arctic basin. This causes further decline in the ice cover in a process called ice-albedo feedback. A manifestation of such process is the observed trend in SST in the basin of about 0.5 + 0.2 degrees Celsius per decade as derived from satellite data

  18. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250 degrees C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure

  19. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-12-07

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal.

  20. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the

  1. Soil chemical and physical properties that differentiate urban land-use and cover types

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.V. Pouyat; I.D. Yesilonis; J. Russell-Anelli; N.K. Neerchal

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of land use and cover and surface geology on soil properties in Baltimore, MD, with the objectives to: (i) measure the physical and chemical properties of surface soils (0?10 cm) by land use and cover; and (ii) ascertain whether land use and cover explain differences in these properties relative to surface geology. Mean and median values of...

  2. Scenarios of land cover in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tian Xiang; Fan, Ze Meng; Liu, Ji Yuan

    2007-02-01

    A method for surface modeling of land cover change (SMLC) is developed on the basis of establishing transition probability matrixes between land cover types and HLZ types. SMLC is used to simulate land cover scenarios of China for the years 2039, 2069 and 2099, for which HLZ scenarios are first simulated in terms of HadCM3 climatic scenarios that are downscaled in zonal model of spatial climate change in China. This paper also analyzes spatial distribution of land cover types, area change and mean center shift of each land cover type, ecotope diversity, and patch connectivity under the land cover scenarios. The results show that cultivated land would decrease and woodland would expand greatly with climatic change, which coincides with consequences expected by implementation of Grain-for-Green policy. Nival area would shrink, and desertification area would expand at a comparatively slow rate in future 100 years. Climate change would generally cause less ecotope diversity and more patch connectivity. Ecosystems in China would have a pattern of beneficial cycle after efficient ecological conservation and restoration. However, if human activities would exceed regulation capacity of ecosystems themselves, the ecosystems in China might deteriorate more seriously.

  3. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  4. Special study on vegetative covers. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  6. Land cover mapping of North and Central America—Global Land Cover 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifovic, Rasim; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Map of North and Central America for the year 2000 (GLC 2000-NCA), prepared by NRCan/CCRS and USGS/EROS Data Centre (EDC) as a regional component of the Global Land Cover 2000 project, is the subject of this paper. A new mapping approach for transforming satellite observations acquired by the SPOT4/VGTETATION (VGT) sensor into land cover information is outlined. The procedure includes: (1) conversion of daily data into 10-day composite; (2) post-seasonal correction and refinement of apparent surface reflectance in 10-day composite images; and (3) extraction of land cover information from the composite images. The pre-processing and mosaicking techniques developed and used in this study proved to be very effective in removing cloud contamination, BRDF effects, and noise in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR). The GLC 2000-NCA land cover map is provided as a regional product with 28 land cover classes based on modified Federal Geographic Data Committee/Vegetation Classification Standard (FGDC NVCS) classification system, and as part of a global product with 22 land cover classes based on Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation. The map was compared on both areal and per-pixel bases over North and Central America to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) global land cover classification, the University of Maryland global land cover classification (UMd) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Global land cover classification produced by Boston University (BU). There was good agreement (79%) on the spatial distribution and areal extent of forest between GLC 2000-NCA and the other maps, however, GLC 2000-NCA provides additional information on the spatial distribution of forest types. The GLC 2000-NCA map was produced at the continental level incorporating specific needs of the region.

  7. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  8. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, lase...

  9. Outsourcing an Effective Postdischarge Call Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Kevin L.; Williams, Paula; Unterschuetz, Caryn J.

    2018-01-01

    To improve patient satisfaction ratings and decrease readmissions, many organizations utilize internal staff to complete postdischarge calls to recently released patients. Developing, implementing, monitoring, and sustaining an effective call program can be challenging and have eluded some of the renowned medical centers in the country. Using collaboration with an outsourced vendor to bring state-of-the-art call technology and staffed with specially trained callers, health systems can achieve elevated levels of engagement and satisfaction for their patients postdischarge. PMID:29494453

  10. The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.

    OpenAIRE

    Semple, S

    1998-01-01

    In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation cal...

  11. Educación de calle

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Alonso, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    Los cambios que está sufriendo nuestra sociedad generan nuevas realidades sociales y nuevos métodos de socialización modificando nuestro entorno. Uno de los principales lugares donde ocurre esto es en la calle. La Calle tiene un potencial educativo muy valioso. En ocasiones puede ser utilizado para “des - educar”, olvidado por instituciones sociales, políticas y educativas. Es importante que la Calle se convierta en un espacio de socialización educativa. La Calle tiene un pa...

  12. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  13. time series modeling of daily abandoned calls in a call centre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Models for evaluating and predicting the short periodic time series in daily abandoned calls in a call center are developed. Abandonment of calls due to impatient is an identified problem among most call centers. The two competing models were derived using Fourier series and the Box and Jenkins modeling approaches.

  14. Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bryan J.; Eldridge, Brandy M.; Steger, Michael F.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Research on work as a calling is limited by measurement concerns. In response, the authors introduce the multidimensional Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Brief Calling scale (BCS), instruments assessing presence of, and search for, a calling. Study 1 describes CVQ development using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis…

  15. Time series modeling of daily abandoned calls in a call centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Models for evaluating and predicting the short periodic time series in daily abandoned calls in a call center are developed. Abandonment of calls due to impatient is an identified problem among most call centers. The two competing models were derived using Fourier series and the Box and Jenkins modeling approaches.

  16. Urban climate modifications in hot desert cities: The role of land cover, local climate, and seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Michele; Molini, Annalisa; Marpu, Prashanth R.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-11-01

    Urban climate modifications like the urban heat island (UHI) have been extensively investigated in temperate regions. In contrast, the understanding of how urbanization relates to climate in hot, hyperarid environments is still extremely limited, despite the growing socioeconomic relevance of arid lands and their fast urbanization rate. We explore here the relationship between land cover and temperature regime in hot desert cities (HDCs) based on estimates of land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, and impervious surface areas inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Landsat satellite products. Our analysis shows that HDCs display common climatic patterns, with downtown areas on average cooler than suburbs during the daytime (urban cool island) and warmer at night (classical UHI). The observed diurnal cool island effect can be largely explained by relative vegetation abundance, percentage of bare soil, and local climatic conditions and calls for a more in deep investigation of the physical processes regulating boundary layer dynamics in arid regions.

  17. Evaluating relationships between urban land cover composition and evapotranspiration in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Litvak, E.; Pataki, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    California experienced its most severe drought on record in 2013 and 2014, forcing the governor to call for the first statewide reductions in urban water use. This led to numerous water conservation efforts including turf removal and restrictions on outdoor irrigation. The decrease in irrigation across the city of Los Angeles has had major effects on regional hydrologic fluxes. Previous studies have found that conservation efforts have decreased streamflow but little work has been done on the impact of reduced irrigation on Evapotranspiration (ET). ET is one of the most difficult variables to measure as a result of its heterogeneity both spatially and temporally; yet, it is imperative in characterizing energy and hydrologic processes and in aiding water management decisions. Estimating ET is further complicated in urban regions where land cover composition is extremely variable, even at small scales. Irrigated landscape and impervious surfaces are two of the most common land cover types associated with urbanization, but they have opposite effects on ET. While numerous studies have evaluated changes in ET caused by urbanization, they have all produced varying results. This is expected as changes to ET are highly dependent on land cover composition. In this study, we modeled the relationship between ET and urban land cover change in Los Angeles. We utilized empirical equations derived from in situ measurements to calculate tree and irrigated turfgrass ET and compared the results to estimates based on remote-sensing and California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) network of weather stations. We found that unshaded turfgrass largely increased ET compared to impervious surfaces, which reveals lavish irrigation practices. Trees also increased ET, but they provided shade that decreased ET from turf grass. With much of the western United States facing drought and water supply uncertainty due to climate change, understanding and predicting how land cover

  18. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-04-07

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of 'good design' through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge.

  19. The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, S

    1998-02-22

    In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation calling results in a female being mated by many males, thus promoting competition at the level of sperm (sperm competition hypothesis). In this paper, I give results from the first experimental study to test these hypotheses. Playback was used to examine the function of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Although rank did not affect lone males' likelihood of approaching copulation calls, when playbacks were given to pairs of males only the higher ranking individual approached. Moreover, females were mated significantly sooner after playback of their copulation call than after playback of a control stimulus. These results suggest that the copulation calls of female Barbary macaques play a key role in affecting patterns of male reproductive behaviour, not only providing an indirect mechanism of female choice, but also promoting sperm competition by reducing the interval between copulations. Potential fitness benefits of inciting male-male competition at these two levels are discussed.

  20. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

  1. Bat echolocation calls: Orientation to communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, M. Brock

    2004-05-01

    Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.

  2. CALL FOR EXTENDED CONCEPT NOTES ECOHEALTH CHAIRS ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marie-Isabelle Beyer

    CALL FOR EXTENDED CONCEPT NOTES. Page 1 of 1. ECOHEALTH CHAIRS in HEALTH and GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE in. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. Eligible countries. Organizations and researchers based in the eligible country list below can apply as team to this Call. Within limits of. Canadian law and ...

  3. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of a margin deficiency without effecting personal contact with the leverage customer. If a leverage...

  4. Answering the "Call of the Mountain"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Villegas, Martha

    2016-01-01

    In response to the age of the ‘anthropocene,’ as some authors are calling this epoch in which one single species is disrupting major natural systems (Steffen et al 2011), there are calls for more radical, learning-based sustainability that generates deep transformations in individuals and

  5. Call center performance with direct response advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kiygi Calli (Meltem); M. Weverbergh (Marcel); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the manpower planning and the performance of a national call center dealing with car repairs and on the road interventions. We model the impact of advertising on the capacity required. The starting point is a forecasting model for the incoming calls, where we take

  6. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  7. The Call to Teach and Teacher Hopefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore teacher motivation and well-being. Our analysis focuses on two central concepts, the notion of a "calling to teach" and of teacher "hopefulness." Data from 205 preservice and inservice teachers were collected to determine teachers' sense of calling and level of hope. Results indicate that overwhelmingly,…

  8. Monitoring method call sequences using annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nobakht (Behrooz); F.S. de Boer (Frank); M.M. Bonsangue (Marcello); C.P.T. de Gouw (Stijn); M.M. Jaghouri (MohammadMahdi)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we introduce JMSeq, a Java-based tool for monitoring sequences of method calls. JMSeq provides a simple but expressive language to specify the observables of a Java program in terms of sequences of possibly nested method calls. Similar to many monitoring-oriented

  9. Source levels of foraging humpback whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Michelle E H; Matthews, Leanna P; Gabriele, Christine M; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Holger

    2018-02-01

    Humpback whales produce a wide range of low- to mid-frequency vocalizations throughout their migratory range. Non-song "calls" dominate this species' vocal repertoire while on high-latitude foraging grounds. The source levels of 426 humpback whale calls in four vocal classes were estimated using a four-element planar array deployed in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Southeast Alaska. There was no significant difference in source levels between humpback whale vocal classes. The mean call source level was 137 dB RMS re 1 μPa @ 1 m in the bandwidth of the call (range 113-157 dB RMS re 1 μPa @ 1 m), where bandwidth is defined as the frequency range from the lowest to the highest frequency component of the call. These values represent a robust estimate of humpback whale source levels on foraging grounds and should append earlier estimates.

  10. Call Admission Control in Mobile Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sanchita

    2013-01-01

    Call Admission Control (CAC) and Dynamic Channel Assignments (DCA) are important decision-making problems in mobile cellular communication systems. Current research in mobile communication considers them as two independent problems, although the former greatly depends on the resulting free channels obtained as the outcome of the latter. This book provides a solution to the CAC problem, considering DCA as an integral part of decision-making for call admission. Further, current technical resources ignore movement issues of mobile stations and fluctuation in network load (incoming calls) in the control strategy used for call admission. In addition, the present techniques on call admission offers solution globally for the entire network, instead of considering the cells independently.      CAC here has been formulated by two alternative approaches. The first approach aimed at handling the uncertainty in the CAC problem by employing fuzzy comparators.  The second approach is concerned with formulation of CAC ...

  11. Call cultures in orang-utans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects. Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval, individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are consistent with the potential presence of 'call cultures' and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might

  12. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  13. Attitude of Farmers towards Kisan Call Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shely Mary Koshy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to measure the attitude of farmers in Kerala, India towards Kisan Call Centre (KCC. Kisan Call Centre provides free agricultural advisory services to every citizen involved in agriculture through a toll free number. One hundred and fifty farmers who have utilized the Kisan Call Centre service were selected from the database of KCC. The results showed that the respondents had moderately favourable attitude towards KCC followed by highly favourable attitude. The variables digital divide, temporal awareness on KCC, satisfaction towards KCC and utilization of KCC were found to have a positive correlation with the attitude of respondents towards KCC.

  14. Echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially in the brainstem of the bat Phyllostomus discolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Thomas; Schuller, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Background Echolocating bats emit vocalizations that can be classified either as echolocation calls or communication calls. Neural control of both types of calls must govern the same pool of motoneurons responsible for vocalizations. Electrical microstimulation in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) elicits both communication and echolocation calls, whereas stimulation of the paralemniscal area (PLA) induces only echolocation calls. In both the PAG and the PLA, the current thresholds for triggering natural vocalizations do not habituate to stimuli and remain low even for long stimulation periods, indicating that these structures have relative direct access to the final common pathway for vocalization. This study intended to clarify whether echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially below the level of the PAG via separate vocal pathways before converging on the motoneurons used in vocalization. Results Both structures were probed simultaneously in a single experimental approach. Two stimulation electrodes were chronically implanted within the PAG in order to elicit either echolocation or communication calls. Blockade of the ipsilateral PLA site with iontophoretically application of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid did not impede either echolocation or communication calls elicited from the PAG. However, blockade of the contralateral PLA suppresses PAG-elicited echolocation calls but not communication calls. In both cases the blockade was reversible. Conclusion The neural control of echolocation and communication calls seems to be differentially organized below the level of the PAG. The PLA is an essential functional unit for echolocation call control before the descending pathways share again the final common pathway for vocalization. PMID:16053533

  15. "The Northern Lights" Investigative Reporting Covers Deadly Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, George

    2001-01-01

    Presents a story package from the high school newspaper "The Northern Lights," called "Deadly Decisions." Includes an editorial, an eyewitness account, a timeline of the coverage itself, an interview with a local TV reporter, photographs, and a graph of the events the stories covered. (SR)

  16. The Average Covering Tree Value for Directed Graph Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelnitskaya, A.; Selcuk, O.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We introduce a single-valued solution concept, the so-called average covering tree value, for the class of transferable utility games with limited communication structure represented by a directed graph. The solution is the average of the marginal contribution vectors corresponding to all

  17. Dynamics of forest cover conversion in and around Bwindi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use/cover map for 2010 was reconstructed by analyzing 2001 image, validated and/or reconstructed by ground truthing, use of secondary data and key ... The severe loss of woodlot outside the protected area not only poses a potential threat to the protected forest but also calls for intervention measures if efforts to ...

  18. Land cover classification using reformed fuzzy C-means

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper explains the task of land cover classification using reformed fuzzy C means. Clustering is the assignment of objects into groups called clusters so that objects from the same cluster are more similar to each other than objects from different clusters. The most basic attribute for clustering of an image is its luminance ...

  19. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... designated to establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are selected from the general financial community, the accounting and... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting...

  20. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ..., the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) released the Intercarrier Call... Telecommunications Carriers; that category is defined as follows: ``This industry comprises establishments primarily... Telecommunications. The Census Bureau defines this industry as including ``establishments primarily engaged in...

  1. Resonance June 2012 Cover Tp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Science Academies' Refresher Course on Action Zoology: Science Smiles 529. The Emerging Trends' Ayan Guha. Our Readers Write 620 Classroom 592. Simple Models for the 100 Meter Dash. Priyanka deSouza. Front Cover and Vijay A Singh. Microstructures of seashells. H. (see article on page 573). Inside Back Cover.

  2. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  3. Subpixel urban land cover estimation: comparing cubist, random forests, and support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey T. Walton

    2008-01-01

    Three machine learning subpixel estimation methods (Cubist, Random Forests, and support vector regression) were applied to estimate urban cover. Urban forest canopy cover and impervious surface cover were estimated from Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery using a higher resolution cover map resampled to 30 m as training and reference data. Three different band combinations (...

  4. Communication cliques in mobile phone calling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Xia; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    People in modern societies form different social networks through numerous means of communication. These communication networks reflect different aspects of human's societal structure. The billing records of calls among mobile phone users enable us to construct a directed calling network (DCN) and its Bonferroni network (SVDCN) in which the preferential communications are statistically validated. Here we perform a comparative investigation of the cliques of the original DCN and its SVDCN constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that the statistical properties of the cliques of the two calling networks are qualitatively similar and the clique members in the DCN and the SVDCN exhibit idiosyncratic behaviors quantitatively. Members in large cliques are found to be spatially close to each other. Based on the clique degree profile of each mobile phone user, the most active users in the two calling networks can be classified in to several groups. The users in different groups are found to have different calling behaviors. Our study unveils interesting communication behaviors among mobile phone users that are densely connected to each other.

  5. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  6. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  7. BOREAS Follow-On DSP-09 Moss Cover Classification at Three Area Scales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BOREAS follow-on group DSP-9 mapped surface moss type at three scales (1 km, 30 m, and 10 m) based on observed associations between moss cover and land cover type.

  8. Parametric analyses of evapotranspiration landfill covers in humid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural soils are more durable than almost all man-made materials. Evapotranspiration (ET covers use vegetated soil layers to store water until it is either evaporated from the soil surface or transpired through vegetation. ET covers rely on the water storage capacity of soil layer, rather than low permeability materials, to minimize percolation. While the use of ET covers in landfills increased over the last decade, they were mainly used in arid or semi-arid regions. At present, the use of ET covers has not been thoroughly investigated in humid areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of ET covers in humid areas where there is an annual precipitation of more than 800 mm. Numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the influences of cover thickness, soil type, vegetation level and distribution of precipitation on performance of ET covers. Performance and applicability of capillary barriers and a new-type cover were analyzed. The results show that percolation decreases with an increasing cover thickness and an increasing vegetation level, but the increasing trend becomes unclear when certain thickness or LAI (leaf area index is reached. Cover soil with a large capability of water storage is recommended to minimize percolation. ET covers are significantly influenced by distribution of precipitation and are more effective in areas where rainy season coincides with hot season. Capillary barriers are more efficient than monolithic covers. The new cover is better than the monolithic cover in performance and the final percolation is only 0.5% of the annual precipitation.

  9. How spatial heterogeneity of cover affects patterns of shrub encroachment into mesic grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Montané

    Full Text Available We used a multi-method approach to analyze the spatial patterns of shrubs and cover types (plant species, litter or bare soil in grassland-shrubland ecotones. This approach allows us to assess how fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of cover types affects the patterns of Cytisus balansae shrub encroachment into mesic mountain grasslands (Catalan Pyrenees, Spain. Spatial patterns and the spatial associations between juvenile shrubs and different cover types were assessed in mesic grasslands dominated by species with different palatabilities (palatable grass Festuca nigrescens and unpalatable grass Festuca eskia. A new index, called RISES ("Relative Index of Shrub Encroachment Susceptibility", was proposed to calculate the chances of shrub encroachment into a given grassland, combining the magnitude of the spatial associations and the surface area for each cover type. Overall, juveniles showed positive associations with palatable F. nigrescens and negative associations with unpalatable F. eskia, although these associations shifted with shrub development stage. In F. eskia grasslands, bare soil showed a low scale of pattern and positive associations with juveniles. Although the highest RISES values were found in F. nigrescens plots, the number of juvenile Cytisus was similar in both types of grasslands. However, F. nigrescens grasslands showed the greatest number of juveniles in early development stage (i.e. height30 cm. We concluded that in F. eskia grasslands, where establishment may be constrained by the dominant cover type, the low scale of pattern on bare soil may result in higher chances of shrub establishment and survival. In contrast, although grasslands dominated by the palatable F. nigrescens may be more susceptible to shrub establishment; current grazing rates may reduce juvenile survival.

  10. Automated tetraploid genotype calling by hierarchical clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz Carley, Cari A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David S; Bethke, Paul C; Palta, Jiwan P; Novy, Richard G; Endelman, Jeffrey B

    2017-04-01

    New software to make tetraploid genotype calls from SNP array data was developed, which uses hierarchical clustering and multiple F1 populations to calibrate the relationship between signal intensity and allele dosage. SNP arrays are transforming breeding and genetics research for autotetraploids. To fully utilize these arrays, the relationship between signal intensity and allele dosage must be calibrated for each marker. We developed an improved computational method to automate this process, which is provided as the R package ClusterCall. In the training phase of the algorithm, hierarchical clustering within an F1 population is used to group samples with similar intensity values, and allele dosages are assigned to clusters based on expected segregation ratios. In the prediction phase, multiple F1 populations and the prediction set are clustered together, and the genotype for each cluster is the mode of the training set samples. A concordance metric, defined as the proportion of training set samples equal to the mode, can be used to eliminate unreliable markers and compare different algorithms. Across three potato families genotyped with an 8K SNP array, ClusterCall scored 5729 markers with at least 0.95 concordance (94.6% of its total), compared to 5325 with the software fitTetra (82.5% of its total). The three families were used to predict genotypes for 5218 SNPs in the SolCAP diversity panel, compared with 3521 SNPs in a previous study in which genotypes were called manually. One of the additional markers produced a significant association for vine maturity near a well-known causal locus on chromosome 5. In conclusion, when multiple F1 populations are available, ClusterCall is an efficient method for accurate, autotetraploid genotype calling that enables the use of SNP data for research and plant breeding.

  11. Soft calls and broadcast calls in the corncrake as adaptations to short and long range communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ręk, Paweł

    2013-10-01

    Because birds' acoustic signals function in antagonistic interactions between males and in female attraction, a majority of vocalisations are loud. In contrast, some birds, additionally produce soft vocalisations in escalated agonistic and sexual contexts. Nevertheless, the relationship between the acoustic parameters of such signals and their function is not clear. Here I investigate the sound transmission degradation properties of soft and broadcast (loud) calls in the corncrake using calls with natural and changed amplitude. I show that, if played at the same amplitude, the maximum limit for communication distance with soft calls was significantly shorter than that of broadcast calls, indicating that frequency structure is important in determining the range of both signals independently of their amplitude. At the same time, the values of excess attenuation were lower for soft calls than for broadcast calls at most distances, which suggests that the short transmission of soft calls is achieved mostly due to their low and narrow frequency ranges, promoting their masking by ambient noise. Finally, contrary to soft calls, changes in the energy of tails of echoes in broadcast calls were associated with the distance of propagation, which might be useful in assessing the distance to senders. I suggest that the acoustic structure of soft vocalisations can be used to limit the range of the signal, which might be helpful in eavesdropping avoidance, whereas broadcast calls are designed for long-range transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Arctic moisture source for Eurasian snow cover variations in autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Orsolini, Yvan; Vázquez Dominguez, Marta; Gimeno Presa, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Buligyna, Olga; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe; Rinke, Anette; Dethloff, Klaus; Sterin, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is enhanced at high northern latitudes where the Arctic surface air temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in recent decades - a feature called Arctic amplification. This recent Arctic warming signal likely results from several factors such as the albedo feedback due to a diminishing cryosphere, enhanced poleward atmospheric and oceanic transport, and change in humidity. The reduction in Arctic sea ice is without doubt substantial and a key factor. Arctic summer sea-ice extent has declined by more than 10% per decade since the start of the satellite era (e.g. Stroeve et al., 2012), culminating in a new record low in September 2012, with the long-term trend largely attributed to anthropogenic global warming. Eurasian snow cover changes have been suggested as a driver for changes in the Arctic Oscillation and might provide a link between sea ice decline in the Arctic during summer and atmospheric circulation in the following winter. However, the mechanism connecting snow cover in Eurasia to sea ice decline in autumn is still under debate. Our analysis focuses at sea ice decline in the Barents-Kara Sea region, which allows us to specify regions of interest for FLEXPART forward and backwards moisture trajectories. Based on Eularian and Lagrangian diagnostics from ERA-INTERIM, we can address the origin and cause of late autumn snow depth variations in a dense (snow observations from 820 land stations), unutilized observational datasets over the Commonwealth of Independent States. Open waters in the Barents and Kara Sea have been shown to increase the diabatic heating of the atmosphere, which amplifies baroclinic cyclones and might induce a remote atmospheric response by triggering stationary Rossby waves (Honda et al. 2009). In agreement with these studies, our results show enhanced storm activity originating at the Barents and Kara with disturbances entering the continent through a small sector from the Barents and Kara Seas

  13. Echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially in the brainstem of the bat Phyllostomus discolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuller Gerd

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echolocating bats emit vocalizations that can be classified either as echolocation calls or communication calls. Neural control of both types of calls must govern the same pool of motoneurons responsible for vocalizations. Electrical microstimulation in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG elicits both communication and echolocation calls, whereas stimulation of the paralemniscal area (PLA induces only echolocation calls. In both the PAG and the PLA, the current thresholds for triggering natural vocalizations do not habituate to stimuli and remain low even for long stimulation periods, indicating that these structures have relative direct access to the final common pathway for vocalization. This study intended to clarify whether echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially below the level of the PAG via separate vocal pathways before converging on the motoneurons used in vocalization. Results Both structures were probed simultaneously in a single experimental approach. Two stimulation electrodes were chronically implanted within the PAG in order to elicit either echolocation or communication calls. Blockade of the ipsilateral PLA site with iontophoretically application of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid did not impede either echolocation or communication calls elicited from the PAG. However, blockade of the contralateral PLA suppresses PAG-elicited echolocation calls but not communication calls. In both cases the blockade was reversible. Conclusion The neural control of echolocation and communication calls seems to be differentially organized below the level of the PAG. The PLA is an essential functional unit for echolocation call control before the descending pathways share again the final common pathway for vocalization.

  14. Wireless world widens nurse call options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    With wireless technology now an integral part of all our lives, and miniaturisation of computing power having made even hand-held portable devices such as mobile phones powerful tools in their own right, HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, spoke to specialist in wireless nurse call systems, Courtney-Thorne, to discuss some of its key recent product innovations, and see what impact it feels developments such as 'cloud' technology will have on the bringing of more technology into the nurse call sector as 'nurse and carer tools'.

  15. Interrelationship between cloud cover and sensible heat flux over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Micro-meteorological tower observations of MONTBLEX (Monsoon Trough Boundary Layer Experiment)-1990, combined with routine surface observations at Jodhpur in the dry convective sector of Indian summer monsoon trough are used to examine the interrelationship between total cloud cover (TCC) and surface ...

  16. The Impact of Time Difference between Satellite Overpass and Ground Observation on Cloud Cover Performance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej S. Bojanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud property data sets derived from passive sensors onboard the polar orbiting satellites (such as the NOAA’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer have global coverage and now span a climatological time period. Synoptic surface observations (SYNOP are often used to characterize the accuracy of satellite-based cloud cover. Infrequent overpasses of polar orbiting satellites combined with the 3- or 6-h SYNOP frequency lead to collocation time differences of up to 3 h. The associated collocation error degrades the cloud cover performance statistics such as the Hanssen-Kuiper’s discriminant (HK by up to 45%. Limiting the time difference to 10 min, on the other hand, introduces a sampling error due to a lower number of corresponding satellite and SYNOP observations. This error depends on both the length of the validated time series and the SYNOP frequency. The trade-off between collocation and sampling error call for an optimum collocation time difference. It however depends on cloud cover characteristics and SYNOP frequency, and cannot be generalized. Instead, a method is presented to reconstruct the unbiased (true HK from HK affected by the collocation differences, which significantly (t-test p < 0.01 improves the validation results.

  17. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...... allowed to settle and express migratory restlessness for at least 30 minutes. Secondly, the flight simulation axis (e.g. E-W or N-S) with the largest angle relative to the bird's migration course was chosen and "flights" of simulated calling conspecifics or the "ding" sound along this axis continued...

  18. Relabeling the Medications We Call Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Antonuccio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises the question about whether the data on the medications we call antidepressants justify the label of antidepressant. The authors argue that a true antidepressant should be clearly superior to placebo, should offer a risk/benefit balance that exceeds that of alternative treatments, should not increase suicidality, should not increase anxiety and agitation, should not interfere with sexual functioning, and should not increase depression chronicity. Unfortunately, these medications appear to fall short on all of these dimensions. Many of the “side effects” of these medications have larger effect sizes than the antidepressant effect size. To call these medications antidepressants may make sense from a marketing standpoint but may be misleading from a scientific perspective. Consumers deserve a label that more accurately reflects the data on the largest effects and helps them understand the range of effects from these medications. In other words, it may make just as much sense to call these medications antiaphrodisiacs as antidepressants because the negative effects on libido and sexual functioning are so common. It can be argued that a misleading label may interfere with our commitment to informed consent. Therefore, it may be time to stop calling these medications antidepressants.

  19. Implementing Distributed Algorithms using Remote Procedure Call

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, H.E.; van Renesse, R.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Remote procedure call (RPC) is a simple yet powerful primitiv~ for communication and synchronization between distributed processes. A problem with RPC is that it tends to decrease the amount of parallelism in an application due to its synchronous nature. This paper shows how light-weight processes

  20. Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

  1. Glasbury Bridge 1: The Jumper. Close Call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Describes an incident in which a group of 10th-grade students in a 1-week outdoor residential program in the Wye Valley (Great Britain) defied program rules, drank alcohol, and had a close call with a near-drowning. Discusses five strategies for dealing with such groups coalesced around a rebellious leader. (SV)

  2. Optimization of Overflow Policies in Call Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koole, G.M.; Nielsen, B.F.; Nielsen, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    We examine how overflow policies in a multi-skill call center should be designed to accommodate performance measures that depend on waiting time percentiles such as service level. This is done using a discrete Markovian approximation of the waiting time of the first customers waiting in line...... and customers are treated in a FCFS order....

  3. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Software: Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the nature and extent of the influence of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on the quality of language learning is highly problematic. This is owing to the number and complexity of interacting variables involved in setting the items for teaching and learning languages. This paper identified and ...

  4. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information Collection Request to the... infrastructure and key resources (CIKR). At DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. Beginning in...

  5. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  6. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  7. Calling, is there anything special about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malan Nel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the Reformed tradition, ‘calling’ is a core concept. Often, this biblical verse is cited when a pastor is installed or a new candidate is ordained, ‘The one who calls you is faithful and he will do it’ (1 Th 5:24 NIV. It is also confessed within this tradition that all Christians are called to be faithful ministers of the graces of God in whatever profession they may serve. In some Presbyterian congregations, it is a practice to say at the baptism of a child, ‘This is your ordination to ministry’. This article focuses on what is meant by calling when we use it in so many ways and with so many meanings. The first part explores the use of the concept in church history by different scholars and leaders – like in the Reformation. The second part briefly explores the implications and impact of the calling of someone into full-time congregational ministry.

  8. Reflections … they called it 'restructuring'[1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HMPG, and indeed publishing globally) was financial,[4] reflecting tough economic times and declining revenues from advertising. JA found herself accepting so-called 'native' advertising (the practice ... preferring to receive their reading 'lite' on mobile platforms. According to GA, 35% of readers use tablets and phones to ...

  9. Make a 21st century phone call

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Want to avoid roaming charges? Click to call anyone at CERN? How about merging your CERN landline with your existing smartphone? That's all easily done with Lync, CERN's new opt-in service that can take your calls to the next level.   The Lync application on Windows (left) and iPhone (right). Lync unites CERN's traditional telephone service with the digital sphere. "Lync gives you the gift of mobility, by letting you access your CERN landline on the go," explains Pawel Grzywaczewski, service manager of the Lync system. "Once you've registered your CERN telephone with the service, you can run the Lync application and make calls from a range of supported devices. No matter where you are in the world - be it simply out to lunch or off at an international conference - you can make a CERN call as though you were in the office. All you need is an Internet connection!" Following a recent upgrade, CERN's Lync service now has...

  10. Don't Call it Poetry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Introduction. This paper explores the use of poetic forms of expressive writing in phenomenological research. The first part recapitulates the expressive agenda and its links with phenomenology. The second part of the paper looks at the genesis of a poetic form I used in recent phenomenological writing which I came to call ...

  11. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting... candidates. Any applicant who provided the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board... to [email protected] ; by U.S. mail or commercial delivery service to: Federal Accounting Standards...

  12. 76 Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Software ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    learning material, which promotes self-paced learning. CALL has also been known by several other terms such as technology-enhanced language learning .... navigation rely on the presentation of items according to the estimated level of learners language and cognitive abilities. So, if the learner responds correctly, the ...

  13. When to call a linear system nonnegative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will consider discrete time invariant linear systems that allow for an input-state-output representation with a finite dimensional state space, and that have a finite number of inputs and outputs. The basic issue in this paper is when to call these systems nonnegative. An important

  14. Call for Implementation Research Proposals: Health Information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chaitali Sinha

    2017-04-10

    Apr 10, 2017 ... Introduction. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is pleased to announce a call for implementation research proposals to contribute to national and regional efforts to improve health systems responsiveness in West Africa (WA). Two separate but complementary thematic areas of ...

  15. Call for Applications IDRC Research Awards 2016

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carole Labrie

    2015-08-06

    Call for Applications. IDRC Research Awards 2016. Deadline: August 6, 2015. The award. IDRC offers these awards to graduate-level Canadians, permanent residents of Canada, and citizens of developing countries. Research award recipients will undertake a one-year paid program of research on the topic they have ...

  16. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    .... Introduction 1. Retail long-distance providers, such as wireless providers, cable companies, interexchange... traffic may not be blocked, choked, reduced, or restricted, we have learned that carriers often do not... called party, including, for example, by voicemail, answering machine, or fax machine. We calculate a...

  17. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history,…

  18. Answering the Call of the Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experience during his sabbatical leave of visiting the country about which Jack London wrote in "Call of the Wild" and other books. The journey which was initiated to learn more about the author and gather interesting teaching materials for teaching Literature. (NH)

  19. Influence of cover defects on the attenuation of radon with earthen covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.

    1983-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical evaluations of radon flux through laboratory-scale defective soil columns are presented together with a survey of literature on the formation and prevention of defects in soil covers. This report focuses on air-filled, centimeter-scale defects that are most probable in earthen covers for attenuating radon emission from uranium-mill tailings. Examples include shirnkage and erosion cracks, erosion piping, animal burrows and air channels formed by the biodegradation of vegetation roots. Calculations based on mathematical models indicate that collections of defects which could increase the radon flux from an earthen cover by a factor of two would be easily detected by visual inspection. However, these models ignore air-turbulence in the defect and drying of the soil around the defect. Laboratory measurements showed that turbulent diffusion of radon occurred through defects as narrow as 0.3 cm when subjected to a transverse air velocity of 1 to 6 miles per hour at the surface. Both turbulence and more-rapid drying of soil can accelerate radon flux to the cover surface. Consequently, recommended methods to inhibit defect formation should be applied. 29 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  20. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...... including an abutment part, which extends inwards from the inner side of the retention web such as to form an abutment surface for the respective screw web when the latter is positioned to be retained in the retention device, and extends from the abutment part into a locking part, which extends at an angle...

  1. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  2. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation

  3. The Regional Land Cover Monitoring System: Building regional capacity through innovative land cover mapping approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D.; Tenneson, K.; Hanh, Q. N.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Aung, K. S.; Goldstein, J.; Cutter, P. G.; Maus, P.; Markert, K. N.; Anderson, E.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Ate, P.; Flores Cordova, A. I.; Vadrevu, K.; Potapov, P.; Phongsapan, K.; Chishtie, F.; Clinton, N.; Ganz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observation and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, products, and services are vital to support the environmental decision making by governmental institutions, non-governmental agencies, and the general public. At the heart of environmental decision making is the monitoring land cover and land use change (LCLUC) for land resource planning and for ecosystem services, including biodiversity conservation and resilience to climate change. A major challenge for monitoring LCLUC in developing regions, such as Southeast Asia, is inconsistent data products at inconsistent intervals that have different typologies across the region and are typically made in without stakeholder engagement or input. Here we present the Regional Land Cover Monitoring System (RLCMS), a novel land cover mapping effort for Southeast Asia, implemented by SERVIR-Mekong, a joint NASA-USAID initiative that brings Earth observations to improve environmental decision making in developing countries. The RLCMS focuses on mapping biophysical variables (e.g. canopy cover, tree height, or percent surface water) at an annual interval and in turn using those biophysical variables to develop land cover maps based on stakeholder definitions of land cover classes. This allows for flexible and consistent land cover classifications that can meet the needs of different institutions across the region. Another component of the RLCMS production is the stake-holder engagement through co-development. Institutions that directly benefit from this system have helped drive the development for regional needs leading to services for their specific uses. Examples of services for regional stakeholders include using the RLCMS to develop maps using the IPCC classification scheme for GHG emission reporting and developing custom annual maps as an input to hydrologic modeling/flood forecasting systems. In addition to the implementation of this system and the service stemming from the RLCMS in Southeast Asia, it is

  4. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...... of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces....

  5. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  6. Calling under pressure: Short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frants Havmand; Marrero Perez, Jacobo; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important...... to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise....

  7. SNP calling, genotype calling, and sample allele frequency estimation from new-generation sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    is calculated using a dynamic programming algorithm and numerically optimized using analytical derivatives. We then use a bayesian method for estimating the sample allele frequency in a single site, and show how the method can be used for genotype calling and SNP calling. We also show how the method can...

  8. Call 4 Concern: patient and relative activated critical care outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Mandy; Gerber, Karin; Gager, Melanie

    Patients can experience unexpected deterioration in their physiological condition that can lead to critical illness, cardiac arrest, admission to the intensive care unit and death. While ward staff can identify deterioration through monitoring physiological signs, these signs can be missed, interpreted incorrectly or mismanaged. Rapid response systems using early warning scores can fail if staff do not follow protocols or do not notice or manage deterioration adequately. Nurses often notice deterioration intuitively because of their knowledge of individual patients. Patients and their relatives have the greatest knowledge of patients, and can often pick up subtle signs physiological deterioration before this is identified by staff or monitoring systems. However, this ability has been largely overlooked. Call 4 Concern (C4C) is a scheme where patients and relatives can call critical care teams directly if they are concerned about a patient's condition- it is believed to be the first of its kind in the UK. A C4C feasibility project ran for six months, covering patients being transferred from the intensive care unit to general wards. C4C has the potential to prevent clinical deterioration and is valued by patients and relatives. Concerns of ward staff could be managed through project management. As it is relatively new, this field offers further opportunities for research.

  9. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  10. Land Cover Indicators for U.S. National Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channan, S.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, K. M.; Sexton, J. O.; Torrens, P.; Emanuel, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Land is a critical resource for human habitat and for the vast majority of human activities. Many natural resources are derived from terrestrial ecosystems or otherwise extracted from the landscape. Terrestrial biodiversity depends on land attributes as do people's perceptions of the value of land, including its value for recreation or tourism. Furthermore, land surface properties and processes affect weather and climate, and land cover change and land management affect emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, land cover with its close association with climate is so pervasive that a land cover indicator is of fundamental importance to U.S. national climate assessments and related research. Moderate resolution remote sensing products (MODIS) were used to provide systematic data on annual distributions of land cover over the period 2001-2012. Selected Landsat observations and data products further characterize land cover at higher resolution. Here we will present the prototype for a suite of land cover indicators including land cover maps as well as charts depicting attributes such as composition by land cover class, statistical indicators of landscape characteristics, and tabular data summaries indispensable for communicating the status and trends of U.S. land cover at national, regional and state levels.

  11. BUSINESS MODELS FOR EXTENDING OF 112 EMERGENCY CALL CENTER CAPABILITIES WITH E-CALL FUNCTION INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Dragos Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article concerns present status of implementation in Romania and Europe of eCall service and the proposed business models regarding eCall function implementation in Romania. eCall system is used for reliable transmission in case of crush between In Vehicle System and Public Service Answering Point, via the voice channel of cellular and Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN. eCall service could be initiated automatically or manual the driver. All data presented in this article are part of researches made by authors in the Sectorial Contract Implementation study regarding eCall system, having as partners ITS Romania and Electronic Solution, with the Romanian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology as beneficiary.

  12. Sophie Calle: entre imagens e palavras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annateresa Fabris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A relação de Sophie Calle com dois textos ficcionais, de autoria de Hervé Guibert e Paul Auster, permite discutir um ponto central de sua poética: a atuação como performer, colocada por alguns críticos sob o signo do situacionismo. Como suas performances envolvem uma narrativa, foram analisados seus aspectos fotográficos e verbais, tendo como epicentro Suíte veneziana (1980. Qual o papel da fotografia nas narrativas de Calle, nas quais ela é personagem de si mesma? A fotografia é vestígio de acontecimentos reais e seu aspecto documental corrobora a neutralidade dos relatos escritos. É, ao mesmo tempo, fruto de um gesto performático, o qual, ao designar determinados fatos, converte a realidade em imagem.Sophie Calle's relation to two fictional texts, by Hervé Guibert and Paul Auster, allows us to discuss a central issue in her poetics: the acting as a performer, set by some critics under the sign of Situationism. As her performances comprise a narrative, both their verbal and photographic aspects were analyzed, taking as an epicenter the Venetian suite (1980. What role does photography play in Calle's narratives, in which she is a character of herself? Photography is a trace of real happenings and its documental aspect supports the neutrality of written reports. It is, at the same time, the result of a performative gesture, which, while designating certain facts, converts reality into image.

  13. What is this 'school' called neoclassical economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Lawson

    2013-01-01

    What is this school called neoclassical economics? Does it exist? Should it? Where does the term 'neoclassical economics' come from, and is there any connection between any of the current interpretations of the term and its original meaning? How do we make sense of competing current interpretations? Is there a sustainable formulation? These and related questions are raised and answered in an attempt to bring clarity to ongoing economic discussion and debate, thereby to under-labour for a more...

  14. Back to school: the ultimate pediatric call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Samuel D

    2004-07-01

    EMS agencies will continue to respond to calls that have varying levels of seriousness in the school setting. Although most calls will be routine, the potential for a large-scale incident is ever-present. School districts and EMS agencies have to be proactive in developing a plan for responding to these situations. This proactive attitude is essential in fostering cooperation and communication between the school and EMS. It enables us to achieve the goal of making our schools safer. The process in reaching this goal is ongoing and evolving. As an EMS provider, I am aware of the high anxiety that accompanies a call involving a seriously injured child. If the call involves five, 10 or more severely injured kids, the stress can be unbelievable. A plan of action that has been carefully developed, practiced and critiqued will lessen the anxiety and stress. As a teacher, I want my workplace and my students to be safe. If a situation arises, knowing that a planned response is in place, and knowing what I'm supposed to do, gives me the confidence to deal with the event so I can help my students. Finally, as a parent, it is important that my children are in a safe environment in which to learn. If an emergency response is needed, I want to know a good plan will go into effect. That would assure me that the people responsible for the health and safety of my children have done all they can to make school a safer place.

  15. [Work-family conflict in call center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Ricotta, Simona; Colombo, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The working environment of call centers, which have seen a significant growth in recent years, has been the subject of several studies aiming at understanding its specific dynamics, with particular attention to the possible causes of stress and discomfort. Despite the fact that the work-family conflict is considered a source of stress responsible for undermining workers' well-being, and as such has been explored in many work environments, there is still very little research specific to call centers. This study had the following aims: to explore work-family conflict perceived by call-center operators taking account of any differences related to respondents'professional and personal characteristics; to understand which demands and resources can have an impact on work-family conflict in this context. The study was carried out on a sample of 898 call center operators in a telecommunications company through the administration of a self-reporting questionnaire. Data analysis included: t-test, one-way analysis of variance, linear correlations and multiple regressions. A higher perception of work-family conflict among workers having a full-time contract was observed compared to those having part-time contracts. Multiple regression analysis identified as sources of influence on work-family conflict: emotional dissonance, uneasiness due customer dissatisfaction, workload, avoidance coping and working hours. Work-family conflict in the context studied is not particularly critical: it is in part influenced by professional and personal characteristics of respondents and primarily caused by work demands. Managerial implications are discussed, especially referred to training activities.

  16. Lernwerkstatt Englisch: Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

    OpenAIRE

    Finkbeiner, Claudia; Knierim, Markus; Fehling, Sylvia

    2002-01-01

    Neue Technologien und Medien, im Besonderen durch Formen computerunterstützten Lernens, haben in den letzten Jahren im Englischunterricht zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen, sei es durch die Nutzung von Sprachlernsoftware oder des Internets mit seinen vielfältigen Möglichkeiten zur zielsprachlichen Kommunikation sowie der Informations- und Materialbeschaffung. Mit der zunehmenden Verbreitung computerunterstützten Fremdsprachenlernens (Computer Assisted Language Learning, CALL) besteht auf Seiten...

  17. OTA call center outsells, outservices big brands

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In an experiment comparing how call center staff interact with potential guests, employees at one OTA won out over hotel companies. As a hotel industry trainer, I have to admit being biased toward booking directly with hotels or hotel brands versus going through third parties such as online travel agencies. However, in my family and social network, I have encountered plenty of raving fans who are more loyal to their preferred OTA than anyone hotel brand. 23 MARCH 2016 8:39 AM

  18. “Computer Assisted Language Learning” (CALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlı Gündüz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will provide an overview of computers; an overview of the history of CALL, itspros and cons, the internet, World Wide Web, Multimedia, and research related to the uses of computers in the language classroom. Also, it also aims to provide some background for the beginnerson using the Internet in language classes today. It discusses some of the common types of Internetactivities that are being used today, what the minimum requirements are for using the Internet forlanguage learning, and some easy activities you can adapt for your classes. Some special terminology related to computers will also be used in this paper. For example, computer assisted language learning(CALL refers to the sets of instructions which need to be loaded into the computer for it to be able to work in the language classroom. It should be borne in mind that CALL does not refer to the use of acomputer by a teacher to type out a worksheet or a class list or preparing his/her own teaching alone.Hardware refers to any computer equipment used, including the computer itself, the keyboard, screen (or the monitor, the disc-drive, and the printer. Software (computer programs refers to the sets of instructions which need to be loaded into the computer for it to be able to work.

  19. Resonance April Cover Pg TP

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    =0), the motion is unstable because the potential at L5 is actually a maximum. There is even a US- based society called the 'L5 society', which was keen on space colonization based on L5! T o check for stability,w e try solutions ofthe form ¢ x =.

  20. LAND COVER INFORMATION EXTRACTION USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR systems are used intensively in terrain surface modelling based on the range data determined by the LiDAR sensors. LiDAR sensors record the distance between the sensor and the targets (range data with a capability to record the strength of the backscatter energy reflected from the targets (intensity data. The LiDAR sensors use the near-infrared spectrum range which has high separability in the reflected energy from different targets. This characteristic is investigated to implement the LiDAR intensity data in land-cover classification. The goal of this paper is to investigate and evaluates the use of LiDAR data only (range and intensity data to extract land cover information. Different bands generated from the LiDAR data (Normal Heights, Intensity Texture, Surfaces Slopes, and PCA are combined with the original data to study the influence of including these layers on the classification accuracy. The Maximum likelihood classifier is used to conduct the classification process for the LiDAR Data as one of the best classification techniques from literature. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to test the different band combinations to extract four information classes: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, and low vegetation (grass areas. The results show that an overall accuracy of more than 70% can be achieved using the intensity data, and other auxiliary data generated from the range and intensity data. Bands of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA are also created from the LiDAR original and auxiliary data. Similar overall accuracy of the results can be achieved using the four bands extracted from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA.

  1. Land Cover Information Extraction Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, A.; El-Ashmawy, N.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems are used intensively in terrain surface modelling based on the range data determined by the LiDAR sensors. LiDAR sensors record the distance between the sensor and the targets (range data) with a capability to record the strength of the backscatter energy reflected from the targets (intensity data). The LiDAR sensors use the near-infrared spectrum range which has high separability in the reflected energy from different targets. This characteristic is investigated to implement the LiDAR intensity data in land-cover classification. The goal of this paper is to investigate and evaluates the use of LiDAR data only (range and intensity data) to extract land cover information. Different bands generated from the LiDAR data (Normal Heights, Intensity Texture, Surfaces Slopes, and PCA) are combined with the original data to study the influence of including these layers on the classification accuracy. The Maximum likelihood classifier is used to conduct the classification process for the LiDAR Data as one of the best classification techniques from literature. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to test the different band combinations to extract four information classes: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, and low vegetation (grass) areas. The results show that an overall accuracy of more than 70% can be achieved using the intensity data, and other auxiliary data generated from the range and intensity data. Bands of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) are also created from the LiDAR original and auxiliary data. Similar overall accuracy of the results can be achieved using the four bands extracted from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

  2. Efficiency of a concentric matrix track detector surface scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Nikezic, D.; Kostic, D.; Krstic, D.; Cuknic, O.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy particle ionizing radiation track counting on the surface of a solid state round surface detector is made using the microscope and scanning step by step by a round field of vision. The whole solid state detector surface could not be fully or completely covered by round fields of visions. Therefore detector surface could be divided on the two parts, the larger surface, being under fields of vision, really scanned and no scanned missed or omitted surface. The ratio between omitted and scanned surfaces is so called track scanning efficiency. The knowledge of really counted, or scanned surface is a important value for evaluating the real surface track density an exposed solid state track detector. In the paper a matrix of a concentric field of vision made around the first microscope field of vision placed in center of the round disc of the scanned track detector is proposed. In a such scanning matrix the real scanned surface could be easy calculated and by the microscope scanning made as well. By this way scanned surface is very precisely obtained as well. Precise knowledge of scanned and omitted surface allows to obtain more precise scanning efficiency factor as well as real surface track density, the main parameter in solid state track detection measurements. (author)

  3. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  4. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L.; Schacht, Walter H.; Soper, Jonathan M.; Wienhold, Carol E.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  5. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, Heidi L; Schacht, Walter H; Soper, Jonathan M; Wienhold, Carol E

    2018-01-01

    Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction ("cut-slope soils") is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were developed for cool-season grass plantings and most current plantings use slower-establishing, native warm-season grasses that may benefit less than expected from current planting protocols. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, and also topsoil amendment, on the foliar cover of seeded and non-seeded species planted into two post-construction roadside sites in eastern Nebraska. We also examined soil movement to determine how planting protocols and plant growth may affect erosion potential. Three years after planting, we found no consistent effects of N or P fertilization on foliar cover. Plots receiving topsoil amendment had 14% greater cover of warm-season grasses, 10% greater total foliar cover, and 4-13% lower bare ground (depending on site) than plots without topsoil. None of the treatments consistently affected soil movement. We recommend that NDOT change their protocols to remove N and P fertilization and focus on stockpiling and spreading topsoil following construction.

  6. Multidimensional simulation of radon diffusion through earthen covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document applications of the RADMD model used at PNL to perform analyses of radon diffusion through uranium mill tailings cover systems. The accuracy of the numerical formulation of the RADMD model was demonstrated through a comparison with a two-dimensional analytic solution to the radon diffusion equation. Excellent agreement was obtained between two-dimensional radon concentration profiles predicted by RADMD and those obtained with the analytic solution. A simulation was made of radon diffusion into a test canister using the two dimensional capabilities of RADMD. The radon flux profile was computed and illustrates the effects of the canister on the surface radon flux. The influence of the canister on the radon flux was shown to be significant under certain circumstances. Defects in earthen cover systems were evaluated using the three dimensional capabilities of RADMD. The results support the expectation that defective covers can increase the surface flux from a covered talings pile. Compared to a cover with no defects, radon flux could be elevated by as much as a factor of three when 20% of the radon control layer area contained pockets of reduced moisture. The effects of temporal and spatial variations in moisture content have been modeled by coupling RADMD with a variable saturated flow model. Two dimensional simulations were made of the time dependence of radon flux from a tailings site before and after cover placement. The results demonstrated the expected flux reduction produced by a thick earthen cover. Time dependence of the radon flux after cover placement was attributed to slight changes in moisture content of the cover material with time. The particular cover studied had a compacted clay layer that effectively attenuated the radon

  7. Physics Letters B, Volume 716, Issue 1- Cover Page

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2012-01-01

    The cover page of the Physics Letters B Journal, Volume 716, Issue 1, dedicated to the observation of a new particle in the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. To celebrate this historical discovery, Elsevier reprinted the ATLAS and the CMS articles together with a foreword by Peter Higgs and the other scientists that predicted the existence of the so-called Higgs boson and published this in a separate booklet.

  8. Studies on longwave length radiation properties of row cover (Plant Blanket), net radiation and leaf temperature under row cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Okada, M.; Aihara, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The use of nonwoven fabrics or cheesecloth for covering crops has become a common practice to promote crop growth or to protect crops from extreme weather or pests. The term, ''row cover'', is used in the present study to refer to this type of covering. There are several different ways of employing a ''row cover'', e. g. direct covering without any supporting materials (contact type), and the use of simple frame structures for suspension of the cover (floating type). There are many kinds of row covers, each differing in material and/or in porosity. These differences in covering method or row cover type can affect the microclimate under the row cover. In the present study, the longwave length radiation properties of several row covers were determined and their effects on nocturnal radiation and leaf temperature under the row cover were examined.Longwave length radiation properties, i.e., transmissivity, emissivity and reflectivity of the five different commercial row covers (A, B, C, D and E) were measured by the method proposed by Okada (1983). The porosity of the row covers was photographically determined. The results are shown in table 1. The relationship between transmissivity and porosity of the row cover is plotted in Fig. 1. The transmissivity depended linearly on the porosity except for row cover C. Row cover C is made from a highly transmissive material polypropylene, while the rest of the row covers are made from materials with low transmissivity, e.g. polyester (A and B) or polyvinylalcohol (D and E).To express the reduction ratio of nocturnal net radiation flux under the row cover to the outside, a protection index PI, as given by Eq. 1, was used. The PI of each film was measured in field experiments. The PI was clearly related to the transmissivity (Fig. 2) as shown in the empirical Eq. 6 developed from the data.Based on the heat balance of a leaf surface, Eq. 5 was derived to estimate the temperature difference

  9. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  10. Call center. Centrados en el cliente

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Alonso-de-Castañeda, José Enrique

    2003-01-01

    La empresa actual ha de estar preparada para responder al Cliente tal y como éste espera, porque no se busca un cliente puntual, sino un cliente fiel. La globalización de la economía y del acceso a los mercados exige que la empresa sea capaz de atraer al cliente no sólo con un servicio de calidad, sino además con una atención de calidad. La implantación de un Call Center (Centro de Atención al Cliente, Centro de Atención de Llamadas) constituye por todo ello una estrategia de negocio qu...

  11. Angel De la Calle, Tina Modotti

    OpenAIRE

    Genevée, Frédérick

    2014-01-01

    La bande dessinée au service de l’histoire. Certains parleront plus volontiers de roman graphique. Angel de la Calle livre une œuvre originale et complexe sur la vie de Tina Modotti (1896-1942). Femme amoureuse, photographe, militante communiste kominternienne, Tina Modotti ne cesse de fasciner notre imaginaire. Italie, États-Unis, Mexique, URSS, Espagne…, elle fut de tous les pays et du monde. Elle croisa Diego Rivera, Vladimir Maïakovski, John Dos Passos, Frida Kahlo, Pablo Neruda… Comment ...

  12. Call for another special issue / book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru Dan, M.

    2009-04-01

    We would like to continue the series of special issue or maybe edit a book on this topic. To complete the formerly edited special issues we would like to link natural hazards research to cultural heritage research. We see a way of doing this connected to "integrated conservation", which sees the involvment of urban planning in conservation, as well as the (urban) sociology, the integration of the user, the participatism. We further call for investigation of GIS applications for the investigation of natural hazards' impact in this field. We are open for further ideas and wait for you at the Splinter meeting.

  13. Emotional Labor: Links to Depression and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Call Center Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Choo, Jina

    2017-08-01

    Little evidence links emotional labor to either psychological or physical health. This study determined whether the two types of emotional labor (i.e., surface vs. deep acting) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms and work-related musculoskeletal disorders in call center workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 workers recruited from a call center in Seoul, South Korea. In adjusted regression models, levels of surface, but not deep, acting were significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms. Higher surface acting levels were significantly and positively associated with low back pain; higher deep acting levels were significantly and inversely associated with low back pain. Study findings could inform occupational health nurses as they delineate differentiated strategies, according to the nature of surface and deep acting, to promote psychological and physical health in call center workers.

  14. Surface for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Make Microsoft's Surface work-and play-just the way you want it to Microsoft's Surface tablet has the features and personality you're looking for, with a robust environment for business computing that doesn't skimp on fun. Surface for Dummies, 2nd Edition explains how Windows 8.1 Pro and Windows RT differ, and helps you decide which Surface model is best for you. Step by step, this book walks you through both the hardware and software features of the Surface, including the touch cover and type cover, Windows RT and Windows 8.1 Pro operating systems, and the coveted Office Home & Student 2013 s

  15. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  16. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.

  17. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Although a comparison to the classical result of O(ε−d) for Lipschitz continuous functions on bounded subsets, which goes back to [17] (see for...Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions Johannes O. Royset Operations Research Department Naval Postgraduate School joroyset@nps.edu Abstract...Considering the metric space of extended real-valued lower semicontinuous functions under the epi-distance, the paper gives an upper bound on the

  18. Identifying vertex covers in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2012-01-01

    An identifying vertex cover in a graph G is a subset T of vertices in G that has a nonempty intersection with every edge of G such that T distinguishes the edges, that is, e∩T ≠ 0 for every edge e in G and e∩T ≠ f∩T for every two distinct edges e and f in G. The identifying vertex cover number TD......(G) of G is the minimum size of an identifying vertex cover in G. We observe that TD(G)+ρ(G) = |V (G)|, where ρ(G) denotes the packing number of G. We conjecture that if G is a graph of order n and size m with maximum degree Δ, then TD(G) ≤(Δ(Δ-1)/ Δ2+1)n + (2/Δ2+1) m. If the conjecture is true......, then the bound is best possible for all Δ ≥ 1. We prove this conjecture when Δ ≥ 1 and G is a Δ-regular graph. The three known Moore graphs of diameter 2, namely the 5-cycle, the Petersen graph and the Hoffman-Singleton graph, are examples of regular graphs that achieves equality in the upper bound. We also...

  19. Albedo of the ice covered Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A. I.; King, J. C.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; Ladkin, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the surface albedo of the sea ice areas adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer. Aircraft measurements of the surface albedo, which were conducted in the sea ice areas of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas show significant differences between these two regions. The averaged surface albedo varied between 0.13 and 0.81. The ice cover of the Bellingshausen Sea consisted mainly of first year ice and the sea surface showed an averaged sea ice albedo o...

  20. NUESTRA PORTADA. Jugar en la calle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Balius i Juli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta vez Nuestra Portada tiene un carácter excepcional. La ocupan dos obras del que fue el “ninotaire” (dibujante de humor inteligente más importante de nuestro país: Francesc Vila i Rufas, conocido por todos como Cesc (1927–2006. Ambos dibujos destacan por sus inconfundibles características de sencillez y, a la vez, de grandeza argumental, que nos han movido a titular este comentario como “Jugar en la calle”. Comenzaré recordando mi precaria experiencia de infancia y primera juventud en esta actividad de índole “suburbana”. Son muchas las personas de mi edad que en algún momento de sus primeros años han jugado en la calle. Recuerdo que la primera vez que lo hice fue hacia 1938, en Sant Boi de Llobregat (denominado entonces Vilaboi, jugando al fútbol. Pasé unos meses en este pueblo huyendo de las bombas que caían sobre Barcelona. También por aquel tiempo, o quizá uno o dos años después, tuve el deseo, que no he podido satisfacer, de deslizarme sobre unos artefactos de madera con ruedas de cojinetes de bolas por la calle de Enric Granados, donde vivía (los construían los chicos del barrio, en formas rudimentarias, que hoy recordarían a los patinetes o los “skateboards”. Durante el bachillerato, al salir de la Escuela Pia de Balmes esquina con Travesera de Gracia, algunas veces había jugado también a fútbol en la calle Tuset, que por aquellos años no estaba bien urbanizada y tenía unas aceras amplísimas sin asfaltar. En los primeros cursos de la carrera de Medicina, participé en unos continuos e inacabables partidos de fútbol que, desde primera hora de la mañana y hasta el mediodía, se organizaban diariamente en el patio claustrado de la Facultad. Generalmente jugábamos entre clase y clase, aunque existía un núcleo de jugadores entusiastas que no entraban en las aulas en ningún momento. Esta competición se clausuró al cabo de bastantes años, cuando el Decano decidió adornar el patio con

  1. Evaluating Variant Calling Tools for Non-Matched Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Sarah; de Graaf, Aniek O.; Karimi, Mohsen; van der Reijden, Bert A.; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Jansen, Joop H.; Dugas, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Valid variant calling results are crucial for the use of next-generation sequencing in clinical routine. However, there are numerous variant calling tools that usually differ in algorithms, filtering strategies, recommendations and thus, also in the output. We evaluated eight open-source tools regarding their ability to call single nucleotide variants and short indels with allelic frequencies as low as 1% in non-matched next-generation sequencing data: GATK HaplotypeCaller, Platypus, VarScan, LoFreq, FreeBayes, SNVer, SAMtools and VarDict. We analysed two real datasets from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, covering 54 Illumina HiSeq samples and 111 Illumina NextSeq samples. Mutations were validated by re-sequencing on the same platform, on a different platform and expert based review. In addition we considered two simulated datasets with varying coverage and error profiles, covering 50 samples each. In all cases an identical target region consisting of 19 genes (42,322 bp) was analysed. Altogether, no tool succeeded in calling all mutations. High sensitivity was always accompanied by low precision. Influence of varying coverages- and background noise on variant calling was generally low. Taking everything into account, VarDict performed best. However, our results indicate that there is a need to improve reproducibility of the results in the context of multithreading.

  2. LOS CITADINOS DE LA CALLE, NOMADAS URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Omar Ruiz A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad es uno de los puntos de llegada del proceso civilizatorio que ha seguido la humanidad, pero es un punto de llegada que no es uniforme ni homogéneo. La ciudad es tan diversa como las dinámicas de vida de los ciudadanos. La manera como sus habitantes habitan la ciudad hace una de esas diferencias: Unos de manera sedentaria, otros como nómadas. La mayoría moviéndose puertas adentro, desde categorías de lo privado y lo público que no son las mismas para quienes viven explorando permanentemente la cara "callejera" de la ciudad. Junto a la ciudad sedentaria circula una ciudad nómada a otros ritmos, a otras velocidades, con otra lógica; como si un atavismo convocara a la libertad de las calles.

  3. On so-called paradoxical monocular stereoscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Kappers, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Human observers are apparently well able to judge properties of 'three-dimensional objects' on the basis of flat pictures such as photographs of physical objects. They obtain this 'pictorial relief' without much conscious effort and with little interference from the (flat) picture surface. Methods

  4. Soul Work: Call, Movement, and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Sjon F.

    2013-01-01

    English teachers encourage writing that opens college students to transformative learning through soul work as John Dirkx describes and develops the concept of soul work in his theory of transformative learning. This soul work involves the conscious attempt to bring to the surface myths, images, and metaphors from the unconscious through…

  5. Sleep: A 'Wake-up' Call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamangaonkar, A C

    2013-11-01

    This report aims to attract attention toward the importance of sleep in medical students and young resident doctors. With growing stress levels among students, sleep problems have become a common affair. Concepts like sleep disorders, chronotypes, indicators of sleep deprivation are worth knowing. As found in a questionnaire-based review, significant gaps in sleep education exist today among medical students. There are many health hazards of sleep deprivation like anxiety, depression, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, increased error rate at work, breast malignancy, decreased dexterity and adverse impact on academic performance that are dealt with in this article. These issues are not covered well in the conventional didactic lectures on 'sleep' in the medical curriculum. The medical profession demands health caregivers to stay up all night and keep working. Hence, the current medical education curriculum should lay special emphasis on sleep education.

  6. Calle y calles de Brasil: imágenes, lecturas y etnografías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urpi Montoya-Uriarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo me propongo reflexionar acerca de la calle de la ciudad contemporánea, movida por una pasión por lo urbano y una formación en antropología. La vida de las calles nos dice mucho sobre el tipo de ciudad en las que se encuentran. Sin embargo, son pocos los esfuerzos para captarla en sus detalles, particularidades, singularidades. Como urbanistas, parecemos conformarnos con las imágenes mentales que tenemos de ellas y como intelectuales, muchas veces, nos contentamos con reproducir teorías ya consagradas sobre las características y el papel de las calles en nuestras sociedades. Así, estas líneas comienzan discutiendo algunas imágenes mentales que gran parte de los habitantes de las ciudades modernas tenemos en torno a la calle. Expongo después algunas propuestas de lectura que consagrados intelectuales brasileños hicieron sobre la calle en ese país. 

  7. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Selective covers for natural cooling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addeo, A.; Monza, E.; Peraldo, M.; Bartoli, B.; Coluzzi, B.; Silvestrini, V.; Troise, G.

    1978-01-01

    Extra-atmospheric space is practically a pure sink of radiation, and can be used as a nonconventional energy source. In previous papers it has been shown that surfaces with an emissivity matched with the atmospheric (8/13)μm ''transparency window'' (natural emitters) interact with cold space when exposed to clear sky at night, and undergo a sizable cooling effect. In this paper, starting from experimental results concerning the diurnal performances of natural emitters, the problem of their interaction with solar radiation is discussed, and the use is proposed of selective covers which shade the emitter from solar radiation, without preventing the interaction with cold space via emission of infra-red radiation. (author)

  9. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  10. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote......Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times...... procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy...

  11. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  12. Reference-free SNP calling: improved accuracy by preventing incorrect calls from repetitive genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Jinzhuang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most abundant type of genetic variation in eukaryotic genomes and have recently become the marker of choice in a wide variety of ecological and evolutionary studies. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies has made it possible to efficiently genotype a large number of SNPs in the non-model organisms with no or limited genomic resources. Most NGS-based genotyping methods require a reference genome to perform accurate SNP calling. Little effort, however, has yet been devoted to developing or improving algorithms for accurate SNP calling in the absence of a reference genome. Results Here we describe an improved maximum likelihood (ML algorithm called iML, which can achieve high genotyping accuracy for SNP calling in the non-model organisms without a reference genome. The iML algorithm incorporates the mixed Poisson/normal model to detect composite read clusters and can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions. Through analysis of simulation and real sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that in comparison with ML or a threshold approach, iML can remarkably improve the accuracy of de novo SNP genotyping and is especially powerful for the reference-free genotyping in diploid genomes with high repeat contents. Conclusions The iML algorithm can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions, and thus outperforms the original ML algorithm by achieving much higher genotyping accuracy. Our algorithm is therefore very useful for accurate de novo SNP genotyping in the non-model organisms without a reference genome. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Richard Durbin, Dr. Liliana Florea (nominated by Dr. Steven Salzberg and Dr. Arcady Mushegian.

  13. Supraglacial Ponds Regulate Runoff From Himalayan Debris-Covered Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Porter, Philip R.; Rowan, Ann V.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Gibson, Morgan J.; Bridge, Jonathan W.; Watson, C. Scott; Hubbard, Alun; Glasser, Neil F.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater and runoff from glaciers in High Mountain Asia is a vital freshwater resource for one-fifth of the Earth's population. Between 13% and 36% of the region's glacierized areas exhibit surface debris cover and associated supraglacial ponds whose hydrological buffering roles remain unconstrained. We present a high-resolution meltwater hydrograph from the extensively debris-covered Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, spanning a 7 month period in 2014. Supraglacial ponds and accompanying debris cover modulate proglacial discharge by acting as transient and evolving reservoirs. Diurnally, the supraglacial pond system may store >23% of observed mean daily discharge, with mean recession constants ranging from 31 to 108 h. Given projections of increased debris cover and supraglacial pond extent across High Mountain Asia, we conclude that runoff regimes may become progressively buffered by the presence of supraglacial reservoirs. Incorporation of these processes is critical to improve predictions of the region's freshwater resource availability and cascading environmental effects downstream.

  14. Wave motion in a fluid under an inhomogeneous ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturova, I. V.; Tkacheva, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies steady waves in fluid and in semi-infinite ice cover generated by a constant pressure distribution with a rectangular planform moving uniformly along the edge of ice cover at fixed distance. This load simulates the air-cushion vehicle (ACV). We consider two cases: (i) the surface of fluid is free outside of ice sheet, (ii) fluid is bounded by a solid vertical wall and the edge of ice cover can be either clamped or free. The fluid is assumed to be ideal incompressible and of finite depth. The ice sheet is modelled by elastic thin plate. The solution of linear hydroelastic problem is obtained by two methods: the Wiener-Hopf technique and matched eigenfunction expansions. The deflection of ice sheet and free surface elevation, as well as wave forces acting on ACV are investigated for different speeds of motion.

  15. The advertisement calls of Quasipaa shini (Ahl, 1930) (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shen Shen; Zheng, Rong Quan; Zhang, Qi Peng

    2016-12-04

    The genus Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) is currently composed of 11 species distributed in China and Southeast Asia: Quasipaa acanthophora (Dubois & Ohler 2009), Q. boulengeri (Günther 1889), Q. courtoisi (Angel 1922), Q. delacouri (Angel 1928), Q. exilispinosa (Liu & Hu, 1975), Q. fasciculispina (Inger 1970), Q. jiulongensis (Huang & Liu, 1985), Q. shini (Ahl 1930), Q. spinosa (David 1875), Q. verrucospinosa (Bourret 1937), Q. yei (Chen, Qu & Jiang 2002) (Frost 2016). These species are morphologically similar, and their taxonomy is subject to controversy (Che et al. 2009). Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggest the genus likely encompass additional cryptic species (Ye et al. 2013). Bioacoustics has contributed to studies on the taxonomy of the genus (Ye et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2015), however, to date, only the advertisement calls of Q. spinosa are known (Yu & Zheng 2009; Chen et al. 2012; Shen et al. 2015). Here, we describe the advertisement calls of Q. shini, which inhabits streams in the southern part of central China(Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Jiangxi) and is characterized by the presence of keratinized skin spines on the lateral surfaces of the body.

  16. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  17. Detection of land cover changes around Lake Mutirikwi, Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landsat images from 1984, 1995, 2001 and 2011 were used to compute a normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), which was then used as a proxy for indicating areas infested by surface floating aquatic weeds. Forest and shrubs covered 310.8 km2 in 1984, but had deteriorated by 24.87% to 77.3 km2 in 2011, while ...

  18. Satellite images for land cover monitoring - Navigating through the maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzer, Claudia; Fosnight, Gene

    2001-01-01

    Policy makers, managers, scientists and the public can view the changing environment using satellite images.  More than 60 Earth observing satellites are collecting images of the Earth's surface. Remote sensing satellite systems for land cover assessment are operated by a growing number of countries including India, the United States, Japan, France, Canada and Russia.

  19. Covering a Crucible with Metal Containing Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    In a procedure that partly resembles the lost-wax casting process, a crucible made of a brittle material (ceramic, quartz, or glass) is covered with a layer of metal containing channels. The metal cover and the channels can serve any or all of several purposes, depending upon the application: Typically, the metal would serve at least partly to reinforce the crucible. The channels could be used as passages for narrow objects that could include thermocouples and heat-transfer strips. Alternatively or in addition, channels could be used as flow paths for liquid or gaseous coolants and could be positioned and oriented for position- or direction-selective cooling. In some cases, the channels could be filled with known gases and sealed so that failure of the crucibles could be indicated by instruments that detect the gases. The process consists of three main steps. In the first step, a pattern defining the channels is formed by wrapping or depositing a material in the desired channel pattern on the outer surface of the crucible. The pattern material can be a plastic, wax, low-ash fibrous material, a soluble material, or other suitable material that can subsequently be removed easily. In a proof-of-concept demonstration (see figure), the crucible was an alumina cylinder and the mold material was plastic tie-down tape. In the second step, the patterned crucible is coated with metal. In one variation of the second step, a very thin layer containing or consisting of an electrically conductive material (e.g., gold, silver, or carbon) is painted or otherwise deposited on the mold-covered crucible, then the covering metal required for the specific application is electrodeposited on the very thin conducting layer. In another variation of the second step, the metal coat is formed by chemical vapor deposition. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, a layer of nickel 0.003 in. ( 0.08 mm) thick was electrodeposited. In the third step, the patterned material is removed. This is

  20. From Systematic Review to Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Erika Metzler; Sobel, Linda L; Annan, Sandra L; Schminkey, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women. Searches conducted on databases including CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Women's Studies International, MedicLatina, and JSTOR used the MeSH terms Hispanic Americans (Latino/a and Hispanic), domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Selected studies were published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014. Of the 617 yielded articles, only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, none closely examined rurality or provided valid and reliable measures of outcomes, instead reporting program descriptions and suggested interventions. We identify key findings to guide program, screening, and tool development. Our study identifies a gap in knowledge, research, and effective practices and issues a call for action to create evidence-based tools to prevent, reduce, and eliminate IPV in these underserved populations.

  1. Weighted clustering of called array CGH data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wieringen, Wessel N; Van De Wiel, Mark A; Ylstra, Bauke

    2008-07-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a laboratory technique to measure chromosomal copy number changes. A clear biological interpretation of the measurements is obtained by mapping these onto an ordinal scale with categories loss/normal/gain of a copy. The pattern of gains and losses harbors a level of tumor specificity. Here, we present WECCA (weighted clustering of called aCGH data), a method for weighted clustering of samples on the basis of the ordinal aCGH data. Two similarities to be used in the clustering and particularly suited for ordinal data are proposed, which are generalized to deal with weighted observations. In addition, a new form of linkage, especially suited for ordinal data, is introduced. In a simulation study, we show that the proposed cluster method is competitive to clustering using the continuous data. We illustrate WECCA using an application to a breast cancer data set, where WECCA finds a clustering that relates better with survival than the original one.

  2. REMINDER: In a medical emergency call 74444

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    What happened? A CERN colleague, complaining of pains that might indicate serious heart problem, went to the ?infirmary' on the Prévessin site for medical aid. He was unaware that the ?infirmary' was in fact no such thing, but the office of the French contractors' medical practitioner, and, on top of that, it was closed. He therefore took his own car and went to the CERN Fire Station on the Meyrin Site (Building 65). The firemen and the CERN medical team took care of him and requested helicopter transport to the Geneva cantonal hospital, where he responded well to medical treatment. What do we learn from this event? You must call the CERN internal number 74444 in the event of serious and acute illness, and do not have to present yourself in person or get somebody to go with you. This number is not reserved exclusively for accident, pollution, fire etc. The Firemen can prodice professional assistance at all times as required: first aid on the spot, amulance transport and medical assistance as necessary. ...

  3. DOCSS: doctors on-call smartphone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, M K; Nason, G J; Liddy, S; Fitzgerald, C W; Kelly, M E; Shields, C

    2014-12-01

    Smartphones have revolutionised our demands for constant access to information. The usage of smartphones in the clinical setting is becoming widespread. The aim of our study was to assess smartphone ownership and usage across a cohort of interns. A voluntary novel questionnaire was distributed to interns in two university hospitals. Details regarding smartphone ownership and usage were assessed. Likert scales were utilised for analysis. Sixty-one (74.4 %) interns responded to the survey. Sixty (98.4 %) owned a smartphone with iPhone(®) being the most popular (76.7 %). Fifty-five (91.6 %) interns have downloaded medical applications ('apps'), while 29 (52.3 %) reported paying for them. Regarding smartphone use on-call, 30 (50 %) interns agreed it aids diagnoses, 26 (43 %) agree it helped in interpreting laboratory values, 31 (51.7 %) agreed it helped in dosing of medication and 33 (55 %) agreed it was of assistance in medical emergency protocols. Forty-two (70 %), 42 (70 %) and 46 (76.7 %) interns agreed or strongly agreed smartphones have a positive influence on them in terms of levels of stress, confidence and level of knowledge, respectively. Smartphone usage is widespread among our intern cohort. The introduction of hospital applications with local guidelines would be welcomed; however, this may require informed patient consent regarding their use.

  4. A Continental United States High Resolution NLCD Land Cover – MODIS Albedo Database to Examine Albedo and Land Cover Change Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface albedo influences climate by affecting the amount of solar radiation that is reflected at the Earth’s surface, and surface albedo is, in turn, affected by land cover. General Circulation Models typically use modeled or prescribed albedo to assess the influence of land co...

  5. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces.......This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...... it possible to examine surfaces all the way down to their atomic layers and also to perform realistic durability tests. The many surface techniques are described in clear and simple language, and the book is richly illustrated with detailed drawings and photos. It also deals with replacing environmentally...

  6. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  7. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  8. Soil cover by natural trees in agroforestry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ambrona, C. G. H.; Almoguera Millán, C.; Tarquis Alfonso, A.

    2009-04-01

    The dehesa is common agroforestry system in the Iberian Peninsula. These open oak parklands with silvo-pastoral use cover about two million hectares. Traditionally annual pastures have been grazed by cows, sheep and also goats while acorns feed Iberian pig diet. Evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) has other uses as fuelwood collection and folder after tree pruning. The hypothesis of this work is that tree density and canopy depend on soil types. We using the spanish GIS called SIGPAC to download the images of dehesa in areas with different soil types. True colour images were restoring to a binary code, previously canopy colour range was selected. Soil cover by tree canopy was calculated and number of trees. Processing result was comparable to real data. With these data we have applied a dynamic simulation model Dehesa to determine evergreen oak acorn and annual pasture production. The model Dehesa is divided into five submodels: Climate, Soil, Evergreen oak, Pasture and Grazing. The first three require the inputs: (i) daily weather data (maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and solar radiation); (ii) the soil input parameters for three horizons (thickness, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and bulk density); and (iii) the tree characterization of the dehesa (tree density, canopy diameter and height, and diameter of the trunk). The influence of tree on pasture potential production is inversely proportional to the canopy cover. Acorn production increase with tree canopy cover until stabilizing itself, and will decrease if density becomes too high (more than 80% soil tree cover) at that point there is competition between the trees. Main driving force for dehesa productivity is soil type for pasture, and tree cover for acorn production. Highest pasture productivity was obtained on soil Dystric Planosol (Alfisol), Dystric Cambisol and Chromo-calcic-luvisol, these soils only cover 22.4% of southwest of the Iberian peninssula. Lowest productivity was

  9. Biomaterials surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Taubert, Andreas; Rodriguez-Cabello, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an overview of the highly interdisciplinary field of surface science in the context of biological and biomedical applications. The covered topics range from micro- and nanostructuring for imparting functionality in a top-down manner to the bottom-up fabrication of gradient surfaces by self-assembly, from interfaces between biomaterials and living matter to smart, stimuli-responsive surfaces, and from cell and surface mechanics to the elucidation of cell-chip interactions in biomedical devices.

  10. Hypothermia for Stroke: call to action 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Malcolm R; Petersson, Jesper; Norrving, Bo; Hacke, Werner; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Wagner, Markus; Schwab, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    The European Hypothermia Stroke Research Workshop was held in January 2010, in response to the alarming prospects of a significant increase of stroke expected in the coming years globally. Considering that a minority of patients (around 10%) are currently eligible for thrombolytic treatment, there is a need for an efficacious, cost-effective novel therapy that can be implemented broadly within European health care systems. Accordingly, the primary objective of the workshop was the definition of a research agenda aiming to assess the therapeutic benefits of hypothermia in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The meeting was organised by the European Stroke Research Network for Hypothermia (EuroHyp) and attended by the representatives of World Stroke Organisation, European Stroke Organisation, Stroke Alliance for Europe, Society for Cryobiology and other organisations--specifically the European Space Agency, and small- and medium-sized enterprises based in EU member states. The participants adopted the 'Hypothermia for Stroke--Call to Action 2010', a declaration specifying the priorities for hypothermia research in acute ischaemic stroke. The research programme outlined--a clinical study programme designed to identify and validate therapeutic cooling as a novel treatment providing benefit to a large number of stroke patients--contains a well-integrated series of Phase II studies aiming to refine the intervention (depth, duration, and mode of cooling; antishivering strategy; patient selection) and a pivotal Phase III clinical trial. The proposed integrated Phase II and III clinical study programme would test the effectiveness of this optimised intervention, and would allow the development of evidence-based Clinical Practice Guidelines describing the optimal use of therapeutic hypothermia as a treatment strategy for stroke. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2010 World Stroke Organization.

  11. Evolution of Martian polar landscapes - Interplay of long-term variations in perennial ice cover and dust storm intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A.; Blasius, K. R.; Roberts, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The discovery of a new type of Martian polar terrain, called undulating plain, is reported and the evolution of the plains and other areas of the Martian polar region is discussed in terms of the trapping of dust by the perennial ice cover. High-resolution Viking Orbiter 2 observations of the north polar terrain reveal perennially ice-covered surfaces with low relief, wavelike, regularly spaced, parallel ridges and troughs (undulating plains) occupying areas of the polar terrain previously thought to be flat, and associated with troughs of considerable local relief which exhibit at least partial annual melting. It is proposed that the wavelike topography of the undulating plains originates from long-term periodic variations in cyclical dust precipitation at the margin of a growing or receding perennial polar cap in response to changes in insolation. The troughs are proposed to originate from areas of steep slope in the undulating terrain which have lost their perennial ice cover and have become incapable of trapping dust. The polar landscape thus appears to record the migrations, expansions and contractions of the Martian polar cap.

  12. On so-called paradoxical monocular stereoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, J J; van Doorn, A J; Kappers, A M

    1994-01-01

    Human observers are apparently well able to judge properties of 'three-dimensional objects' on the basis of flat pictures such as photographs of physical objects. They obtain this 'pictorial relief' without much conscious effort and with little interference from the (flat) picture surface. Methods for 'magnifying' pictorial relief from single pictures include viewing instructions as well as a variety of monocular and binocular 'viewboxes'. Such devices are reputed to yield highly increased pictorial depth, though no methodologies for the objective verification of such claims exist. A binocular viewbox has been reconstructed and pictorial relief under monocular, 'synoptic', and natural binocular viewing is described. The results corroborate and go beyond early introspective reports and turn out to pose intriguing problems for modern research.

  13. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined.

  14. El discurso de la calle: una mirada psicoanalitica al denominado habitante de la calle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Baez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de investigación del proyecto: “El lugar del sujeto en condición de habitante de la calle de la localidad de Suba”. Una propuesta de investigación-intervención, dirigida por el interrogante: ¿Cómo se sitúa un sujeto frente al otro, el otro y su mismidad para llegar a la configuración de su ser, decir y hacer desde el habitar en la calle? Metodológicamente, se desarrolló un trabajo de escucha de carácter analítico, con habitantes de la calle y funcionarios de dicha localidad. El sujeto se halla inscrito en el discurso de la calle, donde, a partir de su posicionamiento ha configurado su ser, decir y hacer, así como el establecimiento del lazo social. Abstract This research paper shows the results of a project named: “The place of the subject as a street in habitant in Suba”. It is a research and intervention proposal, guided by the questions: How does a subject consider himself in relation with another subject? How does a subject and his uniqueness to come to his own being? Does it take into account their living in the street? A listening exercise using an analytical method was developed with street in habitants and officials of the above-mentioned locality. The subject is enrolled in the test, their speech sampled via a series of questions, and the subject is asked why the subject has set his being, why the subject gives these answers, as well as their establishment in the social ties in their networks.

  15. No Call for Action? Why There Is No Union (Yet in Philippine Call Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Reese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents findings from a qualitative study which focused on young urban professionals in the Philippines who work(ed in international call centers – workplaces usually characterized by job insecurity and other forms of precarity, factory-like working conditions, and disembeddedness. Nevertheless, trade unions in these centers have not come into existence. Why collective action is not chosen by call center agents as an option to tackle the above mentioned problems – this is what the research project this article is based on tried to understand. After outlining some workrelated problems identified by Filipino call center agents, the article will focus on the strategies the agents employ to counter these problems (mainly accommodation and everyday resistance. By highlighting five objective and five subjective reasons (or reasons by circumstances and reasons by framing, we conclude that it is not repressive regulation policies, but rather the formative power and the internalization of discourses of rule within individual life strategies that are preventing the establishment of unions and other collective action structures.

  16. Using Semantic Similarity In Automated Call Quality Evaluator For Call Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria A. Sagum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conversation between the agent and client are being evaluated manually by a quality assurance officer QA. This job is only one of the responsibilities being done by a QA and particularly eat ups a lot of time for them which lead to late evaluation results that may cause untimely response of the company to concerns raised by their clients. This research developed an application software that automates and evaluates the quality assurance in business process outsourcing companies or customer service management implementing sentence similarity. The developed system includes two modules speaker diarization which includes transcription and question and answer extraction and similarity checker which checks the similarity between the extracted answer and the answer of the call center agent to a question. The system was evaluated for Correctness of the extracted answers and accurateness of the evaluation for a particular call. Audio conversations were tested for the accuracy of the transcription module which has an accuracy of 27.96. The Precision Recall and F-measure of the extracted answer was tested as 78.03 96.26 and 86.19 respectively. The Accuracy of the system in evaluating a call is 70.

  17. Temporal Land Cover Analysis for Net Ecosystem Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2013-04-09

    We delineated 8 watersheds contributing to previously defined river reaches within the 1,468-km2 historical floodplain of the tidally influenced lower Columbia River and estuary. We assessed land-cover change at the watershed, reach, and restoration site scales by reclassifying remote-sensing data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Change Analysis Program’s land cover/land change product into forest, wetland, and urban categories. The analysis showed a 198.3 km2 loss of forest cover during the first 6 years of the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program, 2001–2006. Total measured urbanization in the contributing watersheds of the estuary during the full 1996-2006 change analysis period was 48.4 km2. Trends in forest gain/loss and urbanization differed between watersheds. Wetland gains and losses were within the margin of error of the satellite imagery analysis. No significant land cover change was measured at restoration sites, although it was visible in aerial imagery, therefore, the 30-m land-cover product may not be appropriate for assessment of early-stage wetland restoration. These findings suggest that floodplain restoration sites in reaches downstream of watersheds with decreasing forest cover will be subject to increased sediment loads, and those downstream of urbanization will experience effects of increased impervious surfaces on hydrologic processes.

  18. Final covering of the Ronneburg uranium mining site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoepfner, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    The rehabilitation of WISMUT's former Ronneburg uranium mining site involves backfilling of waste rock to the Lichtenberg open pit. The relocation project comprises about 110 million m 3 of sulphide-bearing and AMD-generating waste rock which makes it the most important and most cost-intensive single surface restoration project conducted by WISMUT at the Ronneburg site. The backfilled waste rock has to be covered on an area of about 220 ha to control water infiltration and gas diffusion. Design planning for the final cover placement which began in 2004 had to be based on a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis as well on field tests of alternative cover options which are in compliance with legal requirements. An intensive testing program concerning the vadose zone of soil covers has therefore been started in 2000. The paper presents an overview of the monitoring program and the results of the vadose zone measurements. The water of soil covers have to be predicted for extended evaluation periods. Therefore water balance simulations of single layer covers (storage and evaporation concept) taking current and future soil and climate conditions into account are performed with the HYDRUS 2D code. (author)

  19. Estimating solar resources in Mexico using cloud cover data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, David; George, Ray; Brady, Liz; Marion, Bill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado (United States); Estrada Cajigal, Vicente [Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the results of applying the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) model to Mexico to develop solar resource data. A major input to the CSR model is a worldwide surface and satellite-derived cloud cover database, called the Real Time Nephanalysis (RTNEPH). The RTNEPH is developed by the U.S. Air Force and distributed by the U.S. National Climatic Data Center. The RTNEPH combines routine ground-based cloud cover observations made every three hours at national weather centers throughout the world with satellite-derived cloud cover information developed from polar orbiting weather satellites. The data are geospatially digitized so that multilayerd cloud cover information is available on a grid of approximately 40-km to a side. The development of this database is an ongoing project that now covers more than twenty years of observations. For the North America analysis (including Mexico) we used an 8-year summarized histogram of the RTNEPH that provides monthly average cloud cover information for the period 1985-1992. The CSR model also accounts for attenuation of the solar beam due to aerosols, atmospheric trace gases, and water vapor. The CSR model outputs monthly average direct normal, global horizontal and diffuse solar information for each of the 40-km grid cells. From this information it is also possible to produce solar resource estimates for various solar collector types and orientations, such as flat plate collectors oriented at latitude tilt, or concentrating solar power collectors. Model results are displayed using Geographic Information System software. CSR model results for Mexico are presented here, along with a discussion of earlier solar resource assessment studies for Mexico, where both modeling approaches and measurement analyses have been used. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta los resultados de aplicar el modelo Radiacion Solar Climatologica CSR del NREL (National Renewable Energy

  20. Calling in the cold: pervasive acoustic presence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae in Antarctic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Opzeeland

    Full Text Available Humpback whales migrate between relatively unproductive tropical or temperate breeding grounds and productive high latitude feeding areas. However, not all individuals of a population undertake the annual migration to the breeding grounds; instead some are thought to remain on the feeding grounds year-round, presumably to avoid the energetic demands of migration. In the Southern Hemisphere, ice and inclement weather conditions restrict investigations of humpback whale presence on feeding grounds as well as the extent of their southern range. Two years of near-continuous recordings from the PerenniAL Acoustic Observatory in the Antarctic Ocean (PALAOA, Ekström Iceshelf, 70°31'S, 8°13'W are used to explore the acoustic presence of humpback whales in an Antarctic coastal area. Humpback whale calls were present during nine and eleven months of 2008 and 2009, respectively. In 2008, calls were present in January through April, June through August, November and December, whereas in 2009, calls were present throughout the year, except in September. Calls occurred in un-patterned sequences, representing non-song sound production. Typically, calls occurred in bouts, ranging from 2 to 42 consecutive days with February, March and April having the highest daily occurrence of calls in 2008. In 2009, February, March, April and May had the highest daily occurrence of calls. Whales were estimated to be within a 100 km radius off PALAOA. Calls were also present during austral winter when ice cover within this radius was >90%. These results demonstrate that coastal areas near the Antarctic continent are likely of greater importance to humpback whales than previously assumed, presumably providing food resources year-round and open water in winter where animals can breathe.

  1. Calling in the cold: pervasive acoustic presence of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Antarctic coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Van Parijs, Sofie; Kindermann, Lars; Burkhardt, Elke; Boebel, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Humpback whales migrate between relatively unproductive tropical or temperate breeding grounds and productive high latitude feeding areas. However, not all individuals of a population undertake the annual migration to the breeding grounds; instead some are thought to remain on the feeding grounds year-round, presumably to avoid the energetic demands of migration. In the Southern Hemisphere, ice and inclement weather conditions restrict investigations of humpback whale presence on feeding grounds as well as the extent of their southern range. Two years of near-continuous recordings from the PerenniAL Acoustic Observatory in the Antarctic Ocean (PALAOA, Ekström Iceshelf, 70°31'S, 8°13'W) are used to explore the acoustic presence of humpback whales in an Antarctic coastal area. Humpback whale calls were present during nine and eleven months of 2008 and 2009, respectively. In 2008, calls were present in January through April, June through August, November and December, whereas in 2009, calls were present throughout the year, except in September. Calls occurred in un-patterned sequences, representing non-song sound production. Typically, calls occurred in bouts, ranging from 2 to 42 consecutive days with February, March and April having the highest daily occurrence of calls in 2008. In 2009, February, March, April and May had the highest daily occurrence of calls. Whales were estimated to be within a 100 km radius off PALAOA. Calls were also present during austral winter when ice cover within this radius was >90%. These results demonstrate that coastal areas near the Antarctic continent are likely of greater importance to humpback whales than previously assumed, presumably providing food resources year-round and open water in winter where animals can breathe.

  2. Physical and numerical modeling of an inclined three-layer (silt/gravelly sand/clay) capillary barrier cover system under extreme rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Charles W W; Liu, Jian; Chen, Rui; Xu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    As an extension of the two-layer capillary barrier, a three-layer capillary barrier landfill cover system is proposed for minimizing rainfall infiltration in humid climates. This system consists of a compacted clay layer lying beneath a conventional cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE), which is in turn composed of a silt layer sitting on top of a gravelly sand layer. To explore the effectiveness of the new system in minimizing rainfall infiltration, a flume model (3.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.1 m) was designed and set up in this study. This physical model was heavily instrumented to monitor pore water pressure, volumetric water content, surface runoff, infiltration and lateral drainage of each layer, and percolation of the cover system. The cover system was subjected to extreme rainfall followed by evaporation. The experiment was also back-analyzed using a piece of finite element software called CODE_BRIGHT to simulate transient water flows in the test. Based on the results obtained from various instruments, it was found that breakthrough of the two upper layers occurred for a 4-h rainfall event having a 100-year return period. Due to the presence of the newly introduced clay layer, the percolation of the three-layer capillary barrier cover system was insignificant because the clay layer enabled lateral diversion in the gravelly sand layer above. In other words, the gravelly sand layer changed from being a capillary barrier in a convention CCBE cover to being a lateral diversion passage after the breakthrough of the two upper layers. Experimental and back-analysis results confirm that no infiltrated water seeped through the proposed three-layer barrier system. The proposed system thus represents a promising alternative landfill cover system for use in humid climates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temperature changes in soil covered by black oat straw

    OpenAIRE

    Zwirtes, Anderson Luiz; Reinert, Dalvan José; Gubiani, Paulo Ivonir; Silva, Vanderlei Rodrigues Da; Mulazzani, Rodrigo Pivoto; Somavilla, André

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different amounts of black oat (Avena strigosa) straw covering soil surface on soil temperature at different depths. The treatments consisted of 0, 3, 6, and 9 Mg ha-1 straw. Soil temperature was measured hourly by a thermocouple inserted at different depths (0, 5, 15, 30, and 50 cm) and was used to adjust an equation correlating the temperature of covered soil with that of bare soil. With the correlations, it was possible to ...

  4. Pseudospherical surfaces with singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of constant Gauss curvature −1 surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, based on Lorentzian harmonic maps, that we call pseudospherical frontals. We analyse the singularities of these surfaces, dividing them into those of characteristic and non-characteristic type. We give methods...

  5. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  6. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  7. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzell Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2 = 4.55, p = 0.103. In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2 = 23.42, p < 0.0005. Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  8. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  9. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Pengra, Bruce; Long, J.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m–1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (∼30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  10. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  11. Reducibility of Covers of AFT shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Teresa; Eilers, Søren; Pask, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that the reducibility structure of several covers of sofic shifts is a flow invariant. In addition, we prove that for an irreducible subshift of almost finite type the left Krieger cover and the past set cover are reducible. We provide an example which shows that there are n...

  12. 7 CFR 65.135 - Covered commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered commodity. 65.135 Section 65.135 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.135 Covered commodity. (a) Covered commodity...

  13. Land cover changes in central Sonora Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Alejandro Castellanos-Villegas; Stuart Marsh

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been demonstrated to be very effective tools to help detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover changes in natural areas of the world. Changes in land cover can generally be attributed to either natural or anthropogenic forces. Multitemporal satellite imagery and airborne videography were used to detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover...

  14. Developed land cover of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of developed land cover in Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Developed land cover refers to urban, built-up and non-vegetated areas that result from human activity. These typically include built structures, concrete, asphalt, and other infrastructure. The developed land cover was estimated using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images pan...

  15. Real-world solutions for orthopaedic on-call problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Samuel G; Blotter, Robert H; Kosmatka, Paul K; Rudin, Guy J

    2012-01-01

    An increasing percentage of emergency departments are reporting an inadequate number of on-call specialists. This situation is causing a growing crisis in emergency department on-call coverage for patients requiring orthopaedic care. Many orthopaedic surgeons are electing to opt out of emergency department on-call service. For many reasons, including a dwindling supply of eager participants, more medical groups are finding it difficult to fulfill their on-call obligations. This problem demands a variety of strategies to address the multiple causative factors that occur in practice settings. Initially, it may be necessary to incentivize on-call service so more surgeons are willing to participate. Incentives may include improving the group governance and bylaws to avoid confusion on the rules for providing on-call coverage. The on-call experience may require financial improvements, outsourcing with locum tenens, or a complete restructuring of the on-call arrangement with the formation of a hospitalist program.

  16. ASR performance analysis of an experimental call routing system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Call routing is an important application of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology. In this paper the authors discuss the main issues affecting the performance of a call routing system and describe the ASR component of the "Auto...

  17. Microfluidic isolation of platelet-covered circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaocheng; Wong, Keith H K; Khankhel, Aimal H; Zeinali, Mahnaz; Reategui, Eduardo; Phillips, Matthew J; Luo, Xi; Aceto, Nicola; Fachin, Fabio; Hoang, Anh N; Kim, Wooseok; Jensen, Annie E; Sequist, Lecia V; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-10-11

    The interplay between platelets and tumor cells is known to play important roles in metastasis by enhancing tumor cell survival, tumor-vascular interactions, and escape from immune surveillance. However, platelet-covered circulating tumor cells (CTC) are extremely difficult to isolate due to masking or downregulation of surface epitopes. Here we describe a microfluidic platform that takes advantage of the satellite platelets on the surface of these "stealth" CTCs as a ubiquitous surface marker for isolation. Compared to conventional CTC enrichment techniques which rely on known surface markers expressed by tumor cells, platelet-targeted isolation is generally applicable to CTCs of both epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. Our approach first depletes unbound, free platelets by means of hydrodynamic size-based sorting, followed by immunoaffinity-based capture of platelet-covered CTCs using a herringbone micromixing device. This method enabled the reliable isolation of CTCs from 66% of lung and 60% of breast cancer (both epithelial) patient samples, as well as in 83% of melanoma (mesenchymal) samples. Interestingly, we observed special populations of CTCs that were extensively covered by platelets, as well as CTC-leukocyte clusters. Because these cloaked CTCs often escape conventional positive and negative isolation mechanisms, further characterization of these cells may uncover important yet overlooked biological information in blood-borne metastasis and cancer immunology.

  18. Characteristics of snow cover duration across the northeast United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Daniel J.; Luff, Barbara L.

    1997-11-01

    The presence or absence of a snow cover affects a myriad of environmental and societal systems through its modification of the surface radiation balance and its ultimate impact on near-surface air temperatures. Daily snow cover data were collected for a network of 91 stations covering the northeast USA from Maine, south through to West Virginia. The snow cover data along with ancillary temperature, snowfall and precipitation data were used to investigate the characteristics of snow cover duration in this region and the effects of the snow cover on boundary layer climate variables for the snow cover seasons 1948-1949 through to 1987-1988.Results indicate that snow cover duration is variable in both space and time. The duration of a snow cover of 2.5 cm or greater varies from greater than 100 days in northern New England to less than 20 days across areas of Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia. Temporally, snow cover duration for the region as a whole was very short from the late 1940s through to the mid-1950s. From the late 1950s to the end of the period snow cover duration has varied around a consistent mean value. No long-term trends in snow cover duration are apparent in the record for the northeast USA.Principal components analysis and clustering techniques were utilized to isolate spatially coherent regions in which snow cover duration has varied similarly over the period of record. This analysis resulted in the identification of four snow-cover-duration regions across the northeast USA: including (i) the West Virginia area, (ii) the mid-Atlantic from southern New England through to western Pennsylvania, (iii) western and central New York and (iv) northern New England. Snow cover duration is shown to be highly associated with snowfall and temperature but not strongly related to total liquid precipitation. The intra-annual variability of snow cover duration is also investigated for each region.

  19. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Soil placed over any sealant/barrier system can provide a protective mantle if the soil is not lost by erosion. Vegetation is an attractive choice for controlling erosion because it can provide an economic self-renewing cover that serves to reduce erosion by both wind and water. Vegetation alone, however, may not adequately stabilize the surface in extremely arid areas. In those areas, a properly designed surface treatment of rock cover, perhaps in conjunction with vegetation, may be necessary to stabilize the tailings surfaces. The objective of this program is to establish guidelines for surface stabilization that are compatible with sealant/barrier systems and that are suited to soils and climates at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. These guidelines will provide the means to estimate potential vegetation cover, potential erosion, effects of surface treatments on sealant/barrier systems, and costs of vegetation and rock covers. Methods for establishing vegetation on sealed tailings will also be provided

  20. Managing your call center: ways to optimize service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, F

    1997-01-01

    Proper measurements and telecommunications technology can help you make the most positive impact on service to your many publics. When patients call a number (often an 800 number) for nurse triage, physician referral, a physician answering service, claims eligibility or customer assistance, chances are they are calling into a call center. No other industry is exploring and improving call center applications with more vigor than health care.