Sample records for surface contour radar

  1. Surface Mesh Reconstruction from Cardiac MRI Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Villard


    Full Text Available We introduce a tool to build a surface mesh able to deal with sparse, heterogeneous, non-parallel, cross-sectional, non-coincidental contours and show its application to reconstruct surfaces of the heart. In recent years, much research has looked at creating personalised 3D anatomical models of the heart. These models usually incorporate a geometrical reconstruction of the anatomy in order to better understand cardiovascular functions as well as predict different cardiac processes. As MRIs are becoming the standard for cardiac medical imaging, we tested our methodology on cardiac MRI data from standard acquisitions. However, the ability to accurately reconstruct heart anatomy in three dimensions commonly comes with fundamental challenges—notably, the trade-off between data fitting and expected visual appearance. Most current techniques can either require contours from parallel slices or, if multiple slice orientations are used, require an exact match between these contours. In addition, some methods introduce a bias by the use of prior shape models or by trade-offs between the data matching terms and the smoothing terms. Our approach uses a composition of smooth approximations towards the maximization of the data fitting, ensuring a good matching to the input data as well as pleasant interpolation characteristics. To assess our method in the task of cardiac mesh generations, we evaluated its performance on synthetic data obtained from a cardiac statistical shape model as well as on real data. Using a statistical shape model, we simulated standard cardiac MRI acquisitions planes and contour data. We performed a multi-parameter evaluation study using plausible cardiac shapes generated from the model. We also show that long axes contours as well as the most extremal slices (basal and apical contain the most amount of structural information, and thus should be taken into account when generating anatomically relevant geometrical cardiovascular

  2. Experimenting level set-based snakes for contour segmentation in radar imagery (United States)

    Lesage, Frederic; Gagnon, Langis


    The aim of this work is to explore the applicability of a relatively new snakes formulation called geometric snakes, for robust contour segmentation in radar images. In particular, we are looking for clear experimental indicators regarding the usefulness of such tool for radar imagery. In this work, we mainly concentrate on various contour segmentation problems in airborne and spaceborne SAR images (swatch and inverse mode). As an example, we study the segmentation of coastlines and ship targets. We observe that the dynamical and adaptive properties of geometric contours is better suited to determine the morphological properties of the contours. For high-resolution radar images of ships, the underlying motivation is that these properties could help providing robust extraction of ship structures for automatic ship classification.

  3. Real-Time Contour Surface Display Generation, (United States)


    set of trees generated for the two-dimensional grid such that duplicate edges in separate trees are eliminated. This solution has the added benefit that...of SI GGRAPH- ACAI , Vol. 16, No. 3 (July 1982), p, 135. 20. Zyda. Michael J. "Multiprocessor Considerations in the Design of a Readl-Timne Contour

  4. Nonlinear Waves and Solitons on Contours and Closed Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ludu, Andrei


    The present volume is an introduction to nonlinear waves and soliton theory in the special environment of compact spaces such a closed curves and surfaces and other domain contours. It assumes familiarity with basic soliton theory and nonlinear dynamical systems. The first part of the book introduces the mathematical concept required for treating the manifolds considered. Emphasis on the relevant notions from topology and differential geometry. An introduction to the theory of motion of curves and surfaces - as part of the emerging field of contour dynamics - is given. The second and third parts discuss the modeling of various physical solitons on compact systems, such as filaments, loops and drops made of almost incompressible materials thereby intersecting with a large number of physical disciplines from hydrodynamics to compact object astrophysics. Nonlinear Waves and Solitons on Contours and Closed Surfaces provides graduate students and researchers in mathematics, physics and engineering with a ready tut...

  5. Nonlinear waves and solitons on contours and closed surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ludu, Andrei


    This volume is an introduction to nonlinear waves and soliton theory in the special environment of compact spaces such a closed curves and surfaces and other domain contours. It assumes familiarity with basic soliton theory and nonlinear dynamical systems. The first part of the book introduces the mathematical concept required for treating the manifolds considered, providing relevant notions from topology and differential geometry. An introduction to the theory of motion of curves and surfaces - as part of the emerging field of contour dynamics - is given. The second and third parts discuss the modeling of various physical solitons on compact systems, such as filaments, loops and drops made of almost incompressible materials thereby intersecting with a large number of physical disciplines from hydrodynamics to compact object astrophysics. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in mathematics, physics and engineering. This new edition has been thoroughly revised, expanded and updated.

  6. Surface roughness retrieval from radar data (United States)

    Chauhan, Narinder S.; Engman, Edwin T.


    Radar data from the remote sensing technique have been used in conjunction with theoretical microwave modeling to develop a retrieval algorithm for the root mean square height of the rough surface. The algorithm exploits frequency (L and C band) differences in the radar response from a vegetated rough surface. These differences are related back to the Fresnel reflectivity and surface rms height by using a theoretical modeling approach that is based on a discrete scatter random media technique and uses distorted Born approximation to compute backscatter coefficient from a particular scene. Sensitivity analysis shows that the change in surface reflectivity due to the change in frequency from L to C band is dominated by surface rms height, and, the Fresnel reflectivity stays almost constant over this frequency interval. The inversion algorithm based on these sensitivity differences has been applied to the backscatter model data from a plant canopy of soybean. Calculations show that the technique gives accurate results from a model backscatter data set that is corrupted with 80% of noise. The inversion algorithm is also applied to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data collected over corn fields during the MACHYDRO'90 experiment in Pennsylvania, USA. There is an excellent agreement between the measured and the retrieved rms surface height.

  7. Development of optical surface contouring technique using laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Min Suk; Park, Seung Kyu


    Laser contouring system capable of measuring relief profiles using a line-shaped laser beam with anisotropic magnification optics composed with two cylindrical lenses was developed. The anisotropic magnification optical system allows it to obtain higher resolution in the relief profile measurements. The image processing and 3-D display software are developed to reconstruct 3-D shape. The power supply of laser diode with adaptive current control circuit is designed. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 33 figs.

  8. Surface return direction-of-arrival analysis for radar ice sounding surface clutter suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen


    Airborne radar ice sounding is challenged by surface clutter masking the depth signal of interest. Surface clutter may even be prohibitive for potential space-based ice sounding radars. To some extent the radar antenna suppresses the surface clutter, and a multi-phase-center antenna in combination...

  9. HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard


    ...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...

  10. Comparison of surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional imaging of the musculoskeletal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilford, W.B.; Ullrich, C.G.; Moore, T.


    Both surface contour and volumetric three-dimensional image processing from CT data can provide accurate demonstration of skeletal anatomy. While realistic, surface contour images may obscure fine detail such as nondisplaced fractures, and thin bone may disappear. Volumetric processing can provide high detail, but the transparency effect is unnatural and may yield a confusing image. Comparison of both three-dimensional modes is presented to demonstrate those findings best shown with each and to illustrate helpful techniques to improve volumetric display, such as disarticulation of unnecessary anatomy, short-angle repeating rotation (dithering), and image combination into overlay displays

  11. Radar Mapping of Surface Soil Moisture (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dubois, P. C.; van Zyl, J.


    Intended as an overview aimed at potential users of remotely sensed spatial distributions and temporal variations of soil moisture, this paper begins with an introductory section on the fundamentals of radar imaging and associated attributes.

  12. Micro Surface Defect Detection Method for Silicon Steel Strip Based on Saliency Convex Active Contour Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechen Song


    Full Text Available Accurate detection of surface defect is an indispensable section in steel surface inspection system. In order to detect the micro surface defect of silicon steel strip, a new detection method based on saliency convex active contour model is proposed. In the proposed method, visual saliency extraction is employed to suppress the clutter background for the purpose of highlighting the potential objects. The extracted saliency map is then exploited as a feature, which is fused into a convex energy minimization function of local-based active contour. Meanwhile, a numerical minimization algorithm is introduced to separate the micro surface defects from cluttered background. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method presents good performance for detecting micro surface defects including spot-defect and steel-pit-defect. Even in the cluttered background, the proposed method detects almost all of the microdefects without any false objects.

  13. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang


    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  14. Planetary surface characterization from dual-polarization radar observations (United States)

    Virkki, Anne; Planetary Radar Team of the Arecibo Observatory


    We present a new method to investigate the physical properties of planetary surfaces using dual-polarization radar measurements. The number of radar observations has increased radically during the last five years, allowing us to compare the radar scattering properties of different small-body populations and compositional types. There has also been progress in the laboratory studies of the materials that are relevant to asteroids and comets.In a typical planetary radar measurement a circularly polarized signal is transmitted using a frequency of 2380 MHz (wavelength of 12.6 cm) or 8560 MHz (3.5 cm). The echo is received simultaneously in the same circular (SC) and the opposite circular (OC) polarization as the transmitted signal. The delay and doppler frequency of the signal give highly accurate astrometric information, and the intensity and the polarization are suggestive of the physical properties of the target's near-surface.The radar albedo describes the radar reflectivity of the target. If the effective near-surface is smooth and homogeneous in the wavelength-scale, the echo is received fully in the OC polarization. Wavelength-scale surface roughness or boulders within the effective near-surface volume increase the received echo power in both polarizations. However, there is a lack in the literature describing exactly how the physical properties of the target affect the radar albedo in each polarization, or how they can be derived from the radar measurements.To resolve this problem, we utilize the information that the diffuse components of the OC and SC parts are correlated when the near-surface contains wavelength-scale scatterers such as boulders. A linear least-squares fit to the detected values of OC and SC radar albedos allows us to separate the diffusely scattering part from the quasi-specular part. Combined with the spectro-photometric information of the target and laboratory studies of the permittivity-density dependence, the method provides us with a

  15. Arecibo Radar Investigations of Planetary and Small-Body Surfaces (United States)

    Taylor, P. A.


    The 305-m William E. Gordon telescope at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico is the most sensitive, most powerful, and most active planetary radar facility in the world. Over the last 50-plus years, the S-band (12.6 cm, 2380 MHz) and P-band (70 cm, 430 MHz) radars at Arecibo have studied solid bodies in the solar system from Mercury to Saturn's rings. Radar provides fine spatial resolution of these bodies surpassed only by dedicated spacecraft while adding the extra dimensions of near-surface, wavelength-scale roughness and penetration to several wavelengths below the surface. For asteroids and comets, this spatial resolution is akin to a spacecraft flyby revealing spin, size, and shape information and geologic features such as ridges, crater-like depressions, and boulders. For planetary bodies, radar can reveal geologic features on the surface such as ancient lava flows or features buried beneath the regolith including lava tubes and water-ice deposits. We will present an overview of how the Arecibo radar systems are utilized in the study of planetary and small-body surfaces and what can be learned without ever leaving the comfort of Earth's surface. The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968) and in alliance with Ana G. Mendez-Universidad Metropolitana (UMET) and the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The Arecibo Planetary Radar Program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant Nos. NNX12AF24G and NNX13AQ46G issued through the Near-Earth Object Observations program and operated by USRA in alliance with SRI International and UMET.

  16. The Surface Fatigue Life of Contour Induction Hardened AISI 1552 Gears (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Turza, Alan; Chaplin, Mike


    Two groups of spur gears manufactured from two different materials and heat treatments were endurance tested for surface fatigue life. One group was manufactured from AISI 1552 and was finished ground to a 0.4 micron (16 micro-in.) rms surface finish and then dual frequency contour induction hardened. The second group was manufactured from CEVM AISI 9310 and was carburized, hardened, and ground to a 0.4 micron (16 micro-in.) rms surface finish. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm (3.5 in.). Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), a bulk gear temperature of approximately 350 K (170 F) and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The test results showed that the 10 percent surface fatigue (pitting) life of the contour hardened AISI 1552 test gears was 1.7 times that of the carburized and hardened AISI 9310 test gears. Also there were two early failures of the AISI 1552 gears by bending fatigue.

  17. Reducing Surface Clutter in Cloud Profiling Radar Data (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Pak, Kyung; Durden, Stephen; Im, Eastwood


    An algorithm has been devised to reduce ground clutter in the data products of the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), which is a nadir-looking radar instrument, in orbit around the Earth, that measures power backscattered by clouds as a function of distance from the instrument. Ground clutter contaminates the CPR data in the lowest 1 km of the atmospheric profile, heretofore making it impossible to use CPR data to satisfy the scientific interest in studying clouds and light rainfall at low altitude. The algorithm is based partly on the fact that the CloudSat orbit is such that the geodetic altitude of the CPR varies continuously over a range of approximately 25 km. As the geodetic altitude changes, the radar timing parameters are changed at intervals defined by flight software in order to keep the troposphere inside a data-collection time window. However, within each interval, the surface of the Earth continuously "scans through" (that is, it moves across) a few range bins of the data time window. For each radar profile, only few samples [one for every range-bin increment ((Delta)r = 240 m)] of the surface-clutter signature are available around the range bin in which the peak of surface return is observed, but samples in consecutive radar profiles are offset slightly (by amounts much less than (Delta)r) with respect to each other according to the relative change in geodetic altitude. As a consequence, in a case in which the surface area under examination is homogenous (e.g., an ocean surface), a sequence of consecutive radar profiles of the surface in that area contains samples of the surface response with range resolution (Delta)p much finer than the range-bin increment ((Delta)p data acquired over an ocean surface. A preliminary analysis of the test data showed a surface-clutter-rejection ratio over flat surfaces of >10 dB and a reduction of the contaminated altitude over ocean from about 1 km to about 0.5 km (over the ocean). The algorithm has been embedded

  18. Influence of full-contour zirconia surface roughness on wear of glass-ceramics. (United States)

    Luangruangrong, Palika; Cook, N Blaine; Sabrah, Alaa H; Hara, Anderson T; Bottino, Marco C


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of full-contour (Y-TZP) zirconia surface roughness (glazed vs. as-machined) on the wear behavior of glass-ceramics. Thirty-two full contour Y-TZP (Diazir®) specimens (hereafter referred to as zirconia sliders) (ϕ = 2 mm, 1.5 mm in height) were fabricated using CAD/CAM and sintered according to the manufacturer's instructions. Zirconia sliders were embedded in brass holders using acrylic resin and then randomly assigned (n = 16) according to the surface treatment received, that is, as-machined or glazed. Glass-ceramic antagonists, Empress/EMP and e.max/EX, were cut into tabs (13 × 13 × 2 mm(3) ), wet-finished, and similarly embedded in brass holders. Two-body pin-on-disk wear testing was performed at 1.2 Hz for 25,000 cycles under a 3 kg load. Noncontact profilometry was used to measure antagonist height (μm) and volume loss (mm(3) ). Qualitative data of the zirconia testing surfaces and wear tracks were obtained using SEM. Statistics were performed using ANOVA with a significance level of 0.05. As-machined yielded significantly higher mean roughness values (Ra = 0.83 μm, Rq = 1.09 μm) than glazed zirconia (Ra = 0.53 μm, Rq = 0.78 μm). Regarding glass-ceramic antagonist loss, as-machined zirconia caused significantly less mean height and volume loss (68.4 μm, 7.6 mm(3) ) for EMP than the glazed group (84.9 μm, 9.9 mm(3) ), while no significant differences were found for EX. Moreover, EMP showed significantly lower mean height and volume loss than EX (p glass-ceramics tested. e.max wear was not affected by zirconia surface roughness; however, Empress wear was greater when opposing glazed zirconia. Overall, surface glazing on full-contour zirconia did not minimize glass-ceramic wear when compared with as-machined zirconia. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Radar studies of the planets. [radar measurements of lunar surface, Mars, Mercury, and Venus (United States)

    Ingalls, R. P.; Pettengill, G. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Sebring, P. B. (Editor); Shapiro, I. I.


    The radar measurements phase of the lunar studies involving reflectivity and topographic mapping of the visible lunar surface was ended in December 1972, but studies of the data and production of maps have continued. This work was supported by Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Topographic mapping of the equatorial regions of Mars has been carried out during the period of each opposition since that of 1967. The method comprised extended precise traveling time measurements to a small area centered on the subradar point. As measurements continued, planetary motions caused this point to sweep out extensive areas in both latitude and longitude permitting the development of a fairly extensive topographical map in the equatorial region. Radar observations of Mercury and Venus have also been made over the past few years. Refinements of planetary motions, reflectivity maps and determinations of rotation rates have resulted.

  20. Applications of Surface Penetrating Radar for Mars Exploration (United States)

    Li, H.; Li, C.; Ran, S.; Feng, J.; Zuo, W.


    Surface Penetrating Radar (SPR) is a geophysical method that uses electromagnetic field probe the interior structure and lithological variations of a lossy dielectric materials, it performs quite well in dry, icy and shallow-soil environments. The first radar sounding of the subsurface of planet was carried out by Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) of the Apollo 17 in 1972. ALSE provided very precise information about the moon's topography and revealed structures beneath the surface in both Mare Crisium and Mare Serenitatis. Russian Mars'92 was the first Mars exploration mission that tried to use SPR to explore martian surface, subsurface and ionosphere. Although Mars'96 launch failed in 1996, Russia(Mars'98, cancelled in 1998; Phobos-Grunt, launch failed in 2011), ESA(Mars Express, succeeded in 2003; Netlander, cancelled in 2003; ExoMars 2018) and NASA(MRO, succeeded in 2005; MARS 2020) have been making great effects to send SPR to Mars, trying to search for the existence of groundwater and life in the past 20 years. So far, no Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) has yet provided in situ observations on the surface of Mars. In December 2013, China's CE-3 lunar rover (Yuto) equipped with a GPR made the first direct measurement of the structure and depth of the lunar soil, and investigation of the lunar crust structure along the rover path. China's Mars Exploration Program also plans to carry the orbiting radar sounder and rover GPR to characterize the nature of subsurface water or ices and the layered structure of shallow subsurface of Mars. SPR can provide diversity of applications for Mars exploration , that are: to map the distribution of solid and liquid water in the upper portions of the Mars' crust; to characterize the subsurface geologic environment; to investigate the planet's subsurface to better understand the evolution and habitability of Mars; to perform the martain ionosphere sounding. Based on SPR's history and achievements, combined with the

  1. Surface Current Measurements In Terra Nova Bay By Hf Radar (United States)

    Flocco, D.; Falco, P.; Wadhams, P.; Spezie, G.

    We present the preliminary results of a field experiment carried out within frame- work of the CLIMA project of the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA) and in cooperation with the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge. Dur- ing the second period (02/12/1999-23/01/2000) of the XV Italian expedition a coastal radar was used to characterize the current field in the area of Terra Nova Bay (TNB). One of the aims of the CLIMA (Climatic Long-term Interactions for the Mass balance in Antarctica) project is to determine the role of the polynya in the sea ice mass bal- ance, water structure and local climate. The OSCR-II experiment was planned in order to provide surface current measurements in the area of TNB polynya, one of the most important coastal polynya of the Ross Sea. OSCR (Ocean Surface Current Radar) is a shore based, remote sensing system designed to measure sea surface currents in coastal waters. Two radar sites (a master and a slave) provide with radial current mea- surements; data combined from both sites yield the total current vector. Unfortunately the master and slave stations did not work together throughout the whole period of the experiment. A description of the experiment and a discussion of the results, will be proposed.

  2. Precision metrology of NSTX surfaces using coherent laser radar ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Loesser, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; Menon, M. M.; Barry, R. E.


    A frequency modulated Coherent Laser Radar ranging diagnostic is being used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for precision metrology. The distance (range) between the 1.5 microm laser source and the target is measured by the shift in frequency of the linearly modulated beam reflected off the target. The range can be measured to a precision of < 100microm at distances of up to 22 meters. A description is given of the geometry and procedure for measuring NSTX interior and exterior surfaces during open vessel conditions, and the results of measurements are elaborated

  3. Mars radar clutter and surface roughness characteristics from MARSIS data (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Whitten, Jennifer L.


    Radar sounder studies of icy, sedimentary, and volcanic settings can be affected by reflections from surface topography surrounding the sensor nadir location. These off-nadir ;clutter; returns appear at similar time delays to subsurface echoes and complicate geologic interpretation. Additionally, broadening of the radar echo in delay by surface returns sets a limit on the detectability of subsurface interfaces. We use MARSIS 4 MHz data to study variations in the nadir and off-nadir clutter echoes, from about 300 km to 1000 km altitude, R, for a wide range of surface roughness. This analysis uses a new method of characterizing ionospheric attenuation to merge observations over a range of solar zenith angle and date. Mirror-like reflections should scale as R-2, but the observed 4 MHz nadir echoes often decline by a somewhat smaller power-law factor because MARSIS on-board processing increases the number of summed pulses with altitude. Prior predictions of the contributions from clutter suggest a steeper decline with R than the nadir echoes, but in very rough areas the ratio of off-nadir returns to nadir echoes shows instead an increase of about R1/2 with altitude. This is likely due in part to an increase in backscatter from the surface as the radar incidence angle at some round-trip time delay declines with increasing R. It is possible that nadir and clutter echo properties in other planetary sounding observations, including RIME and REASON flyby data for Europa, will vary in the same way with altitude, but there may be differences in the nature and scale of target roughness (e.g., icy versus rocky surfaces). We present global maps of the ionosphere- and altitude-corrected nadir echo strength, and of a ;clutter; parameter based on the ratio of off-nadir to nadir echoes. The clutter map offers a view of surface roughness at ∼75 m length scale, bridging the spatial-scale gap between SHARAD roughness estimates and MOLA-derived parameters.

  4. Electrical properties of Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR scatterometer measurements (United States)

    Wye, Lauren C.; Zebker, Howard A.; Ostro, Steven J.; West, Richard D.; Gim, Yonggyu; Lorenz, Ralph D.; The Cassini Radar Team


    We report regional-scale low-resolution backscatter images of Titan's surface acquired by the Cassini RADAR scatterometer at a wavelength of 2.18-cm. We find that the average angular dependence of the backscatter from large regions and from specific surface features is consistent with a model composed of a quasi-specular Hagfors term plus a diffuse cosine component. A Gaussian quasi-specular term also fits the data, but less well than the Hagfors term. We derive values for the mean dielectric constant and root-mean-square (rms) slope of the surface from the quasi-specular term, which we ascribe to scattering from the surface interface only. The diffuse term accommodates contributions from volume scattering, multiple scattering, or wavelength-scale near-surface structure. The Hagfors model results imply a surface with regional mean dielectric constants between 1.9 and 3.6 and regional surface roughness that varies between 5.3° and 13.4° in rms-slope. Dielectric constants between 2 and 3 are expected for a surface composed of solid simple hydrocarbons, water ice, or a mixture of both. Smaller dielectric constants, between 1.6 and 1.9, are consistent with liquid hydrocarbons, while larger dielectric constants, near 4.5, may indicate the presence of water-ammonia ice [Lorenz, R.D., 1998. Icarus 136, 344-348] or organic heteropolymers [Thompson, W.R., Squyres, S.W., 1990. Icarus 86, 336-354]. We present backscatter images corrected for angular effects using the model residuals, which show strong features that correspond roughly to those in 0.94-μm ISS images. We model the localized backscatter from specific features to estimate dielectric constant and rms slope when the angular coverage is within the quasi-specular part of the backscatter curve. Only two apparent surface features are scanned with angular coverage sufficient for accurate modeling. Data from the bright albedo feature Quivira suggests a dielectric constant near 2.8 and rms slope near 10.1°. The dark

  5. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented...

  6. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  7. Using of standard marine radar for determination of a water surface and an atmosphere near-surface layer parameters (United States)

    Bogatov, Nikolay A.; Bakhanov, Victor V.; Ermoshkin, Aleksei V.; Kazakov, Vasily I.; Kemarskaya, Olga N.; Titov, Victor I.; Troitskaya, Yulia I.


    At present time radar methods of the seas and oceans diagnostics are actively developing. Using of the radar stations based on satellites and planes allows to receive information on a sea surface and a atmosphere near-surface layer with coverage of big water surface areas independently of day time. The developed methods of satellite radio images processing can be applied to marine radar stations. In Institute of Applied Physics RAS works on sea surface diagnostics systems development on the basis of standard marine radar are actively conducted. Despite smaller coverage of the territory in comparison with satellite data, marine radar have possibility to record spatially temporary radar images and to receive information on a surrounding situation quickly. This work deals with results of the researches which were conducted within the international expedition in the Atlantic Ocean in the autumn of 2012 on a route Rotterdam (Netherlands) - Ushuaya (Argentina) - Antarctica — Ushuaya. During this expedition a complex measurements of a sea surface, a atmosphere near-surface layer parameters and subsurface currents in the wide range of hydroweather conditions, including the storm were carried out. The system developed in IAP RAS on the basis of a marine radar ICOM MR-1200RII and the ADC (Analog Digital Converter) block for data recording on the personal computer was used. Display of a non-uniform near-surface current on sea surface radar images in storm conditions is shown. By means of the high-speed anemometer and meteorological station the measurements of the atmosphere parameters were carried out. Comparison of the anemometer data with calculated from radar images is carried out. Dependence of radar cross section from wind speed in the wide range of wind speeds, including storm conditions is investigated. Possibility of marine radar using for surface waves intensity and ice situation estimates also as icebergs detection is shown.

  8. Effects of two surface finishes on the color of cemented and colored anatomic-contour zirconia crowns. (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Fang; Feng, Sheng-Wei; Lu, Yi-Jie; Wu, Hsin-Jui; Peng, Pei-Wen


    The esthetic appearance of anatomic-contour zirconia restorations is influenced by the shade of the coloring liquid and the optical properties of the luting cements. However, few studies are available on the effects of surface-finishing methods and luting cements on colored anatomic-contour zirconia restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of surface finishing methods on the color distribution of colored anatomic-contour zirconia crowns before and after being cemented onto abutments. Implant-supported anatomic-contour zirconia premolar crowns were fabricated and immersed in A3-coloring liquid for 30 seconds. The colored zirconia crowns were separated into 3 groups according to the method of surface treatment: no treatment (N), polishing (P), and glazing (G). The zirconia crowns without coloring liquid application served as the control group. CIELab color coordinates were obtained, and color differences (ΔE) between shaded crowns were calculated with a spectrophotometer. The color stability of the crown before and after cement application was also investigated. Before cement application, the mean color difference between groups N and P was 2.85 ΔE units, whereas the mean ΔE value between groups N and G was 3.27. Mean ΔE values with and without cement application among groups ranged from 2.75 to 3.45 ΔE units. The color appearance of the colored zirconia crowns was strongly influenced by the surface-finishing methods and luting cement application. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pose Estimation using a Hierarchical 3D Representation of Contours and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders Glent; Kraft, Dirk; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian


    descriptor of the contour and texture features to provide a sparse, yet descriptive object representation. Using our descriptors, we do a search in the correspondence space to perform outlier removal and compute the object pose. We perform an extensive evaluation of our approach with stereo images...

  10. Experimental study of dual polarized radar return from the sea surface (United States)

    Ermakov, S. A.; Kapustin, I. A.; Lavrova, O. Yu.; Molkov, A. A.; Sergievskaya, I. A.; Shomina, O. V.


    Dual-polarized microwave radars are of particular interest nowadays as perspective tool of ocean remote sensing. Microwave radar backscattering at moderate and large incidence angles according to conventional models is determined by resonance (Bragg) surface waves typically of cm-scale wavelength range. Some recent experiments have indicated, however, that an additional, non Bragg component (NBC) contributes to the radar return. The latter is considered to occur due to wave breaking. At present our understanding of the nature of different components of radar return is still poor. This paper presents results of field experiment using an X-/C-/S-band Doppler radar operating at HH- and VVpolarizations. The intensity and radar Doppler shifts for Bragg and non Bragg components are retrieved from measurements of VV and HH radar returns. Analysis of a ratio of VV and HH radar backscatter - polarization ratio (PR) has demonstrated a significant role of a non Bragg component. NBC contributes significantly to the total radar backscatter, in particular, at moderate incidence angles (about 50-70 deg.) it is 2-3 times smaller than VV Bragg component and several times larger that HH Bragg component. Both NBC and BC depend on azimuth angle, being minimal for cross wind direction, but NBC is more isotropic than BC. It is obtained that velocities of scatterers retrieved from radar Doppler shifts are different for Bragg waves and for non Bragg component; NBC structures are "faster" than Bragg waves particularly for upwind radar observations. Bragg components propagate approximately with phase velocities of linear gravity-capillary waves (when accounting for wind drift). Velocities of NBC scatterers depend on radar band, being the largest for S-band and the smallest at X-band, this means that different structures on the water surface are responsible for non Bragg scattering in a given radar band.

  11. HF Radar Bistatic Measurement of Surface Current Velocities: Drifter Comparisons and Radar Consistency Checks


    Lipa, Belinda; Whelan, Chad; Rector, Bill; Nyden, Bruce


    We describe the operation of a bistatic HF radar network and outline analysis methods for the derivation of the elliptical velocity components from the radar echo spectra. Bistatic operation is illustrated by application to a bistatic pair: Both remote systems receive backscattered echo, with one remote system in addition receiving bistatic echoes transmitted by the other. The pair produces elliptical velocity components in addition to two sets of radials. Results are compared with drifter me...

  12. Contour propagation for lung tumor delineation in 4D-CT using tensor-product surface of uniform and non-uniform closed cubic B-splines (United States)

    Jin, Renchao; Liu, Yongchuan; Chen, Mi; Zhang, Sheng; Song, Enmin


    A robust contour propagation method is proposed to help physicians delineate lung tumors on all phase images of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) by only manually delineating the contours on a reference phase. The proposed method models the trajectory surface swept by a contour in a respiratory cycle as a tensor-product surface of two closed cubic B-spline curves: a non-uniform B-spline curve which models the contour and a uniform B-spline curve which models the trajectory of a point on the contour. The surface is treated as a deformable entity, and is optimized from an initial surface by moving its control vertices such that the sum of the intensity similarities between the sampling points on the manually delineated contour and their corresponding ones on different phases is maximized. The initial surface is constructed by fitting the manually delineated contour on the reference phase with a closed B-spline curve. In this way, the proposed method can focus the registration on the contour instead of the entire image to prevent the deformation of the contour from being smoothed by its surrounding tissues, and greatly reduce the time consumption while keeping the accuracy of the contour propagation as well as the temporal consistency of the estimated respiratory motions across all phases in 4D-CT. Eighteen 4D-CT cases with 235 gross tumor volume (GTV) contours on the maximal inhale phase and 209 GTV contours on the maximal exhale phase are manually delineated slice by slice. The maximal inhale phase is used as the reference phase, which provides the initial contours. On the maximal exhale phase, the Jaccard similarity coefficient between the propagated GTV and the manually delineated GTV is 0.881 +/- 0.026, and the Hausdorff distance is 3.07 +/- 1.08 mm. The time for propagating the GTV to all phases is 5.55 +/- 6.21 min. The results are better than those of the fast adaptive stochastic gradient descent B-spline method, the 3D  +  t B

  13. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup


    Weather radar data used for urban drainage applications are traditionally adjusted to point ground references, e.g., rain gauges. However, the available rain gauge density for the adjustment is often low, which may lead to significant representativeness errors. Yet, in many urban catchments......, rainfall is often measured indirectly through runoff sensors. This paper presents a method for weather radar adjustment on the basis of runoff observations (Z-Q adjustment) as an alternative to the traditional Z-R adjustment on the basis of rain gauges. Data from a new monitoring station in Aalborg......, Denmark, were used to evaluate the flow-based weather radar adjustment method against the traditional rain-gauge adjustment. The evaluation was performed by comparing radar-modeled runoff to observed runoff. The methodology was both tested on an events basis and multiple events combined. The results...

  14. Directional Properties of Surface Waves Observed With HF Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wyatt, Lucy


    The goal of the work at Sheffield is to demonstrate that wave measurements obtained using HF radars are of sufficient accuracy and availability for them to contribute to the investigation of changes...

  15. X-Band high range resolution radar measurements of sea surface forward scatter at low grazing angles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, JC


    Full Text Available Radar measurements of a radar calibration sphere test target suspended in sea surface multipath propagation conditions are reported. Wideband measurements together with high range resolution (HRR) processing were employed to resolve the direct...

  16. Calibration and Validation of High Frequency Radar for Ocean Surface Current Mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Kyung


    High Frequency (HF) radar backscatter instruments are being developed and tested in the marine science and defense science communities for their abilities to sense surface parameters remotely in the coastal ocean over large areas...

  17. An Investigation of Surface Current Patterns Related to Upwelling in Monterey Bay, Using High Frequency Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enriquez, Andres


    High Frequency (HF) radar backscatter instruments are under development and testing in the marine science and defense science communities for their abilities to remotely sense surface parameters in the coastal ocean over large areas...

  18. Quantitative roughness characterization of geological surfaces and implications for radar signature analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang


    Stochastic surface models are useful for analyzing in situ roughness profiles and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of geological terrain. In this paper, two different surface models are discussed: surfaces with a stationary random roughness (conventional model) and surfaces with a power...

  19. The average impulse response of a rough surface and its applications. [in radar altimetry (United States)

    Brown, G. S.


    This paper is concerned with the theoretical model for short pulse scattering from a statistically random planar surface with particular application to current state of the art radar altimetry. A short review of the assumptions inherent in the convolutional model is presented. Simplified expressions are obtained for both the impulse response and the average backscattered power for near normal incidence under the assumptions common to satellite radar altimetry systems. In particular, it is shown that the conventional two-dimensional surface integration can be reduced to a closed form solution. Two applications of these results are presented relative to radar altimetry, namely, radar antenna pointing angle determination and altitude bias correction for pointing angle and surface roughness effects. It is also shown that these results have direct application to the analysis of the two frequency system proposed by Weissman, and a possible combined long pulse altimeter and two frequency system is suggested.

  20. Surface properties in West Africa from spaceborne radars in C and Ku bands (United States)

    Fatras, Christophe; Frappart, Frédéric; Mougin, Eric; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Faye, Gayane; Jarlan, Lionel


    We propose to compare the backscattering responses of land surfaces in West Africa for different radar spaceborne sensors: the nadir-looking radar altimeters and the side-looking radar scatterometers at different frequencies (Ku and C bands). The data used come from Envisat-RA2 measurements in Ku-band over the period 2003-2010 and the Jason-2 measurements in C band over mid-2008-2011 for radar altimetry, and from QuikSCAT - SeaWinds in Ku-band and Metop - ASCAT in C-band for radar scatterometry over the same time-spans. Along-track profiles and their temporal variations are analyzed and their behaviours are related to surfaces properties such as soil types, vegetation cover, and surface hydrology. Temporal variations of backscattering coefficients are extracted for main land covers along the bio-climatic transect (stone and sand deserts, saharo-sahelian, sahelian, and soudano-sahelian savannahs, tropical-seasonal and tropical forests) and compared to both rainfall estimates from TRMM and vegetation activity (NDVI) from MODIS. Range of variations of the backscattering signals are given for different surfaces and ecosystems along with delays between peaks of rainfall, backscattering responses of radar altimetry and scatterometry, and vegetation activity. The stability of the backscattering is also estimated over deserts and during the dry season over Sahelian environments. Finally, the complementarity of the different spaceborne sensors for continental surfaces monitoring is pointed out.

  1. Radar Measurements of Ocean Surface Waves using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (United States)


    standing any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply w~ a collection of information if it does not a...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT u u u uu 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 21 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Erin E. Hackett 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area...az1mut Radar fc A/ Resolution Radar PRF Rotation Polarization Footprint Rate System (GHz) (MHz) (m) (Hz) (m) (RPM) DREAM 9.30 500 w 0.30 615 800

  2. Accuracy of three-dimensional glacier surface volocities derived from radar interfeometry and ice-soundin radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Reeh, Niels; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    sources considered include phase noise, atmospheric distortions, baseline calibration errors, a dry snow layer, and the stationary-flow assumption used in differential interferometry. The additional error sources in the analysis of FD errors are noise, bias and unknown variations of the ice thickness...... dataset with ascending- and descending-orbit data covering Storstrommen glacier, northeast Greenland, are assessed. The FD error assessment is carried out on airborne 60 MHz ice-sounding radar data from the same area. A simple model of an interferometric radar system is developed and analyzed. The error......, and approximations of the ice-flow model. The example glacier is now building up following a surge. The analysis shows that in the case study presented the errors are small enough to justify the use of both the estimated surface-parallel flow term of the vertical velocity and the estimated FD term of the vertical...

  3. Three dimensional mathematical modeling of violin plate surfaces: An approach based on an ensemble of contour lines. (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven


    This paper presents an approach to describing the three dimensional shape of a violin plate in mathematical form. The shape description begins with standard contour lines and ends with an equation for a surface in three dimensional space. The traditional specification of cross sectional arching is unnecessary. Advantages of this approach are that it employs simple and universal description of plate geometry and yields a complete, smoothed, precise mathematical equation of the plate that is suitable for modern three dimensional production. It is quite general and suitable for both exterior and interior plate surfaces, yielding the ability to control thicknesses along with shape. This method can produce mathematical descriptions with tolerances easily less than 0.001 millimeters suitable for modern computerized numerical control carving and hand finishing.

  4. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe


    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  5. Radar signal pre-processing to suppress surface bounce and multipath (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W; Mast, Jeffrey E; Beer, N. Reginald


    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes that return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  6. Integrating Radar, Multispectral, and Landing Site Data for Analysis of the Lunar Surface (United States)

    Campbell, B. A.; Campbell, D. B.; Thompson, T. W.; Hawke, B. R.


    Radar maps of the Moon have been produced since the late 1960s, and have been used by a number of authors to study the surface roughness, subsurface rock abundance, and dielectric properties of the lunar surface. These studies focused on a range of topics, including the depth and rock population of the regolith, crater ejecta blankets, pyroclastic mantling layers, and cryptomare deposits. Limited radar sounding data from the Apollo missions identified layering in some regions of the maria. As radar datasets have improved in resolution and calibration, it has become more possible to make quantitative comparisons between the backscatter properties of the Moon, other remote-sensing observations, and the ground truth provided by Surveyor photos and Apollo traverses. This presentation will focus on the results of recent studies of the lunar regolith that make use of these diverse sources of information, and discuss research directions that will be possible with radar data to be collected in the near future.

  7. Near-surface bulk densities of asteroids derived from dual-polarization radar observations (United States)

    Virkki, A.; Taylor, P. A.; Zambrano-Marin, L. F.; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Lejoly, C.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Aponte, B. A.


    We present a new method to constrain the near-surface bulk density and surface roughness of regolith on asteroid surfaces using planetary radar measurements. The number of radar observations has increased rapidly during the last five years, allowing us to compare and contrast the radar scattering properties of different small-body populations and compositional types. This provides us with new opportunities to investigate their near-surface physical properties such as the chemical composition, bulk density, porosity, or the structural roughness in the scale of centimeters to meters. Because the radar signal can penetrate into a planetary surface up to a few decimeters, radar can reveal information that is hidden from other ground-based methods, such as optical and infrared measurements. The near-surface structure of asteroids and comets in centimeter-to-meter scale is essential information for robotic and human space missions, impact threat mitigation, and understanding the history of these bodies as well as the formation of the whole Solar System.

  8. Application of MIMO Techniques in sky-surface wave hybrid networking sea-state radar system (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Wu, X.; Yue, X.; Liu, J.; Li, C.


    The sky-surface wave hybrid networking sea-state radar system contains of the sky wave transmission stations at different sites and several surface wave radar stations. The subject comes from the national 863 High-tech Project of China. The hybrid sky-surface wave system and the HF surface wave system work simultaneously and the HF surface wave radar (HFSWR) can work in multi-static and surface-wave networking mode. Compared with the single mode radar system, this system has advantages of better detection performance at the far ranges in ocean dynamics parameters inversion. We have applied multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) techniques in this sea-state radar system. Based on the multiple channel and non-causal transmit beam-forming techniques, the MIMO radar architecture can reduce the size of the receiving antennas and simplify antenna installation. Besides, by efficiently utilizing the system's available degrees of freedom, it can provide a feasible approach for mitigating multipath effect and Doppler-spread clutter in Over-the-horizon Radar. In this radar, slow-time phase-coded MIMO method is used. The transmitting waveforms are phase-coded in slow-time so as to be orthogonal after Doppler processing at the receiver. So the MIMO method can be easily implemented without the need to modify the receiver hardware. After the radar system design, the MIMO experiments of this system have been completed by Wuhan University during 2015 and 2016. The experiment used Wuhan multi-channel ionospheric sounding system(WMISS) as sky-wave transmitting source and three dual-frequency HFSWR developed by the Oceanography Laboratory of Wuhan University. The transmitter system located at Chongyang with five element linear equi-spaced antenna array and Wuhan with one log-periodic antenna. The RF signals are generated by synchronized, but independent digital waveform generators - providing complete flexibility in element phase and amplitude control, and waveform type and parameters

  9. Study on the Detectability of the Sky-Surface Wave Hybrid Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Chengyu


    Full Text Available Working in the HF (high-frequency band and the transmitter and receiver locating separately, the sky-surface wave hybrid radar both has the capabilities of the OTHR (over-the-horizon radar and the advantage of the bistatic radar. As the electromagnetic wave will be disturbed by the ionosphere, interfered by the sea clutter and attenuated by the sea surface, the detectability of this radar system is more complex. So, in this paper, we will discuss the problem detailedly. First of all, the radar equation is deduced based on the propagation of the electromagnetic wave. Then, how to calculate the effect of the ionosphere and the propagation loss is discussed. And an example based on the radar equation is given. At last, the ambiguity function is used to analyze the range and velocity resolution. From the result, we find that the resolution has relation with the location of the target and the height of reflection point of the ionosphere. But compared with the location, the effect of the ionospheric height can be ignored.

  10. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Radar Ice Sounding Surface Clutter Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen


    Ice sounding radars are able to measure ice sheets by profiling their glaciological features from the surface to the bedrock. The current airborne and, in particular, future space-based systems are suffering from off-nadir surface clutter, which can mask the depth signal of interest. The most...

  11. A New Empirical Model for Radar Scattering from Bare Soil Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Baghdadi


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a new semi-empirical radar backscattering model for bare soil surfaces based on the Dubois model. A wide dataset of backscattering coefficients extracted from synthetic aperture radar (SAR images and in situ soil surface parameter measurements (moisture content and roughness is used. The retrieval of soil parameters from SAR images remains challenging because the available backscattering models have limited performances. Existing models, physical, semi-empirical, or empirical, do not allow for a reliable estimate of soil surface geophysical parameters for all surface conditions. The proposed model, developed in HH, HV, and VV polarizations, uses a formulation of radar signals based on physical principles that are validated in numerous studies. Never before has a backscattering model been built and validated on such an important dataset as the one proposed in this study. It contains a wide range of incidence angles (18°–57° and radar wavelengths (L, C, X, well distributed, geographically, for regions with different climate conditions (humid, semi-arid, and arid sites, and involving many SAR sensors. The results show that the new model shows a very good performance for different radar wavelengths (L, C, X, incidence angles, and polarizations (RMSE of about 2 dB. This model is easy to invert and could provide a way to improve the retrieval of soil parameters.

  12. GEOS-3 ocean current investigation using radar altimeter profiling. [Gulf Stream surface topography (United States)

    Leitao, C. D.; Huang, N. E.; Parra, C. G.


    Both quasi-stationary and dynamic departures from the marine geoid were successfully detected using altitude measurements from the GEOS-3 radar altimeter. The quasi-stationary departures are observed either as elevation changes in single pass profiles across the Gulf Stream or at the crowding of contour lines at the western and northern areas of topographic maps generated using altimeter data spanning one month or longer. Dynamic features such as current meandering and spawned eddies can be monitored by comparing monthly mean maps. Comparison of altimeter inferred eddies with IR detected thermal rings indicates agreement of the two techniques. Estimates of current velocity are made using derived slope estimates in conjunction with the geostrophic equation.

  13. Frequency-Selective Surface to Prevent Interference Between Radar and SATCOM Antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monni, S.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Nennie, F.; Tijhuis, A.


    Interference between neighboring antennas operating in nearby frequency ranges can lead to damage of the front-end electronics. This letter presents the design of a frequency-selective surface (FSS) aimed at preventing the saturation of the low noise amplifiers of a phased-array radar antenna due to

  14. The ISMAR high frequency coastal radar network: Monitoring surface currents for management of marine resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier


    The Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) established a High Frequency (HF) Coastal Radar Network for the measurement of the velocity of surface currents in coastal seas. The network consists of four HF radar systems located on the coast of the Gargano...... Promontory (Southern Adriatic, Italy). The network has been operational since May 2013 and covers an area of approximately 1700 square kilometers in the Gulf of Manfredonia. Quality Assessment (QA) procedures are applied for the systems deployment and maintenance and Quality Control (QC) procedures...

  15. Remote Sensing of Surface Soil Moisture using Semi-Concurrent Radar and Radiometer Observations (United States)

    Li, L.; Ouellette, J. D.; Colliander, A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Walker, J. P.


    Radar backscatter and radiometer brightness temperature both have well-documented sensitivity to surface soil moisture, particularly in the microwave regime. While radiometer-derived soil moisture retrievals have been shown to be stable and accurate, they are only available at coarse spatial resolutions on the order of tens of kilometers. Backscatter from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is similarly sensitive to soil moisture but can yield higher spatial resolutions, with pixel sizes about an order of magnitude smaller. Soil moisture retrieval from radar backscatter is more difficult, however, due to the combined sensitivity of radar scattering to surface roughness, vegetation structure, and soil moisture. The algorithm uses a time-series of SAR data to retrieval soil moisture information, constraining the SAR-derived soil moisture estimates with radiometer observations. This effectively combines the high spatial resolution offered by SAR with the precision offered by passive radiometry. The algorithm is a change detection approach which maps changes in the radar backscatter to changes in surface soil moisture. This new algorithm differs from existing retrieval techniques in that it does not require ancillary vegetation information, but assumes vegetation and surface roughness are stable between pairs of consecutive radar overpasses. Furthermore, this method does not require a radar scattering model for the vegetation canopy, nor the use of a training data set. The algorithm works over a long time series, and is constrained by hard bounds which are defined using a coarse-resolution radiometer soil moisture product. The presentation will include soil moisture retrievals from Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) SAR data. Two sets of optimization bounds will constrain the radar change detection algorithm: one defined by SMAP radiometer retrievals and one defined by WindSat radiometer retrievals. Retrieved soil moisture values will be presented on a world map and will

  16. Surface Clutter Removal in Airborne Radar Sounding Data from the Dry Valleys, Antarctica (United States)

    Holt, J. W.; Blankenship, D. D.; Morse, D. L.; Peters, M. E.; Kempf, S. D.


    We have collected roughly 1,000 line-km of airborne radar sounding data over glaciers, rock/ice glaciers, permafrost, subsurface ice bodies, ice-covered saline lakes, and glacial deposits in Taylor and Beacon Valley. These data are being analyzed in order to develop techniques for discriminating between subsurface and off-nadir echoes and for detecting and characterizing subsurface interfaces. The identification of features on Mars exhibiting morphologies consistent with ice/rock mixtures, near-surface ice bodies and near-surface liquid water, and the importance of such features to the search for water on Mars, highlights the need for appropriate terrestrial analogs and analysis techniques in order to prepare for radar sounder missions to Mars. Climatic, hydrological, and geological conditions in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica are analogous in many ways to those on Mars. A crucial first step in the data analysis process is the discrimination of echo sources in the radar data. The goal is to identify all returns from the surface of off-nadir topography in order to positively identify subsurface echoes. This process will also be critical for radar data that will be collected in areas of Mars exhibiting significant topography, so that subsurface echoes are identified unambiguously. The positive detection and characterization of subsurface (including sub-ice) water is a primary goal of NASA's Mars exploration program. Our data over the Dry Valleys provides an opportunity to implement techniques we are developing to accomplish these goals.

  17. Correction of Sampling Errors in Ocean Surface Cross-Sectional Estimates from Nadir-Looking Weather Radar (United States)

    Caylor, I. Jeff; Meneghini, R.; Miller, L. S.; Heymsfield, G. M.


    The return from the ocean surface has a number of uses for airborne meteorological radar. The normalized surface cross section has been used for radar system calibration, estimation of surface winds, and in algorithms for estimating the path-integrated attenuation in rain. However, meteorological radars are normally optimized for observation of distributed targets that fill the resolution volume, and so a point target such as the surface can be poorly sampled, particularly at near-nadir look angles. Sampling the nadir surface return at an insufficient rate results in a negative bias of the estimated cross section. This error is found to be as large as 4 dB using observations from a high-altitude airborne radar. An algorithm for mitigating the error is developed that is based upon the shape of the surface echo and uses the returned signal at the three range gates nearest the peak surface echo.

  18. Bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick


    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  19. The Influence of Wind on HF Radar Surface Current Forecasts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Almeida, Francisco M


    The ability to predict surface currents can have a beneficial impact in several activities, such as Search and Rescue and Oil Spill Response, as well as others more purely scientific, operational or economic...

  20. Backtracking drifting objects using surface currents from high-frequency (HF) radar technology (United States)

    Abascal, Ana Julia; Castanedo, Sonia; Fernández, Vicente; Medina, Raúl


    In this work, the benefits of high-frequency (HF) radar ocean observation technology for backtracking drifting objects are analysed. The HF radar performance is evaluated by comparison of trajectories between drifter buoys versus numerical simulations using a Lagrangian trajectory model. High-resolution currents measured by a coastal HF radar network combined with atmospheric fields provided by numerical models are used to backtrack the trajectory of two dataset of surface-drifting buoys: group I (with drogue) and group II (without drogue). A methodology based on optimization methods is applied to estimate the uncertainty in the trajectory simulations and to optimize the search area of the backtracked positions. The results show that, to backtrack the trajectory of the buoys in group II, both currents and wind fields were required. However, wind fields could be practically discarded when simulating the trajectories of group I. In this case, the optimal backtracked trajectories were obtained using only HF radar currents as forcing. Based on the radar availability data, two periods ranging between 8 and 10 h were selected to backtrack the buoy trajectories. The root mean squared error (RMSE) was found to be 1.01 km for group I and 0.82 km for group II. Taking into account these values, a search area was calculated using circles of RMSE radii, obtaining 3.2 and 2.11 km2 for groups I and II, respectively. These results show the positive contribution of HF radar currents for backtracking drifting objects and demonstrate that these data combined with atmospheric models are of value to perform backtracking analysis of drifting objects.

  1. Observation of Zenneck-Like Waves over a Metasurface Designed for Launching HF Radar Surface Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Jangal


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century a controversy has been continuously revived about the existence of the Zenneck Wave. This wave is a theoretical solution of Maxwell’s equations and might be propagated along the interface between the air and a dielectric medium. The expected weak attenuation at large distance explains the constant interest for this wave. Notably in the High Frequency band such a wave had been thought as a key point to reduce the high attenuation observed in High Frequency Surface Wave Radar. Despite many works on that topic and various experiments attempted during one century, there is still an alternation of statements between its existence and its nonexistence. We report here an experiment done during the optimisation of the transmitting antennas for Surface Wave Radars. Using an infrared method, we visualize a wave having the structure described by Zenneck above a metasurface located on a dielectric slab.

  2. First Order Sea Clutter Cross Section for HF Hybrid Sky-Surface Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.P. Zhu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified method to simulate the first order sea clutter cross section for high frequency (HF hybrid sky-surface wave radar, based on the existent model applied in the bistatic HF surface wave radar. The modification focuses on the derivation of Bragg scattering frequency and the ionosphere dispersive impact on the clutter resolution cell. Meanwhile, an analytic expression to calculate the dispersive transfer function is derived on condition that the ionosphere is spherical stratified. Simulation results explicate the variance of the cross section after taking account of the influence triggered by the actual clutter resolution cell, and the spectral width of the first order sea clutter is defined so as to compare the difference. Eventually, experiment results are present to verify the rationality and validity of the proposed method.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Andersen, Søren; Pedersen, Leif Toudal


    A radiative transfer model is used to simulate the sea ice radar altimeter effective scattering surface variability as a function of snow depth and density. Under dry snow conditions without layering these are the primary snow parameters affecting the scattering surface variability. The model...... is initialised with in situ data collected during the May 2004 GreenIce ice camp in the Lincoln Sea (73ºW; 85ºN). Our results show that the snow cover is important for the effective scattering surface depth in sea ice and thus for the range measurement, ice freeboard and ice thickness estimation....

  4. Analysis of Surface Patterns over Cobb Seamount Using Synthetic-Aperture Radar Imagery. (United States)


    McCandless and Mrazek, 1982). The alteration of surface wave patterns in the vicinity of deep water features has been reported by Robinson (1985), but the...getting lost in the large array of data and options: Jerome Williams and Samuel McCandless . Finally, I would also like to thank the person who has...Radar. JPL Publication 81-120. 1982. Garrett, Christopher , and Walter Munk. "Internal Waves in the Ocean". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 1979

  5. Bistatic High Frequency Radar Ocean Surface Cross Section for an FMCW Source with an Antenna on a Floating Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ma


    Full Text Available The first- and second-order bistatic high frequency radar cross sections of the ocean surface with an antenna on a floating platform are derived for a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW source. Based on previous work, the derivation begins with the general bistatic electric field in the frequency domain for the case of a floating antenna. Demodulation and range transformation are used to obtain the range information, distinguishing the process from that used for a pulsed radar. After Fourier-transforming the autocorrelation and comparing the result with the radar range equation, the radar cross sections are derived. The new first- and second-order antenna-motion-incorporated bistatic radar cross section models for an FMCW source are simulated and compared with those for a pulsed source. Results show that, for the same radar operating parameters, the first-order radar cross section for the FMCW waveform is a little lower than that for a pulsed source. The second-order radar cross section for the FMCW waveform reduces to that for the pulsed waveform when the scattering patch limit approaches infinity. The effect of platform motion on the radar cross sections for an FMCW waveform is investigated for a variety of sea states and operating frequencies and, in general, is found to be similar to that for a pulsed waveform.

  6. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the Sentinel-1 satellites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of high resolution sea surface winds data produced from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on board Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites. This...

  7. A contour integral representation for the dual five-point function and a symmetry of the genus-4 surface in R6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Andrew J; Sha Jiping


    The invention of the 'dual resonance model' N-point functions B N motivated the development of current string theory. The simplest of these models, the four-point function B 4 , is the classical Euler Beta function. Many standard methods of complex analysis in a single variable have been applied to elucidate the properties of the Euler Beta function, leading, for example, to analytic continuation formulae such as the contour-integral representation obtained by Pochhammer in 1890. However, the precise features of the expected multiple-complex-variable generalizations to B N have not been systematically studied. Here we explore the geometry underlying the dual five-point function B 5 , the simplest generalization of the Euler Beta function. The original integrand defining B 5 leads to a polyhedral structure for the five-crosscap surface, embedded in RP 5 , that has 12 pentagonal faces and a symmetry group of order 120 in PGL(6). We find a Pochhammer-like representation for B 5 that is a contour integral along a surface of genus 5 in CP 2 x 4(CP 2 )-bar. The symmetric embedding of the five-crosscap surface in RP 5 is doubly covered by a corresponding symmetric embedding of the surface of genus 4 in S 5 is contained in R 6 that has a polyhedral structure with 24 pentagonal faces and a symmetry group of order 240 in O(6). These symmetries enable the construction of elegant visualizations of these surfaces. The key idea of this paper is to realize that the compactification of the set of five-point cross-ratios forms a smooth real algebraic subvariety that is the five-crosscap surface in RP 5 . It is in the complexification of this surface that we construct the contour integral representation for B 5 . Our methods are generalizable in principle to higher dimensions, and therefore should be of interest for further study

  8. UCAV path planning in the presence of radar-guided surface-to-air missile threats (United States)

    Zeitz, Frederick H., III

    This dissertation addresses the problem of path planning for unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) in the presence of radar-guided surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). The radars, collocated with SAM launch sites, operate within the structure of an Integrated Air Defense System (IADS) that permits communication and cooperation between individual radars. The problem is formulated in the framework of the interaction between three sub-systems: the aircraft, the IADS, and the missile. The main features of this integrated model are: The aircraft radar cross section (RCS) depends explicitly on both the aspect and bank angles; hence, the RCS and aircraft dynamics are coupled. The probabilistic nature of IADS tracking is accounted for; namely, the probability that the aircraft has been continuously tracked by the IADS depends on the aircraft RCS and range from the perspective of each radar within the IADS. Finally, the requirement to maintain tracking prior to missile launch and during missile flyout are also modeled. Based on this model, the problem of UCAV path planning is formulated as a minimax optimal control problem, with the aircraft bank angle serving as control. Necessary conditions of optimality for this minimax problem are derived. Based on these necessary conditions, properties of the optimal paths are derived. These properties are used to discretize the dynamic optimization problem into a finite-dimensional, nonlinear programming problem that can be solved numerically. Properties of the optimal paths are also used to initialize the numerical procedure. A homotopy method is proposed to solve the finite-dimensional, nonlinear programming problem, and a heuristic method is proposed to improve the discretization during the homotopy process. Based upon the properties of numerical solutions, a method is proposed for parameterizing and storing information for later recall in flight to permit rapid replanning in response to changing threats. Illustrative examples are

  9. Characterizing the surface circulation in the Ebro Delta using a HF radar data-model approach (United States)

    Lorente Jimenez, Pablo; Piedracoba Varela, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Garcia-Sotillo, Marcos; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique


    One year-long (2014) quality-controlled current observations from a CODAR SeaSonde High Frequency (HF) radar network deployed in the Ebro Delta (northwestern Mediterranean) were combined with operational products provided by a regional ocean forecasting system named IBI (Iberia-Biscay-Ireland) in order to comprehensively portray the ocean state and its variability. First, accurate HF radar data were used as benchmark for the rigorous validation of IBI performance by means of the computation of skill metrics and quality indicators. The analysis of the monthly averaged current maps for 2014 showed that IBI properly captured the prevailing dynamic features of the coastal circulation observed by the HF radar, according to the resemblance of circulation patterns and the eddy kinetic energy spatial distribution. The model skill assessment was completed with an exploration of dominant modes of variability both in time and space. The EOF analysis confirmed that the modeled surface current field evolved in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability which accounted for the 49.2% of the total variance, in close agreement with the results obtained for the HF radar (46.1%). The response of the subtidal surface current field to prevalent wind regimes in the study area was examined in terms of induced circulation structures by performing a conditional averaging approach. This data-model synergistic approach has proved to be valid to operationally monitor and describe the complex coastal circulation in Ebro Delta despite the observed model drawbacks in terms of reduced energy content in surface currents and some inaccuracies in the wind-driven low frequency response. This integrated methodology constitutes a powerful tool for improving operational ocean forecasting systems at European level within the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). It also facilitates high-stakes decision-making for coastal management and

  10. The use of radar and visual observations to characterize the surface structure of the planet Mercury (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Kobrick, M.; Jurgens, R. F.


    An analysis is conducted of available topographic profiles and scattering parameters derived from earth-based S- and X-band radar observations of Mercury, in order to determine the nature and origin of regional surface variations and structures that are typical of the planet. Attention is given to the proposal that intercrater plains on Mercury formed from extensive volcanic flooding during bombardment, so that most craters were formed on a partially molten surface and were thus obliterated, together with previously formed tectonic features.

  11. The effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana Anasane


    Full Text Available Background : Denture fracture is an unresolved problem in complete denture prosthodontics. However, the repaired denture often experiences a refracture at the repaired site due to poor transverse strength. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of joint surface contours and glass fiber reinforcement on the transverse strength of repaired acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 specimens of heat polymerized polymethyl methacrylate resin of dimensions 64 × 10 × 2.5 mm were fabricated. Fifteen intact specimens served as the control and 120 test specimens were divided into four groups (30 specimens each, depending upon the joint surface contour (butt, bevel, rabbet and round, with two subgroups based on type of the repair. Half of the specimens were repaired with plain repair resin and the other half with glass fibers reinforced repair resin. Transverse strength of the specimens was determined using three-point bending test. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test (α= 0.05. Results: Transverse strength values for all repaired groups were significantly lower than those for the control group ( P < 0.001 (88.77 MPa, with exception of round surface design repaired with glass fiber reinforced repair resin (89.92 MPa which was significantly superior to the other joint surface contours ( P < 0.001. Glass fiber reinforced resin significantly improved the repaired denture base resins as compared to the plain repair resin ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: Specimens repaired with glass fiber reinforced resin and round surface design exhibited highest transverse strength; hence, it can be advocated for repair of denture base resins.

  12. The derivation of sub-canopy surface terrain models of coastal forests using synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Gesch, D. B.


    Radar data acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B mission covering a portion of the Mouths of the Ganges forests were used to create a terrain model for use in determining tidal flow and eventual nutrient transport from the forest to the marine habitat. Results show that good digital topographic terrain models of wet coastal forests can be generated using multiple sets of L-band SAR and ancillary tide elevation data. The dominance of the interaction phenomenon in the radar backscatter of flooded forests can be used to create sub-canopy inundation maps which when merged with tide surface data can be used to generate reasonable topographic models. Ideally models could be improved by using multiple sets of data at a constant incidence angle over the total tide range. The optimal angle for the SAR depends upon the characteristics of the forest. The range of 46 to 57 deg seems applicable to the 12.5 m tall closed canopy in this example. Such models can be an extremely valuable tool for studying and mapping the mangal ecosystem.

  13. A Three-Dimensional View of Titan's Surface Features from Cassini RADAR Stereogrammetry (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Redding, B. L.; Becker, T. L.; Lee, E. M.; Stiles, B. W.; Hensley, S.; Hayes, A.; Lopes, R. M.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K. L.; Radebaugh, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C. A.; Wall, S. D.; Cassini RADAR Team


    As of the end of its four-year Prime Mission, Cassini has obtained 300-1500 m resolution synthetic aperture radar images of the surface of Titan during 19 flybys. The elongated image swaths overlap extensively, and ~2% of the surface has now been imaged two or more times. The majority of image pairs have different viewing directions, and thus contain stereo parallax that encodes information about Titan's surface relief over distances of ~1 km and greater. As we have previously reported, the first step toward extracting quantitative topographic information was the development of rigorous "sensor models" that allowed the stereo systems previously used at the USGS and JPL to map Venus with Magellan images to be used for Titan mapping. The second major step toward extensive topomapping of Titan has been the reprocessing of the RADAR images based on an improved model of the satellite's rotation. Whereas the original images (except for a few pairs obtained at similar orbital phase, some of which we have mapped previously) were offset by as much as 30 km, the new versions align much better. The remaining misalignments, typically carbono)logic" cycle of precipitation, evaporation, and surface and subsurface fluid flow?

  14. Measurement of Non-Linear Internal Waves and Their Interaction with Surface Waves using Coherent Real Aperture Radars (United States)


    angles, J. Geophys. Res., 81(12), 1960- 1964, 1976. Kudryavtsev ,V., D. Akimov, J. Johannessen, and B. Chapron, On radar imaging of current...the generation of internal wave microwave surface signatures include Alpers (1985), Lyzenga and Bennett (1988), Thompson, 1988, and Kudryavtsev et...1999. Kudryavtsev , V., D. Akimov, J. Johannessen, and B. Chapron, On radar imaging of current features: 1. Model and comparison with observations

  15. Simplifying Massive Contour Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski; Mølhave, Thomas


    We present a simple, efficient and practical algorithm for constructing and subsequently simplifying contour maps from massive high-resolution DEMs, under some practically realistic assumptions on the DEM and contours.......We present a simple, efficient and practical algorithm for constructing and subsequently simplifying contour maps from massive high-resolution DEMs, under some practically realistic assumptions on the DEM and contours....

  16. Effectiveness of WRF wind direction for retrieving coastal sea surface wind from synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi


    Wind direction is required as input to the geophysical model function (GMF) for the retrieval of sea surface wind speed from a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The present study verifies the effectiveness of using the wind direction obtained from the weather research and forecasting model...... directions: the meso‐analysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (MANAL), the SeaWinds microwave scatterometer on QuikSCAT and the National Center for Environmental Prediction final operational global analysis data (NCEP FNL). In comparison with the errors of the SAR‐retrieved wind speeds obtained using...

  17. Validation of HF Radar ocean surface currents in the Ibiza Channel using lagrangian drifters, moored current meter and underwater gliders (United States)

    Lana, Arancha; Fernández, Vicente; Orfila, Alejandro; Troupin, Charles; Tintoré, Joaquín


    SOCIB High Frequency (HF) radar is one component of a multi-platform system located in the Balearic Islands and made up of Lagrangian platforms (profilers and drifting buoys), fixed stations (sea-level, weather, mooring and coastal), beach monitoring (camera), gliders, a research vessel as well as an ocean forecast system (waves and hydrodynamics). The HF radar system overlooks the Ibiza Channel, known as a 'choke point" where Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses interact and where meridional exchanges of water mass properties between the Balearic and the Algerian sub-basins take place. In order to determine the reliability of surface velocity measurements in this area, a quality assessment of the HF Radar is essential. We present the results of several validation experiments performed in the Ibiza Channel in 2013 and 2014. Of particular interest is an experiment started in September 2014 when a set of 13 surface drifters with different shapes and drogue lengths were released in the area covered by the HF radar. The drifter trajectories can be examined following the SOCIB Deployment Application (DAPP): Additionally, a 1-year long time series of surface currents obtained from a moored surface current-meter located in the Ibiza Channel, inside the area covered by the HF radar, was also used as a useful complementary validation exercise. Direct comparison between both radial surface currents from each radar station and total derived velocities against drifters and moored current meter velocities provides an assessment of the HF radar data quality at different temporal periods and geographical areas. Statistics from these comparisons give good correlation and low root-mean-square deviation. The results will be discussed for different months, geographical areas and types of surface drifters and wind exposure. Moreover, autonomous underwater glider constitutes an additional source of information for the validation of the observed velocity

  18. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, Catherine D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.


    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effects of Tunable Data Compression on Geophysical Products Retrieved from Surface Radar Observations with Applications to Spaceborne Meteorological Radars (United States)

    Gabriel, Philip M.; Yeh, Penshu; Tsay, Si-Chee


    This paper presents results and analyses of applying an international space data compression standard to weather radar measurements that can easily span 8 orders of magnitude and typically require a large storage capacity as well as significant bandwidth for transmission. By varying the degree of the data compression, we analyzed the non-linear response of models that relate measured radar reflectivity and/or Doppler spectra to the moments and properties of the particle size distribution characterizing clouds and precipitation. Preliminary results for the meteorologically important phenomena of clouds and light rain indicate that for a 0.5 dB calibration uncertainty, typical for the ground-based pulsed-Doppler 94 GHz (or 3.2 mm, W-band) weather radar used as a proxy for spaceborne radar in this study, a lossless compression ratio of only 1.2 is achievable. However, further analyses of the non-linear response of various models of rainfall rate, liquid water content and median volume diameter show that a lossy data compression ratio exceeding 15 is realizable. The exploratory analyses presented are relevant to future satellite missions, where the transmission bandwidth is premium and storage requirements of vast volumes of data, potentially problematic.

  20. Using snowflake surface-area-to-volume ratio to model and interpret snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gergely


    Full Text Available The snowflake microstructure determines the microwave scattering properties of individual snowflakes and has a strong impact on snowfall radar signatures. In this study, individual snowflakes are represented by collections of randomly distributed ice spheres where the size and number of the constituent ice spheres are specified by the snowflake mass and surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV and the bounding volume of each ice sphere collection is given by the snowflake maximum dimension. Radar backscatter cross sections for the ice sphere collections are calculated at X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-band frequencies and then used to model triple-frequency radar signatures for exponential snowflake size distributions (SSDs. Additionally, snowflake complexity values obtained from high-resolution multi-view snowflake images are used as an indicator of snowflake SAV to derive snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures. The modeled snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures cover a wide range of triple-frequency signatures that were previously determined from radar reflectivity measurements and illustrate characteristic differences related to snow type, quantified through snowflake SAV, and snowflake size. The results show high sensitivity to snowflake SAV and SSD maximum size but are generally less affected by uncertainties in the parameterization of snowflake mass, indicating the importance of snowflake SAV for the interpretation of snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures.

  1. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 2 - Radar remote sensing and surface scattering and emission theory (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.


    The fundamental principles of radar backscattering measurements are presented, including measurement statistics, Doppler and pulse discrimination techniques, and associated ambiguity functions. The operation of real and synthetic aperture sidelooking airborne radar systems is described, along with the internal and external calibration techniques employed in scattering measurements. Attention is given to the physical mechanisms responsible for the scattering emission behavior of homogeneous and inhomogeneous media, through a discussion of surface roughness, dielectric properties and inhomogeneity, and penetration depth. Simple semiempirical models are presented. Theoretical models involving greater mathematical sophistication are also given for extended ocean and bare soil surfaces, and the more general case of a vegetation canopy over a rough surface.

  2. Remote Sensing Global Surface Air Pressure Using Differential Absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Harrah, Steven; Lawrence, Wes; Hu, Yongxiang; Min, Qilong


    Tropical storms and severe weathers are listed as one of core events that need improved observations and predictions in World Meteorological Organization and NASA Decadal Survey (DS) documents and have major impacts on public safety and national security. This effort tries to observe surface air pressure, especially over open seas, from space using a Differential-absorption BArometric Radar (DiBAR) operating at the 50-55 gigahertz O2 absorption band. Air pressure is among the most important variables that affect atmospheric dynamics, and currently can only be measured by limited in-situ observations over oceans. Analyses show that with the proposed space radar the errors in instantaneous (averaged) pressure estimates can be as low as approximately 4 millibars (approximately 1 millibar under all weather conditions). With these sea level pressure measurements, the forecasts of severe weathers such as hurricanes will be significantly improved. Since the development of the DiBAR concept about a decade ago, NASA Langley DiBAR research team has made substantial progress in advancing the concept. The feasibility assessment clearly shows the potential of sea surface barometry using existing radar technologies. The team has developed a DiBAR system design, fabricated a Prototype-DiBAR (P-DiBAR) for proof-of-concept, conducted lab, ground and airborne P-DiBAR tests. The flight test results are consistent with the instrumentation goals. Observational system simulation experiments for space DiBAR performance based on the existing DiBAR technology and capability show substantial improvements in tropical storm predictions, not only for the hurricane track and position but also for the hurricane intensity. DiBAR measurements will lead us to an unprecedented level of the prediction and knowledge on global extreme weather and climate conditions.

  3. A surface elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet from SARAL/AltiKa satellite radar altimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khvorostovsky, Kirill; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    Radar altimeter measurements from ERS, Envisat and Cryosat-2 ESA’s satellites have been used for study of the ice sheet elevation changes for more than two decades. The follow-on SARAL ISRO/CNES mission with the radar altimeter AltiKa on board was launched in February 2013 on the same orbit...... as Envisat. However, in contrast to the previous Ku-band radar altimeters, AltiKa operates in Ka-band (36.8 GHz) resulting in smaller footprint, better vertical resolution and decreased penetration of the signal in the snowpack. This work presents Greenland ice sheet surface elevation changes (SEC) derived...... from the first years of SARAL/AltiKa operation as part of the ESA’s Climate Change Initiative program, which addresses the GrIS as one of the Essential Climate Variables. Seasonal changes in elevation and radar altimeter waveform parameters are estimated using crossover and stacking methods...

  4. Grouping by proximity in haptic contour detection. (United States)

    Overvliet, Krista E; Krampe, Ralf Th; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the background surface. Proximity of the contour elements as well as the average proximity of background elements was systematically varied. We hypothesized that if proximity of contour elements influences haptic contour detection, detection will be more likely when contour elements are in closer proximity. This should be irrespective of the ratio with the proximity of the background elements. Results showed indeed that the closer the contour elements were, the higher the detection rates. Moreover, this was the case independent of the contour/background ratio. We conclude that the Gestalt law of proximity applies to haptic contour detection.

  5. Impact of Surface Soil Moisture Variations on Radar Altimetry Echoes at Ku and Ka Bands in Semi-Arid Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fatras


    Full Text Available Radar altimetry provides information on the topography of the Earth surface. It is commonly used for the monitoring not only sea surface height but also ice sheets topography and inland water levels. The radar altimetry backscattering coefficient, which depends on surface roughness and water content, can be related to surface properties such as surface soil moisture content. In this study, the influence of surface soil moisture on the radar altimetry echo and backscattering coefficient is analyzed over semi-arid areas. A semi-empirical model of the soil’s complex dielectric permittivity that takes into account that small-scale roughness and large-scale topography was developed to simulate the radar echoes. It was validated using waveforms acquired at Ku and Ka-bands by ENVISAT RA-2 and SARAL AltiKa respectively over several sites in Mali. Correlation coefficients ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 at Ku-band and from 0.27 to 0.96 at Ka-band were found. The increase in surface soil moisture from 0.02 to 0.4 (i.e., the typical range of variations in semi-arid areas increase the backscattering from 10 to 15 dB between the core of the dry and the maximum of the rainy seasons.

  6. GPM and TRMM Radar Vertical Profiles and Impact on Large-scale Variations of Surface Rain (United States)

    Wang, J. J.; Adler, R. F.


    Previous studies by the authors using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) data have shown that TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) and GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) surface rain estimates do not have corresponding amplitudes of inter-annual variations over the tropical oceans as do passive microwave observations by TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI). This includes differences in surface temperature-rainfall variations. We re-investigate these relations with the new GPM Version 5 data with an emphasis on understanding these differences with respect to the DPR vertical profiles of reflectivity and rainfall and the associated convective and stratiform proportions. For the inter-annual variation of ocean rainfall from both passive microwave (TMI and GMI) and active microwave (PR and DPR) estimates, it is found that for stratiform rainfall both TMI-PR and GMI-DPR show very good correlation. However, the correlation of GMI-DPR is much higher than TMI-PR in convective rainfall. The analysis of vertical profile of PR and DPR rainfall during the TRMM and GPM overlap period (March-August, 2014) reveals that PR and DPR have about the same rainrate at 4km and above, but PR rainrate is more than 10% lower that of DPR at the surface. In other words, it seems that convective rainfall is better defined with DPR near surface. However, even though the DPR results agree better with the passive microwave results, there still is a significant difference, which may be a result of DPR retrieval error, or inherent passive/active retrieval differences. Monthly and instantaneous GMI and DPR data need to be analyzed in details to better understand the differences.

  7. Effects of surface roughness on sea ice freeboard retrieval with an Airborne Ku-Band SAR radar altimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Stefan; Stenseng, Lars; Helm, Veit


    Results from two years of the CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) over sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean are presented. The estimation of freeboard, the height of sea ice floating above the water level, is one the main goals of the CryoSat-2 mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) in order...... to investigate sea ice volume changes on an Arctic wide scale. Freeboard retrieval requires precise radar range measurements to the ice surface, therefore we investigate the penetration of the Ku-Band radar waves into the overlying snow cover as well as the effects of sub-footprint-scale surface roughness using...

  8. Reconciling Electrical Properties of Titan's Surface Derived from Cassini RADAR Scatterometer and Radiometer Measurements (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Wye, L. C.; Janssen, M.; Paganelli, F.; Cassini RADAR Team


    We observe Titan, Saturn's largest moon, using active and passive microwave instruments carried on board the Cassini spacecraft. The 2.2-cm wavelength penetrates the thick atmosphere and provides surface measurements at resolutions from 10-200 km over much of the satellite's surface. The emissivity and reflectivity of surface features are generally anticorrelated, and both values are fairly high. Inversion of either set of data alone yields dielectric constants ranging from 1.5 to 3 or 4, consistent with an icy hydrocarbon or water ice composition. However, the dielectric constants retrieved from radiometric data alone are usually less than those inferred from backscatter measurements, a discrepancy consistent with similar analyses dating back to lunar observations in the 1960's. Here we seek to reconcile Titan's reflectivity and emissivity observations using a single physical model of the surface. Our approach is to calculate the energy scattered by Titan's surface and near subsurface, with the remainder absorbed. In equilibrium the absorption equals the emission, so that both the reflectivity and emissivity are described by the model. We use a form of the Kirchhoff model for modeling surface scatter, and a model based on weak localization of light for the volume scatter. With this model we present dielectric constant and surface roughness parameters that match both sets of Cassini RADAR observations over limited regions on Titan's surface, helping to constrain the composition and roughness of the surface. Most regions display electrical properties consistent with solid surfaces, however some of the darker "lake-like" features at higher latitudes can be modeled as either solid or liquid materials. The ambiguity arises from the limited set of observational angles available.

  9. Surface circulation in the Iroise Sea (western Brittany) derived from high resolution current mapping by HF radars (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Barbin, Yves; Marié, Louis; Ardhuin, Fabrice


    The use of high frequency radar (HFR) systems for near-real-time coastal ocean monitoring necessities that short time scale motions of the radar-derived velocities are better understood. While the ocean radar systems are able to describe coastal flow patterns with unprecedented details, the data they produce are often too sparse or gappy for applications such as the identification of coherent structures and fronts or understanding transport and mixing processes. In this study, we address two challenges. First, we report results from the HF radar system (WERA) which is routinely operating since 2006 on the western Brittany coast to monitor surface circulation in the Iroise Sea, over an area extending up to 100 km offshore. To obtain more reliable records of vector current fields at high space and time resolution, the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) direction finding algorithm is employed in conjunction with the variational interpolation (2dVar) of radar-derived velocities. This provides surface current maps at 1 km spacing and time resolution of 20 min. Removing the influence of the sea state on radar-derived current measurements is discussed and performed on some data sequences. Second, we examine in deep continuous 2d velocity records for a number of periods, exploring the different modes of variability of surface currents in the region. Given the extent, duration, and resolution of surface current velocity measurements, new quantitative insights from various time series and spatial analysis on higher frequency kinematics will be discussed. By better characterizing the full spectrum of flow regimes that contribute to the surface currents and their shears, a more complete picture of the circulation in the Iroise Sea can be obtained.

  10. MIMO High Frequency Surface Wave Radar Using Sparse Frequency FMCW Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengguan Pan


    Full Text Available The heavily congested radio frequency environment severely limits the signal bandwidth of the high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR. Based on the concept of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar, we propose a MIMO sparse frequency HFSWR system to synthesize an equivalent large bandwidth waveform in the congested HF band. The utilized spectrum of the proposed system is discontinuous and irregularly distributed between different transmitting sensors. We investigate the sparse frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW signal and the corresponding deramping based receiver and signal processor specially. A general processing framework is presented for the proposed system. The crucial step is the range-azimuth processing and the sparsity of the carrier frequency causes the two-dimensional periodogram to fail when applied here. Therefore, we introduce the iterative adaptive approach (IAA in the range-azimuth imaging. Based on the initial 1D IAA algorithm, we propose a modified 2D IAA which particularly fits the deramping processing based range-azimuth model. The proposed processing framework for MIMO sparse frequency FMCW HFSWR with the modified 2D IAA applied is shown to have a high resolution and be able to provide an accurate and clear range-azimuth image which benefits the following detection process.

  11. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  12. High Resolution Elevation Contours (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  13. Fairfax County Contours (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This layer contains contours that were derived from the digital terrain model made up of irregularly spaced mass points and breaklines. The contours are 5 foot...

  14. Lake Chad Total Surface Water Area as Derived from Land Surface Temperature and Radar Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Policelli


    Full Text Available Lake Chad, located in the middle of the African Sahel belt, underwent dramatic decreases in the 1970s and 1980s leaving less than ten percent of its 1960s surface water extent as open water. In this paper, we present an extended record (dry seasons 1988–2016 of the total surface water area of the lake (including both open water and flooded vegetation derived using Land Surface Temperature (LST data (dry seasons 2000–2016 from the NASA Terra MODIS sensor and EUMETSAT Meteosat-based LST measurements (dry seasons 1988–2001 from an earlier study. We also examine the total surface water area for Lake Chad using radar data (dry seasons 2015–2016 from the ESA Sentinel-1a mission. For the limited number of radar data sets available to us (18 data sets, we find on average a close match between the estimates from these data and the corresponding estimates from LST, though we find spatial differences in the estimates using the two types of data. We use these spatial differences to adjust the record (dry seasons 2000–2016 from MODIS LST. Then we use the adjusted record to remove the bias of the existing LST record (dry seasons 1988–2001 derived from Meteosat measurements and combine the two records. From this composite, extended record, we plot the total surface water area of the lake for the dry seasons of 1988–1989 through 2016–2017. We find for the dry seasons of 1988–1989 to 2016–2017 that the maximum total surface water area of the lake was approximately 16,800 sq. km (February and May, 2000, the minimum total surface water area of the lake was approximately 6400 sq. km (November, 1990, and the average was approximately 12,700 sq. km. Further, we find the total surface water area of the lake to be highly variable during this period, with an average rate of increase of approximately 143 km2 per year.

  15. Exploring Vesta's Surface Roughness and Dielectric Properties Using VIR Spectrometer and Bistatic Radar Observations by the Dawn Mission (United States)

    Palmer, E. M.; Heggy, E.; Capria, M. T.; Tosi, F.; Kofman, W. W.; Russell, C. T.


    Multiple lines of evidence from NASA's Dawn mission suggest transient volatile presence at the surface of asteroid Vesta. Radar remote sensing is a useful technique for the investigation of volatile content at the surface and shallow subsurface, but requires the use of accurate dielectric and topographic models in order to deconvolve the effect of surface roughness from the total observed radar backscatter. Toward this end, we construct a dielectric model for the dry, volatile-poor case of Vesta's surface to represent average surface conditions, and to assess the expected average range of dielectric properties due to known variations in mineralogy, temperature, and density as inferred from Dawn VIR data. We employ dielectric studies of lunar samples to serve as a suitable analog to the Vestan regolith, and in the case of 10-wavelength penetration depth of X-band frequency radar observations, our model yields ɛ' from 2.5 to 2.6 from the night to dayside of Vesta, and tan δ from 0.011 to 0.014. Our estimation of ɛ' corresponds to specular surface reflectivity of ~0.05. In addition to modeling, we have also conducted an opportunistic bistatic radar (BSR) experiment at Vesta using the communications antennas aboard Dawn and on Earth. In this configuration, Dawn transmits a continuous radar signal toward the Earth while orbiting Vesta. As the Dawn spacecraft passes behind Vesta (entering an occultation), the line of sight between Dawn and Earth intersects Vesta's surface, resulting in a reflection of radar waves from the surface and shallow subsurface, which are then received on Earth for analysis. The geometry of the Dawn BSR experiment results in high incidence angles on Vesta's surface, and leads to a differential Doppler shift of only a few 10s of Hz between the direct signal and the surface echo. As a consequence, this introduces ambiguity in the measurement of bandwidth and peak power of each surface echo. We report our interpretations of each surface echo in

  16. A probabilistic method for the estimation of ocean surface currents from short time series of HF radar data (United States)

    Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Grilli, Stéphan T.


    We present a new method for inverting ocean surface currents from beam-forming HF radar data. In contrast with the classical method, which inverts radial currents based on shifts of the main Bragg line in the radar Doppler spectrum, the method works in the temporal domain and inverts currents from the amplitude modulation of the I and Q radar time series. Based on this principle, we propose a Maximum Likelihood approach, which can be combined with a Bayesian inference method assuming a prior current distribution, to infer values of the radial surface currents. We assess the method performance by using synthetic radar signal as well as field data, and systematically comparing results with those of the Doppler method. The new method is found advantageous for its robustness to noise at long range, its ability to accommodate shorter time series, and the possibility to use a priori information to improve the estimates. Limitations are related to current sign errors at far-ranges and biased estimates for small current values and very short samples. We apply the new technique to a data set from a typical 13.5 MHz WERA radar, acquired off of Vancouver Island, BC, and show that it can potentially improve standard synoptic current mapping.

  17. An Orthogonal Projection Algorithm to Suppress Interference in High-Frequency Surface Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezong Chen


    Full Text Available High-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR has been widely applied in sea-state monitoring, and its performance is known to suffer from various unwanted interferences and clutters. Radio frequency interference (RFI from other radiating sources and ionospheric clutter dominate the various types of unwanted signals because the HF band is congested with many users and the ionosphere propagates interference from distant sources. In this paper, various orthogonal projection schemes are summarized, and three new schemes are proposed for interference cancellation. Simulations and field data recorded by experimental multi-frequency HFSWR from Wuhan University are used to evaluate the cancellation performances of these schemes with respect to both RFI and ionospheric clutter. The processing results may provide a guideline for identifying the appropriate orthogonal projection cancellation schemes in various HFSWR applications.

  18. Experimental Proof of the Characteristics of Short-Range FM Radar Converted Signal Spectrum for a Smooth Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodņevs Deniss


    Full Text Available This paper presents a natural experiment of the spectral processing of 4.3 GHz Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar (FMCWR converted signal. The FMCWR antennas are fixed above a smooth reflective surface. The converted signal spectrum is theoretically calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  19. Demonstration of characteristic skin surface contours of extramammary Paget's disease and parapsoriasis en plaque by image analysis of negative impression replicas. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Katsuko; Aiba, Setsuya; O'Goshi, Ken-ichiro; Yanai, Motohiro; Takahashi, Motoji; Kasai, Hidefumi; Tagami, Hachiro


    The surface contours of lesional skin of certain skin diseases, such as parapsoriasis en plaque (PEP) and extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD), in which there is a massive infiltration by non-epidermal cells, looks somewhat different from that of the adjacent normal skin, needless to state that they are apparently different from that of ordinary chronic inflammatory dermatoses where we found acanthotic epidermis accompanied by hyperkeratosis. We attempted to objectively characterize these unique skin surface changes qualitatively and quantitatively using non-invasive methods. Negative impression replicas were taken from the lesional skin of patients with EMPD or PEP as well as from the adjacent uninvolved skin. The findings were confirmed histologically. The replicas were examined by using computerized image analysis. Several parameters were analyzed that correlate with the changes in the anisotropy of the skin furrows (VC1), average skin roughness (KSD), average length of skin furrows (LEN), and number of skin furrows (NUM). There were significant decreases in KSD and NUM in EMPD, indicating a smoother skin surface in the lesional skin than in the adjacent normal skin. In contrast, the PEP lesion had an increase in VC1 and LEN and a decrease in NUM, which suggests larger skin ridges in the lesional skin than in the uninvolved skin. Thus the unique skin surface of the cutaneous disorders accompanied by epidermal invasion by non-epidermal cells, such as EMPD and PEP, was characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively using computerized image analysis of negative impression replicas.

  20. Lightning forecasting studies using LDAR, LLP, field mill, surface mesonet, and Doppler radar data (United States)

    Forbes, Gregory S.; Hoffert, Steven G.


    The ultimate goal of this research is to develop rules, algorithms, display software, and training materials that can be used by the operational forecasters who issue weather advisories for daily ground operations and launches by NASA and the United States Air Force to improve real-time forecasts of lightning. Doppler radar, Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR), Lightning Location and Protection (LLP), field mill (Launch Pad Lightning Warning System -- LPLWS), wind tower (surface mesonet) and additional data sets have been utilized in 10 case studies of thunderstorms in the vicinity of KSC during the summers of 1994 and 1995. These case studies reveal many intriguing aspects of cloud-to-ground, cloud-to-cloud, in-cloud, and cloud-to-air lightning discharges in relation to radar thunderstorm structure and evolution. They also enable the formulation of some preliminary working rules of potential use in the forecasting of initial and final ground strike threat. In addition, LDAR and LLP data sets from 1993 have been used to quantify the lightning threat relative to the center and edges of LDAR discharge patterns. Software has been written to overlay and display the various data sets as color imagery. However, human intervention is required to configure the data sets for proper intercomparison. Future efforts will involve additional software development to automate the data set intercomparisons, to display multiple overlay combinations in a windows format, and to allow for animation of the imagery. The software package will then be used as a tool to examine more fully the current cases and to explore additional cases in a timely manner. This will enable the formulation of more general and reliable forecasting guidelines and rules.

  1. Model track studies on fouled ballast using ground penetrating radar and multichannel analysis of surface wave (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P.; Lijun, Su; Buddhima, Indraratna; Cholachat, Rujikiatkamjorn


    Ballast fouling is created by the breakdown of aggregates or outside contamination by coal dust from coal trains, or from soil intrusion beneath rail track. Due to ballast fouling, the conditions of rail track can be deteriorated considerably depending on the type of fouling material and the degree of fouling. So far there is no comprehensive guideline available to identify the critical degree of fouling for different types of fouling materials. This paper presents the identification of degree of fouling and types of fouling using non-destructive testing, namely seismic surface-wave and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey. To understand this, a model rail track with different degree of fouling has been constructed in Civil engineering laboratory, University of Wollongong, Australia. Shear wave velocity obtained from seismic survey has been employed to identify the degree of fouling and types of fouling material. It is found that shear wave velocity of fouled ballast increases initially, reaches optimum fouling point (OFP), and decreases when the fouling increases. The degree of fouling corresponding after which the shear wave velocity of fouled ballast will be smaller than that of clean ballast is called the critical fouling point (CFP). Ground penetrating radar with four different ground coupled antennas (500 MHz, 800 MHz, 1.6 GHz and 2.3 GHz) was also used to identify the ballast fouling condition. It is found that the 800 MHz ground coupled antenna gives a better signal in assessing the ballast fouling condition. Seismic survey is relatively slow when compared to GPR survey however it gives quantifiable results. In contrast, GPR survey is faster and better in estimating the depth of fouling.

  2. Design, development, and evaluation of an automatic guidance system for tractor tracking along the contour line on inclined surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dehghani


    to the computer and received angular position in x and y coordinates. An assumed degree could be considered as basis degree and the measured frequency was adjustable. The tilt sensor located along the axial length of tractor and leads the angles which are created by longitudinal axle transverse axle of the tractor in related to horizontal level. It was used for contour lines detecting. The potentiometer located on the steering wheel of the tractor and pressure sensor which used with goniometer sensor used keeping uniformly of leveling points in tractor motion. The pressure sensor (SN-SCP1000- South Korea which is used in leveling system can detect the elevation changes. In this way, by defining a limitation of altitude for system, it would be able to stop steering turning motor which was coupled to tractor steering rod automatically. By resetting, the tractor could be able to live in a new level position. To avoid excessive left and right steering wheels deviation and interfering with other lines of travel, potentiometer was used. The deviation degree for steering rod from center to left or right was selected 120 degrees. Accordingly, the wheels would not be able to move more than 10 degrees to each direction. The Processing System: The electrical circuit graphically designed and simulated by software (Altium Designer, 2009 and installed on the tractor. The components of this circuit are as follows: Electrical board, two relays which control the electrical pathway in both directions, a battery with 12 volts of electric potential as electrical power supply, ATmeGA32 microcontroller which was made by Atmel company as main core for information processing, RS232 protocol was used for making correlation between serial port (COM and the microcontroller and two capacitors for reducing noises. The Actuator System: The output signals from the a processing system, were lead in the actuator system would order and indicative of left- turn or right- turn command, were introduced

  3. Improved measurements of mean sea surface velocity in the Nordic Seas from synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Wergeland Hansen, Morten; Johnsen, Harald; Engen, Geir; Øie Nilsen, Jan Even


    The warm and saline surface Atlantic Water (AW) flowing into the Nordic Seas across the Greenland-Scotland ridge transports heat into the Arctic, maintaining the ice-free oceans and regulating sea-ice extent. The AW influences the region's relatively mild climate and is the northern branch of the global thermohaline overturning circulation. Heat loss in the Norwegian Sea is key for both heat transport and deep water formation. In general, the ocean currents in the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic Ocean is a complex system of topographically steered barotropic and baroclinic currents of which the wind stress and its variability is a driver of major importance. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Doppler centroid shift has been demonstrated to contain geophysical information about sea surface wind, waves and current at an accuracy of 5 Hz and pixel spacing of 3.5 - 9 × 8 km2. This corresponds to a horizontal surface velocity of about 20 cm/s at 35° incidence angle. The ESA Prodex ISAR project aims to implement new and improved SAR Doppler shift processing routines to enable reprocessing of the wide swath acquisitions available from the Envisat ASAR archive (2002-2012) at higher resolution and better accuracy than previously obtained, allowing combined use with Sentinel-1 and Radarsat-2 retrievals to build timeseries of the sea surface velocity in the Nordic Seas. Estimation of the geophysical Doppler shift from new SAR Doppler centroid shift retrievals will be demonstrated, addressing key issues relating to geometric (satellite orbit and attitude) and electronic (antenna mis-pointing) contributions and corrections. Geophysical Doppler shift retrievals from one month of data in January 2010 and the inverted surface velocity in the Nordic Seas are then addressed and compared to other direct and indirect estimates of the upper ocean current, in particular those obtained in the ESA GlobCurrent project.

  4. Three-dimensional surface velocities of Storstrømmen glacier, Greenland, derived from radar interferometry and ice-sounding radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    Non-steady-state vertical velocities of up to 5 m a(-1) exceed the vertical surface-parallel flow (SPF) components over much of the ablation area of Storstrommen, a large outlet glacier from the East Greenland ice sheet. Neglecting a contribution to the vertical velocity of this magnitude results......) or more. This indicates that the SPF assumption may be problematic also for glaciers in steady state. Here we derive the three-dimensional surface velocity distribution of Storstrommen by using the principle of mass conservation (MC) to combine InSAR measurements from ascending and descending satellite...... tracks with airborne ice-sounding radar measurement of ice thickness. The results are compared to InSAR velocities previously derived by using the SPF assumption, and to velocities obtained by in situ global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The velocities derived by using the MC principle...

  5. Surface detection performance evaluation of pseudo-random noise continuous wave laser radar (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, Renaud; Pereira do Carmo, Joao


    A number of space missions (including in the ESA Exploration Programme) foreseen a use of laser radar sensor (or lidar) for determination of range between spacecrafts or between spacecraft and ground surface (altimetry). Such sensors need to be compact, robust and power efficient, at the same time with high detection performance. These requirements can be achieved with a Pseudo-Random Noise continuous wave lidar (PRN cw lidar). Previous studies have pointed to the advantages of this lidar with respect to space missions, but they also identified its limitations in high optical background. The progress of the lasers and the detectors in the near IR spectral range requires a re-evaluation of the PRN cw lidar potential. Here we address the performances of this lidar for surface detection (altimetry) in planetary missions. The evaluation is based on the following system configuration: (i) A cw fiber amplifier as lidar transmitter. The seeding laser exhibits a single-frequency spectral line, with subsequent amplitude modulation. The fiber amplifier allows high output power level, keeping the spectral characteristics and the modulation of the seeding light input. (ii) An avalanche photodiode in photon counting detection; (iii) Measurement scenarios representative for Earth, Mercury and Mars.

  6. Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouques, Sebastien


    The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model

  7. Discrepancies between soft x-ray emissivity contours and magnetic flux surfaces in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, M.C.; Granetz, R.S.


    The soft x-ray diagnostic system of Alcator C-Mod, equipped with 152 detectors distributed in four arrays, is used to obtain iso-emissivity surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by giving their elongation and relative shift from the centre of the tokamak as functions of plasma radius. Flux surfaces, provided by magnetic diagnostics, have also been described with elongation and shift. Results from the comparison of the two sets of geometric parameters obtained from magnetic and x-ray diagnostics are presented. We find that, whereas the shifts obtained from these two diagnostic methods are always in good agreement, the corresponding elongation curves show different patterns. An agreement between elongations better than 2% is only found in a range of about 2 cm in minor radius. On the other hand, the elongations can differ by 10% towards the plasma edge and the plasma centre. Error bars for the x-ray diagnostic are obtained by propagating the effect of ± 1% random errors at the detector signals, and can amount to ± 1-2% of the estimated values near the edge and the centre of the plasma. The estimated uncertainties in the determination of elongation from magnetic flux surfaces are of the order of 4%. A series of tests and simulations performed to verify the accuracy of the X-ray diagnostic system is presented. The discrepancies found could imply the existence of asymmetries in impurity concentration. (Author)

  8. Titan’s mid-latitude surface regions with Cassini VIMS and RADAR (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Coustenis, Athena; Malaska, Michael; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Maltagliati, Luca; Drossart, Pierre; Janssen, Michael; Lawrence, Kenneth; Jaumann, Ralf; Sohl, Frank; Stephan, Katrin; Brown, Robert H.; Bratsolis, Emmanuel; Matsoukas, Christos


    The Cassini-Huygens mission instruments have revealed Titan to have a complex and dynamic atmosphere and surface. Data from the remote sensing instruments have shown the presence of diverse surface terrains in terms of morphology and composition, suggesting both exogenic and endogenic processes [1]. We define both the surface and atmospheric contributions in the VIMS spectro-imaging data by use of a radiative transfer code in the near-IR range [2]. To complement this dataset, the Cassini RADAR instrument provides additional information on the surface morphology, from which valuable geological interpretations can be obtained [3]. We examine the origin of key Titan terrains, covering the mid-latitude zones extending from 50ºN to 50ºS. The different geological terrains we investigate include: mountains, plains, labyrinths, craters, dune fields, and possible cryovolcanic and/or evaporite features. We have found that the labyrinth terrains and the undifferentiated plains seem to consist of a very similar if not the same material, while the different types of plains show compositional variations [3]. The processes most likely linked to their formation are aeolian, fluvial, sedimentary, lacustrine, in addition to the deposition of atmospheric products though the process of photolysis and sedimentation of organics. We show that temporal variations of surface albedo exist for two of the candidate cryovolcanic regions. The surface albedo variations together with the presence of volcanic-like morphological features suggest that the active regions are possibly related to the deep interior, possibly via cryovolcanism processes (with important implications for the satellite’s astrobiological potential) as also indicated by new interior structure models of Titan and corresponding calculations of the spatial pattern of maximum tidal stresses [4]. However, an explanation attributed to exogenic processes is also possible [5]. We will report on results from our most recent

  9. Characterizing the surface circulation in Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean) with HF radar and modeled current data (United States)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Sotillo, M. G.; Aznar, R.; Amo-Balandron, A.; Pascual, A.; Soto-Navarro, J.; Alvarez-Fanjul, E.


    Quality-controlled current observations from a High Frequency radar (HFR) network deployed in the Ebro River Delta (NW Mediterranean) were combined with outputs from IBI operational ocean forecasting system in order to comprehensively portray the ocean state and its variability during 2014. Accurate HFR data were used as benchmark for a rigorous validation of the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland (IBI) regional system, routinely operated in the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). The analysis of skill metrics and monthly averaged current maps showed that IBI reasonably captured the prevailing dynamic features of the coastal circulation previously observed by the HFR, according to the moderate resemblance found in circulation patterns and the spatial distribution of eddy kinetic energy. The model skill assessment was completed with an exploration of dominant modes of spatiotemporal variability. The EOF analysis confirmed that the modeled surface current field evolved both in space and time according to three significantly dominant modes of variability which accounted for the 49.2% of the total variance, in close agreement with the results obtained for HFR (46.1%). The response of the subtidal surface current field to prevailing wind regime in the study area was examined in terms of induced circulation structures and immediacy of reaction by performing a conditional averaging approach and a time-lagged vector correlation analysis, respectively. This observations-model synergistic strategy has proved to be valid to operationally monitor the complex coastal circulation in Ebro Delta despite the observed model drawbacks in terms of reduced energy content in surface currents and some inaccuracies in the wind-driven low frequency response. This integrated methodology aids to improve the prognostic capabilities of IBI ocean forecasting system and also to facilitate high-stakes decision-making for coastal management in the Ebro River Delta marine

  10. A Consistent Treatment of Microwave Emissivity and Radar Backscatter for Retrieval of Precipitation over Water Surfaces (United States)

    Munchak, S. Joseph; Meneghini, Robert; Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.


    The Global Precipitation Measurement satellite's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) are designed to provide the most accurate instantaneous precipitation estimates currently available from space. The GPM Combined Algorithm (CORRA) plays a key role in this process by retrieving precipitation profiles that are consistent with GMI and DPR measurements; therefore, it is desirable that the forward models in CORRA use the same geophysical input parameters. This study explores the feasibility of using internally consistent emissivity and surface backscatter cross-sectional (sigma(sub 0)) models for water surfaces in CORRA. An empirical model for DPR Ku and Ka sigma(sub 0) as a function of 10m wind speed and incidence angle is derived from GMI-only wind retrievals under clear-sky conditions. This allows for the sigma(sub 0) measurements, which are also influenced by path-integrated attenuation (PIA) from precipitation, to be used as input to CORRA and for wind speed to be retrieved as output. Comparisons to buoy data give a wind rmse of 3.7 m/s for Ku+GMI and 3.2 m/s for Ku+Ka+GMI retrievals under precipitation (compared to 1.3 m/s for clear-sky GMI-only), and there is a reduction in bias from GANAL background data (-10%) to the Ku+GMI (-3%) and Ku+Ka+GMI (-5%) retrievals. Ku+GMI retrievals of precipitation increase slightly in light (less than 1 mm/h) and decrease in moderate to heavy precipitation (greater than 1 mm/h). The Ku+Ka+GMI retrievals, being additionally constrained by the Ka reflectivity, increase only slightly in moderate and heavy precipitation at low wind speeds (less than 5 m/s) relative to retrievals using the surface reference estimate of PIA as input.

  11. A prototype of radar-drone system for measuring the surface flow velocity at river sites and discharge estimation (United States)

    Moramarco, Tommaso; Alimenti, Federico; Zucco, Graziano; Barbetta, Silvia; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Mezzanotte, Paolo; Rosselli, Luca; Orecchini, Giulia; Virili, Marco; Valigi, Paolo; Ciarfuglia, Thomas; Pagnottelli, Stefano


    Discharge estimation at a river site depends on local hydraulic conditions identified by recording water levels. In fact, stage monitoring is straightforward and relatively inexpensive compared with the cost necessary to carry out flow velocity measurements which are, however, limited to low flows and constrained by the accessibility of the site. In this context the mean flow velocity is hard to estimate for high flow, affecting de-facto the reliability of discharge assessment for extreme events. On the other hand, the surface flow velocity can be easily monitored by using radar sensors allowing to achieve a good estimate of discharge by exploiting the entropy theory applied to rivers hydraulic (Chiu,1987). Recently, a growing interest towards the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UVA), henceforth drone, for topographic applications is observed and considering their capability drones may be of a considerable interest for the hydrological monitoring and in particular for streamflow measurements. With this aim, for the first time, a miniaturized Doppler radar sensor, operating at 24 GHz, will be mounted on a drone to measure the surface flow velocity in rivers. The sensor is constituted by a single-board circuit (i.e. is a fully planar circuits - no waveguides) with the antenna on one side and the front-end electronic on the other side (Alimenti et al., 2007). The antenna has a half-power beam width of less than 10 degrees in the elevation plane and a gain of 13 dBi. The radar is equipped with a monolithic oscillator and transmits a power of about 4 mW at 24 GHz. The sensor is mounted with an inclination of 45 degrees with respect to the drone flying plane and such an angle is considered in recovering the surface speed of the water. The drone is a quadricopter that has more than 30 min, flying time before recharging the battery. Furthermore its flying plan can be scheduled with a suitable software and is executed thanks to the on-board sensors (GPS, accelerometers

  12. Numerical Design of Ultra-Wideband Printed Antenna for Surface Penetrating Radar Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Munir


    Full Text Available Surface penetrating radar (SPR is an imaging device of electromagnetic wave that works by emitting and transmitting a narrow period pulse through the antenna. Due to the use of narrow period pulse, according to the Fourier transform duality, therefore ultra-wideband (UWB antenna becomes one of the most important needs in SPR system. In this paper, a novel UWB printed antenna is proposed to be used for SPR application. Basically, the proposed antenna is developed from a rectangular microstrip antenna fed by symmetric T-shaped. Some investigation methods such as resistive loading, abrupt transition, and ground plane modification are attempted to achieve required characteristics of bandwidth, radiation efficiency, and compactness needed by the system. To obtain the optimum design, the characteristics of proposed antenna are numerically investigated through the physical parameters of antenna. It is shown that proposed antenna deployed on an FR-4 Epoxy substrate with permittivity of 4.3 and thickness of 1.6mm has a compact size of 72.8mm x 60.0mm and a large bandwidth of 50MHz-5GHz which is suitable for SPR application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li-Chee-Ming


    Full Text Available The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS has over 40 years of experience with airborne and spaceborne sensors and is now starting to use small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS to validate products from large coverage area sensors and create new methodologies for very high resolution products. Wetlands have several functions including water storage and retention which can reduce flooding and provide continuous flow for hydroelectric generation and irrigation for agriculture. Synthetic Aperture Radar is well suited as a tool for monitoring surface water by supplying acquisitions irrespective of cloud cover or time of day. Wetlands can be subdivided into three classes: open water, flooded vegetation and upland which can vary seasonally with time and water level changes. RADARSAT‐2 data from the Wide-Ultra Fine, Spotlight and Fine Quad-Pol modes has been used to map the open water in the Peace‐Athabasca Delta, Alberta using intensity thresholding. We also use spotlight modes for higher resolution and the fully polarimetric mode (FQ for polarimetric decomposition. Validation of these products will be done using a low altitude flying sUAS to generate optical georeferenced images. This project provides methodologies which could be used for flood mapping as well as ecological monitoring.

  14. An Approach for Predicting the Shape and Size of a Buried Basic Object on Surface Ground Penetrating Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas


    Full Text Available Surface ground-penetrating radar (GPR is one of the radar technology that is widely used in many applications. It is nondestructive remote sensing method to detect underground buried objects. However, the output target is only hyperbolic representation. This research develops a system to identify a buried object on surface GPR based on decision tree method. GPR data of many basic objects (with circular, triangular, and rectangular cross-section are classified and extracted to generate data training model as a unique template for each type of basic object. The pattern of object under test will be known by comparing its data with the training data using a decision tree method. A simple powerful algorithm to extract feature parameters of object which is based on linear extrapolation is proposed. The result showed that tested buried basic objects can be correctly predicted and the developed system works properly.

  15. A Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm for Ice-sheet Radar Echograms Applied to Ground-Based Near-Surface Data (United States)

    Onana, Vincent De Paul; Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Ruth, Julia; Studinger, Michael; Harbeck, Jeremy P.


    Snow accumulation over an ice sheet is the sole mass input, making it a primary measurement for understanding the past, present, and future mass balance. Near-surface frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars image isochronous firn layers recording accumulation histories. The Semiautomated Multilayer Picking Algorithm (SAMPA) was designed and developed to trace annual accumulation layers in polar firn from both airborne and ground-based radars. The SAMPA algorithm is based on the Radon transform (RT) computed by blocks and angular orientations over a radar echogram. For each echogram's block, the RT maps firn segmented-layer features into peaks, which are picked using amplitude and width threshold parameters of peaks. A backward RT is then computed for each corresponding block, mapping the peaks back into picked segmented-layers. The segmented layers are then connected and smoothed to achieve a final layer pick across the echogram. Once input parameters are trained, SAMPA operates autonomously and can process hundreds of kilometers of radar data picking more than 40 layers. SAMPA final pick results and layer numbering still require a cursory manual adjustment to correct noncontinuous picks, which are likely not annual, and to correct for inconsistency in layer numbering. Despite the manual effort to train and check SAMPA results, it is an efficient tool for picking multiple accumulation layers in polar firn, reducing time over manual digitizing efforts. The trackability of good detected layers is greater than 90%.

  16. Gap Filling of the CALYPSO HF Radar Sea Surface Current Data through Past Measurements and Satellite Wind Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gauci


    Full Text Available High frequency (HF radar installations are becoming essential components of operational real-time marine monitoring systems. The underlying technology is being further enhanced to fully exploit the potential of mapping sea surface currents and wave fields over wide areas with high spatial and temporal resolution, even in adverse meteo-marine conditions. Data applications are opening to many different sectors, reaching out beyond research and monitoring, targeting downstream services in support to key national and regional stakeholders. In the CALYPSO project, the HF radar system composed of CODAR SeaSonde stations installed in the Malta Channel is specifically serving to assist in the response against marine oil spills and to support search and rescue at sea. One key drawback concerns the sporadic inconsistency in the spatial coverage of radar data which is dictated by the sea state as well as by interference from unknown sources that may be competing with transmissions in the same frequency band. This work investigates the use of Machine Learning techniques to fill in missing data in a high resolution grid. Past radar data and wind vectors obtained from satellites are used to predict missing information and provide a more consistent dataset.

  17. Radar and optical remote sensing in offshore domain to detect, characterize, and quantify ocean surface oil slicks (United States)

    Angelliaume, S.; Ceamanos, X.; Viallefont-Robinet, F.; Baqué, R.; Déliot, Ph.; Miegebielle, V.


    Radar and optical sensors are operationally used by authorities or petroleum companies for detecting and characterizing maritime pollution. The interest lies not only in exploration but also in the monitoring of the maritime environment. Occurrence of natural seeps on the sea surface is a key indicator of the presence of mature source rock in the subsurface. These natural seeps, as well as the oil slicks, are commonly detected using radar sensors but the addition of optical imagery can deliver extra information such as the oil real fraction, which is critical for both exploration purposes and efficient cleanup operations. Today state-of-the-art approaches combine multiple data collected by optical and radar sensors embedded on-board different airborne and spaceborne platforms, to ensure wide spatial coverage and high frequency revisit time. Multi-wavelength imaging system may create a breakthrough in remote sensing applications, but it requires adapted processing techniques that need to be developed. To explore performances offered by multi-wavelength radar and optical sensors for oil slick monitoring, remote sensing data have been collected by SETHI, the airborne system developed by ONERA, during an oil spill cleanup exercise carried out in 2015 in the North Sea, Europe. The uniqueness of this data set lies in its high spatial resolution, low noise level and quasi-simultaneous acquisitions of different part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Specific processing techniques have been developed in order to extract meaningful information associated with oil-covered sea surface. Analysis of this unique and rich dataset demonstrates that remote sensing imagery, collected in both optical and microwave domains, allows to estimate slick surface properties such as the spatial abundance of oil and the relative concentration of hydrocarbons on the sea surface.

  18. Deep Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) WIPL-D Models of Buried Sub-Surface Radiators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norgard, John D; Wicks, Michael C; Musselman, Randy L


    .... A new Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) concept is proposed in this paper to use subsurface radiators, delivered as earth penetrating non-explosive, electronic e-bombs, as the source of strong radiated transmissions for GPR experiments...

  19. Hourly surface currents measured by high frequency Wellen radars off western Oahu, Hawaii, from September 2002 to May 2003 (NODC Accession 0013113) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A pair of High Frequency Wellen radars (WERA) shore-based at southwest Oahu (Ko'Olina) and northwest Oahu (Kaena), Hawaii measured surface currents over a nine-month...

  20. Hourly surface currents measured by High Frequency (HF) Wellen radars (WERA) off western Oahu, Hawaii, from September 2002 to May 2003 (NODC Accession 0013113) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A pair of High Frequency Wellen radars (WERA) shore-based at southwest Oahu (Ko'Olina) and northwest Oahu (Kaena), Hawaii measured surface currents over a nine-month...

  1. Male Body Contouring. (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M


    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  2. Contouring Trivariate Data (United States)

    Stead, S. E.; Makatura, G. T.


    In many applications, the data consist of discrete 3-D points at which one or more parameters are given. To display contours, the data are represented by a continuous function which is evaluated at any point as needed for contouring. Contouring results are presented which are applicable both to artitrarily spaced data and to data which lie on a topologically rectangular three dimensional grid. the contours are assumed to be described by 3-D display lists for viewing on a dynamic color graphics device; that is, they will not simply be projected into 2-D and viewed as a static image on a frame buffer. Dynamic viewing of color contours may be essential to the proper interpretation of results. The gridded data lie on a topologically rectangular grid although two or more nodes may be the same point. Parametric tensor product methods may be used to fit the gridded data and to generate the contours. Rectangular elements are convenient but not necessary. For example, there are other methods which are effective for contouring over tetrahedral elements.

  3. Object-oriented classification using quasi-synchronous multispectral images (optical and radar) over agricultural surface (United States)

    Marais Sicre, Claire; Baup, Frederic; Fieuzal, Remy


    In the context of climate change (with consequences on temperature and precipitation patterns), persons involved in agricultural management have the imperative to combine: sufficient productivity (as a response of the increment of the necessary foods) and durability of the resources (in order to restrain waste of water, fertilizer or environmental damages). To this end, a detailed knowledge of land use will improve the management of food and water, while preserving the ecosystems. Among the wide range of available monitoring tools, numerous studies demonstrated the interest of satellite images for agricultural mapping. Recently, the launch of several radar and optical sensors offer new perspectives for the multi-wavelength crop monitoring (Terrasar-X, Radarsat-2, Sentinel-1, Landsat-8…) allowing surface survey whatever the cloud conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated the interest of using multi-temporal approaches for crop classification, requiring several images for suitable classification results. Unfortunately, these approaches are limited (due to the satellite orbit cycle) and require waiting several days, week or month before offering an accurate land use map. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of object-oriented classification (random forest algorithm combined with vector layer coming from segmentation) to map winter crop (barley, rapeseed, grasslands and wheat) and soil states (bare soils with different surface roughness) using quasi-synchronous images. Satellite data are composed of multi-frequency and multi-polarization (HH, VV, HV and VH) images acquired near the 14th of April, 2010, over a studied area (90km²) located close to Toulouse in France. This is a region of alluvial plains and hills, which are mostly mixed farming and governed by a temperate climate. Remote sensing images are provided by Formosat-2 (04/18), Radarsat-2 (C-band, 04/15), Terrasar-X (X-band, 04/14) and ALOS (L-band, 04/14). Ground data are collected

  4. Brightness Alteration with Interweaving Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roncato


    Full Text Available Chromatic induction is observed whenever the perceived colour of a target surface shifts towards the hue of a neighbouring surface. Some vivid manifestations may be seen in a white background where thin coloured lines have been drawn (assimilation or when lines of different colours are collinear (neon effect or adjacent (watercolour to each other. This study examines a particular colour induction that manifests in concomitance with an opposite effect of colour saturation (or anti-spread. The two phenomena can be observed when a repetitive pattern is drawn in which outline thin contours intercept wider contours or surfaces, colour spreading appear to fill the surface occupied by surfaces or thick lines whereas the background traversed by thin lines is seen as brighter or filled of a saturated white. These phenomena were first observed by Bozzi (1975 and Kanizsa (1979 in figural conditions that did not allow them to document their conjunction. Here we illustrate various manifestations of this twofold phenomenon and compare its effects with the known effects of brightness and colour induction. Some conjectures on the nature of these effects are discussed.

  5. Maritime over the Horizon Sensor Integration: High Frequency Surface-Wave-Radar and Automatic Identification System Data Integration Algorithm. (United States)

    Nikolic, Dejan; Stojkovic, Nikola; Lekic, Nikola


    To obtain the complete operational picture of the maritime situation in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) which lies over the horizon (OTH) requires the integration of data obtained from various sensors. These sensors include: high frequency surface-wave-radar (HFSWR), satellite automatic identification system (SAIS) and land automatic identification system (LAIS). The algorithm proposed in this paper utilizes radar tracks obtained from the network of HFSWRs, which are already processed by a multi-target tracking algorithm and associates SAIS and LAIS data to the corresponding radar tracks, thus forming an integrated data pair. During the integration process, all HFSWR targets in the vicinity of AIS data are evaluated and the one which has the highest matching factor is used for data association. On the other hand, if there is multiple AIS data in the vicinity of a single HFSWR track, the algorithm still makes only one data pair which consists of AIS and HFSWR data with the highest mutual matching factor. During the design and testing, special attention is given to the latency of AIS data, which could be very high in the EEZs of developing countries. The algorithm is designed, implemented and tested in a real working environment. The testing environment is located in the Gulf of Guinea and includes a network of HFSWRs consisting of two HFSWRs, several coastal sites with LAIS receivers and SAIS data provided by provider of SAIS data.

  6. Soil surface moisture estimation over a semi-arid region using ENVISAT ASAR radar data for soil evaporation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zribi


    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a method for the evaluation of soil evaporation, using soil moisture estimations based on radar satellite measurements. We present firstly an approach for the estimation and monitoring of soil moisture in a semi-arid region in North Africa, using ENVISAT ASAR images, over two types of vegetation covers. The first mapping process is dedicated solely to the monitoring of moisture variability related to rainfall events, over areas in the "non-irrigated olive tree" class of land use. The developed approach is based on a simple linear relationship between soil moisture and the backscattered radar signal normalised at a reference incidence angle. The second process is proposed over wheat fields, using an analysis of moisture variability due to both rainfall and irrigation. A semi-empirical model, based on the water-cloud model for vegetation correction, is used to retrieve soil moisture from the radar signal. Moisture mapping is carried out over wheat fields, showing high variability between irrigated and non-irrigated wheat covers. This analysis is based on a large database, including both ENVISAT ASAR and simultaneously acquired ground-truth measurements (moisture, vegetation, roughness, during the 2008–2009 vegetation cycle. Finally, a semi-empirical approach is proposed in order to relate surface moisture to the difference between soil evaporation and the climate demand, as defined by the potential evaporation. Mapping of the soil evaporation is proposed.

  7. Air/Surface Channel Isolation in the AN/SPQ-9B Radar: Diplexer Test Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tavik, Gregory


    .... Results of this method tested with NRiJs ANISPQ-9B advanced development model (ADM) radar show a 10 to 30 dB reduction of cross-talk generated on receive due to strong clutter echoes at close range.

  8. Modeling surface deformation observed with synthetic aperture radar interferometry at Campi Flegrei caldera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundgren, P.; Usai, S.; Sansosti, E.; Lanari, R.; Tesauro, M.; Fornaro, G.; Berardino, P.


    Satellite radar interferometry of Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, reveals a pattern of subsidence during the period 1993–1998. Interferograms spanning the first half of the observation period (1993–1995) have a lower amplitude and average rate of subsidence than those spanning either the second half

  9. A comparison of synthetic aperture radars applied for satellite remote sensing of the ocean surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilley, D.G.; Sarma, Y.V.B.

    imaging radar (SIR-B) aboard the space shuttle Challenger. The wave imaging capabilities of two more recent SAR systems, aboard the European ERS-1 and Russian Almaz satellites, over the Labrador Sea are observed in relation to an emerging consensus...

  10. An Algorithm for Surface Current Retrieval from X-band Marine Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxi Shen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel current inversion algorithm from X-band marine radar images is proposed. The routine, for which deep water is assumed, begins with 3-D FFT of the radar image sequence, followed by the extraction of the dispersion shell from the 3-D image spectrum. Next, the dispersion shell is converted to a polar current shell (PCS using a polar coordinate transformation. After removing outliers along each radial direction of the PCS, a robust sinusoidal curve fitting is applied to the data points along each circumferential direction of the PCS. The angle corresponding to the maximum of the estimated sinusoid function is determined to be the current direction, and the amplitude of this sinusoidal function is the current speed. For validation, the algorithm is tested against both simulated radar images and field data collected by a vertically-polarized X-band system and ground-truthed with measurements from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. From the field data, it is observed that when the current speed is less than 0.5 m/s, the root mean square differences between the radar-derived and the ADCP-measured current speed and direction are 7.3 cm/s and 32.7°, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed procedure, unlike most existing current inversion schemes, is not susceptible to high current speeds and circumvents the need to consider aliasing. Meanwhile, the relatively low computational cost makes it an excellent choice in practical marine applications.

  11. Terraces and contour farming (United States)

    Terraces are earthen embankments constructed across the prevailing field land slope. They have been used in differing forms for thousands of years in an attempt to protect steep land slopes from runoff induced erosion. Contour farming, where tillage and planting create ridges and furrows at nearly...

  12. The Development of Contour Interpolation: Evidence from Subjective Contours (United States)

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.


    Adults are skilled at perceiving subjective contours in regions without any local image information (e.g., [Ginsburg, 1975] and [Kanizsa, 1976]). Here we examined the development of this skill and the effect thereon of the support ratio (i.e., the ratio of the physically specified contours to the total contour length). Children (6-, 9-, and…

  13. NOAA high resolution sea surface winds data from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) on the RADARSAT-2 satellite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived high resolution wind products are calculated from high resolution SAR images of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the...

  14. Millimeter-wave radar scattering from the water surface : a wind-wave tank study (United States)

    Guerin, Charles-Antoine; Boisot, Olivier; Pioch, Sébastien; Caulliez, Guillemette; Lalaurie, Jean-Claude; Fatras, Christophe; Borderies, Pierre


    We report on a recent experiment conducted in the large wind-wave tank of Marseille-Luminy aimed at characterizing the small-scale statistics of ocean- and river-like surfaces as well as their radar return at millimeter waves (Ka-band). Simultaneous measurements of waves elevations and slopes from gravity to capillarity-gravity scale as well as the corresponding Ka-band Normalised Radar Cross Section (NRCS) have been performed for various wind speeds and scattering configurations. For each wind speed, the incidence angle of the radar beam has been varied between 0 and 15 degrees away from nadir and several azimuthal directions with respect to wind have been investigated by step of 45 degrees. Based on this data set we have developed an original technique to estimate the directional wave number spectrum of the water surface from decimeter to millimeter scales. We show that the inclusion of surface current is crucial in the correct derivation of the omnidirectional spectrum and that a non-trivial angular spreading function can be obtained from the measurements of the up-wind and down-wind slope spectra, providing some additional reasonable assumptions. The resulting spectrum is compared with the high-frequency part of the classical oceanic models such as Elfouhaily unified spectrum and Kudryavtsev et al. spectrum. Some consistency tests are proposed to validate the surface model, which is then incorporated in classical analytical scattering models. The main qualitative features of the observed NRCS are a minimum of sensibility to wind speed around 7-8 degrees incidence, non-monotonic variations with incidence at small wind speeds and a marked up/cross wind asymetry. We show that the Physical Optics approximation provides a very satisfactory estimation of the NRCS as compared the experimental values at all wind speeds and azimuths, contrarily to the Geometrical Optics model which is found inaccurate even at the larger wind speeds. The unconventional behavior of the

  15. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin


    Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

  16. Three-dimensional surface velocities of Storstrømmen glacier, Greenland, derived from radar interferometry and ice-sounding radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    in substantial errors (up to 20%) also on the south-north component of horizontal velocities derived by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements. In many glacier environments, the steady-state vertical velocity component required to balance the annual ablation rate is 5-10 m a(-1...... tracks with airborne ice-sounding radar measurement of ice thickness. The results are compared to InSAR velocities previously derived by using the SPF assumption, and to velocities obtained by in situ global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The velocities derived by using the MC principle...

  17. Contour adaptation reduces the spreading of edge induced colors. (United States)

    Coia, Andrew J; Crognale, Michael A


    Brief exposure to flickering achromatic outlines of an area causes a reduction in the brightness contrast of the surface inside the area. This contour adaptation to achromatic contours does not reduce surface contrast when the surface is chromatic (the saturation or colorimetric purity of the surface is maintained). In addition to reducing the brightness of physical luminance contrast, contour adaptation also reduces (or even reverses) the illusory brightness contrast seen in the Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet illusion, in which two physically identical grey areas appear different brightness because of a sharp luminance edge separating them. Chromatic color spreading illusions also occur with chromatic inducing edges, and an unanswered question is whether contour adaptation can reduce the perceived contrast of illusory color spreading from edges, even though it cannot reduce the perceived contrast of physical surface color. The current studies use a color spreading illusion known as the watercolor effect in order to test whether illusory color spreading is affected by contour adaptation. The general findings of physical achromatic contrast being reduced and chromatic contrast being robust to contour adaptation were replicated. However, both illusory brightness and color were reduced by contour adaptation, even when the illusion edges only differed in chromatic contrast with each other and the background. Additional studies adapting to chromatic contours showed opposite effects on illusory color contrast than achromatic adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B ocean wave image spectra with linear model predictions based on aircraft measurements (United States)

    Monaldo, Frank M.; Lyzenga, David R.


    During October 1984, coincident Shuttle Imaging Radar-B synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and wave measurements from airborne instrumentation were acquired. The two-dimensional wave spectrum was measured by both a radar ocean-wave spectrometer and a surface-contour radar aboard the aircraft. In this paper, two-dimensional SAR image intensity variance spectra are compared with these independent measures of ocean wave spectra to verify previously proposed models of the relationship between such SAR image spectra and ocean wave spectra. The results illustrate both the functional relationship between SAR image spectra and ocean wave spectra and the limitations imposed on the imaging of short-wavelength, azimuth-traveling waves.

  19. CALYPSO: a new HF RADAR network to monitor sea surface currents in the Malta-Sicily channel (Mediterranean sea) (United States)

    Cosoli, S.; Ciraolo, G.; Drago, A.; Capodici, F.; Maltese, A.; Gauci, A.; Galea, A.; Azzopardi, J.; Buscaino, G.; Raffa, F.; Mazzola, S.; Sinatra, R.


    Located in one of the main shipping lanes in the Mediterranean Sea, and in a strategic region for oil extraction platforms, the Malta-Sicily channel is exposed to significant oil spill risks. Shipping and extraction activities constitute a major threat for marine areas of relevant ecological value in the area, and impacts of oil spills on the local ecosystems and the economic activities, including tourism and fisheries, can be dramatic. Damages would be even more devastating for the Maltese archipelago, where marine resources represent important economic assets. Additionally, North Africa coastal areas are also under threat, due to their proximity to the Malta-Sicily Channel. Prevention and mitigation measures, together with rapid-response and decision-making in case of emergency situations, are fundamental steps that help accomplishing the tasks of minimizing risks and reducing impacts to the various compartments. Thanks to state-of-art technology for the monitoring of sea-surface currents in real-time under all sea-state conditions, the CALYPSO network of High-Frequency Radars represents an essential and invaluable tool for the specific purpose. HF radars technology provide a unique tool to track surface currents in near-real time, and as such the dispersion of pollutants can be monitored and forecasted and their origin backtracked, for instance through data assimilation into ocean circulation models or through short-term data-driven statistical forecasts of ocean currents. The network is constituted of four SeaSonde systems that work in the 13.5MHz frequency band. The network is operative since August 2012 and has been extensively validated using a variety of independent platforms and devices, including current meter data and drifting buoys. The latter provided clear evidences of the reliability of the collected data as for tracking the drifting objects. Additionally, data have provided a new insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the region

  20. Contour plotting programs for printer and Calcomp plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, P.


    Contour plotting programs for plotting contour diagrams on printers or Calcomp plotters are described. The subroutines also exist in versions that are useful for the special application of finding minima and saddlepoints of nuclear potential energy surfaces generated by the subroutine PETR3 of another program package. For the general user, however, the most interesting aspect of the plotting package is probably the possibility of generating printer contour plots. The plotting of printer contour plots is a very fast and convenient way of displaying two-dimensional functions. 3 figures

  1. Spectral and morphological properties of various geological types of Titan’s surface with Cassini VIMS and RADAR (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Hirtzig, Mathieu; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Malaska, Michael; Drossart, Pierre; Sotin, Christophe; Bratsolis, Emmanuel; Matsoukas, Chris; Brown, Robert; Maltagliati, Luca


    Cassini’s VIMS and the RADAR have been investigating Titan’s surface since 2004. Both instruments unveiled the dynamic and complex surface expressions of this Saturnian moon, suggesting exogenic and endogenic processes [1;2;3]. In order to evaluate the atmospheric contribution and thereafter extract surface information, a Radiative transfer code is used to analyse different regions and to monitor their spectral behaviour over time [4;5;7]. We furthermore use RADAR despeckled SAR images to infer information on the morphology [6]. We find that temporal variations of surface albedo occur for some areas, but that their origin may differ from one region to the other. Tui Regio and Sotra Patera change with time becoming darker and brighter respectively in terms of surface albedo. In contrast, we find that the undifferentiated plains and the suggested evaporitic areas in the equatorial regions do not present any significant change [5]. This observation supports the hypothesis that Titan is surface brightening of Sotra supports a possible internal rather than an exogenic origin. This observation supports the hypothesis that Titan is a cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphology [1] and indications of surface albedo changes [4,5]. Potential sources of the energy for cryovolcanism include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. A recent study has shown that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of internal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of ammonia concentrations [8].[1] Lopes, R.M.C., et al. JGR, 118, 2013 [2] Solomonidou, A., et al. PSS, 70, 2013 [3] Moore, J.M. GRL, 37, 2010 [4] Solomonidou, A., et al. JGR, 119, 2014 [5] Solomonidou, A., et al. submitted [6

  2. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten


    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  3. Monitoring infiltration processes with high-resolution surface-based Ground-Penetrating Radar (United States)

    Klenk, P.; Jaumann, S.; Roth, K.


    In this study, we present a series of high resolution Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements monitoring two artificially induced infiltration pulses into two different sands with dual-frequency ground-based GPR. After the application of the second infiltration pulse, the water table in the subsoil was raised by pumping in water from below. The longterm relaxation of the system was then monitored over the course of several weeks. We focused on the capillary fringe reflection and on observed variations in soil water content as derived from direct wave travel times. We discuss the advantages of this dual-frequency approach and show the attainable precision in longterm monitoring of such relaxation processes. Reaching a relative precision of better than 0.001 [-] in water content, we can clearly discern the relaxation of the two investigated sands.

  4. KARIN: The Ka-Band Radar Interferometer for the Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Peral, Eva; McWatters, Dalia; Pollard, Brian; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Hughes, Richard


    Over the last two decades, several nadir profiling radar altimeters have provided our first global look at the ocean basin-scale circulation and the ocean mesoscale at wavelengths longer than 100 km. Due to sampling limitations, nadir altimetry is unable to resolve the small wavelength ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale that are responsible for the vertical mixing of ocean heat and gases and the dissipation of kinetic energy from large to small scales. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would be a partnership between NASA, CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spaciales) and the Canadian Space Agency, and would have as one of its main goals the measurement of ocean topography with kilometer-scale spatial resolution and centimeter scale accuracy. In this paper, we provide an overview of all ocean error sources that would contribute to the SWOT mission.

  5. Perception of subjective contours in fish. (United States)

    Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Bisazza, Angelo


    The ability of fish to perceive subjective (or illusory) contours, ie contours that lack a physical counterpart in terms of luminance contrast gradients, was investigated. In the first experiment, redtail splitfins (Xenotoca eiseni), family Goodeidae, were trained to discriminate between a geometric figure (a triangle or a square) on various backgrounds and a background without any figure. Thereafter, the fish performed test trials in which illusory squares or triangles were obtained by (i) interruptions of a background of diagonal lines, (ii) phase-shifting of a background of diagonal lines, and (iii) pacmen spatially arranged to induce perception of Kanizsa subjective surfaces. In all three conditions, fish seemed to generalise their responses to stimuli perceived as subjective contours by humans. Fish chose, correctly, squares or triangles made of interrupted or phase-shifted diagonal lines from uniform backgrounds of diagonal lines, as well as illusory square or triangle Kanizsa figures from figures in which the inducing pacmen were scrambled. In the second experiment, fish were trained to discriminate between a vertical and a horizontal bar with luminance contrast gradients, and then tested with vertically and horizontally oriented illusory bars, created either through interruption or spatial phase-shift of inducing diagonal lines. Fish appeared to be able to generalise the orientation discrimination to illusory contours. These results demonstrate that redtail splitfins are capable of perceiving illusory contours.

  6. Comparative Study on Assimilating Remote Sensing High Frequency Radar Surface Currents at an Atlantic Marine Renewable Energy Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren


    Full Text Available A variety of data assimilation approaches have been applied to enhance modelling capability and accuracy using observations from different sources. The algorithms have varying degrees of complexity of implementation, and they improve model results with varying degrees of success. Very little work has been carried out on comparing the implementation of different data assimilation algorithms using High Frequency radar (HFR data into models of complex inshore waters strongly influenced by both tides and wind dynamics, such as Galway Bay. This research entailed implementing four different data assimilation algorithms: Direct Insertion (DI, Optimal Interpolation (OI, Nudging and indirect data assimilation via correcting model forcing into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and carrying out detailed comparisons of model performances. This work will allow researchers to directly compare four of the most common data assimilation algorithms being used in operational coastal hydrodynamics. The suitability of practical data assimilation algorithms for hindcasting and forecasting in shallow coastal waters subjected to alternate wetting and drying using data collected from radars was assessed. Results indicated that a forecasting system of surface currents based on the three-dimensional model EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code and the HFR data using a Nudging or DI algorithm was considered the most appropriate for Galway Bay. The largest averaged Data Assimilation Skill Score (DASS over the ≥6 h forecasting period from the best model NDA attained 26% and 31% for east–west and north–south surface velocity components respectively. Because of its ease of implementation and its accuracy, this data assimilation system can provide timely and useful information for various practical coastal hindcast and forecast operations.

  7. Minimizing the Standard Deviation of Spatially Averaged Surface Cross-Sectional Data from the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kim, Hyokyung


    For an airborne or spaceborne radar, the precipitation-induced path attenuation can be estimated from the measurements of the normalized surface cross section, sigma 0, in the presence and absence of precipitation. In one implementation, the mean rain-free estimate and its variability are found from a lookup table (LUT) derived from previously measured data. For the dual-frequency precipitation radar aboard the global precipitation measurement satellite, the nominal table consists of the statistics of the rain-free 0 over a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude grid using a three-month set of input data. However, a problem with the LUT is an insufficient number of samples in many cells. An alternative table is constructed by a stepwise procedure that begins with the statistics over a 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg grid. If the number of samples at a cell is too few, the area is expanded, cell by cell, choosing at each step that cell that minimizes the variance of the data. The question arises, however, as to whether the selected region corresponds to the smallest variance. To address this question, a second type of variable-averaging grid is constructed using all possible spatial configurations and computing the variance of the data within each region. Comparisons of the standard deviations for the fixed and variable-averaged grids are given as a function of incidence angle and surface type using a three-month set of data. The advantage of variable spatial averaging is that the average standard deviation can be reduced relative to the fixed grid while satisfying the minimum sample requirement.

  8. Rover Radar for Surface Navigation, Hazard Detection and Negative Obstacle Avoidance, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Topic X1.03 NASA (JPL) is seeking to extend and implement long distance exploratory surface rover missions to gain knowledge of surface topology and roughness....

  9. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for hydrological model calibration in a large poorly gauged catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, Christian; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter


    gauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i) surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates derived from radar measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii) radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum river width of about...... one hundred meters; and (iii) temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are shown to be helpful in identifying periods with over-respectively underestimation...

  10. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake using advanced satellite radar interferometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sup Jung

    Full Text Available Mapping three-dimensional (3D surface deformation caused by an earthquake is very important for the environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR systems made it possible to measure precise 3D deformations by combining SAR interferometry (InSAR and multiple aperture interferometry (MAI. In this paper, we retrieve the 3D surface deformation field of the 2010 Haiti earthquake which occurred on January 12, 2010 by a magnitude 7.0 Mw by using the advanced interferometric technique that integrates InSAR and MAI data. The surface deformation has been observed by previous researchers using the InSAR and GPS method, but 3D deformation has not been measured yet due to low interferometric coherence. The combination of InSAR and MAI were applied to the ALOS PALSAR ascending and descending pairs, and were validated with the GPS in-situ measurements. The archived measurement accuracy was as little as 1.85, 5.49 and 3.08 cm in the east, north and up directions, respectively. This result indicates that the InSAR/MAI-derived 3D deformations are well matched with the GPS deformations. The 3D deformations are expected to allow us to improve estimation of the area affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  11. Mapping three-dimensional surface deformation caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake using advanced satellite radar interferometry. (United States)

    Jung, Hyung-Sup; Hong, Soo-Min


    Mapping three-dimensional (3D) surface deformation caused by an earthquake is very important for the environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability of human beings. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems made it possible to measure precise 3D deformations by combining SAR interferometry (InSAR) and multiple aperture interferometry (MAI). In this paper, we retrieve the 3D surface deformation field of the 2010 Haiti earthquake which occurred on January 12, 2010 by a magnitude 7.0 Mw by using the advanced interferometric technique that integrates InSAR and MAI data. The surface deformation has been observed by previous researchers using the InSAR and GPS method, but 3D deformation has not been measured yet due to low interferometric coherence. The combination of InSAR and MAI were applied to the ALOS PALSAR ascending and descending pairs, and were validated with the GPS in-situ measurements. The archived measurement accuracy was as little as 1.85, 5.49 and 3.08 cm in the east, north and up directions, respectively. This result indicates that the InSAR/MAI-derived 3D deformations are well matched with the GPS deformations. The 3D deformations are expected to allow us to improve estimation of the area affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  12. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  13. Surface deformation measured with interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Case studies of basin and range and Garlock-San Andreas fault (United States)

    Greene, Fernando

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used to detect ground deformation from varieties of geophysical origins. However, most studies lack the spatial and temporal resolutions to better characterize such observations. The purpose of this research is to use multi-track satellite radar imagery to generate time series to study and monitor vertical ground deformation over large regions such as the Nevada portion of the Basin and Range Province and the western end of the Mojave Desert. We developed an innovative method to remove horizontal movements from InSAR line-of-sight (LOS) observations using a GPS velocity field and subsequently combine the multi-track imagery resulting in one single high spatial resolution map of observed vertical crustal and surface movements. By implementing this technique we detect vertical deformation signals with short and intermediate wavelength signals associated to tectonic processes such as interseismic and postseismic deformation. In Central Nevada Seismic Belt we detect in three independent orbits a broad area of uplift that confirms results of previous studies that associate the origin of this signal to post-seimic deformation of the historic earthquakes at this region. In south-central Nevada we detect several valleys that show a gradual eastward tilt of the valley floors due to deep geodynamical processes. The valleys located at the eastern side of Ruby Mountains show a range decrease that could indicate uplift related to magma intrusion or post-seismic deformation due to older, unrecognized earthquakes. In the Big Bend segment in southern California we detect vertical uplift as expected by mechanical models of interseismic deformation. Additionaly all our velocity maps reveal small wavelength deformation signals of anthropogenic origin.

  14. An Initial Assessment of the Surface Reference Technique Applied to Data from the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) on the GPM Satellite (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kim, Hyokyung; Liao, Liang; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Kwiatkowski, John M.


    It has long been recognized that path-integrated attenuation (PIA) can be used to improve precipitation estimates from high-frequency weather radar data. One approach that provides an estimate of this quantity from airborne or spaceborne radar data is the surface reference technique (SRT), which uses measurements of the surface cross section in the presence and absence of precipitation. Measurements from the dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite afford the first opportunity to test the method for spaceborne radar data at Ka band as well as for the Ku-band-Ka-band combination. The study begins by reviewing the basis of the single- and dual-frequency SRT. As the performance of the method is closely tied to the behavior of the normalized radar cross section (NRCS or sigma(0)) of the surface, the statistics of sigma(0) derived from DPR measurements are given as a function of incidence angle and frequency for ocean and land backgrounds over a 1-month period. Several independent estimates of the PIA, formed by means of different surface reference datasets, can be used to test the consistency of the method since, in the absence of error, the estimates should be identical. Along with theoretical considerations, the comparisons provide an initial assessment of the performance of the single- and dual-frequency SRT for the DPR. The study finds that the dual-frequency SRT can provide improvement in the accuracy of path attenuation estimates relative to the single-frequency method, particularly at Ku band.

  15. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco


    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  16. Spaceborne weather radar (United States)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki


    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  17. Ground penetrating radar documents short-term near-surface hydrological changes around Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA (United States)

    Lynne, Bridget Y.; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Smith, Gary J.; Smith, Isaac J.; Foley, Duncan


    In April 2015, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to characterize the shallow subsurface (< 5 m depth) of the western sinter slope immediately adjacent to Old Faithful Geyser and near the north side of an inferred geyser cavity. A series of time-sequence images were collected between two eruptions of Old Faithful Geyser. Each set of time-sequence GPR recordings consisted of four transects aligned to provide coverage near the potential location of the inferred 15 m deep geyser chamber. However, the deepest penetration we could achieve with a 200 MHz GPR antennae was 5 m. Seven time-sequence events were collected over a 48-minute interval to image changes in the near-surface, during pre- and post-eruptive cycles. Time-sequence GPR images revealed a series of possible micro-fractures in a highly porous siliceous sinter in the near-surface that fill and drain repetitively, immediately after an eruption and during the recharge period prior to the next main eruptive event.

  18. Estimation of the near surface soil water content during evaporation using air-launched ground-penetrating radar

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood


    Evaporation is an important process in the global water cycle and its variation affects the near sur-face soil water content, which is crucial for surface hydrology and climate modelling. Soil evaporation rate is often characterized by two distinct phases, namely, the energy limited phase (stage-I) and the soil hydraulic limited period (stage-II). In this paper, a laboratory experiment was conducted using a sand box filled with fine sand, which was subject to evaporation for a period of twenty three days. The setup was equipped with a weighting system to record automatically the weight of the sand box with a constant time-step. Furthermore, time-lapse air-launched ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements were performed to monitor the evaporation process. The GPR model involves a full-waveform frequency-domain solution of Maxwell\\'s equations for wave propagation in three-dimensional multilayered media. The accuracy of the full-waveform GPR forward modelling with respect to three different petrophysical models was investigated. Moreover, full-waveform inversion of the GPR data was used to estimate the quantitative information, such as near surface soil water content. The two stages of evaporation can be clearly observed in the radargram, which indicates qualitatively that enough information is contained in the GPR data. The full-waveform GPR inversion allows for accurate estimation of the near surface soil water content during extended evaporation phases, when a wide frequency range of GPR (0.8-5.0 GHz) is taken into account. In addition, the results indicate that the CRIM model may constitute a relevant alternative in solving the frequency-dependency issue for full waveform GPR modelling.

  19. Detection of elliptical contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokland, J.A.K.


    This dissertation describes the quantitation of myocardial perfusion defects in planar thallium-201 scintigrams. To be able to quantify the distribution of 201 Tl in the myocardium as imaged by the scintigram, accurate delineation of the target object is a prerequisite. The distribution of the radionuclide within the contour of the left ventricle can be described by application of circumferential profiles. By comparing the computed circumferential profile with those of normal subjects, humans with no evidence of coronary artery disease, segments of the left ventricle with decreased bloodflow can be detected. In practice there is no real standard to compare with, and due to noise and biological variations, it is not always possible to make a definite decision regarding the presence of a defect in the distribution of the radionuclide. The value and limitations of the developed quantification procedure are discussed. Some future developments are suggested. 108 refs.; 57 figs.; 5 tabs

  20. Radar-Assisted Mapping of Massive Ice in Western Utopia Planitia, Mars: Degradational Mechanisms and Implications for Surface Evolution (United States)

    Stuurman, C. M.; Levy, J. S.; Holt, J. W.; Harrison, T. N.; Osinski, G. R.


    Western Utopia Planitia remains an enigmatic region of Mars. Radar and morphological analyses have framed the area as rich in ground ice, however there exist multiple theories regarding how the ice was emplaced. Here, we combine radar and morphological analyses to characterize the recent history of water ice in western Utopia Planitia. A radar reflective interface found in SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) data in Utopia Planitia is found to correlate with layered mesas 80-110 m thick. Discontinuities in the radar reflective interface relate to degradation of the layered mesas. This work uses the extent of the reflective interface to map the previous extent of the layered mesas, which we believe constitutes the remnants of a large ice sheet formed in the Late Amazonian. The past volume of the ice sheet is to be determined by the SHARAD-assisted mapping. This volume will be related to the recent climate history of western Utopia Planitia.

  1. Radar Chart (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  2. An Unusual Application of NASTRAN Contour Plotting Capability (United States)

    Mittal, S.; Gallo, M.; Wang, T.


    A procedure is presented for obtaining contour plots of any physical quantity defined on a number of points of the surface of a structure. Rigid Format 1 of HEAT approach in Cosmic NASTRAN is ALTERED to enable use of contour plotting capability for scalar quantities. The ALTERED DMAP sequence is given. Examples include temperature distribution on the face of a cooled laser mirror and the angle of incidence or a radome surface.

  3. Visualizing Contour Trees within Histograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin


    Many of the topological features of the isosurfaces of a scalar volume field can be compactly represented by its contour tree. Unfortunately, the contour trees of most real-world volume data sets are too complex to be visualized by dot-and-line diagrams. Therefore, we propose a new visualization ...

  4. DEM generation from contours and a low-resolution DEM (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Shen, Huanfeng; Feng, Ruitao; Li, Jie; Zhang, Liangpei


    A digital elevation model (DEM) is a virtual representation of topography, where the terrain is established by the three-dimensional co-ordinates. In the framework of sparse representation, this paper investigates DEM generation from contours. Since contours are usually sparsely distributed and closely related in space, sparse spatial regularization (SSR) is enforced on them. In order to make up for the lack of spatial information, another lower spatial resolution DEM from the same geographical area is introduced. In this way, the sparse representation implements the spatial constraints in the contours and extracts the complementary information from the auxiliary DEM. Furthermore, the proposed method integrates the advantage of the unbiased estimation of kriging. For brevity, the proposed method is called the kriging and sparse spatial regularization (KSSR) method. The performance of the proposed KSSR method is demonstrated by experiments in Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 30 m DEM and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) 30 m global digital elevation model (GDEM) generation from the corresponding contours and a 90 m DEM. The experiments confirm that the proposed KSSR method outperforms the traditional kriging and SSR methods, and it can be successfully used for DEM generation from contours.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scarmana


    Full Text Available This paper relates to the reconstruction of digital images using their contour representations. The process involves determining the pixel intensity value which would exist at the intersections of a regular grid using the nodes of randomly spaced contour locations. The reconstruction of digital images from their contour maps may also be used as a tool for image compression. This reconstruction process may provide for more accurate results and improved visual details than existing compressed versions of the same image, while requiring similar memory space for storage and speed of transmission over digital links. For the class of images investigated in this work, the contour approach to image reconstruction and compression requires contour data to be filtered and eliminated from the reconstruction process. Statistical tests which validate the proposed process conclude this paper.

  6. Behavior Subtraction applied to radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Caro Cuenca, M.


    An algorithm developed for optical images has been applied to radar data. The algorithm, Behavior Subtraction, is based on capturing the dynamics of a scene and detecting anomalous behavior. The radar application is the detection of small surface targets at sea. The sea surface yields the expected

  7. Electromagnetic Modeling, Optimization and Uncertainty Quantification for Antenna and Radar Systems Surfaces Scattering and Energy Absorption (United States)


    technique. This method is a substitute for a former “ polar -integration” algorithm [16, 24, 25] for integra- 1We believe this example reveals the true power...same accuracy levels as the polar -integration approach, but it does not require use of a complex polar integration or otherwise specialized algorithm ...solution on surfaces given in formats derived from Computer Aided Design, also known as CAD, and it has lead to new solvers for problems of Scattering


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity(trademark) surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects

  9. Contour Error Map Algorithm (United States)

    Merceret, Francis; Lane, John; Immer, Christopher; Case, Jonathan; Manobianco, John


    The contour error map (CEM) algorithm and the software that implements the algorithm are means of quantifying correlations between sets of time-varying data that are binarized and registered on spatial grids. The present version of the software is intended for use in evaluating numerical weather forecasts against observational sea-breeze data. In cases in which observational data come from off-grid stations, it is necessary to preprocess the observational data to transform them into gridded data. First, the wind direction is gridded and binarized so that D(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on forecast data and d(i,j;n) is the input to CEM based on gridded observational data. Here, i and j are spatial indices representing 1.25-km intervals along the west-to-east and south-to-north directions, respectively; and n is a time index representing 5-minute intervals. A binary value of D or d = 0 corresponds to an offshore wind, whereas a value of D or d = 1 corresponds to an onshore wind. CEM includes two notable subalgorithms: One identifies and verifies sea-breeze boundaries; the other, which can be invoked optionally, performs an image-erosion function for the purpose of attempting to eliminate river-breeze contributions in the wind fields.

  10. Radar response to crop residue cover and tillage application on postharvest agricultural surfaces (United States)

    McNairn, Heather

    Les informations sur les pratiques de conservation des sols comme le labourage et la gestion des residus de culture sont requises afin d'estimer avec exactitude les risques d'erosion des sols. Quoique les micro-ondes soient sensibles aux conditions d'humidite et aux proprietes geometriques des surfaces, il n'en demeure pas moins que l'on connait encore peu sur la sensibilite des micro-ondes polarisees lineaires ou des parametres polarimetriques du ROS en fonction des caracteristiques des residus. A partir de donnees prises a l'aide d'un diffusometre monte sur un camion en 1996 et lors d'une mission SIR-C menee en 1994, cette recherche a demontre que les micro-ondes sont sensibles a la fois a la quantite et au type de couverture de residus, de meme qu'a la teneur en eau des residus. La reponse des polarisations croisees lineaires et de plusieurs parametres polarimetriques, incluant la hauteur pedestre, a permis d'observer qu'une diffusion volumique importante avait lieu en presence de vegetation senescente qui se tenait debout et pour les champs non laboures. La diffusion de surface dominait cependant pour les champs avec de faibles quantites de residus et des residus plus fins. La recherche a toutefois demontre que des conditions de surface complexes etaient crees par differentes combinaisons de residus et de pratiques de labourage. Par consequent, il faudra attendre que des donnees multi-polarisees ou polarimetriques soient acquises par les capteurs prevus a bord du satellite canadien RADARSAT-2 et du satellite ENVISAT de l'Agence spatiale europeenne avant de pouvoir completement caracteriser les champs apres la recolte.

  11. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K


    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  12. Digital extraction of interference fringe contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastin, G.A.; Ghiglia, D.C.


    Two basic techniques for extracting interferogram contours have been discussed. The first is a global contour extracton technique based on the fast Fourier transform. The second extracts individual contours with a thinning algorithm using logical neighborhood transformations

  13. Contours - MO 2012 Greene County 5ft Contours (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — 5ft cartographic contour file for Greene County, Missouri. This file was created using the elevation data from the 2011 LiDAR flight. It includes indexes for 10, 25,...

  14. In vitro performance of full-contour zirconia single crowns. (United States)

    Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Gueth, Jan-Frederik; Edelhoff, Daniel; Naumann, Michael


    Zirconia based restorations exhibited high failure rates due to veneering-porcelain fractures. Milling to full-contour might be an alternative approach for zirconia restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate full-contour zirconia crowns in terms of light-transmission, contact wear (restoration and antagonist) and load-bearing capacity. Powder build-up veneered zirconia substructures and CAD/CAM-veneered zirconia substructures served as controls. Four different kinds of crowns were fabricated on 12 metal dies: zirconia substructure with powder build-up porcelain (veneering technique), zirconia substructure with CAD/CAM generated veneering (sintering technique), full-contour zirconia glazed (glazed full-contour) and full-contour zirconia polished (polished full-contour). All crowns had the same dimensions. After light-transmission was measured the crowns were cemented on the corresponding metal dies. The specimens were loaded according to a special wear method in the chewing simulator (120,000 mechanical cycles, 5 kg load, 0.7 mm sliding movement, 320 thermocycles). Wear of the restoration and the antagonist were measured. All specimens were loaded until failure. One-way ANOVA and a LSD post-hoc test were used to compare data at a level of 5%. Polished full-contour showed significantly higher light transmission than the other groups (p=0.003; ANOVA). Polished full-contour exhibited significantly less contact wear at the restoration (p=0.01; ANOVA) and higher contact wear at the antagonist (p=0.016; ANOVA) compared to the other groups. Glazed full-contour zirconia showed similar contact wear at the antagonist compared to veneering technique (p=0.513, post-hoc LSD). Crowns with conventional veneering showed significantly lower load-bearing capacity (pzirconia to full-contour with glazed surface might be an alternative to traditionally veneered restorations. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Ultra-Wideband, Microwave Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness on Sea Ice and Mapping Near-Surface Internal Layers in Polar Firn (United States)

    Panzer, Ben; Gomez-Garcia, Daniel; Leuschen, Carl; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Patel, Azsa; Markus, Thorsten; Holt, Benjamin; Gogineni, Prasad


    Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100mW signal is swept from 2 to 8GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 c range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.

  16. SU-E-J-129: Atlas Development for Cardiac Automatic Contouring Using Multi-Atlas Segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, R; Yang, J; Pan, T; Milgrom, S; Pinnix, C; Shi, A; Yang, J; Liu, Y; Nguyen, Q; Gomez, D; Dabaja, B; Balter, P; Court, L; Liao, Z


    Purpose: To develop a set of atlases for automatic contouring of cardiac structures to determine heart radiation dose and the associated toxicity. Methods: Six thoracic cancer patients with both contrast and non-contrast CT images were acquired for this study. Eight radiation oncologists manually and independently delineated cardiac contours on the non-contrast CT by referring to the fused contrast CT and following the RTOG 1106 atlas contouring guideline. Fifteen regions of interest (ROIs) were delineated, including heart, four chambers, four coronary arteries, pulmonary artery and vein, inferior and superior vena cava, and ascending and descending aorta. Individual expert contours were fused using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm for each ROI and each patient. The fused contours became atlases for an in-house multi-atlas segmentation. Using leave-one-out test, we generated auto-segmented contours for each ROI and each patient. The auto-segmented contours were compared with the fused contours using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean surface distance (MSD). Results: Inter-observer variability was not obvious for heart, chambers, and aorta but was large for other structures that were not clearly distinguishable on CT image. The average DSC between individual expert contours and the fused contours were less than 50% for coronary arteries and pulmonary vein, and the average MSD were greater than 4.0 mm. The largest MSD of expert contours deviating from the fused contours was 2.5 cm. The mean DSC and MSD of auto-segmented contours were within one standard deviation of expert contouring variability except the right coronary artery. The coronary arteries, vena cava, and pulmonary vein had DSC<70% and MSD>3.0 mm. Conclusion: A set of cardiac atlases was created for cardiac automatic contouring, the accuracy of which was comparable to the variability in expert contouring. However, substantial modification may need

  17. New look at radar auroral motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.; Ecklund, W.L.


    During October 1974, three modifications were temporarily added to the NOAA radar auroral backscatter facility located at Anchorage, Alaska. These modifications included (1) a multiple azimuth antenna system. (2) an on-line computer for processing amplitude and mean Doppler profiles of the radar backscatter, and (3) a 13-baud Barker coder. In combination with the radar these modifications provided data relevant to understanding both the microscopic and the macroscopic nature of the radar aurora. Appreciable structure was often found in the Doppler velocity profiles of radar auroral irregularities. Doppler velocities of nearly 2000 m/s were observed. By combining scatter amplitude profiles and mean Doppler profiles from the five azimuths we have produced contour maps of the scatter intensity and the Doppler velocity. The scatter intensity maps often indicate appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the radar auroral irregularities, corroborating the results of Tsunoda et al. (1974). The mean Doppler contour maps indicate that there is also appreciable temporal and spatial structure in the flow velocities of radar auroral irregularities. At those times when there appears to be large-scale uniformity in the irregularity flow, the Doppler velocity varies with azimuth in a manner that is consistent with a cosine-dependent azimuthal variation

  18. Composite Fermions with Tunable Fermi Contour Anisotropy (United States)

    Kamburov, D.; Liu, Yang; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.


    The composite fermion formalism elegantly describes some of the most fascinating behaviors of interacting two-dimensional carriers at low temperatures and in strong perpendicular magnetic fields. In this framework, carriers minimize their energy by attaching two flux quanta and forming new quasiparticles, the so-called composite fermions. Thanks to the flux attachment, when a Landau level is half-filled, the composite fermions feel a vanishing effective magnetic field and possess a Fermi surface with a well-defined Fermi contour. Our measurements in a high-quality two-dimensional hole system confined to a GaAs quantum well demonstrate that a parallel magnetic field can significantly distort the hole-flux composite fermion Fermi contour.

  19. Applying 2-D resistivity imaging and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods to identify infiltration of water in the ground surface (United States)

    Yusof, Azim Hilmy Mohamad; Azman, Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Ismail, Noer El Hidayah


    Infiltration of water into the soil mostly happens in area near to the ocean or area where rain occurred frequently. This paper explains about the water infiltration process that occurred vertically and horizontally at the subsurface layer. Infiltration act as an indicator of the soil's ability to allow water movement into and through the soil profile. This research takes place at Teluk Kumbar, Pulau Pinang, area that located near to the sea. Thus, infiltration process occurs actively. The study area consists of unconsolidated marine clay, sand and gravel deposits. Furthermore, the methods used for this research is 2-D Resistivity Imaging by using Wenner-Schlumberger array with 2.5 m minimum electrode spacing, and the second method is Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with antenna frequency of 250MHz. 2-D Resistivity Imaging is used to investigate the subsurface layer of the soil. Other than that, this method can also be used to investigate the water infiltration that happens horizontally. GPR is used to investigate shallow subsurface layer and to investigate the water infiltration from above. The results of inversion model of 2-D Resistivity Imaging shows that the subsurface layer at distance of 0 m to 20 m are suspected to be salt water intrusion zone due to the resistivity value of 0 Ω.m to 1 Ω.m. As for the radargram results from the GPR, the anomaly seems to be blurry and unclear, and EM waves signal can only penetrate up to 1.5 m depth. This feature shows that the subsurface layer is saturated with salt water. Applying 2-D resistivity imaging and GPR method were implemented to each other in identifying infiltration of water in the ground surface.

  20. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) responses for sub-surface salt contamination and solid waste: modeling and controlled lysimeter studies. (United States)

    Wijewardana, Y N S; Shilpadi, A T; Mowjood, M I M; Kawamoto, K; Galagedara, L W


    The assessment of polluted areas and municipal solid waste (MSW) sites using non-destructive geophysical methods is timely and much needed in the field of environmental monitoring and management. The objectives of this study are (i) to evaluate the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) wave responses as a result of different electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater and (ii) to conduct MSW stratification using a controlled lysimeter and modeling approach. A GPR wave simulation was carried out using GprMax2D software, and the field test was done on two lysimeters that were filled with sand (Lysimeter-1) and MSW (Lysimeter-2). A Pulse EKKO-Pro GPR system with 200- and 500-MHz center frequency antennae was used to collect GPR field data. Amplitudes of GPR-reflected waves (sub-surface reflectors and water table) were studied under different EC levels injected to the water table. Modeling results revealed that the signal strength of the reflected wave decreases with increasing EC levels and the disappearance of the subsurface reflection and wave amplitude reaching zero at higher EC levels (when EC >0.28 S/m). Further, when the EC level was high, the plume thickness did not have a significant effect on the amplitude of the reflected wave. However, it was also found that reflected signal strength decreases with increasing plume thickness at a given EC level. 2D GPR profile images under wet conditions showed stratification of the waste layers and relative thickness, but it was difficult to resolve the waste layers under dry conditions. These results show that the GPR as a non-destructive method with a relatively larger sample volume can be used to identify highly polluted areas with inorganic contaminants in groundwater and waste stratification. The current methods of MSW dumpsite investigation are tedious, destructive, time consuming, costly, and provide only point-scale measurements. However, further research is needed to verify the results under heterogeneous aquifer

  1. Improving the Accuracy of Coastal Sea Surface Heights by Retracking Decontaminated Radar Altimetry Waveforms (United States)

    Huang, Zhengkai; Wang, Haihong; Luo, Zhicai


    Due to the complex coastal topography and energetic ocean dynamics effect, the return echoes are contaminated while the satellite footprint approaches or leaves the coastline. Specular peaks are often induced in the trailing edges of contaminated waveforms, thus leading the error in the determination of the leading edge and associated track offset in the waveform retracking process. We propose an improved algorithm base on Tseng's modification method to decontaminated coastal (0-7 km from coastline) waveforms, thus improving both the utilization and precision of coastal sea surface height (SSH). Using the Envisat/Jason-2 SGDR data, the shortcoming of Tseng's method is pointed out and the novel algorithm is proposed by revising the strategy of selecting reference waveform and determining weight for removing outlier. The reference waveform of the decontaminated technology is closer to the real waveform of the offshore area, which avoids the over-modification problem of Tseng method. The sea-level measurements from tide gauge station and geoid height from EGM2008 model were used to validate the retracking strategy. Experimental results show that decontaminated waveform was more suitable than original and Tseng modified waveform and has uniform performance in both compare to the tide gauge and geoid. The retrieved altimetry data in the 0-1km and 1-7km coastal zone indicate that threshold retracker with decontaminated waveform have STD of 73.8cm and 33cm as compared with in situ gauge data,which correspond to 62.1% and 58% in precession compared to the unretracked altimetry measurements. The retracked SSHs are better in two coastal (0-1 km and 1-7km) zones, which have STD of 11.9cm and 22.7cm as compared with geoid height. Furthermore, the comparisons shows that the precision of decontaminated technology improve 0.3cm and 3.3cm than the best result of PISTACH product in coastal sea. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos

  2. Validation of Sensing Ocean Surface Currents Using Multi-Frequency HF Radar Based on a Circular Receiving Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao


    Full Text Available To reduce the floor space of receiving antenna arrays, the Radio Ocean Remote SEnsing (RORSE laboratory of Wuhan University developed a circular receiving array for a multi-frequency high frequency (MHF radar system in 2014, consisting of seven uniformly spaced antenna elements positioned on a circle with a diameter of 5 m. The new system, which is abbreviated MHF-C radar, adopts frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW chirps and is capable of simultaneously operating at a maximum of four frequencies in the band of 7.5–25 MHz, and providing current, wave and wind maps every ten minutes. The phase direction-finding method is utilized to estimate the directions of the current signals, and array phase uncertainties are also taken into consideration in the signal model. This paper introduces the system in detail and investigates the performance of current measurements using MHF-C radars installed at Shengshan and Zhujiajian along the coast of the East China Sea. Radial current measurements derived from 8.27 MHz and 19.20 MHz at the same range are compared. Observations and comparisons between MHF-C radars and acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs are also presented in this paper. The results preliminarily demonstrate that the MHF-C radar system is capable of maintaining the same performance for current measurements whenever it steers to any other azimuth in the coverage and has a good ability to measure currents.

  3. Linking sardine recruitment in coastal areas to ocean currents using surface drifters and HF radar. A case study in the Gulf of Manfredonia, Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Roberta; Berta, Maristella; Carlson, Daniel Frazier


    with observations of surface ocean currents to test two hypotheses: 1) ELHS are transported from remote spawning areas (SAs) by ocean cur- rents to the Gulf of Manfredonia; 2) sardines spawn locally and ELHS are retained by eddies. A historical surface drifter database is used to test hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 2......Understanding the role of ocean currents in the recruitment of commercially and ecologically important fish is an important step towards developing sustainable resource management guidelines. To this end, we attempt to elucidate the role of surface ocean transport in supplying recruits of sardine...... is tested by estimating residence times of surface drifters and virtual particles trajectories that were computed from high resolution observations of surface currents measured by a High Frequency (HF) radar network. Transport from remote SAs seems more likely than local spawning and retention given...

  4. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada C, F.A.; Sanz, D.E.


    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  5. Full-wave modelling of ground-penetrating radars : Antenna mutual coupling phenomena and sub-surface scattering processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caratelli, D.; Yarovoy, A.


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology finds applications in many areas such as geophysical prospecting, archaeology, civil engineering, environmental engineering, and defence applications as a non-invasive sensing tool [3], [6], [18]. One key component in any GPR system is the

  6. Validation of high-frequency radar ocean surface current observations in the NW of the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Lorente, P.; Piedracoba, S.; Fanjul, E. Alvarez


    An assessment of the accuracy of a four-site long-range (5 MHz) CODAR SeaSonde HF radar network deployed along the Galician Coast is attempted through a comparison with measurements from two moored current meters for the entire year 2012. Radial vectors comparison shows correlation coefficients and RMSE in the ranges 0.32-0.72 and 10-17 cm s-1, respectively. Observed discrepancies in current velocities could be partially attributable to the existence of bearing errors and the influence of the current profile, although other factors like the Stokes drift or intrinsic HF radar variance might also contribute. Evidence of bearing errors can be seen, with values lying between -15° and +10°. The study is also conducted on a quarterly basis in order to routinely monitor performance of the sites in terms of bearing offset evolution, with offset values remaining stable throughout 2012. Use of measured antenna pattern only improves performance at two radar sites. Comparison of total current vectors is carried out together with an evaluation of the impact of the selected averaging radius (AR). Lower AR values give rise to optimized metrics when radar sites involved in the comparison operate accurately, reporting correlations and RMSE in the ranges 0.56-0.74 and 8-13 cm s-1, respectively. By contrast, if at least one of the two involved sites operates erratically, the strategy based on reducing AR becomes counterproductive and the imposed standard value of 25 km seems to be appropriate.

  7. Characterization of seepage surfaces from Space-borne radar interferometry stacking techniques, Southern Dead Sea area, Jordan (United States)

    Tessari, Giulia; Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib; Atzori, Simone; Fiaschi, Simone; Floris, Mario; Pasquali, Paolo; Riccardi, Paolo


    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake located in a pull-apart basin of the Dead Sea Transform fault zone. It is the lowest emerged place on Earth at about -428 m bsl. Since the 1960s, the over-pumping of its tributaries leads to a decrease in the water level. Eventually, it became more pronounced decades after decades. In 2014, it is more than 1m/year. The overall drop is around 33 m. With salinity ten times greater than the ocean water one, the lake body and its underground lateral extensions act as a high density layer over which the fresh ground waters are in hydrostatic equilibrium. The slope of the interface between saline and fresh waters is ten times shallower than normally expected near the ocean. According to a number of wells along the Jordanian Dead Sea coast, the water table level does not drop at the same speed than the Dead Sea. An increasingly important gradient is constantly being created along the coastal zone. In many places, the fresh ground waters move very rapidly towards the base level to compensate for the imbalance. This statement is supported by a body of observations: a) appearance of vegetation (Tamarisk) in arid areas (precipitation: 50 to 70 mm/year) dominated by salt deposits such as the Lisan peninsula; b) presence of submarine circular collapses visible along the coast. Their diameters decreasing with distance from the shore line; c) appearances of springs and recurring landslides along the coast. With the exception of the submarine features, all these elements are located in the land strip that emerged progressively from the 1960s, 33 m in elevation, ranging from a few decameters up to several kilometers wide. In many places, the surface is characterized by superficial seepages causing subtle to very pronounced subsidence, and sinkholes. In this contribution, we show that advanced differential radar interferometry techniques applied to ERS, ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed images stacks are able to underscore the most affected places. The mapping

  8. Detecting surface oil slick related to gas hydrate/petroleum on the ocean bed of South China Sea by ENVI/ASAR radar data (United States)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Chen, Duofu; Song, Zhiguang


    For exploring the distribution of oil slick related to gas hydrate or petroleum in the northern part of South China Sea and evaluating the potential of ENVI/ASAR radar data for detecting oil slick, this paper tries to detect the oil slick on ocean surface of some potential areas in South China Sea and map oil slick from anomaly area in radar image. Seven surface oil slicks in Qiongdongnan Basin and four potential targets of oil slicks in Taixi-Dongsha Basin were detected and extracted by using ENIV/ASAR data. The anomalies of the radar image representing oil slick are validated by in-site sampling and laboratory analyzing. The Gas Chromatograph (GC) results of the extracted oil from the water samples gathered from the sites of detected oil slick demonstrate a typical composition of oil rather than that of ocean microbial origins, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in two designed vertical profiles keep steady in different depths, showing that the organic contents in water column are steady from the deep area to ocean surface. These results suggest the detected oil slick is a thin floating oil rather than a thick spill. Influencing factors to the results of oil slick detection including wind speed, current, small islands and capes as well as deep-sea petroleum reservoirs are discussed. The results in this study exhibit that extracting the anomaly signals related to oil slick related to oil/gas seeps using image processing techniques from ENVI/ASAR data is helpful to predict anomaly areas as potential targets for further exploration in this area.

  9. Towards Stabilizing Parametric Active Contours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinchao; Fan, Zhun; Olsen, Søren Ingvor


    to a parametrization that is proportional to the natural parametrization which implies that the control points of the contour are uniformly distributed. We theoretically prove that this tangential diffusion term is bounded and therefore numerically stable. Several experiments were conducted and verified......Numerical instability often occurs in evolving of parametric active contours. This is mainly due to the undesired change of parametrization during evolution. In this paper, we propose a new tangential diffusion term to compensate this undesired change. As a result, the parametrization will converge...

  10. Continuous Estimates of Surface Density and Annual Snow Accumulation with Multi-Channel Snow/Firn Penetrating Radar in the Percolation Zone, Western Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Meehan, T.; Marshall, H. P.; Bradford, J.; Hawley, R. L.; Osterberg, E. C.; McCarthy, F.; Lewis, G.; Graeter, K.


    A priority of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) prediction is ascertaining the surface density and annual snow accumulation. These forcing data can be supplied into firn compaction models and used to tune Regional Climate Models (RCM). RCMs do not accurately capture subtle changes in the snow accumulation gradient. Additionally, leading RCMs disagree among each other and with accumulation studies in regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) over large distances and temporal scales. RCMs tend to yield inconsistencies over GrIS because of sparse and outdated validation data in the reanalysis pool. Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS) implemented multi-channel 500 MHz Radar in multi-offset configuration throughout two traverse campaigns totaling greater than 3500 km along the western percolation zone of GrIS. The multi-channel radar has the capability of continuously estimating snow depth, average density, and annual snow accumulation, expressed at 95% confidence (+-) 0.15 m, (+-) 17 kgm-3, (+-) 0.04 m w.e. respectively, by examination of the primary reflection return from the previous year's summer surface.

  11. 30 CFR 785.16 - Permits incorporating variances from approximate original contour restoration requirements for... (United States)


    ... approximate original contour restoration requirements for steep slope mining. 785.16 Section 785.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL... approximate original contour restoration requirements for steep slope mining. (a) The regulatory authority may...

  12. On the perception of illusory contours. (United States)

    Ramachandran, V S; Ruskin, D; Cobb, S; Rogers-Ramachandran, D; Tyler, C W


    Illusory contours are invoked by the visual system to account for otherwise inexplicable gaps in the image. We report three sets of novel observations on illusory contours. First, when an illusory square is superimposed on a checkerboard pattern there is a considerable enhancement of the contours so long as they are exactly coincident with the borders of the checks. If the checks are misaligned, on the other hand, the illusory contours associated with the pacman edges disappear and a novel percept emerges: the contours of the checks nearest to the illusory square appear enhanced. This result implies that subjective contours are generated by intermediate-level contour interactions rather than the top-down processes of three-dimensional interpretation. Second, we find that steady fixation for as little as 4 sec leads to a complete disappearance of the enhanced illusory contours caused, presumably, by adaptation or "fatigue" of cells that signal these contours. Such adaptation occurred even when the illusory contours were rendered invisible by displaying them on a misaligned checkerboard, suggesting that the adaptation occurs prior to the vetoing of the signal by the checks. Third, we found that illusory contours persist for a surprisingly long time (0.3 sec) after the inducing elements have been switched off. These results suggest that the stimuli we have designed ("enhanced illusory contours") might provide a novel probe for dissecting different stages involved in the processing of illusory contours and for understanding how the visual system combines different types of contours to construct object boundaries.

  13. Auto-propagation of contours for adaptive prostate radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Ming; Xie Yaoqin; Xing Lei


    The purpose of this work is to develop an effective technique to automatically propagate contours from planning CT to cone beam CT (CBCT) to facilitate CBCT-guided prostate adaptive radiation therapy. Different from other disease sites, such as the lungs, the contour mapping here is complicated by two factors: (i) the physical one-to-one correspondence may not exist due to the insertion or removal of some image contents within the region of interest (ROI); and (ii) reduced contrast to noise ratio of the CBCT images due to increased scatter. To overcome these issues, we investigate a strategy of excluding the regions with variable contents by a careful design of a narrow shell signifying the contour of an ROI. For rectum, for example, a narrow shell with the delineated contours as its interior surface was constructed to avoid the adverse influence of the day-to-day content change inside the rectum on the contour mapping. The corresponding contours in the CBCT were found by warping the narrow shell through the use of BSpline deformable model. Both digital phantom experiments and clinical case testing were carried out to validate the proposed ROI mapping method. It was found that the approach was able to reliably warp the constructed narrow band with an accuracy better than 1.3 mm. For all five clinical cases enrolled in this study, the method yielded satisfactory results even when there were significant rectal content changes between the planning CT and CBCT scans. The overlapped area of the auto-mapped contours over 90% to the manually drawn contours is readily achievable. The proposed approach permits us to take advantage of the regional calculation algorithm yet avoiding the nuisance of rectum/bladder filling and provide a useful tool for adaptive radiotherapy of prostate in the future

  14. Auto-propagation of contours for adaptive prostate radiation therapy (United States)

    Chao, Ming; Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei


    The purpose of this work is to develop an effective technique to automatically propagate contours from planning CT to cone beam CT (CBCT) to facilitate CBCT-guided prostate adaptive radiation therapy. Different from other disease sites, such as the lungs, the contour mapping here is complicated by two factors: (i) the physical one-to-one correspondence may not exist due to the insertion or removal of some image contents within the region of interest (ROI); and (ii) reduced contrast to noise ratio of the CBCT images due to increased scatter. To overcome these issues, we investigate a strategy of excluding the regions with variable contents by a careful design of a narrow shell signifying the contour of an ROI. For rectum, for example, a narrow shell with the delineated contours as its interior surface was constructed to avoid the adverse influence of the day-to-day content change inside the rectum on the contour mapping. The corresponding contours in the CBCT were found by warping the narrow shell through the use of BSpline deformable model. Both digital phantom experiments and clinical case testing were carried out to validate the proposed ROI mapping method. It was found that the approach was able to reliably warp the constructed narrow band with an accuracy better than 1.3 mm. For all five clinical cases enrolled in this study, the method yielded satisfactory results even when there were significant rectal content changes between the planning CT and CBCT scans. The overlapped area of the auto-mapped contours over 90% to the manually drawn contours is readily achievable. The proposed approach permits us to take advantage of the regional calculation algorithm yet avoiding the nuisance of rectum/bladder filling and provide a useful tool for adaptive radiotherapy of prostate in the future.

  15. The Main Cognitive Model of Visual Recognition: Contour Recognition


    Chen, YongHong


    In this paper, we will study the following pattern recognition problem: Every pattern is a 3-dimensional graph, its surface can be split up into some regions, every region is composed of the pixels with the approximately same colour value and the approximately same depth value that is distance to eyes, and there may also be some contours, e.g., literal contours, on a surface of every pattern. For this problem we reveal the inherent laws. Moreover, we establish a cognitive model to reflect the...

  16. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J


    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  17. Radar Image with Color as Height, Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia (United States)


    This image of Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia, was taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). The image depicts an area northwest of Angkor Wat. The radar has highlighted a number of circular village mounds in this region, many of which have a circular pattern of rice fields surrounding the slightly elevated site. Most of them have evidence of what seems to be pre-Angkor occupation, such as stone tools and potsherds. Most of them also have a group of five spirit posts, a pattern not found in other parts of Cambodia. The shape of the mound, the location in the midst of a ring of rice fields, the stone tools and the current practice of spirit veneration have revealed themselves through a unique 'marriage' of radar imaging, archaeological investigation, and anthropology.Ancharn Kuy is a small village adjacent to the road, with just this combination of features. The region gets slowly higher in elevation, something seen in the shift of color from yellow to blue as you move to the top of the image.The small dark rectangles are typical of the smaller water control devices employed in this area. While many of these in the center of Angkor are linked to temples of the 9th to 14th Century A.D., we cannot be sure of the construction date of these small village tanks. They may pre-date the temple complex, or they may have just been dug ten years ago!The image dimensions are approximately 4.75 by 4.3 kilometers (3 by 2.7 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color; that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again; corresponds to 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR

  18. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Radar image, color as height (United States)


    This topographic radar image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  19. Foliage penetration radar detection and characterization of objects under trees

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark


    This book covers all aspects of foliage penetration (FOPEN) radar, concentrating on both airborne military radar systems as well as earth resource mapping radars. It is the first concise and thorough treatment of FOPEN, covering the results of a decade-long investment by DARPA in characterizing foliage and earth surface with ultrawideband UHF and VHF synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  20. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zaib Jadoon


    Full Text Available We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  1. Temporal Monitoring of the Soil Freeze-Thaw Cycles over a Snow-Covered Surface by Using Air-Launched Ground-Penetrating Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan


    We tested an off-ground ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system at a fixed location over a bare agricultural field to monitor the soil freeze-thaw cycles over a snow-covered surface. The GPR system consisted of a monostatic horn antenna combined with a vector network analyzer, providing an ultra-wideband stepped-frequency continuous-wave radar. An antenna calibration experiment was performed to filter antenna and back scattered effects from the raw GPR data. Near the GPR setup, sensors were installed in the soil to monitor the dynamics of soil temperature and dielectric permittivity at different depths. The soil permittivity was retrieved via inversion of time domain GPR data focused on the surface reflection. Significant effects of soil dynamics were observed in the time-lapse GPR, temperature and dielectric permittivity measurements. In particular, five freeze and thaw events were clearly detectable, indicating that the GPR signals respond to the contrast between the dielectric permittivity of frozen and thawed soil. The GPR-derived permittivity was in good agreement with sensor observations. Overall, the off-ground nature of the GPR system permits non-invasive time-lapse observation of the soil freeze-thaw dynamics without disturbing the structure of the snow cover. The proposed method shows promise for the real-time mapping and monitoring of the shallow frozen layer at the field scale.

  2. Brightness/darkness induction and the genesis of a contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRoncato


    Full Text Available Visual contours often result from the integration or interpolation of fragmented edges.The strength of the completion increases when the edges share the same contrast polarity (CP. Here we demonstrate that the appearance in the perceptual field of this integrated unit, or contour of invariant CP, is concomitant with a vivid brightness alteration of the surfaces at its opposite sides. To observe this effect requires some stratagems because the formation in the visual field of a contour of invariant CP normally engenders the formation of a second contour and then the rise of two streams of induction signals that interfere in different ways. Particular configurations have been introduced that allow us to observe the induction effects of one contour taken in isolation. I documented these effects by phenomenological observations and psychophysical measurement of the brightness alteration in relation to luminance contrast. When the edges of the same CP complete to form a contour, the background of homogeneous luminance appears to dim at one side and to brighten at the opposite side (in accord with the CP. The strength of the phenomenon is proportional to the local luminance contrast. This effect weakens or nulls when the contour of the invariant CP separates surfaces filled with different grey shades.These conflicting results stimulate a deeper exploration of the induction phenomena and their role in the computation of brightness contrast. An alternative perspective is offered to account for some brightness illusions and their relation to the phenomenal transparency. The main assumption asserts that, when in the same region induction signals of opposite CP overlap, the filling-in are blocked unless the image is stratified into different layers, one for each signal of the same polarity. Phenomenological observations document this solution by the visual system

  3. Comet Radar Explorer (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; CORE Science Team


    Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is a low cost mission that uses sounding radar to image the 3D internal structure of the nucleus of Jupiter-family comet (JFC) Tempel 2. Believed to originate in the Kuiper Belt, JFCs are among the most primitive bodies in the inner solar system. CORE operates a 5 and 15 MHz Radar Reflection Imager from close orbit about the nucleus of Tempel 2, obtaining a dense network of echoes that are used to map its interior dielectric contrasts to high resolution (ង m) and resolve the dielectric constants to  m throughout the 16x8x9 km nucleus. The resulting clear images of internal structure and composition reveal how the nucleus was formed and how it has evolved. Radiometric tracking of the spacecraft orbit results in an interior mass distribution that constrains the radar-based models of interior composition. High-resolution visible and infrared color images provide the surface and exterior boundary conditions for interior models and hypotheses. They present the geology and morphology of the nucleus surface at meter-scales, and also the time-evolving activity, structure and composition of the inner coma. By making deep connections from interior to exterior, the data CORE provides will answer fundamental questions about the earliest stages of planetesimal evolution and planet formation, and lay the foundation for a comet nucleus sample return mission. CORE is led by Prof. Erik Asphaug of the University of California, Santa Cruz and is managed by JPL. It benefits from key scientific and payload contributions by ASI and CNES. The international science team has been assembled on the basis of their key involvement in past and ongoing missions to comets, and in Mars radar missions, and for their expertise in radar data analysis.

  4. Radar Image with Color as Height, Nokor Pheas Trapeng, Cambodia (United States)


    Nokor Pheas Trapeng is the name of the large black rectangular feature in the center-bottom of this image, acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Its Khmer name translates as 'Tank of the City of Refuge'. The immense tank is a typical structure built by the Khmer for water storage and control, but its size is unusually large. This suggests, as does 'city' in its name, that in ancient times this area was far more prosperous than today.A visit to this remote, inaccessible site was made in December 1998. The huge water tank was hardly visible. From the radar data we knew that the tank stretched some 500 meters (1,640 feet) from east to west. However, between all the plants growing on the surface of the water and the trees and other vegetation in the area, the water tank blended with the surrounding topography. Among the vegetation, on the northeast of the tank, were remains of an ancient temple and a spirit shrine. So although far from the temples of Angkor, to the southeast, the ancient water structure is still venerated by the local people.The image covers an area approximately 9.5 by 8.7 kilometers (5.9 by 5.4 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 meters (65.6 feet) of elevation change; that is, going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 20 meters (65.6 feet) of elevation change.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data

  5. Incorporating Stream Features into Groundwater Contouring Tools Within GIS. (United States)

    Bannister, Roger; Kennelly, Patrick


    Hydrogeologists often are called upon to estimate surfaces from discrete, sparse data points. This estimation is often accomplished by manually drawing contours on maps using interpolation methods between points of known value while accounting for features known to influence the water table's surface. By contrast, geographic information systems (GIS) are good at creating smooth continuous surfaces from limited data points and allowing the user to represent the resulting surface resulting with contours, but these automated methods often fail to meet the expectations of many hydrogeologists because they do not include knowledge of other influences on the water table. In this study, we seek to fill this gap in the GIS-based methodology for hydrogeologists through an interactive tool that shapes an interpolated surface based on additional knowledge of the water table inferred from gaining or losing streams. The modified surface is reflected in water table contours that, for example, "V" upstream for gaining streams, and can be interactively adjusted to fit the user's expectations. By modifying not only the contours but also the associated interpolated surface, additional contours will follow the same trend, and the modified surface can be used for other analyses like calculating average gradients and flow paths. The tool leverages Esri's ArcGIS Desktop software, building upon a robust suite of mapping tools. We see this as a prototype for other tools that could be developed for hydrogeologists to account for variations in the water table inferred from local topographic trends, pumping or injection wells, and other hydrogeologic features. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Space-time Characteristics and Experimental Analysis of Broadening First-order Sea Clutter in HF Hybrid Sky-surface Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Li


    Full Text Available In high frequency (HF hybrid sky-surface wave radar, the first-order sea clutter broadening is very complex and serious under the influence of ionosphere and bistatic angle, which affects the detection of ship target. This paper analyzes the space-time characteristics based on the HF sky-surface wave experimental system. We first introduce the basic structure, working principle and position principle based on our experimental system. Also analyzed is the influence of ionosphere and bistatic angle on the space-time coupling characteristics of broadening first-order sea clutter and the performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP. Finally, the results of theoretic analysis are examined with the experimental data. Simulation results show that the results of experiment consist with that of theoretic analysis.

  7. Weather Radar Stations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  8. Grouping by proximity in haptic contour detection


    Overvliet, Krista; Krampe, Ralf; Wagemans, Johan


    We investigated the applicability of the Gestalt principle of perceptual grouping by proximity in the haptic modality. To do so, we investigated the influence of element proximity on haptic contour detection. In the course of four sessions ten participants performed a haptic contour detection task in which they freely explored a haptic random dot display that contained a contour in 50% of the trials. A contour was defined by a higher density of elements (raised dots), relative to the backgrou...

  9. Contour detection by multiresolution surround inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Campisi, Patrizio; Petkov, Nicolai; Neri, Alessandro


    In natural images, luminance changes occur both on object contours and on textures. Often, the latter are stronger than the former, thus standard edge detectors fail in isolating object contours from texture. To overcome this problem, we propose a multiresolution contour detector motivated by

  10. Contouring controller for precise motion control systems


    Golubovic, Edin; Baran, Eray Abdurrahman; Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif


    This paper discusses the trajectory generation algorithm, contour error construction method and finally the contour controller design. In the trajectory generation algorithm combination of elliptical Fourier descriptors (EFD) and time based spline approximation (TBSA) is used to generate position, velocity and acceleration references.Contour error is constructed using transformation of trajectory tracking errors. Transformation is computationally efficient and requires only reference velocity...

  11. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  12. A mechanical diagnosis of the ice flow around Dome C: Elmer/Ice 3D simulations constrained by measured surface velocities and radar isochrones. (United States)

    Passalacqua, Olivier; Cavitte, Marie; Frezzotti, Massimo; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Parrenin, Frédéric; Ritz, Catherine; Vittuari, Luca; Young, Duncan


    The Dome C region has been densely surveyed and studied for the last decades, in particular to describe the shape of the ice surface, the bedrock relief, the surface velocity, the age and fabric structure of the ice, and its vertical temperature profile. No comprehensive ice flow modelling constrained by all of these field data has been done so far in this region. In particular, the Dome C has recently been targetted as an oldest-ice area, so that we intend to take advantage of a 2016 airborne radar survey that revealed the deep radar isochrones south-west of Dome C, and provides unprecendented constraints for the ice flow description. The Stokes equations are solved with the Elmer/Ice finite element solver, on a 80x110 km2 3D domain, for three different values of the Glen exponent n (1, 3 and 4.5), and for different fabric profiles. The goal of this study is threefold. First, as the range of stress types (longitudinal, transverse, and vertical compression-only) are well covered around Dome C, the observed surface velocities should efficiently constrain the possible values of the rheological parameters (Glen exponent and fluidity), and the basal sliding. Then, we apply an anisotropic flow law to correctly model the age structure, observed on the top 4/5th of the ice thickness, so that we induce mechanically-correct ages for the basal layers. Finally, once the ice mechanics is obtained, we compare the modelled vertical velocity profiles with 1D synthetic profiles, to assess the validity conditions of 1D modelling approaches, which are much more flexible tools for ensemble simulations or inversions.

  13. I/O-Efficient Algorithms for Computing Contour Lines on a Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Sadri, Bardia


    A terrain M is the graph of a bivariate function. We assume that M is represented as a triangulated surface with N vertices. A contour (or isoline) of M is a connected component of a level set of M. Generically, each contour is a closed polygonal curve; at "critical" levels these curves may touch...

  14. Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia (United States)


    This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built

  15. Sea clutter scattering, the K distribution and radar performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Keith; Watts, Simon


    Sea Clutter: Scattering, the K Distribution and Radar Performance, 2nd Edition gives an authoritative account of our current understanding of radar sea clutter. Topics covered include the characteristics of radar sea clutter, modelling radar scattering by the ocean surface, statistical models of sea clutter, the simulation of clutter and other random processes, detection of small targets in sea clutter, imaging ocean surface features, radar detection performance calculations, CFAR detection, and the specification and measurement of radar performance. The calculation of the performance of pract

  16. Coseismic Deformation of Chi-Chi Earthquake as Detected by Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry and GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Sheng Hsieh Tian-Yuan Shih


    Full Text Available A rupture in the Chelungpu fault caused an Mw 7.6 earthquake on 21 September 1999 near Chi-Chi in central Taiwan. This earthquake was the most destructive experienced in Taiwan for the past century along this fault. In this study, we examined the earthquake-induced surface deformation pattern using differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (D-InSAR combined with global positioning system (GPS data regarding the footwall of the Chelungpu fault. Six synthetic aperture radar (SAR scenes, approximately 100 × 100 km each, recorded by the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 (ERS-2, spanning the rupture area, were selected for study. The data were used to generate a high-resolution, wide-area map of displacements in flat or semi-flat areas. Interferograms show radar line contours indicating line-of-sight (LOS changes corresponding to surface displacements caused by earthquake ruptures. These results were compared to synthetic interferograms generated from GPS data. Displacements shown by GPS data were interpolated onto wide-area maps and transformed to coincide with the radar LOS direction. The resulting coseismic displacement contour map showed a lobed pattern consistent with the precise GPSbased displacement field. Highly accurate vertical displacement was determined using D-InSAR data using the coordinate transform method, while GPS data was effective in showing the horizontal component. Thus, this study confirmed the effectiveness of the D-InSAR method for determining the coseismic deformation caused by the Chi-Chi earthquake at the footwall of the Chelungpu fault.

  17. Lunar radar mapping: Correlation between radar reflectivity and stratigraphy in north-western mare imbrium (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Eggleton, R.E.; Thompson, T.W.


    DELAY-DOPPLER radar maps of the Moon obtained with the 430 MHz (70 cm wavelength) radar of the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico (Thompson, unpublished) are at present being studied to correlate geological information with the radar reflexion characteristics of the lunar surface. Preliminary evaluation of the radar data for the Sinus Iridum quadrangle (32??-48?? N; 14??-38?? W) has revealed that the lowest values of radar reflectivity are closely correlated with the mare materials of lowest albedo mapped by Schaber1 as of most recent volcanic origin. These radar data were obtained with a surface resolution of 50 to 100 km2 on January 24 and April 17, 1967. A detailed account of the delay-doppler radar mapping technique can be found in unpublished reports by Thompson. ?? 1970 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. Remote Interactions in Contour Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L O'Kane


    Full Text Available A series of experiments were carried out examining factors influencing the ability to detect contour structure within noise. In each experiment the observers' task was to detect a target embedded in a field of 900 random gabors. The target was defined as one or more pairs of aligned gabors separated by a small distance. When the pairs are placed randomly in the image, but with the same orientation, detection is poor, requiring 20 pairs to be present for performance to be good. When the pairs are aligned to be consistent with a single straight contour, detection is very good even for just 3 or 4 pairs. This effect occurs despite the distance between the pairs being considerably larger than the average distance between the elements in the background and background gabors filling the gaps along the line. To examine potential cues to the grouping process underlying the enhancement in performance, the relationships between the elements within a pair and between the pairs in the image were manipulated. The effect of changing the similarity of orientation, contrast, and disparity of the gabors within each pair and between pairs was measured. Results suggest that detection is optimal only for targets that are in a straight line. Performance is relatively unaffected by contrast, although having the same contrast within a pair is better than opposite contrast. There is no effect of contrast difference between pairs. There is small evidence of disparity differences affecting performance.

  19. Social Radar (United States)


    development and exploration of courses of action. Recent events suggest the great potential of social media as an important input for this 21st century...unrestricted data domain consisting of open source English and foreign language data of varying types, including social media  Engineering to process and...Ideology identification in multiple languages  Emotion analysis of social media for instability monitoring Social Radar RTA HFM-201/RSM

  20. Time-series analysis of surface deformation at Brady Hot Springs geothermal field (Nevada) using interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Akerley, J. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Baluyut, E. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cardiff, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Davatzes, N. C. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science; Feigl, K. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Foxall, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratta, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mellors, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spielman, P. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Wang, H. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Zemach, E. [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)


    We analyze interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2014, by the ERS-2, Envisat, ALOS and TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellite missions to measure and characterize time-dependent deformation at the Brady Hot Springs geothermal field in western Nevada due to extraction of fluids. The long axis of the ~4 km by ~1.5 km elliptical subsiding area coincides with the strike of the dominant normal fault system at Brady. Within this bowl of subsidence, the interference pattern shows several smaller features with length scales of the order of ~1 km. This signature occurs consistently in all of the well-correlated interferometric pairs spanning several months. Results from inverse modeling suggest that the deformation is a result of volumetric contraction in shallow units, no deeper than 600 m, likely associated with damaged regions where fault segments mechanically interact. Such damaged zones are expected to extend downward along steeply dipping fault planes, providing a high permeability conduit to the production wells. Using time series analysis, we test the hypothesis that geothermal production drives the observed deformation. We find a good correlation between the observed deformation rate and the rate of production in the shallow wells. We also explore mechanisms that could potentially cause the observed deformation, including thermal contraction of rock, decline in pore pressure and dissolution of minerals over time.

  1. Contouring variability of human- and deformable-generated contours in radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Stephen J; Wen, Ning; Kim, Jinkoo; Liu, Chang; Pradhan, Deepak; Aref, Ibrahim; Cattaneo, Richard II; Vance, Sean; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J; Elshaikh, Mohamed A


    This study was designed to evaluate contouring variability of human-and deformable-generated contours on planning CT (PCT) and CBCT for ten patients with low-or intermediate-risk prostate cancer. For each patient in this study, five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate, bladder, and rectum, on one PCT dataset and five CBCT datasets. Consensus contours were generated using the STAPLE method in the CERR software package. Observer contours were compared to consensus contour, and contour metrics (Dice coefficient, Hausdorff distance, Contour Distance, Center-of-Mass [COM] Deviation) were calculated. In addition, the first day CBCT was registered to subsequent CBCT fractions (CBCTn: CBCT2–CBCT5) via B-spline Deformable Image Registration (DIR). Contours were transferred from CBCT1 to CBCTn via the deformation field, and contour metrics were calculated through comparison with consensus contours generated from human contour set. The average contour metrics for prostate contours on PCT and CBCT were as follows: Dice coefficient—0.892 (PCT), 0.872 (CBCT-Human), 0.824 (CBCT-Deformed); Hausdorff distance—4.75 mm (PCT), 5.22 mm (CBCT-Human), 5.94 mm (CBCT-Deformed); Contour Distance (overall contour)—1.41 mm (PCT), 1.66 mm (CBCT-Human), 2.30 mm (CBCT-Deformed); COM Deviation—2.01 mm (PCT), 2.78 mm (CBCT-Human), 3.45 mm (CBCT-Deformed). For human contours on PCT and CBCT, the difference in average Dice coefficient between PCT and CBCT (approx. 2%) and Hausdorff distance (approx. 0.5 mm) was small compared to the variation between observers for each patient (standard deviation in Dice coefficient of 5% and Hausdorff distance of 2.0 mm). However, additional contouring variation was found for the deformable-generated contours (approximately 5.0% decrease in Dice coefficient and 0.7 mm increase in Hausdorff distance relative to human-generated contours on CBCT). Though deformable contours provide a reasonable starting point for contouring

  2. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures (United States)


    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  3. Observational evidence of mesoscale variability of the Northern Current (North-Western Mediterranean Sea): a combined study via gliders, HF RADAR, surface drifters, and vessel data (United States)

    Bellomo, Lucio; Berta, Maristella; Pietro Gasparini, Gian; Griffa, Annalisa; Gatimu Magaldi, Marcello; Marmain, Julien; Molcard, Anne; Vetrano, Anna; Béguery, Laurent; Borghini, Mireno


    Results from a combined observational effort put forth in December 2011 are here presented. The focus is on the mesoscale variability of the Northern Current (NC), the branch of the general North-Western Mediterranean cyclonic circulation extending from the Ligurian to the Catalan Sea (Albérola et al., Oceanologica Acta, vol. 18, n. 2, 1995). The study area, located between the Ligurian Sea and the Gulf of Lions, includes the part of French coast between Nice and Toulon, where only a few hydrographic data have been collected in the past. Dynamic instabilities of the NC, observed and reported in literature (Picco et al., Ocean Science, vol. 6, 2010), make this region particularly important, with consequences in the recirculation of the Ligurian Gyre and in the NC intrusions in the Gulf of Lions (Millot and Wald, Oceanologica Acta, vol. 3, n. 4, 1980). This works aims at providing experimental evidence of the effects that mesoscale exerts on the NC dynamics via an innovative and complementary data set. Two Slocum Gliders (a Shallow and a Deep one), both equipped with CTD and dissolved oxygen sensors, sampled the area within 70 km from the coast for about 20 days. The shallow one (200 m) realized six transects describing a "W"-shaped pattern from Nice to Toulon, whereas the deep one (1000 m) performed repeated cross-current sections off Toulon. Concurrent observations were obtained via: a) CTD and both Lowered and Vessel-Mounted ADCP transects obtained during a 5-day oceanographic cruise on board of the Research Vessel Urania; b) repeated deployments of surface drifters; c) a continuously-recording High Frequency (HF) RADAR which measures surface currents off Toulon in a 40 × 25 km2 region with high resolution both in space (2 km) and in time (1 hour). The combined use of data from the shallow glider and the ship-based ADCP measurements reveals the presence of an instability of the offshore front of the NC. Its location is confirmed by high-resolution satellite

  4. Creation of digital contours that approach the characteristics of cartographic contours (United States)

    Tyler, Dean J.; Greenlee, Susan K.


    The capability to easily create digital contours using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software has existed for decades. Out-of-the-box raw contours are suitable for many scientific applications without pre- or post-processing; however, cartographic applications typically require additional improvements. For example, raw contours generally require smoothing before placement on a map. Cartographic contours must also conform to certain spatial/logical rules; for example, contours may not cross waterbodies. The objective was to create contours that match as closely as possible the cartographic contours produced by manual methods on the 1:24,000-scale, 7.5-minute Topographic Map series. This report outlines the basic approach, describes a variety of problems that were encountered, and discusses solutions. Many of the challenges described herein were the result of imperfect input raster elevation data and the requirement to have the contours integrated with hydrographic features from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD).

  5. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick


    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  6. Radar Image with Color as Height, Old Khmer Road, Cambodia (United States)


    This image shows the Old Khmer Road (Inrdratataka-Bakheng causeway) in Cambodia extending from the 9th Century A.D. capitol city of Hariharalaya in the lower right portion of the image to the later 10th Century AD capital of Yasodharapura. This was located in the vicinity of Phnom Bakheng (not shown in image). The Old Road is believed to be more than 1000 years old. Its precise role and destination within the 'new' city at Angkor is still being studied by archeologists. But wherever it ended, it not only offered an immense processional way for the King to move between old and new capitols, it also linked the two areas, widening the territorial base of the Khmer King. Finally, in the past and today, the Old Road managed the waters of the floodplain. It acted as a long barrage or dam for not only the natural streams of the area but also for the changes brought to the local hydrology by Khmer population growth.The image was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Image brightness is from the P-band (68 cm wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back towards the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 m of elevation change, that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 20 m of elevation change. Image dimensions are approximately 3.4 km by 3.5 km with a pixel spacing of 5 m. North is at top.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Active contours for localizing polyps in colonoscopic NBI image data (United States)

    Breier, Matthias; Gross, Sebastian; Behrens, Alexander; Stehle, Thomas; Aach, Til


    Colon cancer is the third most common type of cancer in the United States of America. Every year about 140,000 people are newly diagnosed with colon cancer. Early detection is crucial for a successful therapy. The standard screening procedure is called colonoscopy. Using this endoscopic examination physicians can find colon polyps and remove them if necessary. Adenomatous colon polyps are deemed a preliminary stage of colon cancer. The removal of a polyp, though, can lead to complications like severe bleedings or colon perforation. Thus, only polyps diagnosed as adenomatous should be removed. To decide whether a polyp is adenomatous the polyp's surface structure including vascular patterns has to be inspected. Narrow-Band imaging (NBI) is a new tool to improve visibility of vascular patterns of the polyps. The first step for an automatic polyp classification system is the localization of the polyp. We investigate active contours for the localization of colon polyps in NBI image data. The shape of polyps, though roughly approximated by an elliptic form, is highly variable. Active contours offer the flexibility to adapt to polyp variation well. To avoid clustering of contour polygon points we propose the application of active rays. The quality of the results was evaluated based on manually segmented polyps as ground truth data. The results were compared to a template matching approach and to the Generalized Hough Transform. Active contours are superior to the Hough transform and perform equally well as the template matching approach.

  8. Effects of near surface soil moisture profiles during evaporation on far-field ground-penetrating radar data: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood


    We theoretically investigated the effect of vapor flow on the drying front that develops in soils when water evaporates from the soil surface and on GPR data. The results suggest the integration of the full-wave GPR model with a coupled water, vapor, and heat flow model to accurately estimate the soil hydraulic properties. We investigated the Effects of a drying front that emerges below an evaporating soil surface on the far-field ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. First, we performed an analysis of the width of the drying front in soils with 12 different textures by using an analytical model. Then, we numerically simulated vertical soil moisture profiles that develop during evaporation for the soil textures. We performed the simulations using a Richards flow model that considers only liquid water flow and a model that considers coupled water, vapor, and heat flows. The GPR signals were then generated from the simulated soil water content profiles taking into account the frequency dependency of apparent electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity. The analytical approach indicated that the width of the drying front at the end of Stage I of the evaporation was larger in silty soils than in other soil textures and smaller in sandy soils. We also demonstrated that the analytical estimate of the width of the drying front can be considered as a proxy for the impact that a drying front could have on far-field GPR data. The numerical simulations led to the conclusion that vapor transport in soil resulted in S-shaped soil moisture profiles, which clearly influenced the GPR data. As a result, vapor flow needs to be considered when GPR data are interpreted in a coupled inversion approach. Moreover, the impact of vapor flow on the GPR data was larger for silty than for sandy soils. These Effects on the GPR data provide promising perspectives regarding the use of radars for evaporation monitoring. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI

  9. A cardiac contouring atlas for radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duane, Frances; Aznar, Marianne C; Bartlett, Freddie


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The heart is a complex anatomical organ and contouring the cardiac substructures is challenging. This study presents a reproducible method for contouring left ventricular and coronary arterial segments on radiotherapy CT-planning scans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Segments were...

  10. Contour Detection Operators Based on Surround Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.


    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve contour detection in images of natural scenes. We augment a Gabor energy operator with non-CRF inhibition. The resulting contour operator responds strongly to isolated lines,

  11. RFP for the Comet Nuclei Tour (CONTOUR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Madsen, Peter Buch; Betto, Maurizio


    This document describes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory for their Comet Nuclei TOUR (CONTOUR) Program.......This document describes the ASC Star Tracker (performance, functionality, requirements etc.) to The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory for their Comet Nuclei TOUR (CONTOUR) Program....

  12. Top-down control in contour grouping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Volberg

    Full Text Available Human observers tend to group oriented line segments into full contours if they follow the Gestalt rule of 'good continuation'. It is commonly assumed that contour grouping emerges automatically in early visual cortex. In contrast, recent work in animal models suggests that contour grouping requires learning and thus involves top-down control from higher brain structures. Here we explore mechanisms of top-down control in perceptual grouping by investigating synchronicity within EEG oscillations. Human participants saw two micro-Gabor arrays in a random order, with the task to indicate whether the first (S1 or the second stimulus (S2 contained a contour of collinearly aligned elements. Contour compared to non-contour S1 produced a larger posterior post-stimulus beta power (15-21 Hz. Contour S2 was associated with a pre-stimulus decrease in posterior alpha power (11-12 Hz and in fronto-posterior theta (4-5 Hz phase couplings, but not with a post-stimulus increase in beta power. The results indicate that subjects used prior knowledge from S1 processing for S2 contour grouping. Expanding previous work on theta oscillations, we propose that long-range theta synchrony shapes neural responses to perceptual groupings regulating lateral inhibition in early visual cortex.

  13. Drawing Contour Trees in the Plane. (United States)

    Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G


    The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.

  14. Radar Scan Methods in Modern Multifunctional Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Skosyrev


    Full Text Available Considered urgent task of organizing the review space in modern multifunctional radar systems shall review the space in a wide range of elevation angles from minus 5 to 60-80 degrees and 360 degrees azimuth. MfRLS this type should provide an overview of the zone for a limited time (2-3 sec, detecting a wide range of subtle high and low-flying targets. The latter circumstance requires the organization to select targets against the background of reflections from the underlying surface and local objects (MP. When providing an overview of the space taken into account the need to increase not only the noise immunity, and survivability.Two variants of the review of space in the elevation plane in the solid-state AESA radar. In the first case the overview space narrow beam by one beam. In the second - the transfer of DNA is formed, covering the whole sector of responsibility in elevation and at the reception beam is formed in spetsvychislitele (CB as a result of the signal processing of digitized after emitters antenna web. The estimations of the parameters specific to the multifunction radar SAM air and missile defense. It is shown that in a number of practically important cases, preference should be given clearly one of the methods described review of space.The functional scheme with AESA radar for both variants of the review. Necessary to analyze their differences. Contains the problem of increasing the cost of MfRLS with digital beamforming DNA with increasing bandwidth probing signal being processed.Noted drawbacks of MfRLS with digital beamforming beam. Including: reduced accuracy of the coordinates at low elevation angles, the complexity of the organization of thermal regime of the solid element base using quasi-continuous signal with a low duty cycle. Shows their fundamentally unavoidable in the steppe and desert areas with uneven terrain (Kazakhstan, China, the Middle East.It is shown that for MfRLS working in strong clutter, more preferably

  15. San Andreas Fault, Southern California , Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height (United States)


    This topographic radar image vividly displays California's famous San Andreas Fault along the southwestern edge of the Mojave Desert, 75 kilometers (46 miles) north of downtown Los Angeles. The entire segment of the fault shown in this image last ruptured during the Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. This was one of the greatest earthquakes ever recorded in the U.S., and it left an amazing surface rupture scar over 350 kilometers in length along the San Andreas. Were the Fort Tejon shock to happen today, the damage would run into billions of dollars, and the loss of life would likely be substantial, as the communities of Wrightwood, Palmdale, and Lancaster (among others) all lie upon or near the 1857 rupture area. The Lancaster/Palmdale area appears as bright patches just below the center of the image and the San Gabriel Mountains fill the lower left half of the image. At the extreme lower left is Pasadena. High resolution topographic data such as these are used by geologists to study the role of active tectonics in shaping the landscape, and to produce earthquake hazard maps.This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an

  16. Comet radar explorer (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  17. Surface Lagrangian transport in the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) from drifters, HF radar and models: implications for fishery and Marine Protected Areas (United States)

    Griffa, Annalisa; Carlson, Daniel; Berta, Maristella; Sciascia, Roberta; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Carlo; Fredji, Erick; Magaldi, Marcello; Zambianchi, Enrico; Poulain, Pierre Marie; Russo, Aniello; Carniel, Sandro


    Surface transport in the Adriatic Sea is investigated using data from historic drifter data, HF radar and virtual particles computed from a numerical model. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connect regions in the Adriatic Sea. Their strength is highly dependent on the wind, with Southeasterly Sirocco winds driving eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coasts and Northwesterly Mistral winds enhancing east-to-west transport. Results from the analysis show that Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport, with westward (eastward) transport observed mostly in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres. These pathways of patterns influence the connection between Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and between spawning and nursery areas for small pelagic fish. Percentage connections between MPAs are computed, showing that while the highest percentages occur through boundary currents, significant percentages also occur through cross-gyre transport, suggesting the concept of cell-based ecosystems. The nursery area of the Manfredonia Gulf has limited retention properties, and eggs and larvae are likely to reach the Gulf mostly from remote spawning areas through current transport

  18. Error in Radar-Derived Soil Moisture due to Roughness Parameterization: An Analysis Based on Synthetical Surface Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard De Baets


    Full Text Available In the past decades, many studies on soil moisture retrieval from SAR demonstrated a poor correlation between the top layer soil moisture content and observed backscatter coefficients, which mainly has been attributed to difficulties involved in the parameterization of surface roughness. The present paper describes a theoretical study, performed on synthetical surface profiles, which investigates how errors on roughness parameters are introduced by standard measurement techniques, and how they will propagate through the commonly used Integral Equation Model (IEM into a corresponding soil moisture retrieval error for some of the currently most used SAR configurations. Key aspects influencing the error on the roughness parameterization and consequently on soil moisture retrieval are: the length of the surface profile, the number of profile measurements, the horizontal and vertical accuracy of profile measurements and the removal of trends along profiles. Moreover, it is found that soil moisture retrieval with C-band configuration generally is less sensitive to inaccuracies in roughness parameterization than retrieval with L-band configuration.

  19. Noninvasive Body Contouring: A Male Perspective. (United States)

    Wat, Heidi; Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P


    Noninvasive body contouring is an attractive therapeutic modality to enhance the ideal male physique. Men place higher value on enhancing a well-defined, strong, masculine jawline and developing a V-shaped taper through the upper body. An understanding of the body contour men strive for allows the treating physician to focus on areas that are of most concern to men, thus enhancing patient experience and satisfaction. This article discusses noninvasive body contouring techniques, taking into account the unique aesthetic concerns of the male patient by combining an analysis of the existing literature with our own clinical experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Contour Integration for Loop Integrals


    Kurihara, Y.; Kaneko, T.


    A fully numerical method to calculate loop integrals, a numerical contour-integration method, is proposed. Loop integrals can be interpreted as a contour integral in a complex plane for an integrand with multi-poles in the plane. Stable and efficient numerical integrations an along appropriate contour can be performed for tensor integrals as well as for scalar ones appearing in loop calculations of the standard model. Examples of 3- and 4-point diagrams in 1-loop integrals and 2- and 3-point ...

  1. Land subsidence measured by satellite radar altimetry (United States)

    Krabill, W. B.; Brooks, R. L.


    Radar altimeter measurements from the GEOS-3 and SEASAT satellites are being evaluated to assess their potential contribution to terrain mapping. The primary evaluation area is the San Joaquin Valley of southern California; 40,000/sq km of the Valley have been mapped at a contour interval of 10 m from the satellite altimeter measurements. The accuracy of the altimeter derived terrain elevations is being assessed by comparison with 1:24,000 and digitized 1:250,000 maps and by intercomparisons at the crossover altimeter intersections. Comparisons of the altimeter derived elevations with historical maps archived at the U.S. Geological Survey confirms the USGS 1926-1972 subsidence contours for this area. Preliminary results from a similar analysis in the Houston-Galveston area of subsidence also demonstrates a capability of measuring land subsidence by satellite altimetry.

  2. Dual-frequency surface-based Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) for the quantitative study of soil-water infiltration (United States)

    Klenk, Patrick; Jaumann, Stefan; Keicher, Viktoria; Roth, Kurt


    High-resolution surface-based GPR measurements allow studying the evolution of the capillary fringe in very dynamic hydraulic regimes. We use a dual-frequency surface-based multichannel GPR system to investigate imbibition, drainage, and infiltration in a complicated but known subsurface structure. These hydraulic dynamics are induced by varying the ground water table through pumping water into and out of an observation well or by infiltration with a sprinkler system. The precision of our GPR measurements permits to place close scrutiny on the underlying hydraulic processes. Here, we specifically focus on an experiment featuring high-resolution monitoring of two artificially induced infiltration events into two different kinds of sands at our test site by an eight channel, dual-frequency GPR system measuring at center frequencies of 200 and 600 MHz. During these infiltration events, which lasted for several hours each, 2D-common offset data were acquired along the 20 m center axis of our test site at a time resolution of approximately one radargram per minute. The subsequent relaxation of the system has been monitored by repeated status measurements for about three months. In this presentation, we (i) show the efficacy of our dual-frequency multichannel setup for quantitative studies of both the highly dynamic infiltration phase and the increasingly small variations during subsequent months of relaxation, (ii) assess the currently attainable precision with our commercial GPR instruments, and (iii) discuss the use of observed differences in the GPR response of the different materials for estimating soil hydraulic properties from these datasets.

  3. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan (United States)


    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  4. VT Data - Lidar 1ft Contours (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to contours derived from Quality Level 2 (QL2) Lidar 'collections' with a resolution (RESCLASS) of 0.7m. For an overview of...

  5. Contour Propagation With Riemannian Elasticity Regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Sapru, W.


    guided corrections. This study compares manual delineations in replanning CT scans of head-and-neck patients to automatic contour propagation using deformable registration with Riemannian regularization. The potential benefit of locally assigned regularization parameters according to tissue type...

  6. Roentgenological differential diagnosis of the psoas contour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voran, G.; Pfab, R.; Hess, F.


    The assessment of the psoas border contour in the X-ray photo of the abdomen is important for differential diagnostic considerations. For the separation of fallacious psoas configurations which are similar to the well defined pathological form changes, a regular supine position of the patient was chosen, and the psoas examined without and with muscle tension. The whole visible psoas muscle system did not show any unilateral bulging of the border silhouette during muscle action. Isolated tension of the left psoas muscle induced a distinct deviation of both border contours to the left side, too. There was a clear tendency of a more distinct psoas border contour and of augmented opacity of the muscle over its whole length under muscle tension. Changes similar to the bulging border contour of a psoas abscess were not produced by muscular action. (orig.) [de

  7. Visualization of a Large Set of Hydrogen Atomic Orbital Contours Using New and Expanded Sets of Parametric Equations (United States)

    Rhile, Ian J.


    Atomic orbitals are a theme throughout the undergraduate chemistry curriculum, and visualizing them has been a theme in this journal. Contour plots as isosurfaces or contour lines in a plane are the most familiar representations of the hydrogen wave functions. In these representations, a surface of a fixed value of the wave function ? is plotted…

  8. Interpreting English Pitch Contours in Context


    Schloeder, Julian; Lascarides, Alex


    This paper presents a model of how pitch contours influence the illocutionary and perlocutionary effects of utterances in conversation. Our account is grounded in several insights from the prior literature. Our distinctive contribution is to replace earlier informal claims about the implicatures arising from intonation with logical derivations: we validate inferences in the SDRT framework that resolve the partial meaning we associate with a pitch contour to different specific interpretations ...

  9. Contour Entropy: A New Determinant of Perceiving Ground or a Hole (United States)

    Gillam, Barbara J.; Grove, Philip M.


    Figure-ground perception is typically described as seeing one surface occluding another. Figure properties, not ground properties, are considered the significant factors. In scenes, however, a near surface will often occlude multiple contours and surfaces, often at different depths, producing alignments that are improbable except under conditions…

  10. Navigation using self-initializing active contours (United States)

    Molloy, Derek; Whelan, Paul F.


    This paper examines a novel approach for extracting motion information to allow the autonomous navigation of an intelligent mobile robot using computer vision in a moving camera, moving object environment. The approach begins by extracting low-level scene feature information using algorithms such as the SUSAN corner and edge detector. A routine is described for converting the information obtained from these stable features to initialization information for creating active contour models or 'snakes.' Multiple open and closed active contours are identified in an initialization frame from this primary feature extraction. These contours are allowed to converge more closely to the features to which they are attached. These contours are then allowed to converge to the features within each frame through image sequences, with criteria for the re-initialization of new contours when motion information in the sequence or a region becomes sparse. The information received from these contour models is then used to determine the motion information in the scene. Reasons for this approach are outlined and justified. This theoretical approach is then applied to the practical cases of a mobile robot navigating indoor scenes. Large sections of this approach have been implemented in the Khoros environment, with new routines written for this approach. Promising results are already available and this approach is being examined to allow the extraction of depth information in the scene for assisting navigation using a form of '3-D snakes.'

  11. A shape-based inter-layer contours correspondence method for ICT-based reverse engineering. (United States)

    Duan, Liming; Yang, Shangpeng; Zhang, Gui; Feng, Fei; Gu, Minghui


    The correspondence of a stack of planar contours in ICT (industrial computed tomography)-based reverse engineering, a key step in surface reconstruction, is difficult when the contours or topology of the object are complex. Given the regularity of industrial parts and similarity of the inter-layer contours, a specialized shape-based inter-layer contours correspondence method for ICT-based reverse engineering was presented to solve the above problem based on the vectorized contours. In this paper, the vectorized contours extracted from the slices consist of three graphical primitives: circles, arcs and segments. First, the correspondence of the inter-layer primitives is conducted based on the characteristics of the primitives. Second, based on the corresponded primitives, the inter-layer contours correspond with each other using the proximity rules and exhaustive search. The proposed method can make full use of the shape information to handle industrial parts with complex structures. The feasibility and superiority of this method have been demonstrated via the related experiments. This method can play an instructive role in practice and provide a reference for the related research.

  12. Using radar interferometry and SBAS technique to detect surface subsidence relating to coal mining in Upper Silesia from 1993-2000 and 2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádudvari Ádám


    Full Text Available In the presented research ERS1-2 and Envisat ASAR archive data were used for the periods 1993 – 2000 and 2003 – 2010. The radar images were acquired over Upper Silesia in southern Poland. DinSAR (Differential InSAR and SBAS (Small Baseline Subset methods were applied for the detection of the most subsided areas. The DinSAR images were layer stacked for an image using 26 interferometry pairs of ERS1-2 SAR and 16 pairs from Envisat ASAR images in an ascending-descending orbit combination. The stacking of these images showed the most subsided parts of these cities even under low coherent areas, but the results are less precise. In the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, intensive underground coal exploitation has resulted in several surface deformations under Bytom (~8-17 km2, Piekary Śląskie (~9-15 km2, Ruda Śląska (~32-42 km2 and Katowice (~20-23 km2 with 25-40 cm of subsidence (in general in the studied time periods. The SBAS technique has also shown that coal mining caused subsidence in the cities of Bytom, Katowice, and Piekary Śląskie of 5-7 cm/yr. The presented SBAS method did not work for low coherent areas, e.g. dense forested areas. DInSAR data also pointed to several decreasingly less active mining areas, which relate to the mine closures in Bytom and Ruda Śląska, which is also verified by the time series analysis.

  13. The proposed flatland radar (United States)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.


    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  14. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter


    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  15. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G


    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  16. Radar observations of asteroid 1986 JK (United States)

    Ostro, S. J.; Yeomans, D. K.; Chodas, P. W.; Goldstein, R. M.; Jurgens, R. F.; Thompson, T. W.


    The asteroid 1986 JK was observed with a 3.5 cm-wavelength radar in May and June, 1986, at less than 0.029 AU; its radar echo power circular polarization ratio indicates single backscattering from smooth surface elements. A working model constructed for the asteroid in light of these radar data postulates a 1-2 km object whose shape has little elongation and some polar flattening. Orbital and physical characteristics are rather cometlike. The radar astrometric data obtained are noted to be extremely powerful for orbit-improvement, so that a search ephemeris whose uncertainty is an order-of-magnitude smaller than that based on relevant optical data alone can be prepared by combining optical and radar data.

  17. Radar Image with Color as Height, Lovea, Cambodia (United States)


    This image of Lovea, Cambodia, was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Lovea, the roughly circular feature in the middle-right of the image, rises some 5 meters (16.4 feet) above the surrounding terrain. Lovea is larger than many of the other mound sites with a diameter of greater than 300 meters (984.3 feet). However, it is one of a number highlighted by the radar imagery. The present-day village of Lovea does not occupy all of the elevated area. However, at the center of the mound is an ancient spirit post honoring the legendary founder of the village. The mound is surrounded by earthworks and has vestiges of additional curvilinear features. Today, as in the past, these harnessed water during the rainy season, and conserved it during the long dry months of the year.The village of Lovea located on the mound was established in pre-Khmer times, probably before 500 A.D. In the lower left portion of the image is a large trapeng and square moat. These are good examples of construction during the historical 9th to 14th Century A.D. Khmer period; construction that honored and protected earlier circular villages. This suggests a cultural and technical continuity between prehistoric circular villages and the immense urban site of Angkor. This connection is one of the significant finds generated by NASA's radar imaging of Angkor. It shows that the city of Angkor was a particularly Khmer construction. The temple forms and water management structures of Angkor were the result of pre-existing Khmer beliefs and methods of water management.Image dimensions are approximately 6.3 by 4.7 kilometers (3.9 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 meters (65.6 feet) of elevation change; that is, going from blue

  18. Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.


    The application of digital processing techniques to spacecraft television pictures and radar images is discussed. The use of digital rectification to produce contour maps from spacecraft pictures is described; images with azimuth and elevation angles are converted into point-perspective frame pictures. The digital correction of the slant angle of radar images to ground scale is examined. The development of orthophoto and stereoscopic shaded relief maps from digital terrain and digital image data is analyzed. Digital image transformations and rectifications are utilized on Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars.

  19. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon; Yoon, Kwon Ha


    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer

  20. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)


    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer.

  1. Geometry-invariant GRIN lens: iso-dispersive contours (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V.


    A dispersive model of a gradient refractive index (GRIN) lens is introduced based on the idea of iso-dispersive contours. These contours have constant Abbe number and their shape is related to iso-indicial contours of the monochromatic geometry-invariant GRIN lens (GIGL) model. The chromatic GIGL model predicts the dispersion throughout the GRIN structure by using the dispersion curves of the surface and the center of the lens. The analytical approach for paraxial ray tracing and the monochromatic aberration calculations used in the GIGL model is employed here to derive closed-form expressions for the axial and lateral color coefficients of the lens. Expressions for equivalent refractive index and the equivalent Abbe number of the homogeneous equivalent lens are also presented and new aspects of the chromatic aberration change due to aging are discussed. The key derivations and explanations of the GRIN lens optical properties are accompanied with numerical examples for the human and animal eye GRIN lenses. PMID:22808438

  2. Interpreting sea surface slicks on the basis of the normalized radar cross-section model using RADARSAT-2 copolarization dual-channel SAR images (United States)

    Ivonin, D. V.; Skrunes, S.; Brekke, C.; Ivanov, A. Yu.


    A simple automatic multipolarization technique for discrimination of main types of thin oil films (of thickness less than the radio wave skin depth) from natural ones is proposed. It is based on a new multipolarization parameter related to the ratio between the damping in the slick of specially normalized resonant and nonresonant signals calculated using the normalized radar cross-section model proposed by Kudryavtsev et al. (2003a). The technique is tested on RADARSAT-2 copolarization (VV/HH) synthetic aperture radar images of slicks of a priori known provenance (mineral oils, e.g., emulsion and crude oil, and plant oil served to model a natural slick) released during annual oil-on-water exercises in the North Sea in 2011 and 2012. It has been shown that the suggested multipolarization parameter gives new capabilities in interpreting slicks visible on synthetic aperture radar images while allowing discrimination between mineral oil and plant oil slicks.

  3. An automatic contour propagation method to follow parotid gland deformation during head-and-neck cancer tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faggiano, E; Scalco, E; Rizzo, G [Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare (IBFM), CNR, Milan (Italy); Fiorino, C; Broggi, S; Cattaneo, M; Maggiulli, E; Calandrino, R [Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy); Dell' Oca, I; Di Muzio, N, E-mail: [Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan (Italy)


    We developed an efficient technique to auto-propagate parotid gland contours from planning kVCT to daily MVCT images of head-and-neck cancer patients treated with helical tomotherapy. The method deformed a 3D surface mesh constructed from manual kVCT contours by B-spline free-form deformation to generate optimal and smooth contours. Deformation was calculated by elastic image registration between kVCT and MVCT images. Data from ten head-and-neck cancer patients were considered and manual contours by three observers were included in both kVCT and MVCT images. A preliminary inter-observer variability analysis demonstrated the importance of contour propagation in tomotherapy application: a high variability was reported in MVCT parotid volume estimation (p = 0.0176, ANOVA test) and a larger uncertainty of MVCT contouring compared with kVCT was demonstrated by DICE and volume variability indices (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p < 10{sup -4} for both indices). The performance analysis of our method showed no significant differences between automatic and manual contours in terms of volumes (p > 0.05, in a multiple comparison Tukey test), center-of-mass distances (p = 0.3043, ANOVA test), DICE values (p = 0.1672, Wilcoxon signed rank test) and average and maximum symmetric distances (p = 0.2043, p = 0.8228 Wilcoxon signed rank tests). Results suggested that our contour propagation method could successfully substitute human contouring on MVCT images.

  4. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Lombardo, Pierfrancesco; Nickel, Ulrich


    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Real aperture array radar; Imaging radar and Passive and multistatic radar.

  5. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H


    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  6. Weather Radar Impact Zones (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  7. Radar Weather Observation (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...

  8. Noise Radar Technology Basics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thayaparan, T; Wernik, C


    .... In this report, the basic theory of noise radar design is treated. The theory supports the use of noise waveforms for radar detection and imaging in such applications as covert military surveillance and reconnaissance...

  9. Prostate Contouring Variation: Can It Be Fixed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Eric L.H.; Schick, Karlissa; Plank, Ashley W.; Poulsen, Michael; Wong, Winnie W.G.; Middleton, Mark; Martin, Jarad M.


    Purpose: To assess whether an education program on CT and MRI prostate anatomy would reduce inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variation among experienced radiation oncologists. Methods and Materials: Three patient CT and MRI datasets were selected. Five radiation oncologists contoured the prostate for each patient on CT first, then MRI, and again between 2 and 4 weeks later. Three education sessions were then conducted. The same contouring process was then repeated with the same datasets and oncologists. The observer variation was assessed according to changes in the ratio of the encompassing volume to intersecting volume (volume ratio [VR]), across sets of target volumes. Results: For interobserver variation, there was a 15% reduction in mean VR with CT, from 2.74 to 2.33, and a 40% reduction in mean VR with MRI, from 2.38 to 1.41 after education. A similar trend was found for intraobserver variation, with a mean VR reduction for CT and MRI of 9% (from 1.51 to 1.38) and 16% (from 1.37 to 1.15), respectively. Conclusion: A well-structured education program has reduced both inter- and intraobserver prostate contouring variations. The impact was greater on MRI than on CT. With the ongoing incorporation of new technologies into routine practice, education programs for target contouring should be incorporated as part of the continuing medical education of radiation oncologists.

  10. Network radar countermeasure systems integrating radar and radar countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Qiuxi


    This is the very first book to present the network radar countermeasure system. It explains in detail the systematic concept of combining radar and radar countermeasures from the perspective of the information acquisition of target location, the optimization of the reconnaissance and detection, the integrated attack of the signals and facilities, and technological and legal developments concerning the networked system. It achieves the integration of the initiative and passivity, detection and jamming. The book explains how the system locates targets, completes target identification, tracks targets and compiles the data.

  11. An approach for flood monitoring by the combined use of Landsat 8 optical imagery and COSMO-SkyMed radar imagery (United States)

    Tong, Xiaohua; Luo, Xin; Liu, Shuguang; Xie, Huan; Chao, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shijie; Makhinov, A. N.; Makhinova, A. F.; Jiang, Yuying


    Remote sensing techniques offer potential for effective flood detection with the advantages of low-cost, large-scale, and real-time surface observations. The easily accessible data sources of optical remote sensing imagery provide abundant spectral information for accurate surface water body extraction, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems represent a powerful tool for flood monitoring because of their all-weather capability. This paper introduces a new approach for flood monitoring by the combined use of both Landsat 8 optical imagery and COSMO-SkyMed radar imagery. Specifically, the proposed method applies support vector machine and the active contour without edges model for water extent determination in the periods before and during the flood, respectively. A map difference method is used for the flood inundation analysis. The proposed approach is particularly suitable for large-scale flood monitoring, and it was tested on a serious flood that occurred in northeastern China in August 2013, which caused immense loss of human lives and properties. High overall accuracies of 97.46% for the optical imagery and 93.70% for the radar imagery are achieved by the use of the techniques presented in this study. The results show that about 12% of the whole study area was inundated, corresponding to 5466 km2 of land surface.

  12. Generation of interferogram for D-InSAR based on contoured correlation interferometry (United States)

    Long, Xuejun; Fu, Sihua; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Xia


    Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry (InSAR) is a rapidly developing technique for earth observation. Differential InSAR (D-InSAR) technique, based on InSAR, is a new method for earthquake deformation detection and land subsidence monitoring. In this paper, an innovative method of generation of interferogram for D-InSAR based on contoured correlation interferometry (CCI) is presented, which may directly generate interferogram with almost no speckle noise or blurring. The data processing results of the Mani earthquake indicate that D-InSAR CCI method can effectively reduce or even remove the decorrelation noise, even in the area with serious decorrelation.

  13. Natural and Unnatural Oil Layers on the Surface of the Gulf of Mexico Detected and Quantified in Synthetic Aperture RADAR Images with Texture Classifying Neural Network Algorithms (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; Morey, S. L.; Huffer, F.


    Effervescent hydrocarbons rise naturally from hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and reach the ocean surface. This oil forms thin (~0.1 μm) layers that enhance specular reflectivity and have been widely used to quantify the abundance and distribution of natural seeps using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). An analogous process occurred at a vastly greater scale for oil and gas discharged from BP's Macondo well blowout. SAR data allow direct comparison of the areas of the ocean surface covered by oil from natural sources and the discharge. We used a texture classifying neural network algorithm to quantify the areas of naturally occurring oil-covered water in 176 SAR image collections from the Gulf of Mexico obtained between May 1997 and November 2007, prior to the blowout. Separately we also analyzed 36 SAR images collections obtained between 26 April and 30 July, 2010 while the discharged oil was visible in the Gulf of Mexico. For the naturally occurring oil, we removed pollution events and transient oceanographic effects by including only the reflectance anomalies that that recurred in the same locality over multiple images. We measured the area of oil layers in a grid of 10x10 km cells covering the entire Gulf of Mexico. Floating oil layers were observed in only a fraction of the total Gulf area amounting to 1.22x10^5 km^2. In a bootstrap sample of 2000 replications, the combined average area of these layers was 7.80x10^2 km^2 (sd 86.03). For a regional comparison, we divided the Gulf of Mexico into four quadrates along 90° W longitude, and 25° N latitude. The NE quadrate, where the BP discharge occurred, received on average 7.0% of the total natural seepage in the Gulf of Mexico (5.24 x10^2 km^2, sd 21.99); the NW quadrate received on average 68.0% of this total (5.30 x10^2 km^2, sd 69.67). The BP blowout occurred in the NE quadrate of the Gulf of Mexico; discharged oil that reached the surface drifted over a large area north of 25° N. Performing a

  14. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present...... a kinetic data structure that maintains the contour tree of h over time. Our data structure maintains certificates that fail only when h(v)=h(u) for two adjacent vertices v and u in M, or when two saddle vertices lie on the same contour of M. A certificate failure is handled in O(log(n)) time. We also show...

  15. Deformation of contour and Hawking temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chikun; Jing Jiliang


    It was found that, in an isotropic coordinate system, the tunneling approach brings a factor of 1/2 for the Hawking temperature of a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we address this kind of problem by studying the relation between the Hawking temperature and the deformation of the integral contour for the scalar and Dirac particles tunneling. We find that the correct Hawking temperature can be obtained exactly as long as the integral contour deformed corresponding to the radial coordinate transform if the transformation is a non-regular or zero function at the event horizon.

  16. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar (United States)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)


    differential reflectivity and Doppler as functions of the center frequency, frequency difference, and median mass diameter. For a fixed pair of frequencies, the detectability of the differential signals can be expressed as the number of independent samples required to detect rain or snow with a particular median mass diameter. Because sampling numbers on the order of 1000 are needed to detect the differential signal over a range of size distributions, the instrument must be confined to a near-nadir, narrow swath. Radar measurements from a zenith directed radar operated at 9.1 GHz and 10 GHz are used to investigate the qualitative characteristics of the differential signals. Disdrometer and rain gauge data taken at the surface, just below the radar, are used to test whether the differential signals can be used to estimate characteristics of the raindrop size distribution.

  17. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive


    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  18. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon


    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  19. Wideband Antennas for Modern Radar Systems


    Ren, Yu-Jiun; Lai, Chieh-Ping


    In this chapter, the basics of the antenna and phased array are reviewed and different wideband antennas for modern radar systems are presented. The concepts of the radome and frequency selective surface are also reviewed. The main contents include important parameters of the antenna, and theory and design consideration of the array antenna. Various wideband antennas are introduced and their performances are demonstrated, including: (1) for the phased array radar, the slotted waveguide array ...

  20. Radar Image with Color as Height, Hariharalaya, Cambodia (United States)


    . Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color--from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again--represents 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Euler Sums and Contour Integral Representations


    Flajolet, Philippe; Salvy, Bruno


    This paper develops an approach to the evaluation of Euler sums involving harmonic numbers either linearly or nonlinearly. We give explicit formul{æ} for certain classes of Euler sums in terms of values of the Riemann zeta function at positive integers. The approach is based on simple contour integral representations and residue computations.

  2. An algorithm to decompose noisy digital contours


    Ngo, Phuc; Nasser, Hayat; Debled-Rennesson, Isabelle; Kerautret, Bertrand


    International audience; From the previous digital contour decomposition algorithm, this paper focuses on the implementation and on the reproduction of the method linking to an online demonstration. This paper also gives improvement of the previous method with details on the intern parameter choice and shows how to use the C++ source code in other context.

  3. Conversion of contours to cartesian grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Broe, Brian Riget

    A robust and efficient method of calculating a cartesian grid of heights or roughnesses from contour line maps is developed. The purpose of the grids is to serve as input for atmospheric flow solvers such as WAsP Engineering or EllipSys3D. The method builds on Delaunay triangulation constrained t...

  4. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN


    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception

  5. Surface and sub-surface anatomy of the landscape: integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Structure from Motion (UAV-SfM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GRP) to investigate sedimentary features in the field. - an example from NW Australia (United States)

    Callow, Nik; Leopold, Matthias; May, Simon Matthias


    Geomorphology is confronted by the challenge of reconstructing landscape features at appropriate scales, resolution and accuracy, that allows meaningful analysis of environmental processes and their implications. Field geomorphology offers a discrete snapshot (i.e. one or two field campaigns) to reconstruct how features have changed, evolved or responded over time. We explore the application of an emerging photogrammetry technique called Structure-from-Motion (SfM), which uses multiple photographs of the same feature (but taken at different locations) to create high-accuracy three-dimensional models of surface of sedimentary fans formed by extreme wave events. This approach is complimented by investigation of the sub-surface morphology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Using an UAV "octocopter", we captured 1208 photos with a DSLR camera (Canon EoS-M) at the height of 50m with a ground pixel resolution of 9mm, above a cyclone wash-over fan in the Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) that measured about 500m inland by 300m wide. Based on 38 ground control point targets (with between 4 and 45 individual photographs per target) the SfM surface had an absolute total (XYZ) accuracy of 51mm (39mm X, 29mm Y and 14mm Y), based on RTK-DGPS surveying from a local ground reference station (with an absolute AUSPOS accuracy of 57mm X, 6mm Y, 50mm Z to AHD) and an overall relative point accuracy of 7mm. A sparse point cloud of over 5.5 million data points was generated using only points with a reconstruction accuracy of Python. The output was then manually classified into ground and non-ground points, and the geostatistical analyst functionality of ArcGIS used to produce a final bare-earth DEM. This approach has allowed the study team to economically collect an unprecedented high-resolution and accuracy topographic model of this feature to compliment on-ground sediment, geophysics and dating work to analyse the complex evolution structure of the wash-over sequence and the

  6. Contour Stencils and Variational Image Processing (United States)

    Getreuer, Pascal Tom

    The first part of this thesis is on contour stencils, a new method for edge adaptive image processing. We focus particularly on image zooming, which is the problem of increasing the resolution of a given image. An important aspect of zooming is accurate estimation of edge orientations. Contour stencils is a new method for estimating the image contours based on total variation along curves. Contour stencils are applied in designing several edge-adaptive color zooming methods. These zooming methods fall at different points in the balance between speed and quality. One of these zooming methods, contour stencil windowed zooming, is particular successful. Although most zooming methods require either solving a large linear system or running many iterations, this method has linear complexity in the number of pixels and can be computed in a single pass through the image. The zoomed image is constructed as a function that may be sampled anywhere, enabling arbitrary resampling operations. Comparisons show that contour stencil zooming methods are competitive with existing methods. Applications of contour stencils to corner detection and image enhancement are also illustrated. The second part of this thesis is on topics in variational image processing. First, we apply variational techniques to formulate a total variation optimal prediction in Harten multiresolution schemes. We show that this prediction is well-defined, construct a Harten multiresolution using this prediction, and show that a modified encoding strategy is possible for approximation using the scheme. We also investigate the efficient numerical solution of the prediction and compare several different algorithms. Examples show that image approximation with this scheme is competitive with the CDF 9/7 wavelet. Next, we investigate nonconvex potentials in variational image problems. For the approximate solution of these nonconvex problems, we develop a particle swarm optimization like algorithm that avoids becoming

  7. Compound Radar Approach for Breast Imaging. (United States)

    Byrne, Dallan; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J


    Multistatic radar apertures record scattering at a number of receivers when the target is illuminated by a single transmitter, providing more scattering information than its monostatic counterpart per transmission angle. This paper considers the well-known problem of detecting tumor targets within breast phantoms using multistatic radar. To accurately image potentially cancerous targets size within the breast, a significant number of multistatic channels are required in order to adequately calibrate-out unwanted skin reflections, increase the immunity to clutter, and increase the dynamic range of a breast radar imaging system. However, increasing the density of antennas within a physical array is inevitably limited by the geometry of the antenna elements designed to operate with biological tissues at microwave frequencies. A novel compound imaging approach is presented to overcome these physical constraints and improve the imaging capabilities of a multistatic radar imaging modality for breast scanning applications. The number of transmit-receive (TX-RX) paths available for imaging are increased by performing a number of breast scans with varying array positions. A skin calibration method is presented to reduce the influence of skin reflections from each channel. Calibrated signals are applied to receive a beamforming method, compounding the data from each scan to produce a microwave radar breast profile. The proposed imaging method is evaluated with experimental data obtained from constructed phantoms of varying complexity, skin contour asymmetries, and challenging tumor positions and sizes. For each imaging scenario outlined in this study, the proposed compound imaging technique improves skin calibration, clearly detects small targets, and substantially reduces the level of undesirable clutter within the profile.

  8. High Frequency Radar Locations in the United States as of February 2016. (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset show the point locations of High Frequency (HF) radar systems across the US. HF radars measure the speed and direction of ocean surface currents in near...

  9. An automatic contour propagation method to follow parotid gland deformation during head-and-neck cancer tomotherapy (United States)

    Faggiano, E.; Fiorino, C.; Scalco, E.; Broggi, S.; Cattaneo, M.; Maggiulli, E.; Dell'Oca, I.; Di Muzio, N.; Calandrino, R.; Rizzo, G.


    We developed an efficient technique to auto-propagate parotid gland contours from planning kVCT to daily MVCT images of head-and-neck cancer patients treated with helical tomotherapy. The method deformed a 3D surface mesh constructed from manual kVCT contours by B-spline free-form deformation to generate optimal and smooth contours. Deformation was calculated by elastic image registration between kVCT and MVCT images. Data from ten head-and-neck cancer patients were considered and manual contours by three observers were included in both kVCT and MVCT images. A preliminary inter-observer variability analysis demonstrated the importance of contour propagation in tomotherapy application: a high variability was reported in MVCT parotid volume estimation (p = 0.0176, ANOVA test) and a larger uncertainty of MVCT contouring compared with kVCT was demonstrated by DICE and volume variability indices (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p 0.05, in a multiple comparison Tukey test), center-of-mass distances (p = 0.3043, ANOVA test), DICE values (p = 0.1672, Wilcoxon signed rank test) and average and maximum symmetric distances (p = 0.2043, p = 0.8228 Wilcoxon signed rank tests). Results suggested that our contour propagation method could successfully substitute human contouring on MVCT images.

  10. Subsidence Contours for South Louisiana; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2005); [subsidence_contours (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The GIS data shapefile represents average subsidence contour intervals (0.02 cm/year over 10,000 years) for Coastal LA derived from the following: Kulp, M.A., 2000,...

  11. Planetary Radars Operating Centre PROC (United States)

    Catallo, C.; Flamini, E.; Seu, R.; Alberti, G.


    an operative experimental platform, where a specific payload ( to be developed by the Italian Industry) a GPR will be accommodated on-board the Italian Space Agency stratospheric balloon and the data analysed by PROC; as a minimum two flight campaigns over polar regions are foreseen. The system shall be capable of acquiring radar data upon scientists requests in order to help them refine their models, experiment new algorithms, improve data interpretation capabilities. The paper also describes how the system will be integrated in the PROC, sharing the operational resources and aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface radar sounding. A specific PROC Web facility is foreseen to allow data gathering, request submission, data exchange and dissemination.

  12. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei


    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  13. The Comet Radar Explorer Mission (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Farnham, Tony; Gim, Yonggyu; Grimm, Robert; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Oberst, Juergen; Orosei, Roberto; Piqueux, Sylvain; Plaut, Jeff; Robinson, Mark; Sava, Paul; Heggy, Essam; Kurth, William; Scheeres, Dan; Denevi, Brett; Turtle, Elizabeth; Weissman, Paul


    Missions to cometary nuclei have revealed major geological surprises: (1) Global scale layers - do these persist through to the interior? Are they a record of primary accretion? (2) Smooth regions - are they landslides originating on the surface? Are they cryovolcanic? (3) Pits - are they impact craters or sublimation pits, or rooted in the interior? Unambiguous answers to these and other questions can be obtained by high definition 3D radar reflection imaging (RRI) of internal structure. RRI can answer many of the great unknowns in planetary science: How do primitive bodies accrete? Are cometary nuclei mostly ice? What drives their spectacular activity and evolution? The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) mission will image the detailed internal structure of the nucleus of 10P/Tempel 2. This ~16 x 8 x 7 km Jupiter Family Comet (JFC), or its parent body, originated in the outer planets region possibly millions of years before planet formation. CORE arrives post-perihelion and observes the comet’s waning activity from safe distance. Once the nucleus is largely dormant, the spacecraft enters a ~20-km dedicated Radar Mapping Orbit (RMO). The exacting design of the RRI experiment and the precise navigation of RMO will achieve a highly focused 3D radar reflection image of internal structure, to tens of meters resolution, and tomographic images of velocity and attenuation to hundreds of meters resolution, tied to the gravity model and shape. Visible imagers will produce maps of the surface morphology, albedo, color, texture, and photometric response, and images for navigation and shape determination. The cameras will also monitor the structure and dynamics of the coma, and its dusty jets, allowing their correlation in 3D with deep interior structures and surface features. Repeated global high-resolution thermal images will probe the near-surface layers heated by the Sun. Derived maps of thermal inertia will be correlated with the radar boundary response, and photometry and

  14. USGS Elevation Contours Overlay Map Service from The National Map (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Elevation Contours service from The National Map (TNM) consists of contours generated for the conterminous United States from 1- and 1/3 arc-second...

  15. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas


    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  16. Minimization and Mitigation of Wire EDM Cutting Errors in the Application of the Contour Method of Residual Stress Measurement (United States)

    Ahmad, Bilal; Fitzpatrick, Michael E.


    The contour method of residual stress measurement relies on the careful application of wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) for the cutting stage. Changes in material removal rates during the cut lead to errors in the final calculated values of residual stress. In this study, WEDM cutting parameters have been explored to identify the optimum conditions for contour method residual stress measurements. The influence of machine parameters on the surface roughness and cutting artifacts in the contour cut is discussed. It has been identified that the critical parameter in improving the surface finish is the spark pulse duration. A typical cutting artifact and its impact on measured stress values have been identified and demonstrated for a contour cut in a welded marine steel. A procedure is presented to correct contour displacement data from the influence of WEDM cutting artifacts, and is demonstrated on the correction of a measured weld residual stress. The corrected contour method improved the residual stress magnitude up to 150 MPa. The corrected contour method results were validated by X-ray diffraction, incremental center hole drilling, and neutron diffraction.

  17. Contour identification with pitch and loudness cues using cochlear implants


    Luo, Xin; Masterson, Megan E.; Wu, Ching-Chih


    Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly w...

  18. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya


    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  19. Radar Signature Calculation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  20. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  1. ESA's Ice Sheets CCI: validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from laser and radar altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland – Round Robin results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Khvorostovsky, K.; Ticconi, F.


    Sheets CCI and four parameters are to be determined for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), each resulting in a dataset made available to the public: Surface Elevation Changes (SEC), surface velocities, grounding line locations, and calving front locations. All CCI projects have completed a so-called Round...... Robin exercise in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best estimate of the sought parameters as well as a feedback sheet describing their work. By inter-comparing and validating the results, obtained from research institutions world-wide, it is possible to develop the most optimal...... led to inter-comparisons of radar vs. altimetry as well as cross-over vs. repeat-track analyses. Due to the high accuracy of the former and the high spatial resolution of the latter, a method, which combines the two techniques will provide the most accurate SEC estimates. The data supporting the final...

  2. Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Van Blokland, G.J.


    Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

  3. The psychological impact of body contouring surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen Lorenzen, Mike; Poulsen, Lotte; Poulsen, Signe


    relevant codes had been extracted. RESULTS: A total of seven psychological themes were iden- tified, indicating that surgery alone cannot improve the pa- tients’ psychological difficulties and that psychological care and management of the expected discomfort and body im- age is of considerable importance......INTRODUCTION: Body contouring surgery is associated with changes in body image and identity. The primary aim of the study was to investigate a multidisciplinary assessment of potential psychological challenges before and after body contouring surgery. METHODS: Eight pre- and post-operative patients...... undergo- ing plastic surgery, two surgeons and two nurses were in- vestigated using semi-structured and focus group inter- views to capture the perspectives of both the healthcare professionals and the patients. Data were analysed using an interpretive descriptive approach and coded line-by-line until all...

  4. Incomplete contour representations and shape descriptors : ICR test studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anarta; Petkov, Nicolai; Gregorio, MD; DiMaio,; Frucci, M; Musio, C


    Inspired by psychophysical studies of the human cognitive abilities we propose a novel aspect and a method for performance evaluation of contour based shape recognition algorithms regarding their robustness to incompleteness of contours. We use complete contour representations of objects as a


    Vanzyl, J.


    Calibration of polarimetric radar systems is a field of research in which great progress has been made over the last few years. POLCAL (Polarimetric Radar Calibration) is a software tool intended to assist in the calibration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems. In particular, POLCAL calibrates Stokes matrix format data produced as the standard product by the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne imaging synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR). POLCAL was designed to be used in conjunction with data collected by the NASA/JPL AIRSAR system. AIRSAR is a multifrequency (6 cm, 24 cm, and 68 cm wavelength), fully polarimetric SAR system which produces 12 x 12 km imagery at 10 m resolution. AIRSTAR was designed as a testbed for NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar program. While the images produced after 1991 are thought to be calibrated (phase calibrated, cross-talk removed, channel imbalance removed, and absolutely calibrated), POLCAL can and should still be used to check the accuracy of the calibration and to correct it if necessary. Version 4.0 of POLCAL is an upgrade of POLCAL version 2.0 released to AIRSAR investigators in June, 1990. New options in version 4.0 include automatic absolute calibration of 89/90 data, distributed target analysis, calibration of nearby scenes with calibration parameters from a scene with corner reflectors, altitude or roll angle corrections, and calibration of errors introduced by known topography. Many sources of error can lead to false conclusions about the nature of scatterers on the surface. Errors in the phase relationship between polarization channels result in incorrect synthesis of polarization states. Cross-talk, caused by imperfections in the radar antenna itself, can also lead to error. POLCAL reduces cross-talk and corrects phase calibration without the use of ground calibration equipment. Removing the antenna patterns during SAR processing also forms a very important part of the calibration of SAR data. Errors in the

  6. Combined radar and telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Young, Derek; Chou, Tina; Hsieh, Lung-Hwa; Conover, Kurt; Heintzleman, Richard


    A combined radar and telemetry system is described. The combined radar and telemetry system includes a processing unit that executes instructions, where the instructions define a radar waveform and a telemetry waveform. The processor outputs a digital baseband signal based upon the instructions, where the digital baseband signal is based upon the radar waveform and the telemetry waveform. A radar and telemetry circuit transmits, simultaneously, a radar signal and telemetry signal based upon the digital baseband signal.

  7. Semi-automated contour recognition using DICOMautomaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H; Duzenli, C; Wu, J; Moiseenko, V; Lee, R; Gill, B; Thomas, S


    Purpose: A system has been developed which recognizes and classifies Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine contour data with minimal human intervention. It allows researchers to overcome obstacles which tax analysis and mining systems, including inconsistent naming conventions and differences in data age or resolution. Methods: Lexicographic and geometric analysis is used for recognition. Well-known lexicographic methods implemented include Levenshtein-Damerau, bag-of-characters, Double Metaphone, Soundex, and (word and character)-N-grams. Geometrical implementations include 3D Fourier Descriptors, probability spheres, boolean overlap, simple feature comparison (e.g. eccentricity, volume) and rule-based techniques. Both analyses implement custom, domain-specific modules (e.g. emphasis differentiating left/right organ variants). Contour labels from 60 head and neck patients are used for cross-validation. Results: Mixed-lexicographical methods show an effective improvement in more than 10% of recognition attempts compared with a pure Levenshtein-Damerau approach when withholding 70% of the lexicon. Domain-specific and geometrical techniques further boost performance. Conclusions: DICOMautomaton allows users to recognize contours semi-automatically. As usage increases and the lexicon is filled with additional structures, performance improves, increasing the overall utility of the system.

  8. Gait Recognition Based on Outermost Contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu


    Full Text Available Gait recognition aims to identify people by the way they walk. In this paper, a simple but e ective gait recognition method based on Outermost Contour is proposed. For each gait image sequence, an adaptive silhouette extraction algorithm is firstly used to segment the frames of the sequence and a series of postprocessing is applied to obtain the normalized silhouette images with less noise. Then a novel feature extraction method based on Outermost Contour is performed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA is adopted to reduce the dimensionality of the distance signals derived from the Outermost Contours of silhouette images. Then Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA is used to optimize the separability of gait features belonging to di erent classes. Nearest Neighbor (NN classifier and Nearest Neighbor classifier with respect to class Exemplars (ENN are used to classify the final feature vectors produced by MDA. In order to verify the e ectiveness and robustness of our feature extraction algorithm, we also use two other classifiers: Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM for recognition. Experimental results on a gait database of 100 people show that the accuracy of using MDA, BPNN and SVM can achieve 97.67%, 94.33% and 94.67%, respectively.

  9. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Kohut


    Full Text Available HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities, the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements.

  10. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kastengren, Alan L [ANL


    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  11. Java Radar Analysis Tool (United States)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.


    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  12. MWR, Meteor Wind Radars (United States)

    Roper, R. G.


    The requirements of a state of the art meteor wind radar, and acceptable comprises in the interests of economy, are detailed. Design consideration of some existing and proposed radars are discussed. The need for international cooperation in mesopause level wind measurement, such as that being fostered by the MAP GLOBMET (Global Meteor Observations System) project, is emphasized.

  13. Quantum synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Jitrik, Oliverio; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) uses sensor motion to generate finer spatial resolution of a given target area. In this paper we explore the theoretical potential of quantum synthetic aperture quantum radar (QSAR). We provide theoretical analysis and simulation results which suggest that QSAR can provide improved detection performance over classical SAR in the high-noise low-brightness regime.

  14. Aspects of Radar Polarimetry


    LÜNEBURG, Ernst


    This contribution is a tutorial introduction to the phenomenological theory of radar polarimetry for the coherent scatter case emphasizing monostatic backscattering and forward scattering (transmission). Characteristic similarities and differences between radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry and the role of linear and antilinear operators (time-reversal) are pointed out and typical polarimetric invariants are identified.

  15. CARPET: Een computerprogramma voor het analyseren van radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.


    CARPET is a user friendly computer program that can alleviate the difficult task of analysing the performance of surface-based radar systems. Empirical and theoretical models of the radar and its interaction with the environment are used to calculate the detection performance as a function of the

  16. Short-range self-pulsed optical radar (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.


    Laser for radar device is retriggered when previous laser pulse is reflected from target. Target range R is computed from number of pulses triggered per time interval. Radar accurately measures distances up to 500 meters; it is useful for determining surface shape of relfectors in large, high-gain, highly directional antennas and for other short-range surveying.

  17. Simulation of effect of anti-radar stealth principle (United States)

    Zhao, Borao; Xing, Shuchen; Li, Chunyi


    The paper presents simulation methods and results of the anti-radar stealth principle, proving that anti-radar stealth aircraft can drastically reduce the combat efficiency of an air defense radar system. In particular, when anti-radar stealth aircraft are coordinated with jamming as a self-defense soft weapon, the discovery probability, response time and hit rate of the air defense radar system are much lower, with extensive reduction in jamming power and maximum exposure distance of self-defense and long-range support. The paper describes an assumed combat situation and construction of a calculation model for the aircraft survival rate, as well as simulation results and analysis. Four figures show an enemy bomber attacking an airfield, as well as the effects of the radar effective reflecting surface on discovery probability, guidance radius, aircraft survival and exposure distance (for long-range support and jamming).

  18. Equatorial MU Radar project (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system

  19. Intelligent radar data processing (United States)

    Holzbaur, Ulrich D.

    The application of artificial intelligence principles to the processing of radar signals is considered theoretically. The main capabilities required are learning and adaptation in a changing environment, processing and modeling information (especially dynamics and uncertainty), and decision-making based on all available information (taking its reliability into account). For the application to combat-aircraft radar systems, the tasks include the combination of data from different types of sensors, reacting to electronic counter-countermeasures, evaluation of how much data should be acquired (energy and radiation management), control of the radar, tracking, and identification. Also discussed are related uses such as monitoring the avionics systems, supporting pilot decisions with respect to the radar system, and general applications in radar-system R&D.

  20. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scheer, James A


    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  1. A Review of the Positive Influence of Crown Contours on Soft-Tissue Esthetics. (United States)

    Kinsel, Richard P; Pope, Bryan I; Capoferri, Daniele


    Successful crown restorations duplicate the natural tooth in hue, chroma, value, maverick colors, and surface texture. Equally important is the visual harmony of the facial and proximal soft-tissue contours, which requires the collaborative skills of the restorative dentist, periodontist, and dental technician. The treatment team must understand the biologic structures adjacent to natural dentition and dental implants. This report describes the potential for specifically designed restorative contours to dictate the optimal gingival profile for tooth-supported and implant-supported crowns. Showing several cases, the article explains how esthetic soft-tissue contours enhance the definitive crown restoration, highlights the importance of clinical evaluation of adjacent biologic structures, and discusses keys to predicting when the proximal papilla has the potential to return to a favorable height and shape.

  2. VT 10 ft Contour Lines generated from bare earth lidar - Chittenden (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ElevationContours_CN10T (10ft contours) was extracted from ElevationContours_CN2T (2ft contours), which was generated by USGS from the 2004...

  3. Maritime target and sea clutter measurements with a coherent Doppler polarimetric surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Gelsema, S.J.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Melief, H.W.; Premel Cabic, G.; Theil, A.; Woudenberg, E.


    Doppler polarimetry in a surveillance radar for the maritime surface picture is considered. This radar must be able to detect low-RCS targets in littoral environments. Measurements on such targets have been conducted with a coherent polarimetric measurement radar in March 2001 and preliminary

  4. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures. (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M


    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission:

  5. Gradient vector flow fast geometric active contours. (United States)

    Paragios, Nikos; Mellina-Gottardo, Olivier; Ramesh, Visvanathan


    In this paper, we propose an edge-driven bidirectional geometric flow for boundary extraction. To this end, we combine the geodesic active contour flow and the gradient vector flow external force for snakes. The resulting motion equation is considered within a level set formulation, can deal with topological changes and important shape deformations. An efficient numerical schema is used for the flow implementation that exhibits robust behavior and has fast convergence rate. Promising results on real and synthetic images demonstrate the potentials of the flow.

  6. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Langer


    Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.

  7. Novel radar techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard; Koch, Wolfgang


    Novel Radar Techniques and Applications presents the state-of-the-art in advanced radar, with emphasis on ongoing novel research and development and contributions from an international team of leading radar experts. This volume covers: Waveform diversity and cognitive radar and Target tracking and data fusion.

  8. Equivalence of two contour prescriptions in superstring perturbation theory (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke


    Conventional superstring perturbation theory based on the world-sheet approach gives divergent results for the S-matrix whenever the total center of mass energy of the incoming particles exceeds the threshold of production of any final state consistent with conservation laws. Two systematic approaches have been suggested for dealing with this difficulty. The first one involves deforming the integration cycles over the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces into complexified moduli space. The second one treats the amplitude as a sum of superstring field theory Feynman diagrams and deforms the integration contours over loop energies of the Feynman diagram into the complex plane. In this paper we establish the equivalence of the two prescriptions to all orders in perturbation theory. Since the second approach is known to lead to unitary amplitudes, this establishes the consistency of the first prescription with unitarity.

  9. Equivalence of two contour prescriptions in superstring perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)


    Conventional superstring perturbation theory based on the world-sheet approach gives divergent results for the S-matrix whenever the total center of mass energy of the incoming particles exceeds the threshold of production of any final state consistent with conservation laws. Two systematic approaches have been suggested for dealing with this difficulty. The first one involves deforming the integration cycles over the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces into complexified moduli space. The second one treats the amplitude as a sum of superstring field theory Feynman diagrams and deforms the integration contours over loop energies of the Feynman diagram into the complex plane. In this paper we establish the equivalence of the two prescriptions to all orders in perturbation theory. Since the second approach is known to lead to unitary amplitudes, this establishes the consistency of the first prescription with unitarity.

  10. SRTM Radar Image, Wrapped Color as Height/EarthKam Optical Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)


    These two images of the eastern part of the island of Oahu, Hawaii provide information on regional topography and show the relationship between urban development and sensitive ecosystems. On the left is a topographic radar image collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM.) On the right is an optical image acquired by a digital camera on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, which carried SRTM. Features of interest in this scene include Diamond Head (an extinct volcano at the lower center), Waikiki Beach (just left of Diamond Head), the Punchbowl National Cemetery (another extinct volcano, at the foot of the Koolau Mountains), downtown Honolulu and Honolulu airport (lower left of center), and Pearl Harbor (at the left edge.)The topography shows the steep, high central part of the island surrounded by flatter coastal areas. The optical image shows the urban areas and a darker, forested region on the mountain slopes. The clouds in the optical image and the black areas on the topographic image are both a result of the steep topography. In this tropical region, high mountain peaks are usually covered in clouds. These steep peaks also cause shadows in the radar data, resulting in missing data 'holes.' A second pass over the island was obtained by SRTM and will be used to fill in the holes.The left image combines two types of SRTM data. Brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation. Each color cycle (from pink through blue and back to pink) represents 400 meters (1,300 feet) of elevation difference, like the contour lines on a topographic map. This image contains about 2,400 meters (8,000 feet) of total relief. The optical image was acquired by the Shuttle Electronic Still Camera with a lens focal length of 64 millimeters (2.5 inches) for the Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students (EarthKAM) project. EarthKAM has flown on five space shuttle missions since 1996. Additional information

  11. The equivalent internal orientation and position noise for contour integration. (United States)

    Baldwin, Alex S; Fu, Minnie; Farivar, Reza; Hess, Robert F


    Contour integration is the joining-up of local responses to parts of a contour into a continuous percept. In typical studies observers detect contours formed of discrete wavelets, presented against a background of random wavelets. This measures performance for detecting contours in the limiting external noise that background provides. Our novel task measures contour integration without requiring any background noise. This allowed us to perform noise-masking experiments using orientation and position noise. From these we measure the equivalent internal noise for contour integration. We found an orientation noise of 6° and position noise of 3 arcmin. Orientation noise was 2.6x higher in contour integration compared to an orientation discrimination control task. Comparing against a position discrimination task found position noise in contours to be 2.4x lower. This suggests contour integration involves intermediate processing that enhances the quality of element position representation at the expense of element orientation. Efficiency relative to the ideal observer was lower for the contour tasks (36% in orientation noise, 21% in position noise) compared to the controls (54% and 57%).

  12. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J


    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  13. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael


    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  14. What is in a contour map? A region-based logical formalization of contour semantics (United States)

    Usery, E. Lynn; Hahmann, Torsten


    Contours maps (such as topographic maps) compress the information of a function over a two-dimensional area into a discrete set of closed lines that connect points of equal value (isolines), striking a fine balance between expressiveness and cognitive simplicity. They allow humans to perform many common sense reasoning tasks about the underlying function (e.g. elevation).

  15. Human body contour data based activity recognition. (United States)

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei


    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  16. Study fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper to identify deviations fidelity spatial contours of industrial robots, determine the error pattern detected, and define the ways to solve the problem.The paper presents the research results of fidelity spatial contours done by Fanuc M- 710iC/50 industrial robot when moving along a predetermined path. The proposed method uses a QC20-W ballbar wireless system of Renishaw company, designed to diagnose the state of the measurement and playback linear and angular displacements of the CNC.The solutions to adapt the QC20-W ballbar system to the constructive peculiarities of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes are given. The stages of the preparation of diagnostic systems and software robot movements are described.According to study results of errors that arise while playing back the programmed motions of a fixed point of robot capture in three mutually perpendicular planes its practical accuracy has been defined when performing movements in a given region of the working area, thereby allowing us, eventually, to draw a conclusion on the possibility to use a robot in one technological process or another.The study has resulted in emerging the guidelines for the operation of industrial robots with five or more independently controlled axes. Using these guidelines enables us to increase the playback accuracy of the industrial robot to 0.01 mm.

  17. Temporal variability of fundamental frequency contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Hruška


    Full Text Available Intonation is one of the means of performing a speech style. Thus, observing pitch variation in an utterance may be a clue to identifying speech style. We design a cumulative slope (CS index based upon the amount of pitch variation in a measured F0 contour and the duration of that contour. The more pitch changes there are and the greater their frequency range is, the greater the CS index is. This is confirmed by an experiment we conduct: the CS index of utterances with expressive intonation is higher than that of utterances with neutral intonation, and for utterances with neutral intonation the CS index is higher than for utterances with monotonous or flat intonation. However, as there is a great variability between speakers, the CS index as defined currently, cannot be used to universally differentiate between the styles. Results obtained using automatic voice activity detection (VAD are close to those obtained with manual VAD and thus the extraction of CS index can be reliably automatized.

  18. Pitch contour impairment in congenital amusia: New insights from the Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejing Lu

    Full Text Available Individuals with congenital amusia usually exhibit impairments in melodic contour processing when asked to compare pairs of melodies that may or may not be identical to one another. However, it is unclear whether the impairment observed in contour processing is caused by an impairment of pitch discrimination, or is a consequence of poor pitch memory. To help resolve this ambiguity, we designed a novel Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT that evaluates sensitivity to contour while placing minimal burden on memory. In this task, participants control the pace of an auditory contour that is simultaneously accompanied by a visual contour, and they are asked to judge whether the two contours are congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, melodic contours varying in pitch were presented with a series of dots that varied in spatial height. Amusics exhibited reduced sensitivity to audio-visual congruency in comparison to control participants. To exclude the possibility that the impairment arises from a general deficit in cross-modal mapping, Experiment 2 examined sensitivity to cross-modal mapping for two other auditory dimensions: timbral brightness and loudness. Amusics and controls were significantly more sensitive to large than small contour changes, and to changes in loudness than changes in timbre. However, there were no group differences in cross-modal mapping, suggesting that individuals with congenital amusia can comprehend spatial representations of acoustic information. Taken together, the findings indicate that pitch contour processing in congenital amusia remains impaired even when pitch memory is relatively unburdened.

  19. Pitch contour impairment in congenital amusia: New insights from the Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT). (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Sun, Yanan; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde


    Individuals with congenital amusia usually exhibit impairments in melodic contour processing when asked to compare pairs of melodies that may or may not be identical to one another. However, it is unclear whether the impairment observed in contour processing is caused by an impairment of pitch discrimination, or is a consequence of poor pitch memory. To help resolve this ambiguity, we designed a novel Self-paced Audio-visual Contour Task (SACT) that evaluates sensitivity to contour while placing minimal burden on memory. In this task, participants control the pace of an auditory contour that is simultaneously accompanied by a visual contour, and they are asked to judge whether the two contours are congruent or incongruent. In Experiment 1, melodic contours varying in pitch were presented with a series of dots that varied in spatial height. Amusics exhibited reduced sensitivity to audio-visual congruency in comparison to control participants. To exclude the possibility that the impairment arises from a general deficit in cross-modal mapping, Experiment 2 examined sensitivity to cross-modal mapping for two other auditory dimensions: timbral brightness and loudness. Amusics and controls were significantly more sensitive to large than small contour changes, and to changes in loudness than changes in timbre. However, there were no group differences in cross-modal mapping, suggesting that individuals with congenital amusia can comprehend spatial representations of acoustic information. Taken together, the findings indicate that pitch contour processing in congenital amusia remains impaired even when pitch memory is relatively unburdened.

  20. Multispectral imaging radar (United States)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.


    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  1. Cognitive Nonlinear Radar (United States)


    filter, Bayesian decision theory, Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT), and constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) processing (31). Once the...Abbreviations, and Acronyms CFAR constant false alarm rate CNR cognitive nonlinear radar EM electromagnetic FCC Federal Communications Comission

  2. Telescience Data Collection Radar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckner, Frederick


    Report developed under SBIR contract for topic AF99-258. The feasibility of developing a telescience data collection radar to reduce the cost of gathering aircraft signature data for noncooperative identification programs is investigated...

  3. Imaging Radar Polarimetry (United States)

    vanZyl, J. J.; Zebker, H. A.


    In this paper, we review the state of the art in imaging radar polarimetry, examine current developments in sensor technology and implementation for recording polarimetric measurements, and describe techniques and areas of application for the new remote sensing data.

  4. Wind Profiling Radar (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  5. Space radar image of Mount Everest (United States)


    These are two comparison images of Mount Everest and its surroundings, along the border of Nepal and Tibet. The peak of Mount Everest, the highest elevation on Earth at 8,848 meters (29,028 feet), can be seen near the center of each image. The image at the top was acquired through thick cloud cover by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image on the bottom is an optical photograph taken by the Endeavour crew under clear conditions during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR on October 10, 1994. Both images show an area approximately 70 kilometers by 38 kilometers (43 miles by 24 miles) that is centered at 28.0 degrees north latitude and 86.9 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Radar illumination is from the top of the frame. The optical photograph has been geometrically adjusted to better match the area shown in the radar image. Many features of the Himalayan terrain are visible in both images. Snow covered areas appear white in the optical photograph while the same areas appear bright blue in the radar image. The radar image was taken in early spring and shows deep snow cover, while the optical photograph was taken in late summer and shows minimum snow cover. The curving and branching features seen in both images are glaciers. The two wavelengths and multiple polarizations of the SIR-C radar are sensitive to characteristics of the glacier surfaces that are not detected by conventional photography, such as the ice roughness, water content and stratification. For this reason, the glaciers show a variety of colors in the radar image (blue, purple, red

  6. Phased-array radars (United States)

    Brookner, E.


    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  7. Contour mapping using a microcomputer - techniques for improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herkommer, M.A.


    There are 3 basic steps to contouring by microcomputer: control-point data analysis, generating a regular grid of estimated values, and contouring. Because each of these steps requires a significant amount of time and computer resource, techniques have been developed to improve grid parameter selection, speed gridding, and edit computer-generated contour maps. Grid cell size is a critical parameter used during the gridding stage of computer mapping and must be selected with consideration given to control-point distribution. A histogram showing control points per grid cell is a simple graphical presentation that illustrates before gridding is actually performed the effectiveness of the selected grid increment in producing the desirable grid characteristics of having one control point per grid cell. Gridding is accomplished in 2 steps at every node: gathering the control points for estimating, and actual calculation. Using collection and estimating techniques such as nearest-neighbor searches and inverse-distance moving weighted averaging, several thousands nodes can be calculated in a few minutes. Often, the generated grid (contour map) is satisfactory with exceptions in 1 or 2 areas. Using an interactive computer technique known as contour editing, geologic knowledge and experience can be infused into the map. When editing contour, the computer mapper indicates the way the contours should behave. The entered values are then used to calculate back to the grid nodes (without regridding the whole map area) so the when the grid is recontoured, the contours mimic the contour revisions.

  8. Contour Tracking Control for the REMUS Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Reet, Alan R


    In the interest of enhancing the capabilities of autonomous underwater vehicles used in US Naval Operations, controlling vehicle position to follow depth contours presents exciting potential for navigation...

  9. Robustness of shape descriptors to incomplete contour representations. (United States)

    Ghosh, Anarta; Petkov, Nicolai


    With inspiration from psychophysical researches of the human visual system, we propose a novel aspect and a method for performance evaluation of contour-based shape recognition algorithms regarding their robustness to incompleteness of contours. We use complete contour representations of objects as a reference (training) set. Incomplete contour representations of the same objects are used as a test set. The performance of an algorithm is reported using the recognition rate as a function of the percentage of contour retained. We call this evaluation procedure the ICR test. We consider three types of contour incompleteness, viz. segment-wise contour deletion, occlusion, and random pixel depletion. As an illustration, the robustness of two shape recognition algorithms to contour incompleteness is evaluated. These algorithms use a shape context and a distance multiset as local shape descriptors. Qualitatively, both algorithms mimic human visual perception in the sense that recognition performance monotonously increases with the degree of completeness and that they perform best in the case of random depletion and worst in the case of occluded contours. The distance multiset method performs better than the shape context method in this test framework.

  10. Predictive Modeling of Complex Contoured Composite Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The existing HDWLT (pictured) contoured composite structure design, its analyses and manufacturing tools, will be used to validate key analyses inputs through...

  11. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) Illustration (United States)


    Launched February 11, 2000, the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. This illustration shows the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting some 145 miles (233 kilometers) above Earth. With C-band and X-band outboard anternae at work, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, the SRTM radar was able to penetrate clouds as well as provide its own illumination, independent of daylight, obtaining 3-dimentional topographic images of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping, gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  12. India-Pakistan: Contours of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mittal


    Full Text Available Even after about 70 years of separation, India and Pakistan continue to live in the prison of the past. The rhetoric of partition is still alive in the memory of the people of both the countries. They have constructed fixed, unchanging and competing images for each other. While Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, India adopted secularism, thereby, negating the two-nation theory. The ‘differences’ along with memories of partition has made Indian and Pakistani to remain in permanent hostile situation. The leaders of the two countries try to settle their disputes but fails because of lack of support from their social and political institutions. Since its coming into power in 2014, the NDA government under the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has managed to engage the Pakistani establishment, despite many problems between the two countries. This article tries to highlight upon the contours of relationships post-2014.

  13. Automatic Contour Extraction from 2D Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis GIOANNIS


    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a method for automatic contour extraction from a 2D image. Material and Method: The method is divided in two basic parts where the user initially chooses the starting point and the threshold. Finally the method is applied to computed tomography of bone images. Results: An interesting method is developed which can lead to a successful boundary extraction of 2D images. Specifically data extracted from a computed tomography images can be used for 2D bone reconstruction. Conclusions: We believe that such an algorithm or part of it can be applied on several other applications for shape feature extraction in medical image analysis and generally at computer graphics.

  14. Numerical Aspects of Cone Beam Contour Reconstruction (United States)

    Louis, Alfred K.


    We describe a method for directly calculating the contours of a function from cone beam data. The algorithm is based on a new inversion formula for the gradient of a function presented in Louis (Inverse Probl 32(11):115005, 2016. The Radon transform of the gradient is found by using a Grangeat type of formula, reducing the inversion problem to the inversion of the Radon transform. In that way the influence of the scanning curve, vital for all exact inversion formulas for complete data, is avoided Numerical results are presented for the circular scanning geometry which neither fulfills the Tuy-Kirillov condition nor the much weaker condition given by the author in Louis (Inverse Probl 32(11):115005, 2016.

  15. Radar Mosaic of Africa (United States)


    This is an image of equatorial Africa, centered on the equator at longitude 15degrees east. This image is a mosaic of almost 4,000 separate images obtained in 1996 by the L-band imaging radar onboard the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite. Using radar to penetrate the persistent clouds prevalent in tropical forests, the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite was able for the first time to image at high resolution this continental scale region during single flooding seasons. The area shown covers about 7.4 million square kilometers (2.8 million square miles) of land surface, spans more than 5,000 kilometers(3,100 miles) east and west and some 2,000 kilometers (1,240 miles) north and south. North is up in this image. At the full resolution of the mosaic (100 meters or 330 feet), this image is more than 500 megabytes in size, and was processed from imagery totaling more than 60 gigabytes.Central Africa was imaged twice in 1996, once between January and March, which is the major low-flood season in the Congo Basin, and once between October and November, which is the major high-flood season in the Congo Basin. The red color corresponds to the data from the low-flood season, the green to the high-flood season, and the blue to the 'texture' of the low-flood data. The forests appear green as a result, the flooded and palm forests, as well as urban areas, appear yellow, the ocean and lakes appear black, and savanna areas appear blue, black or green, depending on the savanna type, surface topography and other factors. The areas of the image that are black and white were mapped only between January and March 1996. In these areas, the black areas are savanna or open water, the gray are forests, and the white areas are flooded forests or urban areas. The Congo River dominates the middle of the image, where the nearby forests that are periodically flooded by the Congo and its tributaries stand out as yellow. The Nile River flows north from Lake Victoria in the middle right of the

  16. Combining prior day contours to improve automated prostate segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godley, Andrew; Sheplan Olsen, Lawrence J.; Stephans, Kevin; Zhao Anzi


    Purpose: To improve the accuracy of automatically segmented prostate, rectum, and bladder contours required for online adaptive therapy. The contouring accuracy on the current image guidance [image guided radiation therapy (IGRT)] scan is improved by combining contours from earlier IGRT scans via the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm. Methods: Six IGRT prostate patients treated with daily kilo-voltage (kV) cone-beam CT (CBCT) had their original plan CT and nine CBCTs contoured by the same physician. Three types of automated contours were produced for analysis. (1) Plan: By deformably registering the plan CT to each CBCT and then using the resulting deformation field to morph the plan contours to match the CBCT anatomy. (2) Previous: The contour set drawn by the physician on the previous day CBCT is similarly deformed to match the current CBCT anatomy. (3) STAPLE: The contours drawn by the physician, on each prior CBCT and the plan CT, are deformed to match the CBCT anatomy to produce multiple contour sets. These sets are combined using the STAPLE algorithm into one optimal set. Results: Compared to plan and previous, STAPLE improved the average Dice's coefficient (DC) with the original physician drawn CBCT contours to a DC as follows: Bladder: 0.81 ± 0.13, 0.91 ± 0.06, and 0.92 ± 0.06; Prostate: 0.75 ± 0.08, 0.82 ± 0.05, and 0.84 ± 0.05; and Rectum: 0.79 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.06, and 0.85 ± 0.04, respectively. The STAPLE results are within intraobserver consistency, determined by the physician blindly recontouring a subset of CBCTs. Comparing plans recalculated using the physician and STAPLE contours showed an average disagreement less than 1% for prostate D98 and mean dose, and 5% and 3% for bladder and rectum mean dose, respectively. One scan takes an average of 19 s to contour. Using five scans plus STAPLE takes less than 110 s on a 288 core graphics processor unit. Conclusions: Combining the plan and all prior days via

  17. Rain cell-based identification of the vertical profile of reflectivity as observed by weather radar and its use for precipitation uncertainty estimation (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.


    The wide scale implementation of weather radar systems over the last couple of decades has increased our understanding concerning spatio-temporal precipitation dynamics. However, the quantitative estimation of precipitation by these devices is affected by many sources of error. A very dominant source of error results from vertical variations in the hydrometeor size distribution known as the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). Since the height of the measurement as well as the beam volume increases with distance from the radar, for stratiform precipitation this results in a serious underestimation (overestimation) of the surface reflectivity while sampling within the snow (bright band) region. This research presents a precipitation cell-based implementation to correct volumetric weather radar measurements for VPR effects. Using the properties of a flipping carpenter square, a contour-based identification technique was developed, which is able to identify and track precipitation cells in real time, distinguishing between convective, stratiform and undefined precipitation. For the latter two types of systems, for each individual cell, a physically plausible vertical profile of reflectivity is estimated using a Monte Carlo optimization method. Since it can be expected that the VPR will vary within a given precipitation cell, a method was developed to take the uncertainty of the VPR estimate into account. As a result, we are able to estimate the amount of precipitation uncertainty as observed by weather radar due to VPR for a given precipitation type and storm cell. We demonstrate the possibilities of this technique for a number of winter precipitation systems observed within the Belgian Ardennes. For these systems, in general, the precipitation uncertainty estimate due to vertical reflectivity profile variations varies between 10-40%.

  18. Bistatic synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Yates, Gillian

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) allows all-weather, day and night, surface surveillance and has the ability to detect, classify and geolocate objects at long stand-off ranges. Bistatic SAR, where the transmitter and the receiver are on separate platforms, is seen as a potential means of countering the vulnerability of conventional monostatic SAR to electronic countermeasures, particularly directional jamming, and avoiding physical attack of the imaging platform. As the receiving platform can be totally passive, it does not advertise its position by RF emissions. The transmitter is not susceptible to jamming and can, for example, operate at long stand-off ranges to reduce its vulnerability to physical attack. This thesis examines some of the complications involved in producing high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery. The effect of bistatic operation on resolution is examined from a theoretical viewpoint and analytical expressions for resolution are developed. These expressions are verified by simulation work using a simple 'point by point' processor. This work is extended to look at using modern practical processing engines for bistatic geometries. Adaptations of the polar format algorithm and range migration algorithm are considered. The principal achievement of this work is a fully airborne demonstration of bistatic SAR. The route taken in reaching this is given, along with some results. The bistatic SAR imagery is analysed and compared to the monostatic imagery collected at the same time. Demonstrating high-resolution bistatic SAR imagery using two airborne platforms represents what I believe to be a European first and is likely to be the first time that this has been achieved outside the US (the UK has very little insight into US work on this topic). Bistatic target characteristics are examined through the use of simulations. This also compares bistatic imagery with monostatic and gives further insight into the utility of bistatic SAR.

  19. Evaluation of Deformable Image Registration-Based Contour Propagation From Planning CT to Cone-Beam CT. (United States)

    Woerner, Andrew J; Choi, Mehee; Harkenrider, Matthew M; Roeske, John C; Surucu, Murat


    We evaluated the performance of organ contour propagation from a planning computed tomography to cone-beam computed tomography with deformable image registration by comparing contours to manual contouring. Sixteen patients were retrospectively identified based on showing considerable physical change throughout the course of treatment. Multiple organs in the 3 regions (head and neck, prostate, and pancreas) were evaluated. A cone-beam computed tomography from the end of treatment was registered to the planning computed tomography using rigid registration, followed by deformable image registration. The contours were copied on cone-beam computed tomography image sets using rigid registration and modified by 2 radiation oncologists. Contours were compared using Dice similarity coefficient, mean surface distance, and Hausdorff distance. The mean physician-to-physician Dice similarity coefficient for all organs was 0.90. When compared to each physician's contours, the overall mean for rigid was 0.76 ( P cone-beam computed tomography to evaluate the changes during treatment should be used with caution.

  20. CAMEX-4 TOGA RADAR V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TOGA radar dataset consists of browse and radar data collected from the TOGA radar during the CAMEX-4 experiment. TOGA is a C-band linear polarized doppler radar...

  1. SemiContour: A Semi-supervised Learning Approach for Contour Detection. (United States)

    Zhang, Zizhao; Xing, Fuyong; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Yang, Lin


    Supervised contour detection methods usually require many labeled training images to obtain satisfactory performance. However, a large set of annotated data might be unavailable or extremely labor intensive. In this paper, we investigate the usage of semi-supervised learning (SSL) to obtain competitive detection accuracy with very limited training data (three labeled images). Specifically, we propose a semi-supervised structured ensemble learning approach for contour detection built on structured random forests (SRF). To allow SRF to be applicable to unlabeled data, we present an effective sparse representation approach to capture inherent structure in image patches by finding a compact and discriminative low-dimensional subspace representation in an unsupervised manner, enabling the incorporation of abundant unlabeled patches with their estimated structured labels to help SRF perform better node splitting. We re-examine the role of sparsity and propose a novel and fast sparse coding algorithm to boost the overall learning efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply SSL for contour detection. Extensive experiments on the BSDS500 segmentation dataset and the NYU Depth dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.

  2. Exploratory Data Analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Measurements to Distinguish the Sea Surface Expressions of Naturally-Occurring Oil Seeps from Human-Related Oil Spills in Campeche Bay (Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo de Araújo Carvalho


    Full Text Available An Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA aims to use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR measurements for discriminating between two oil slick types observed on the sea surface: naturally-occurring oil seeps versus human-related oil spills—the use of satellite sensors for this task is poorly documented in scientific literature. A long-term RADARSAT dataset (2008–2012 is exploited to investigate oil slicks in Campeche Bay (Gulf of Mexico. Simple Classification Algorithms to distinguish the oil slick type are designed based on standard multivariate data analysis techniques. Various attributes of geometry, shape, and dimension that describe the oil slick Size Information are combined with SAR-derived backscatter coefficients—sigma-(σo, beta-(βo, and gamma-(γo naught. The combination of several of these characteristics is capable of distinguishing the oil slick type with ~70% of overall accuracy, however, the sole and simple use of two specific oil slick’s Size Information (i.e., area and perimeter is equally capable of distinguishing seeps from spills. The data mining exercise of our EDA promotes a novel idea bridging petroleum pollution and remote sensing research, thus paving the way to further investigate the satellite synoptic view to express geophysical differences between seeped and spilled oil observed on the sea surface for systematic use.

  3. The role of remote closure in the perception of occlusion at junctions and illusory contours. (United States)

    Gillam, Barbara J; Grove, Philip M; Layden, Jessica


    Abstract. Perceived occlusion at T-junctions or illusory contours at implicit T-junctions are often modelled by using edge information without surface context. We explored the effect of closure on perceived occlusion at T-junctions. Two vertical lines separated by a gap each had six abutting horizontal lines on opposite sides forming T-junctions. These lines were either closed or not closed into pairs at the stem ends of the Ts. In experiment 1, closed T-junction stems gave a much stronger sense of occlusion at the vertical lines than unclosed ones, even though closure information was remote from the putative occlusion and local T-junction information remained constant. When the outer two T-junctions were converted to L-junctions, perceived occlusion considerably diminished. The effect of closure on illusory-contour strength for stimuli like those of experiment 1 but with the vertical lines omitted was explored in experiment 2. The two sets of horizontal lines, separated by a gap, were either closed or not closed into pairs at their outer ends. Illusory-contour strength along the vertical alignments was much greater for closed pairs. Line terminations on both sides of the gap enhanced illusory-contour strength, but whether they were collinear or not had little effect.

  4. Measuring multiple residual-stress components using the contour method and multiple cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swenson, Hunter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pagliaro, Pierluigi [U. PALERMO; Zuccarello, Bernardo [U. PALERMO


    The conventional contour method determines one component of stress over the cross section of a part. The part is cut into two, the contour of the exposed surface is measured, and Bueckner's superposition principle is analytically applied to calculate stresses. In this paper, the contour method is extended to the measurement of multiple stress components by making multiple cuts with subsequent applications of superposition. The theory and limitations are described. The theory is experimentally tested on a 316L stainless steel disk with residual stresses induced by plastically indenting the central portion of the disk. The stress results are validated against independent measurements using neutron diffraction. The theory has implications beyond just multiple cuts. The contour method measurements and calculations for the first cut reveal how the residual stresses have changed throughout the part. Subsequent measurements of partially relaxed stresses by other techniques, such as laboratory x-rays, hole drilling, or neutron or synchrotron diffraction, can be superimposed back to the original state of the body.

  5. Joint application of Geoelectrical Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar techniques for the study of hyper-saturated zones. Case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S. Mesbah


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the application of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding (GRS and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR for outlining and investigating of surface springing out (flow of groundwater to the base of an service building site, and determining the reason(s for the zone of maximum degree of saturation; in addition to provide stratigraphic information for this site. The studied economic building is constructed lower than the ground surface by about 7 m. A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES survey was performed at 12 points around the studied building in order to investigate the vertical and lateral extent of the subsurface sequence, three VES's were conducted at each side of the building at discrete distances. And a total of 9 GPR profiles with 100- and 200-MHz antennae were conducted, with the objective of evaluating the depth and the degree of saturation of the subsurface layers. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the acquired VES's showed easily the levels of saturations close to and around the studied building. From the interpretation of GPR profiles, it was possible to locate and determine the saturated layers. The radar signals are penetrated and enabled the identification of the subsurface reflectors. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology. Finally, the new constructed geoelectrical resistivity cross-sections (in contoured-form, are easily clarifying the direction of groundwater flow toward the studied building.

  6. Joint application of Geoelectrical Resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar techniques for the study of hyper-saturated zones. Case study in Egypt (United States)

    Mesbah, Hany S.; Morsy, Essam A.; Soliman, Mamdouh M.; Kabeel, Khamis


    This paper presents the results of the application of the Geoelectrical Resistivity Sounding (GRS) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for outlining and investigating of surface springing out (flow) of groundwater to the base of an service building site, and determining the reason(s) for the zone of maximum degree of saturation; in addition to provide stratigraphic information for this site. The studied economic building is constructed lower than the ground surface by about 7 m. A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) survey was performed at 12 points around the studied building in order to investigate the vertical and lateral extent of the subsurface sequence, three VES's were conducted at each side of the building at discrete distances. And a total of 9 GPR profiles with 100- and 200-MHz antennae were conducted, with the objective of evaluating the depth and the degree of saturation of the subsurface layers. The qualitative and quantitative interpretation of the acquired VES's showed easily the levels of saturations close to and around the studied building. From the interpretation of GPR profiles, it was possible to locate and determine the saturated layers. The radar signals are penetrated and enabled the identification of the subsurface reflectors. The results of GPR and VES showed a good agreement and the integrated interpretations were supported by local geology. Finally, the new constructed geoelectrical resistivity cross-sections (in contoured-form), are easily clarifying the direction of groundwater flow toward the studied building.

  7. Contour Integration over Time: Psychophysical and fMRI Evidence. (United States)

    Kuai, Shu-Guang; Li, Wu; Yu, Cong; Kourtzi, Zoe


    The brain integrates discrete but collinear stimuli to perceive global contours. Previous contour integration (CI) studies mainly focus on integration over space, and CI is attributed to either V1 long-range connections or contour processing in high-visual areas that top-down modulate V1 responses. Here, we show that CI also occurs over time in a design that minimizes the roles of V1 long-range interactions. We use tilted contours embedded in random orientation noise and moving horizontally behind a fixed vertical slit. Individual contour elements traveling up/down within the slit would be encoded over time by parallel, rather than aligned, V1 neurons. However, we find robust contour detection even when the slit permits only one viewable contour element. Similar to CI over space, CI over time also obeys the rule of collinearity. fMRI evidence shows that while CI over space engages visual areas as early as V1, CI over time mainly engages higher dorsal and ventral visual areas involved in shape processing, as well as posterior parietal regions involved in visual memory that can represent the orientation of temporally integrated contours. These results suggest at least partially dissociable mechanisms for implementing the Gestalt rule of continuity in CI over space and time. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Hand-Geometry Recognition Based on Contour Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Bazen, A.M.; Booij, W.D.T.; Hendrikse, A.J.; Jain, A.K.; Ratha, N.K.

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a new method of hand-geometry recognition based on parameters derived from the contour of the hand. The contour is completely determined by the black-and-white image of the hand and can be derived from it by means of simple image-processing techniques. It

  9. Adaptive Pseudo Dilation for Gestalt Edge Grouping and Contour Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai


    We consider the problem of detecting object contours in natural images. In many cases, local luminance changes turn out to be stronger in textured areas than on object contours. Therefore, local edge features, which only look at a small neighborhood of each pixel, cannot be reliable indicators of

  10. Arecibo Radar Observation of Near-Earth Asteroids: Expanded Sample Size, Determination of Radar Albedos, and Measurements of Polarization Ratios (United States)

    Lejoly, Cassandra; Howell, Ellen S.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Springmann, Alessondra; Virkki, Anne; Nolan, Michael C.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.


    The Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population ranges in size from a few meters to more than 10 kilometers. NEAs have a wide variety of taxonomic classes, surface features, and shapes, including spheroids, binary objects, contact binaries, elongated, as well as irregular bodies. Using the Arecibo Observatory planetary radar system, we have measured apparent rotation rate, radar reflectivity, apparent diameter, and radar albedos for over 350 NEAs. The radar albedo is defined as the radar cross-section divided by the geometric cross-section. If a shape model is available, the actual cross-section is known at the time of the observation. Otherwise we derive a geometric cross-section from a measured diameter. When radar imaging is available, the diameter was measured from the apparent range depth. However, when radar imaging was not available, we used the continuous wave (CW) bandwidth radar measurements in conjunction with the period of the object. The CW bandwidth provides apparent rotation rate, which, given an independent rotation measurement, such as from lightcurves, constrains the size of the object. We assumed an equatorial view unless we knew the pole orientation, which gives a lower limit on the diameter. The CW also provides the polarization ratio, which is the ratio of the SC and OC cross-sections.We confirm the trend found by Benner et al. (2008) that taxonomic types E and V have very high polarization ratios. We have obtained a larger sample and can analyze additional trends with spin, size, rotation rate, taxonomic class, polarization ratio, and radar albedo to interpret the origin of the NEAs and their dynamical processes. The distribution of radar albedo and polarization ratio at the smallest diameters (≤50 m) differs from the distribution of larger objects (>50 m), although the sample size is limited. Additionally, we find more moderate radar albedos for the smallest NEAs when compared to those with diameters 50-150 m. We will present additional trends we

  11. TRMM Precipitation Radar Surface Rain L3 1 month 5 degree x 5 degree V7 (TRMM_3A26) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains distributions of monthly surface rainfall. These data were derived from rain rate statistics and include the estimated values of the...

  12. TRMM Precipitation Radar Surface Cross-Section L2 1.5 hours V7 (TRMM_2A21) at GES DISC (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the sigma zero algorithm, which inputs the PR power (1B21) and computes estimates of the path attenuation and its reliability by using the surface as a...

  13. Contour integration and segmentation with a new lateral connections model (United States)

    Cai, Chao


    Automatically target contour detection from cluttered scenes is a very difficult task for computer vision. Humans, however, have a much better background suppress ability. The preceding models could not implement such a task very well. In this letter, an effective contour integration method based on human visual perception mechanism is proposed. The algorithm combines the properties of primary visual cortex and psychology researching results to simulate the contour perception of the V1 cortex. The new lateral connection based computational model have a better texture suppress ability, while, target's contour is enhanced. Compared with traditional methods, experiments show that the new method implement a more reasonable simulation of the V1 function structure, availably enhance the target's contour while suppress the cluttered background, obtain a balance between over and lose detection, besides, it has better accuracy with less computational complexity and time-consuming.

  14. Radar for tracer particles (United States)

    Ott, Felix; Herminghaus, Stephan; Huang, Kai


    We introduce a radar system capable of tracking a 5 mm spherical target continuously in three dimensions. The 10 GHz (X-band) radar system has a transmission power of 1 W and operates in the near field of the horn antennae. By comparing the phase shift of the electromagnetic wave traveling through the free space with an IQ-mixer, we obtain the relative movement of the target with respect to the antennae. From the azimuth and inclination angles of the receiving antennae obtained in the calibration, we reconstruct the target trajectory in a three-dimensional Cartesian system. Finally, we test the tracking algorithm with target moving in circular as well as in pendulum motions and discuss the capability of the radar system.

  15. Use of radars to monitor stream discharge by noncontact methods (United States)

    Costa, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.; Hayes, K.; Teague, C.; Barrick, D.


    Conventional measurements of river flows are costly, time‐consuming, and frequently dangerous. This report evaluates the use of a continuous wave microwave radar, a monostatic UHF Doppler radar, a pulsed Doppler microwave radar, and a ground‐penetrating radar to measure river flows continuously over long periods and without touching the water with any instruments. The experiments duplicate the flow records from conventional stream gauging stations on the San Joaquin River in California and the Cowlitz River in Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to directly measure the parameters necessary to compute flow: surface velocity (converted to mean velocity) and cross‐sectional area, thereby avoiding the uncertainty, complexity, and cost of maintaining rating curves. River channel cross sections were measured by ground‐penetrating radar suspended above the river. River surface water velocity was obtained by Bragg scattering of microwave and UHF Doppler radars, and the surface velocity data were converted to mean velocity on the basis of detailed velocity profiles measured by current meters and hydroacoustic instruments. Experiments using these radars to acquire a continuous record of flow were conducted for 4 weeks on the San Joaquin River and for 16 weeks on the Cowlitz River. At the San Joaquin River the radar noncontact measurements produced discharges more than 20% higher than the other independent measurements in the early part of the experiment. After the first 3 days, the noncontact radar discharge measurements were within 5% of the rating values. On the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, correlation coefficients between the USGS stream gauging station rating curve discharge and discharge computed from three different Doppler radar systems and GPR data over the 16 week experiment were 0.883, 0.969, and 0.992. Noncontact radar results were within a few percent of discharge values obtained by gauging station, current meter, and hydroacoustic methods

  16. An Incomplete Inventory of Suspected Human-Induced Surface Deformation in North America Detected by Satellite Interferometric Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana G. Semple


    Full Text Available We used satellite interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR data to document ground deformation across North America suspected to be caused by human activities. We showed that anthropogenic deformation can be measured from space across the continent and thus satellite observations should be collected routinely to characterize this deformation. We included results from the literature as well as new analysis of more than 5000 interferograms from the European Remote Sensing (ERS satellite, Envisat, the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, and other satellites, collectively spanning the period 1992–2015. This compilation, while not complete in terms of spatial or temporal coverage nor uniform in quality over the region, contains 263 different areas of likely anthropogenic ground deformation, including 65 that were previously unreported. The sources can be attributed to groundwater extraction (50%, geothermal sites (6%, hydrocarbon production (20%, mining (21%, and other sources (3% such as lake level changes driven by human activities and tunneling. In a few areas, the source of deformation is ambiguous. We found at least 80 global positioning system (GPS stations within 20 km of of these areas that could be contaminated by the anthropogenic deformation. At sites where we performed a full time series analysis, we found a mix of steady and time-variable deformation rates. For example, at the East Mesa Geothermal Field in California, we found an area that changed from subsidence to uplift around 2006, even though publicly available records of pumping and injection showed no change during that time. We illustrate selected non-detections from wastewater injection in Oklahoma and eastern Texas, where we found that the detection threshold with available data is >0.5 cm/yr. This places into doubt previous results claiming detection below this threshold in eastern Texas. However, we found likely injection-induced uplift in a different area of

  17. Composite technology in radar equipment. Dopler Meteo radar reflector device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shumov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted features of the application composite materials in radar technology for example adjustment of the development technology of the reflector antenna device DMRL-S - radar for monitoring meteorological conditions.Russian and foreign analogues DMRL-S are made of aluminum, which no longer meets modern requirements for strength and weight. Also aluminum reflectors are not temperature stable. Composite materials are characterized by higher values of specific characteristics: temporary resistance, endurance limit, stiffness, elastic modulus, and less prone to cracking. The use of such materials improves the strength, rigidity and durability.For the manufacture of the DMRL-C reflector used composite materials based on epoxy resins reinforced with fiberglass (both unidirectional and woven. To increase the rigidity and weight reflector is made in the form of three-layer sandwich fiberglass panels with honeycomb core variable height. Design work was carried out in a CAD Siemens NX8.0 / Unigraphics, through which was established mathematical model layered reflector, as well as all accessories used in the manufacture. With the program NX Nastran was held strength calculation and analysis of stiffness on the finite element method.After the manufacture of the product, we measured the standard deviation of the working surface of the reflector from the theoretical surface using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Measurements were made at different angular positions of the reflector, and when loading. It is shown that the maximum strain in the operating modes of operation across the surface of the product does not exceed 4%, which will provide the most accurate operation of the product in any position of the antenna system.As a result of this work reflector design was developed, created and verified by experimental data calculation model. Reflector antenna device of the DMRL-S was manufactured and tested. The reflector was made of reinforced

  18. Investigation on the Combined Use of Ground Penetrating Radar, Cone Penetrometer and High Resolution Seismic Data for Near Surface and Vadose Zone Characterization in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.


    This study compares data from Cone Penetrometer Tests (CPT), high resolution surface reflection seismic (HRS) data and ground penetrating radar (GPR) data in the upper 120 feet (40 meters) of the A/M Area, Upper Three Runs Watershed at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The CPT, GPR, and HRS data were obtained along the Silverton Road in the western sector of the A/M Area groundwater plume, and adjacent to Geophysical Correlation Boring number-sign 1 (GCB-1). This location allows for multiple correlations to be made between the various data sources, and supports shallow investigations for near surface affects of the Crackerneck Fault, a major structural feature in the area. Borehole geophysical data from GCB-1 were used to provide subsurface constraints on the CPT, GPR, and HRS data. core data, natural gamma ray, spectral gamma data, multi-level induction resistivity, density and sonic data were utilized to distinguish clays, sands and silts. The CPT data provided tip bearing and sleeve stress, as an indicator of stratigraphy. Reflection seismic data provided continuous subsurface profiles of key marker horizons. Ground Penetrating Radar provided information on shallow subsurface geological features. Conclusions from this study suggest that there is a high degree of correlation between the CPT and borehole geophysical data, specifically, the Friction Ratio and gamma/spectral gamma curves. The Upland/Tobacco Road, Tobacco Road/Dry Branch, Dry Branch/Santee, Santee/Warley Hill and the Warley Hill/Congaree contacts are discernible. From these contacts it is possible to map structural relationships in the shallow subsurface that are tied to regional data. Because formation contacts are discernible, CPT, HRS, GPR, and geophysical log intra-formational anomalies are mappable. These features allow for stratigraphic and facies mapping using the GPR and HRS data for continuity and the CPT and geophysical data for lithofacies analysis. It is possible to use the

  19. Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium (United States)

    Elachi, C.


    An overview of the present state of the art in the different scientific and technological fields related to spaceborne imaging radars was presented. The data acquired with the SEASAT SAR (1978) and Shuttle Imaging Radar, SIR-A (1981) clearly demonstrated the important emphasis in the 80's is going to be on in-depth research investigations conducted with the more flexible and sophisticated SIR series instruments and on long term monitoring of geophysical phenomena conducted from free-flying platforms such as ERS-1 and RADARSAT.

  20. Systems and Methods for Radar Data Communication (United States)

    Bunch, Brian (Inventor); Szeto, Roland (Inventor); Miller, Brad (Inventor)


    A radar information processing system is operable to process high bandwidth radar information received from a radar system into low bandwidth radar information that may be communicated to a low bandwidth connection coupled to an electronic flight bag (EFB). An exemplary embodiment receives radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth; processes the received radar information into processed radar information, the processed radar information configured for communication over a connection operable at a second bandwidth, the second bandwidth lower than the first bandwidth; and communicates the radar information from a radar system, the radar information communicated from the radar system at a first bandwidth.

  1. Status Of Imaging Radar Polarimetry (United States)

    Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Zebker, Howard A.


    Report pulls together information on imaging radar polarimetry from a variety of sources. Topics include theory, equipment, and experimental data. Reviews state of the art, examines current applicable developments in radar equipment, describes recording and processing of radar polarimetric measurements, and discusses interpretation and application of resulting polarimetric images.

  2. Contour tracing for segmentation of mammographic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, Matthias; Held, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas


    CADx systems have the potential to support radiologists in the difficult task of discriminating benign and malignant mammographic lesions. The segmentation of mammographic masses from the background tissue is an important module of CADx systems designed for the characterization of mass lesions. In this work, a novel approach to this task is presented. The segmentation is performed by automatically tracing the mass' contour in-between manually provided landmark points defined on the mass' margin. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to the performance of implementations of three state-of-the-art approaches based on region growing and dynamic programming. For an unbiased comparison of the different segmentation approaches, optimal parameters are selected for each approach by means of tenfold cross-validation and a genetic algorithm. Furthermore, segmentation performance is evaluated on a dataset of ROI and ground-truth pairs. The proposed method outperforms the three state-of-the-art methods. The benchmark dataset will be made available with publication of this paper and will be the first publicly available benchmark dataset for mass segmentation.

  3. Ovate pontics: Phoenixing the gingival contour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Vivek Bhuskute


    Full Text Available In today's busy world, most patients do not have time for long, drawn-out dental treatment. The time span between extraction and healing after loss of tooth in the anterior esthetic zone can be esthetically and psychologically devastating on the part of the patient. Especially, when a maxillary anterior tooth must be extracted and replaced, immediate tooth replacement with an ovate pontic on a provisional bridge is a good alternative. Ovate pontic helps in preservation of the interdental papilla, which in turn preserves the natural gingival contour that would have otherwise been lost after extraction. An immediate tooth replacement using ovate pontic not only eliminates the psychologically disturbing partially edentulous phase but also results in a much more esthetically pleasing replacement of tooth that is both hygienic and natural in appearance. Another added advantage of the use of ovate pontic is that it rules out the dissatisfaction resulting from an unesthetic ridge lap pontic placed directly over edentulous ridge. Just like the long-lived bird “Phoenix,” arising out of its own ashes, the ovate pontic creates an illusion that the pontic is emerging from the gingiva, even after tooth loss. This case report discusses how an integrated approach of fabricating heat cure provisional bridge with ovate pontics before extractions, benefitted a young patient in whom fractured anterior teeth were proposed for extraction.

  4. Comparison between HF radar current data and moored ADCP currentmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosoli, S.


    A preliminary assessment of accuracy of a two-sites shore-based HF Radar network along the Venice Lagoon littoral was attempted by means of comparison with a 57.5 day-long ADCP current time series for the period September-October 2002. Results showed that radar measurements were accurate ( O . The main differences between the HF radar and surface ADCP currents can be explained in terms of random errors affecting the measurement technique and the daily sea breeze forcing, since low-pass filtering of current time series significantly improved the correlation and decreased the RMS of the differences between the two measured data set. Comparison of the semidiurnal (M2, S2) tidal band suggested good agreement between tidal ellipse amplitudes. Wind forcing on a daily time-scale (sea-breeze) was associated with larger differences between radar and ADCP currents at a diurnal band due to the presence of a vertical shear in the surface layer

  5. A Biologically Motivated Multiresolution Approach to Contour Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Neri


    Full Text Available Standard edge detectors react to all local luminance changes, irrespective of whether they are due to the contours of the objects represented in a scene or due to natural textures like grass, foliage, water, and so forth. Moreover, edges due to texture are often stronger than edges due to object contours. This implies that further processing is needed to discriminate object contours from texture edges. In this paper, we propose a biologically motivated multiresolution contour detection method using Bayesian denoising and a surround inhibition technique. Specifically, the proposed approach deploys computation of the gradient at different resolutions, followed by Bayesian denoising of the edge image. Then, a biologically motivated surround inhibition step is applied in order to suppress edges that are due to texture. We propose an improvement of the surround suppression used in previous works. Finally, a contour-oriented binarization algorithm is used, relying on the observation that object contours lead to long connected components rather than to short rods obtained from textures. Experimental results show that our contour detection method outperforms standard edge detectors as well as other methods that deploy inhibition.

  6. Spatial profile of contours inducing long-range color assimilation. (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S


    Color induction was measured using a matching method for two spatial patterns, each composed of double contours. In one pattern (the standard), the contours had sharp edges to induce the Watercolor Effect (WCE); in the other, the two contours had a spatial taper so that the overall profile produced a sawtooth edge, or ramped stimulus. These patterns were chosen based on our previous study demonstrating that the strength of the chromatic WCE depends on a luminance difference between the two contours. Low-pass chromatic mechanisms, unlike bandpass luminance mechanisms, may be expected to be insensitive to the difference between the two spatial profiles. The strength of the watercolor spreading was similar for the two patterns at narrow widths of the contour possibly because of chromatic aberration, but with wider contours, the standard stimulus produced stronger assimilation than the ramped stimulus. This research suggests that luminance-dependent chromatic mechanisms mediate the WCE and that these mechanisms are sensitive to differences in the two spatial profiles of the pattern contours only when they are wide.

  7. Material properties from contours: New insights on object perception. (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio; Deiana, Katia


    In this work we explored phenomenologically the visual complexity of the material attributes on the basis of the contours that define the boundaries of a visual object. The starting point is the rich and pioneering work done by Gestalt psychologists and, more in detail, by Rubin, who first demonstrated that contours contain most of the information related to object perception, like the shape, the color and the depth. In fact, by investigating simple conditions like those used by Gestalt psychologists, mostly consisting of contours only, we demonstrated that the phenomenal complexity of the material attributes emerges through appropriate manipulation of the contours. A phenomenological approach, analogous to the one used by Gestalt psychologists, was used to answer the following questions. What are contours? Which attributes can be phenomenally defined by contours? Are material properties determined only by contours? What is the visual syntactic organization of object attributes? The results of this work support the idea of a visual syntactic organization as a new kind of object formation process useful to understand the language of vision that creates well-formed attribute organizations. The syntax of visual attributes can be considered as a new way to investigate the modular coding and, more generally, the binding among attributes, i.e., the issue of how the brain represents the pairing of shape and material properties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Phased Array Radar Network Experiment for Severe Weather (United States)

    Ushio, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Mega, T.; Yoshikawa, E.; Mizutani, F.; Takahashi, N.


    Phased Array Weather Radar (PAWR) was firstly developed in 2012 by Osaka University and Toshiba under a grant of NICT using the Digital Beamforming Technique, and showed a impressive thunderstorm behavior with 30 second resolution. After that development, second PAWR was installed in Kobe city about 60 km away from the first PAWR site, and Tokyo Metropolitan University, Osaka Univeristy, Toshiba and the Osaka Local Government started a new project to develop the Osaka Urban Demonstration Network. The main sensor of the Osaka Network is a 2-node Phased Array Radar Network and lightning location system. Data products that are created both in local high performance computer and Toshiba Computer Cloud, include single and multi-radar data, vector wind, quantitative precipitation estimation, VIL, nowcasting, lightning location and analysis. Each radar node is calibarated by the baloon measurement and through the comparison with the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)/ DPR (Dual Frequency Space borne Radar) within 1 dB. The attenuated radar reflectivities obtained by the Phased Array Radar Network at X band are corrected based on the bayesian scheme proposed in Shimamura et al. [2016]. The obtained high resolution (every 30 seconds/ 100 elevation angles) 3D reflectivity and rain rate fields are used to nowcast the surface rain rate up to 30 minutes ahead. These new products are transferred to Osaka Local Government in operational mode and evaluated by several section in Osaka Prefecture. Furthermore, a new Phased Array Radar with polarimetric function has been developed in 2017, and will be operated in the fiscal year of 2017. In this presentation, Phased Array Radar, network architecuture, processing algorithm, evalution of the social experiment and first Multi-Prameter Phased Array Radar experiment are presented.

  9. Compressive CFAR Radar Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Rossum, W.L. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.


    In this paper we investigate the performance of a combined Compressive Sensing (CS) Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) radar processor under different interference scenarios using both the Cell Averaging (CA) and Order Statistic (OS) CFAR detectors. Using the properties of the Complex Approximate

  10. Compressive CFAR radar detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.


    In this paper we develop the first Compressive Sensing (CS) adaptive radar detector. We propose three novel architectures and demonstrate how a classical Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector can be combined with ℓ1-norm minimization. Using asymptotic arguments and the Complex Approximate

  11. Metamaterial for Radar Frequencies (United States)


    capacitive coupling with adjacent patches, as shown in Figure 3. The via provides inductance to ground. Figure 3. (a) Planar LH distributed periodic...After [20]). The capacitance in the structure balances out the inductance present when the cylinder is placed in a square array. The metallic... RADAR FREQUENCIES by Szu Hau Tan September 2012 Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn Second Reader: James Calusdian

  12. Contour Erasure and Filling-in: New Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Anstis


    Full Text Available Contour erasure is a newly established form of flicker adaptation that diminishes the saliency of object edges leading to their complete disappearance (Anstis, S. 2013. Journal of Vision, 13(2:25, 1–14. If these “disappeared” objects are then viewed on textured backgrounds, the observers experience filling-in, the illusory sense of background completion in the absence of physical input. In a series of observations, we demonstrate that contour erasure can greatly speed up the filling-in (or fading of brightness. Based on these observations, we suggest that contour adaptation happens early in the magnocellular pathways.

  13. Contour tracking and corner detection in a logic programming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Benjamin; Pau, L. F.


    The added functionality such as contour tracking and corner detection which logic programming lends to standard image operators is described. An environment for implementing low-level imaging operations with Prolog predicates is considered. Within this environment, higher-level image predicates...... (contour tracking and corner detection) are constructed. The emphasis is not on building better corner detectors, but on presenting ways of using the unification and backtracking features of logic programming for these tasks. The performance of this implementation of contour tracking and corner detection...

  14. Radar Exploration of Cometary Nuclei (United States)

    Gim, Yonggyu; Heggy, E.; Belton, M.; Weissman, P.; Asphaug, E.


    We have developed a mission formulation, based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, to image the 3D internal structure of the nucleus of a Jupiter-family comet (JFC). Believed to originate in the outer solar system and to be delivered recently to the inner solar system from the Kuiper Belt, JFCs are among the most primitive bodies accessible by spacecraft, and are indicated in the 2010 Decadal Survey as primary targets for primitive bodies sample return. We consider a sounder design operating at dual frequencies, 5 and 15 MHz center frequencies with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths, respectively. Operating from close orbit about the nucleus of a spinning comet nucleus, CORE obtains a dense network of echoes that are used to image its interior structure to 10 m and to map the dielectric properties inside the nucleus to better than 200 m throughout. Clear images of internal structure and dielectric composition will reveal how the nucleus was formed and how it has evolved. Radiometric tracking of the spacecraft orbit will provide an interior mass distribution that constrains the radar-based models of interior composition. High-resolution visible and infrared color images provide surface and exterior boundary conditions for interior models and hypotheses. They present the geology and morphology of the nucleus surface at meter-scales, and the time-evolving activity, structure, and composition of the inner coma. By making global yet detailed connections from interior to exterior, the data from CORE will provide answers to fundamental questions about the earliest stages of planetesimal evolution and planet formation, will be an important complement to the Rosetta mission science, and will lay the foundation for comet nucleus sample return.

  15. Sedimentological and geophysical studies of clastic reservoir analogs: Methods, applications and developments of ground-penetrating radar for determination of reservoir geometries in near-surface settings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, G.A.; Soegaard, K.


    An integrated sedimentologic and GPR investigation has been carried out on a fluvial channel sandstone in the mid-Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone at Coyote Basin along the southwestern flank of the San Rafael Uplift in east-central Utah. This near-surface study, which covers a area of 40 {times} 16.5 meters to a depth of 15 meters, integrates detailed stratigraphic data from outcrop sections and facies maps with multi-frequency 3-D GPR surveys. The objectives of this investigation are two-fold: (1) to develop new ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for imaging shallow subsurface sandstone bodies, and (2) to construct an empirical three-dimensional sandstone reservoir model suitable for hydrocarbon flow-simulation by imaging near-surface sandstone reservoir analogs with the use of GPR. The sedimentological data base consists of a geologic map of the survey area and a detailed facies map of the cliff face immediately adjacent to the survey area. Five vertical sections were measured along the cliff face adjacent to the survey area. In addition, four wells were cored within the survey area from which logs were recorded. In the sections and well logs primary sedimentary structures were documented along with textural information and permeability data. Gamma-ray profiles were also obtained for all sections and core logs. The sedimentologic and stratigraphic information serves as the basis from which much of the processing and interpretation of the GPR data was made. Three 3-D GPR data sets were collected over the survey area at frequencies of 50 MHZ, 100 MHZ, and 200 MHZ.

  16. Insights into factors contributing to the observability of a submarine at periscope depth by modern radar, Part 2: EM simulation of mast RCS in a realistic sea surface environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, JC


    Full Text Available Recently, a set of high resolution radar measurements were undertaken in South Africa to gain insight into factors influencing the detectability of submarine masts deployed under realistic operational conditions. The measurements, processing results...

  17. Combining retraction edge lithography and plasma etching for arbitrary contour nanoridge fabrication (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping; Jansen, Henri; de Boer, Meint; Berenschot, Erwin; Bouwes, Dominique; Gironès, Miriam; Huskens, Jurriaan; Tas, Niels


    Edge lithography in combination with fluorine-based plasma etching is employed to avoid the dependence on crystal orientation in single crystal silicon to create monolithic nanoridges with arbitrary contours. This is demonstrated by using a mask with circular structures and Si etching at cryogenic temperature with SF6+O2 plasma mixtures. Initially, the explored etch recipe was used with Cr as the masking material. Although nanoridges with perfect vertical sidewalls have been achieved, Cr causes severe sidewall roughness due to line edge roughness. Therefore, an SU-8 polymer is used instead. Although the SU-8 pattern definition needs further improvement, we demonstrate the possibility of fabricating Si nanoridges of arbitrary contours providing a width below 50 nm and a height between 25 and 500 nm with smooth surface finish. Artifacts in the ridge profile are observed and are mainly caused by the bird's beak phenomenon which is characteristic for the used LOCOS process.

  18. Shape reconstruction from apparent contours theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bellettini, Giovanni; Paolini, Maurizio


    Motivated by a variational model concerning the depth of the objects in a picture and the problem of hidden and illusory contours, this book investigates one of the central problems of computer vision: the topological and algorithmic reconstruction of a smooth three dimensional scene starting from the visible part of an apparent contour. The authors focus their attention on the manipulation of apparent contours using a finite set of elementary moves, which correspond to diffeomorphic deformations of three dimensional scenes. A large part of the book is devoted to the algorithmic part, with implementations, experiments, and computed examples. The book is intended also as a user's guide to the software code appcontour, written for the manipulation of apparent contours and their invariants. This book is addressed to theoretical and applied scientists working in the field of mathematical models of image segmentation.

  19. Using mathematical morphology to determine left ventricular contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pladellorens, J. (Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Dept. d' Optica i Optometria); Serrat, J. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Informatica); Castell, A. (Hospital de la Vall d' Hebro, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear); Yzuel, M.J. (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)


    Mathematical morphology is used for the determination of left ventricular contours in scintigraphic images using multigated radionuclide angiography. The authors developed a completely automatic method that first restores the image with a Wiener filter, then finds the region where the left ventricle is contained, and finally segments the left ventricle contour and a background zone. The contours depend on the values of the parameters that appear in the mathematical morphology method, which are related to the height and the slope of the count distribution. Results obtained with this method are compared with the contours and the background zones outlined by experts on the basis of the number of counts, and the authors study the values of the parameters with which optimum correlation is obtained. (author).

  20. MAP Estimation of Chin and Cheek Contours in Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampmann Markus


    Full Text Available An algorithm for the estimation of chin and cheek contours in video sequences is proposed. This algorithm exploits a priori knowledge about shape and position of chin and cheek contours in images. Exploiting knowledge about the shape, a parametric 2D model representing chin and cheek contours is introduced. Exploiting knowledge about the position, a MAP estimator is developed taking into account the observed luminance gradient as well as a priori probabilities of chin and cheek contours positions. The proposed algorithm was tested with head and shoulder video sequences (image resolution CIF. In nearly 70% of all investigated video frames, a subjectively error free estimation could be achieved. The 2D estimate error is measured as on average between 2.4 and .

  1. Measuring surface current velocities in the Agulhas region with ASAR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, MJ


    Full Text Available Surface current information collected over the Agulhas Current region and derived from the Doppler centroid anomalies of the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) are examined. The sources of errors and potential use of the radar surface...

  2. Piezoelectric actuation of aluminum nitride contour mode optomechanical resonators. (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Piazza, Gianluca


    We present a fully-integrated monolithic aluminum nitride optomechanical device in which lateral vibrations generated by a piezoelectric contour mode acoustic ring resonator are used to produce amplitude modulation of an optical signal in a whispering gallery mode photonic ring resonator. Acoustic and optical resonances are independently characterized in this contour mode optomechanical resonator (CMOMR). Electrically driven mechanical modes are optically detected at 35MHz, 654MHz and 884MHz.

  3. Geological mapping and temporal survey of Ontario Lacus on Titan from 2005 to 2009, using VIMS, ISS and Radar data (United States)

    Cornet, T.; Bourgeois, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Tobie, G.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.


    the lake floor on the Radar images. This suggests that the lake floor, most probably composed of (perhaps soggy) sediment, is not covered by significant amounts of liquids over its whole surface. A set of lines curving along the eastern shoreline of the lake can be interpreted, by analogy with similar landforms observed in Namibia and other semi-arid areas on Earth, as “lunette-dunes”, which form by accumulation at downwind lake shorelines, of fine sediments provided by wind deflation of exposed and desiccated lake floors. This unit can be reconciled with 5µm-bright areas in the VIMS images. Alternatively, this set of lines may be interpreted as a series of ancient shorelines, which would indicate past episodes of lake high-stands. If this interpretation is correct, it means that Ontario Lacus has been subject to drying episodes in the past. Finally, at the spatial resolution of ISS and VIMS, we observe no significant change of the lake contour between 2005 and 2009 in the common part of the lake.

  4. Integration of WERA Ocean Radar into Tsunami Early Warning Systems (United States)

    Dzvonkovskaya, Anna; Helzel, Thomas; Kniephoff, Matthias; Petersen, Leif; Weber, Bernd


    High-frequency (HF) ocean radars give a unique capability to deliver simultaneous wide area measurements of ocean surface current fields and sea state parameters far beyond the horizon. The WERA® ocean radar system is a shore-based remote sensing system to monitor ocean surface in near real-time and at all-weather conditions up to 300 km offshore. Tsunami induced surface currents cause increasing orbital velocities comparing to normal oceanographic situation and affect the measured radar spectra. The theoretical approach about tsunami influence on radar spectra showed that a tsunami wave train generates a specific unusual pattern in the HF radar spectra. While the tsunami wave is approaching the beach, the surface current pattern changes slightly in deep water and significantly in the shelf area as it was shown in theoretical considerations and later proved during the 2011 Japan tsunami. These observed tsunami signatures showed that the velocity of tsunami currents depended on a tsunami wave height and bathymetry. The HF ocean radar doesn't measure the approaching wave height of a tsunami; however, it can resolve the surface current velocity signature, which is generated when tsunami reaches the shelf edge. This strong change of the surface current can be detected by a phased-array WERA system in real-time; thus the WERA ocean radar is a valuable tool to support Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). Based on real tsunami measurements, requirements for the integration of ocean radar systems into TEWS are already defined. The requirements include a high range resolution, a narrow beam directivity of phased-array antennas and an accelerated data update mode to provide a possibility of offshore tsunami detection in real-time. The developed software package allows reconstructing an ocean surface current map of the area observed by HF radar based on the radar power spectrum processing. This fact gives an opportunity to issue an automated tsunami identification message

  5. The development of contour processing: evidence from physiology and psychophysics (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma; Hipp, Daniel; Moser, Alecia; Dickerson, Kelly; Gerhardstein, Peter


    Object perception and pattern vision depend fundamentally upon the extraction of contours from the visual environment. In adulthood, contour or edge-level processing is supported by the Gestalt heuristics of proximity, collinearity, and closure. Less is known, however, about the developmental trajectory of contour detection and contour integration. Within the physiology of the visual system, long-range horizontal connections in V1 and V2 are the likely candidates for implementing these heuristics. While post-mortem anatomical studies of human infants suggest that horizontal interconnections reach maturity by the second year of life, psychophysical research with infants and children suggests a considerably more protracted development. In the present review, data from infancy to adulthood will be discussed in order to track the development of contour detection and integration. The goal of this review is thus to integrate the development of contour detection and integration with research regarding the development of underlying neural circuitry. We conclude that the ontogeny of this system is best characterized as a developmentally extended period of associative acquisition whereby horizontal connectivity becomes functional over longer and longer distances, thus becoming able to effectively integrate over greater spans of visual space. PMID:25071681

  6. Summing over Feynman histories by functional contour integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.C.; Wright, E.M.


    The authors show how complex paths can be consistently introduced into sums for Feynman histories by using the notion of functional contour integration. For a kappa-dimensional system specified by a potential with suitable analyticity properties, each coordinate axis is replaced by a copy of the complex plane, and at each instant of time a contour is chosen in each plane. This map from the time axis into the set of complex contours defines a functional contour. The family of contours labelled by time generates a (kappa+1)-dimensional submanifold of the (2kappa+1)-dimensional space defined by the cartesian product of the time axis and the coordinate planes. The complex Feynman paths lie on this submanifold. An application of this idea to systems described by absorptive potentials yields a simple derivation of the correct WKB result in terms of a complex path that extremalises the action. The method can also be applied to spherically symmetric potentials by using a partial wave expansion and restricting the contours appropriately. (author)

  7. Contour junctions defined by dynamic image deformations enhance perceptual transparency. (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Nishida, Shin'ya


    The majority of work on the perception of transparency has focused on static images with luminance-defined contour junctions, but recent work has shown that dynamic image sequences with dynamic image deformations also provide information about transparency. The present study demonstrates that when part of a static image is dynamically deformed, contour junctions at which deforming and nondeforming contours are connected facilitate the deformation-based perception of a transparent layer. We found that the impression of a transparent layer was stronger when a dynamically deforming area was adjacent to static nondeforming areas than when presented alone. When contour junctions were not formed at the dynamic-static boundaries, however, the impression of a transparent layer was not facilitated by the presence of static surrounding areas. The effect of the deformation-defined junctions was attenuated when the spatial pattern of luminance contrast at the junctions was inconsistent with the perceived transparency related to luminance contrast, while the effect did not change when the spatial luminance pattern was consistent with it. In addition, the results showed that contour completions across the junctions were required for the perception of a transparent layer. These results indicate that deformation-defined junctions that involve contour completion between deforming and nondeforming regions enhance the perception of a transparent layer, and that the deformation-based perceptual transparency can be promoted by the simultaneous presence of appropriately configured luminance and contrast-other features that can also by themselves produce the sensation of perceiving transparency.

  8. The Development of Contour Processing: Evidence from Physiology and Psychophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eTaylor


    Full Text Available Object perception and pattern vision depend fundamentally upon the extraction of contours from the visual environment. In adulthood, contour or edge-level processing is supported by the Gestalt heuristics of proximity, collinearity and closure. Less is known, however, about the developmental trajectory of contour detection and contour integration. Within the physiology of the visual system, long-range horizontal connections in V1 and V2 are the likely candidates for implementing these heuristics. While post-mortem anatomical studies of human infants suggest that horizontal interconnections reach maturity by the second year of life, psychophysical research with infants and children suggests a considerably more protracted development. In the present review, data from infancy to adulthood will be discussed in order to track the development of contour detection and integration. The goal of this review is thus to integrate the development of contour detection and integration with research regarding the development of underlying neural circuitry. We conclude that the ontogeny of this system is best characterized as a developmentally extended period of associative acquisition whereby horizontal connectivity becomes functional over longer and longer distances, thus becoming able to effectively integrate over greater spans of visual space.

  9. Subsidence feature discrimination using deep convolutional neral networks in synthetic aperture radar imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P


    Full Text Available Effective detection and discrimination of surface deformation features in Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery is one of the most important applications of the data. Areas that undergo surface deformation can pose health and safety risks which...

  10. Radar Investigations of Antarctic Ice Stream Margins, Siple Dome, 1998, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of surface-based radar measurements, including geometry of the bed, surface, and internal layers, and bed reflectivity measurements at two...

  11. Synergistic Use of Spacecraft Telecom Links for Collection of Planetary Radar Science Data (United States)

    Asmar, S.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Decrossas, E.; Dobreva, T.; Duncan, C.; Ellliot, H.; Jin, C.; Lazio, J.; Miller, J.; Preston, R.


    On multiple solar system missions, radar instruments have been used to probe subsurface geomorphology and to infer chemical composition based on the dielectric signature derived from the reflected signal. Example spacecraft radar instruments are the 90 MHz CONSERT radar used to probe the interior of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to a depth of 760m, the 20 MHz SHARAD instrument used to investigate Mars subsurface ice features from Mars orbit at depths of 300 to 3000 meters and the upcoming RIMFAX 150 MHz to 1200 MHz ground penetrating radar that will ride on the Mars 2020 rover investigating to a depth of 10m below the rover. In all of these applications, the radar frequency and signal structures were chosen to match science goals of desired depth of penetration and spatial resolution combined with the expected subsurface materials and structures below the surface. Recently, JPL investigators have proposed a new radar science paradigm, synergistic use of the telecom hardware and telecom links to collect bistatic or monostatic radar signatures. All JPL spacecraft employ telecom hardware that operates at UHF (400 MHz and 900 MHz), X-band (8 GHz) or Ka-band (32 GHz). Using existing open-loop record functions in these radios, the telecom hardware can be used to capture opportunistic radar signatures from telecom signals penetrating the surface and reflecting off of subsurface structures. This paper reports on telecom strategies, radar science applications and recent laboratory and field tests to demonstrate the effectiveness of telecom link based radar data collection.

  12. Compressive CFAR Radar Processing


    Anitori, Laura; Baraniuk, Richard; Maleki, Arian; Otten, Matern; van Rossum, Wim


    In this paper we investigate the performance of a combined Compressive Sensing (CS) Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) radar processor under different interference scenarios using both the Cell Averaging (CA) and Order Statistic (OS) CFAR detectors. Using the properties of the Complex Approximate Message Passing (CAMP) algorithm, we demonstrate that the behavior of the CFAR processor is independent of the combination with the non-linear recovery and therefore its performance can be predicted us...

  13. Radar gun hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  14. An operational weather radar-based Quantitative Precipitation Estimation and its application in catchment water resources modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xin; Vejen, Flemming; Stisen, Simon


    The Danish Meteorological Institute operates a radar network consisting of five C-band Doppler radars. Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) using radar data is performed on a daily basis. Radar QPE is considered to have the potential to signifi cantly improve the spatial representation...... of precipitation compared with rain-gauge-based methods, thus providing the basis for better water resources assessments. The radar QPE algorithm called ARNE is a distance-dependent areal estimation method that merges radar data with ground surface observations. The method was applied to the Skjern River catchment...... in western Denmark where alternative precipitation estimates were also used as input to an integrated hydrologic model. The hydrologic responses from the model were analyzed by comparing radar- and ground-based precipitation input scenarios. Results showed that radar QPE products are able to generate...

  15. Soil erosion and its impact on surface deformation studied in Nozhian, Iran: new insight from the analysis of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data (United States)

    Motagh, Mahdi; Haghshenas-Haghighi, Mahmud; Ebrahimzadeh, Somayeh


    Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems causing large damages and costs all over the world. Obtaining precise volumetric information for the amount of soil loss and/or deposition and sedimentation is a key parameter in modelling soil erosion processes. The use of SAR remote sensing observations for monitoring of rapidly eroded regions could be problematic due to phase decorrelation. In this study, we attempt to use observations from C-band and L-band SAR imagery to assess the impact of soil erosion on surface deformation in Nozhian region, central Iran. Nozhian is known as one of the most extreme cases of soil erosion in Iran due to the combination of relatively high intensity rainfall, steep topography and landslides. We use Envisat and ALOS data to evaluate the potential of SAR imagery for detecting areas of erosion and for estimating its volume at a regional scale. The InSAR results are compared with field data acquired in several gabions in the region for validation.

  16. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas


    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...... and precipitating and non-precipitating clouds. Another method uses the difference in the motion field of clutter and precipitation measured between two radar images. Furthermore, the direction of the wind field extracted from a weather model is used. The third method uses information about the refractive index...

  17. A review of array radars (United States)

    Brookner, E.


    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  18. Weather radar research at the USA's storm laboratory (United States)

    Doviak, R. J.


    Radar research that is directed toward improving storm forecasts and hazard warnings and studying lightning is discussed. The two moderately sensitive Doppler weather radars in central Oklahoma, with their wide dynamic range, have demonstrated the feasibility of mapping wind fields in all weather conditions from the clear skies of quiescent air and disturbed prestorm air near the earth's surface to the optically opaque interior of severe and sometimes tornadic thunderstorms. Observations and analyses of Doppler weather radar data demonstrate that improved warning of severe storm phenomena and improved short-term forecast of storms may be available when Doppler techniques are well integrated into the national network of weather radars. When used in combination with other sensors, it provides an opportunity to learn more about the complex interrelations between the wind, water, and electricity in storms.

  19. Radar studies of bird migration (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.


    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  20. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter


    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  1. Remote monitoring by impulse radar


    Taghimohammadi, Ensieh


    This master thesis is centered on development of signal processing algorithms for an Ultra - Wideband (UWB) Radar system. The goal of signal processing algorithms is to identify components of radar received signal. Moreover, implementing algorithms for checking both static and moving objects, estimating the distance from an object, and tracking the moving object. In this thesis we use a new type of Novelda UWB radar for indoor applications. It consists of two compact directional UWB antennas ...

  2. Photonic based marine radar demonstrator


    Laghezza, Francesco; Scotti, Filippo; Ghelfi, Paolo; Bogoni, Antonella; Banchi, Luca; Malaspina, Vincenzo; Serafino, Giovanni


    This paper presents the results obtained during the field trial experiments of the first photonic-based radar system demonstrator, in a real maritime environment. The developed demonstrator exploits photonic technologies for both the generation and the detection of radar RF signals, allowing increased performance even in term of system flexibility. The photonic radar performance have been compared with a state of the art commercial system for maritime applications provide...

  3. Useful Radar Data for Mars 2001 Landing Site Selection (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Slade, M. A.; Jurgens, R. F.


    Radar data, of both Doppler-only and delay-Doppler varieties, played a useful role in the landing site certification process for Mars Pathfinder. Radar provides information on the elevation of the planetary surface, on its radar reflectivity and on the surface roughness. The elevation is important for proper entry, descent and landing, as is the reflectivity if a radar altimeter is to be used on the lander. Both the reflectivity and the surface roughness can measure the rockiness of the surface, important for a safe landing, as well as for rover trafficability. The spatial resolution of this Earth-based remote sensing technique is around 10 km in longitude by some 150 km in latitude. In the case of Pathfinder the regionally averaged properties were confirmed by ground truth at the landing site in Ares Vallis. The landing site assessment for Pathfinder relied principally on data from the 1995 Mars opposition when sub-Earth latitudes on Mars ranged from 16 to 22 degrees north. Data from earlier oppositions (1992-93, 1990, 1988-89) are available and cover latitudes from 25 south to 25 north at various longitudes. The available data will be presented at the symposium. The data are of varying quality, although ranging data is available for about 20 radar tracks per opposition, reflectivity and roughness analyses may not always be possible. Some older data are also available (1982, 1980) with range-only information.

  4. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.


    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  5. Digital elevation model production from scanned topographic contour maps via thin plate spline interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soycan, Arzu; Soycan, Metin


    GIS (Geographical Information System) is one of the most striking innovation for mapping applications supplied by the developing computer and software technology to users. GIS is a very effective tool which can show visually combination of the geographical and non-geographical data by recording these to allow interpretations and analysis. DEM (Digital Elevation Model) is an inalienable component of the GIS. The existing TM (Topographic Map) can be used as the main data source for generating DEM by amanual digitizing or vectorization process for the contours polylines. The aim of this study is to examine the DEM accuracies, which were obtained by TMs, as depending on the number of sampling points and grid size. For these purposes, the contours of the several 1/1000 scaled scanned topographical maps were vectorized. The different DEMs of relevant area have been created by using several datasets with different numbers of sampling points. We focused on the DEM creation from contour lines using gridding with RBF (Radial Basis Function) interpolation techniques, namely TPS as the surface fitting model. The solution algorithm and a short review of the mathematical model of TPS (Thin Plate Spline) interpolation techniques are given. In the test study, results of the application and the obtained accuracies are drawn and discussed. The initial object of this research is to discuss the requirement of DEM in GIS, urban planning, surveying engineering and the other applications with high accuracy (a few deci meters). (author)

  6. Application and evaluation of universal kriging for optimal contouring of groundwater levels (United States)

    Kambhammettu, B. V. N. P.; Allena, Praveena; King, James P.


    This paper deals with the application of universal kriging to interpolate water table elevations from their measurements at random locations. Geographic information system tools were used to generate the continuous surface of water table elevations for the Carlsbad area alluvial aquifer located to the southeast of New Mexico, USA. Water table elevations in the 38 monitoring wells that are common to 1996 and 2003 irrigation years follows normal distribution. A generalized MATLAB® code was developed to generate omni-directional and directional semi-variograms (at 22.5° intervals). Low-order polynomials were used to model the trend as the water table profile exhibits a south-east gradient. Different theoretical semi-variogram models were tried to select the base semi-variogram for performing geostatistical interpolation. The contour maps of water table elevations exhibit significant decrease in the water table from 1996 to 2003. Statistical analysis performed on the estimated contours revealed that the decrease in water table is between 0.6 and 4.5 m at 90% confidence. The estimation variance contours show that the error in estimation was more than 8 m2 in the west and south-west portions of the aquifer due to the absence of monitoring wells.

  7. Optimization of endwall contouring in axial compressor S-shaped ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Donghai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical investigation of the potential aerodynamic benefits of using endwall contouring in a fairly aggressive duct with six struts based on the platform for endwall design optimization. The platform is constructed by integrating adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA, design of experiments (DOE, response surface methodology (RSM based on the artificial neural network (ANN, and a 3D Navier–Stokes solver. The visual analysis method based on DOE is used to define the design space and analyze the impact of the design parameters on the target function (response. Optimization of the axisymmetric and the non-axisymmetric endwall contouring in an S-shaped duct is performed and evaluated to minimize the total pressure loss. The optimal ducts are found to reduce the hub corner separation and suppress the migration of the low momentum fluid. The non-axisymmetric endwall contouring is shown to remove the separation completely and reduce the net duct loss by 32.7%.

  8. Tree root mapping with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M


    Full Text Available : In cases where abundant groundwater is present within the near surface, a tree may develop a prominent vertical tap root system and deeper extending lateral roots in order to exploit such water. In dryer conditions, where little or no groundwater... of the near-surface. For the mapping of vertical tap roots one would need to resort to the use of borehole radar (Butnor and Johnsen, 2006). The second problem scenario is one often encountered in civil engineering / urban areas, where subsurface...

  9. Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radar Mapper - Design and operation (United States)

    Pettengill, G. H.; Horwood, D. F.; Keller, C. H.


    The Radar Mapper Experiment, carried aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft, is designed to obtain a near-global picture of the topography, meter-scale surface slopes and reflectivity of Venus. Constraints imposed by the choice of orbit limit radar coverage to a latitude band lying between 74 deg N and 61 deg S completely around the planet. In addition to the altimetry objectives, the experiment seeks an image of the radar scattering properties of the surface at oblique incidence. Sensitivity limits the imaged region to a band around the planet lying between 45 deg N and 10 deg S. Altimetric error is less than 200 m; altimetric surface 'footprint' size varies from about 10 km in diameter at a spacecraft altitude of 200 km, to 50 km at a maximum altitude of 4700 km. Imaging varies from 20 to 40 km, depending on spacecraft altitude.

  10. Temperate Ice Depth-Sounding Radar (United States)

    Jara-Olivares, V. A.; Player, K.; Rodriguez-Morales, F.; Gogineni, P.


    Glaciers in several parts of the world are reported to be retreating and thinning rapidly over the last decade. Radar instruments can be used to provide a wealth of information regarding the internal and basal conditions of large and small ice masses. These instruments typically operate in the VHF and UHF regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. For temperate-ice sounding, however, the high water content produces scattering and attenuation in propagating radar waves at VHF and UHF frequencies, which significantly reduce the penetration depths. Radars operating in the HF band are better suited for systematic surveys of the thickness and sub-glacial topography of temperate-ice regions. We are developing a dual-frequency Temperate-Ice-Depth Sounding Radar (TIDSoR) that can penetrate through water pockets, thus providing more accurate measurements of temperate ice properties such as thickness and basal conditions. The radar is a light-weight, low power consumption portable system for surface-based observations in mountainous terrain or aerial surveys. TIDSoR operates at two different center frequencies: 7.7 MHz and 14 MHz, with a maximum output peak power of 20 W. The transmit waveform is a digitally generated linear frequency-modulated chirp with 1 MHz bandwidth. The radar can be installed on aircrafts such as the CReSIS UAV [1], DCH-6 (Twin Otter), or P-3 Orion for aerial surveys, where it could be supported by the airplane power system. For surface based experiments, TIDSoR can operate in a backpack configuration powered by a compact battery system. The system can also be installed on a sled towed by a motorized vehicle, in which case the power supply can be replaced by a diesel generator. The radar consists of three functional blocks: the digital section, the radio-frequency (RF) section, and the antenna, and is designed to weigh less than 2 kg, excluding the power supply. The digital section generates the transmit waveforms as well as timing and control signals

  11. Tomographic Techniques for Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik

    challenge. This dissertation deals with tomographic techniques based on multiphase-center radars that represent state-of-the-art technology within thefield of ice sounding. The use of advanced tomographic processing forclutter suppression is investigated, which up to this point has beenlargely unexplored...... in the literature. The investigation also includes atheoretical study of beamforming and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimationtechniques. In addition to the primary treatment of clutter suppression,additional novel applications of tomography are also explored. Based on an experimental multi-phase-center dataset...... discrimination of the desired bed return from strong surface clutter ispresented. The technique is applied to data from the channel of the challengingJakobshavn Glacier acquired with the Multi-channel CoherentiiiRadar Depth Sounder/Imager (MCoRDS/I), where it is shown how thetechnique can be used to close some...

  12. Development of High Altitude UAV Weather Radars for Hurricane Research (United States)

    Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Li-Hua


    A proposed effort within NASA called (ASHE) over the past few years was aimed at studying the genesis of tropical disturbances off the east coast of Africa. This effort was focused on using an instrumented Global Hawk UAV with high altitude (%Ok ft) and long duration (30 h) capability. While the Global Hawk availability remains uncertain, development of two relevant instruments, a Doppler radar (URAD - UAV Radar) and a backscatter lidar (CPL-UAV - Cloud Physics Lidar), are in progress. The radar to be discussed here is based on two previous high-altitude, autonomously operating radars on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) at X-band (9.6 GHz), and the Cloud Radar System (CRS) at W- band (94 GHz). The nadir-pointing EDOP and CRS radars profile vertical reflectivity structure and vertical Doppler winds in precipitation and clouds, respectively. EDOP has flown in all of the CAMEX flight series to study hurricanes over storms such as Hurricanes Bonnie, Humberto, Georges, Erin, and TS Chantal. These radars were developed at Goddard over the last decade and have been used for satellite algorithm development and validation (TRMM and Cloudsat), and for hurricane and convective storm research. We describe here the development of URAD that will measure wind and reflectivity in hurricanes and other weather systems from a top down, high-altitude view. URAD for the Global Hawk consists of two subsystems both of which are at X-band (9.3-9.6 GHz) and Doppler: a nadir fixed-beam Doppler radar for vertical motion and precipitation measurement, and a Conical scanning radar for horizontal winds in cloud and at the surface, and precipitation structure. These radars are being designed with size, weight, and power consumption suitable for the Global Hawk and other UAV's. The nadir radar uses a magnetron transmitter and the scanning radar uses a TWT transmitter. With conical scanning of the radar at a 35" incidence angle over an ocean surface in the absence of

  13. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery. (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred


    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  14. Color and Contour Based Identification of Stem of Coconut Bunch (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Manoharan, Sakthiprasad K.; Reddy, Rajesh G.; Sriteja, Gone; Kashyap, Ashwin


    Vision is the key component of Artificial Intelligence and Automated Robotics. Sensors or Cameras are the sight organs for a robot. Only through this, they are able to locate themselves or identify the shape of a regular or an irregular object. This paper presents the method of Identification of an object based on color and contour recognition using a camera through digital image processing techniques for robotic applications. In order to identify the contour, shape matching technique is used, which takes the input data from the database provided, and uses it to identify the contour by checking for shape match. The shape match is based on the idea of iterating through each contour of the threshold image. The color is identified on HSV Scale, by approximating the desired range of values from the database. HSV data along with iteration is used for identifying a quadrilateral, which is our required contour. This algorithm could also be used in a non-deterministic plane, which only uses HSV values exclusively.

  15. Parallel peak pruning for scalable SMP contour tree computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Hamish A. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom); Weber, Gunther H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Sewell, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ahrens, James P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    As data sets grow to exascale, automated data analysis and visualisation are increasingly important, to intermediate human understanding and to reduce demands on disk storage via in situ analysis. Trends in architecture of high performance computing systems necessitate analysis algorithms to make effective use of combinations of massively multicore and distributed systems. One of the principal analytic tools is the contour tree, which analyses relationships between contours to identify features of more than local importance. Unfortunately, the predominant algorithms for computing the contour tree are explicitly serial, and founded on serial metaphors, which has limited the scalability of this form of analysis. While there is some work on distributed contour tree computation, and separately on hybrid GPU-CPU computation, there is no efficient algorithm with strong formal guarantees on performance allied with fast practical performance. Here in this paper, we report the first shared SMP algorithm for fully parallel contour tree computation, withfor-mal guarantees of O(lgnlgt) parallel steps and O(n lgn) work, and implementations with up to 10x parallel speed up in OpenMP and up to 50x speed up in NVIDIA Thrust.

  16. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox (United States)

    Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Naeije, Marc; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Benveniste, Jérôme


    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales), and it is freely available at The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the frontend for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the dataformatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and specific

  17. Radar foundations for imaging and advanced concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Roger


    Through courses internally taught at IDA, Dr. Roger Sullivan has devised a book that brings readers fully up to speed on the most essential quantitave aspects of general radar in order to introduce study of the most exciting and relevant applications to radar imaging and advanced concepts: Synthetic Aperture Radar (4 chapters), Space-time Adaptive Processing, moving target indication (MTI), bistatic radar, low probability of intercept (LPI) radar, weather radar, and ground-penetrating radar. Whether you're a radar novice or experienced professional, this is an essential refer

  18. Maximum-Intensity Volumes for Fast Contouring of Lung Tumors Including Respiratory Motion in 4DCT Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietzel, Eike; Liu, Arthur K.; Chen, George T.Y.; Choi, Noah C.


    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum-intensity volumes (MIV) for fast contouring of lung tumors including respiratory motion. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) data of 10 patients were acquired. Maximum-intensity volumes were constructed by assigning the maximum Hounsfield unit in all CT volumes per geometric voxel to a new, synthetic volume. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were contoured on all CT volumes, and their union was constructed. The GTV with all its respiratory motion was contoured on the MIV as well. Union GTVs and GTVs including motion were compared visually. Furthermore, planning target volumes (PTVs) were constructed for the union of GTVs and the GTV on MIV. These PTVs were compared by centroid position, volume, geometric extent, and surface distance. Results: Visual comparison of GTVs demonstrated failure of the MIV technique for 5 of 10 patients. For adequate GTV MIV s, differences between PTVs were <1.0 mm in centroid position, 5% in volume, ±5 mm in geometric extent, and ±0.5 ± 2.0 mm in surface distance. These values represent the uncertainties for successful MIV contouring. Conclusion: Maximum-intensity volumes are a good first estimate for target volume definition including respiratory motion. However, it seems mandatory to validate each individual MIV by overlaying it on a movie loop displaying the 4DCT data and editing it for possible inadequate coverage of GTVs on additional 4DCT motion states

  19. Wind turbine clutter mitigation in coastal UHF radar. (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Pan, Chao; Wang, Caijun; Jiang, Dapeng; Wen, Biyang


    Coastal UHF radar provides a unique capability to measure the sea surface dynamic parameters and detect small moving targets, by exploiting the low energy loss of electromagnetic waves propagating along the salty and good conducting ocean surface. It could compensate the blind zone of HF surface wave radar at close range and reach further distance than microwave radars. However, its performance is susceptible to wind turbines which are usually installed on the shore. The size of a wind turbine is much larger than the wavelength of radio waves at UHF band, which results in large radar cross section. Furthermore, the rotation of blades adds time-varying Doppler frequency to the clutter and makes the suppression difficult. This paper proposes a mitigation method which is based on the specific periodicity of wind turbine clutter and performed mainly in the time-frequency domain. Field experimental data of a newly developed UHF radar are used to verify this method, and the results prove its effectiveness.

  20. Wind Turbine Clutter Mitigation in Coastal UHF Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang


    Full Text Available Coastal UHF radar provides a unique capability to measure the sea surface dynamic parameters and detect small moving targets, by exploiting the low energy loss of electromagnetic waves propagating along the salty and good conducting ocean surface. It could compensate the blind zone of HF surface wave radar at close range and reach further distance than microwave radars. However, its performance is susceptible to wind turbines which are usually installed on the shore. The size of a wind turbine is much larger than the wavelength of radio waves at UHF band, which results in large radar cross section. Furthermore, the rotation of blades adds time-varying Doppler frequency to the clutter and makes the suppression difficult. This paper proposes a mitigation method which is based on the specific periodicity of wind turbine clutter and performed mainly in the time-frequency domain. Field experimental data of a newly developed UHF radar are used to verify this method, and the results prove its effectiveness.

  1. Measuring human behaviour with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van


    The paper presents human motion measurements with the experimental Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave(FMCW) radar at TNO-FEL. The aim of these measurements is to analyse the Doppler velocity spectrum of humans. These analysis give insight in measuring human behaviour with radar for security

  2. Performance indicators modern surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, P.N.C.; Theil, A.


    Blake chart computations are widely employed to rank detection coverage capabilities of competitive search radar systems. Developed for comparable 2D radar systems with a mechanically rotating reflector antenna, it was not necessary to regard update rate and plot quality in Blake's chart. To

  3. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier


    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  4. Millimeter radar improves target identification (United States)

    McAulay, Alastair D.


    Recently developed millimeter wave radar has advantages for target identification over conventional microwave radar which typically use lower frequencies. We describe the pertinent features involved in the construction of the new millimeter wave radar, the pseudo-optical cavity source and the quasi-optical duplexer. The long wavelength relative to light allows the radar beam to penetrate through most weather because the wavelength is larger than the particle size for dust, drizzle rain, fog. Further the mm wave beam passes through an atmospheric transmission window that provides a dip in attenuation. The higher frequency than conventional radar provides higher Doppler frequencies, for example, than X-band radar. We show by simulation that small characteristic vibrations and slow turns of an aircraft become visible so that the Doppler signature improves identification. The higher frequency also reduces beam width, which increases transmit and receive antenna gains. For the same power the transmit beam extends to farther range and the increase in receive antenna gain increases signal to noise ratio for improved detection and identification. The narrower beam can also reduce clutter and reject other noise more readily. We show by simulation that the radar can be used at lower elevations over the sea than conventional radar.

  5. The Use of Radar to Improve Rainfall Estimation over the Tennessee and San Joaquin River Valleys (United States)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Felix, Mariana; Carey, Lawrence D.


    This slide presentation provides an overview of the collaborative radar rainfall project between the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Von Braun Center for Science & Innovation (VCSI), NASA MSFC and UAHuntsville. Two systems were used in this project, Advanced Radar for Meteorological & Operational Research (ARMOR) Rainfall Estimation Processing System (AREPS), a demonstration project of real-time radar rainfall using a research radar and NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation Processing System (NREPS). The objectives, methodology, some results and validation, operational experience and lessons learned are reviewed. The presentation. Another project that is using radar to improve rainfall estimations is in California, specifically the San Joaquin River Valley. This is part of a overall project to develop a integrated tool to assist water management within the San Joaquin River Valley. This involves integrating several components: (1) Radar precipitation estimates, (2) Distributed hydro model, (3) Snowfall measurements and Surface temperature / moisture measurements. NREPS was selected to provide precipitation component.

  6. PROC: a new Planetary Radars Operating Centre (United States)

    Catallo, C.; Alberti, G.; Flamini, E.; Olivieri, A.; Orosei, R.


    exploitation aiding scientists to increase their knowledge in the field of surface radar sounding. A specific PROC Web facility and a dedicated high capacity on line storage allow PROC missions status and scientific results spreading, scientific requests submission, news, studies, technical information, radar data images publication and data retrieving (the latter only on science team members request), according to different permissions assigned both to science team members and generic users Sharad and Marsis orbits selection facility from on line archive

  7. Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys. (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Baptist, Martin J; Ens, Bruno J; Krijgsveld, Karen L; van Loon, E Emiel


    Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar's detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer's accuracy in determining a bird's transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ~1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50 ± 0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising

  8. Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan M Dokter

    Full Text Available Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar's detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer's accuracy in determining a bird's transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ~1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50 ± 0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful

  9. 100 years of radar

    CERN Document Server

    Galati, Gaspare


    This book offers fascinating insights into the key technical and scientific developments in the history of radar, from the first patent, taken out by Hülsmeyer in 1904, through to the present day. Landmark events are highlighted and fascinating insights provided into the exceptional people who made possible the progress in the field, including the scientists and technologists who worked independently and under strict secrecy in various countries across the world in the 1930s and the big businessmen who played an important role after World War II. The book encourages multiple levels of reading. The author is a leading radar researcher who is ideally placed to offer a technical/scientific perspective as well as a historical one. He has taken care to structure and write the book in such a way as to appeal to both non-specialists and experts. The book is not sponsored by any company or body, either formally or informally, and is therefore entirely unbiased. The text is enriched by approximately three hundred ima...

  10. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana; Zamrin, D M; Saripan, M Iqbal


    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  11. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors. (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob


    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  12. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm


    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  13. Convex and Radially Concave Contoured Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Dieter Richter


    Full Text Available Integral representations of the locally defined star-generalized surface content measures on star spheres are derived for boundary spheres of balls being convex or radially concave with respect to a fan in Rn. As a result, the general geometric measure representation of star-shaped probability distributions and the general stochastic representation of the corresponding random vectors allow additional specific interpretations in the two mentioned cases. Applications to estimating and testing hypotheses on scaling parameters are presented, and two-dimensional sample clouds are simulated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomašić


    Full Text Available On the basis of performed explorations, in the phase of deposit preparation and development for exploitation the obtained results regarding the raw material quality were transfered to the surface. The results served both for the development and planning of deposit excavation dynamics and for the delineation of boundary contours by mineral raw materials within the deposit space considering the quality, The case presented in the article refers to the marl and limestone open pit for the cement industry, the »Partizan« near Split (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Intercomparison of attenuation correction algorithms for single-polarized X-band radars (United States)

    Lengfeld, K.; Berenguer, M.; Sempere Torres, D.


    Attenuation due to liquid water is one of the largest uncertainties in radar observations. The effects of attenuation are generally inversely proportional to the wavelength, i.e. observations from X-band radars are more affected by attenuation than those from C- or S-band systems. On the other hand, X-band radars can measure precipitation fields in higher temporal and spatial resolution and are more mobile and easier to install due to smaller antennas. A first algorithm for attenuation correction in single-polarized systems was proposed by Hitschfeld and Bordan (1954) (HB), but it gets unstable in case of small errors (e.g. in the radar calibration) and strong attenuation. Therefore, methods have been developed that restrict attenuation correction to keep the algorithm stable, using e.g. surface echoes (for space-borne radars) and mountain returns (for ground radars) as a final value (FV), or adjustment of the radar constant (C) or the coefficient α. In the absence of mountain returns, measurements from C- or S-band radars can be used to constrain the correction. All these methods are based on the statistical relation between reflectivity and specific attenuation. Another way to correct for attenuation in X-band radar observations is to use additional information from less attenuated radar systems, e.g. the ratio between X-band and C- or S-band radar measurements. Lengfeld et al. (2016) proposed such a method based isotonic regression of the ratio between X- and C-band radar observations along the radar beam. This study presents a comparison of the original HB algorithm and three algorithms based on the statistical relation between reflectivity and specific attenuation as well as two methods implementing additional information of C-band radar measurements. Their performance in two precipitation events (one mainly convective and the other one stratiform) shows that a restriction of the HB is necessary to avoid instabilities. A comparison with vertically pointing

  16. Advantages of Electromagnetic Interferometry Applied to Ground-Penetrating Radar : Non-Destructive Inspection and Characterization of the Subsurface Without Transmitting Anything

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, R.


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a non-destructive method that images the subsurface using radar. A transmitter generates a radar pulse. This signal propagates into the ground where it reflects against subsurface heterogeneities, and travels back to the surface. A receiver records the reflected

  17. Detecting Oil Films on Radar Data (United States)

    Assyl, Bakasheva; Shagarova, Ludmila; Trishkina, Victoria

    AALR "Institute of Space Research" (Kazakhstan) is equipped with receiving stations and specialized software, which enables to receive, process and archive Earth observation images from satellite RADARSAT -1. Receiving and standard processing of RADARSAT-1 data are certified and approved by the International Corporation RADARSAT and Canadian Space Agency. The data from radar spacecrafts with synthesized aperture (SAR) have a number of properties which enable to use them in a wide range of applied tasks. In particular, these data may be used to detect and monitor oil spills and to discover oil films. Microwave energy of the radiator of Radarsat-1 enables to detect oil spots in any weather conditions. Oil films on water surface may have anthropogenic or natural origin. Taking into account the fact that oil films cover water surface only for the first 10 hours and are rather quickly destroyed under the action of various physical chemical processes, they may be discovered only in the monitoring mode. Natural or anthropogenic films on water surface may be detected on radar images due to local reduction of roughness of water surface, as a result of which the film is seen as a dark spot on the light background of water surface. In order to easily detect a local spot the resolution of SAR must be higher than the spot area. To solve this problem we used software PHOTOMOD Radar, group "Marine applications" -"Processor for oil spots recognition" developed to detect oil spots on the background of uniform water surface and software ENVI, module SARscape for the geographical adjustment of the radar image. The input data were images from RADARSAT-1, (rays in regimes Wide ScanSAR with a small angle of inclination) taken from the SRI operational and long-storage archives. Data processing for each visually chosen fragment of water surface with supposed oil spill consists of several stages. The procedure takes into account water roughness (from 3 to 12 m/s), spot geometry and other

  18. Application of HF Radar in Hazard Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mal Heron


    Full Text Available A review is given of the impact that HF radars are having on the management of coastal hazards. Maps of surface currents can be produced every 10–20 minutes which, in real time, improve navigation safety in restricted areas commonly found near ports and harbours. The time sequence of surface current maps enables Lagrangian tracking of small parcels of surface water, which enables hazard mitigation in managing suspended sediments in dredging, in emergency situations where flotsam and other drifting items need to be found, and in pollution control. The surface current measurement capability is used to assist tsunami warnings as shown by the phased-array data from Chile following the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011. The newly launched Tsunami Warning Center in Oman includes a network of phased-array HF radars to provide real-time tsunami monitoring. Wind direction maps can be used to locate the position of cold fronts in the open ocean and to monitor the timing and strength of sea-breeze fronts in key locations.

  19. Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.


    To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by

  20. [Development of a Software for Automatically Generated Contours in Eclipse TPS]. (United States)

    Xie, Zhao; Hu, Jinyou; Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Zou, Yuxin; Luo, Kelin; Liu, Xiangxiang; Yu, Luxin


    The automatic generation of planning targets and auxiliary contours have achieved in Eclipse TPS 11.0. The scripting language autohotkey was used to develop a software for automatically generated contours in Eclipse TPS. This software is named Contour Auto Margin (CAM), which is composed of operational functions of contours, script generated visualization and script file operations. RESULTS Ten cases in different cancers have separately selected, in Eclipse TPS 11.0 scripts generated by the software could not only automatically generate contours but also do contour post-processing. For different cancers, there was no difference between automatically generated contours and manually created contours. The CAM is a user-friendly and powerful software, and can automatically generated contours fast in Eclipse TPS 11.0. With the help of CAM, it greatly save plan preparation time and improve working efficiency of radiation therapy physicists.

  1. Clinical evaluation of atlas and deep learning based automatic contouring for lung cancer. (United States)

    Lustberg, Tim; van Soest, Johan; Gooding, Mark; Peressutti, Devis; Aljabar, Paul; van der Stoep, Judith; van Elmpt, Wouter; Dekker, Andre


    Contouring of organs at risk (OARs) is an important but time consuming part of radiotherapy treatment planning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using institutional created software-generated contouring will save time if used as a starting point for manual OAR contouring for lung cancer patients. Twenty CT scans of stage I-III NSCLC patients were used to compare user adjusted contours after an atlas-based and deep learning contour, against manual delineation. The lungs, esophagus, spinal cord, heart and mediastinum were contoured for this study. The time to perform the manual tasks was recorded. With a median time of 20 min for manual contouring, the total median time saved was 7.8 min when using atlas-based contouring and 10 min for deep learning contouring. Both atlas based and deep learning adjustment times were significantly lower than manual contouring time for all OARs except for the left lung and esophagus of the atlas based contouring. User adjustment of software generated contours is a viable strategy to reduce contouring time of OARs for lung radiotherapy while conforming to local clinical standards. In addition, deep learning contouring shows promising results compared to existing solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.


    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered

  3. Status and Prospects of Radar Polarimetry Techniques


    Wang Xuesong


    Radar polarimetry is an applied fundamental science field that is focused on understanding interaction processes between radar waves and targets and disclosing their mechanisms. Radar polarimetry has significant application prospects in the fields of microwave remote sensing, earth observation, meteorological measurement, battlefield reconnaissance, anti-interference, target recognition, and so on. This study briefly reviews the development history of radar polarization theory and technology....

  4. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R


    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  5. Over-the-horizon radar research consortium formed (United States)

    One casualty of shrinking military budgets and the disappearance of Cold War threats has been the U.S. Air Force's over-the-horizon or ionospheric radar system known as OTH-B. For the scientific community this is not all bad news: The vast potential of the six powerful 5-28-MHz radars for geophysical monitoring may soon be available to anyone who can afford to run and maintain them.To reap civilian benefits from the billiondollar investment in these radars, the 1994 defense appropriation directed the Air Force to “fully cooperate with efforts of other governmental agencies to utilize the dual-use capabilities of this system for remote environmental and weather monitoring and other purposes.” So far, only the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has tapped the radars' environmental monitoring potential. Since 1991, it has conducted tests to map surface wind direction over basin-scale ocean areas and track ocean storms, including Hurricane Andrew. Recent tests show the radar can be used to map ocean surface currents as well.

  6. Purse-string platysmaplasty: the third dimension for neck contouring. (United States)

    Gentile, Richard D


    Techniques and concepts for treatment of the aging neck have been evolving since the late 1960s and rely on two-dimensional anterior approximation with lateral imbrication of the platysma with or without submental fat reduction, However, the medial approximation can sometimes give a "boxy" appearance to the anterior neck, especially if anterior shifting of the platysma recurs after platysmaplasty with laxity redeveloping in this midline location. The "purse-string" platysmaplasty (PSP) is a new concept in neck contouring that facilitates an enhanced definition for the cervicomandibular transition to better simulate the well-defined contour of this transition that is present in youth. It aids in the contouring of difficult poorly defined necks and in male patients. The PSP adds a "third dimension" to neck recontouring by invaginating the platysma with a plication suture and pexing the platysma, without incising it, to deeper neck fascia with a technique that adds support and definition to the neck contour. The PSP can be performed in patients undergoing a full rhytidectomy as well as in individuals having isolated neck rejuvenation. The PSP is especially helpful in rejuvenating the male lower face and neck because of the relatively heavier deeper structures of the male neck and the need to enhance definition along the jawline.

  7. Body Contouring Surgery in Post-Bariatric Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, E.S.J. van der


    The dramatic rise of morbid obesity worldwide and the success of bariatric surgery results in a significant rise in the demand for post-bariatric body contouring surgery, a new field in plastic surgery. This makes a national clinical guideline for patient selection and treatment mandatory. In

  8. Large-scale Optimization of Contoured Beam Reflectors and Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar; Sørensen, Stig B.; Jørgensen, Erik


    Designing a contoured beam reflector or performing a direct optimization of a reflectarray requires a mathematical optimization procedure to determine the optimum design of the antenna. A popular approach, used in the market-leading TICRA software POS, can result in computation times on the order...

  9. Segmentation of articular cartilage using active contours and prior knowledge. (United States)

    Tejos, Cristian; Hall, Laurance; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo


    A diffusion snake segmentation algorithm was evaluated on synthetic and real MR images of articular cartilage. The algorithm proved to be robust to missing boundaries and the initial contour converges over large distances. Compared with a standard B-spline snake, more accurate and reproducible segmentations were obtained, with less effort during initialization of the algorithm.

  10. Current concepts in post-bariatric body contouring. (United States)

    Colwell, Amy S


    The advent of bariatric surgery has led to a new subspecialty in plastic surgery for contouring the skin and fat remaining after massive weight loss. This field is increasingly recognized as a vital component to the multi-disciplinary treatment approach to care for the obese patient. The author sought to review key concepts in patient selection, technical advancements, and post-operative care in body contouring following weight loss surgery. A literature review in PubMed identified articles relevant to the care of massive weight loss patients presenting for plastic surgical contouring. These articles were combined with a retrospective review of the author's personal experience in management of these patients. The best candidates for post-bariatric plastic surgery are those who have achieved weight loss stability with a BMI of 35 or less and who have adequate nutrition to heal the surgical excisions. Truncal deformity is the most common presenting complaint of massive weight loss patients, and the procedure of choice to address this region is a lower body lift. Post-operative care focuses on patient safety prioritizing in DVT prophylaxis and seroma prevention. Bariatric procedures routinely achieve sustained decreases in body mass index; however, the remaining skin in the massive-weight-loss patient serves as a reminder of their previous obese existence. Post-bariatric body contouring aims to correct this deformity and restore a sense of normalcy. By reshaping the body into its ideal proportions, the true success of the weight loss surgery is fully realized.

  11. Spectra of PT-symmetric Hamiltonians on tobogganic contours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bíla, Hynek


    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2009), s. 307-314 ISSN 0304-4289. [8th Conference on Non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in Quantum Physics. Mumbai , 13.01.2009-16.01.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Quantum toboggans * PT symmetry * complex integration contours Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2009

  12. Measurement of environmental radiation levels and contour map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of environmental radiation levels and contour map development for the northern zone of Adamawa state, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Physics ... Mubi North, Mubi South, Michika and Madagali, all in the northern zone of Adamawa State, Nigeria was measured using a Radiation Alert Monitor 4 solid state ...

  13. Spectra of PT -symmetric Hamiltonians on tobogganic contours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    complex-plane −x4 potential when evaluated at negative g [3]. 2. Quantum toboggans. The observation which we want to point out now is that to force the integration contour to be asymptotically straight and inside the correct Stokes wedges is in- sufficient to uniquely define the spectra of Hamiltonians with (1). One has to ...

  14. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van


    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The

  15. Design of a Vibrotactile Vest for Contour Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu


    Full Text Available A vibrotactile array is a promising human computer interface which could display graphical information to users in a tactile form. This paper presents the design and testing of an image contour display system with a vibrotactile array. The tactile image display system is attached to the back of the user. It converts visual graphics into 2D tactile images and allows subjects to feel the contours of objects through vibration stimulus. The system consists of a USB camera, 48 (6×8 vibrating motors and an embedded control system. The image is captured by the camera and the 2D contour is extracted and transformed into vibrotactile stimuli using a temporal-spatial dynamic coding method. Preliminary experiments were carried out and the optimal parameters of the vibrating time and duration were explored. To evaluate the feasibility and robustness of this vibration mode, letters were also tactilely displayed and the recognition rate about the alphabet letter display was investigated. It was shown that under the condition of no pre-training for the subjects, the recognition rate was 82%. Such a recognition rate is higher than that of the scanning mode (47.5% and the improved handwriting mode (76.8%. The results indicated that the proposed method was efficient in conveying the contour information to the visually impaired by means of vibrations.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Kittens do not learn to use visual information to guide their behaviour if they are deprived of the optic flow that accompanies their own movements. We show that the optic flow that is required for developing visually guided behaviour is derived from changes in contour orientations, rather than from

  17. Contour detection based on nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the

  18. Automatic Image Segmentation Using Active Contours with Univariate Marginal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cruz-Aceves


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel automatic image segmentation method based on the theory of active contour models and estimation of distribution algorithms. The proposed method uses the univariate marginal distribution model to infer statistical dependencies between the control points on different active contours. These contours have been generated through an alignment process of reference shape priors, in order to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding different interactive segmentation techniques. This proposed method is applied in the segmentation of the hollow core in microscopic images of photonic crystal fibers and it is also used to segment the human heart and ventricular areas from datasets of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of similarity measures has been adopted. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image segmentation method outperforms the traditional active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability.

  19. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge (United States)

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.


    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  20. Analysis of Double Meridian Distance for a Closed Traverse Area towards Developing a Contour Map and Land Title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. U. Ganiron Jr


    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze double meridian distance for a closed traverse area in developing a land title for a propose gymnasium in Qassim University. Theodolite, leveling rod and steel tape plays an important role in measuring elevations, bearings and distances of the boundaries of a lot. Contour map is necessary to determine the traces of level surfaces of successive elevation. This will enable to identify the type of contour map and type of contour lines necessary for this project. Corel draw software is used to draw contour map and guide to interpret the significance of the variables. It is essential to check the error of closure for interior angles and for both latitude and departure before applying the Double Meridian Distance (DMD method to obtain the total area of the lot. Technical descriptions of the land such as distance, bearing, boundaries and area are necessary to visualize the shape & exact location of the land. Developing a land title will be obtained using the technical descriptions of the lot in preparation for the type of gymnasium necessary for Qassim University.

  1. Automatic 4D reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac mesh with 1-to-1 vertex correspondence from segmented contours lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wan Lim

    Full Text Available We propose an automatic algorithm for the reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac mesh models with 1-to-1 vertex correspondence. In this framework, a series of 3D meshes depicting the endocardial surface of the heart at each time step is constructed, based on a set of border delineated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data of the whole cardiac cycle. The key contribution in this work involves a novel reconstruction technique to generate a 4D (i.e., spatial-temporal model of the heart with 1-to-1 vertex mapping throughout the time frames. The reconstructed 3D model from the first time step is used as a base template model and then deformed to fit the segmented contours from the subsequent time steps. A method to determine a tree-based connectivity relationship is proposed to ensure robust mapping during mesh deformation. The novel feature is the ability to handle intra- and inter-frame 2D topology changes of the contours, which manifests as a series of merging and splitting of contours when the images are viewed either in a spatial or temporal sequence. Our algorithm has been tested on five acquisitions of cardiac MRI and can successfully reconstruct the full 4D heart model in around 30 minutes per subject. The generated 4D heart model conforms very well with the input segmented contours and the mesh element shape is of reasonably good quality. The work is important in the support of downstream computational simulation activities.

  2. Automatic bone outer contour extraction from B-modes ultrasound images based on local phase symmetry and quadratic polynomial fitting (United States)

    Karlita, Tita; Yuniarno, Eko Mulyanto; Purnama, I. Ketut Eddy; Purnomo, Mauridhi Hery


    Analyzing ultrasound (US) images to get the shapes and structures of particular anatomical regions is an interesting field of study since US imaging is a non-invasive method to capture internal structures of a human body. However, bone segmentation of US images is still challenging because it is strongly influenced by speckle noises and it has poor image quality. This paper proposes a combination of local phase symmetry and quadratic polynomial fitting methods to extract bone outer contour (BOC) from two dimensional (2D) B-modes US image as initial steps of three-dimensional (3D) bone surface reconstruction. By using local phase symmetry, the bone is initially extracted from US images. BOC is then extracted by scanning one pixel on the bone boundary in each column of the US images using first phase features searching method. Quadratic polynomial fitting is utilized to refine and estimate the pixel location that fails to be detected during the extraction process. Hole filling method is then applied by utilize the polynomial coefficients to fill the gaps with new pixel. The proposed method is able to estimate the new pixel position and ensures smoothness and continuity of the contour path. Evaluations are done using cow and goat bones by comparing the resulted BOCs with the contours produced by manual segmentation and contours produced by canny edge detection. The evaluation shows that our proposed methods produces an excellent result with average MSE before and after hole filling at the value of 0.65.

  3. Under the Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, WM


    This is the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 to 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II and were used by Australian, US and New Zealand personnel. From a sociological perspective, her career also offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs this book gives a fascinating insight into the beginning of radio astronomy and the role of a pioneering woman in astronomy.

  4. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof


    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  5. Air and spaceborne radar systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lacomme, Philippe; Hardange, Jean-Philippe; Normant, Eric


    A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors. """"This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's

  6. Incoherent Scatter Radar User Workshop (United States)

    Richmond, A. D.


    The incoherent scatter radar technique has developed over the years into one of the most powerful tools for investigating physical processes in the upper atmosphere. The National Science Foundation (NSF) now supports a chain of four incoherent scatter facilities at Sondrestromfjord (Greenland), Millstone Hill (Massachusetts), Arecibo (Puerto Rico), and Jicamarca (PERU). Six European nations support the EISCAT facility in northern Scandinavia, and France also has a radar at St. Santin. Recently, the organizations reponsible for each of the six radars agreed to participate in a centralized data base being established at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to make their data more readily accessible to the scientific community at large.

  7. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P


    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  8. Environment-Adaptive Radar Techniques. (United States)


    as the mathematics and computer pro - grams are concer.ned we can now develop the design by considering one antenna searching a 2w/3 azimuth sector...Griffis Air Force am*, Now York 13441 8140-6 102 15~ VhAS xpg IAS bed XOWANO 00 the .WAC aU* Affsftz OffU. (PA) an4 to *elesseb). to 00e matsa b"oals Uast fdSRIIIV by bloti nobi Radar Automated Radar Design Adaptive Radar Environmental Sensor Blind Speed Avoidance S. AVISTRACT ’CauM....o

  9. Gyroklystron-Powered WARLOC Radar (United States)

    Danly, B. G.; Cheung, W. J.; Gregers-Hansen, V.; Linde, G.; Ngo, M.


    A high-power, coherent, W-band (94 GHz) millimeter-wave radar has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. This radar, named WARLOC, employs a 100 kW peak power, 10 kW average power gyro-klystron as the final power amplifier, an overmoded transmission line system, and a quasi-optical duplexer, together with a high gain antenna, four-channel receiver, and state-of-the-art signal processing. The gyro-amplifiers and the implementation in the WARLOC radar will be described.

  10. Material integrity verification radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppenjan, S.K.


    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the need for verification of 'as-built' spent fuel-dry storage containers and other concrete structures. The IAEA has tasked the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) to fabricate, test, and deploy a stepped-frequency Material Integrity Verification Radar (MIVR) system to nondestructively verify the internal construction of these containers. The MIVR system is based on previously deployed high-frequency, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems that have been developed by STL for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Whereas GPR technology utilizes microwave radio frequency energy to create subsurface images, MTVR is a variation for which the medium is concrete instead of soil. The purpose is to nondestructively verify the placement of concrete-reinforcing materials, pipes, inner liners, and other attributes of the internal construction. The MIVR system underwent an initial field test on CANDU reactor spent fuel storage canisters at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada, in October 1995. A second field test at the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Embalse, Argentina, was completed in May 1996. The DOE GPR also was demonstrated at the site. Data collection and analysis were performed for the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN). IAEA and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material (ABACC) personnel were present as observers during the test. Reinforcing materials were evident in the color, two-dimensional images produced by the MIVR system. A continuous pattern of reinforcing bars was evident and accurate estimates on the spacing, depth, and size were made. The potential uses for safeguard applications were jointly discussed. The MIVR system, as successfully demonstrated in the two field tests, can be used as a design verification tool for IAEA safeguards. A deployment of MIVR for Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ

  11. Standardization of surgical techniques used in facial bone contouring. (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sung


    Since the introduction of facial bone contouring surgery for cosmetic purposes, various surgical methods have been used to improve the aesthetics of facial contours. In general, by standardizing the surgical techniques, it is possible to decrease complication rates and achieve more predictable surgical outcomes, thereby increasing patient satisfaction. The technical strategies used by the author to standardize facial bone contouring procedures are introduced here. The author uses various pre-manufactured surgical tools and hardware for facial bone contouring. During a reduction malarplasty or genioplasty procedure, double-bladed reciprocating saws and pre-bent titanium plates customized for the zygomatic body, arch and chin are used. Various guarded oscillating saws are used for mandibular angloplasty. The use of double-bladed saws and pre-bent plates to perform reduction malarplasty reduces the chances of post-operative asymmetry or under- or overcorrection of the zygoma contours due to technical faults. Inferior alveolar nerve injury and post-operative jawline asymmetry or irregularity can be reduced by using a guarded saw during mandibular angloplasty. For genioplasty, final placement of the chin in accordance with preoperative quantitative analysis can be easily performed with pre-bent plates, and a double-bladed saw allows more procedural accuracy during osteotomies. Efforts by the surgeon to avoid unintentional faults are key to achieving satisfactory results and reducing the incidence of complications. The surgical techniques described in this study in conjunction with various in-house surgical tools and modified hardware can be used to standardize techniques to achieve aesthetically gratifying outcomes. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Applying volumetric weather radar data for rainfall runoff modeling: The importance of error correction. (United States)

    Hazenberg, P.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Delobbe, L.; Weerts, A.; Reggiani, P.


    In the current study half a year of volumetric radar data for the period October 1, 2002 until March 31, 2003 is being analyzed which was sampled at 5 minutes intervals by C-band Doppler radar situated at an elevation of 600 m in the southern Ardennes region, Belgium. During this winter half year most of the rainfall has a stratiform character. Though radar and raingauge will never sample the same amount of rainfall due to differences in sampling strategies, for these stratiform situations differences between both measuring devices become even larger due to the occurrence of a bright band (the point where ice particles start to melt intensifying the radar reflectivity measurement). For these circumstances the radar overestimates the amount of precipitation and because in the Ardennes bright bands occur within 1000 meter from the surface, it's detrimental effects on the performance of the radar can already be observed at relatively close range (e.g. within 50 km). Although the radar is situated at one of the highest points in the region, very close to the radar clutter is a serious problem. As a result both nearby and farther away, using uncorrected radar results in serious errors when estimating the amount of precipitation. This study shows the effect of carefully correcting for these radar errors using volumetric radar data, taking into account the vertical reflectivity profile of the atmosphere, the effects of attenuation and trying to limit the amount of clutter. After applying these correction algorithms, the overall differences between radar and raingauge are much smaller which emphasizes the importance of carefully correcting radar rainfall measurements. The next step is to assess the effect of using uncorrected and corrected radar measurements on rainfall-runoff modeling. The 1597 km2 Ourthe catchment lies within 60 km of the radar. Using a lumped hydrological model serious improvement in simulating observed discharges is found when using corrected radar

  13. Bistatic radar system analysis and software development


    Teo, Ching Leong


    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Bistatic radar has some properties that are distinctly different from monostatic radar. Recently bistatic radar has received attention for its potential to detect stealth targets due to enhanced target forward scatter. Furthermore, the feasibility of hitchhiker radar has been demonstrated, which allows passive radar receivers to detect and track targets. This thesis developed a software simulation package in Matlab that provides a conv...

  14. Fly eye radar or micro-radar sensor technology (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga


    To compensate for its eye's inability to point its eye at a target, the fly's eye consists of multiple angularly spaced sensors giving the fly the wide-area visual coverage it needs to detect and avoid the threats around him. Based on a similar concept a revolutionary new micro-radar sensor technology is proposed for detecting and tracking ground and/or airborne low profile low altitude targets in harsh urban environments. Distributed along a border or around a protected object (military facility and buildings, camp, stadium) small size, low power unattended radar sensors can be used for target detection and tracking, threat warning, pre-shot sniper protection and provides effective support for homeland security. In addition it can provide 3D recognition and targets classification due to its use of five orders more pulses than any scanning radar to each space point, by using few points of view, diversity signals and intelligent processing. The application of an array of directional antennas eliminates the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or phase processor. It radically decreases radar size and increases bearing accuracy several folds. The proposed micro-radar sensors can be easy connected to one or several operators by point-to-point invisible protected communication. The directional antennas have higher gain, can be multi-frequency and connected to a multi-functional network. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable and will reduce cost of defense.

  15. Development of Antennas for Subsurface Radars within ACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarovoy, Alexander; Meincke, Peter; Dauvignac, Jean-Yves


    The paper gives an overview of the joint activities of the ACE-2 partners in the area of antennas for surface penetrating radar. Main areas of joint research and development are discussed and main results of joint activities are presented. Special attention is given to experimental verification o...

  16. Preprocessing of side-looking airborne radar data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.


    Studies on microwave surface scattering in The Netherlands have indicated the need for accurate radar systems for applications in remote sensing. An SLAR system with digital recording was developed and is now being used for several programmes. This system was designed with special attention to

  17. Exploitation of distributed scatterers in synthetic aperture radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samiei Esfahany, S.


    During the last decades, time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a powerful technique to measure various surface deformation phenomena of the earth. Early generations of time-series InSAR methodologies, i.e. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI), focused on

  18. Recognizing the authenticity of emotional expressions: F0 contour matters when you need to know. (United States)

    Drolet, Matthis; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Fischer, Julia


    Authenticity of vocal emotion expression affects emotion recognition and brain activity in the so-called Theory of Mind (ToM) network, which is implied in the ability to explain and predict behavior by attributing mental states to other individuals. Exploiting the variability of the fundamental frequency (F0 contour), which varies more (higher contour) in play-acted expressions than authentic ones, we examined whether contour biases explicit categorization toward a particular authenticity or emotion category. Moreover, we tested whether contour modulates blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response in the ToM network and explored the role of task as a top-down modulator. The effects of contour on BOLD signal were analyzed by contrasting high and low contour stimuli within two previous fMRI studies that implemented emotion and authenticity rating tasks. Participants preferentially categorized higher contour stimuli as play-acted and lower contour stimuli as sad. Higher contour was found to up-regulate activation task-independently in the primary auditory cortex. Stimulus contour and task were found to interact in a network including medial prefrontal cortex, with an increase in BOLD signal for low-contour stimuli during explicit perception of authenticity and an increase for high-contour stimuli during explicit perception of emotion. Contour-induced BOLD effects appear to be purely stimulus-driven in early auditory and intonation perception, while being strongly task-dependent in regions involved in higher cognition.

  19. An investigation into positron emission tomography contouring methods across two treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Tony; Som, Seu; Sathiakumar, Chithradevi; Holloway, Lois


    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to provide additional information regarding patient tumor location, size, and staging for radiotherapy treatment planning purposes. This additional information reduces interobserver variability and produces more consistent contouring. It is well recognized that different contouring methodology for PET data results in different contoured volumes. The goal of this study was to compare the difference in PET contouring methods for 2 different treatment planning systems using a phantom dataset and a series of patient datasets. Contouring methodology was compared on the ADAC Pinnacle Treatment Planning System and the CMS XiO Treatment Planning System. Contours were completed on the phantom and patient datasets using a number of PET contouring methods—the standardized uptake value 2.5 method, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximum uptake method and the signal to background ratio method. Differences of >15% were observed for PET-contoured volumes between the different treatment planning systems for the same data and the same PET contouring methodology. Contoured volume differences between treatment planning systems were caused by differences in data formatting and display and the different contouring tools available. Differences in treatment planning system as well as contouring methodology should be considered carefully in dose-volume contouring and reporting, especially between centers that may use different treatment planning systems or those that have several different treatment planning systems

  20. Fast Contour-Tracing Algorithm Based on a Pixel-Following Method for Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghoon Seo


    Full Text Available Contour pixels distinguish objects from the background. Tracing and extracting contour pixels are widely used for smart/wearable image sensor devices, because these are simple and useful for detecting objects. In this paper, we present a novel contour-tracing algorithm for fast and accurate contour following. The proposed algorithm classifies the type of contour pixel, based on its local pattern. Then, it traces the next contour using the previous pixel’s type. Therefore, it can classify the type of contour pixels as a straight line, inner corner, outer corner and inner-outer corner, and it can extract pixels of a specific contour type. Moreover, it can trace contour pixels rapidly because it can determine the local minimal path using the contour case. In addition, the proposed algorithm is capable of the compressing data of contour pixels using the representative points and inner-outer corner points, and it can accurately restore the contour image from the data. To compare the performance of the proposed algorithm to that of conventional techniques, we measure their processing time and accuracy. In the experimental results, the proposed algorithm shows better performance compared to the others. Furthermore, it can provide the compressed data of contour pixels and restore them accurately, including the inner-outer corner, which cannot be restored using conventional algorithms.