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Sample records for surface consistent amplitude

  1. Relative amplitude preservation processing utilizing surface consistent amplitude correction. Part 4; Surface consistent amplitude correction wo mochiita sotai shinpuku hozon shori. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on seismic exploration from the ground surface using the reflection method, for surface consistent amplitude correction from among effects imposed from the ground surface and a surface layer. Amplitude distribution on the reflection wave zone is complex. Therefore, items to be considered in making an analysis are multiple, such as estimation of spherical surface divergence effect and exponential attenuation effect, not only amplitude change through the surface layer. If all of these items are taken into consideration, burden of the work becomes excessive. As a method to solve this problem, utilization of amplitude in initial movement of a diffraction wave may be conceived. Distribution of the amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave shows a value relatively close to distribution of the vibration transmitting and receiving points. The reason for this is thought because characteristics of the vibration transmitting and receiving points related with waveline paths in the vicinity of the ground surface have no great difference both on the diffraction waves and on the reflection waves. The lecture described in this paper introduces an attempt of improving the efficiency of the surface consistent amplitude correction by utilizing the analysis of amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Relative amplitude preservation processing utilizing surface consistent amplitude correction. Part 3; Surface consistent amplitude correction wo mochiita sotai shinpuku hozon shori. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T [Japan National Oil Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    For the seismic reflection method conducted on the ground surface, generator and geophone are set on the surface. The observed waveforms are affected by the ground surface and surface layer. Therefore, it is required for discussing physical properties of the deep underground to remove the influence of surface layer, preliminarily. For the surface consistent amplitude correction, properties of the generator and geophone were removed by assuming that the observed waveforms can be expressed by equations of convolution. This is a correction method to obtain records without affected by the surface conditions. In response to analysis and correction of waveforms, wavelet conversion was examined. Using the amplitude patterns after correction, the significant signal region, noise dominant region, and surface wave dominant region would be separated each other. Since the amplitude values after correction of values in the significant signal region have only small variation, a representative value can be given. This can be used for analyzing the surface consistent amplitude correction. Efficiency of the process can be enhanced by considering the change of frequency. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Getting superstring amplitudes by degenerating Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco; Volpato, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We explicitly show how the chiral superstring amplitudes can be obtained through factorisation of the higher genus chiral measure induced by suitable degenerations of Riemann surfaces. This powerful tool also allows to derive, at any genera, consistency relations involving the amplitudes and the measure. A key point concerns the choice of the local coordinate at the node on degenerate Riemann surfaces that greatly simplifies the computations. As a first application, starting from recent ansaetze for the chiral measure up to genus five, we compute the chiral two-point function for massless Neveu-Schwarz states at genus two, three and four. For genus higher than three, these computations include some new corrections to the conjectural formulae appeared so far in the literature. After GSO projection, the two-point function vanishes at genus two and three, as expected from space-time supersymmetry arguments, but not at genus four. This suggests that the ansatz for the superstring measure should be corrected for genus higher than four.

  4. Variability of Surface Reflection Amplitudes of GPR Horn Antenna Depending on Distance between Antenna and Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komačka Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on variability of surface reflections amplitudes of GPR horn antenna in relation to distance between an antenna and a surface is presented in the paper. The air-coupled antenna with the central frequency of 1 GHz was used in the investigation. Four types of surfaces (dry pavement, wet pavement, metal plate and composite layer from gypsum and wood were tested. The distance of antenna above the surfaces was changed in the range from 37.5 cm to 53.5 cm. The amplitudes of negative and positive peaks and their variability were analysed in relation to the distance of antenna above the surfaces. Moreover, the influence of changes in the peaks of negative and positive amplitudes on the total amplitudes was assessed. It was found out the amplitudes of negative peaks for all investigated surfaces were relatively consistent in the range from 40.5 cm to 48.5 cm and the moderate decline was identified in the case of amplitudes of positive peaks in the range of distances from 37.5 cm to 51.5 cm. This decline influences the tendency of total amplitudes. Based on the results of analysis it can be stated the distance of air-coupled antenna above the surface can influence the value of total amplitude and the differences depend on the type of surface.

  5. Multi-loop string amplitudes and Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper was presented at the workshop on 'Supersymmetry and its applications', Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1985. Super-string theory is discussed under the following topic headings: the functional approach to the string amplitude, Rieman surfaces, the determinants Δsub(epsilon)(1) and Δsub(epsilon)(2), Green's functions, total amplitude, and divergence analysis. (U.K.)

  6. Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0162 TR-2017-0162 IMPROVED MODELING AND PREDICTION OF SURFACE WAVE AMPLITUDES Jeffry L. Stevens, et al. Leidos...data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented...SUBTITLE Improved Modeling and Prediction of Surface Wave Amplitudes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-14-C-0225 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  7. An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.

  8. Nonlinear frequency shift of finite-amplitude electrostatic surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenflo, L.

    1989-01-01

    The problem concerning the appropriate form for the nonlinear frequency shift arising from slow density modulations of electrostatic surface waves in a semi-infinite unmagnetized plasma is reconsidered. The spatial dependence of the wave amplitude normal to the surface is kept general in order to allow for possible nonlinear attenuation behaviour of the surface waves. It is found that if the frequency shift is expressed as a function of the density and its gradient then the result is identical with that of Zhelyazkov, I. Proceedings International Conference on Plasma Physics, Kiev, 1987, Vol. 2, p. 694, who assumed a linear exponential attenuation behaviour. (author)

  9. Test research of consistency for amplitude calibration coefficients of pulsed electric field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Guo Xiaoqiang; Chen Xiangyue; Nie Xin; Mao Congguang; Xiang Hui; Cheng Jianping

    2007-01-01

    The amplitude calibration of an electric field sensor is important in the measurement of electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) is used to generate multi-waveform electric field in the TEM cell and the dipole antenna pulsed electric field sensor is calibrated. In the frequency band of the sensor, the calibrated amplitude coefficients with different waveforms are identical. The coefficient derived from the TEM cell calibration system suits to the measurement of unknown electric field pulse within the frequency band. (authors)

  10. Geometry of the self-consistent collective-coordinate method for the large-amplitude collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Fumihiko; Marumori, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yukio; Une, Tsutomu.

    1983-05-01

    The geometry of the self-consistent collective-coordinate (SCC) method formulated within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory is investigated by associating the variational parameters with a symplectic manifold (a TDHF manifold). With the use of a canonical-variables parametrization, it is shown that the TDHF equation is equivalent to the canonical equations of motion in classical mechanics in the TDHF manifold. This enables us to investigate geometrical structure of the SCC method in the language of the classical mechanics. The SCC method turns out to give a prescription how to dynamically extract a ''maximally-decoupled'' collective submanifold (hypersurface) out of the TDHF manifold, in such a way that a certain kind of trajectories corresponding to the large-amplitude collective motion under consideration can be reproduced on the hypersurface as precisely as possible. The stability of the hypersurface at each point on it is investigated, in order to see whether the hypersurface obtained by the SCC method is really an approximate integral surface in the TDHF manifold or not. (author)

  11. Effects of frequency mismatch on a self-consistent arbitrary amplitude cyclotron resonance laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakter, R.; Schneider, R.S.; Rizzato, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The cyclotron-resonance laser accelerator (CRLA), where a coherent electromagnetic wave may transfer a large amount of energy to a beam of electrons gravitating in a guide magnetic field is studied. This large amount of transferred energy takes place due to the autoresonance mechanism where, under some ideal conditions, an initial wave-particle synchronism is self-sustained throughout the accelerating period. An improved analysis of the mentioned self-consistent wave-particle interaction, taking into account a possible frequency mismatch between wave and particles. It is also shown how the frequency mismatch can compensate the dispersion effects. (L.C.J.A.)

  12. Self-consistent collective coordinate method for large amplitude collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, F.; Hashimoto, Y.; Marumori, T.; Une, T.

    1982-01-01

    A recent development of the self-consistent collective coordinate method is described. The self-consistent collective coordinate method was proposed on the basis of the fundamental principle called the invariance principle of the Schroedinger equation. If this is formulated within a framework of the time dependent Hartree Fock (TDHF) theory, a classical version of the theory is obtained. A quantum version of the theory is deduced by formulating it within a framework of the unitary transformation method with auxiliary bosons. In this report, the discussion is concentrated on a relation between the classical theory and the quantum theory, and an applicability of the classical theory. The aim of the classical theory is to extract a maximally decoupled collective subspace out of a huge dimensional 1p - 1h parameter space introduced by the TDHF theory. An intimate similarity between the classical theory and a full quantum boson expansion method (BEM) was clarified. Discussion was concentrated to a simple Lipkin model. Then a relation between the BEM and the unitary transformation method with auxiliary bosons was discussed. It became clear that the quantum version of the theory had a strong relation to the BEM, and that the BEM was nothing but a quantum analogue of the present classical theory. The present theory was compared with the full TDHF calculation by using a simple model. (Kato, T.)

  13. Effect of surface roughness on ultrasonic echo amplitude in aluminium-copper alloy castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardar, R.; Pathak, S.D.; Prabhakar, O.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the influence of test surface roughness on ultrasonic back-wall echo (BWE) amplitude in Al-4.5%Cu alloy cast specimens has been studied. The results indicate that as the value of surface roughness of the specimen increases, the value of relating BWE amplitude at a given probe frequency decreases. However, under the present set of experimental conditions, the decrease in BWE amplitude with the increase in surface roughness of the test specimen is found to be appreciable at 10 MHz probe frequency. (author)

  14. Decreasing the amplitude deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wang, Yu

    2008-12-01

    A new approach for decreasing the amplitude characteristic deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements is presented in this paper. According to Central Limit Theorem, many different Guassian approximation filters could be constructed. By using first-order Butterworth filter and moving average filter to approximate Guassian filter, their directions of amplitude deviation are opposite, and their locations of extreme value are close. So the linear combination of them could reduce the amplitude deviation greatly. The maximum amplitude deviation is only about 0.11% through paralleling them. The algorithm of this new method is simple and its efficiency is high.

  15. Effect of attenuation correction on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Some selected wave profiles recorded using a ship borne wave recorder are analysed to study the effect of attenuation correction on the distribution of the surface amplitudes. A new spectral width parameter is defined to account for wide band...

  16. Quantitative analysis by X-ray fractography of fatigue fractured surface under variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Koichi; Kodama, Shotaro; Misawa, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    X-ray fractography is a method of analysing the causes of accidental fracture of machine components or structures. Almost all of the previous research on this problem has been carried out using constant amplitude fatigue tests. However, the actual loads on components and structures are usually of variable amplitudes. In this study, X-ray fractography was applied to fatigue fractured surfaces produced by variable amplitude loading. Fatigue tests were carried out on Ni-Cr-Mo steel CT specimens under the conditions of repeated, two-step and multiple-step loading. Residual stresses were measured on the fatigue fractured surface by an X-ray diffraction method. The relationships between residual stress and stress intensity factor or crack propagation rate were studied. They were discussed in terms of the quantitative expressions under constant amplitude loading, proposed by the authors in previous papers. The main results obtained were as follows : (1) It was possible to estimate the crack propagation rate of the fatigue fractured surface under variable amplitude loading by using the relationship between residual stress and stress intensity factor under constant amplitude loading. (2) The compressive residual stress components on the fatigue fractured surface correspond with cyclic softening of the material rather than with compressive plastic deformation at the crack tip. (author)

  17. Surface electromyographic amplitude does not identify differences in neural drive to synergistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Negro, Francesco; Falla, Deborah; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Farina, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Surface electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude is typically used to compare the neural drive to muscles. We experimentally investigated this association by studying the motor unit (MU) behavior and action potentials in the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. Eighteen participants performed isometric knee extensions at four target torques [10, 30, 50, and 70% of the maximum torque (MVC)] while high-density EMG signals were recorded from the VM and VL. The absolute EMG amplitude was greater for VM than VL ( P differences in EMG amplitude can be due to both differences in the neural drive and in the size of the MU action potentials, we indirectly inferred the neural drives received by the two muscles by estimating the synaptic inputs received by the corresponding motor neuron pools. For this purpose, we analyzed the increase in discharge rate from recruitment to target torque for motor units matched by recruitment threshold in the two muscles. This analysis indicated that the two muscles received similar levels of neural drive. Nonetheless, the size of the MU action potentials was greater for VM than VL ( P difference explained most of the differences in EMG amplitude between the two muscles (~63% of explained variance). These results indicate that EMG amplitude, even following normalization, does not reflect the neural drive to synergistic muscles. Moreover, absolute EMG amplitude is mainly explained by the size of MU action potentials. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude is widely used to compare indirectly the strength of neural drive received by synergistic muscles. However, there are no studies validating this approach with motor unit data. Here, we compared between-muscles differences in surface EMG amplitude and motor unit behavior. The results clarify the limitations of surface EMG to interpret differences in neural drive between muscles.

  18. Optimization of autonomous magnetic field sensor consisting of giant magnetoimpedance sensor and surface acoustic wave transducer

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Morsy, Ahmed Mohamed Aly; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel autonomous thin film magnetic field sensor consisting of a tri-layer giant magnetoimpedance sensor and a surface acoustic wave transponder. Double and single electrode interdigital transducer (IDT) designs are employed and compared. The integrated sensor is fabricated using standard microfabrication technology. The results show the double electrode IDT has an advantage in terms of the sensitivity. In order to optimize the matching component, a simulation based on P-matrix is carried out. A maximum change of 2.4 dB of the reflection amplitude and a sensitivity of 0.34 dB/Oe are obtained experimentally. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Optimization of autonomous magnetic field sensor consisting of giant magnetoimpedance sensor and surface acoustic wave transducer

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a novel autonomous thin film magnetic field sensor consisting of a tri-layer giant magnetoimpedance sensor and a surface acoustic wave transponder. Double and single electrode interdigital transducer (IDT) designs are employed and compared. The integrated sensor is fabricated using standard microfabrication technology. The results show the double electrode IDT has an advantage in terms of the sensitivity. In order to optimize the matching component, a simulation based on P-matrix is carried out. A maximum change of 2.4 dB of the reflection amplitude and a sensitivity of 0.34 dB/Oe are obtained experimentally. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Joint Inversion of Phase and Amplitude Data of Surface Waves for North American Upper Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, K.; Yoshizawa, K.

    2015-12-01

    For the reconstruction of the laterally heterogeneous upper-mantle structure using surface waves, we generally use phase delay information of seismograms, which represents the average phase velocity perturbation along a ray path, while the amplitude information has been rarely used in the velocity mapping. Amplitude anomalies of surface waves contain a variety of information such as anelastic attenuation, elastic focusing/defocusing, geometrical spreading, and receiver effects. The effects of elastic focusing/defocusing are dependent on the second derivative of phase velocity across the ray path, and thus, are sensitive to shorter-wavelength structure than the conventional phase data. Therefore, suitably-corrected amplitude data of surface waves can be useful for improving the lateral resolution of phase velocity models. In this study, we collect a large-number of inter-station phase velocity and amplitude ratio data for fundamental-mode surface waves with a non-linear waveform fitting between two stations of USArray. The measured inter-station phase velocity and amplitude ratios are then inverted simultaneously for phase velocity maps and local amplification factor at receiver locations in North America. The synthetic experiments suggest that, while the phase velocity maps derived from phase data only reflect large-scale tectonic features, those from phase and amplitude data tend to exhibit better recovery of the strength of velocity perturbations, which emphasizes local-scale tectonic features with larger lateral velocity gradients; e.g., slow anomalies in Snake River Plain and Rio Grande Rift, where significant local amplification due to elastic focusing are observed. Also, the spatial distribution of receiver amplification factor shows a clear correlation with the velocity structure. Our results indicate that inter-station amplitude-ratio data can be of help in reconstructing shorter-wavelength structures of the upper mantle.

  1. Electrostatic chuck consisting of polymeric electrostatic inductive fibers for handling of objects with rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhelika, Radon; Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki; Takahashi, Kunio; Takarada, Wataru; Kikutani, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck (ESC) is a type of reversible dry adhesive which clamps objects by means of electrostatic force. Currently an ESC is used only for objects having flat surfaces because the attractive force is reduced for rough surfaces. An ESC that can handle objects with rough surfaces will expand its applications to MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) or optical parts handling. An ESC consisting of compliant electrostatic inductive fibers which conform to the profile of the surface has been proposed for such use. This paper aims at furthering previous research by observing the attractive force/pressure generated, both theoretically and experimentally, through step-by-step fabrication and analysis. Additionally, how the proposed fiber ESC behaves toward rough surfaces is also observed. The attractive force/pressure of the fiber ESC is theoretically investigated using a robust mechano-electrostatic model. Subsequently, a prototype of the fiber ESC consisting of ten fibers arranged at an angle is employed to experimentally observe its attractive force/pressure for objects with rough surfaces. The attractive force of the surface which is modeled as a sinusoidal wave with various amplitudes is observed, through which the feasibility of a fiber ESC is justified. (paper)

  2. Consistency tests of Ampcalculator and chiral amplitudes in SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory: A tutorial-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Sentitemsu Imsong, I.; Das, Diganta

    2012-01-01

    Ampcalculator (AMPC) is a Mathematica copyright based program that was made publicly available some time ago by Unterdorfer and Ecker. It enables the user to compute several processes at one loop (upto O(p 4 )) in SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. They include computing matrix elements and form factors for strong and non-leptonic weak processes with at most six external states. It was used to compute some novel processes and was tested against well-known results by the original authors. Here we present the results of several thorough checks of the package. Exhaustive checks performed by the original authors are not publicly available, and hence the present effort. Some new results are obtained from the software especially in the kaon odd-intrinsic parity non-leptonic decay sector involving the coupling G 27 . Another illustrative set of amplitudes at tree level we provide is in the context of τ-decays with several mesons including quark mass effects, of use to the BELLE experiment. All eight meson-meson scattering amplitudes have been checked. The Kaon-Compton amplitude has been checked and a minor error in the published results has been pointed out. This exercise is a tutorial-based one, wherein several input and output notebooks are also being made available as ancillary files on the arXiv. Some of the additional notebooks we provide contain explicit expressions that we have used for comparison with established results. The purpose is to encourage users to apply the software to suit their specific needs. An automatic amplitude generator of this type can provide error-free outputs that could be used as inputs for further simplification, and in varied scenarios such as applications of chiral perturbation theory at finite temperature, density and volume. This can also be used by students as a learning aid in low-energy hadron dynamics. (orig.)

  3. Topological open string amplitudes on local toric del Pezzo surfaces via remodeling the B-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Masahide

    2009-01-01

    We study topological strings on local toric del Pezzo surfaces by a method called remodeling the B-model which was recently proposed by Bouchard, Klemm, Marino and Pasquetti. For a large class of local toric del Pezzo surfaces we prove a functional formula of the Bergman kernel which is the basic constituent of the topological string amplitudes by the topological recursion relation of Eynard and Orantin. Because this formula is written as a functional of the period, we can obtain the topological string amplitudes at any point of the moduli space by a simple change of variables of the Picard-Fuchs equations for the period. By this formula and mirror symmetry we compute the A-model amplitudes on K F 2 , and predict the open orbifold Gromov-Witten invariants of C 3 /Z 4 .

  4. Application of a self-consistent theory of large amplitude collective motion to the generalized Meshkov-Glick-Lipkin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, A.S.; Klein, A.

    1986-01-01

    A recent formulation of the theory of large amplitude collective motion in the adiabatic limit is applied to a generalized monopole shell model. Numerical calculations are carried out for the three-level model, approximately equivalent to a classical system with two degrees of freedom. Our results go somewhat beyond previous treatments of this system and provide substantiation for the validity of the method, in suitable parameter ranges, as a way of recognizing and decoupling the collective and the non-collective degrees of freedom. (orig.)

  5. Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.

  6. A Kind of Nanofluid Consisting of Surface-Functionalized Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xuefei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method of surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles was used to prepare a kind of stable nanofluid. The functionalization was achieved by grafting silanes directly to the surface of silica nanoparticles in silica solutions (both a commercial solution and a self-made silica solution were used. The functionalized nanoparticles were used to make nanofluids, in which well-dispersed nanoparticles can keep good stability. One of the unique characteristics of the nanofluids is that no deposition layer forms on the heated surface after a pool boiling process. The nanofluids have applicable prospect in thermal engineering fields with the phase-change heat transfer.

  7. Optimum collective submanifold in resonant cases by the self-consistent collective-coordinate method for large-amplitude collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Marumori, T.; Sakata, F.

    1987-01-01

    With the purpose of clarifying characteristic difference of the optimum collective submanifolds in nonresonant and resonant cases, we develop an improved method of solving the basic equations of the self-consistent collective-coordinate (SCC) method for large-amplitude collective motion. It is shown that, in the resonant cases, there inevitably arise essential coupling terms which break the maximal-decoupling property of the collective motion, and we have to extend the optimum collective submanifold so as to properly treat the degrees of freedom which bring about the resonances

  8. Interstation phase speed and amplitude measurements of surface waves with nonlinear waveform fitting: application to USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, K.; Yoshizawa, K.

    2015-09-01

    A new method of fully nonlinear waveform fitting to measure interstation phase speeds and amplitude ratios is developed and applied to USArray. The Neighbourhood Algorithm is used as a global optimizer, which efficiently searches for model parameters that fit two observed waveforms on a common great-circle path by modulating the phase and amplitude terms of the fundamental-mode surface waves. We introduce the reliability parameter that represents how well the waveforms at two stations can be fitted in a time-frequency domain, which is used as a data selection criterion. The method is applied to observed waveforms of USArray for seismic events in the period from 2007 to 2010 with moment magnitude greater than 6.0. We collect a large number of phase speed data (about 75 000 for Rayleigh and 20 000 for Love) and amplitude ratio data (about 15 000 for Rayleigh waves) in a period range from 30 to 130 s. The majority of the interstation distances of measured dispersion data is less than 1000 km, which is much shorter than the typical average path-length of the conventional single-station measurements for source-receiver pairs. The phase speed models for Rayleigh and Love waves show good correlations on large scales with the recent tomographic maps derived from different approaches for phase speed mapping; for example, significant slow anomalies in volcanic regions in the western Unites States and fast anomalies in the cratonic region. Local-scale phase speed anomalies corresponding to the major tectonic features in the western United States, such as Snake River Plains, Basin and Range, Colorado Plateau and Rio Grande Rift have also been identified clearly in the phase speed models. The short-path information derived from our interstation measurements helps to increase the achievable horizontal resolution. We have also performed joint inversions for phase speed maps using the measured phase and amplitude ratio data of vertical component Rayleigh waves. These maps exhibit

  9. Lunar near-surface shear wave velocities at the Apollo landing sites as inferred from spectral amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, P.; Latham, G. V.; Nakamura, Y.; Dorman, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The horizontal-to-vertical amplitude ratios of the long-period seismograms are reexamined to determine the shear wave velocity distributions at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 lunar landing sites. Average spectral ratios, computed from a number of impact signals, were compared with spectral ratios calculated for the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves in media consisting of homogeneous, isotropic, horizontal layers. The shear velocities of the best fitting models at the different sites resemble each other and differ from the average for all sites by not more than 20% except for the bottom layer at station 14. The shear velocities increase from 40 m/s at the surface to about 400 m/s at depths between 95 and 160 m at the various sites. Within this depth range the velocity-depth functions are well represented by two piecewise linear segments, although the presence of first-order discontinuities cannot be ruled out.

  10. Surface plasmon transmission through discontinuous conducting surfaces: Plasmon amplitude modulation by grazing scattered fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayoral-Astorga, L. A.; Gaspar-Armenta, J. A.; Ramos-Mendieta, F. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190 México (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    We have studied numerically the diffraction of a surface plasmon polariton (SPP) when it encounters a wide multi-wavelength slit in conducting films. As a jump process a SPP is excited beyond the slit by wave scattering at the second slit edge. The exciting radiation is produced when the incident SPP collapses at the first slit edge. We have found that the transmitted SPP supports inherent and unavoidable interference with grazing scattered radiation; the spatial modulation extends to the fields in the diffraction region where a series of low intensity spots arises. We demonstrate that the SPP generated on the second slab depends on the frequency but not on the wave vector of the collapsed SPP; a SPP is transmitted even when the two metals forming the slit are different. The numerical results were obtained using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method with a grid size λ/100.

  11. Sustained frictional instabilities on nanodomed surfaces: Stick-slip amplitude coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quignon, Benoit; Pilkington, Georgia A.; Thormann, Esben

    2013-01-01

    to sustained frictional instabilities, effectively with no contact frictional sliding. The amplitude of the stick-slip oscillations, σf, was found to correlate with the topographic properties of the surfaces and scale linearly with the applied load. In line with the friction coefficient, we define the slope......-defined nanodomes comprising densely packed prolate spheroids, of diameters ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. Our results show that the average lateral force varied linearly with applied load, as described by Amontons' first law of friction, although no direct correlation between the sample topographic...... properties and their measured friction coefficients was identified. Furthermore, all the nanodomed textures exhibited pronounced oscillations in the shear traces, similar to the classic stick-slip behavior, under all the shear velocities and load regimes studied. That is, the nanotextured topography led...

  12. Observation of J/ψϕ Structures Consistent with Exotic States from Amplitude Analysis of B^{+}→J/ψϕK^{+} Decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, I; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Pappenheimer, C; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-13

    The first full amplitude analysis of B^{+}→J/ψϕK^{+} with J/ψ→μ^{+}μ^{-}, ϕ→K^{+}K^{-} decays is performed with a data sample of 3  fb^{-1} of pp collision data collected at sqrt[s]=7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The data cannot be described by a model that contains only excited kaon states decaying into ϕK^{+}, and four J/ψϕ structures are observed, each with significance over 5 standard deviations. The quantum numbers of these structures are determined with significance of at least 4 standard deviations. The lightest has mass consistent with, but width much larger than, previous measurements of the claimed X(4140) state.

  13. The consistency of ordinary least-squares and generalized least-squares polynomial regression on characterizing the mechanomyographic amplitude versus torque relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herda, Trent J; Ryan, Eric D; Costa, Pablo B; DeFreitas, Jason M; Walter, Ashley A; Stout, Jeffrey R; Beck, Travis W; Cramer, Joel T; Housh, Terry J; Weir, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of ordinary least-squares (OLS) and generalized least-squares (GLS) polynomial regression analyses utilizing linear, quadratic and cubic models on either five or ten data points that characterize the mechanomyographic amplitude (MMG RMS ) versus isometric torque relationship. The secondary purpose was to examine the consistency of OLS and GLS polynomial regression utilizing only linear and quadratic models (excluding cubic responses) on either ten or five data points. Eighteen participants (mean ± SD age = 24 ± 4 yr) completed ten randomly ordered isometric step muscle actions from 5% to 95% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the right leg extensors during three separate trials. MMG RMS was recorded from the vastus lateralis during the MVCs and each submaximal muscle action. MMG RMS versus torque relationships were analyzed on a subject-by-subject basis using OLS and GLS polynomial regression. When using ten data points, only 33% and 27% of the subjects were fitted with the same model (utilizing linear, quadratic and cubic models) across all three trials for OLS and GLS, respectively. After eliminating the cubic model, there was an increase to 55% of the subjects being fitted with the same model across all trials for both OLS and GLS regression. Using only five data points (instead of ten data points), 55% of the subjects were fitted with the same model across all trials for OLS and GLS regression. Overall, OLS and GLS polynomial regression models were only able to consistently describe the torque-related patterns of response for MMG RMS in 27–55% of the subjects across three trials. Future studies should examine alternative methods for improving the consistency and reliability of the patterns of response for the MMG RMS versus isometric torque relationship

  14. Theoretical treatment of high-frequency, large-amplitude ac voltammetry applied to ideal surface-confined redox systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Christopher G.; Anastassiou, Costas A.; O’Hare, Danny; Parker, Kim H.; Siggers, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Theory of ac voltammetry on ideal surface-confined redox systems. ► Analytical description of the harmonics and transient of the current response. ► Solution valid for high frequency, large-amplitude sinusoidal input voltage. ► Protocol for determining system parameters from experimental current responses. - Abstract: Large-amplitude ac voltammetry, where the applied voltage is a large-amplitude sinusoidal waveform superimposed onto a dc ramp, is a powerful method for investigating the reaction kinetics of surface-confined redox species. Here we consider the large-amplitude ac voltammetric current response of a quasi-reversible, ideal, surface-confined redox system, for which the redox reaction is described by Butler–Volmer theory. We derive an approximate analytical solution, which is valid whenever the angular frequency of the sine-wave is much larger than the rate of the dc ramp and the standard kinetic rate constant of the redox reaction. We demonstrate how the third harmonic and the initial transient of the current response can be used to estimate parameters of the electrochemical system, namely the kinetic rate constant, the electron transfer coefficient, the adsorption formal potential, the initial proportion of oxidised molecules and the linear double-layer capacitance.

  15. Self-consistent electronic structure of the contracted tungsten (001) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posternak, M.; Krakauer, H.; Freeman, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Self-consistent linearized-augmented-plane-wave energy-band studies using the warped muffin-tin approximation for a seven-layer W(001) single slab with the surface-layer separation contracted by 6% of the bulk interlayer spacing are reported. Surface electronic structure, local densities of states, generalized susceptibility for the surface, work function, and core-level shifts are found to have insignificant differences with corresponding results for the unrelaxed surface. Several differences in surface states between theory and recent angle-resolved photoemission experiments are discussed in the light of new proposed models of the actual unreconstructed surface structure at high temperatures

  16. Mapping the upper mantle beneath North American continent with joint inversion of surface-wave phase and amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Hamada, K.

    2017-12-01

    A new 3-D S-wave model of the North American upper mantle is constructed from a large number of inter-station phase and amplitude measurements of surface waves. A fully nonlinear waveform fitting method by Hamada and Yoshizawa (2015, GJI) is applied to USArray for measuring inter-station phase speeds and amplitude ratios of the fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love waves. We employed the seismic events from 2007 - 2014 with Mw 6.0 or greater, and collected a large-number of inter-station phase speed data (about 130,000 for Rayleigh and 85,000 for Love waves) and amplitude ratio data (about 75,000 for Rayleigh waves) in a period range from 30 to 130 s for fundamental-mode surface waves. Typical inter-station distances are mostly in a range between 300 and 800 km, which can be of help in enhancing the lateral resolution of a regional tomography model. We first invert Rayleigh-wave phase speeds and amplitudes simultaneously for phase speed maps as well as local amplification factors at receiver locations. The isotropic 3-D S-wave model constructed from these phase speed maps incorporating both phase and amplitude data exhibits better recovery of the strength of velocity perturbations. In particular, local tectonic features characterized by strong velocity gradients, such as Rio Grande Rift, Colorado Plateau and New Madrid Seismic Zone, are more enhanced than conventional models derived from phase information only. The results indicate that surface-wave amplitude, which is sensitive to the second derivative of phase speeds, can be of great help in retrieving small-scale heterogeneity in the upper mantle. We also obtain a radial anisotropy model from the simultaneous inversions of Rayleigh and Love waves (without amplitude information). The model has shown faster SH wave speed anomalies than SV above the depth of 100 km, particularly in tectonically active regions in the western and central U.S., representing the effects of current and former tectonic processes on

  17. Self-consistent Green’s-function technique for surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Rosengaard, N. M.

    1991-01-01

    We have implemented an efficient self-consistent Green’s-function technique for calculating ground-state properties of surfaces and interfaces, based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding representation. In this approach the interlayer interaction is extremely short...... ranged, and only a few layers close to the interface need be treated self-consistently via a Dyson equation. For semi-infinite jellium, the technique gives work functions and surface energies that are in excellent agreement with earlier calculations. For the bcc(110) surface of the alkali metals, we find...

  18. Observation of J/psi phi Structures Consistent with Exotic States from Amplitude Analysis of B+ -> J/psi phi K+ Decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Romeu, J. Arnau; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Batsukh, B.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Dufour, L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    2017-01-01

    The first full amplitude analysis of B+ -> J/psi phi K+ with J/psi -> mu(+)mu(-), phi -> K+K- decays is performed with a data sample of 3 fb(-1) of pp collision data collected at root s = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The data cannot be described by a model that contains only excited kaon

  19. Delta self-consistent field method to obtain potential energy surfaces of excited molecules on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, Jeppe; Olsen, Thomas; Engelund, Mads

    2008-01-01

    is a density-functional method closely resembling standard density-functional theory (DFT), the only difference being that in Delta SCF one or more electrons are placed in higher lying Kohn-Sham orbitals instead of placing all electrons in the lowest possible orbitals as one does when calculating the ground......-state energy within standard DFT. We extend the Delta SCF method by allowing excited electrons to occupy orbitals which are linear combinations of Kohn-Sham orbitals. With this extra freedom it is possible to place charge locally on adsorbed molecules in the calculations, such that resonance energies can...... be estimated, which is not possible in traditional Delta SCF because of very delocalized Kohn-Sham orbitals. The method is applied to N2, CO, and NO adsorbed on different metallic surfaces and compared to ordinary Delta SCF without our modification, spatially constrained DFT, and inverse...

  20. Problem of determination of the elementary hardon-nucleon interaction amplitude from Glauber-theory analysis of elastic hardon-nucleus scattering and self-consistent FFS nuclear densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saperstein, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of the detailed behavior of the nuclear densities on the Glauber-theory description of hadron-nucleus scattering is discussed in connection with the problem of determination of elementary hadron-nucleon amplitudes from such analysis. Arguments are given in favor of using the self-consistent FFS nuclear densities for this purpose. 20 refs., 6 figs

  1. Uranyl adsorption and surface speciation at the imogolite-water interface: Self-consistent spectroscopic and surface complexation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; McBeath, M.; Bargar, J.R.; Joye, J.; Davis, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Macro- and molecular-scale knowledge of uranyl (U(VI)) partitioning reactions with soil/sediment mineral components is important in predicting U(VI) transport processes in the vadose zone and aquifers. In this study, U(VI) reactivity and surface speciation on a poorly crystalline aluminosilicate mineral, synthetic imogolite, were investigated using batch adsorption experiments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and surface complexation modeling. U(VI) uptake on imogolite surfaces was greatest at pH ???7-8 (I = 0.1 M NaNO3 solution, suspension density = 0.4 g/L [U(VI)]i = 0.01-30 ??M, equilibration with air). Uranyl uptake decreased with increasing sodium nitrate concentration in the range from 0.02 to 0.5 M. XAS analyses show that two U(VI) inner-sphere (bidentate mononuclear coordination on outer-wall aluminol groups) and one outer-sphere surface species are present on the imogolite surface, and the distribution of the surface species is pH dependent. At pH 8.8, bis-carbonato inner-sphere and tris-carbonato outer-sphere surface species are present. At pH 7, bis- and non-carbonato inner-sphere surface species co-exist, and the fraction of bis-carbonato species increases slightly with increasing I (0.1-0.5 M). At pH 5.3, U(VI) non-carbonato bidentate mononuclear surface species predominate (69%). A triple layer surface complexation model was developed with surface species that are consistent with the XAS analyses and macroscopic adsorption data. The proton stoichiometry of surface reactions was determined from both the pH dependence of U(VI) adsorption data in pH regions of surface species predominance and from bond-valence calculations. The bis-carbonato species required a distribution of surface charge between the surface and ?? charge planes in order to be consistent with both the spectroscopic and macroscopic adsorption data. This research indicates that U(VI)-carbonato ternary species on poorly crystalline aluminosilicate mineral surfaces may be important in

  2. Effect of phase coupling on surface amplitude distribution of wind waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Nonlinear features of wind generated surface waves are considered here to be caused by nonrandomness (non-Uniform) in the phase spectrum. Nonrandomness in recorded waves, if present, would be generally obscured within the error level of observations...

  3. Self-consistent density functional calculation of the image potential at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J; Alvarellos, J E; Chacon, E; GarcIa-Gonzalez, P

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the exchange-correlation (XC) potential at a metal surface has an image-like asymptotic behaviour given by -1/4(z-z 0 ), where z is the coordinate perpendicular to the surface. Using a suitable fully non-local functional prescription, we evaluate self-consistently the XC potential with the correct image behaviour for simple jellium surfaces in the range of metallic densities. This allows a proper comparison between the corresponding image-plane position, z 0 , and other related quantities such as the centroid of an induced charge by an external perturbation. As a by-product, we assess the routinely used local density approximation when evaluating electron density profiles, work functions, and surface energies by focusing on the XC effects included in the fully non-local description

  4. Self-consistent density functional calculation of the image potential at a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain); Alvarellos, J E [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain); Chacon, E [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); GarcIa-Gonzalez, P [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Apartado 60141, 28080 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-04

    It is well known that the exchange-correlation (XC) potential at a metal surface has an image-like asymptotic behaviour given by -1/4(z-z{sub 0}), where z is the coordinate perpendicular to the surface. Using a suitable fully non-local functional prescription, we evaluate self-consistently the XC potential with the correct image behaviour for simple jellium surfaces in the range of metallic densities. This allows a proper comparison between the corresponding image-plane position, z{sub 0}, and other related quantities such as the centroid of an induced charge by an external perturbation. As a by-product, we assess the routinely used local density approximation when evaluating electron density profiles, work functions, and surface energies by focusing on the XC effects included in the fully non-local description.

  5. Amplitude and phase of surface plasmon polaritons excited at a step edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klick, Alwin; de la Cruz, Sergio; Lemke, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study on the laser-induced excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) at well-defined step edges of a gold–vacuum interface is presented. As a relevant parameter determining the coupling efficiency between laser field and SPP, we identify the ratio betw...

  6. Analytical solutions for the surface response to small amplitude perturbations in boundary data in the shallow-ice-stream approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Gudmundsson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available New analytical solutions describing the effects of small-amplitude perturbations in boundary data on flow in the shallow-ice-stream approximation are presented. These solutions are valid for a non-linear Weertman-type sliding law and for Newtonian ice rheology. Comparison is made with corresponding solutions of the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, and with solutions of the full Stokes equations. The shallow-ice-stream approximation is commonly used to describe large-scale ice stream flow over a weak bed, while the shallow-ice-sheet approximation forms the basis of most current large-scale ice sheet models. It is found that the shallow-ice-stream approximation overestimates the effects of bed topography perturbations on surface profile for wavelengths less than about 5 to 10 ice thicknesses, the exact number depending on values of surface slope and slip ratio. For high slip ratios, the shallow-ice-stream approximation gives a very simple description of the relationship between bed and surface topography, with the corresponding transfer amplitudes being close to unity for any given wavelength. The shallow-ice-stream estimates for the timescales that govern the transient response of ice streams to external perturbations are considerably more accurate than those based on the shallow-ice-sheet approximation. In particular, in contrast to the shallow-ice-sheet approximation, the shallow-ice-stream approximation correctly reproduces the short-wavelength limit of the kinematic phase speed given by solving a linearised version of the full Stokes system. In accordance with the full Stokes solutions, the shallow-ice-sheet approximation predicts surface fields to react weakly to spatial variations in basal slipperiness with wavelengths less than about 10 to 20 ice thicknesses.

  7. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Walters, Deron; Walters, Deron; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika

    2014-08-22

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic - yet decisive - question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid-liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface.

  8. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika; Walters, Deron; Cleveland, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic—yet decisive—question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid–liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface. (paper)

  9. Exciton spectrum of surface-corrugated quantum wells: the adiabatic self-consistent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atenco A, N.; Perez R, F.; Makarov, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    A theory for calculating the relaxation frequency ν and the shift δ ω of exciton resonances in quantum wells with finite potential barriers and adiabatic surface disorder is developed. The adiabaticity implies that the correlation length R C for the well width fluctuations is much larger than the exciton radius a 0 (R C >> a 0 ). Our theory is based on the self-consistent Green's function method, and therefore takes into account the inherent action of the exciton scattering on itself. The self-consistent approach is shown to describe quantitatively the sharp exciton resonance. It also gives the qualitatively correct resonance picture for the transition to the classical limit, as well as within the domain of the classical limit itself. We present and analyze results for h h-exciton in a GaAs quantum well with Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As barriers. It is established that the self-consistency and finite height of potential barriers significantly influence on the line-shape of exciton resonances, and make the values of ν and δ ω be quite realistic. In particular, the relaxation frequency ν for the ground-state resonance has a broad, almost symmetric maximum near the resonance frequency ω 0 , while the surface-induced resonance shift δ ω vanishes near ω 0 , and has different signs on the sides of the exciton resonance. (Author) 43 refs., 4 figs

  10. Changes in the Amplitude and Phase of the Annual Cycle: quantifying from surface wind series in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is not only reflected in the changes in annual means of climate variables but also in the changes in their annual cycles (seasonality), especially in the regions outside the tropics. Changes in the timing of seasons, especially the wind season, have gained much attention worldwide in recent decade or so. We introduce long-range correlated surrogate data to Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition method, which represent the statistic characteristics of data better than white noise. The new method we named Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Long-range Correlated noise (EEMD-LRC) and applied to 600 station wind speed records. This new method is applied to investigate the trend in the amplitude of the annual cycle of China's daily mean surface wind speed for the period 1971-2005. The amplitude of seasonal variation decrease significantly in the past half century over China, which can be well explained by Annual Cycle component from EEMD-LRC. Furthermore, the phase change of annual cycle lead to strongly shorten of wind season in spring, and corresponding with strong windy day frequency change over Northern China.

  11. Exciton spectrum of surface-corrugated quantum wells: the adiabatic self-consistent approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atenco A, N.; Perez R, F. [lnstituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, A.P. J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Makarov, N.M. [lnstituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Priv. 17 Norte No 3417, Col. San Miguel Hueyotlipan, 72050 Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A theory for calculating the relaxation frequency {nu} and the shift {delta} {omega} of exciton resonances in quantum wells with finite potential barriers and adiabatic surface disorder is developed. The adiabaticity implies that the correlation length R{sub C} for the well width fluctuations is much larger than the exciton radius a{sub 0} (R{sub C} >> a{sub 0}). Our theory is based on the self-consistent Green's function method, and therefore takes into account the inherent action of the exciton scattering on itself. The self-consistent approach is shown to describe quantitatively the sharp exciton resonance. It also gives the qualitatively correct resonance picture for the transition to the classical limit, as well as within the domain of the classical limit itself. We present and analyze results for h h-exciton in a GaAs quantum well with Al{sub 0.3} Ga{sub 0.7}As barriers. It is established that the self-consistency and finite height of potential barriers significantly influence on the line-shape of exciton resonances, and make the values of {nu} and {delta} {omega} be quite realistic. In particular, the relaxation frequency {nu} for the ground-state resonance has a broad, almost symmetric maximum near the resonance frequency {omega}{sub 0}, while the surface-induced resonance shift {delta} {omega} vanishes near {omega}{sub 0}, and has different signs on the sides of the exciton resonance. (Author) 43 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Self-Consistent Approach to Global Charge Neutrality in Electrokinetics: A Surface Potential Trap Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we treat the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP equations as the basis for a consistent framework of the electrokinetic effects. The static limit of the PNP equations is shown to be the charge-conserving Poisson-Boltzmann (CCPB equation, with guaranteed charge neutrality within the computational domain. We propose a surface potential trap model that attributes an energy cost to the interfacial charge dissociation. In conjunction with the CCPB, the surface potential trap can cause a surface-specific adsorbed charge layer σ. By defining a chemical potential μ that arises from the charge neutrality constraint, a reformulated CCPB can be reduced to the form of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, whose prediction of the Debye screening layer profile is in excellent agreement with that of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation when the channel width is much larger than the Debye length. However, important differences emerge when the channel width is small, so the Debye screening layers from the opposite sides of the channel overlap with each other. In particular, the theory automatically yields a variation of σ that is generally known as the “charge regulation” behavior, attendant with predictions of force variation as a function of nanoscale separation between two charged surfaces that are in good agreement with the experiments, with no adjustable or additional parameters. We give a generalized definition of the ζ potential that reflects the strength of the electrokinetic effect; its variations with the concentration of surface-specific and surface-nonspecific salt ions are shown to be in good agreement with the experiments. To delineate the behavior of the electro-osmotic (EO effect, the coupled PNP and Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically under an applied electric field tangential to the fluid-solid interface. The EO effect is shown to exhibit an intrinsic time dependence that is noninertial in its origin. Under a step-function applied

  13. Numerical Response Surfaces of Volume of Ablation and Retropulsion Amplitude by Settings of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian J. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis due to shorter operation time and a better stone-free rate, the optimal laser settings for URS (ureteroscopic lithotripsy for less operation time remain unclear. The aim of this study was to look for quantitative responses of calculus ablation and retropulsion by performing operator-independent experiments to determine the best fit versus the pulse energy, pulse width, and the number of pulses. Methods. A lab-built Ho:YAG laser was used as the laser pulse source, with a pulse energy from 0.2 J up to 3.0 J and a pulse width of 150 μs up to 1000 μs. The retropulsion was monitored using a high-speed camera, and the laser-induced craters were evaluated with a 3-D digital microscope. The best fit to the experimental data is done by a design of experiment software. Results. The numerical formulas for the response surfaces of ablation speed and retropulsion amplitude are generated. Conclusions. The longer the pulse, the less the ablation or retropulsion, while the longer pulse makes the ablation decrease faster than the retropulsion. The best quadratic fit of the response surface for the volume of ablation varied nonlinearly with pulse duration and pulse number.

  14. Numerical Response Surfaces of Volume of Ablation and Retropulsion Amplitude by Settings of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Jonathan; Solomon, Metasebya; Cheng, Brian; Xuan, Jason R.; Gong, Jason; Yu, Honggang; Xia, Michael L. D.; Yang, Xirong; Hasenberg, Thomas; Curran, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis due to shorter operation time and a better stone-free rate, the optimal laser settings for URS (ureteroscopic lithotripsy) for less operation time remain unclear. The aim of this study was to look for quantitative responses of calculus ablation and retropulsion by performing operator-independent experiments to determine the best fit versus the pulse energy, pulse width, and the number of pulses. Methods A lab-built Ho:YAG laser was used as the laser pulse source, with a pulse energy from 0.2 J up to 3.0 J and a pulse width of 150 μs up to 1000 μs. The retropulsion was monitored using a high-speed camera, and the laser-induced craters were evaluated with a 3-D digital microscope. The best fit to the experimental data is done by a design of experiment software. Results The numerical formulas for the response surfaces of ablation speed and retropulsion amplitude are generated. Conclusions The longer the pulse, the less the ablation or retropulsion, while the longer pulse makes the ablation decrease faster than the retropulsion. The best quadratic fit of the response surface for the volume of ablation varied nonlinearly with pulse duration and pulse number. PMID:29707187

  15. Self-consistent approach to x-ray reflection from rough surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feranchuk, I. D.; Feranchuk, S. I.; Ulyanenkov, A. P.

    2007-01-01

    A self-consistent analytical approach for specular x-ray reflection from interfaces with transition layers [I. D. Feranchuk et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 235417 (2003)] based on the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) is used for the description of coherent and incoherent x-ray scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces. This approach takes into account the transformation of the modeling transition layer profile at the interface, which is caused by roughness correlations. The reflection coefficients for each DWBA order are directly calculated without phenomenological assumptions on their exponential decay at large scattering angles. Various regions of scattering angles are discussed, which show qualitatively different dependence of the reflection coefficient on the scattering angle. The experimental data are analyzed using the method developed

  16. The Polyakov path integral over bordered surfaces 3 (The BRST extended closed string off-shell amplitudes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolski, Z.

    1991-05-01

    The geometrical approach to the functional integral over Faddeev-Popov ghost fields is developed and applied to construct the BRST extension of the off-shell closed string amplitudes in the constant curvature gauge. In this gauge the overlap path integral for off-shell amplitudes is evaluated. It leads to the nonlocal sewing procedure generating all off-shell amplitudes from the cubic interaction vertex. The general scheme of the reconstruction of a covariant closed string field theory from the off-shell amplitudes is discussed within the path integral framework. (author). 30 refs

  17. Detection of small-amplitude periodic surface pressure fluctuation by pressure-sensitive paint measurements using frequency-domain methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Nakakita, Kazuyki; Wakahara, Masaki; Kameda, Masaharu

    2018-06-01

    Image measurement using pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is an effective tool for analyzing the unsteady pressure field on the surface of a body in a low-speed air flow, which is associated with wind noise. In this study, the surface pressure fluctuation due to the tonal trailing edge (TE) noise for a two-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil was quantitatively detected using a porous anodized aluminum PSP (AA-PSP). The emission from the PSP upon illumination by a blue laser diode was captured using a 12-bit high-speed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera. The intensities of the captured images were converted to pressures using a standard intensity-based method. Three image-processing methods based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) were tested to determine their efficiency in improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the unsteady PSP data. In addition to two fundamental FFT techniques (the full data and ensemble averaging FFTs), a technique using the coherent output power (COP), which involves the cross correlation between the PSP data and the signal measured using a pointwise sound-level meter, was tested. Preliminary tests indicated that random photon shot noise dominates the intensity fluctuations in the captured PSP emissions above 200 Hz. Pressure fluctuations associated with the TE noise, whose dominant frequency is approximately 940 Hz, were successfully measured by analyzing 40,960 sequential PSP images recorded at 10 kfps. Quantitative validation using the power spectrum indicates that the COP technique is the most effective method of identification of the pressure fluctuation directly related to TE noise. It is possible to distinguish power differences with a resolution of 10 Pa^2 (4 Pa in amplitude) when the COP was employed without use of another wind-off data. This resolution cannot be achieved by the ensemble averaging FFT because of an insufficient elimination of the background noise.

  18. Mean flow produced by small-amplitude vibrations of a liquid bridge with its free surface covered with an insoluble surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Luis M.; Herrada, Miguel A.; Montanero, José M.; Vega, José M.

    2017-09-01

    As is well known, confined fluid systems subject to forced vibrations produce mean flows, called in this context streaming flows. These mean flows promote an overall mass transport in the fluid that has consequences in the transport of passive scalars and surfactants, when these are present in a fluid interface. Such transport causes surfactant concentration inhomogeneities that are to be counterbalanced by Marangoni elasticity. Therefore, the interaction of streaming flows and Marangoni convection is expected to produce new flow structures that are different from those resulting when only one of these effects is present. The present paper focuses on this interaction using the liquid bridge geometry as a paradigmatic system for the analysis. Such analysis is based on an appropriate post-processing of the results obtained via direct numerical simulation of the system for moderately small viscosity, a condition consistent with typical experiments of vibrated millimetric liquid bridges. It is seen that the flow patterns show a nonmonotone behavior as the Marangoni number is increased. In addition, the strength of the mean flow at the free surface exhibits two well-defined regimes as the forcing amplitude increases. These regimes show fairly universal power-law behaviors.

  19. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten

    2016-01-01

    for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.......g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed......, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle...

  20. Investigation of surface porosity measurements and compaction pressure as means to ensure consistent contact angle determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, René; Borkenfelt, Simon; Allesø, Morten; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Beato, Stefania; Holm, Per

    2016-02-10

    Compounds wettability is critical for a number of central processes including disintegration, dispersion, solubilisation and dissolution. It is therefore an important optimisation parameter both in drug discovery but also as guidance for formulation selection and optimisation. Wettability for a compound is determined by its contact angle to a liquid, which in the present study was measured using the sessile drop method applied to a disc compact of the compound. Precise determination of the contact angle is important should it be used to either rank compounds or selected excipients to e.g. increase the wetting from a solid dosage form. Since surface roughness of the compact has been suggested to influence the measurement this study investigated if the surface quality, in terms of surface porosity, had an influence on the measured contact angle. A correlation to surface porosity was observed, however for six out of seven compounds similar results were obtained by applying a standard pressure (866 MPa) to the discs in their preparation. The data presented in the present work therefore suggest that a constant high pressure should be sufficient for most compounds when determining the contact angle. Only for special cases where compounds have poor compressibility would there be a need for a surface-quality-control step before the contact angle determination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Accuracy and Consistency of Grass Pollen Identification by Human Analysts Using Electron Micrographs of Surface Ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.

  2. Generation of high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces in radiofrequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Na; Yu, Shixing; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    A high-order Bessel vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is generated by using multilayer amplitude-phase-modulated surfaces (APMSs) at 10 GHz. The APMS transmitarray is composed of four-layer conformal square-loop (FCSL) surfaces with both amplitude and phase modulation. The APMS can transform a quasi-spherical wave emitted from the feeding source into a pseudo non-diffractive high-order Bessel vortex beam with OAM. The APMS for a second-order Bessel beam carrying OAM in the n = 2 mode is designed, fabricated, and measured. Full-wave simulation and measurement results confirm that Bessel vortex beams with OAM can be effectively generated using the proposed APMS transmitarray.

  3. Surface plasmons based terahertz modulator consisting of silicon-air-metal-dielectric-metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Dongxiao; Qian, Zhenhai

    2018-05-01

    An optically controlled modulator of the terahertz wave, which is composed of a metal-dielectric-metal structure etched with circular loop arrays on both the metal layers and a photoexcited silicon wafer separated by an air layer, is proposed. Simulation results based on experimentally measured complex permittivities predict that modification of complex permittivity of the silicon wafer through excitation laser leads to a significant tuning of transmission characteristics of the modulator, forming the modulation depths of 59.62% and 96.64% based on localized surface plasmon peak and propagating surface plasmon peak, respectively. The influences of the complex permittivity of the silicon wafer and the thicknesses of both the air layer and the silicon wafer are numerically studied for better understanding the modulation mechanism. This study proposes a feasible methodology to design an optically controlled terahertz modulator with large modulation depth, high speed and suitable insertion loss, which is useful for terahertz applications in the future.

  4. Correlation between residual stress and plastic strain amplitude during low cycle fatigue of mechanically surface treated austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 and ferritic-pearlitic steel SAE 1045

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, I. [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel, Hessen (Germany)], E-mail: Ivan.Nikitin@infineon.com; Besel, M. [Institute of Materials Engineering, University of Kassel, 34125 Kassel, Hessen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Mechanical surface treatments such as deep rolling are known to affect the near-surface microstructure and induce, e.g. residual stresses and/or increase the surface hardness. It is well known that, e.g. compressive residual stress states usually increase the lifetime under fatigue loading. The stress relaxation behaviour and the stability of the residual stress during fatigue loading depend on the mechanical surface treatment method. In this paper three different surface treatments are used and their effects on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304) and ferritic-pearlitic steel (SAE 1045) are investigated. X-ray diffraction is applied for the non-destructive evaluation of the stress state and the microstructure. It is found that consecutive deep rolling and annealing as well as high temperature deep rolling produce more stable near-surface stress states than conventional deep rolling at room temperature. The plastic strain amplitudes during fatigue loading are measured and it is shown that they correlate well with the induced residual stress and its relaxation, respectively. Furthermore, Coffin-Manson plots are presented which clearly show the correlation between the plastic strain amplitude and the fatigue lifetime.

  5. Adsorption of molecular brushes with polyelectrolyte backbones onto oppositely charged surfaces: A self-consistent field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuz, L.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Textor, M.; Borisov, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The two-gradient version of the Scheutjens¿Fleer self-consistent field (SF-SCF) theory is employed to model the interaction between a molecular bottle brush with a polyelectrolyte backbone and neutral hydrophilic side chains and an oppositely charged surface. Our system mimics graft-copolymers with

  6. Self-consistent nonlocal feedback theory for electrocatalytic swimmers with heterogeneous surface chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourhani, Amir; Crespi, Vincent H.; Lammert, Paul E.

    2015-06-01

    We present a self-consistent nonlocal feedback theory for the phoretic propulsion mechanisms of electrocatalytic micromotors or nanomotors. These swimmers, such as bimetallic platinum and gold rods catalyzing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution, have received considerable theoretical attention. In contrast, the heterogeneous electrochemical processes with nonlocal feedback that are the actual "engines" of such motors are relatively neglected. We present a flexible approach to these processes using bias potential as a control parameter field and a locally-open-circuit reference state, carried through in detail for a spherical motor. While the phenomenological flavor makes meaningful contact with experiment easier, required inputs can also conceivably come from, e.g., Frumkin-Butler-Volmer kinetics. Previously obtained results are recovered in the weak-heterogeneity limit and improved small-basis approximations tailored to structural heterogeneity are presented. Under the assumption of weak inhomogeneity, a scaling form is deduced for motor speed as a function of fuel concentration and swimmer size. We argue that this form should be robust and demonstrate a good fit to experimental data.

  7. SU-F-J-19: Robust Region-Of-Interest (ROI) for Consistent Registration On Deteriorated Surface Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H; Malin, M; Chmura, S; Hasan, Y; Al-Hallaq, H [The Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For African-American patients receiving breast radiotherapy with a bolus, skin darkening can affect the surface visualization when using optical imaging for daily positioning and gating at deep-inspiration breath holds (DIBH). Our goal is to identify a region-of-interest (ROI) that is robust against deteriorating surface image quality due to skin darkening. Methods: We study four patients whose post-mastectomy surfaces are imaged daily with AlignRT (VisionRT, UK) for DIBH radiotherapy and whose surface image quality is degraded toward the end of treatment. To simulate the effects of skin darkening, surfaces from the first ten fractions of each patient are systematically degraded by 25–35%, 40–50% and 65–75% of the total area of the clinically used ROI-ipsilateral-chestwall. The degraded surfaces are registered to the reference surface in six degrees-of-freedom. To identify a robust ROI, three additional reference ROIs — ROI-chest+abdomen, ROI-bilateral-chest and ROI-extended-ipsilateral-chestwall are created and registered to the degraded surfaces. Differences in registration using these ROIs are compared to that using ROI-ipsilateral-chestwall. Results: For three patients, the deviations in the registrations to ROI-ipsilateral-chestwall are > 2.0, 3.1 and 7.9mm on average for 25–35%, 40–50% and 65–75% degraded surfaces, respectively. Rotational deviations reach 11.1° in pitch. For the last patient, registration is consistent to within 2.6mm even on the 65–75% degraded surfaces, possibly because the surface topography has more distinct features. For ROI-bilateral-chest and ROI-extended-ipsilateral-chest registrations deviate in a similar pattern. However, registration on ROI-chest+abdomen is robust to deteriorating image qualities to within 4.2mm for all four patients. Conclusion: Registration deviations using ROI-ipsilateral-chestwall can reach 9.8mm on the 40–50% degraded surfaces. Caution is required when using AlignRT for patients

  8. INFLUENCE OF POSTURE ON THE RELATION BETWEEN SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAM AMPLITUDE AND BACK MUSCLE MOMENT - CONSEQUENCES FOR THE USE OF SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAM TO MEASURE BACK LOAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOUTON, LJ; HOF, AL; DEJONGH, HJ; EISMA, WH

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of posture on the relation between EMG amplitude and moment of the back muscles in different subjects, in order to gain a better insight into the possibilities of EMG as a means of measuring individual back load. Eight healthy subjects participated in

  9. Self-lubricating layer consist of polytetrafluoroethylene micropowders and fluorocarbon acrylate resin formation on surface of geotextile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiaoyun; He, Lifen; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Mingqiao

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the self-lubricating layer consist of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowders and two types fluorocarbon acrylate resin were formed on the surface of geotextile, to improves the evenness and decreases the frictional angle value of geotextile surface. The surface and cross section morphology of geotextile were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was determined that composite resin emulsion was evenly coated on the surface of geotextile, to form a even and complete self-lubricating layer, and it was strongly combined with the geotextile due to formation of the transition layer. The tensile fracture stress and strain values of samples were evaluated by mechanical properties measurement, the tensile fracture stress of the untreated and treated sample was approximately 5329 kN/m and 5452 kN/m while the elongation at the yield of them was approximately 85% to 83.9%, respectively. In addition, the frictional angle values of municipal solid waste (MSW)/geotextile interface was measured by the tilt table test, the values of untreated sample was 28.1° and 24.2° under the dry and moist condition, the values of treated sample was 16.2° and 9.8°, respectively.

  10. Differential effects of type of keyboard playing task and tempo on surface EMG amplitudes of forearm muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ju eChong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing interest in keyboard playing as a strategy for repetitive finger exercises in fine motor skill development and hand rehabilitation, comparative analysis of task-specific finger movements relevant to keyboard playing has been less extensive. This study examined whether there were differences in surface EMG activity levels of forearm muscles associated with different keyboard playing tasks. Results demonstrated higher muscle activity with sequential keyboard playing in a random pattern compared to individuated playing or sequential playing in a successive pattern. Also, the speed of finger movements was found as a factor that affect muscle activity levels, demonstrating that faster tempo elicited significantly greater muscle activity than self-paced tempo. The results inform our understanding of the type of finger movements involved in different types of keyboard playing at different tempi so as to consider the efficacy and fatigue level of keyboard playing as an intervention for amateur pianists or individuals with impaired fine motor skills.

  11. Differential effects of type of keyboard playing task and tempo on surface EMG amplitudes of forearm muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kim, Soo Ji; Yoo, Ga Eul

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in keyboard playing as a strategy for repetitive finger exercises in fine motor skill development and hand rehabilitation, comparative analysis of task-specific finger movements relevant to keyboard playing has been less extensive. This study examined, whether there were differences in surface EMG activity levels of forearm muscles associated with different keyboard playing tasks. Results demonstrated higher muscle activity with sequential keyboard playing in a random pattern compared to individuated playing or sequential playing in a successive pattern. Also, the speed of finger movements was found as a factor that affect muscle activity levels, demonstrating that faster tempo elicited significantly greater muscle activity than self-paced tempo. The results inform our understanding of the type of finger movements involved in different types of keyboard playing at different tempi. This helps to consider the efficacy and fatigue level of keyboard playing tasks when being used as an intervention for amateur pianists or individuals with impaired fine motor skills. PMID:26388798

  12. Significant Variation of Post-critical SsPmp Amplitude as a Result of Variation in Near-surface Velocity: Observations from the Yellowknife Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, G.; Liu, T.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years Virtual Deep Seismic Sounding (VDSS) emerged as a novel method to image the Moho, which uses the post-critical reflection P waves at the Moho generated by teleseismic S waves at the free surface near the receivers (SsPmp). However, observed SsPmp sometimes have significantly lower amplitude than predicted, raising doubts among the seismic community on the theoretical basis of the method. With over two decades of continuous digital broadband records and major subduction zones in the range of 30-50 degrees, the Yellowknife Array in northern Canada provides a rich opportunity for observation of post-critical SsPmp. We analyze S wave coda of events with epicenter distances of 30-50°, and pay special attention to earthquakes in a narrow azimuth range that ­­­encompasses the Kamchatka Peninsula. Among 21 events with strong direct S energy on the radial components, we observe significant variation of SsPmp energy. After associating the SsPmp energy with the virtual source location of each event, we observe a general trend of decreasing SsPmp energy from NE to SW. As the trend coincides with the transition from exposed basement of the Slave Craton to Paleozoic platform covered by Phanerozoic sediment, we interpret the decreasing SsPmp energy as a result of lower S velocity at the virtual sources, which reduces S-to-P reflection coefficients. We plan to include more events from the Aleutian Islands, the virtual sources of which are primarily located in the Paleozoic platform. This will allow us to further investigate the relationship between SsPmp amplitude and near-surface velocity.

  13. Characterization of deep nanoscale surface trenches with AFM using thin carbon nanotube probes in amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of deep surface trenches with atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents significant challenges due to the sharp step edges that disturb the instrument and prevent it from faithfully reproducing the sample topography. Previous authors have developed AFM methodologies to successfully characterize semiconductor surface trenches with dimensions on the order of tens of nanometers. However, the study of imaging fidelity for features with dimensions smaller than 10 nm has not yet received sufficient attention. Such a study is necessary because small features in some cases lead to apparently high-quality images that are distorted due to tip and sample mechanical deformation. This paper presents multi-scale simulations, illustrating common artifacts affecting images of nanoscale trenches taken with fine carbon nanotube probes within amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation AFM (AM-AFM and FFM-AFM, respectively). It also describes a methodology combining FFM-AFM with a step-in/step-out algorithm analogous to that developed by other groups for larger trenches, which can eliminate the observed artifacts. Finally, an overview of the AFM simulation methods is provided. These methods, based on atomistic and continuum simulation, have been previously used to study a variety of samples including silicon surfaces, carbon nanotubes and biomolecules

  14. Determination of backward pion nucleon scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietarinen, E.

    1978-04-01

    Backward C(sup(+-))πN amplitudes are determined from πN→Nπ and NantiN→2π differential cross sections in such a way that they are consistent with the analyticity properties and information of the unphysical ππ→NantiN amplitudes. Combining the result with forward C(sup(+-)) amplitudes positive and negative parity resonances are extracted. An error analysis of the amplitudes is performed. (author)

  15. Petrologically-constrained thermo-chemical modelling of cratonic upper mantle consistent with elevation, geoid, surface heat flow, seismic surface waves and MT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. G.; Afonso, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth comprises a single physio-chemical system that we interrogate from its surface and/or from space making observations related to various physical and chemical parameters. A change in one of those parameters affects many of the others; for example a change in velocity is almost always indicative of a concomitant change in density, which results in changes to elevation, gravity and geoid observations. Similarly, a change in oxide chemistry affects almost all physical parameters to a greater or lesser extent. We have now developed sophisticated tools to model/invert data in our individual disciplines to such an extent that we are obtaining high resolution, robust models from our datasets. However, in the vast majority of cases the different datasets are modelled/inverted independently of each other, and often even without considering other data in a qualitative sense. The LitMod framework of Afonso and colleagues presents integrated inversion of geoscientific data to yield thermo-chemical models that are petrologically consistent and constrained. Input data can comprise any combination of elevation, geoid, surface heat flow, seismic surface wave (Rayleigh and Love) data and receiver function data, and MT data. The basis of LitMod is characterization of the upper mantle in terms of five oxides in the CFMAS system and a thermal structure that is conductive to the LAB and convective along the adiabat below the LAB to the 410 km discontinuity. Candidate solutions are chosen from prior distributions of the oxides. For the crust, candidate solutions are chosen from distributions of crustal layering, velocity and density parameters. Those candidate solutions that fit the data within prescribed error limits are kept, and are used to establish broad posterior distributions from which new candidate solutions are chosen. Examples will be shown of application of this approach fitting data from the Kaapvaal Craton in South Africa and the Rae Craton in northern Canada. I

  16. Self-consistent electronic structure and segregation profiles of the Cu-Ni (001) random-alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I. A.; Kats, D. Ya.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and segregation profiles of the (001) surface of random Cu-Ni alloys with varying bulk concentrations by means of the coherent potential approximation and the linear muffin-tin-orbitals method. Exchange and correlation were included within the local......-density approximation. Temperature effects were accounted for by means of the cluster-variation method and, for comparison, by mean-field theory. The necessary interaction parameters were calculated by the Connolly-Williams method generalized to the case of a surface of a random alloy. We find the segregation profiles...

  17. Self-consistent meta-generalized gradient approximation study of adsorption of aromatic molecules on noble metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Madsen, Georg Kent Hellerup; Hammer, Bjørk

    2011-01-01

    aromatic molecules considered. The adsorption of pentacene is studied on Au, Ag, and Cu surfaces. In agreement with experiment, the adsorption energies are found to increase with decreasing nobleness, but the dependency is underestimated. We point out how the kinetic energy density can discriminate between...

  18. Bioinspired synthesis of a soft-nanofilament-based coating consisting of polysilsesquioxanes/polyamine and its divergent surface control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Jun; Kimitsuka, Nobuo; Jin, Ren-Hua

    2013-04-24

    The synthesis of polysilsesquioxanes coating with controllable one-dimensional nanostructure on substrates remains a major long-term challenge by conventional solution-phase method. The hydrolytic polycondensation of organosilanes in solution normally produces a mixture of incomplete cages, ladderlike, and network structures, resulting in the poor control of the formation of specific nanostructure. This paper describes a simple aqueous process to synthesize nanofilament-based coatings of polysilsesquioxanes possessing various organo-functional groups (for example, thiol, methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and epoxy). We utilized a self-assembled nanostructured polyamine layer as a biomimetically catalytic scaffold/template to direct the formation of one-dimensional nanofilament of polysilsesquioxanes by temporally and spatially controlled hydrolytic polycondensation of organosilane. The surface nanostructure and morphology of polysilsesquioxane coating could be modulated by changing hydrolysis and condensation reaction conditions, and the orientation of nanofilaments of polysilsesquioxanes on substrates could be controlled by simply adjusting the self-assembly conditions of polyamine layer. The nanostructure and polyamine@polysilsesquioxane hybrid composition of nanofilament-based coatings were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The template role of nanostructured polyamine layer for the formation of polysilsesquioxane nanofilament was confirmed by combining thin film X-ray diffraction (XRD) and XPS measurements. Moreover, these nanotextured coatings with various organo-functional groups could be changed into superhydrophobic surfaces after surface modification with fluorocarbon molecule.

  19. Effects of Surface Composition on the Aerosolisation and Dissolution of Inhaled Antibiotic Combination Powders Consisting of Colistin and Rifampicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhou, Qi Tony; Sun, Si-Ping

    2016-01-01

    is hygroscopic and rifampicin is hydrophobic, moisture absorption of combination formulations was significantly lower than the pure colistin formulation in the dynamic vapour sorption results. To investigate the dissolution characteristics, four dissolution test methods (diffusion Franz cell, modified Franz cell......, flow-through and beaker methods) were employed and compared. The modified Franz cell method was selected to test the dissolution behaviour of aerosolised powder formulations to eliminate the effect of membrane on dissolution. The results showed that surface enrichment of hydrophobic rifampicin neither...

  20. Effective signaling of surface boundaries by L-vertices reflect the consistency of their contrast in natural images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel, Edward A; Biederman, Irving; Subramaniam, Suresh; Greene, Michelle R

    2016-07-01

    An L-vertex, the point at which two contours coterminate, provides highly reliable evidence that a surface terminates at that vertex, thus providing the strongest constraint on the extraction of shape from images (Guzman, 1968). Such vertices are pervasive in our visual world but the importance of a statistical regularity about them has been underappreciated: The contours defining the vertex are (almost) always of the same direction of contrast with respect to the background (i.e., both darker or both lighter). Here we show that when the two contours are of different directions of contrast, the capacity of the L-vertex to signal the termination of a surface, as reflected in object recognition, is markedly reduced. Although image statistics have been implicated in determining the connectivity in the earliest cortical visual stage (V1) and in grouping during visual search, this finding provides evidence that such statistics are involved in later stages where object representations are derived from two-dimensional images.

  1. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  2. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)

  3. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-06-04

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  4. Self-consistent Green’s-function technique for bulk and surface impurity calculations: Surface core-level shifts by complete screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, M.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Johansson, B.

    1994-01-01

    of the frozen-core and atomic-sphere approximation but, in addition, includes the dipole contribution to the intersphere potential. Within the concept of complete screening, we identify the surface core-level binding-energy shift with the surface segregation energy of a core-ionized atom and use the Green......'s-function impurity technique in a comprehensive study of the surface core-level shifts (SCLS) of the 4d and 5d transition metals. In those cases, where observed data refer to single crystals, we obtain good agreement with experiment, whereas the calculations typically underestimate the measured shift obtained from...

  5. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  6. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  8. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  9. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the ... Deep and intermediate water waves are dispersive as the velocity of these depends on wavelength. This is not the ..... generation processes, the finite amplitude wave theories are very ...

  10. Real topological string amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, K.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, 34151 (Italy); Piazzalunga, N. [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794-3636 (United States); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy); Tanzini, A. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Sez. di Trieste,via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G{sub χ}, at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g{sup ′}=−χ+1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F{sub g}.

  11. First-order exchange coefficient coupling for simulating surface water-groundwater interactions: Parameter sensitivity and consistency with a physics-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B.A.; Mirus, B.B.; Heppner, C.S.; VanderKwaak, J.E.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models capable of simulating fully-coupled surface water and groundwater flow are increasingly used to examine problems in the hydrologic sciences. Several techniques are currently available to couple the surface and subsurface; the two most frequently employed approaches are first-order exchange coefficients (a.k.a., the surface conductance method) and enforced continuity of pressure and flux at the surface-subsurface boundary condition. The effort reported here examines the parameter sensitivity of simulated hydrologic response for the first-order exchange coefficients at a well-characterized field site using the fully coupled Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM). This investigation demonstrates that the first-order exchange coefficients can be selected such that the simulated hydrologic response is insensitive to the parameter choice, while simulation time is considerably reduced. Alternatively, the ability to choose a first-order exchange coefficient that intentionally decouples the surface and subsurface facilitates concept-development simulations to examine real-world situations where the surface-subsurface exchange is impaired. While the parameters comprising the first-order exchange coefficient cannot be directly estimated or measured, the insensitivity of the simulated flow system to these parameters (when chosen appropriately) combined with the ability to mimic actual physical processes suggests that the first-order exchange coefficient approach can be consistent with a physics-based framework. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Using self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces to calculate size distributions of neutral and charged clusters for the sulfuric acid-water binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Toon, O. B.

    2012-12-01

    We construct tables of reaction enthalpies and entropies for the association reactions involving sulfuric acid vapor, water vapor, and the bisulfate ion. These tables are created from experimental measurements and quantum chemical calculations for molecular clusters and a classical thermodynamic model for larger clusters. These initial tables are not thermodynamically consistent. For example, the Gibbs free energy of associating a cluster consisting of one acid molecule and two water molecules depends on the order in which the cluster was assembled: add two waters and then the acid or add an acid and a water and then the second water. We adjust the values within the tables using the method of Lagrange multipliers to minimize the adjustments and produce self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces for the neutral clusters and the charged clusters. With the self-consistent Gibbs free energy surfaces, we calculate size distributions of neutral and charged clusters for a variety of atmospheric conditions. Depending on the conditions, nucleation can be dominated by growth along the neutral channel or growth along the ion channel followed by ion-ion recombination.

  13. The effect of glycerin solution density and viscosity on vibration amplitude of oblique different piezoelectric MC near the surface in 3D modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, A. H.; Abdi, M.; Korayem, M. H.

    2018-06-01

    The surface topography in nanoscale is one of the most important applications of AFM. The analysis of piezoelectric microcantilevers vibration behavior is essential to improve the AFM performance. To this end, one of the appropriate methods to simulate the dynamic behavior of microcantilever (MC) is a numerical solution with FEM in the 3D modeling using COMSOL software. The present study aims to simulate different geometries of the four-layered AFM piezoelectric MCs in 2D and 3D modeling in a liquid medium using COMSOL software. The 3D simulation was done in a spherical container using FSI domain in COMSOL. In 2D modeling by applying Hamilton's Principle based on Euler-Bernoulli Beam theory, the governing motion equation was derived and discretized with FEM. In this mode, the hydrodynamic force was assumed with a string of spheres. The effect of this force along with the squeezed-film force was considered on MC equations. The effect of fluid density and viscosity on the MC vibrations that immersed in different glycerin solutions was investigated in 2D and 3D modes and the results were compared with the experimental results. The frequencies and time responses of MC close to the surface were obtained considering tip-sample forces. The surface topography of MCs different geometries were compared in the liquid medium and the comparison was done in both tapping and non-contact mode. Various types of surface roughness were considered in the topography for MC different geometries. Also, the effect of geometric dimensions on the surface topography was investigated. In liquid medium, MC is installed at an oblique position to avoid damaging the MC due to the squeezed-film force in the vicinity of MC surface. Finally, the effect of MC's angle on surface topography and time response of the system was investigated.

  14. Amplitude and Ascoli analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the partial wave analysis of two, three and four meson systems. The difference between the two approaches, referred to as amplitude and Ascoli analysis is discussed. Some of the results obtained with these methods are shown. (B.R.H.)

  15. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  16. Time-amplitude converter; Convertisseur temps-amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banner, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    It is normal in high energy physics to measure the time of flight of a particle in order to determine its mass. This can be done by the method which consists in transforming the time measurement into an analysis of amplitude, which is easier; a time-amplitude converter has therefore been built for this purpose. The apparatus here described uses a double grid control tube 6 BN 6 whose resolution time, as measured with a pulse generator, is 5 x 10{sup -11} s. The analysis of the response of a particle counter, made up of a scintillator and a photomultiplier, indicates that a time of resolution of 5 x 10{sup -10} s. can be obtained. A time of this order of magnitude is obtained experimentally with the converter. This converter has been used in the study of the time of flight of particles in a secondary beam of the accelerator Saturne. It has thus been possible to measure the energy spectrum of {pi}-mesons, of protons, and of deutons emitted from a polyethylene target bombarded by 1,4 and 2 GeV protons. (author) [French] Pour determiner la masse d'une particule, il est courant, en physique des hautes energies, de mesurer le temps de vol de cette particule. Cela peut etre fait par la methode qui consiste a transformer la mesure d'un temps en une analyse d'amplitude, plus aisee; aussi a-t-on, a cet effet, cree un convertisseur temps-amplitude. L'appareillage decrit dans cet article utilise un tube a double grille de commande 6 BN 6 dont le temps de resolution mesure avec un generateur d'impulsion est de 5.10{sup -11} s. L'analyse de la reponse d'un compteur de particules, constitue par un scintillateur et un photomultiplicateur, indique qu'un temps de resolution de 5.10{sup -10} s peut etre obtenu. Un temps de cet ordre est atteint experimentalement avec le convertisseur. Ce convertisseur a servi a l'etude du temps de vol des particules dans un faisceau secondaire de l'accelerateur Saturne. On a mesure ainsi le spectre d'energie des mesons {pi}, des protons, des deutons

  17. Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, R.; Brommel, D.; Donnellan, M.A.; Flynn, J.M.; Juttner, A.; de Lima, H.Pedroso; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Samways, B.

    2010-01-01

    We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.

  18. Scalar-field amplitudes in black-hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, A.N.St.J.; D'Eath, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the quantum-mechanical decay of a Schwarzschild-like black hole into almost-flat space and weak radiation at a very late time. That is, we are concerned with evaluating quantum amplitudes (not just probabilities) for transitions from initial to final states. In this quantum description, no information is lost because of the black hole. The Lagrangian is taken, in the first instance, to consist of the simplest locally supersymmetric generalization of Einstein gravity and a massless scalar field. The quantum amplitude to go from given initial to final bosonic data in a slightly complexified time-interval T=τexp(-iθ) at infinity may be approximated by the form constxexp(-I), where I is the (complex) Euclidean action of the classical solution filling in between the boundary data. Additionally, in a pure supergravity theory, the amplitude constxexp(-I) is exact. Suppose that Dirichlet boundary data for gravity and the scalar field are posed on an initial spacelike hypersurface extending to spatial infinity, just prior to collapse, and on a corresponding final spacelike surface, sufficiently far to the future of the initial surface to catch all the Hawking radiation. Only in an averaged sense will this radiation have an approximately spherically-symmetric distribution. If the time-interval T had been taken to be exactly real, then the resulting 'hyperbolic Dirichlet boundary-value problem' would, as is well known, not be well posed. Provided instead ('Euclidean strategy') that one takes T complex, as above (0<θ=<π/2), one expects that the field equations become strongly elliptic, and that there exists a unique solution to the classical boundary-value problem. Within this context, by expanding the bosonic part of the action to quadratic order in perturbations about the classical solution, one obtains the quantum amplitude for weak-field final configurations, up to normalization. Such amplitudes are here calculated for weak final scalar fields

  19. Physico-chemical behaviour of a metal/polymer contact subject to a low amplitude friction in a chlorinated medium. Effect of ionitriding and ion implantation surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbe, L.M.

    1993-10-01

    The fretting-corrosion behaviour of two tribological couples (TA6V/PMMA and 316L/PMMA) had been studied in order to better understand the degradation mechanisms observed on pivot prosthesis sealed in bones. Pressure appears to have a major role; at high contact pressure, the PMMA wear is the main degradation mechanism with PMMA debris acting as a metal surface protecting agent; at low contact pressure, both material deterioration is involved, and titanium has a corrosion-dominated degradation. An optimal resistance to fretting is achieved when TA6V is coated with Ti N (ion implantation) and Ti N, Ti 2 N (ionitriding). When nitriding, processing temperature appears as a critical factor to ensure thickness and homogeneity of the nitride coatings. 181 p., 106 figs., 110 refs

  20. Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results.

  1. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradera, J.; Cuesta-López, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM ® CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation

  2. Nucleation, growth and transport modelling of helium bubbles under nuclear irradiation in lead–lithium with the self-consistent nucleation theory and surface tension corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The work presented in this manuscript provides a reliable computational tool to quantify the He complex phenomena in a HCLL. • A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) is exposed. It includes radiation induced nucleation modelling and surface tension corrections. • Results informed reinforce the necessity of conducting experiments to determine nucleation conditions and bubble transport parameters in LM breeders. • Our findings and model provide a good qualitative insight into the helium nucleation phenomenon in LM systems for fusion technology and can be used to identify key system parameters. -- Abstract: Helium (He) nucleation in liquid metal breeding blankets of a DT fusion reactor may have a significant impact regarding system design, safety and operation. Large He production rates are expected due to tritium (T) fuel self-sufficiency requirement, as both, He and T, are produced at the same rate. Low He solubility, local high concentrations, radiation damage and fluid discontinuities, among other phenomena, may yield the necessary conditions for He nucleation. Hence, He nucleation may have a significant impact on T inventory and may lower the T breeding ratio. A model based on the self-consistent nucleation theory (SCT) with a surface tension curvature correction model has been implemented in OpenFOAM{sup ®} CFD code. A modification through a single parameter of the necessary nucleation condition is proposed in order to take into account all the nucleation triggering phenomena, specially radiation induced nucleation. Moreover, the kinetic growth model has been adapted so as to allow for the transition from a critical cluster to a macroscopic bubble with a diffusion growth process. Limitations and capabilities of the models are shown by means of zero-dimensional simulations and sensitivity analyses to key parameters under HCLL breeding unit conditions. Results provide a good qualitative insight into the helium

  3. Modal Bin Hybrid Model: A surface area consistent, triple-moment sectional method for use in process-oriented modeling of atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Mizuo; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2013-09-01

    triple-moment sectional (TMS) aerosol dynamics model, Modal Bin Hybrid Model (MBHM), has been developed. In addition to number and mass (volume), surface area is predicted (and preserved), which is important for aerosol processes and properties such as gas-to-particle mass transfer, heterogeneous reaction, and light extinction cross section. The performance of MBHM was evaluated against double-moment sectional (DMS) models with coarse (BIN4) to very fine (BIN256) size resolutions for simulating evolution of particles under simultaneously occurring nucleation, condensation, and coagulation processes (BINx resolution uses x sections to cover the 1 nm to 1 µm size range). Because MBHM gives a physically consistent form of the intrasectional distributions, errors and biases of MBHM at BIN4-8 resolution were almost equivalent to those of DMS at BIN16-32 resolution for various important variables such as the moments Mk (k: 0, 2, 3), dMk/dt, and the number and volume of particles larger than a certain diameter. Another important feature of MBHM is that only a single bin is adequate to simulate full aerosol dynamics for particles whose size distribution can be approximated by a single lognormal mode. This flexibility is useful for process-oriented (multicategory and/or mixing state) modeling: Primary aerosols whose size parameters would not differ substantially in time and space can be expressed by a single or a small number of modes, whereas secondary aerosols whose size changes drastically from 1 to several hundred nanometers can be expressed by a number of modes. Added dimensions can be applied to MBHM to represent mixing state or photochemical age for aerosol mixing state studies.

  4. Modeling polymer-induced interactions between two grafted surfaces: comparison between interfacial statistical associating fluid theory and self-consistent field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shekhar; Ginzburg, Valeriy V; Jog, Prasanna; Weinhold, Jeffrey; Srivastava, Rakesh; Chapman, Walter G

    2009-07-28

    The interaction between two polymer grafted surfaces is important in many applications, such as nanocomposites, colloid stabilization, and polymer alloys. In our previous work [Jain et al., J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154910 (2008)], we showed that interfacial statistical associating fluid density theory (iSAFT) successfully calculates the structure of grafted polymer chains in the absence/presence of a free polymer. In the current work, we have applied this density functional theory to calculate the force of interaction between two such grafted monolayers in implicit good solvent conditions. In particular, we have considered the case where the segment sizes of the free (sigma(f)) and grafted (sigma(g)) polymers are different. The interactions between the two monolayers in the absence of the free polymer are always repulsive. However, in the presence of the free polymer, the force either can be purely repulsive or can have an attractive minimum depending upon the relative chain lengths of the free (N(f)) and grafted polymers (N(g)). The attractive minimum is observed only when the ratio alpha = N(f)/N(g) is greater than a critical value. We find that these critical values of alpha satisfy the following scaling relation: rho(g) square root(N(g)) beta(3) proportional to alpha(-lambda), where beta = sigma(f)/sigma(g) and lambda is the scaling exponent. For beta = 1 or the same segment sizes of the free and grafted polymers, this scaling relation is in agreement with those from previous theoretical studies using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). Detailed comparisons between iSAFT and SCFT are made for the structures of the monolayers and their forces of interaction. These comparisons lead to interesting implications for the modeling of nanocomposite thermodynamics.

  5. Amplitude modulation detection with concurrent frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Naveen K

    2016-09-01

    Human speech consists of concomitant temporal modulations in amplitude and frequency that are crucial for speech perception. In this study, amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for 550 and 5000 Hz carriers with and without concurrent frequency modulation (FM), at AM rates crucial for speech perception. Results indicate that adding 40 Hz FM interferes with AM detection, more so for 5000 Hz carrier and for frequency deviations exceeding the critical bandwidth of the carrier frequency. These findings suggest that future cochlear implant processors, encoding speech fine-structures may consider limiting the FM to narrow bandwidth and to low frequencies.

  6. Relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the invariant diagram technique which arises at the formulation of the fueld theory on the light front the question about conditions at which the relativistic amplitudes may be expressed through the wave functions is investigated. The amplitudes obtained depend on four-vector ω, determining the light front surface. The way is shown to find such values of the four-vector ω, at which the contribution of diagrams not expressed through wave functions is minimal. The investigation carried out is equivalent to the study of the dependence of amplitudes of the old-fashioned perturbation theory in the in the infinite momentum frame on direction of the infinite momentum

  7. A framework for consistent estimation of leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and surface albedo from MODIS time-series data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhiqiang; Liang, Shunlin; Wang, Jindi

    2015-01-01

    -series MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data. If the reflectance data showed snow-free areas, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) technique was used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) for a two-layer canopy reflectance model (ACRM) by combining predictions from a phenology...... model and the MODIS surface reflectance data. The estimated LAI values were then input into the ACRM to calculate the surface albedo and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR). For snow-covered areas, the surface albedo was calculated as the underlying vegetation canopy...... albedo plus the weighted distance between the underlying vegetation canopy albedo and the albedo over deep snow. The LAI/FAPAR and surface albedo values estimated using this framework were compared with MODIS collection 5 eight-day 1-km LAI/FAPAR products (MOD15A2) and 500-m surface albedo product (MCD43...

  8. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  9. Modeling Encapsulated Microbubble Dynamics at High Pressure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Jan F.; Bose, Sanjeeb; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles are commonly used in ultrasound contrast imaging and are of growing interest in therapeutic applications where local cavitation creates temporary perforations in cell membranes allowing for enhanced drug delivery. Clinically used microbubbles are encapsulated by a shell commonly consisting of protein, polymer, or phospholipid; the response of these bubbles to externally imposed ultrasound waves is sensitive to the compressibility of the encapsulating shell. Existing models approximate the shell compressibility via an effective surface tension (Marmottant et al. 2005). We present simulations of microbubbles subjected to high amplitude ultrasound waves (on the order of 106 Pa) and compare the results with the experimental measurements of Helfield et al. (2016). Analysis of critical points (corresponding to maximum and minimum expansion) in the governing Rayleigh-Plesset equation is used to make estimates of the parameters used to characterize the effective surface tension of the encapsulating shell. Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  10. Consistency of land surface reflectance data: presentation of a new tool and case study with Formosat-2, SPOT-4 and Landsat-5/7/8 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, M.; Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Huc, M.; Hagolle, O.; Masek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Maintaining consistent dataset of Surface Reflectance (SR) data derived from the large panel of in-orbit sensors is an important challenge to ensure long term analysis of earth observation data. Continuous validation of such SR products through comparison with a reference dataset is thus an important challenge. Validating with in situ or airborne SR data is not easy since the sensors rarely match completely the same spectral, spatial and directional characteristics of the satellite measurement. Inter-comparison between satellites sensors data appears as a valuable tool to maintain a long term consistency of the data. However, satellite data are acquired at various times of the day (i.e., variation of the atmosphere content) and within a relative large range of geometry (view and sun angles). Also, even if band-to-band spectral characteristics of optical sensors are closed, they rarely have identical spectral responses. As the results, direct comparisons without consideration of these differences are poorly suitable. In this study, we suggest a new systematic method to assess land optical SR data from high to medium resolution sensors. We used MODIS SR products (MO/YD09CMG) which benefit from a long term calibration/validation process, to assess SR from 3 sensors data: Formosat-2 (280 scenes 24x24km - 5 sites), SPOT-4 (62 scenes 120x60km - 1 site) and Landsat-5/7 (104 180x180km scenes - 50 sites). The main issue concerns the difference in term of geometry acquisition between MODIS and compared sensors data. We used the VJB model (Vermote et al. 2009, TGRS) to correct MODIS SR from BRDF effects and to simulate SR at the corresponding geometry (view and sun angles) of each pixel of the compared sensor data. The comparison is done at the CMG spatial resolution (0.05°) which ensures a constant field-of-view and negligible geometrical errors. Figure 1 displays the summary of the NIR results through APU graphs where metrics A, P and U stands for Accuracy, Precision and

  11. Hidden beauty in multiloop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    Planar L-loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are believed to possess the remarkable property of satisfying iteration relations in L. We propose a simple new method for studying iteration relations for four-particle amplitudes which involves the use of certain linear differential operators and eliminates the need to fully evaluate any loop integrals. We carry out this procedure in explicit detail for the two-loop amplitude and prove that this method can be applied to any multiloop integral, allowing a conjectured iteration relation for any given amplitude to be tested up to polynomials in logarithms

  12. Two-Loop Splitting Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  13. Two-loop splitting amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  14. A significant reduction of ice adhesion on nanostructured surfaces that consist of an array of single-walled carbon nanotubes: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Luyao; Huang, Zhaoyuan; Priezjev, Nikolai V.; Chen, Shaoqiang; Luo, Kai; Hu, Haibao

    2018-04-01

    It is well recognized that excessive ice accumulation at low-temperature conditions can cause significant damage to civil infrastructure. The passive anti-icing surfaces provide a promising solution to suppress ice nucleation and enhance ice removal. However, despite extensive efforts, it remains a challenge to design anti-icing surfaces with low ice adhesion. Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that surfaces with single-walled carbon nanotube array (CNTA) significantly reduce ice adhesion due to the extremely low solid areal fraction. It was found that the CNTA surface exhibits up to a 45% decrease in the ice adhesion strength in comparison with the atomically smooth graphene surface. The details of the ice detachment from the CNTA surface were examined for different water-carbon interaction energies and temperatures of the ice cube. Remarkably, the results of MD simulations demonstrate that the ice detaching strength depends linearly on the ratio of the ice-surface interaction energy and the ice temperature. These results open the possibility for designing novel robust surfaces with low ice adhesion for passive anti-icing applications.

  15. Amplitude Modulation of Pulsation Modes in Delta Scuti Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dominic M.

    2017-10-01

    The pulsations in δ Sct stars are excited by a heat engine driving mechanism caused by increased opacity in their surface layers, and have pulsation periods of order a few hours. Space based observations in the last decade have revealed a diverse range of pulsational behaviour in these stars, which is investigated using an ensemble of 983 δ Sct stars observed continuously for 4 yr by the Kepler Space Telescope. A statistical search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes is carried out and it is shown that 61.3 per cent of the 983 δ Sct stars exhibit significant amplitude modulation in at least a single pulsation mode, and that this is uncorrelated with effective temperature and surface gravity. Hence, the majority of δ Sct stars exhibit amplitude modulation, with time-scales of years and longer demonstrated to be significant in these stars both observationally and theoretically. An archetypal example of amplitude modulation in a δ Sct star is KIC 7106205, which contains only a single pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude whilst all other pulsation modes stay constant in amplitude and phase throughout the 4-yr Kepler data set. Therefore, the visible pulsational energy budget in this star, and many others, is not conserved over 4 yr. Models of beating of close-frequency pulsation modes are used to identify δ Sct stars with frequencies that lie closer than 0.001 d^{-1}, which are barely resolved using 4 yr of Kepler observations, and maintain their independent identities over 4 yr. Mode coupling models are used to quantify the strength of coupling and distinguish between non-linearity in the form of combination frequencies and non-linearity in the form of resonant mode coupling for families of pulsation modes in several stars. The changes in stellar structure caused by stellar evolution are investigated for two high amplitude δ Sct (HADS) stars in the Kepler data set, revealing a positive quadratic change in phase for the fundamental and

  16. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  17. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  18. Multiscalar production amplitudes beyond threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, E N; Kleiss, R H

    1993-01-01

    We present exact tree-order amplitudes for $H^* \\to n~H$, for final states containing one or two particles with non-zero three-momentum, for various interaction potentials. We show that there are potentials leading to tree amplitudes that satisfy unitarity, not only at threshold but also in the above kinematical configurations and probably beyond. As a by-product, we also calculate $2\\to n$ tree amplitudes at threshold and show that for the unbroken $\\phi^4$ theory they vanish for $n>4~$, for the Standard Model Higgs they vanish for $n\\ge 3~$ and for a model potential, respecting tree-order unitarity, for $n$ even and $n>4~$. Finally, we calculate the imaginary part of the one-loop $1\\to n$ amplitude in both symmetric and spontaneously broken $\\phi^4$ theory.

  19. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  20. Amplitude damping of vortex modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...

  1. Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables

  2. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  3. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  4. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu

    2015-07-15

    Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  5. Cluster polylogarithms for scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, John; Paulos, Miguel F; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the cluster structure of two-loop scattering amplitudes in N=4 Yang-Mills theory we define cluster polylogarithm functions. We find that all such functions of weight four are made up of a single simple building block associated with the A 2 cluster algebra. Adding the requirement of locality on generalized Stasheff polytopes, we find that these A 2 building blocks arrange themselves to form a unique function associated with the A 3 cluster algebra. This A 3 function manifests all of the cluster algebraic structure of the two-loop n-particle MHV amplitudes for all n, and we use it to provide an explicit representation for the most complicated part of the n = 7 amplitude as an example. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (paper)

  6. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic characterization of immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cell lines: consistent loss of chromosome 13 and amplification of chromosome 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuesheng; Zhang, Hao; Tsao, Sai Wah; Jin, Charlotte; Lv, Mei; Strömbeck, Bodil; Wiegant, Joop; Wan, Thomas Shek Kong; Yuen, Po Wing; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the genetic events involved in immortalization of ovarian epithelial cells, which might be important steps in ovarian carcinogenesis. The genetic profiles of five human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines immortalized by retroviral transfection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 genes were thoroughly characterized by chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), at various passages pre- and post-crisis. In pre-crisis, most cells had simple, non-clonal karyotypic changes. Telomere association was the commonest aberration, suggesting that tolermase dysfunction might be an important genetic event leading to cellular crisis. After immortalization post-crisis, however, the karyotypic patterns were non-random. Loss of genetic materials was a characteristic feature. The commonest numerical aberrations were -13, -14, -16, -17, -18, and +5. Among them, loss of chromosome 13 was common change observed in all lines. The only recurrent structural aberration was homogeneously staining regions (hsr) observed in three lines. FISH and combined binary ratio labeling (COBRA)-FISH showed in two cases that the hsrs were derived from chromosome 20. Clonal evolution was observed in four of the lines. In one line, hsr was the only change shared by all subclones, suggesting that it might be a primary event in cell immortalization. The results of the present study suggested that loss of chromosome 13 and the amplification of chromosome 20 might be early genetic events involved in ovarian cell immortalization, and might be useful targets for the study of genomic aberrations in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  7. Topological amplitudes in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1993-07-01

    We show that certain type II string amplitudes at genus g are given by the topological partition F g discussed recently by Bershadsky, Cecotti, Ooguri and Vafa. These amplitudes give rise to a term in the four-dimensional effective action of the form Σ g F g W 2g , where W is the chiral superfield of N = 2 supergravitational multiplet. The holomorphic anomaly of F g is related to non-localities of the effective action due to the propagation of massless states. This result generalizes the holomorphic anomaly of the one loop case which is known to lead to non-harmonic gravitational couplings. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  8. N-loop string amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-06-01

    Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture

  9. Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2018-04-06

    We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.

  10. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  11. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are

  12. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2014-03-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  13. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  14. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  15. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1976-03-01

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations

  16. Distribution amplitudes of vector mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, V.M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Broemmel, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2007-11-15

    Results are presented for the lowest moment of the distribution amplitude for the K{sup *} vector meson. Both longitudinal and transverse moments are investigated. We use two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions, together with a non-perturbative renormalisation of the matrix element. (orig.)

  17. Excited-state potential-energy surfaces of metal-adsorbed organic molecules from linear expansion Δ-self-consistent field density-functional theory (ΔSCF-DFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Reinhard J; Reuter, Karsten

    2013-07-07

    Accurate and efficient simulation of excited state properties is an important and much aspired cornerstone in the study of adsorbate dynamics on metal surfaces. To this end, the recently proposed linear expansion Δ-self-consistent field method by Gavnholt et al. [Phys. Rev. B 78, 075441 (2008)] presents an efficient alternative to time consuming quasi-particle calculations. In this method, the standard Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory are solved with the constraint of a non-equilibrium occupation in a region of Hilbert-space resembling gas-phase orbitals of the adsorbate. In this work, we discuss the applicability of this method for the excited-state dynamics of metal-surface mounted organic adsorbates, specifically in the context of molecular switching. We present necessary advancements to allow for a consistent quality description of excited-state potential-energy surfaces (PESs), and illustrate the concept with the application to Azobenzene adsorbed on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces. We find that the explicit inclusion of substrate electronic states modifies the topologies of intra-molecular excited-state PESs of the molecule due to image charge and hybridization effects. While the molecule in gas phase shows a clear energetic separation of resonances that induce isomerization and backreaction, the surface-adsorbed molecule does not. The concomitant possibly simultaneous induction of both processes would lead to a significantly reduced switching efficiency of such a mechanism.

  18. Jump phenomena. [large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers jump phenomena composed of large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems caused by small amplitude disturbances. Physical problems where large jumps in the solution amplitude are important features of the response are described, including snap buckling of elastic shells, chemical reactions leading to combustion and explosion, and long-term climatic changes of the earth's atmosphere. A new method of rational functions was then developed which consists of representing the solutions of the jump problems as rational functions of the small disturbance parameter; this method can solve jump problems explicitly.

  19. Scruncher phase and amplitude control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHaven, R.A.; Morris, C.L.; Johnson, R.; Davis, J.; O'Donnell, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q load of 1 x 10 9 ) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited, VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance. (Author) 4 figs., ref

  20. SCRUNCHER phase and amplitude control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHaven, R.A.; Morris, C.L.; Johnson, R.; Davis, J.; O'Donnell, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The analog controller for phase and amplitude control of a 402.5 MHz super conducting cavity is described in this paper. The cavity is a single cell with niobium explosively bonded to a copper cavity. It is used as an energy compressor for pions at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The controller maintains cavity frequency to within 4 degrees in phase of the LAMPF beam frequency. Field amplitude is maintained to within 2 percent. This control is accomplished at critical coupling (Q loaded of 1 x 10 9 ) with the use of only a 30 watt rf amplifier for accelerating fields of 6 MV/m. The design includes the use of piezoelectric crystals for fast resonance control. Three types of control, self excited VCO, and a reference frequency driven, were tried on this cavity and we present a comparison of their performance

  1. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  2. Determination of the scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangal, A.D.; Kupsch, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem to determine the elastic scattering amplitude from the differential cross-section by the unitarity equation is reexamined. We prove that the solution is unique and can be determined by a convergent iteration if the parameter lambda=sin μ of Newton and Martin is bounded by lambda 2 approx.=0.86. The method is based on a fixed point theorem for holomorphic mappings in a complex Banach space. (orig.)

  3. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  4. Semiclassical approach to fidelity amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Mata, Ignacio; Vallejos, Raúl O; Wisniacki, Diego A

    2011-01-01

    The fidelity amplitude (FA) is a quantity of paramount importance in echo-type experiments. We use semiclassical theory to study the average FA for quantum chaotic systems under external perturbation. We explain analytically two extreme cases: the random dynamics limit - attained approximately by strongly chaotic systems - and the random perturbation limit, which shows a Lyapunov decay. Numerical simulations help us to bridge the gap between both the extreme cases. (paper)

  5. Laser beam complex amplitude measurement by phase diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Védrenne, Nicolas; Mugnier, Laurent M; Michau, Vincent; Velluet, Marie-Thérèse; Bierent, Rudolph

    2014-02-24

    The control of the optical quality of a laser beam requires a complex amplitude measurement able to deal with strong modulus variations and potentially highly perturbed wavefronts. The method proposed here consists in an extension of phase diversity to complex amplitude measurements that is effective for highly perturbed beams. Named camelot for Complex Amplitude MEasurement by a Likelihood Optimization Tool, it relies on the acquisition and processing of few images of the beam section taken along the optical path. The complex amplitude of the beam is retrieved from the images by the minimization of a Maximum a Posteriori error metric between the images and a model of the beam propagation. The analytical formalism of the method and its experimental validation are presented. The modulus of the beam is compared to a measurement of the beam profile, the phase of the beam is compared to a conventional phase diversity estimate. The precision of the experimental measurements is investigated by numerical simulations.

  6. The zerology of kaon-nucleon forward scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.

    1981-01-01

    It has been realized for a long time that zeros of the forward kaon-nucleon scattering amplitudes are useful in correlating different low and high-energy scattering parameters and in providing a consistency test of available data. The simplest possibility of exploring zeros is to evaluate the ordinary dispersion relations in the complex energy plane. The more natural way of bringing zeros of amplitudes into play is to consider either one of the more sophisticated forms of dispersion relations: i) phase dispersion relations, ii) inverse-amplitude dispersion relations, iii) logarithmic dispersion relations, or to apply the maximum modulus theorem and a factorization theorem. The author concentrates on the use of logarithmic dispersion relations because this approach seems to be the most convenient one for future extensions to nonforward scattering data analyses based on the zeros of the amplitude. (Auth.)

  7. Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C.; Amadeo, P.

    1995-06-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed

  8. Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.

    1987-08-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone Hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability, and closure of the super-Poincare algebra. The quartic contact interactions required in Type I and Type IIB superstring theories are constructed in detail. (orig.)

  9. Forward amplitude in pion deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.; Munguia, G.A.P.; Rosa, L.P.; Thome, Z.D.

    1979-06-01

    The data on total cross section for πd scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author) [pt

  10. Sewing Polyakov amplitudes. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S.; Clements, M.; DellaPietra, S.; DellaPietra, V.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing the correlation functions of a conformal field theory on a surface Σ from the correlation functions on a surface Σ' obtained from Σ by cutting along a closed curve. We show that under quite general conditions, the correlation functions on the cut surface can be 'sewn' by integrating over appropriate boundary values of the fields. (orig.)

  11. Examining the time dependence of DAMA's modulation amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Chris; Savage, Christopher; Sandick, Pearl; Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    If dark matter is composed of weakly interacting particles, Earth's orbital motion may induce a small annual variation in the rate at which these particles interact in a terrestrial detector. The DAMA collaboration has identified at a 9.3σ confidence level such an annual modulation in their event rate over two detector iterations, DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA, each with ˜ 7 years of observations. This data is well fit by a constant modulation amplitude for the two iterations of the experiment. We statistically examine the time dependence of the modulation amplitudes, which "by eye" appear to be decreasing with time in certain energy ranges. We perform a chi-squared goodness of fit test of the average modulation amplitudes measured by the two detector iterations which rejects the hypothesis of a consistent modulation amplitude at greater than 80, 96, and 99.6% for the 2-4, 2-5 and 2-6 keVee energy ranges, respectively. We also find that among the 14 annual cycles there are three ≳ 3σ departures from the average in our estimated data in the 5-6 keVee energy range. In addition, we examined several phenomenological models for the time dependence of the modulation amplitude. Using a maximum likelihood test, we find that descriptions of the modulation amplitude as decreasing with time are preferred over a constant modulation amplitude at anywhere between 1σ and 3σ , depending on the phenomenological model for the time dependence and the signal energy range considered. A time dependent modulation amplitude is not expected for a dark matter signal, at least for dark matter halo morphologies consistent with the DAMA signal. New data from DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 will certainly aid in determining whether any apparent time dependence is a real effect or a statistical fluctuation.

  12. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  13. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  14. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  15. Finite amplitude effects on drop levitation for material properties measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari Hosseinzadeh, Vahideh; Holt, R. Glynn

    2017-05-01

    The method of exciting shape oscillation of drops to extract material properties has a long history, which is most often coupled with the technique of acoustic levitation to achieve non-contact manipulation of the drop sample. We revisit this method with application to the inference of bulk shear viscosity and surface tension. The literature is replete with references to a "10% oscillation amplitude" as a sufficient condition for the application of Lamb's analytical expressions for the shape oscillations of viscous liquids. Our results show that even a 10% oscillation amplitude leads to dynamic effects which render Lamb's results inapplicable. By comparison with samples of known viscosity and surface tension, we illustrate the complicating finite-amplitude effects (mode-splitting and excess dissipation associated with vorticity) that can occur and then show that sufficiently small oscillations allow us to recover the correct material properties using Lamb's formula.

  16. Scaling of the MHD perturbation amplitude required to trigger a disruption and predictions for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, P. C.; Pautasso, G.; Nardon, E.; Cahyna, P.; Gerasimov, S.; Havlicek, J.; Hender, T. C.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Lehnen, M.; Maraschek, M.; Markovič, T.; Snipes, J. A.; the COMPASS Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; Contributors, JET

    2016-02-01

    The amplitude of locked instabilities, likely magnetic islands, seen as precursors to disruptions has been studied using data from the JET, ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS tokamaks. It was found that the thermal quench, that often initiates the disruption, is triggered when the amplitude has reached a distinct level. This information can be used to determine thresholds for simple disruption prediction schemes. The measured amplitude in part depends on the distance of the perturbation to the measurement coils. Hence the threshold for the measured amplitude depends on the mode location (i.e. the rational q-surface) and thus indirectly on parameters such as the edge safety factor, q 95, and the internal inductance, li(3), that determine the shape of the q-profile. These dependencies can be used to set the disruption thresholds more precisely. For the ITER baseline scenario, with typically q 95  =  3.2, li(3)  =  0.9 and taking into account the position of the measurement coils on ITER, the maximum allowable measured locked mode amplitude normalized to engineering parameters was estimated to be a·B ML(r c)/I p  =  0.92 m mT/MA, or directly as a fraction edge poloidal magnetic field: B ML(r c)/B θ (a)  =  5 · 10-3. But these values decrease for operation at higher q 95 or lower li(3). The analysis found furthermore that the above empirical criterion to trigger a thermal quench is more consistent with a criterion derived with the concept of a critical island size, i.e. the thermal quench seemed to be triggered at a distinct island width.

  17. Covariant amplitudes in Polyakov string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, H.; Dhar, A.; Namazie, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A manifestly Lorentz-covariant and reparametrization-invariant procedure for computing string amplitudes using Polyakov's formulation is described. Both bosonic and superstring theories are dealt with. The computation of string amplitudes is greatly facilitated by this formalism. (orig.)

  18. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  19. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  20. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  1. Light Diffraction by Large Amplitude Ultrasonic Waves in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Laszlo; Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Light diffraction from ultrasound, which can be used to investigate nonlinear acoustic phenomena in liquids, is reported for wave amplitudes larger than that typically reported in the literature. Large amplitude waves result in waveform distortion due to the nonlinearity of the medium that generates harmonics and produces asymmetries in the light diffraction pattern. For standing waves with amplitudes above a threshold value, subharmonics are generated in addition to the harmonics and produce additional diffraction orders of the incident light. With increasing drive amplitude above the threshold a cascade of period-doubling subharmonics are generated, terminating in a region characterized by a random, incoherent (chaotic) diffraction pattern. To explain the experimental results a toy model is introduced, which is derived from traveling wave solutions of the nonlinear wave equation corresponding to the fundamental and second harmonic standing waves. The toy model reduces the nonlinear partial differential equation to a mathematically more tractable nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The model predicts the experimentally observed cascade of period-doubling subharmonics terminating in chaos that occurs with increasing drive amplitudes above the threshold value. The calculated threshold amplitude is consistent with the value estimated from the experimental data.

  2. Self-consistent electrodynamic scattering in the symmetric Bragg case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed the symmetric Bragg case, introducing a model of self consistent scattering for two elliptically polarized beams. The crystal is taken as a set of mathematical planes, each of them defined by a surface density of dipoles. We have considered the mesofield and the epifield differently from that of the Ewald's theory and, we assumed a plane of dipoles and the associated fields as a self consistent scattering unit. The exact analytical treatment when applied to any two neighbouring planes, results in a general and self consistent Bragg's equation, in terms of the amplitude and phase variations. The generalized solution for the set of N planes was obtained after introducing an absorption factor in the incident radiation, in two ways: (i) the analytical one, through a rule of field similarity, which says that the incidence occurs in both faces of the all crystal planes and also, through a matricial development with the Chebyshev polynomials; (ii) using the numerical solution we calculated, iteratively, the reflectivity, the reflection phase, the transmissivity, the transmission phase and the energy. The results are showed through reflection and transmission curves, which are characteristics as from kinematical as dynamical theories. The conservation of the energy results from the Ewald's self consistency principle is used. In the absorption case, the results show that it is not the only cause for the asymmetric form in the reflection curves. The model contains basic elements for a unified, microscope, self consistent, vectorial and exact formulation for interpretating the X ray diffraction in perfect crystals. (author)

  3. Fatique of Copper Polycrystals at Low Plastic Strain Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K. V.; Pedersen, Ole Bøcker

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals and polycrystals of pure copper were fatigued in tension-compression at constant low amplitudes of plastic strain and low cycling frequencies at room temperature in air. Surface patterns of persistent slip bands were quantitatively examined by optical microscopy. Bulk dislocation...

  4. The open superstring 6-point amplitude with manifest symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Luiz Antonio; Medina, Ricardo; Stieberger, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The general tree level amplitude for massless bosons states of open superstrings has been known for a long time ago. It is clear how to obtain this general formula using vertex operators in the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz formalism. From the beginning of the eighties the explicit expression for this formula has been known in the case of 3 and 4-point amplitudes. In that decade an attempt (with partial success) was done, by Kitazawa, to obtain the corresponding 5-point amplitude. Only in 2002 a complete and correct expression for this amplitude was obtained. Its low energy expansion was compared to the corresponding one from the low energy effective Lagrangian of the open superstring, finding a perfect match. A few years later, in 2005, it was realized that the 5-point formula could be written in a very much compact form, as a sum of two terms: each of them consisting of a momentum factor and a kinematic expression. This constituted a generalization of the 4-point amplitude case, which had been known to be cast in only one momentum factor multiplied by one kinematic expression. For this simplification to happen, known symmetries of the (tree level) scattering amplitudes were implemented in a manifest form. These symmetries are (on-shell) gauge symmetry, cyclic symmetry and twisting symmetry (or world sheet parity). In the recent years it has been realized that the N-point amplitude can be written as a sum of (N - 3)! terms (where N > 3). This result not only agrees with the 3, 4 and 5-point results, but also with the 6-point result which had been obtained by 2005, written as a sum of six terms. The expression that up to now has been obtained for the 6-point amplitude is quite complicated and, besides knowing that it consists of six terms, is not very illuminating. In this work we report on the recent result of writing the 6-point amplitude with gauge, cyclic and twisting symmetries manifest. Not only because of the manifest symmetries this result is important

  5. Reconstruction of far-field tsunami amplitude distributions from earthquake sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The probability distribution of far-field tsunami amplitudes is explained in relation to the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones. Tsunami amplitude distributions at tide gauge stations follow a similar functional form, well described by a tapered Pareto distribution that is parameterized by a power-law exponent and a corner amplitude. Distribution parameters are first established for eight tide gauge stations in the Pacific, using maximum likelihood estimation. A procedure is then developed to reconstruct the tsunami amplitude distribution that consists of four steps: (1) define the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones; (2) establish a source-station scaling relation from regression analysis; (3) transform the seismic moment distribution to a tsunami amplitude distribution for each subduction zone; and (4) mix the transformed distribution for all subduction zones to an aggregate tsunami amplitude distribution specific to the tide gauge station. The tsunami amplitude distribution is adequately reconstructed for four tide gauge stations using globally constant seismic moment distribution parameters established in previous studies. In comparisons to empirical tsunami amplitude distributions from maximum likelihood estimation, the reconstructed distributions consistently exhibit higher corner amplitude values, implying that in most cases, the empirical catalogs are too short to include the largest amplitudes. Because the reconstructed distribution is based on a catalog of earthquakes that is much larger than the tsunami catalog, it is less susceptible to the effects of record-breaking events and more indicative of the actual distribution of tsunami amplitudes.

  6. Microscopic theory of dynamical subspace for large amplitude collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Fumihiko; Marumori, Toshio; Ogura, Masanori.

    1986-01-01

    A full quantum theory appropriate for describing large amplitude collective motion is proposed by exploiting the basic idea of the semi-classical theory so far developed within the time-depedent Hartree-Fock theory. A central problem of the quantum theory is how to determine an optimal representation called a dynamical representation specific for the collective subspace where the large amplitude collective motion is replicated as precisely as possible. As an extension of the semi-classical theory where the concept of an approximate integral surface played an important role, the collective subspace is properly characterized by introducing a concept of an approximate invariant subspace of the Hamiltonian. (author)

  7. Double collinear splitting amplitudes at next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sborlini, Germán F.R. [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València -Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Florian, Daniel de [Departamento de Física and IFIBA, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428) Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, Capital Federal (Argentina); Rodrigo, Germán [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Universitat de València -Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,Parc Científic, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)

    2014-01-07

    We compute the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the 1→2 splitting amplitudes in different dimensional regularization (DREG) schemes. Besides recovering previously known results, we explore new DREG schemes and analyze their consistency by comparing the divergent structure with the expected behavior predicted by Catani’s formula. Through the introduction of scalar-gluons, we show the relation among splittings matrices computed using different schemes. Also, we extended this analysis to cover the double collinear limit of scattering amplitudes in the context of QCD+QED.

  8. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens; Kendl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line......-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross...

  9. Nonlinear Amplitude Evolution During Spontaneous Patterning of Ion-Bombarded Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, Eric; Erlebacher, Jonah; Aziz, Michael J.; Floro, Jerold A.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    1999-01-01

    The time evolution of the amplitude of periodic nanoscale ripple patterns formed on Ar+ sputtered Si(OOl ) surfaces was examined using a recently developed in situ spectroscopic technique. At sufficiently long times, we find that the amplitude does not continue to grow exponentially as predicted by the standard Bradley-Harper sputter rippling model. In accounting for this discrepancy, we rule out effects related to the concentration of mobile species, high surface curvature, surface energy anisotropy, and ion-surface interactions. We observe that for all wavelengths the amplitude ceases to grow when the width of the topmost terrace of the ripples is reduced to approximately 25 nm. This observation suggests that a short circuit relaxation mechanism limits amplitude . growth. A strategy for influencing the ultimate ripple amplitude is discussed

  10. Consistency in PERT problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  11. Expression of relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions under which relativistic amplitudes may be expressed in terms of the wave functions are analyzed within the framework of the invariant diagram technique which appears on formulation of field theory on the light front. The amplitudes depend on the 4-vector ω which defines the surface of the light front. A rule is formulated for the determination of those values of the 4-vector ω for which the diagram contribution, which cannot be expressed in terms of the wave functions, is minimum. The present investigation is equivalent to a study of the dependence of the amplitudes of the old fashioned perburbation theory in the infinite momentum depending on the direction of the infinite momentum

  12. Heptagon amplitude in the multi-Regge regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.

    2014-05-01

    As we have shown in previous work, the high energy limit of scattering amplitudes in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory corresponds to the infrared limit of the 1-dimensional quantum integrable system that solves minimal area problems in AdS 5 . This insight can be developed into a systematic algorithm to compute the strong coupling limit of amplitudes in the multi-Regge regime through the solution of auxiliary Bethe Ansatz equations. We apply this procedure to compute the scattering amplitude for n=7 external gluons in different multi-Regge regions at infinite 't Hooft coupling. Our formulas are remarkably consistent with the expected form of 7-gluon Regge cut contributions in perturbative gauge theory. A full description of the general algorithm and a derivation of results is given in a forthcoming paper.

  13. Amplitude and polarization asymmetries in a ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, L. L.; Buholz, N. E.

    1971-01-01

    Asymmetric amplitude effects between the oppositely directed traveling waves in a He-Ne ring laser are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. These effects make it possible to detect angular orientations of an inner-cavity bar with respect to the plane of the ring cavity. The amplitude asymmetries occur when a birefringent bar is placed in the three-mirror ring cavity, and an axial magnetic field is applied to the active medium. A simplified theoretical analysis is performed by using a first order perturbation theory to derive an expression for the polarization of the active medium, and a set of self-consistent equations are derived to predict threshold conditions. Polarization asymmetries between the oppositely directed waves are also predicted. Amplitude asymmetries similar in nature to those predicted at threshold occur when the laser is operating in 12-15 free-running modes, and polarization asymmetry occurs simultaneously.

  14. Mammalian cycles: internally defined periods and interaction-driven amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Ginzburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cause of mammalian cycles—the rise and fall of populations over a predictable period of time—has remained controversial since these patterns were first observed over a century ago. In spite of extensive work on observable mammalian cycles, the field has remained divided upon what the true cause is, with a majority of opinions attributing it to either predation or to intra-species mechanisms. Here we unite the eigenperiod hypothesis, which describes an internal, maternal effect-based mechanism to explain the cycles’ periods with a recent generalization explaining the amplitude of snowshoe hare cycles in northwestern North America based on initial predator abundance. By explaining the period and the amplitude of the cycle with separate mechanisms, a unified and consistent view of the causation of cycles is reached. Based on our suggested theory, we forecast the next snowshoe hare cycle (predicted peak in 2016 to be of extraordinarily low amplitude.

  15. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  16. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  17. New Compact Accommodometer to Measure Accommodation Amplitude as a Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Takeshi; Negishi, Kazuno; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Hara, Shuya; Toda, Ikuko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate a newly designed compact accommodometer (CA) and compare this with a conventional accommodometer for measuring accommodation as a biomarker for aging and lifestyle. This is an observational case series. Accommodative amplitude was measured using 2 different accommodometers in 114 patients. We obtained the data of the near-point accommodation amplitude. Subsequently, we used smoking habit as an example of lifestyle-related factor to evaluate its effect on the accommodative power. The first part of the study included 60 eyes of 60 men and 54 eyes of 54 women, with a mean (SD) age of 43.8 (12.9) years (range, 18-58 years). There was a consistency within each measuring method despite a significant difference between the 2 devices (P the second part of the study, we found a significant correlation between age and accommodative amplitude both in smokers and in nonsmokers. The accommodative amplitude of the smoker group was significantly lower than that of the nonsmoker group (P the conventional accommodometer for measuring accommodative amplitude as an aging biomarker. Lifestyle factors can affect the magnitude of accommodation, which can be measured by this newly developed CA.

  18. Damage accumulation of bovine bone under variable amplitude loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey M. Campbell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress fractures, a painful injury, are caused by excessive fatigue in bone. This study on damage accumulation in bone sought to determine if the Palmgren-Miner rule (PMR, a well-known linear damage accumulation hypothesis, is predictive of fatigue failure in bone. An electromagnetic shaker apparatus was constructed to conduct cyclic and variable amplitude tests on bovine bone specimens. Three distinct damage regimes were observed following fracture. Fractures due to a low cyclic amplitude loading appeared ductile (4000 μϵ, brittle due to high cyclic amplitude loading (>9000 μϵ, and a combination of ductile and brittle from mid-range cyclic amplitude loading (6500 –6750 μϵ. Brittle and ductile fracture mechanisms were isolated and mixed, in a controlled way, into variable amplitude loading tests. PMR predictions of cycles to failure consistently over-predicted fatigue life when mixing isolated fracture mechanisms. However, PMR was not proven ineffective when used with a single damage mechanism. Keywords: Bone fatigue, Bone fracture, Health system monitoring, Failure prediction

  19. Study of inelastic decay of amplitudes in 49V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    Inelastic decay amplitudes from d-wave resonances in 49 V were obtained for 80 resonances in the proton energy range 2.2 to 3.1 MeV. With the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and high resolution system at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, an overall resolution of 350 eV was obtained. The experiment consisted of measurements of the angular distributions of the inelastically scattered protons and the subsequent deexcitation gamma rays. Forty five resonances were assigned J/sup π/ = 5/2 + , while thirty five resonances were assigned 3/2 + . The magnitudes of three inelastic decay amplitudes and the relative signs between these three amplitudes were determined. Large amplitude correlations were observed; the data are in the striking disagreement with the extreme statistical model. The present results provide the first explicit test of the multivariate reduced width amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter; the agreement is excellent. The physical origin of these channel correlations has not yet been explained

  20. New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I report on recent progress in finding compact expressions for scattering amplitudes involving gravitons and gluons as well as massive scalar and fermionic matter particles. At tree level the single graviton emission amplitudes may be expressed as linear combination of purely non-gravitational ones. At the one-loop level recent results on all four point Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with at most one opposite helicity state using unitarity methods are reported. 

  1. Analytical properties of multiple production amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1984-05-01

    Local analytical properties of amplitudes 2..-->..3 and 2..-->..4 are studied. The amplitudes are shown to be analytical functions of total and partial energies at fixed momentum transfers in the neighbourhood of any physical point on the energy shell 14 (for the 2..-->..3 case) and 242 (for the 2..-->..4 case) boundary values are expressed through the amplitudes of real processes.

  2. Water is a poor solvent for densely grafted poly(ethylene oxide) chains: a conclusion drawn from a self-consistent field theory-based analysis of neutron reflectivity and surface pressure-area isotherm data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Dae Hwan; Witte, Kevin N; Ohn, Kimberly; Choi, Je; Akgun, Bulent; Satija, Sushil; Won, You-Yeon

    2012-06-21

    By use of a combined experimental and theoretical approach, a model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush system, prepared by spreading a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) amphiphilic diblock copolymer onto an air-water interface, was investigated. The polymer segment density profiles of the PEO brush in the direction normal to the air-water interface under various grafting density conditions were determined by using the neutron reflectivity (NR) measurement technique. To achieve a theoretically sound analysis of the reflectivity data, we used a data analysis method that utilizes the self-consistent field (SCF) theoretical modeling as a tool for predicting expected reflectivity results for comparison with the experimental data. Using this data analysis technique, we discovered that the effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of the PEO brush chains is significantly greater than that corresponding to the θ condition in Flory-Huggins solutions (i.e., χ(PEO-water)(brush chains)/χ(PEO-water)(θ condition) ≈ 1.2), suggesting that contrary to what is more commonly observed for PEO in normal situations (χ(PEO-water)(free chains)/χ(PEO-water)(θ condition) ≈ 0.92), the PEO chains are actually not "hydrophilic" when they exist as polymer brush chains, because of the many body interactions that are forced to be effective in the brush situation. This result is further supported by the fact that the surface pressures of the PEO brush calculated on the basis of the measured χ(PEO-water) value are in close agreement with the experimental surface pressure-area isotherm data. The SCF theoretical analysis of the surface pressure behavior of the PEO brush also suggests that even though the grafted PEO chains experience a poor solvent environment, the PEO brush layer exhibits positive surface pressures, because the hydrophobicity of the PEO brush chains (which favors compression) is insufficient to overcome the opposing effect of the chain

  3. Phenomenological study of helicity amplitudes of high energy exclusive leptoproduction of the ρ meson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, I. V.; Besse, A.; Ivanov, D. Yu.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a previously developed scheme to consistently include the twist-3 distribution amplitudes for transversely polarized ρ mesons in order to evaluate, in the framework of k T factorization, the helicity amplitudes for exclusive leptoproduction of a light vector meson, at leading order in α s . We compare our results with high energy experimental data for the ratios of helicity amplitudes T 11 /T 00 and T 01 /T 00 and get a good description of the data.

  4. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term

  5. Amplitude structure of off-shell processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearing, H.W.; Goldstein, G.R.; Moravcsik, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The structure of M matrices, or scattering amplitudes, and of potentials for off-shell processes is discussed with the objective of determining how one can obtain information on off-shell amplitudes of a process in terms of the physical observables of a larger process in which the first process is embedded. The procedure found is inevitably model dependent, but within a particular model for embedding, a determination of the physically measurable amplitudes of the larger process is able to yield a determination of the off-shell amplitudes of the embedded process

  6. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  7. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  8. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  9. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  10. Automation of loop amplitudes in numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.

    1997-01-01

    An automatic calculating system GRACE-L1 of one-loop Feynman amplitude is reviewed. This system can be applied to 2 to 2-body one-loop processes. A sample calculation of 2 to 3-body one-loop amplitudes is also presented. (orig.)

  11. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are

  12. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized...

  13. Full amplitude models of 15 day Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogan, B.C.; Cox, A.N.; King, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical models of Cepheids have been computed with a range of effective temperatures and compositions. The amplitudes increase if the helium abundance increases or if the effective temperature decreases. The latter effect is contrary to observational data. The models also exhibit velocity amplitudes which are much lower than those observed

  14. Helicity amplitudes for matter-coupled gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Novaes, S.F.; Spehler, D.

    1992-07-01

    The Weyl-van der Waerden spinor formalism is applied to the evaluation of helicity invariant amplitudes in the framework of linearized gravitation. The graviton couplings to spin-0, 1 - 2 , 1, and 3 - 2 particles are given, and, to exhibit the reach of this method, the helicity amplitudes for the process electron + positron → photon + graviton are obtained. (author)

  15. New relations for gauge-theory amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Johansson, H.

    2008-01-01

    We present an identity satisfied by the kinematic factors of diagrams describing the tree amplitudes of massless gauge theories. This identity is a kinematic analog of the Jacobi identity for color factors. Using this we find new relations between color-ordered partial amplitudes. We discuss applications to multiloop calculations via the unitarity method. In particular, we illustrate the relations between different contributions to a two-loop four-point QCD amplitude. We also use this identity to reorganize gravity tree amplitudes diagram by diagram, offering new insight into the structure of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gauge and gravity tree amplitudes. This insight leads to similar but novel relations. We expect this to be helpful in higher-loop studies of the ultraviolet properties of gravity theories.

  16. Analyses of the mechanisms of amplitude modulation of aero-acoustic wind turbine sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the source mechanism which cause amplitude modulation of the emitted sound of a wind turbine at large distances from the turbine, named as other amplitude modulation. Measurements of the fluctuating surface pressure on a 2.3MW wind turbine showed a considerable variation over...... give further evidence that transient stall is a main mechanism to cause other amplitude modulation. Wind shear was identified as a critical condition to cause angle of attack variations. Dierent control strategies to mitigate other amplitude modulation were proposed....

  17. Multilevel recording of complex amplitude data pages in a holographic data storage system using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Teruyoshi; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-09-05

    A holographic data storage system using digital holography is proposed to record and retrieve multilevel complex amplitude data pages. Digital holographic techniques are capable of modulating and detecting complex amplitude distribution using current electronic devices. These techniques allow the development of a simple, compact, and stable holographic storage system that mainly consists of a single phase-only spatial light modulator and an image sensor. As a proof-of-principle experiment, complex amplitude data pages with binary amplitude and four-level phase are recorded and retrieved. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed holographic data storage system.

  18. Effects of strength training on mechanomyographic amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreitas, Jason M; Beck, Travis W; Stock, Matt S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if the patterns of mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude across force would change with strength training. Twenty-two healthy men completed an 8-week strength training program. During three separate testing visits (pre-test, week 4, and week 8), the MMG signal was detected from the vastus lateralis as the subjects performed isometric step muscle actions of the leg extensors from 10–100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During pre-testing, the MMG amplitude increased linearly with force to 66% MVC and then plateaued. Conversely, weeks 4 and 8 demonstrated an increase in MMG amplitude up to ∼85% of the subject's original MVC before plateauing. Furthermore, seven of the ten force levels (30–60% and 80–100%) showed a significant decrease in mean MMG amplitude values after training, which consequently led to a decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. The decreases in MMG amplitude at lower force levels are indicative of hypertrophy, since fewer motor units would be required to produce the same absolute force if the motor units increased in size. However, despite the clear changes in the mean values, analyses of individual subjects revealed that only 55% of the subjects demonstrated a significant decrease in the slope of the MMG amplitude/force relationship. (paper)

  19. Holographic corrections to meson scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armoni, Adi; Ireson, Edwin, E-mail: 746616@swansea.ac.uk

    2017-06-15

    We compute meson scattering amplitudes using the holographic duality between confining gauge theories and string theory, in order to consider holographic corrections to the Veneziano amplitude and associated higher-point functions. The generic nature of such computations is explained, thanks to the well-understood nature of confining string backgrounds, and two different examples of the calculation in given backgrounds are used to illustrate the details. The effect we discover, whilst only qualitative, is re-obtainable in many such examples, in four-point but also higher point amplitudes.

  20. Amplitude-Mode Dynamics of Polariton Condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, R. T.; Littlewood, P. B.; Eastham, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    We study the stability of collective amplitude excitations in nonequilibrium polariton condensates. These excitations correspond to renormalized upper polaritons and to the collective amplitude modes of atomic gases and superconductors. They would be present following a quantum quench or could be created directly by resonant excitation. We show that uniform amplitude excitations are unstable to the production of excitations at finite wave vectors, leading to the formation of density-modulated phases. The physical processes causing the instabilities can be understood by analogy to optical parametric oscillators and the atomic Bose supernova.

  1. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)

    2010-11-07

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  2. Amplitude Variations in Pulsating Red Giants. II. Some Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, J. R.; Laing, J.

    2017-12-01

    In order to extend our previous studies of the unexplained phenomenon of cyclic amplitude variations in pulsating red giants, we have used the AAVSO time-series analysis package vstar to analyze long-term AAVSO visual observations of 50 such stars, mostly Mira stars. The relative amount of the variation, typically a factor of 1.5, and the time scale of the variation, typically 20-35 pulsation periods, are not significantly different in longer-period, shorter-period, and carbon stars in our sample, and they also occur in stars whose period is changing secularly, perhaps due to a thermal pulse. The time scale of the variations is similar to that in smaller-amplitude SR variables, but the relative amount of the variation appears to be larger in smaller-amplitude stars, and is therefore more conspicuous. The cause of the amplitude variations remains unclear, though they may be due to rotational modulation of a star whose pulsating surface is dominated by the effects of large convective cells.

  3. Amplitude-independent flaw length determination using differential eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, E.

    2013-01-01

    Military engine component manufacturers typically specify the eddy current (EC) inspection requirements as a crack length or depth with the assumption that the cracks in both the test specimens and inspected component are of a similar fixed aspect ratio. However, differential EC response amplitude is dependent on the area of the crack face, not the length or depth. Additionally, due to complex stresses, in-service cracks do not always grow in the assumed manner. It would be advantageous to use more of the information contained in the EC data to better determine the full profile of cracks independent of the fixed aspect ratio amplitude response curve. A specimen with narrow width notches is used to mimic cracks of varying aspect ratios in a controllable manner. The specimen notches have aspect ratios that vary from 1:1 to 10:1. Analysis routines have been developed using the shape of the EC response signals that can determine the length of a surface flaw of common orientations without use of the amplitude of the signal or any supporting traditional probability of detection basis. Combined with the relationship between signal amplitude and area, the depth of the flaw can also be calculated.

  4. Monodromy relations in higher-loop string amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hohenegger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New monodromy relations of loop amplitudes are derived in open string theory. We particularly study N-point (planar and non-planar one-loop amplitudes described by a world-sheet cylinder and derive a set of relations between subamplitudes of different color orderings. Various consistency checks are performed by matching α′-expansions of planar and non-planar amplitudes involving elliptic iterated integrals with the resulting periods giving rise to two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. The latter refer to the two homology cycles on the once-punctured complex elliptic curve and the monodromy equations provide relations between these two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. Furthermore, our monodromy relations involve new objects for which we present a tentative interpretation in terms of open string scattering amplitudes in the presence of a non-trivial gauge field flux. Finally, we provide an outlook on how to generalize the new monodromy relations to the non-oriented case and beyond the one-loop level. Comparing a subset of our results with recent findings in the literature we find therein several serious issues related to the structure and significance of monodromy phases and the relevance of missed contributions from contour integrations.

  5. The two Josephson junction flux qubit with large tunneling amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnurkov, V.I.; Soroka, A.A.; Mel'nik, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss solid-state nanoelectronic realizations of Josephson flux qubits with large tunneling amplitude between the two macroscopic states. The latter can be controlled via the height and form of the potential barrier, which is determined by quantum-state engineering of the flux qubit circuit. The simplest circuit of the flux qubit is a superconducting loop interrupted by a Josephson nanoscale tunnel junction. The tunneling amplitude between two macroscopically different states can be increased substantially by engineering of the qubit circuit if the tunnel junction is replaced by a ScS contact. However, only Josephson tunnel junctions are particularly suitable for large-scale integration circuits and quantum detectors with present-day technology. To overcome this difficulty we consider here a flux qubit with high energy-level separation between the 'ground' and 'excited' states, consisting of a superconducting loop with two low-capacitance Josephson tunnel junctions in series. We demonstrate that for real parameters of resonant superposition between the two macroscopic states the tunneling amplitude can reach values greater than 1 K. Analytical results for the tunneling amplitude obtained within the semiclassical approximation by the instanton technique show good correlation with a numerical solution

  6. Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G. A.; Wilson, L. B.; Sibeck, D. G.; Shane, N.; Zhang, T. L.; Moore, T. E.; Coates, A. J.; Barabash, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first observation of magnetic fluctuations consistent with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) in the foreshock of the planet Venus. Three monolithic magnetic field spikes were observed by the Venus Express on the 11th of April 2009. The structures were approx.1.5->11s in duration, had magnetic compression ratios between approx.3->6, and exhibited elliptical polarization. These characteristics are consistent with the SLAMS observed at Earth, Jupiter, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner, and thus we hypothesize that it is possible SLAMS may be found at any celestial body with a foreshock.

  7. Analytic continuation of dual Feynman amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A notion of dual Feynman amplitude is introduced and a theorem on the existence of analytic continuation of this amplitude from the convergence domain to the whole complex is proved. The case under consideration corresponds to massless power propagators and the analytic continuation is constructed on the propagators powers. Analytic continuation poles and singular set of external impulses are found explicitly. The proof of the theorem on the existence of analytic continuation is based on the introduction of α-representation for dual Feynman amplitudes. In proving, the so-called ''trees formula'' and ''trees-with-cycles formula'' are established that are dual by formulation to the trees and 2-trees formulae for usual Feynman amplitudes. (Auth.)

  8. Amplitude-Integrated EEG in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Th value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG in the newborn is explored by researchers at Washington University, St Louis; Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands; and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

  9. Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.

  10. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Søgaard, Mads; Damgaard, Poul Henrik

    This thesis describes recent progress in the understanding of the mathematical structure of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The primary purpose is to develop an enhanced analytic framework for computing multiloop scattering amplitudes in generic gauge theories including QCD without Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed in terms of certain linear combinations of multivariate residues and elliptic integrals computed from products of ...

  11. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  12. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-01

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full α' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the α' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  13. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation in SCET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam

    2016-05-01

    Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.

  14. The amplitude of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, B.V.; Pavlov, V.P.; Polivanov, M.K.; Sukhanov, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    General properties of the transition amplitude in axiomatic quantum field theory are discussed. Bogolyubov's axiomatic method is chosen as the variant of the theory. The axioms of this method are analyzed. In particular, the significance of the off-shell extension and of the various forms of the causality condition are examined. A complete proof is given of the existence of a single analytic function whose boundary values are the amplitudes of all channels of a process with given particle number

  15. The Cepheid bump progression and amplitude equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.; Buchler, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic and systematic behavior of the low-order Fourier amplitudes and phases of hydrodynamically generated radial velocity and light curves of Cepheid model sequences is very well captured not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by the amplitude equation formalism. The 2:1 resonance between the fundamental and the second overtone plays an essential role in the behavior of the models 8 refs

  16. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary - This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  17. Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM), The DTM associated with the Base Mapping Program consists of mass points and breaklines used primarily for ortho rectification. The DTM specifications included all breaklines for all hydro and transportation features and are the source for the TIPS (Tenn, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Tennessee, OIR-GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DSM,DTM) dataset current as of 2007. The DTM associated with the Base Mapping Program consists of mass points and breaklines used...

  18. The CHY representation of tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Leonardo de la; Kniss, Alexander; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we construct a CHY representation for all tree-level primitive QCD amplitudes. The quarks may be massless or massive. We define a generalised cyclic factor Ĉ(w,z) and a generalised permutation invariant function Ê(z,p,ε). The amplitude is then given as a contour integral encircling the solutions of the scattering equations with the product ĈÊ as integrand. Equivalently, it is given as a sum over the inequivalent solutions of the scattering equations, where the summand consists of a Jacobian times the product ĈÊ. This representation separates information: The generalised cyclic factor does not depend on the helicities of the external particles, the generalised permutation invariant function does not depend on the ordering of the external particles.

  19. Automorphic properties of low energy string amplitudes in various dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael B.; Russo, Jorge G.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the moduli-dependent coefficients of higher-derivative interactions that appear in the low-energy expansion of the four-supergraviton amplitude of maximally supersymmetric string theory compactified on a d torus. These automorphic functions are determined for terms up to order ∂ 6 R 4 and various values of d by imposing a variety of consistency conditions. They satisfy Laplace eigenvalue equations with or without source terms, whose solutions are given in terms of Eisenstein series, or more general automorphic functions, for certain parabolic subgroups of the relevant U-duality groups. The ultraviolet divergences of the corresponding supergravity field theory limits are encoded in various logarithms, although the string theory expressions are finite. This analysis includes intriguing representations of SL(d) and SO(d,d) Eisenstein series in terms of toroidally compactified one and two-loop string and supergravity amplitudes.

  20. Long-distance singularities in multi-leg scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Einan; Duhr, Claude

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent completion of the three-loop calculation of the soft anomalous dimension in massless gauge-theory scattering amplitudes. This brings the state-of-the-art knowledge of long-distance singularities in multi-leg QCD amplitudes with any number of massless particles to three loops. The result displays some novel features: this is the first time non-dipole corrections appear, which directly correlate the colour and kinematic degrees of freedom of four coloured partons. We find that non-dipole corrections appear at three loops also for three coloured partons, but these are independent of the kinematics. The final result is remarkably simple when expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms, and it satisfies several non-trivial constraints. In particular, it is consistent with the high-energy limit behaviour and it satisfies the expected factorization properties in two-particle collinear limits.

  1. Full colour for loop amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochirov, Alexander [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy,The University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Page, Ben [Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut,D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    We present a general method to account for full colour dependence Yang-Mills amplitudes at loop level. The method fits most naturally into the framework of multi-loop integrand reduction and in a nutshell amounts to consistently retaining the colour structures of the unitarity cuts from which the integrand is gradually constructed. This technique has already been used in the recent calculation of the two-loop five-gluon amplitude in pure Yang-Mills theory with all positive helicities, (DOI: 10.1007/JHEP10(2015)064). In this note, we give a careful exposition of the method and discuss its connection to loop-level Kleiss-Kuijf relations. We also explore its implications for cancellation of nontrivial symmetry factors at two loops. As an example of its generality, we show how it applies to the three-loop case in supersymmetric Yang-Mills case.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation of amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaoli; Martini, Ashlie; Egberts, Philip; Dong, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to model amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM). In this novel simulation, the model AFM tip responds to both tip–substrate interactions and to a sinusoidal excitation signal. The amplitude and phase shift of the tip oscillation observed in the simulation and their variation with tip–sample distance were found to be consistent with previously reported trends from experiments and theory. These simulation results were also fit to an expression enabling estimation of the energy dissipation, which was found to be smaller than that in a corresponding experiment. The difference was analyzed in terms of the effects of tip size and substrate thickness. Development of this model is the first step toward using MD to gain insight into the atomic-scale phenomena that occur during an AM-AFM measurement. (paper)

  3. Two-Loop Gluon to Gluon-Gluon Splitting Amplitudes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes are universal functions governing the collinear behavior of scattering amplitudes for massless particles. We compute the two-loop g → gg splitting amplitudes in QCD, N = 1, and N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theories, which describe the limits of two-loop n-point amplitudes where two gluon momenta become parallel. They also represent an ingredient in a direct x-space computation of DGLAP evolution kernels at next-to-next-to-leading order. To obtain the splitting amplitudes, we use the unitarity sewing method. In contrast to the usual light-cone gauge treatment, our calculation does not rely on the principal-value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescriptions, even though the loop integrals contain some of the denominators typically encountered in light-cone gauge. We reduce the integrals to a set of 13 master integrals using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. The master integrals are computed with the aid of differential equations in the splitting momentum fraction z. The ε-poles of the splitting amplitudes are consistent with a formula due to Catani for the infrared singularities of two-loop scattering amplitudes. This consistency essentially provides an inductive proof of Catani's formula, as well as an ansatz for previously-unknown 1/ε pole terms having non-trivial color structure. Finite terms in the splitting amplitudes determine the collinear behavior of finite remainders in this formula

  4. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-07-15

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  5. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  6. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  7. Color-Kinematics Duality for QCD Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    We show that color-kinematics duality is present in tree-level amplitudes of quantum chromodynamics with massive flavored quarks. Starting with the color structure of QCD, we work out a new color decomposition for n-point tree amplitudes in a reduced basis of primitive amplitudes. These primitives, with k quark-antiquark pairs and (n-2k) gluons, are taken in the (n-2)!/k! Melia basis, and are independent under the color-algebra Kleiss-Kuijf relations. This generalizes the color decomposition of Del Duca, Dixon, and Maltoni to an arbitrary number of quarks. The color coefficients in the new decomposition are given by compact expressions valid for arbitrary gauge group and representation. Considering the kinematic structure, we show through explicit calculations that color-kinematics duality holds for amplitudes with general configurations of gluons and massive quarks. The new (massive) amplitude relations that follow from the duality can be mapped to a well-defined subset of the familiar BCJ relations for gluo...

  8. High energy hadron spin-flip amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyugin, O.V.

    2016-01-01

    The high-energy part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude is examined in the framework of the new high-energy general structure (HEGS) model of the elastic hadron scattering at high energies. The different forms of the hadron spin-flip amplitude are compared in the impact parameter representation. It is shown that the existing experimental data of the proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energy in the region of the diffraction minimum and at large momentum transfer give support in the presence of the energy-independent part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude with the momentum dependence proposed in the works by Galynskii-Kuraev. [ru

  9. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  10. Analytic representations of Yang–Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bourjaily, Jacob L., E-mail: bourjaily@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Feng, Bo [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou City, 310027 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang–Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space—fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Möbius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is the foundations of a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang–Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  11. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  12. Multiphoton amplitude in a constant background field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution, we present our recent compact master formulas for the multiphoton amplitudes of a scalar propagator in a constant background field using the worldline fomulation of quantum field theory. The constant field has been included nonperturbatively, which is crucial for strong external fields. A possible application is the scattering of photons by electrons in a strong magnetic field, a process that has been a subject of great interest since the discovery of astrophysical objects like radio pulsars, which provide evidence that magnetic fields of the order of 1012G are present in nature. The presence of a strong external field leads to a strong deviation from the classical scattering amplitudes. We explicitly work out the Compton scattering amplitude in a magnetic field, which is a process of potential relevance for astrophysics. Our final result is compact and suitable for numerical integration.

  13. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  14. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  15. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  16. Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.

  17. Precise generator of stability amplitude pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, N.A.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.; Kuts, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    A generator of stability amplitude pulses, designed for stabilization of a low-noise semiconducting spectrometer, used in investigations of 76 Ge2β-decay, is described. The generator contains a permanent-voltage source, a storage element and a switch based on a Hg relay. A thermostatic source provides a relative voltage instability less than ±5x10 -6 per 80h (standard deviation). The Hg relay is placed into a separate thermostat. The relative instability of output generator pulse amplitude does not exceed ±1.5x10 -5 per 24h

  18. High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-11-01

    We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)

  19. On the consistency and high-energy behavior of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In Part I, it is shown that the heterotic string is free of gauge and gravitational anomalies by showing that (a) unless the gauge group is E S x E S or Spin(32)/Z 2 or a subgroup, the internal sector partition function vanishes so there is no consistent theory; and (b) for E 8 x E 8 and Spin(32)/Z 2 compactifications, the longitudinal modes of the massless gauge particles decouple, as required by gauge invariance. We discuss the geometric interpretation for string theory when the action is invariant under a modular subgroup. In Part II, the high-energy behavior of string scattering amplitudes is studied to all orders in perturbation theory, with the aim of exploring the short-distance structure of string theory. It is shown that the sum over all Riemann surfaces is dominated by a saddle point. Consequently, the high-energy limit is universal and simple to calculate. In this limit the amplitudes fall off much faster than allowed by field theory. The dominant saddle points are identified as coming from world sheets which are Z G+1 symmetric algebraic curves, and their contribution to the scattering amplitude is evaluated for the bosonic to all orders and for the heterotic string to two-loop order. An interesting spacetime picture of the high-energy limit emerges. The issue of summing the perturbation expansion is addressed

  20. Amplitude ratios in ρ0 leptoproductions and GPDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goloskokov S.V.

    2017-01-01

    Using the model results we calculate the ratio of different helicity amplitudes for a transversely polarized proton target to the leading twist longitudinal amplitude. Our results are close to the amplitude ratios measured by HERMES.

  1. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  2. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-17

    Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  3. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    for the initial tensile strength and the fatigue life, the probability distributions for the residual tensile strength in both the crack initiation and the crack propagation stages of fatigue are determined. The method is illustrated for two-amplitude loads by means of experimental results obtained by testing...

  4. Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.

    2012-05-01

    Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.

  5. Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donà, Pietro; Giaccari, Stefano; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław; Zhu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d’Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell n−point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering amplitudes depend on all the form factors introduced in the action.

  6. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  7. Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model

  8. Constraints on low energy Compton scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, I.

    1979-04-01

    We derive the constraints and correlations of fairly general type for Compton scattering amplitudes at energies below photoproduction threshold and fixed momentum transfer, following from (an upper bound on) the corresponding differential cross section above photoproduction threshold. The derivation involves the solution of an extremal problem in a certain space of vector - valued analytic functions. (author)

  9. Analytic properties of many-particle amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1982-08-01

    In the framework of N. N. Bogolyubov axiomatic approach the complete proof of the existence of an analytic function the boundary values of which are the amplitudes of any channel of n-particle process is given. The one-particle structure of this function is described.

  10. Changes in ENSO amplitude under climate warming and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai

    2018-05-01

    The response of ENSO amplitude to climate warming and cooling is investigated using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), in which the warming and cooling scenarios are designed by adding heat fluxes of equal amplitude but opposite sign onto the ocean surface, respectively. Results show that the warming induces an increase of the ENSO amplitude but the cooling gives rise to a decrease of the ENSO amplitude, and these changes are robust in statistics. A mixed layer heat budget analysis finds that the increasing (decreasing) SST tendency under climate warming (cooling) is mainly due to an enhancement (weakening) of dynamical feedback processes over the equatorial Pacific, including zonal advective (ZA) feedback, meridional advective (MA) feedback, thermocline (TH) feedback, and Ekman (EK) feedback. As the climate warms, a wind anomaly of the same magnitude across the equatorial Pacific can induce a stronger zonal current change in the east (i.e., a stronger ZA feedback), which in turn produces a greater weakening of upwelling (i.e., a stronger EK feedback) and thus a larger thermocline change (i.e., a stronger TH feedback). In response to the climate warming, in addition, the MA feedback is also strengthened due to an enhancement of the meridional SST gradient around the equator resulting from a weakening of the subtropical cells (STCs). It should be noted that the weakened STCs itself has a negative contribution to the change of the MA feedback which, however, appears to be secondary. And vice versa for the cooling case. Bjerknes linear stability (BJ) index is also evaluated for the linear stability of ENSO, with remarkably larger (smaller) BJ index found for the warming (cooling) case.

  11. Q factor and resonance amplitude of Josephson tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broom, R.F.; Wolf, P.

    1977-01-01

    The surface impedance of the superconducting films comprising the electrodes of Josephson tunnel junctions has been derived from the BCS theory in the extreme London limit. Expressions have been obtained for (i) the dependence of the penetration depth lambda on frequency and temperature, and (ii) the quality factor Q of the junction cavity, attributable to surface absorption in the electrodes. The effect of thin electrodes (t 9 or approx. = lambda) is also included in the calculations. Comparison of the calculated frequency dependence of lambda with resonance measurements on Pb-alloy and all-Nb tunnel junctions yields quite good agreement, indicating that the assumptions made in the theory are reasonable. Measurements of the (current) amplitude of the resonance peaks of the junctions have been compared with the values obtained from inclusion of the calculated Q in the theory by Kulik. In common with observations on microwave cavities by other workers, we find that a small residual conductivity must be added to the real part of the BCS value. With its inclusion, good agreement is found between calculation and experiment, within the range determined by the simplifying assumptions of Kulik's theory. From the results, we believe the calculation of Q to be reasonably accurate for the materials investigated. It is shown that the resonance amplitude of Josephson junctions can be calculated directly from the material constants and a knowledge of the residual conductivity

  12. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures....... In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model...

  13. Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Andrew N; Amirkulova, Feruza A; Parnell, William J

    2012-01-01

    The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)

  14. Constructing QCD one-loop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forde, D

    2008-01-01

    In the context of constructing one-loop amplitudes using a unitarity bootstrap approach we discuss a general systematic procedure for obtaining the coefficients of the scalar bubble and triangle integral functions of one-loop amplitudes. Coefficients are extracted after examining the behavior of the cut integrand as the unconstrained parameters of a specifically chosen parameterization of the cut loop momentum approach infinity. Measurements of new physics at the forthcoming experimental program at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a precise understanding of processes at next-to-leading order (NLO). This places increased demands for the computation of new one-loop amplitudes. This in turn has spurred recent developments towards improved calculational techniques. Direct calculations using Feynman diagrams are in general inefficient. Developments of more efficient techniques have usually centered around unitarity techniques [1], where tree amplitudes are effectively 'glued' together to form loops. The most straightforward application of this method, in which the cut loop momentum is in D = 4, allows for the computation of 'cut-constructible' terms only, i.e. (poly)logarithmic containing terms and any related constants. QCD amplitudes contain, in addition to such terms, rational pieces which cannot be derived using such cuts. These 'missing' rational parts can be extracted using cut loop momenta in D = 4-2 (var e psilon). The greater difficulty of such calculations has restricted the application of this approach, although recent developments [3, 4] have provided new promise for this technique. Recently the application of on-shell recursion relations [5] to obtaining the 'missing' rational parts of one-loop processes [6] has provided an alternative very promising solution to this problem. In combination with unitarity methods an 'on-shell bootstrap' approach provides an efficient technique for computing complete one-loop QCD amplitudes [7]. Additionally

  15. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Puhlfürst

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ϵ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ϵ-orders of a power series solution in ϵ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ϵ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ϵ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system. Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α′-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α′.

  16. Unitarity and amplitudes for high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that in the quantum field theory of scalar particles with mass m the following inequalities for the upper bound for the amplitude of elastic scattering Μ(s,t) |Μ(s,t)| 0 )s, (|t|≥|t 0 |>0) and for the total cross section of scalar particles σ tot (s)≤C|d/dt ln Im Μ(s,t)| t=0 , (s → ∞) are valid. This result is based on the unitarity of the S-matrix on the mass shell and on a natural assumption that the imaginary part of the elastic scattering Im Μ(s,t) is a differentiable and convex down function in some vicinity of t=0. The locality of the theory and the analyticity of the elastic amplitude in the Martin-Lehmann ellipse are not used in proving these inequalities

  17. Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.

    1990-02-01

    In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)

  18. Integrable spin chains and scattering amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Prygarin, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Sankt-Peterburgskij Univ., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    In this review we show that the multi-particle scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM at large N{sub c} and in the multi-Regge kinematics for some physical regions have the high energy behavior appearing from the contribution of the Mandelstam cuts in the complex angular momentum plane of the corresponding t-channel partial waves. These Mandelstam cuts or Regge cuts are resulting from gluon composite states in the adjoint representation of the gauge group SU(N{sub c}). In the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) their contribution to the six point amplitude is in full agreement with the known two-loop result. The Hamiltonian for the Mandelstam states constructed from n gluons in LLA coincides with the local Hamiltonian of an integrable open spin chain. We construct the corresponding wave functions using the integrals of motion and the Baxter-Sklyanin approach. (orig.)

  19. Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.

  20. On the infinities of closed superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restuccia, A.; Taylor, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of possible infinities that may be present in uncompactified multi-loop heterotic and type II superstring amplitudes constructed, without use of the short-string limit, in the light-cone gauge, and with use of a closed [10]-SUSY field theory algebra. Various types of degenerations of the integrand are discussed on the string worldsheet. No infinities are found, modulo (for type II) a particular identity for Green's functions

  1. Deep Inelastic Scattering at the Amplitude Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    The deep inelastic lepton scattering and deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections can be interpreted in terms of the fundamental wavefunctions defined by the light-front Fock expansion, thus allowing tests of QCD at the amplitude level. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gauge theory and string theory provides remarkable new insights into QCD, including a model for hadronic wavefunctions which display conformal scaling at short distances and color confinement at large distances

  2. Multichannel conformal blocks for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    By performing resummation of small fermion-antifermion pairs within the pentagon form factor program to scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 superYang-Mills theory, we construct multichannel conformal blocks within the flux-tube picture for N-sided NMHV polygons. This procedure is equivalent to summation of descendants of conformal primaries in the OPE framework. The resulting conformal partial waves are determined by multivariable hypergeometric series of Lauricella-Saran type.

  3. How to calculate the Coulomb scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1974-01-01

    The derivation of scattering amplitudes for Coulomb scattering is discussed. A derivation of the S-matrix elements for a dense set of states in momentum space is given in the framework of time dependent scattering theory. The convergence of the S-matrix is studied. A purely algebraic derivation of the S-matrix elements and phase shifts is also presented. (HFdV)

  4. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  5. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  6. Scattering amplitudes from multivariate polynomial division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrolia, Pierpaolo, E-mail: pierpaolo.mastrolia@cern.ch [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Mirabella, Edoardo, E-mail: mirabell@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Ossola, Giovanni, E-mail: GOssola@citytech.cuny.edu [New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Peraro, Tiziano, E-mail: peraro@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    We show that the evaluation of scattering amplitudes can be formulated as a problem of multivariate polynomial division, with the components of the integration-momenta as indeterminates. We present a recurrence relation which, independently of the number of loops, leads to the multi-particle pole decomposition of the integrands of the scattering amplitudes. The recursive algorithm is based on the weak Nullstellensatz theorem and on the division modulo the Groebner basis associated to all possible multi-particle cuts. We apply it to dimensionally regulated one-loop amplitudes, recovering the well-known integrand-decomposition formula. Finally, we focus on the maximum-cut, defined as a system of on-shell conditions constraining the components of all the integration-momenta. By means of the Finiteness Theorem and of the Shape Lemma, we prove that the residue at the maximum-cut is parametrized by a number of coefficients equal to the number of solutions of the cut itself.

  7. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  8. Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.

    1979-01-01

    ' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K p and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs

  9. Phase and amplitude inversion of crosswell radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Mazzella, Aldo T.; Horton, Robert J.; McKenna, Jason R.

    2011-01-01

    Phase and amplitude inversion of crosswell radar data estimates the logarithm of complex slowness for a 2.5D heterogeneous model. The inversion is formulated in the frequency domain using the vector Helmholtz equation. The objective function is minimized using a back-propagation method that is suitable for a 2.5D model and that accounts for the near-, intermediate-, and far-field regions of the antennas. The inversion is tested with crosswell radar data collected in a laboratory tank. The model anomalies are consistent with the known heterogeneity in the tank; the model’s relative dielectric permittivity, which is calculated from the real part of the estimated complex slowness, is consistent with independent laboratory measurements. The methodologies developed for this inversion can be adapted readily to inversions of seismic data (e.g., crosswell seismic and vertical seismic profiling data).

  10. Investigating the amplitude of interactive footstep sounds and soundscape reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the perception of amplitude of soundscapes and interactively generated footstep sounds provided both through headphones and a surround sound system. In particular, we investigate whether there exists a value for the amplitude of soundscapes and footstep sounds which...... of soundscapes does not significantly affect the selected amplitude of footstep sounds. Similarly, the perception of the soundscapes amplitude is not significantly affected by the selected amplitude of footstep sounds....

  11. One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon; Buciuni, Francesco; Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.

  12. Self-consistent approach to the solution of the light transfer problem for irradiances in marine waters with arbitrary turbidity, depth, and surface illumination. I. Case of absorption and elastic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltrin, V I

    1998-06-20

    A self-consistent variant of the two-flow approximation that takes into account strong anisotropy of light scattering in seawater of finite depth and arbitrary turbidity is presented. To achieve an appropriate accuracy, this approach uses experimental dependencies between downward and total mean cosines. It calculates irradiances, diffuse attenuation coefficients, and diffuse reflectances in waters with arbitrary values of scattering, backscattering, and attenuation coefficients. It also takes into account arbitrary conditions of illumination and reflection from the bottom with the Lambertian albedo. This theory can be used for the calculation of apparent optical properties in both open and coastal oceanic waters, lakes, and rivers. It can also be applied to other types of absorbing and scattering medium such as paints, photographic emulsions, and biological tissues.

  13. Amplitudes and observables in pp elastic scattering at {radical}(s)=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, A.K.; Ferreira, E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kodama, T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); EMMI at FIAS-Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Study, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    A precise analysis of the pp elastic scattering data at 7 TeV in terms of its amplitudes is performed as an extension of previous studies for lower energies. Slopes B{sub R} and B{sub I} of the real and imaginary amplitudes are independent quantities, and a proper expression for the Coulomb phase is used. The real and imaginary amplitudes are fully disentangled, consistently with forward dispersion relations for amplitudes and for slopes. We present analytic expressions for the amplitudes that cover all t range completely, while values of total cross section {sigma}, ratio {rho}, B{sub I}, and B{sub R} enter consistently to describe forward scattering. It is stressed that the identification of the amplitudes is an essential step for the description of elastic scattering, and pointed out the importance of the experimental investigation of the transition range from non-perturbative to perturbative dynamics, which may confirm the three gluon exchange mechanism observed at lower energies. (orig.)

  14. Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic amplitude measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, Ishak A.; Nash, Ira S.

    2004-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding ethnic differences in electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns because of the potentially confounding socioeconomic, nutritional, environmental and occupational factors. We reviewed the first 1000 medical files of a multiethnic community, where all individuals shared similar living conditions. Only healthy adults age 15 to 60 years were included. Wave amplitudes were measured manually from the standard 12lead ECG. Minnesota coding was used. ECG from 597 subjects were included in the study: 350 Saudi Arabians, 95 Indians, 17 Sri-Lankans, 39 Filipinos, and 57 Caucasians; 349 were men. the mean +-SD of Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) in men was signifcantly different among ethnic groups (2.9+-0.86, 2.64+-0.79, 2.73+-0.72, 3.23+-0.61, 2.94+-0.6, 2.58+-0.79 mV, P=0.0006, for Saudi's, Indians, Jordanians, Filipinos, Sri-Lankans, and Caucasians, respectively). SLV was similar among ethnic groups in women. The prevalence of early transition pattern was also different among ethnic groups in men but not women (15.8%, 34.6%, 17.9%, 21.7%, 35.3%, 26.8% in Suadi, Indian, Jordanian, Filipino, Sri-Lankan, and Caucasian, respectively, P=0.037). T wave amplitude was significantly different among ethnic groups in selected lead. ECG wave amplitude differs with ethnic region even when other factors are similar. Using SLV of 3.5 mV as a criterion may overestimate the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in some ethnic groups. The pattern of high R wave in lead V1is common in healthy adults in certain ethnic groups. T wave height differs with ethnic origin and sex. (author)

  15. COMPARISON OF HOLOGRAPHIC AND ITERATIVE METHODS FOR AMPLITUDE OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Shevkunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental comparison of four methods for the wavefront reconstruction is presented. We considered two iterative and two holographic methods with different mathematical models and algorithms for recovery. The first two of these methods do not use a reference wave recording scheme that reduces requirements for stability of the installation. A major role in phase information reconstruction by such methods is played by a set of spatial intensity distributions, which are recorded as the recording matrix is being moved along the optical axis. The obtained data are used consistently for wavefront reconstruction using an iterative procedure. In the course of this procedure numerical distribution of the wavefront between the planes is performed. Thus, phase information of the wavefront is stored in every plane and calculated amplitude distributions are replaced for the measured ones in these planes. In the first of the compared methods, a two-dimensional Fresnel transform and iterative calculation in the object plane are used as a mathematical model. In the second approach, an angular spectrum method is used for numerical wavefront propagation, and the iterative calculation is carried out only between closely located planes of data registration. Two digital holography methods, based on the usage of the reference wave in the recording scheme and differing from each other by numerical reconstruction algorithm of digital holograms, are compared with the first two methods. The comparison proved that the iterative method based on 2D Fresnel transform gives results comparable with the result of common holographic method with the Fourier-filtering. It is shown that holographic method for reconstructing of the object complex amplitude in the process of the object amplitude reduction is the best among considered ones.

  16. Loop amplitudes in an extended gravity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.

    2018-05-01

    We extend the S-matrix of gravity by the addition of the minimal three-point amplitude or equivalently adding R3 terms to the Lagrangian. We demonstrate how Unitarity can be used to simply examine the renormalisability of this theory and determine the R4 counter-terms that arise at one-loop. We find that the combination of R4 terms that arise in the extended theory is complementary to the R4 counter-term associated with supersymmetric Lagrangians.

  17. Loop-quantum-gravity vertex amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Jonathan; Pereira, Roberto; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-10-19

    Spin foam models are hoped to provide the dynamics of loop-quantum gravity. However, the most popular of these, the Barrett-Crane model, does not have the good boundary state space and there are indications that it fails to yield good low-energy n-point functions. We present an alternative dynamics that can be derived as a quantization of a Regge discretization of Euclidean general relativity, where second class constraints are imposed weakly. Its state space matches the SO(3) loop gravity one and it yields an SO(4)-covariant vertex amplitude for Euclidean loop gravity.

  18. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Lombard effect refers to the phenomenon where talkers automatically increase their level of speech in a noisy environment. While many studies have characterized how the Lombard effect influences different measures of speech production (e.g., F0, spectral tilt, etc.), few have investigated...... the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... of noisy environments and will alter their speech accordingly....

  19. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...... beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps...

  20. First order correction to quasiclassical scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'menko, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    First order (with respect to h) correction to quasiclassical with the aid of scattering amplitude in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is considered. This correction is represented by two-loop diagrams and includes the double integrals. With the aid of classical equations of motion, the sum of the contributions of the two-loop diagrams is transformed into the expression which includes one-dimensional integrals only. The specific property of the expression obtained is that the integrand does not possess any singularities in the focal points of the classical trajectory. The general formula takes much simpler form in the case of one-dimensional systems

  1. Tomography for amplitudes of hard exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed. Among other things, we show that this partial image contains direct information about how the target hadron responses to the (string) quark-antiquark operator of arbitrary spin J. Explicit equations relating physics content of the partial image of GPDs directly to the data are derived. Also some new results concerning the dual parametrization of GPDs are presented

  2. Inverse amplitude method and Adler zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Nicola, A.; Pelaez, J. R.; Rios, G.

    2008-01-01

    The inverse amplitude method is a powerful unitarization technique to enlarge the energy applicability region of effective Lagrangians. It has been widely used to describe resonances in hadronic physics, combined with chiral perturbation theory, as well as in the strongly interacting symmetry breaking sector. In this work we show how it can be slightly modified to also account for the subthreshold region, incorporating correctly the Adler zeros required by chiral symmetry and eliminating spurious poles. These improvements produce negligible effects on the physical region.

  3. Survey of vibration amplitudes throughout the linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnitude of vibrations of the Linac structure due to on site disturbances, such as cooling towers, pumps, generators, Highway 280 overpass traffic, is of interest. CN-263, for example, discusses tolerances of random (i.e., uncorrelated) quad jitter and suggests that amplitudes should not exceed 0.7 microns rms. This note describes the results of a series of measurements carried out in the summer of 1983. In general, the tolerance is not exceeded, but there appears not to be a good safety factor at low frequencies

  4. Electrostatic energy and screened charge interaction near the surface of metals with different Fermi surface shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, A. M.; Il'chenko, L. G.; Pashitskii, E. A.; Romanov, Yu. A.

    1980-04-01

    Using the Poisson equation Green function for a self-consistent field in a spatially inhomogeneous system, expressions for the electrostatic energy and screened charge interaction near the surface of a semi-infinite metal and a thin quantizing film are derived. It is shown that the decrease law and Friedel oscillation amplitude of adsorbed atom indirect interaction are determined by the electron spectrum character and the Fermi surface shape. The results obtained enable us to explain, in particular, the submonolayer adsorbed film structure on the W and Mo surfaces.

  5. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  6. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  7. Multichannel amplitude analyser for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, S.; Milovanovic, B.

    2003-01-01

    A multichannel amplitude analyser with 4096 channels was designed. It is based on a fast 12-bit analog-to-digital converter. The intended purpose of the instrument is recording nuclear spectra by means of scintillation detectors. The computer link is established through an opto-isolated serial connection cable, thus reducing instrument sensitivity to disturbances originating from digital circuitry. Refreshing of the data displayed on the screen occurs on every 2.5 seconds. The impulse peak detection is implemented through the differentiation of the amplified input signal, while the synchronization with the data coming from the converter output is established by taking advantage of the internal 'pipeline' structure of the converter itself. The mode of operation of the built-in microcontroller provides that there are no missed impulses, and the simple logic network prevents the initiation of the amplitude reading sequence for the next impulse in case it appears shortly after its precedent. The solution proposed here demonstrated a good performance at a comparatively low manufacturing cost, and is thus suitable for educational purposes (author)

  8. The Construction of Spin Foam Vertex Amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin foam vertex amplitudes are the key ingredient of spin foam models for quantum gravity. These fall into the realm of discretized path integral, and can be seen as generalized lattice gauge theories. They can be seen as an attempt at a 4-dimensional generalization of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3d quantum gravity. We motivate and review the construction of the vertex amplitudes of recent spin foam models, giving two different and complementary perspectives of this construction. The first proceeds by extracting geometric configurations from a topological theory of the BF type, and can be seen to be in the tradition of the work of Barrett, Crane, Freidel and Krasnov. The second keeps closer contact to the structure of Loop Quantum Gravity and tries to identify an appropriate set of constraints to define a Lorentz-invariant interaction of its quanta of space. This approach is in the tradition of the work of Smolin, Markopoulous, Engle, Pereira, Rovelli and Livine.

  9. Reduction in plasmaspheric hiss wave amplitudes during a substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Yuan, Z.; Yu, X.; Deng, X.; Tang, R.; Chen, Z.; Zhou, M.; Huang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmaspheric hiss is an important plasma wave in controlling the overall structure and dynamics of radiation belt electrons, so the distribution and generation mechanism of plasmaspheric hiss waves is worthy of study. Previous studies have found that the amplitude of plasmaspheric hiss waves tends to increase as substorm activity increases. In this study, through analysis of a hiss event observed by the Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP), it is found that the intensity of plasmaspheric hiss waves at magnetic local time (MLT) > 1300 (L≈5) is reduced or even disappears during a substorm. After calculating energetic electron trajectories, we suggest that this is because electrons are prevented from entering the plasmasphere at MLT > 1300 (L≈5) by the stronger convection electric field during the substorm. The calculations are consistent with direct observations from the RBSP satellites. The results highlight the significant and complex variability of plasmaspheric hiss waves. The amplitude of these waves on the dayside is not necessarily positively correlated with substorm activity, as negative correlations may be observed on the afternoon side during a substorm.

  10. Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Verheest

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.

  11. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  12. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  13. Fatigue life prediction of rotor blade composites: Validation of constant amplitude formulations with variable amplitude experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, T; Nijssen, R P L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Constant Life Diagram (CLD) formulation on the fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude (VA) loading was investigated based on variable amplitude tests using three different load spectra representative for wind turbine loading. Next to the Wisper and WisperX spectra, the recently developed NewWisper2 spectrum was used. Based on these variable amplitude fatigue results the prediction accuracy of 4 CLD formulations is investigated. In the study a piecewise linear CLD based on the S-N curves for 9 load ratios compares favourably in terms of prediction accuracy and conservativeness. For the specific laminate used in this study Boerstra's Multislope model provides a good alternative at reduced test effort

  14. Fatigue life prediction of rotor blade composites: Validation of constant amplitude formulations with variable amplitude experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R. P. L.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of Constant Life Diagram (CLD) formulation on the fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude (VA) loading was investigated based on variable amplitude tests using three different load spectra representative for wind turbine loading. Next to the Wisper and WisperX spectra, the recently developed NewWisper2 spectrum was used. Based on these variable amplitude fatigue results the prediction accuracy of 4 CLD formulations is investigated. In the study a piecewise linear CLD based on the S-N curves for 9 load ratios compares favourably in terms of prediction accuracy and conservativeness. For the specific laminate used in this study Boerstra's Multislope model provides a good alternative at reduced test effort.

  15. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  16. Fast vibrational configuration interaction using generalized curvilinear coordinates and self-consistent basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Yohann; Lauvergnat, David M; Benoit, David M

    2010-09-07

    In this paper, we couple a numerical kinetic-energy operator approach to the direct-vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF)/vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) method for the calculation of vibrational anharmonic frequencies. By combining this with fast-VSCF, an efficient direct evaluation of the ab initio potential-energy surface (PES), we introduce a general formalism for the computation of vibrational bound states of molecular systems exhibiting large-amplitude motion such as methyl-group torsion. We validate our approach on an analytical two-dimensional model and apply it to the methanol molecule. We show that curvilinear coordinates lead to a significant improvement in the VSCF/VCI description of the torsional frequency in methanol, even for a simple two-mode coupling expansion of the PES. Moreover, we demonstrate that a curvilinear formulation of the fast-VSCF/VCI scheme improves its speed by a factor of two and its accuracy by a factor of 3.

  17. Thrombelastography Early Amplitudes in bleeding and coagulopathic trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Holst; Meyer, Martin A S; Meyer, Anna Sina P

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early amplitudes in the viscoelastic hemostatic assays Thrombelastography (TEG) and Rotation Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) provide fast results, which is critical in resuscitation of bleeding patients. This study investigated associations between TEG early amplitudes and standard TEG var...

  18. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  19. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  20. Variational principles for the projected breakup amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Two alternate forms of variational principles for the breakup amplitude describing the two- to three-cluster transition are derived such that all the integrals involved in the intermediate stages are well defined. The first form contains a trial Green's function with which both the initial and final state trial wave functions are constructed. The earlier form of the Kohn-type variational principle derived by Lieber, Rosenberg, and Spruch is recovered, however, when this connection between the trial functions is removed. The second form of the variational principle is derived by projecting out from the trial functions all the open channel components which correspond to the two-cluster structures including the rearrangement channels. The remaining part of the wave functions describes the channels with three-cluster structures, and the integrals involving this part are then mathematically well defined

  1. Single isospin decay amplitude and CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N.G. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science; He, Xiaogang [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Pakvasa, S. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-06-01

    While for K meson or hyperon decays, the partial rate asymmetries are always zero if the final states are single isospin states, in B decays the situation is dramatically different and partial rate asymmetries can be non-zero if the final states are single isospin states. Partial rate asymmetries were calculated for several B decays with single isospin amplitude in the finale states using factorization approximation. It was found that more intermediate on-shell states with different Cabbibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa factors are allowed in B decay and CP violating partial rate asymmetries need not to be zero even if the final state contains only a single isospin state. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Large amplitude parallel propagating electromagnetic oscillitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaert, Tom; Verheest, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Earlier systematic nonlinear treatments of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves have been given within a fluid dynamic approach, in a frame where the nonlinear structures are stationary and various constraining first integrals can be obtained. This has lead to the concept of oscillitons that has found application in various space plasmas. The present paper differs in three main aspects from the previous studies: first, the invariants are derived in the plasma frame, as customary in the Sagdeev method, thus retaining in Maxwell's equations all possible effects. Second, a single differential equation is obtained for the parallel fluid velocity, in a form reminiscent of the Sagdeev integrals, hence allowing a fully nonlinear discussion of the oscilliton properties, at such amplitudes as the underlying Mach number restrictions allow. Third, the transition to weakly nonlinear whistler oscillitons is done in an analytical rather than a numerical fashion

  3. Amplitude and phase modulation with waveguide optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S.C.; Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.; Penko, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed amplitude and phase modulation systems for glass lasers using integrated electro-optic modulators and solid state high-speed electronics. The present and future generation of lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion require laser beams with complex temporal and phase shaping to compensate for laser gain saturation, mitigate parametric processes such as transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in optics, and to provide specialized drive to the fusion targets. These functions can be performed using bulk optoelectronic modulators, however using high-speed electronics to drive low voltage integrated optical modulators has many practical advantages. In particular, we utilize microwave GaAs transistors to perform precision, 250 ps resolution temporal shaping. Optical bandwidth is generated using a microwave oscillator at 3 GHz amplified by a solid state amplifier. This drives an integrated electrooptic modulator to achieve laser bandwidths exceeding 30 GHz

  4. Topological amplitudes in heterotic superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Taylor, T.R.

    1996-06-01

    We show that certain heterotic string amplitudes are given in terms of correlators of the twisted topological (2,0) SCFT, corresponding to the internal sector of the N = 1 spacetime supersymmetric background. The genus g topological partition function F g corresponds to a term in the effective action of the form W 2g , where W is the gauge or gravitational superfield. We study also recursion relations related to holomorphic anomalies, showing that, contrary to the type II case, they involve correlators of anti-chiral superfields. The corresponding terms in the effective action are of the form W 2g II n , where II is a chiral superfield obtained by chiral projection of a general superfield. We observe that the structure of the recursion relations is that of N = 1 spacetime supersymmetry Ward identity. We give also a solution of the tree level recursion relations and discuss orbifold examples. (author). 23 refs, 2 figs

  5. Polynomial structures in one-loop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Yang Gang

    2008-01-01

    A general one-loop scattering amplitude may be expanded in terms of master integrals. The coefficients of the master integrals can be obtained from tree-level input in a two-step process. First, use known formulas to write the coefficients of (4-2ε)-dimensional master integrals; these formulas depend on an additional variable, u, which encodes the dimensional shift. Second, convert the u-dependent coefficients of (4-2ε)-dimensional master integrals to explicit coefficients of dimensionally shifted master integrals. This procedure requires the initial formulas for coefficients to have polynomial dependence on u. Here, we give a proof of this property in the case of massless propagators. The proof is constructive. Thus, as a byproduct, we produce different algebraic expressions for the scalar integral coefficients, in which the polynomial property is apparent. In these formulas, the box and pentagon contributions are separated explicitly.

  6. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  7. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  8. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  9. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  10. Amplitude correlations for inelastic proton scattering from 48Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The magnitudes and relative signs of inelastic proton channel amplitudes were determined for three decay channels for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. The reduced widths in each channel follow a Porter-Thomas distribution, but extremely large amplitude correlations are observed - for one pair of channel amplitudes the relative sign is positive for 43 of 45 resonances. These results provide the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter reduced width amplitude distribution. (orig.)

  11. Tree-level gluon amplitudes on the celestial sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Anders Ø.; Volovich, Anastasia; Zlotnikov, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Pasterski, Shao and Strominger have recently proposed that massless scattering amplitudes can be mapped to correlators on the celestial sphere at infinity via a Mellin transform. We apply this prescription to arbitrary n-point tree-level gluon amplitudes. The Mellin transforms of MHV amplitudes are given by generalized hypergeometric functions on the Grassmannian Gr (4 , n), while generic non-MHV amplitudes are given by more complicated Gelfand A-hypergeometric functions.

  12. Correlations for reduced-width amplitudes in 49V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the relative sign of inelastic proton-channel amplitudes permits the determination of amplitude correlations. Data were obtained for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. Although the reduced widths in each channel followed a Porter-Thomas distribution, large amplitude correlations were observed. The results are compared with the reduced-width--amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter. This is the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter distribution

  13. Multiaxial Fatigue Properties of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy Under Different Stress Amplitude Ratio Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Ya-jun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The multiaxial fatigue behavior of 2A12 aluminum alloy was studied with SDN100/1000 electro-hydraulic servo tension-torsion fatigue tester under different stress amplitude ratios, the fracture morphology and the fatigue loading curve were observed to study the failure mechanism. The results show that, under the one stage loading condition, the fatigue life prolongs with the stress amplitude ratio increasing. Under pure torsion loading, smooth and even area exists in the fracture surface. As the stress amplitude ratio increases, the number of scratch reduces, the fatigue striation and some special morphology such as the fishbone pattern, scale pattern and honeycomb pattern can be observed; under cumulative paths of different stress amplitude ratios, the variation of multiaxial fatigue life changes with first stage loading cycles; under cumulative paths of high-low stress amplitude ratio, the cycle hardening occurs obviously in the axial direction for the first stage high stress amplitude ratio loading and 2A12 alloy shows training effect.

  14. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma with positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.

    2009-01-01

    A finite amplitude theory for ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma consisting of hot positrons, cold ions, and electrons with two-electron temperature distributions is presented. Conditions are obtained under which large amplitude stationary ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers can exist. For the physical parameters of interest, the ion-acoustic solitary wave (double layers) profiles and the relationship between the maximum soliton (double layers) amplitude and the Mach number are found. Also, we have presented the region of existence of the large amplitude ion-acoustic waves by analyzing the structure of the pseudopotential. For the selected range of parameters, it is found that only positive solitary waves and double layers can exist. An analysis for the small amplitude limit through the Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis and the reductive perturbation theory shows the existence of positive and negative ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers. The effects of positron concentration and temperature ratio on the characteristics of the solitary ion-acoustic waves and double layers (namely, the amplitude and width) are discussed in detail. The relevance of this investigation to space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out.

  15. Corrections to the box diagram amplitude due to kaon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.; Kumbhakar, D.

    1985-08-01

    The K 0 -anti-K 0 mixing amplitude is calculated without using the standard zero external momentum approximation. The resulting corrections are numerically significant for the real part of the amplitude. In the imaginary part of the amplitude the effects of similar corrections are less important. Implications for Δmsub(k) and epsilon are discussed. (author)

  16. MHV Vertices And Tree Amplitudes In Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward

    2004-01-01

    As an alternative to the usual Feynman graphs, tree amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be constructed from tree graphs in which the vertices are tree level MHV scattering amplitudes, continued off shell in a particular fashion. The formalism leads to new and relatively simple formulas for many amplitudes, and can be heuristically derived from twistor space. (author)

  17. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  18. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  19. The measurement of the amplitude of de Haas-van Alphen oscillations in indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, J. de; Meredith, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A flux-gate magnetometer incorporating a superconducting flux transformer is described and its application to the measurement of de Haas-van Alphen oscillation amplitude is compared with conventional techniques. Measurements on the third zone Fermi surface of indium in magnetic fields of up to 4 T are given to show the advantages of the method. (author)

  20. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mouloud-tribeche@lycos.com

    2009-05-11

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  1. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2009-01-01

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  2. Estimating and correcting the amplitude radiation pattern of a virtual source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Neut, J.; Bakulin, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the virtual source (VS) method we crosscorrelate seismic recordings at two receivers to create a new data set as if one of these receivers were a virtual source and the other a receiver. We focus on the amplitudes and kinematics of VS data, generated by an array of active sources at the surface

  3. Calculation of chiral determinants and multiloop amplitudes by cutting and sewing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losev, A.

    1989-01-01

    Functional integrals over fermions on open Riemann surfaces are determined up to a multiplicative constant by conservation laws. Using a cutting and sewing method these constants are found. Multiloop statsums and amplitudes as a product of anomaly-free expressions in Schottky parametrization and statsums on spheres are obtained. 5 refs

  4. Dislocations structure in copper cyclically deformed in low amplitude of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, L.C.R.

    1982-07-01

    The evolution of the dislocation structure during the fatigue life of copper, was observed. Fatigue tests were performed, in annealed polycristals, with constant plastic strain amplitude, and interrupted at different percentages of their fatigue lives. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used for surface analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy for structural observations. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Explicit formuli for one, two, three and four loops string amplitudes in critical dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    A report on explicit formulae for loop string diagrams in the primary-quantized theory of strings is presented. In the critical dimension d=26 tachyon p-loop scattering amplitude in the theory of boson strings is presented as finite-multiple integral with respect to Riemann surface M p moduli space. Integration on M p in continual integral is determined

  6. ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error in scanning Kelvin probe microscope measurements: Detection and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan; Shannon, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of the contact potential difference (CPD) reading on the ac driving amplitude in scanning Kelvin probe microscope (SKPM) hinders researchers from quantifying true material properties. We show theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that an ac driving amplitude dependence in the SKPM measurement can come from a systematic error, and it is common for all tip sample systems as long as there is a nonzero tracking error in the feedback control loop of the instrument. We further propose a methodology to detect and to correct the ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error in SKPM measurements. The true contact potential difference can be found by applying a linear regression to the measured CPD versus one over ac driving amplitude data. Two scenarios are studied: (a) when the surface being scanned by SKPM is not semiconducting and there is an ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error; (b) when a semiconductor surface is probed and asymmetric band bending occurs when the systematic error is present. Experiments are conducted using a commercial SKPM and CPD measurement results of two systems: platinum-iridium/gap/gold and platinum-iridium/gap/thermal oxide/silicon are discussed

  7. Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceo, Bianca M; Manns, Fabrice; Borja, David; Nankivil, Derek; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Arrieta, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert C; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the gradient refractive index to the change in lens power in hamadryas baboon and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation in a lens stretcher. Thirty-six monkey lenses (1.4-14.1 years) and twenty-five baboon lenses (1.8-28.0 years) were stretched in discrete steps. At each stretching step, the lens back vertex power was measured and the lens cross-section was imaged with optical coherence tomography. The radii of curvature for the lens anterior and posterior surfaces were calculated for each step. The power of each lens surface was determined using refractive indices of 1.365 for the outer cortex and 1.336 for the aqueous. The gradient contribution was calculated by subtracting the power of the surfaces from the measured lens power. In all lenses, the contribution of the surfaces and gradient increased linearly with the amplitude of accommodation. The gradient contributes on average 65 ± 3% for monkeys and 66 ± 3% for baboons to the total power change during accommodation. When expressed in percent of the total power change, the relative contribution of the gradient remains constant with accommodation and age in both species. These findings are consistent with Gullstrand's intracapsular theory of accommodation.

  8. Reliable channel-adapted error correction: Bacon-Shor code recovery from amplitude damping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Á. Piedrafita (Álvaro); J.M. Renes (Joseph)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe construct two simple error correction schemes adapted to amplitude damping noise for Bacon-Shor codes and investigate their prospects for fault-tolerant implementation. Both consist solely of Clifford gates and require far fewer qubits, relative to the standard method, to achieve

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Temporal Pulse Amplitude Biofeedback Training for Recurrent Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R.; Forsyth, Michael R.; Reece, John

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-four headache sufferers were allocated randomly to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), temporal pulse amplitude (TPA) biofeedback training, or waiting-list control. Fifty-one participants (14M/37F) completed the study, 30 with migraine and 21 with tension-type headache. Treatment consisted of 8, 1-hour sessions. CBT was highly effective,…

  10. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  11. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  12. Non-supersymmetric loop amplitudes and MHV vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, James; Brandhuber, Andreas; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We show how the MHV diagram description of Yang-Mills theories can be used to study non-supersymmetric loop amplitudes. In particular, we derive a compact expression for the cut-constructible part of the general one-loop MHV multi-gluon scattering amplitude in pure Yang-Mills theory. We show that in special cases this expression reduces to known amplitudes-the amplitude with adjacent negative-helicity gluons, and the five gluon non-adjacent amplitude. Finally, we briefly discuss the twistor space interpretation of our result

  13. Phase and amplitude detection system for the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.D.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    A computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system to measure and stabilize the rf power sources in the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. This system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 microsecond 2856 MHz rf pulse and will be used for phase feedback control and for amplitude and phase jitter detection. This paper discusses the measurement system performance requirements for the operation of the Stanford Linear Collider, and the design and implementation of the phase and amplitude detection system. The fundamental software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  14. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  15. Consistency and Communication in Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  16. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  17. Leading Wave Amplitude of a Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    Okal and Synolakis (EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts-Vol. 17-7622) recently discussed that why the maximum amplitude of a tsunami might not occur for the first wave. Okal and Synolakis list observations from 2011 Japan tsunami, which reached to Papeete, Tahiti with a fourth wave being largest and 72 min later after the first wave; 1960 Chilean tsunami reached Hilo, Hawaii with a maximum wave arriving 1 hour later with a height of 5m, first wave being only 1.2m. Largest later waves is a problem not only for local authorities both in terms of warning to the public and rescue efforts but also mislead the public thinking that it is safe to return shoreline or evacuated site after arrival of the first wave. Okal and Synolakis considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) linear dispersive analytical solution with a tsunami generation through an uplifting of a circular plug on the ocean floor. They performed parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean since these are the independent scaling lengths in the problem. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, regarding the parameters of the problem. Here, we extend their analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave as presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112). We compare our results with non-dispersive linear shallow water wave results as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015), investigating focusing feature. We discuss the results both in terms of leading wave amplitude and tsunami focusing. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk

  18. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Yeol Wan [Ammunition Engineering Team, Defense Agency for Technology and Quality, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hoon [Aerodynamics Research Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji Young [Transportation Environmental Research Team, Green Transport and Logistics Institute, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation.

  19. Effects of amplitude modulation on perception of wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Seop; Lee, Soo Gab; Gwak, Doo Young; Seong, Yeol Wan; Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine noise is considered to be easily detectable and highly annoying at relatively lower sound levels than other noise sources. Many previous studies attributed this characteristic to amplitude modulation. However, it is unclear whether amplitude modulation is the main cause of these properties of wind turbine noise. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to identify the relationship between amplitude modulation and these two properties of wind turbine noise. For this investigation, two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 12 participants determined the detection thresholds of six target sounds in the presence of background noise. In the second experiment, 12 participants matched the loudness of modified sounds without amplitude modulation to that of target sounds with amplitude modulation. The results showed that the detection threshold was lowered as the modulation depth increased; additionally, sounds with amplitude modulation had higher subjective loudness than those without amplitude modulation

  20. Radiation Pattern Reconstruction from the Near-Field Amplitude Measurement on Two Planes Using PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Novacek

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the radiation patternreconstruction from near-field amplitude only measurement over a twoplanar scanning surfaces. This new method for antenna patternreconstruction is based on the global optimization PSO (Particle SwarmOptimization. The paper presents appropriate phaseless measurementrequirements and phase retrieval algorithm together with a briefdescription of the particle swarm optimization method. In order toexamine the methodologies developed in this paper, phaselessmeasurement results for two different antennas are presented andcompared to results obtained by a complex measurement (amplitude andphase.

  1. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-02-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  2. Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Chaari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity and may be difficult to analyze which lead to erroneous diagnosis of the system. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of time varying load conditions on a gearbox dynamic behavior. To investigate this, a simple spur gear system without defects is modeled. It is subjected to a time varying load. The speed-torque characteristic of the driving motor is considered. The load variation induces speed variation, which causes a variation in the gearmesh stiffness period. Computer simulation shows deep amplitude modulations with sidebands that don't differ from those obtained when there is a defective tooth. In order to put in evidence the time varying load effects, Short Time Fourier Transform and then Smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution are used. Results show that the last one is well suited for the studied case.

  3. Electroweak amplitudes in chiral quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolhais, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    After referring to some basic features of chiral models for baryons, with quarks and mesons, we describe how to construct model states representing physical baryons. We consider soliton models such as the Linear Sigma Model or the Chromodielectric Model, and bag models such as the Cloudy Bag Model. These models are solved approximately using variational approaches whose starting point is a mean-field description. We go beyond the mean-field description by introducing quantum fluctuations in the mesonic degrees of freedom. This is achieved, in a first step, by using a quantum state to represent meson clouds and, secondly, by performing an angular momentum and isospin projection from the mean-field state (actually a coherent state). Model states for baryons (nucleon, Delta, Roper) constructed in this way are used to determine several physical properties. I this seminar we paid a particular attention to the nucleon-delta electromagnetic and weak transition, presenting the model predictions for the electromagnetic and axial amplitudes

  4. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Gadêlha, Hermes; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagellum shape for different regimes of motor activity, medium viscosity and flagellum elasticity. Unstable modes saturate via the coupling of dynein kinetics and flagellum shape without the need of invoking a nonlinear axonemal response. Hence, our work reveals a novel mechanism for the saturation of unstable modes in axonemal beating.

  5. An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.

  6. Open string topological amplitudes and gaugino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Narain, K.S.; Taylor, T.R.

    2005-09-01

    We discuss the moduli-dependent couplings of the higher derivative F-terms (TrW 2 ) h-1 , where W is the gauge N =1 chiral superfield. They are determined by the genus zero topological partition function F (0,h) , on a world-sheet with h boundaries. By string duality, these terms are also related to heterotic topological amplitudes studied in the past, with the topological twist applied only in the left-moving supersymmetric sector of the internal N =(2,0) superconformal field theory. The holomorphic anomaly of these couplings relates them to terms of the form Π n (TrW 2 ) h-2 , where Π's represent chiral projections of non-holomorphic functions of chiral superfields. An important property of these couplings is that they violate R-symmetry for h ≥ 3. As a result, once supersymmetry is broken by D-term expectation values, (TrW 2 ) 2 generates gaugino masses that can be hierarchically smaller than the scalar masses, behaving as m 1/2 ∼ m 0 4 in string units. Similarly, ΠTrW 2 generates Dirac masses for non-chiral brane fermions, of the same order of magnitude. This mechanism can be used for instance to obtain fermion masses at the TeV scale for scalar masses as high as m 0 ∼ O (10 13 ) GeV. We present explicit examples in toroidal string compactifications with intersecting D-branes. (author)

  7. Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M A; Continentino, M A

    2018-01-01

    Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.

  8. Effective anisotropy through traveltime and amplitude matching

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hui

    2014-08-05

    Introducing anisotropy to seismic wave propagation reveals more realistic physics of our Earth\\'s subsurface as compared to the isotropic assumption. However wavefield modeling, the engine of seismic inverse problems, in anisotropic media still suffers from computational burdens, in particular with complex anisotropy such as transversely isotropic (TI) and Orthorhombic anisotropy. We develop effective isotropic velocity and density models to package the effects of anisotropy such that the wave propagation behavior using these effective models approximate those of the original anisotropic model. We build these effective models through the high frequency asymptotic approximation based on the eikonal and transport equations. We match the geometrical behavior of the wave-fields, given by traveltimes, from the anisotropic and isotropic eikonal equations. This matching yields the effective isotropic velocity that approximates the kinematics of the anisotropic wavefield. Equivalently, we calculate the effective densities by equating the anisotropic and isotropic transport equations. The effective velocities and densities are then fed into the isotropic acoustic variable density wave equation to obtain cheaper anisotropic wavefields. We justify our approach by testing it on an elliptical anisotropic model. The numerical results demonstrate a good matching of both traveltime and amplitude between anisotropic and effective isotropic wavefields.

  9. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU at is as part of the system that controls the output of Klystorns in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  10. Complex amplitude reconstruction by iterative amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng; Guo, Cheng; Tan, Jiubin; Liu, Shutian; Liu, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    Multi-image iterative phase retrieval methods have been successfully applied in plenty of research fields due to their simple but efficient implementation. However, there is a mismatch between the measurement of the first long imaging distance and the sequential interval. In this paper, an amplitude-phase retrieval algorithm with reference is put forward without additional measurements or priori knowledge. It gets rid of measuring the first imaging distance. With a designed update formula, it significantly raises the convergence speed and the reconstruction fidelity, especially in phase retrieval. Its superiority over the original amplitude-phase retrieval (APR) method is validated by numerical analysis and experiments. Furthermore, it provides a conceptual design of a compact holographic image sensor, which can achieve numerical refocusing easily.

  11. Investigation of boiling water reactor stability and limit-cycle amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, B.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Euler, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Galerkin's method has been applied to a boiling water reactor (BWR) dynamics model consisting of the point kinetics equations, which describe the neutronics, and a feedback transfer function, which describes the thermal hydraulics. The result is a low-order approximate solution describing BWR behavior during small-amplitude limit-cycle oscillations. The approximate solution has been used to obtain a stability condition, show that the average reactor power must increase during limit-cycle oscillations, and qualitatively determine how changes in transfer function values affect the limit-cycle amplitude. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Estimation of mountain slope stability depending on ground consistency and slip-slide resistance changes on impact of dynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayroyan, H. S.; Hayroyan, S. H.; Karapetyan, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, three types of clayish soils with different consistency and humidity properties and slip-slide resistance indexes are considered on impact of different cyclic shear stresses. The side-surface deformation charts are constructed on the basis of experimental data obtained testing cylindrical soil samples. It is shown that the fluctuation amplitude depends on time and the consistency index depends on the humidity condition in the soil inner contact and the connectivity coefficients. Consequently, each experiment is interpreted. The main result of this research is that it is necessary to make corrections in the currently active schemes of slip-hazardous slopes stability estimation, which is a crucial problem requiring ASAP solution.

  13. Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes; Amplitudes de transversidad en procesos de intercambio de hipercarga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.

    1979-07-01

    In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used In processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K{sup p} and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of.the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs.

  14. Correlation of amplitude modulation to inflow characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    a new 38.8m test blade for a 2MW NM80 turbine was manufactured and equipped with a massive instrumentation comprising flush mounted surface microphones, pressure taps and five hole pitot tubes. The correlation of the spectra from the surface microphones and the measured inflow angle (IA) confirmed...... the strong increase in the noise source for high IA. As only few 10min data sets were measured in the DANAERO project a data set with measured inflow angle from 2003 on the same turbine has been used to explore the statistical properties of AM and OAM based on assumed correlation to IA....

  15. Scattering amplitudes in four- and six-dimensional gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Theodor

    2014-01-01

    We study scattering amplitudes in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), N=4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory and the six-dimensional N=(1,1) SYM theory, focusing on the symmetries of and relations between the tree-level scattering amplitudes in these three gauge theories. We derive the tree level and one-loop color decomposition of an arbitrary QCD amplitude into primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes. We prove that every color ordered tree amplitude of massless QCD can be obtained from gluon-gluino amplitudes of N=4 SYM theory. Furthermore, we derive analytical formulae for all gluon-gluino amplitudes relevant for QCD. We compare the numerical efficiency and accuracy of evaluating these closed analytic formulae for color ordered QCD tree amplitudes to a numerically efficient implementation of the Berends-Giele recursion. We derive the symmetries of massive tree amplitudes on the coulomb branch of N=4 SYM theory, which in turn can be obtained from N=(1,1) SYM theory by dimensional reduction. Furthermore, we investigate the tree amplitudes of N=(1, 1) SYM theory and explain how analytical formulae can be obtained from a numerical implementation of the supersymmetric BCFW recursion relation and investigate a potential uplift of the massless tree amplitudes of N=4 SYM theory. Finally we study an alternative to dimensional regularization of N=4 SYM theory. The infrared divergences are regulated by masses obtained from a Higgs mechanism. The corresponding string theory set-up suggests that the amplitudes have an exact dual conformal symmetry. We confirm this expectation and illustrate the calculational advantages of the massive regulator by explicit calculations.

  16. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  17. X-ray Laue diffraction with allowance for second derivatives of amplitudes in dynamical diffraction equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balyan, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrical Laue diffraction in a perfect crystal with a plane entrance surface is considered. The second derivatives of amplitudes in the direction, perpendicular to diffraction plane in the dynamical diffraction equations are taken into account. Using the corresponding Green function a general form for the amplitude of diffracted wave in the crystal is derived. The sizes of the source in both directions as well as the source of crystal distance and non-monochromaticity of the radiation incident on the crystal are taken into account. On the basis of obtained expression the coherent properties of the field depending on the sizes of the source and on the width of the spectrum of the incident radiation are analyzed. Taking into account the second derivatives of amplitudes with respect to the direction, perpendicular to the diffraction plane, the time dependent propagation equations for an X-ray pulse in a perfect crystal are given

  18. Amplitude growth due to random, correlated kicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.; Mills, F.

    1989-03-01

    Historically, stochastic processes, such as gas scattering or stochastic cooling, have been treated by the Fokker-Planck equation. In this approach, usually considered for one dimension only, the equation can be considered as a continuity equation for a variable which would be a constant of the motion in the absence of the stochastic process, for example, the action variable, I = ε/2π for betatron oscillations, where ε is the area of the Courant-Snyder ellipse, or energy in the case of unbunched beams, or the action variable for phase oscillations in case the beam is bunched. A flux, /Phi/, including diffusive terms can be defined, usually to second order. /Phi/ = M 1 F(I) + M 2 ∂F/∂I + /hor ellipsis/. M 1 and M 2 are the expectation values of δI and (δI) 2 due to the individual stochastic kicks over some period of time, long enough that the variance of these quantities is sufficiently small. Then the Fokker-Planck equation is just ∂F/∂I + ∂/Phi//∂I = 0. In many cases those where the beam distribution has already achieved its final shape, it is sufficient to find the rate of increase of by taking simple averages over the Fokker-Planck equation. At the time this work was begun, there was good knowledge of the second moment for general stochastic processes due to stochastic cooling theory, but the form of the first moment was known only for extremely wideband processes. The purposes of this note are to derive an expression relating the expected single particle amplitude growth to the noise autocorrelation function and to obtain, thereby, the form of M 1 for narrow band processes. 4 refs

  19. Direct generation of all-optical random numbers from optical pulse amplitude chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, An-Bang; Yang, Ling-Zhen; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2012-02-13

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate an all-optical method for directly generating all-optical random numbers from pulse amplitude chaos produced by a mode-locked fiber ring laser. Under an appropriate pump intensity, the mode-locked laser can experience a quasi-periodic route to chaos. Such a chaos consists of a stream of pulses with a fixed repetition frequency but random intensities. In this method, we do not require sampling procedure and external triggered clocks but directly quantize the chaotic pulses stream into random number sequence via an all-optical flip-flop. Moreover, our simulation results show that the pulse amplitude chaos has no periodicity and possesses a highly symmetric distribution of amplitude. Thus, in theory, the obtained random number sequence without post-processing has a high-quality randomness verified by industry-standard statistical tests.

  20. Trend Extraction in Functional Data of Amplitudes of R and T Waves in Exercise Electrocardiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Camillo; Curione, Mario

    The amplitudes of R and T waves of the electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded during the exercise test show both large inter- and intra-individual variability in response to stress. We analyze a dataset of 65 normal subjects undergoing ambulatory test. We model the dataset of R and T series in the framework of functional data, assuming that the individual series are realizations of a non-stationary process, centered at the population trend. We test the time variability of this trend computing a simultaneous confidence band and the zero crossing of its derivative. The analysis shows that the amplitudes of the R and T waves have opposite responses to stress, consisting respectively in a bump and a dip at the early recovery stage. Our findings support the existence of a relationship between R and T wave amplitudes and respectively diastolic and systolic ventricular volumes.

  1. Alfven-wave particle interaction in finite-dimensional self-consistent field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhye, N.; Horton, W.

    1998-01-01

    A low-dimensional Hamiltonian model is derived for the acceleration of ions in finite amplitude Alfven waves in a finite pressure plasma sheet. The reduced low-dimensional wave-particle Hamiltonian is useful for describing the reaction of the accelerated ions on the wave amplitudes and phases through the self-consistent fields within the envelope approximation. As an example, the authors show for a single Alfven wave in the central plasma sheet of the Earth's geotail, modeled by the linear pinch geometry called the Harris sheet, the time variation of the wave amplitude during the acceleration of fast protons

  2. Movement amplitude on the Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device: deep spinal muscle activity and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnard, A; Debuse, D; Wilkinson, M; Samson, L; Weber, T; Caplan, Nick

    2017-08-01

    Lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA) show altered motor control, and LM is atrophied, in people with low-back pain (LBP). The Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) involves cyclical lower-limb movement against minimal resistance in an upright posture. It has been shown to recruit LM and TrA automatically, and may have potential as an intervention for non-specific LBP. However, no studies have yet investigated the effects of changes in FRED movement amplitude on the activity of these muscles. This study aimed to assess the effects of different FRED movement amplitudes on LM and TrA muscle thickness and movement variability, to inform an evidence-based exercise prescription. Lumbar multifidus and TrA thickness of eight healthy male volunteers were examined using ultrasound imaging during FRED exercise, normalised to rest at four different movement amplitudes. Movement variability was also measured. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare each amplitude. Exercise at all amplitudes recruited LM and TrA more than rest, with thickness increases of approximately 5 and 1 mm, respectively. Larger amplitudes also caused increased TrA thickness, LM and TrA muscle thickness variability and movement variability. The data suggests that all amplitudes are useful for recruiting LM and TrA. A progressive training protocol should start in the smallest amplitude, increasing the setting once participants can maintain a consistent movement speed, to continue to challenge the motor control system.

  3. Analyticity properties of two-body helicity amplitudes; Proprietes d'analyticite des amplitudes d'helicite a deux corps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navelet-Noualhier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    Helicity amplitudes are expressed via the spinor amplitudes in terms of the Joos invariant which have been shown by Williams to be free from kinematical singularities. This procedure allows to analyze the kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes and separate them out, which results into the definition of regularized helicity amplitudes. A crossing matrix for helicity amplitudes, is written down, corresponding to the continuation path used to cross spinor amplitudes. We verify explicitly that the corresponding crossing matrix for regularized helicity amplitudes is uniform as it should be. Kinematical constraints which generalize, to the case of arbitrary spins and masses, relations which must hold between helicity amplitudes at some values of the energy variable in {pi}N {yields} {pi}N, {pi}{pi} {yields} NN-bar and NN-bar {yields} NN-bar reactions, appear as a consequence of the existence of poles in the crossing matrix between regularized helicity amplitudes. An english version of this work has been written with G. Cohen-Tannoudji and A. Morel and submitted for publication to Annals of Physics. (author) [French] Les amplitudes d'helicite pour une reaction a deux corps sont exprimees, par l'intermediaire des amplitudes spinorielles, en fonction d'amplitudes invariantes de Joos qui sont, comme l'a montre Williams, sans singularites cinematiques. Ce procede nous permet d'analyser puis d'eliminer les singularites cinematiques des amplitudes d'helicite. Ceci nous conduit a la definition d'amplitudes d'helicite 'regularisees'. Une relation de 'croisement' entre amplitudes d'helicite est ecrite; elle realise leur prolongement analytique le long du chemin utilise pour 'croiser' les amplitudes spinorielles. Nous verifions que les elements de la matrice de croisement entre amplitudes d'helicite 'regularisees' sont bien uniformes. Les contraintes cinematiques qui generalisent, au cas de masses et de spins arbitraires, les relations obtenues dans les reactions {pi

  4. Comparison of Travel-Time and Amplitude Measurements for Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabdian, Majid; Fournier, Damien; Gizon, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of deep-focusing time-distance helioseismology is to construct seismic measurements that have a high sensitivity to the physical conditions at a desired target point in the solar interior. With this technique, pairs of points on the solar surface are chosen such that acoustic ray paths intersect at this target (focus) point. Considering acoustic waves in a homogeneous medium, we compare travel-time and amplitude measurements extracted from the deep-focusing cross-covariance functions. Using a single-scattering approximation, we find that the spatial sensitivity of deep-focusing travel times to sound-speed perturbations is zero at the target location and maximum in a surrounding shell. This is unlike the deep-focusing amplitude measurements, which have maximum sensitivity at the target point. We compare the signal-to-noise ratio for travel-time and amplitude measurements for different types of sound-speed perturbations, under the assumption that noise is solely due to the random excitation of the waves. We find that, for highly localized perturbations in sound speed, the signal-to-noise ratio is higher for amplitude measurements than for travel-time measurements. We conclude that amplitude measurements are a useful complement to travel-time measurements in time-distance helioseismology.

  5. Dynamic force microscopy with quartz tuning forks at high oscillation amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labardi, M

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) with the self-oscillator (SO) method allows reasonably high scanning rates even with high Q-factors of the resonant force sensor, typical of cantilevers in ultra-high vacuum and of quartz tuning forks. However, due to simpler interpretation of force spectroscopy measurements, small oscillation amplitudes (sub-nm level) are generally preferred. In applications like 'apertureless' scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM), oscillation amplitudes of the order of 5-10 nm are needed to increase optical sensitivity and to apply standard optical artefact suppression methods. This motivates the study of the behaviour of tuning forks driven at such high amplitudes, as compared to usual air-operated cantilevers. Both constant-excitation-amplitude (CE) and constant-oscillation-amplitude (CA) modes of SO-DFM are analysed, since the CA mode is more convenient for SNOM applications, denoting remarkable differences. In particular, possible instability effects, previously found in CE mode, are not anticipated for CA mode. It is shown how resonance and approach ('isophase') curves in both modes can be conveniently described in terms of the usual 'normalized frequency shift' γ and of a 'normalized gain' η, defined as a measurement of surface dissipation

  6. Eikonal representation of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, H.M.; Kang, K.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for the construction of N-body Coulomb scattering amplitudes is proposed, suggested by the simplest case of N = 2: Calculate the scattering amplitude in eikonal approximation, discard the infinite phase factors which appear upon taking the limit of a Coulomb potential, and treat the remainder as an amplitude whose absolute value squared produces the exact, Coulomb differential cross section. The method easily generalizes to the N-body Coulomb problem for elastic scattering, and for inelastic rearrangement scattering of Coulomb bound states. We give explicit results for N = 3 and 4; in the N = 3 case we extract amplitudes for the processes (12)+3->1+2+3 (breakup), (12)+3->1+(23) (rearrangement), and (12)+3→(12)'+3 (inelastic scattering) as residues at the appropriate poles in the free-free amplitude. The method produces scattering amplitudes f/sub N/ given in terms of explicit quadratures over (N-2) 2 distinct integrands

  7. Expansion of all multitrace tree level EYM amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo; Teng, Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expansion of tree level multitrace Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) amplitudes. First, we propose two types of recursive expansions of tree level EYM amplitudes with an arbitrary number of gluons, gravitons and traces by those amplitudes with fewer traces or/and gravitons. Then we give many support evidence, including proofs using the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursive relation. As a byproduct, two types of generalized BCJ relations for multitrace EYM are further proposed, which will be useful in the BCFW proof. After one applies the recursive expansions repeatedly, any multitrace EYM amplitudes can be given in the Kleiss-Kuijf (KK) basis of tree level color ordered Yang-Mills (YM) amplitudes. Thus the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) numerators, as the expansion coefficients, for all multitrace EYM amplitudes are naturally constructed.

  8. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  9. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  10. Loop Amplitudes in Pure Yang-Mills from Generalised Unitarity

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhuber, Andreas; McNamara, Simon; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4 - 2 epsilon dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions.

  11. Loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills from generalised unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, Andreas; McNamara, Simon; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4-2ε dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions

  12. Loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills from generalised unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhuber, Andreas [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); McNamara, Simon [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Spence, Bill [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Travaglini, Gabriele [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-15

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4-2{epsilon} dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions.

  13. Calculation and modular properties of multiloop superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multiloop superstring amplitudes are calculated within an extensively used gauge where the two-dimensional gravitino field carries Grassmann moduli. In general, the amplitudes possess, instead of modular symmetry, symmetry with respect to modular transformation supplemented with appropriate transformations of two-dimensional local supersymmetry. If the number of loops is larger than three, the integrationmeasures are notmodular forms, while the expression for the amplitude contains integrals along the boundary of the fundamental region of the modular group.

  14. Efficient analytic computation of higher-order QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Chalmers, G.; Dunbar, D.C.; Kosower, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors review techniques simplifying the analytic calculation of one-loop QCD amplitudes with many external legs, for use in next-to-leading-order corrections to multi-jet processes. Particularly useful are the constraints imposed by perturbative unitarity, collinear singularities and a supersymmetry-inspired organization of helicity amplitudes. Certain sequences of one-loop helicity amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external gluons have been obtained using these constraints

  15. Improved pion pion scattering amplitude from dispersion relation formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, I.P.; Coutinho, Y.A.; Borges, J. Sa

    2005-01-01

    Pion-pion scattering amplitude is obtained from Chiral Perturbation Theory at one- and two-loop approximations. Dispersion relation formalism provides a more economic method, which was proved to reproduce the analytical structure of that amplitude at both approximation levels. This work extends the use of the formalism in order to compute further unitarity corrections to partial waves, including the D-wave amplitude. (author)

  16. Ambitwistor strings and reggeon amplitudes in N=4 SYM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Bork

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the description of reggeon amplitudes (Wilson lines form factors in N=4 SYM within the framework of four dimensional ambitwistor string theory. The latter is used to derive scattering equations representation for reggeon amplitudes with multiple reggeized gluons present. It is shown, that corresponding tree-level string correlation function correctly reproduces previously obtained Grassmannian integral representation of reggeon amplitudes in N=4 SYM.

  17. The five-gluon amplitude and one-loop integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.; Kosower, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    We review the conventional field theory description of the string motivated technique. This technique is applied to the one-loop five-gluon amplitude. To evaluate the amplitude a general method for computing dimensionally regulated one-loop integrals is outlined including results for one-loop integrals required for the pentagon diagram and beyond. Finally, two five-gluon helicity amplitudes are given

  18. Renormalization in the complete Mellin representation of Feynman amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calan, C. de; David, F.; Rivasseau, V.

    1981-01-01

    The Feynmann amplitudes are renormalized in the formalism of the CM representation. This Mellin-Barnes type integral representation, previously introduced for the study of asymptotic behaviours, is shown to have the following interesting property: in contrast with the usual subtraction procedures, the renormalization leaves the CM intergrand unchanged, and only results into translations of the integration path. The explicit CM representation of the renormalized amplitudes is given. In addition, the dimensional regularization and the extension to spinor amplitudes are sketched. (orig.)

  19. Hedgehog bases for A{sub n} cluster polylogarithms and an application to six-point amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Daniel E.; Scherlis, Adam; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence RI 02912 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Multi-loop scattering amplitudes in N=4 Yang-Mills theory possess cluster algebra structure. In order to develop a computational framework which exploits this connection, we show how to construct bases of Goncharov polylogarithm functions, at any weight, whose symbol alphabet consists of cluster coordinates on the A{sub n} cluster algebra. Using such a basis we present a new expression for the 2-loop 6-particle NMHV amplitude which makes some of its cluster structure manifest.

  20. Consistent biokinetic models for the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The biokinetic models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were developed within a generic framework that depicts gradual burial of skeletal activity in bone volume, depicts recycling of activity released to blood and links excretion to retention and translocation of activity. For other actinide elements such as Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es, the ICRP still uses simplistic retention models that assign all skeletal activity to bone surface and depicts one-directional flow of activity from blood to long-term depositories to excreta. This mixture of updated and older models in ICRP documents has led to inconsistencies in dose estimates and interpretation of bioassay for radionuclides with reasonably similar biokinetics. This paper proposes new biokinetic models for Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es that are consistent with the updated models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. The proposed models are developed within the ICRP's generic model framework for bone-surface-seeking radionuclides, and an effort has been made to develop parameter values that are consistent with results of comparative biokinetic data on the different actinide elements. (author)

  1. Algebraic evaluation of rational polynomials in one-loop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binoth, Thomas; Guillet, Jean-Philippe; Heinrich, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    One-loop amplitudes are to a large extent determined by their unitarity cuts in four dimensions. We show that the remaining rational terms can be obtained from the ultraviolet behaviour of the amplitude, and determine universal form factors for these rational parts by applying reduction techniques to the Feynman diagrammatic representation of the amplitude. The method is valid for massless and massive internal particles. We illustrate this method by evaluating the rational terms of the one-loop amplitudes for gg→H, γγ→γγ, gg→gg,γγ→ggg and γγ→γγγγ

  2. Phase and amplitude control system for Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    The computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 micro-second 2856 MHz rf pulse at a 180 Hz rate. This will be used for phase feedback control, and also for phase and amplitude jitter measurement. The program, which was originally written by John Fox and Keith Jobe, has been modified to improve the function of the system. The software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  3. New rigorous asymptotic theorems for inverse scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomsadze, Sh.Yu.; Lomsadze, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    The rigorous asymptotic theorems both of integral and local types obtained earlier and establishing logarithmic and in some cases even power correlations aetdeen the real and imaginary parts of scattering amplitudes Fsub(+-) are extended to the inverse amplitudes 1/Fsub(+-). One also succeeds in establishing power correlations of a new type between the real and imaginary parts, both for the amplitudes themselves and for the inverse ones. All the obtained assertions are convenient to be tested in high energy experiments when the amplitudes show asymptotic behaviour

  4. Proof of the fundamental BCJ relations for QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Leonardo de la; Kniss, Alexander; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental BCJ-relation is a linear relation between primitive tree amplitudes with different cyclic orderings. The cyclic orderings differ by the insertion place of one gluon. The coefficients of the fundamental BCJ-relation are linear in the Lorentz invariants 2p_ip_j. The BCJ-relations are well established for pure gluonic amplitudes as well as for amplitudes in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Recently, it has been conjectured that the BCJ-relations hold also for QCD amplitudes. In this paper we give a proof of this conjecture. The proof is valid for massless and massive quarks.

  5. Amplitude dependent damping in single crystalline high purity molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I; Lambri, O.A; Garcia, J.A; Lomer, J.N

    2004-01-01

    Amplitude dependent damping measurements were performed on high purity single crystalline molybdenum at several different constant temperatures between room temperature and 1273K. The employed samples were single crystals with the orientation, having a residual resistivity ratio of about 8000. Previously to the amplitude dependent damping tests, the samples were subjected to different thermomechanical histories. Amplitude dependent damping effects appear only during the first heating run in temperature where the samples have the thermomechanical state of the deformation process at room temperature. In the subsequent run-ups in temperature, i.e, after subsequent annealings, amplitude dependent damping effects were not detected (au)

  6. Analytical structure of the 3. -->. 3 forward scattering amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logunov, A A; Medvedev, B V; Muzafarov, L M; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.

    1979-08-01

    Analytical properties of the amplitude of 3..-->..3 forward scattering established in the framework of the Bogolyubov axiomatic approach are described. The amplitudes of the different channels of the process are boundary values of a unique analytical function of invariant variables. Crossing-symmetry property of the amplitude is proved. Analysis of the absorptive part of the amplitude is performed and the generalized optical theorem is proved which connects one of the contributions into the absorptive part with the distribution function of the inclusive process.

  7. Generalized unitarity for N=4 super-amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.M.; Henn, J. [LAPTH, Université de Savoie, CNRS B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Korchemsky, G.P., E-mail: Gregory.Korchemsky@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sokatchev, E. [LAPTH, Université de Savoie, CNRS B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

    2013-04-21

    We develop a manifestly supersymmetric version of the generalized unitarity cut method for calculating scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM theory. We illustrate the power of this method by computing the one-loop n-point NMHV super-amplitudes. The result confirms two conjectures which we made in Drummond, et al., [1]. Firstly, we derive the compact, manifestly dual superconformally covariant form of the NMHV tree amplitudes for arbitrary number and types of external particles. Secondly, we show that the ratio of the one-loop NMHV to the MHV amplitude is dual conformal invariant.

  8. Tree-level amplitudes and dual superconformal symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.fr [PH-TH Division, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

    2011-11-11

    We review the structure of gauge theory scattering amplitudes at tree level and describe how a compact expression can be found which encodes all the tree-level amplitudes in the maximally supersymmetric N=4 theory. The expressions for the amplitudes reveal a dual superconformal symmetry. We describe how these ideas can be extended to leading singularities and the loop integrand in the planar theory and discuss the appearance of dual conformal symmetry in higher-dimensional gauge theories. This paper is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)

  9. New relations for Einstein–Yang–Mills amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieberger, Stephan; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain new relations between Einstein–Yang–Mills (EYM) amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus a single graviton and pure Yang–Mills amplitudes involving N gauge bosons plus one additional vector boson inserted in a way typical for a gauge boson of a “spectator” group commuting with the group associated to original N gauge bosons. We show that such EYM amplitudes satisfy U(1) decoupling relations similar to Kleiss–Kuijf relations for Yang–Mills amplitudes. We consider a D-brane embedding of EYM amplitudes in the framework of disk amplitudes involving open and closed strings. A new set of monodromy relations is derived for mixed open–closed amplitudes with one closed string inserted on the disk world-sheet and a number of open strings at the boundary. These relations allow expressing the latter in terms of pure open string amplitudes and, in the field-theory limit, they yield the U(1) decoupling relations for EYM amplitudes.

  10. Source-Space Cross-Frequency Amplitude-Amplitude Coupling in Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zobay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD model has been influential in the development of theoretical explanations for the neurological mechanisms of tinnitus. It asserts that thalamocortical oscillations lock a region in the auditory cortex into an ectopic slow-wave theta rhythm (4–8 Hz. The cortical area surrounding this region is hypothesized to generate abnormal gamma (>30 Hz oscillations (“edge effect” giving rise to the tinnitus percept. Consequently, the model predicts enhanced cross-frequency coherence in a broad range between theta and gamma. In this magnetoencephalography study involving tinnitus and control cohorts, we investigated this prediction. Using beamforming, cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC was computed within the auditory cortices for frequencies (f1,f2 between 2 and 80 Hz. We find the AAC signal to decompose into two distinct components at low (f1,f230 Hz frequencies, respectively. Studying the correlation of AAC with several key covariates (age, hearing level (HL, tinnitus handicap and duration, and HL at tinnitus frequency, we observe a statistically significant association between age and low-frequency AAC. Contrary to the TCD predictions, however, we do not find any indication of statistical differences in AAC between tinnitus and controls and thus no evidence for the predicted enhancement of cross-frequency coupling in tinnitus.

  11. True amplitude wave equation migration arising from true amplitude one-way wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Guanquan; Bleistein, Norman

    2003-10-01

    One-way wave operators are powerful tools for use in forward modelling and inversion. Their implementation, however, involves introduction of the square root of an operator as a pseudo-differential operator. Furthermore, a simple factoring of the wave operator produces one-way wave equations that yield the same travel times as the full wave equation, but do not yield accurate amplitudes except for homogeneous media and for almost all points in heterogeneous media. Here, we present augmented one-way wave equations. We show that these equations yield solutions for which the leading order asymptotic amplitude as well as the travel time satisfy the same differential equations as the corresponding functions for the full wave equation. Exact representations of the square-root operator appearing in these differential equations are elusive, except in cases in which the heterogeneity of the medium is independent of the transverse spatial variables. Here, we address the fully heterogeneous case. Singling out depth as the preferred direction of propagation, we introduce a representation of the square-root operator as an integral in which a rational function of the transverse Laplacian appears in the integrand. This allows us to carry out explicit asymptotic analysis of the resulting one-way wave equations. To do this, we introduce an auxiliary function that satisfies a lower dimensional wave equation in transverse spatial variables only. We prove that ray theory for these one-way wave equations leads to one-way eikonal equations and the correct leading order transport equation for the full wave equation. We then introduce appropriate boundary conditions at z = 0 to generate waves at depth whose quotient leads to a reflector map and an estimate of the ray theoretical reflection coefficient on the reflector. Thus, these true amplitude one-way wave equations lead to a 'true amplitude wave equation migration' (WEM) method. In fact, we prove that applying the WEM imaging condition

  12. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  13. Three-dimensional finite amplitude electroconvection in dielectric liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kang; Wu, Jian; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2018-02-01

    Charge injection induced electroconvection in a dielectric liquid lying between two parallel plates is numerically simulated in three dimensions (3D) using a unified lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Cellular flow patterns and their subcritical bifurcation phenomena of 3D electroconvection are numerically investigated for the first time. A unit conversion is also derived to connect the LBM system to the real physical system. The 3D LBM codes are validated by three carefully chosen cases and all results are found to be highly consistent with the analytical solutions or other numerical studies. For strong injection, the steady state roll, polygon, and square flow patterns are observed under different initial disturbances. Numerical results show that the hexagonal cell with the central region being empty of charge and centrally downward flow is preferred in symmetric systems under random initial disturbance. For weak injection, the numerical results show that the flow directly passes from the motionless state to turbulence once the system loses its linear stability. In addition, the numerically predicted linear and finite amplitude stability criteria of different flow patterns are discussed.

  14. Amplitude analysis of $B^- \\to D^+ \\pi^- \\pi^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; 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Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-10-05

    The Dalitz plot analysis technique is used to study the resonant substructures of $B^- \\to D^+ \\pi^- \\pi^-$ decays in a data sample corresponding to 3.0 fb$^-1$ of $pp$ collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. A model-independent analysis of the angular moments demonstrates the presence of resonances with spins 1, 2 and 3 at high $D^+\\pi^-$ mass. The data are fitted with an amplitude model composed of a quasi-model-independent function to describe the $D^+\\pi^-$ S-wave together with virtual contributions from the $D^*(2007)^{0}$ and $B^{*0}$ states, and components corresponding to the $D^*_2(2460)^{0}$, $D^*_1(2680)^{0}$, $D^*_3(2760)^{0}$ and $D^*_2(3000)^{0}$ resonances. The masses and widths of these resonances are determined together with the branching fractions for their production in $B^- \\to D^+ \\pi^- \\pi^-$ decays. The $D^+\\pi^-$ S-wave has phase motion consistent with that expected due to the presence of the $D^*_0(2400)^{0}$ state. These results constitute the first obser...

  15. Tensor to scalar ratio of perturbation amplitudes and inflaton dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrero-Escalante, César A.

    2003-06-01

    In this Letter some details of the relation between the tensor to scalar amplitudes ratio /r and the inflationary dynamics are pointed out which are relevant for the classification and reconstruction of the inflationary potential. For the inflaton perturbations it is shown that the evolution of the difference between the spectral indices can be translated into information on the scale dependence of /r, and how the scalar field potential can be derived from that information. Examples are given where /r converges to a constant value during inflation but dynamics are rather different from the power-law model. Cases are presented where a constant /r is not characteristic of the inflationary dynamics though the resulting perturbation spectra are consistent with the CMB and LSS data. The inflaton potential corresponding to /r given by a /nth order polynomial of the e-folds number is derived in quadratures expressions. Since the observable difference between the spectral indices evaluated at a pivot scale yields information about the linear term of that polynomial, the first order case is explicitly written down. The solutions show features beyond the exponential form corresponding to power-law inflation and can be matched with current observational data.

  16. Double logarithmic asymptotics of quark amplitudes with flavour exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results on the quark scattering and annihilation amplitudes in the Regge region are presented. The perturbative contribution to those amplitudes in the double logarithmic approximation are calculated. In the calculations a method based on dispersion relations and gauge invariance is used. (M.F.W.)

  17. Damping and Frequency Shift of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kenneth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    The initial evolution of large-amplitude one-dimensional electron waves is investigated by applying a numerical simulation. The initial wave damping is found to be strongly enhanced relative to the linear damping and it increases with increasing amplitude. The temporal evolution of the nonlinear...

  18. Singularities of elastic scattering amplitude by long-range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitsinsky, A.A.; Komarov, I.V.; Merkuriev, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The angular peculiarities and the zero energy singularities of the elastic scattering amplitude by a long-range potential are described. The singularities of the elastic (2 → 2) scattering amplitude for a system of three Coulomb particles are considered [ru

  19. Properties of the scattering amplitude for electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, J.M.; Tip, A.

    1983-02-01

    For the scattering of an electron by an atom finiteness of the amplitude at non threshold energies is proved in the framework of the N-body Schroedinger equation. It is also shown that both the direct and exchange amplitudes have analytic continuations for complex values of incident momentum, with pole or cut singularities on the imaginary axis

  20. Miracles in Scattering Amplitudes: from QCD to Gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovich, Anastasia [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    2016-10-09

    The goal of my research project "Miracles in Scattering Amplitudes: from QCD to Gravity" involves deepening our understanding of gauge and gravity theories by exploring hidden structures in scattering amplitudes and using these rich structures as much as possible to aid practical calculations.

  1. Weak decay amplitudes in large N/sub c/ QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1988-10-01

    A systematic analysis of nonleptonic decay amplitudes is presented using the large N/sub c/ expansion of quantum chromodynamics. In the K-meson system, this analysis is applied to the calculation of the weak decay amplitudes, weak mixing and CP violation. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  3. Multiphoton states and amplitude k-th power squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, V.; Jex, I.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the work of d'Ariano and coworkers a new type of multiphoton states is introduced. Amplitude k-th power squeezing of the multiphoton states are analysed. In particular, it is shown that even if the multiphoton states do not exhibit ordinary squeezing they can be amplitude k-th power squeezed

  4. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  5. Numerical evaluation of one-loop QCD amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Simon David; Biedermann, Benedikt; Uwer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present the publicly available program NGluon allowing the numerical evaluation of primitive amplitudes at one-loop order in massless QCD. The program allows the computation of one-loop amplitudes for an arbitrary number of gluons. The focus of the present article is the extension to one-loop ...

  6. Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2017-04-04

    We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.

  7. Simplicity in the structure of QED and gravity amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Vanhove, Pierre [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques IHES, Bures sur Yvette (France); CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA, Gif-sur-Yvette, (France). Inst. de Physique Theorique

    2008-11-15

    We investigate generic properties of one-loop amplitudes in unordered gauge theories in four dimensions. For such theories the organisation of amplitudes in manifestly crossing symmetric expressions poses restrictions on their structure and results in remarkable cancellations. We show that one-loop multi-photon amplitudes in QED with at least eight external photons are given only by scalar box integral functions. This QED 'no-triangle' property is true for all helicity configurations and has similarities to the 'notriangle' property found in the case of maximal N=8 supergravity. Results are derived both via a world-line formalism as well as using on-shell unitarity methods. We show that the simple structure of the loop amplitude originates from the extremely good BCFW scaling behaviour of the QED tree-amplitude. (orig.)

  8. Simplicity in the structure of QED and gravity amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, Simon; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Vanhove, Pierre; CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA, Gif-sur-Yvette,

    2008-11-01

    We investigate generic properties of one-loop amplitudes in unordered gauge theories in four dimensions. For such theories the organisation of amplitudes in manifestly crossing symmetric expressions poses restrictions on their structure and results in remarkable cancellations. We show that one-loop multi-photon amplitudes in QED with at least eight external photons are given only by scalar box integral functions. This QED 'no-triangle' property is true for all helicity configurations and has similarities to the 'notriangle' property found in the case of maximal N=8 supergravity. Results are derived both via a world-line formalism as well as using on-shell unitarity methods. We show that the simple structure of the loop amplitude originates from the extremely good BCFW scaling behaviour of the QED tree-amplitude. (orig.)

  9. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktham Asfour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.

  10. Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Tim; Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan

    2017-01-01

    We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.

  11. Calculation of hadronic transition amplitudes in charm physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Transitions of charmed hadrons are of significant importance, since they provide possibilities to extract the CKM matrix elements V cd and V cs from experimental data as well as interesting channels to search for new physics effects. However, quarks are bound in hadrons, and it is necessary to describe this effect in a reliable way, to study the underlying flavour dynamics. For this, one has to use nonperturbative tools, to determine the corresponding transition amplitudes. The results of such calculations can furthermore be of use, to test the predictions of QCD and to contribute to a deeper understanding of the structure of hadrons. In this thesis two topics are investigated using the method of QCD light-cone sum rules (LCSRs). The first topic consists in the form factors of the semileptonic decays D → πlν l and D → Klν l , for which new results are calculated using up-to-date input values. Since LCSRs are not applicable in the whole range of kinematics, they are extrapolated by the use of appropriate parametrisations and the results agree well with experimental data. The second topic are the transitions of charmed baryons to a nucleon. Here the corresponding transition form factors and in addition the hadronic Λ c D (*) N and Σ c D (*) N coupling constants are calculated - the latter by the consideration of double dispersion relations. These coupling constants are of special interest for the description of hadronic interactions, like open charm production in proton-antiprotoncollisions. Furthermore there appears the problem, that both parity states of a baryon contribute to the considered functional representation, for which a consistent way to separate them is presented. (orig.)

  12. Non linear self consistency of microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    The self consistency of a microtearing turbulence is studied in non linear regimes where the ergodicity of the flux lines determines the electron response. The current which sustains the magnetic perturbation via the Ampere law results from the combines action of the radial electric field in the frame where the island chains are static and of the thermal electron diamagnetism. Numerical calculations show that at usual values of β pol in Tokamaks the turbulence can create a diffusion coefficient of order ν th p 2 i where p i is the ion larmor radius and ν th the electron ion collision frequency. On the other hand, collisionless regimes involving special profiles of each mode near the resonant surface seem possible

  13. Intrinsic-normal-ordered vertex operators from the multiloop N-tachyon amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Nunez, C.; Bonini, M.; Iengo, R.

    1987-09-01

    We construct vertex operators for arbitrary mass level states of the closed bosonic string. Starting from a generalization of the Koba-Nielsen amplitude which is suitable for an arbitrary genus Riemann surface, we read the vertex operators from the residues of the poles for the intermediate states. Since the original expression is metric independent and normal ordered without the need of inventing any regularization scheme, our vertex operators also possess these properties. We discuss their general features. (author). 17 refs

  14. Nuclear-Mechanical Coupling: Small Amplitude Mechanical Vibrations and High Amplitude Power Oscillations in Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2008-11-01

    The cores of nuclear reactors, including its structural parts and cooling fluids, are complex mechanical systems able to vibrate in a set of normal modes and frequencies, if suitable perturbed. The cyclic variations in the strain state of the core materials may produce changes in density. Changes in density modify the reactivity. Changes in reactivity modify thermal power. Modifications in thermal power produce variations in temperature fields. Variations in temperature produce variations in strain due to thermal-elastic effects. If the variation of the temperature field is fast enough and if the Doppler Effect and other stabilizing prompt effects in the fuel are weak enough, a fast oscillatory instability could be produced, coupled with mechanical vibrations of small amplitude. A recently constructed, simple mathematical model of nuclear reactor kinetics, that improves the one due to A.S. Thompson, is reviewed. It was constructed in order to study, in a first approximation, the stability of the reactor: a nonlinear nuclear-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to reactor point kinetics with thermal-elastic feedback and with frozen delayed neutron effects) is coupled nonlinearly with a linear mechanical-thermal oscillator (that corresponds to the first normal mode of mechanical vibrations excited by thermo-elastic effects). This mathematical model is studied here from the standpoint of mechanical vibrations. It is shown how, under certain conditions, a suitable mechanical perturbation could elicit fast and growing oscillatory instabilities in the reactor power. Applying the asymptotic method due to Krylov, Bogoliubov and Mitropolsky, analytical formulae that may be used in the calculation of the time varying amplitude and phase of the mechanical oscillations are given, as functions of the mechanical, thermal and nuclear parameters of the reactor. The consequences for the mechanical integrity of the reactor are assessed. Some conditions, mainly, but not exclusively

  15. Hybrid waveguide-bulk multi-path interferometer with switchable amplitude and phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Keil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We design and realise a hybrid interferometer consisting of three paths based on integrated as well as on bulk optical components. This hybrid construction offers a good compromise between stability and footprint on one side and means of intervention on the other. As experimentally verified by the absence of higher-order interferences, amplitude and phase can be manipulated in all paths independently. In conjunction with single photons, the setup can, therefore, be applied for fundamental investigations on quantum mechanics.

  16. GENERAL APROACH TO MODELING NONLINEAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS EFFECTS BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Heine; Markus Plagemann

    2014-01-01

    A detailed description of the rubber parts’ properties is gaining in importance in the current simulation models of multi-body simulation. One application example is a multi-body simulation of the washing machine movement. Inside the washing machine, there are different force transmission elements, which consist completely or partly of rubber. Rubber parts or, generally, elastomers usually have amplitude-dependant and frequency-dependent force transmission properties. Rheological models are u...

  17. Design of mirrors and apodization functions in phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cady, E.

    2012-01-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors which reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam-shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any give...

  18. Smooth Pursuit Saccade Amplitude Modulation During Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Sayenko, D. G.; Sayenko, I.; Somers, J. T.; Paloski, W. H.

    2002-01-01

    main sequence . This difference in the regression slopes between flight phase, head/eye condition (EO or EH), and pursuit target frequency was observed across all subjects (statistically significant at the ptendency (not significant) for both saccade amplitude and peak velocity to increase during the postflight testing. This tendency had vanished by R+ 1. Of particular interest was the redistribution of saccades during the latter stages of the flight and immediately postflight in the EO condition. At the 1.0 Hz frequency the saccades tended to be clustered near the lowest target velocity. It was also interesting to note that gaze performance (eye in skull + head in space) was consistently better during the EH condition; a finding also observed by our Russian colleagues. As the results of the long duration flight become available we expect that they will not only show that postflight effects will be similar to those observed during the short duration flights, but will also last for a greater period of time following flight. It is not clear what mechanism is responsible for the decreased peak saccadic velocity during flight unless the change is related to the control of retinal slip. For example, it is possible that saccades will tend to initially undershoot their targets by a small percentage and these saccades are then followed, if vision is available, by a small augmenting corrective saccade. It has been postulated that the functional significance of this undershooting tendency is to maintain the spatial representation of the target on the same side of the fovea (as opposedo racing across the fovea) and hence in the same cerebral hemisphere that initiated the primary saccade thus minimizing delays caused by an intra-hemispheric transfer of information . One could also speculate that with saccade velocities greater than normal, additional corrective saccades would be required to bring the target back on the fovea. A less plausible explanation of our findings could be

  19. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, R. S.; Jain, S. L.; Mishra, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of ion-acoustic soliton in dusty plasma, including the dynamics of heavily charged massive dust grains, are investigated following the Sagdeev Potential formalism. Retaining fourth order nonlinearities of electric potential in the expansion of the Sagdeev Potential in the energy equation for a pseudo particle and integrating the resulting energy equation, large amplitude soliton solution is determined. Variation of amplitude (A), half width (W) at half maxima and the product P = AW 2 of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV), dressed and large amplitude soliton as a function of wide range of dust concentration are numerically studied for recently observed parameters of dusty plasmas. We have also presented the region of existence of large amplitude ion-acoustic soliton in the dusty plasma by analyzing the structure of the pseudo potential. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains, system supports only compressive solitons, on the other hand, in the presence of negatively charged dust grains, the system supports compressive solitons up to certain critical concentration of dust grains and above this critical concentration, the system can support rarefactive solitons also. The effects of dust concentration, charge, and mass of the dust grains, on the characteristics of KdV, dressed and large amplitude the soliton, i.e., amplitude (A), half width at half maxima (W), and product of amplitude (A) and half width at half maxima (P = AW 2 ), are discussed in detail

  20. Fringe image analysis based on the amplitude modulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Shaoyan; Da, Feipeng

    2010-05-10

    A novel phase-analysis method is proposed. To get the fringe order of a fringe image, the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern is carried out, which is combined with the phase-shift method. The primary phase value is obtained by a phase-shift algorithm, and the fringe-order information is encoded in the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern. Different from other methods, the amplitude-modulation fringe identifies the fringe order by the amplitude of the fringe pattern. In an amplitude-modulation fringe pattern, each fringe has its own amplitude; thus, the order information is integrated in one fringe pattern, and the absolute fringe phase can be calculated correctly and quickly with the amplitude-modulation fringe image. The detailed algorithm is given, and the error analysis of this method is also discussed. Experimental results are presented by a full-field shape measurement system where the data has been processed using the proposed algorithm. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  1. Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-09-12

    As a revolutionary three-dimensional imaging technique, holography has attracted wide attention for its ability to photographically record a light field. However, traditional phase-only or amplitude-only modulation holograms have limited image quality and resolution to reappear both amplitude and phase information required of the objects. Recent advances in metasurfaces have shown tremendous opportunities for using a planar design of artificial meta-atoms to shape the wave front of light by optimal control of both its phase and amplitude. Inspired by the concept of designer metasurfaces, we demonstrate a novel amplitude-phase modulation hologram with simultaneous five-level amplitude modulation and eight-level phase modulation. Such a design approach seeks to turn the perceived disadvantages of the traditional phase or amplitude holograms, and thus enable enhanced performance in resolution, homogeneity of amplitude distribution, precision, and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, the unique holographic approach exhibits broadband characteristics. The method introduced here delivers more degrees of freedom, and allows for encoding highly complex information into designer metasurfaces, thus having the potential to drive next-generation technological breakthroughs in holography.

  2. Correlation between vibration amplitude and tool wear in turning: Numerical and experimental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balla Srinivasa Prasad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a correlation between vibration amplitude and tool wear when in dry turning of AISI 4140 steel using uncoated carbide insert DNMA 432 is analyzed via experiments and finite element simulations. 3D Finite element simulations results are utilized to predict the evolution of cutting forces, vibration displacement amplitudes and tool wear in vibration induced turning. In the present paper, the primary concern is to find the relative vibration and tool wear with the variation of process parameters. These changes lead to accelerated tool wear and even breakage. The cutting forces in the feed direction are also predicted and compared with the experimental trends. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used to detect vibration amplitudes and the usage of Kistler 9272 dynamometer for recording the cutting forces during the cutting process is well demonstrated. A sincere effort is put to investigate the influence of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut on vibration amplitude and tool flank wear at different levels of workpiece hardness. Empirical models have been developed using second order polynomial equations for correlating the interaction and higher order influences of various process parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is carried out to identify the significant factors that are affecting the vibration amplitude and tool flank wear. Response surface methodology (RSM is implemented to investigate the progression of flank wear and displacement amplitude based on experimental data. While measuring the displacement amplitude, R-square values for experimental and numerical methods are 98.6 and 97.8. Based on the R-square values of ANOVA it is found that the numerical values show good agreement with the experimental values and are helpful in estimating displacement amplitude. In the case of predicting the tool wear, R-square values were found to be 97.69 and 96.08, respectively for numerical and experimental measures while determining the tool

  3. Elementary amplitudes from full QCD and the stochastic vacuum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, A.F.; Menon, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous work, making use of the gluon gauge-invariant two-point correlation function determined from lattice QCD in the quenched approximation and the stochastic vacuum model, we determined the elementary (parton-parton) scattering amplitude in the momentum transfer space. In this communication we compute the elementary amplitude from new lattice QCD calculations that include the effects of dynamical fermions (full QCD). The main conclusion is that the inclusion of dynamical fermions leads to a normalized elementary amplitude that decreases more quickly with the momentum transfer than that in the quenched approximation. (author)

  4. Renormalization Scale-Fixing for Complex Scattering Amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; /Madrid U.

    2005-12-21

    We show how to fix the renormalization scale for hard-scattering exclusive processes such as deeply virtual meson electroproduction by applying the BLM prescription to the imaginary part of the scattering amplitude and employing a fixed-t dispersion relation to obtain the scale-fixed real part. In this way we resolve the ambiguity in BLM renormalization scale-setting for complex scattering amplitudes. We illustrate this by computing the H generalized parton distribution at leading twist in an analytic quark-diquark model for the parton-proton scattering amplitude which can incorporate Regge exchange contributions characteristic of the deep inelastic structure functions.

  5. Calculation and modular properties of multi-loop superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G S

    2012-01-01

    Multi-loop superstring amplitude is calculated in the conventional gauge where Grassmann moduli are carried by the 2D gravitino field. Generally, instead of the modular symmetry, the amplitudes hold the symmetry under modular transformations added by relevant transformations of the 2D local supersymmetry. If a number of loops are larger than 3, the integration measures are not modular forms. In this case the expression for the amplitude contains an integral over the bound of the fundamental region of the modular group. (paper)

  6. Amplitude Modulation in the δ Sct star KIC 7106205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Dominic. M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The δ Sct star KIC 7106205 showed amplitude modulation in a single p mode, whilst all other p and g modes remained stable in amplitude and phase over 1470 d of the Kepler dataset. The data were divided into 30 time bins of equal length and a series of consecutive Fourier transforms was calculated. A fixed frequency, calculated from a least-squares fit of all data, allowed amplitude and phase for every mode in each time bin to be tracked. The missing p mode energy was not transferred to any other visible modes.

  7. Corrections to the large-angle scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Kudinov, A.V.; Kuleshov, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    High-energy behaviour of scattering amplitudes is considered within the frames of Logunov-Tavchelidze quasipotential approach. The representation of scattering amplitude of two scalar particles, convenient for the study of its asymptotic properties is given. Obtained are corrections of the main value of scattering amplitude of the first and the second orders in 1/p, where p is the pulse of colliding particles in the system of the inertia centre. An example of the obtained formulas use for a concrete quasipotential is given

  8. Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.

  9. Amplitude-to-frequency converter of radioisotope instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenkov, V.P.; Korobkov, I.N.

    1988-01-01

    An amplitude-to-frequency converter designed for signal processing of radioisotope relay devices is descibed. The basic elements of the converter are a scaling amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, a code-to-frequency converter, a null-organ, a delay unit and a clock-pulse generator. The designed amplitude-to-frequency converter takes into account a prior information about the signal shape of the energy spectrum. The converter processes input pulses of 0.10 V amplitude and duration more than 2μs. The energy channel number is 64

  10. Gluon cascades and amplitudes in light-front perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Santiago, C.A.; Staśto, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We construct the gluon wave functions, fragmentation functions and scattering amplitudes within the light-front perturbation theory. Recursion relations on the light-front are constructed for the wave functions and fragmentation functions, which in the latter case are the light-front analogs of the Berends–Giele recursion relations. Using general relations between wave functions and scattering amplitudes it is demonstrated how to obtain the maximally-helicity violating amplitudes, and explicit verification of the results is based on simple examples.

  11. Behavioral analysis of signals that guide learned changes in the amplitude and dynamics of the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J. L.; Lisberger, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    We characterized the dependence of motor learning in the monkey vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) on the duration, frequency, and relative timing of the visual and vestibular stimuli used to induce learning. The amplitude of the VOR was decreased or increased through training with paired head and visual stimulus motion in the same or opposite directions, respectively. For training stimuli that consisted of simultaneous pulses of head and target velocity 80-1000 msec in duration, brief stimuli caused small changes in the amplitude of the VOR, whereas long stimuli caused larger changes in amplitude as well as changes in the dynamics of the reflex. When the relative timing of the visual and vestibular stimuli was varied, brief image motion paired with the beginning of a longer vestibular stimulus caused changes in the amplitude of the reflex alone, but the same image motion paired with a later time in the vestibular stimulus caused changes in the dynamics as well as the amplitude of the VOR. For training stimuli that consisted of sinusoidal head and visual stimulus motion, low-frequency training stimuli induced frequency-selective changes in the VOR, as reported previously, whereas high-frequency training stimuli induced changes in the amplitude of the VOR that were more similar across test frequency. The results suggest that there are at least two distinguishable components of motor learning in the VOR. One component is induced by short-duration or high-frequency stimuli and involves changes in only the amplitude of the reflex. A second component is induced by long-duration or low-frequency stimuli and involves changes in the amplitude and dynamics of the VOR.

  12. Response of ENSO amplitude to global warming in CESM large ensemble: uncertainty due to internal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Tong; Hui, Chang; Yeh, Sang-Wook

    2018-06-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant mode of variability in the coupled ocean-atmospheric system. Future projections of ENSO change under global warming are highly uncertain among models. In this study, the effect of internal variability on ENSO amplitude change in future climate projections is investigated based on a 40-member ensemble from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) project. A large uncertainty is identified among ensemble members due to internal variability. The inter-member diversity is associated with a zonal dipole pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) change in the mean along the equator, which is similar to the second empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) in the unforced control simulation. The uncertainty in CESM-LE is comparable in magnitude to that among models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5), suggesting the contribution of internal variability to the intermodel uncertainty in ENSO amplitude change. However, the causations between changes in ENSO amplitude and the mean state are distinct between CESM-LE and CMIP5 ensemble. The CESM-LE results indicate that a large ensemble of 15 members is needed to separate the relative contributions to ENSO amplitude change over the twenty-first century between forced response and internal variability.

  13. Surface thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Moliner, F.

    1975-01-01

    Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions

  14. Contributions of contour frequency, amplitude, and luminance to the watercolor effect estimated by conjoint measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Peggy; Devinck, Frédéric; Dojat, Michel; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2014-04-10

    The watercolor effect is a long-range, assimilative, filling-in phenomenon induced by a pair of distant, wavy contours of different chromaticities. Here, we measured joint influences of the contour frequency and amplitude and the luminance of the interior contour on the strength of the effect. Contour pairs, each enclosing a circular region, were presented with two of the dimensions varying independently across trials (luminance/frequency, luminance/amplitude, frequency/amplitude) in a conjoint measurement paradigm (Luce & Tukey, 1964). In each trial, observers judged which of the stimuli evoked the strongest fill-in color. Control stimuli were identical except that the contours were intertwined and generated little filling-in. Perceptual scales were estimated by a maximum likelihood method (Ho, Landy, & Maloney, 2008). An additive model accounted for the joint contributions of any pair of dimensions. As shown previously using difference scaling (Devinck & Knoblauch, 2012), the strength increases with luminance of the interior contour. The strength of the phenomenon was nearly independent of the amplitude of modulation of the contour but increased with its frequency up to an asymptotic level. On average, the strength of the effect was similar along a given dimension regardless of the other dimension with which it was paired, demonstrating consistency of the underlying estimated perceptual scales.

  15. Superposed epoch analysis applied to large-amplitude travelling convection vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lühr

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available For the six months from 1 October 1993 to 1 April 1994 the recordings of the IMAGE magnetometer network have been surveyed in a search for large-amplitude travelling convection vortices (TCVs. The restriction to large amplitudes (>100 nT was chosen to ensure a proper detection of evens also during times of high activity. Readings of all stations of the northern half of the IMAGE network were employed to check the consistency of the ground signature with the notation of a dual-vortex structure moving in an azimuthal direction. Applying these stringent selection criteria we detected a total of 19 clear TCV events. The statistical properties of our selection resemble the expected characteristics of large-amplitude TCVs. New and unexpected results emerged from the superposed epoch analysis. TCVs tend to form during quiet intervals embedded in moderately active periods. The occurrence of events is not randomly distributed but rather shows a clustering around a few days. These clusters recur once or twice every 27 days. Within a storm cycle they show up five to seven days after the commencement. With regard to solar wind conditions, we see the events occurring in the middle of the IMF sector structure. Large-amplitude TCVs seem to require certain conditions to make solar wind transients 'geoeffective', which have the tendency to recur with the solar rotation period.Key words. Ionosphere (Aural ionosphere; Ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric Physics (current system

  16. An experimental test of noise-dependent voice amplitude regulation in Cope's grey treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Elliot K; Bee, Mark A

    2010-09-01

    One strategy for coping with the constraints on acoustic signal reception posed by ambient noise is to signal louder as noise levels increase. Termed the 'Lombard effect', this reflexive behaviour is widespread among birds and mammals and occurs with a diversity of signal types, leading to the hypothesis that voice amplitude regulation represents a general vertebrate mechanism for coping with environmental noise. Support for this evolutionary hypothesis, however, remains limited due to a lack of studies in taxa other than birds and mammals. Here, we report the results of an experimental test of the hypothesis that male grey treefrogs increase the amplitude of their advertisement calls in response to increasing levels of chorus-shaped noise. We recorded spontaneously produced calls in quiet and in the presence of noise broadcast at sound pressure levels ranging between 40 dB and 70 dB. While increasing noise levels induced predictable changes in call duration and rate, males did not regulate call amplitude. These results do not support the hypothesis that voice amplitude regulation is a generic vertebrate mechanism for coping with noise. We discuss the possibility that intense sexual selection and high levels of competition for mates in choruses place some frogs under strong selection to call consistently as loudly as possible.

  17. Thermally induced high frequency random amplitude fatigue damage at sharp notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been performed using the SUPERSOMITE facility to investigate the initiation and growth of fatigue cracks at the tips of sharp surface notches subjected to random thermally-induced stress. The experimental situation is complex involving plasticity, random amplitude loading and heat transfer medium/surface coupling. Crack initiation and growth prediction have been considered using the Creager and Neuber methods to compute the strain ranges in the vicinity of the notch root. Good agreement has been obtained between the experimental results and theoretical predictions. The paper reports the results of the analysis of the notch behavior

  18. Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis of the 2014-2015 Bár∂arbunga-Holuhraun Dike Propagation and Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron, Corentin; White, Robert S.; Green, Robert G.; Woods, Jennifer; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Donaldson, Clare; Greenfield, Tim; Rivalta, Eleonora; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís.

    2018-01-01

    Magma is transported in brittle rock through dikes and sills. This movement may be accompanied by the release of seismic energy that can be tracked from the Earth's surface. Locating dikes and deciphering their dynamics is therefore of prime importance in understanding and potentially forecasting volcanic eruptions. The Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis (SARA) method aims to track melt propagation using the amplitudes recorded across a seismic network without picking the arrival times of individual earthquake phases. This study validates this methodology by comparing SARA locations (filtered between 2 and 16 Hz) with the earthquake locations (same frequency band) recorded during the 2014-2015 Bár∂arbunga-Holuhraun dike intrusion and eruption in Iceland. Integrating both approaches also provides the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of magma migration during the dike intrusion and ensuing eruption. During the intrusion SARA locations correspond remarkably well to the locations of earthquakes. Several exceptions are, however, observed. (1) A low-frequency signal was possibly associated with a subglacial eruption on 23 August. (2) A systematic retreat of the seismicity was also observed to the back of each active segment during stalled phases and was associated with a larger spatial extent of the seismic energy source. This behavior may be controlled by the dike's shape and/or by dike inflation. (3) During the eruption SARA locations consistently focused at the eruptive site. (4) Tremor-rich signal close to ice cauldrons occurred on 3 September. This study demonstrates the power of the SARA methodology, provided robust site amplification; Quality Factors and seismic velocities are available.

  19. Net Rotation of the Lithosphere in Mantle Convection Models with Self-consistent Plate Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerault, M.; Coltice, N.

    2017-12-01

    Lateral variations in the viscosity structure of the lithosphere and the mantle give rise to a discordant motion between the two. In a deep mantle reference frame, this motion is called the net rotation of the lithosphere. Plate motion reconstructions, mantle flow computations, and inferences from seismic anisotropy all indicate some amount of net rotation using different mantle reference frames. While the direction of rotation is somewhat consistent across studies, the predicted amplitudes range from 0.1 deg/Myr to 0.3 deg/Myr at the present-day. How net rotation rates could have differed in the past is also a subject of debate and strong geodynamic arguments are missing from the discussion. This study provides the first net rotation calculations in 3-D spherical mantle convection models with self-consistent plate generation. We run the computations for billions of years of numerical integration. We look into how sensitive the net rotation is to major tectonic events, such as subduction initiation, continental breakup and plate reorganisations, and whether some governing principles from the models could guide plate motion reconstructions. The mantle convection problem is solved with the finite volume code StagYY using a visco-pseudo-plastic rheology. Mantle flow velocities are solely driven by buoyancy forces internal to the system, with free slip upper and lower boundary conditions. We investigate how the yield stress, the mantle viscosity structure and the properties of continents affect the net rotation over time. Models with large lateral viscosity variations from continents predict net rotations that are at least threefold faster than those without continents. Models where continents cover a third of the surface produce net rotation rates that vary from nearly zero to over 0.3 deg/Myr with rapide increase during continental breakup. The pole of rotation appears to migrate along no particular path. For all models, regardless of the yield stress and the

  20. A pulse amplitude discriminator with very low-power consuming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Changming; Liu Zhengshan; Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang

    2000-01-01

    A low-power pulse amplitude discriminator is described. The discriminator circuit is mainly composed of an integrated voltage comparator, MAX921, and owns the characters of very low-power and low operating voltage

  1. Some tree-level string amplitudes in the NSR formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Robbins, Daniel; Royston, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate tree level scattering amplitudes for open strings using the NSR formalism. We present a streamlined symmetry-based and pedagogical approach to the computations, which we first develop by checking two-, three-, and four-point functions involving bosons and fermions. We calculate the five-point amplitude for massless gluons and find agreement with an earlier result by Brandt, Machado and Medina. We then compute the five-point amplitudes involving two and four fermions respectively, the general form of which has not been previously obtained in the NSR formalism. The results nicely confirm expectations from the supersymmetric F 4 effective action. Finally we use the prescription of Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) to compute the amplitudes for the closed string sector.

  2. Amplitude chimeras and chimera death in dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-01-01

    We find chimera states with respect to amplitude dynamics in a network of Stuart- Landau oscillators. These partially coherent and partially incoherent spatio-temporal patterns appear due to the interplay of nonlocal network topology and symmetry-breaking coupling. As the coupling range is increased, the oscillations are quenched, amplitude chimeras disappear and the network enters a symmetry-breaking stationary state. This particular regime is a novel pattern which we call chimera death. It is characterized by the coexistence of spatially coherent and incoherent inhomogeneous steady states and therefore combines the features of chimera state and oscillation death. Additionally, we show two different transition scenarios from amplitude chimera to chimera death. Moreover, for amplitude chimeras we uncover the mechanism of transition towards in-phase synchronized regime and discuss the role of initial conditions. (paper)

  3. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Várilly, Joseph C.; Gracia-Bondía, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  4. Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, J.; Frederico, T.; Karmanov, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function. (orig.)

  5. Mimicking an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre Gaussian Modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel on LG modes is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically....

  6. Singularities in four-body final-state amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    Like three-body amplitudes, four-body amplitudes have subenergy threshold singularities over and above total-energy singularities. In the four-body problem we encounter a new type of subenergy singularity besides the usual two- and three-body subenergy threshold singularities. This singularity will be referred to as ''independent-pair threshold singularity'' and involves pair-subenergy threshold singularities in each of the two independent pair subenergies in four-body final states. We also study the particularly interesting case of resonant two- and three-body interactions in the four-body isobar model and the rapid (singular) dependence of the isobar amplitudes they generate in the four-body phase space. All these singularities are analyzed in the multiple-scattering formalism and it is shown that they arise from the ''next-to-last'' rescattering and hence may be represented correctly by an approximate amplitude which has that rescattering

  7. Bessel–Gauss resonator with internal amplitude filter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate a conventional resonator configuration, using only spherical curvature optical elements, for the generation of Bessel–Gauss beams. This is achieved through the deployment of a suitable amplitude filter at a Fourier plane...

  8. Analytic computations of massive one-loop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badger, Simon; Yundin, Valery; Sattler, Ralf

    2010-06-01

    We show some new applications of on-shell methods to calculate compact helicity amplitudes for t anti t production through gluon fusion. The rational and mass renormalisation contributions are extracted from two independent Feynman diagram based approaches. (orig.)

  9. Nonlinear Saturation Amplitude in Classical Planar Richtmyer–Meshkov Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wan-Hai; Jiang Hong-Bin; Ma Wen-Fang; Wang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The classical planar Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) at a fluid interface supported by a constant pressure is investigated by a formal perturbation expansion up to the third order, and then according to definition of nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) in Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI), the NSA in planar RMI is obtained explicitly. It is found that the NSA in planar RMI is affected by the initial perturbation wavelength and the initial amplitude of the interface, while the effect of the initial amplitude of the interface on the NSA is less than that of the initial perturbation wavelength. Without marginal influence of the initial amplitude, the NSA increases linearly with wavelength. The NSA normalized by the wavelength in planar RMI is about 0.11, larger than that corresponding to RTI. (paper)

  10. Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Karmanov, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function. (orig.)

  11. Tidal Amplitude for a Self-gravitating, Compressible Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Greenberg, R.

    2001-11-01

    Most modern evaluations of tidal amplitude derive from the approach presented by Love [1]. Love's analysis for a homogeneous sphere assumed an incompressible material, which required introduction of a non-rigorously justified pressure term. We solve the more general case of arbitrary compressibility, which allows for a more straightforward derivation. We find the h2 love number of a body of radius R, density ρ , and surface gravity g to be h2 = \\Bigg[\\frac{{5}/{2}}{1+\\frac{19 \\mu}{2 \\rho g R}}\\Bigg] \\Bigg\\{ \\frac{2 \\rho g R (35+28\\frac{\\mu}{\\lambda}) + 19 \\mu (35+28\\frac{\\mu}{\\lambda})} {2 \\rho g R (35+31\\frac{\\mu}{\\lambda}) + 19 \\mu (35+{490}/{19}\\frac{\\mu}{\\lambda})}\\Bigg\\} λ the Lamé constant. This h2 is the product of Love's expression for h2 (in square brackets) and a ``compressibility-correction'' factor (in \\{\\} brackets). Unlike Love's expression, this result is valid for any degree of compressibility (i.e. any λ ). For the incompressible case (λ -> ∞ ) the correction factor approaches 1, so that h2 matches the classical form given by Love. In reality, of course, materials are not incompressible and the difference between our solution and Love's is significant. Assuming that the elastic terms dominate over the gravitational contribution (i.e. 19 μ /(2 ρ g R) >> 1), our solution can be ~ 7% percent larger than Love's solution for large μ /λ . If the gravity dominates (i.e. 19 μ /(2 ρ g R) John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1968

  12. Auditory stream segregation using amplitude modulated bandpass noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjiu eNie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of spectral overlap and amplitude modulation (AM rate for stream segregation for noise signals, as well as to test the build-up effect based on these two cues. Segregation ability was evaluated using an objective paradigm with listeners’ attention focused on stream segregation. Stimulus sequences consisted of two interleaved sets of bandpass noise bursts (A and B bursts. The A and B bursts differed in spectrum, AM-rate, or both. The amount of the difference between the two sets of noise bursts was varied. Long and short sequences were studied to investigate the build-up effect for segregation based on spectral and AM-rate differences. Results showed the following: 1. Stream segregation ability increased with greater spectral separation. 2. Larger AM-rate separations were associated with stronger segregation abilities. 3. Spectral separation was found to elicit the build-up effect for the range of spectral differences assessed in the current study. 4. AM-rate separation interacted with spectral separation suggesting an additive effect of spectral separation and AM-rate separation on segregation build-up. The findings suggest that, when normal-hearing listeners direct their attention toward segregation, they are able to segregate auditory streams based on reduced spectral contrast cues that vary by the amount of spectral overlap. Further, regardless of the spectral separation they were able to use AM-rate difference as a secondary/weaker cue. Based on the spectral differences, listeners can segregate auditory streams better as the listening duration is prolonged—i.e. sparse spectral cues elicit build-up segregation; however, AM-rate differences only appear to elicit build-up when in combination with spectral difference cues.

  13. The method of contour rotations and the three particle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinati, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the method of contour rotations to the solution of the Faddeev-Lovelace equations and the calculation of the break-up and stripping amplitudes in a system of three distinct particles is reviewed. A relationship between the masses of the particles is obtained, which permits the break-up amplitude to be calculated from a single iteration of the final integral equation. (Author) [pt

  14. Cosmological constraints on the amplitude of relic gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosyadlij, B.; Apunevich, S.

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the amplitude of relic gravitational waves (RGW) generated in early Universe has been analyzed. The analytical approximation is presented for angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies caused by gravitational waves through Sachs-Wolfe effect. The estimate of the most probable value for this amplitude was obtained on the basis of observation data on cosmic microwave background anisotropies from COBE, WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments along with large-scale structure observations

  15. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  16. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  17. Factorization of the six-particle multi-Regge amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moen, I.O.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that factorization of the multi-Regge contribution to the six-particle amplitude follows from the complex-helicity-plane structure, the Steinmann relations, and extended unitarity. The six-particle multi-Regge amplitude also satisfies some new discontinuity relations which are interpreted as resulting from the interplay of singularities required by the Gram-determinant constraint in four-dimensional space-time

  18. Controlling quantum interference in phase space with amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yinghong; Li, Tingyu; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally show a quantum interference in phase space by interrogating photon number probabilities (n?=?2, 3, and 4) of a displaced squeezed state, which is generated by an optical parametric amplifier and whose displacement is controlled by amplitude of injected coherent light. It is found that the probabilities exhibit oscillations of interference effect depending upon the amplitude of the controlling light field. This phenomenon is attributed to quantum interference in phase space a...

  19. Fatigue life assessment under multiaxial variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Kenmeugne, B.; Vidal-Salle, E.; Robert, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    A variable amplitude multiaxial fatigue life prediction method is presented in this paper. It is based on a stress as input data are the stress tensor histories which may be calculated by FEM analysis or measured directly on the structure during the service loading. The different steps of he method are first presented then its experimental validation is realized for log and finite fatigue lives through biaxial variable amplitude loading tests using cruciform steel samples. (authors). 9 refs., 7 figs

  20. Mapping Pn amplitude spreading and attenuation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    Pn travels most of its path in the mantle lid. Mapping the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation sheds light on material properties and dynamics of the uppermost region of the mantle. Pn amplitude variation depends on the wavefront geometric spreading as well as material attenuation. We investigated Pn geometric spreading, which is much more complex than a traditionally assumed power-law spreading model, using both synthetic and observed amplitude data collected in Asia. We derived a new Pn spreading model based on the formulation that was proposed previously to account for the spherical shape of the Earth (Yang et. al., BSSA, 2007). New parameters derived for the spreading model provide much better correction for Pn amplitudes in terms of residual behavior. Because we used observed Pn amplitudes to construct the model, the model incorporates not only the effect of the Earth's spherical shape, but also the effect of potential upper-mantle velocity gradients in the region. Using the new spreading model, we corrected Pn amplitudes measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 Hz and conducted attenuation tomography. The resulting Pn attenuation model correlates well with the regional geology. We see high attenuation in regions such as northern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific subduction zone, and low attenuation for stable blocks such as Sichuan and Tarim basins.

  1. Separation of musical instruments based on amplitude and frequency comodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Barry D.; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    2002-05-01

    In previous work, amplitude comodulation was investigated as a basis for monaural source separation. Amplitude comodulation refers to similarities in amplitude envelopes of individual spectral components emitted by particular types of sources. In many types of musical instruments, amplitudes of all resonant modes rise/fall, and start/stop together during the course of normal playing. We found that under certain well-defined conditions, a mixture of constant frequency, amplitude comodulated sources can unambiguously be decomposed into its constituents on the basis of these similarities. In this work, system performance was improved by relaxing the constant frequency requirement. String instruments, for example, which are normally played with vibrato, are both amplitude and frequency comodulated sources, and could not be properly tracked under the constant frequency assumption upon which our original algorithm was based. Frequency comodulation refers to similarities in frequency variations of individual harmonics emitted by these types of sources. The analytical difficulty is in defining a representation of the source which properly tracks frequency varying components. A simple, fixed filter bank can only track an individual spectral component for the duration in which it is within the passband of one of the filters. Alternatives are therefore explored which are amenable to real-time implementation.

  2. A proposed physical analog for a quantum probability amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    What is the physical analog of a probability amplitude? All quantum mathematics, including quantum information, is built on amplitudes. Every other science uses probabilities; QM alone uses their square root. Why? This question has been asked for a century, but no one previously has proposed an answer. We will present cylindrical helices moving toward a particle source, which particles follow backwards. Consider Feynman's book QED. He speaks of amplitudes moving through space like the hand of a spinning clock. His hand is a complex vector. It traces a cylindrical helix in Cartesian space. The Theory of Elementary Waves changes direction so Feynman's clock faces move toward the particle source. Particles follow amplitudes (quantum waves) backwards. This contradicts wave particle duality. We will present empirical evidence that wave particle duality is wrong about the direction of particles versus waves. This involves a paradigm shift; which are always controversial. We believe that our model is the ONLY proposal ever made for the physical foundations of probability amplitudes. We will show that our ``probability amplitudes'' in physical nature form a Hilbert vector space with adjoints, an inner product and support both linear algebra and Dirac notation.

  3. Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nikki J.

    The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power spectrum testing of bilateral leg press (BLP) movement was performed on the OMNI. Days 2 and 3 consisted of WBV testing with either average (5.8 mm) or high (9.8 mm) amplitude combined with either 0 (sham control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz frequency. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), bicep femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles for EMG analysis. MP and PP output and EMG activity of the lower extremity were assessed pre-, post-WBV treatments and after sham-controls on the OMNI while participants performed one set of five repetitions of BLP at the optimal resistance determined on Day 1. Results. No significant differences were found between pre- and sham-control on MP and PP output and on EMG activity in RF, VL, BF and GA. Completely randomized one-way ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated no significant interaction of WBV amplitude and frequency on MP and PP output and peak and mean EMGrms amplitude and EMG rms area under the curve. RF and VL EMGrms area under the curve significantly decreased (p plyometric exercise does not induce alterations in subsequent MP and PP output and EMGrms activity of the lower extremity. Future studies need to address the time of WBV exposure and magnitude of external loads that will maximize strength and/or power output.

  4. Dissociable contribution of the parietal and frontal cortex to coding movement direction and amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDavare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To reach for an object, we must convert its spatial location into an appropriate motor command, merging movement direction and amplitude. In humans, it has been suggested that this visuo-motor transformation occurs in a dorsomedial parieto-frontal pathway, although the causal contribution of the areas constituting the reaching circuit remains unknown. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS in healthy volunteers to disrupt the function of either the medial intraparietal area (mIPS or dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, in each hemisphere. The task consisted in performing step-tracking movements with the right wrist towards targets located in different directions and eccentricities; the targets were either visible for the whole trial (Target-ON or flashed for 200 ms (Target-OFF. Left and right mIPS disruption led to errors in the initial direction of movements performed towards contralateral targets. These errors were corrected online in the Target-ON condition but when the target was flashed for 200 ms, mIPS TMS manifested as a larger endpoint spreading. In contrast, left PMd virtual lesions led to higher acceleration and velocity peaks - two parameters typically used to probe the planned movement amplitude - irrespective of the target position, hemifield and presentation condition; in the Target-OFF condition, left PMd TMS induced overshooting and increased the endpoint dispersion along the axis of the target direction. These results indicate that left PMd intervenes in coding amplitude during movement preparation. The critical TMS timings leading to errors in direction and amplitude were different, namely 160-100 ms before movement onset for mIPS and 100-40 ms for left PMd. TMS applied over right PMd had no significant effect. These results indicate that, during motor preparation, direction and amplitude of goal-directed movements are processed by different cortical areas, at distinct timings, and according to a specific hemispheric

  5. Small-amplitude vibrations at a finite temperature in the liquid drop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Providencia, J. da Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The ground state of a hot nucleus is studied in the classical limit. The equations of motion and boundary conditions of the liquid drop model are derived from the variational principle. The effect of the surface tension is taken into account. The temperature dependence of small-amplitude vibrations in the liquid drop model is investigated. It is shown that the breathing mode suffers a 6.3% decrease in energy when the temperature increases from 0 to 5 MeV. The present model allows for a description of surface modes with an A -1/2 dependence of the energy. It is also found that the surface modes will show an appreciable temperature dependence if a reasonable temperature dependence of the surface tension is postulated. It is shown that the model satisfies the energy-weighted sum rule and the inverse energy-weighted sum rule. (orig.)D

  6. Amplitudes of solar-like oscillations in red giants: Departures from the quasi-adiabatic approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barban C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available CoRoT and Kepler measurements reveal us that the amplitudes of solar-like oscillations detected in red giant stars scale from stars to stars in a characteristic way. This observed scaling relation is not yet fully understood but constitutes potentially a powerful diagnostic about mode physics. Quasi-adiabatic theoretical scaling relations in terms of mode amplitudes result in systematic and large differences with the measurements performed for red giant stars. The use of a non-adiabatic intensity-velocity relation derived from a non-adiabatic pulsation code significantly reduces the discrepancy with the CoRoT measurements. The origin of the remaining difference is still unknown. Departure from adiabatic eigenfunction is a very likely explanation that is investigated in the present work using a 3D hydrodynamical model of the surface layers of a representative red giant star.

  7. Effects of mechanical strain amplitude on the isothermal fatigue behavior of H13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Zuo, Peng-peng; Wu, Xiao-chun; Xia, Shu-wen

    2017-09-01

    Isothermal fatigue (IF) tests were performed on H13 tool steel subjected to three different mechanical strain amplitudes at a constant temperature to determine the effects of mechanical strain amplitude on the microstructure of the steel samples. The samples' extent of damage after IF tests was compared by observation of their cracks and calculation of their damage parameters. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe the microstructure of the samples. Cracks were observed to initiate at the surface because the strains and stresses there were the largest during thermal cycling. Mechanical strain accelerated the damage and softening of the steel. A larger mechanical strain caused greater deformation of the steel, which made the precipitated carbides easier to gather and grow along the deformation direction, possibly resulting in softening of the material or the initiation of cracks.

  8. Quantum theory of dynamical collective subspace for large-amplitude collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Fumihiko; Marumori, Toshio; Ogura, Masanori.

    1986-03-01

    By placing emphasis on conceptual correspondence to the ''classical'' theory which has been developed within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory, a full quantum theory appropriate for describing large-amplitude collective motion is proposed. A central problem of the quantum theory is how to determine an optimal representation called a dynamical representation; the representation is specific for the collective subspace where the large-amplitude collective motion is replicated as satisfactorily as possible. As an extension of the classical theory where the concept of an approximate integral surface plays an important role, the dynamical representation is properly characterized by introducing a concept of an approximate invariant subspace of the Hamiltonian. (author)

  9. GENERAL APROACH TO MODELING NONLINEAR AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY DEPENDENT HYSTERESIS EFFECTS BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Heine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the rubber parts’ properties is gaining in importance in the current simulation models of multi-body simulation. One application example is a multi-body simulation of the washing machine movement. Inside the washing machine, there are different force transmission elements, which consist completely or partly of rubber. Rubber parts or, generally, elastomers usually have amplitude-dependant and frequency-dependent force transmission properties. Rheological models are used to describe these properties. A method for characterization of the amplitude and frequency dependence of such a rheological model is presented within this paper. Within this method, the used rheological model can be reduced or expanded in order to illustrate various non-linear effects. An original result is given with the automated parameter identification. It is fully implemented in Matlab. Such identified rheological models are intended for subsequent implementation in a multi-body model. This allows a significant enhancement of the overall model quality.

  10. DESIGN OF MIRRORS AND APODIZATION FUNCTIONS IN PHASE-INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, Eric, E-mail: eric.j.cady@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA, 91109 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphs are a promising technology for imaging exoplanets, with the potential to detect Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. A PIAA system nominally consists of a pair of mirrors that reshape incident light without attenuation, coupled with one or more apodizers to mitigate diffraction effects or provide additional beam shaping to produce a desired output profile. We present a set of equations that allow apodizers to be chosen for any given pair of mirrors, or conversely mirror shapes chosen for given apodizers, to produce an arbitrary amplitude profile at the output of the system. We show how classical PIAA systems may be designed by this method and present the design of a novel four-mirror system with higher throughput than a standard two-mirror system. We also discuss the limitations due to diffraction and the design steps that may be taken to mitigate them.

  11. Mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydkjær, J.; Møllegaard Jepsen, J. R.; Pagsberg, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker in schizophrenia and may therefore be potentially useful in early identification and intervention in early onset psychosis. In this study we explored whether deficits in the automatic orienting and reorienting...... responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in young adolescents...... (age 12-17 years) with either FEP (N = 27) or ADHD (N = 28) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (N = 43). The MMN paradigm consisted of a four-tone auditory oddball task with deviant stimuli based on frequency, duration and their combination. Results Significantly less MMN was found...

  12. Oscillations of non-isothermal N/S boundary with a high frequency and large amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezuglyj, A.I.; Shklovskij, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the phenomenological approach based on the heat balance equation and the dependence of the critical temperature of the superconductor on the current value theoretically investigated the impact of high-frequency current of high amplitude and arbitrary shape on the non-isothermal balance of the oscillating N/S interface in a long superconductor. We introduce a self-consistent average temperature field of rapidly oscillating non-isothermal N/S boundary (heat kink), which allows to go beyond the well-known concept of mean-square heating and consider the impact of current waveform. With regard to experiments on the effects of microwave high-power radiation on the current-voltage characteristics (CVC) of superconducting films, we give the classification of the families of the CVC for inhomogeneous superconductors which carry a current containing a high frequency component of large amplitude. Several characteristics have hysteresis of thermal nature.

  13. Using the amplitude variation of a reverberation chamber channel to predict the synchronization of a wireless digital communication test system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanuhardja, Ray R.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Wang, Chih-Ming; Young, William F.; Remley, Kate A.; Ladbury, John M.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of a metric based on the amplitude variation of a channel in the signal bandwidth to predict whether or not a digital wireless communication test system receiver will be able to demodulate a test signal. This metric is compared to another method consisting of the correlation

  14. Excitation of large-amplitude parametric resonance by the mechanical stiffness modulation of a microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, Slava; Gerson, Yuval; Nachmias, Tali; Keren, Uri

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report on an approach allowing efficient parametric excitation of large-amplitude stable oscillations of a microstructure operated by a parallel-plate electrode, and present results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of the device. The frame-type structure, fabricated from a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), consists a pair of cantilever-type suspensions connected at their ends by a link. The time-varying electrostatic force applied to the link by a parallel-plate electrode is transformed into a periodic tension of the beams, resulting in the modulation of their flexural stiffness and consequently the mechanical parametric excitation of the structure. The lateral compliance of the beams allows for large-amplitude in-plane oscillations in the direction parallel to the electrode while high axial stiffness prevents undesirable instabilities. The lumped model of the device, considered as an assembly of geometrically nonlinear massless flexures and a rigid massive link and built using the Rayleigh–Ritz method, predicted the feasibility of the excitation approach. The fabricated devices were operated in ambient air conditions by a combination of a steady (dc) and time-dependent (ac) components of voltage and the large-amplitude responses, up to 75 µm, in the vicinity of the principal parametric and primary resonances were registered by means of video acquisition and image processing. The shapes of the experimental resonant curves were consistent with those predicted by the model. The location and size of the instability regions on the frequency–voltage plane (parametric tongues) were quantitatively in good agrement with the model results. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the suggested approach can be efficiently used for excitation of various types of microdevices where stable resonant operation combined with robustness and large vibrational amplitudes are desirable

  15. Self-consistent studies of magnetic thin film Ni (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.S.; Freeman, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Advances in experimental methods for studying surface phenomena have provided the stimulus to develop theoretical methods capable of interpreting this wealth of new information. Of particular interest have been the relative roles of bulk and surface contributions since in several important cases agreement between experiment and bulk self-consistent (SC) calculations within the local spin density functional formalism (LSDF) is lacking. We discuss our recent extension of the (LSDF) approach to the study of thin films (slabs) and the role of surface effects on magnetic properties. Results are described for Ni (001) films using our new SC numerical basis set LCAO method. Self-consistency within the superposition of overlapping spherical atomic charge density model is obtained iteratively with the atomic configuration as the adjustable parameter. Results are presented for the electronic charge densities and local density of states. The origin and role of (magnetic) surface states is discussed by comparison with results of earlier bulk calculations

  16. 2-vertex Lorentzian spin foam amplitudes for dipole transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Giorgio; Speziale, Simone; Stagno, Gabriele V.

    2018-04-01

    We compute transition amplitudes between two spin networks with dipole graphs, using the Lorentzian EPRL model with up to two (non-simplicial) vertices. We find power-law decreasing amplitudes in the large spin limit, decreasing faster as the complexity of the foam increases. There are no oscillations nor asymptotic Regge actions at the order considered, nonetheless the amplitudes still induce non-trivial correlations. Spin correlations between the two dipoles appear only when one internal face is present in the foam. We compute them within a mini-superspace description, finding positive correlations, decreasing in value with the Immirzi parameter. The paper also provides an explicit guide to computing Lorentzian amplitudes using the factorisation property of SL(2,C) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients in terms of SU(2) ones. We discuss some of the difficulties of non-simplicial foams, and provide a specific criterion to partially limit the proliferation of diagrams. We systematically compare the results with the simplified EPRLs model, much faster to evaluate, to learn evidence on when it provides reliable approximations of the full amplitudes. Finally, we comment on implications of our results for the physics of non-simplicial spin foams and their resummation.

  17. Conformal amplitude hierarchy and the Poincaré disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hirohiko

    2018-02-01

    The amplitude for the singlet channels in the 4-point function of the fundamental field in the conformal field theory of the 2d O(n) model is studied as a function of n. For a generic value of n, the 4-point function has infinitely many amplitudes, whose landscape can be very spiky as the higher amplitude changes its sign many times at the simple poles, which generalize the unique pole of the energy operator amplitude at n = 0. In the stadard parameterization of n by angle in unit of π, we find that the zeros and poles happen at the rational angles, forming a hierarchical tree structure inherent in the Poincaré disk. Some relation between the amplitude and the Farey path, a piecewise geodesic that visits these zeros and poles, is suggested. In this hierarchy, the symmetry of the congruence subgroup Γ(2) of SL(2, ℤ) naturally arises from the two clearly distinct even/odd classes of the rational angles, in which one respectively gets the truncated operator algebras and the logarithmic 4-point functions.

  18. On the Construction of Scattering Amplitudes for Spinning Massless Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Berends, F A

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the general form of scattering amplitudes for massless particles with equal spins s ($s s \\to s s$) or unequal spins ($s_a s_b \\to s_a s_b$) are derived. The imposed conditions are that the amplitudes should have the lowest possible dimension, have propagators of dimension $m^{-2}$, and obey gauge invariance. It is shown that the number of momenta required for amplitudes involving particles with s > 2 is higher than the number implied by 3-vertices for higher spin particles derived in the literature. Therefore, the dimension of the coupling constants following from the latter 3-vertices has a smaller power of an inverse mass than our results imply. Consequently, the 3-vertices in the literature cannot be the first interaction terms of a gauge-invariant theory. When no spins s > 2 are present in the process the known QCD, QED or (super) gravity amplitudes are obtained from the above general amplitudes.

  19. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  20. Consistency in the description of diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, J.; Muurinen, A.

    2009-01-01

    A macro-level diffusion model, which aims to provide a unifying framework for explaining the experimentally observed co-ion exclusion and greatly controversial counter-ion surface diffusion in a consistent fashion, is presented. It is explained in detail why a term accounting for the non-zero mobility of the counter-ion surface excess is required in the mathematical form of the macroscopic diffusion flux. The prerequisites for the consistency of the model and the problems associated with the interpretation of diffusion in such complex pore geometries as in compacted smectite clays are discussed. (author)

  1. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    . Interestingly, after imposing a simple lag in GRACE data to account for delayed surface runoff or baseflow components, an improved match in terms of degree correlation was observed in the Niger River basin. Significant improvements to the degree correlations (from  ∼  0 to about 0.6) were also found in the Colorado River basin for both the CSIRO-PML and GLEAM products, while MOD16 showed only half of that improvement. In other basins, the variability in the temporal pattern of degree correlations remained considerable and hindered any clear differentiation between the evaporation products. Even so, it was found that a constant lag of 2 months provided a better fit compared to other alternatives, including a zero lag. From a product assessment perspective, no significant or persistent advantage could be discerned across any of the three evaporation products in terms of a sustained hydrological consistency with precipitation and water storage anomaly data. As a result, our analysis has implications in terms of the confidence that can be placed in independent retrievals of the hydrological cycle, raises questions on inter-product quality, and highlights the need for additional techniques to evaluate large-scale products.

  2. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    . Interestingly, after imposing a simple lag in GRACE data to account for delayed surface runoff or baseflow components, an improved match in terms of degree correlation was observed in the Niger River basin. Significant improvements to the degree correlations (from  ∼  0 to about 0.6) were also found in the Colorado River basin for both the CSIRO-PML and GLEAM products, while MOD16 showed only half of that improvement. In other basins, the variability in the temporal pattern of degree correlations remained considerable and hindered any clear differentiation between the evaporation products. Even so, it was found that a constant lag of 2 months provided a better fit compared to other alternatives, including a zero lag. From a product assessment perspective, no significant or persistent advantage could be discerned across any of the three evaporation products in terms of a sustained hydrological consistency with precipitation and water storage anomaly data. As a result, our analysis has implications in terms of the confidence that can be placed in independent retrievals of the hydrological cycle, raises questions on inter-product quality, and highlights the need for additional techniques to evaluate large-scale products.

  3. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on dierent instrument technologies, with feeds...... in the HFI channels would result in shifts in the posterior distributions of parameters of less than 0.3σ except for As, the amplitude of the primordial curvature perturbations at 0.05 Mpc-1, which changes by about 1.We extend these comparisons to include the sky maps from the complete nine-year mission...... located dierently in the focal plane, analysed independently by dierent teams using dierent software, and near∫ the minimum of diuse foreground emission, these channels are in eect two dierent experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved...

  4. Interactions of Stress and Nicotine on Amplitude, Pre-Pulse Inhibition and Habituation of the Acoustic Startle Reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-24

    Marquez , Armario , & Gelpi, 1988) consistent with a stress response . Restraint stress has been reported to increase the amplitude of sensory...and NE in the brain (Adell , Garcia- Marquez , Armario , & Gelpi , 1988) consistent with a stress response. Restraint stress has been reported t o...and non- reactive strains. Al coholism. Clinical and Experimental Research, ~(2), 170-174. Adell, A., Garcia - Marquez, C., Armario , A. , & Gelpi , E

  5. PASTA - An RF Phase and Amplitude Scan and Tuning Application

    CERN Document Server

    Galambos, J; Deibele, C; Henderson, S

    2005-01-01

    To assist the beam commissioning in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac, a general purpose RF tuning application has been written to help set RF phase and amplitude. It follows the signature matching procedure described in Ref.* The method involves varying an upstream Rf cavity amplitude and phase settings and comparing the measured downstream beam phase responses to model predictions. The model input for cavity phase and amplitude calibration and for the beam energy are varied to best match observations. This scheme has advantages over other RF tuning techniques of not requiring intercepting devices (e.g. Faraday Cups), and not being restricted to a small linear response regime near the design values. The application developed here is general and can be applied to different RF structure types in the SNS linac. Example applications in the SNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) structures will be shown.

  6. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes

  7. Top Quark Amplitudes with an Anomolous Magnetic Moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkoski, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The anomalous magnetic moment of the top quark may be measured during the first run of the LHC at 7 TeV. For these measurements, it will be useful to have available tree amplitudes with t(bar t) and arbitrarily many photons and gluons, including both QED and color anomalous magnetic moments. In this paper, we present a method for computing these amplitudes using the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion formula. Because we deal with an effective theory with higher-dimension couplings, there are roadblocks to a direct computation with the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten method. We evade these by using an auxiliary scalar theory to compute a subset of the amplitudes.

  8. Top quark amplitudes with an anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The anomalous magnetic moment of the top quark may be measured during the first run of the LHC at 7 TeV. For these measurements, it will be useful to have available tree amplitudes with tt and arbitrarily many photons and gluons, including both QED and color anomalous magnetic moments. In this paper, we present a method for computing these amplitudes using the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion formula. Because we deal with an effective theory with higher-dimension couplings, there are roadblocks to a direct computation with the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten method. We evade these by using an auxiliary scalar theory to compute a subset of the amplitudes.

  9. Amplitude saturation of MEMS resonators explained by autoparametric resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Avoort, C; Bontemps, J J M; Steeneken, P G; Le Phan, K; Van Beek, J T M; Van der Hout, R; Hulshof, J; Fey, R H B

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenon that limits the power handling of MEMS resonators. It is observed that above a certain driving level, the resonance amplitude becomes independent of the driving level. In contrast to previous studies of power handling of MEMS resonators, it is found that this amplitude saturation cannot be explained by nonlinear terms in the spring constant or electrostatic force. Instead we show that the amplitude in our experiments is limited by nonlinear terms in the equation of motion which couple the in-plane length-extensional resonance mode to one or more out-of-plane (OOP) bending modes. We present experimental evidence for the autoparametric excitation of these OOP modes using a vibrometer. The measurements are compared to a model that can be used to predict a power-handling limit for MEMS resonators

  10. Amplitude saturation of MEMS resonators explained by autoparametric resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Avoort, C; Bontemps, J J M; Steeneken, P G; Le Phan, K; Van Beek, J T M [NXP Research, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van der Hout, R; Hulshof, J [Department of Mathematics, VU University—Faculty of Sciences, De Boelelaan 1081a, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fey, R H B, E-mail: cas.van.der.avoort@nxp.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    This paper describes a phenomenon that limits the power handling of MEMS resonators. It is observed that above a certain driving level, the resonance amplitude becomes independent of the driving level. In contrast to previous studies of power handling of MEMS resonators, it is found that this amplitude saturation cannot be explained by nonlinear terms in the spring constant or electrostatic force. Instead we show that the amplitude in our experiments is limited by nonlinear terms in the equation of motion which couple the in-plane length-extensional resonance mode to one or more out-of-plane (OOP) bending modes. We present experimental evidence for the autoparametric excitation of these OOP modes using a vibrometer. The measurements are compared to a model that can be used to predict a power-handling limit for MEMS resonators.

  11. String amplitudes: from field theories to number theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In a variety of recent developments, scattering amplitudes hint at new symmetries of and unexpected connections between physical theories which are otherwise invisible in their conventional description via Feynman diagrams or Lagrangians. Yet, many of these hidden structures are conveniently accessible to string theory where gauge interactions and gravity arise as the low-energy excitations of open and closed strings. In this talk, I will give an intuitive picture of gravity as a double copy of gauge interactions and extend the web of relations to scalar field theories including chiral Lagrangians for Goldstone bosons. The string corrections to gauge and gravity amplitudes beyond their point-particle limit exhibit elegant mathematical structures and offer a convenient laboratory to explore modern number-theoretic concepts in a simple context. As a common theme with Feynman integrals, string amplitudes introduce a variety of periods and special functions including multiple zeta values and polylogarithms, orga...

  12. One-Loop BPS amplitudes as BPS-state sums

    CERN Document Server

    Angelantonj, Carlo; Pioline, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a new procedure for computing a class of one-loop BPS-saturated amplitudes in String Theory, which expresses them as a sum of one-loop contributions of all perturbative BPS states in a manifestly T-duality invariant fashion. In this paper, we extend this procedure to all BPS-saturated amplitudes of the form \\int_F \\Gamma_{d+k,d} {\\Phi}, with {\\Phi} being a weak (almost) holomorphic modular form of weight -k/2. We use the fact that any such {\\Phi} can be expressed as a linear combination of certain absolutely convergent Poincar\\'e series, against which the fundamental domain F can be unfolded. The resulting BPS-state sum neatly exhibits the singularities of the amplitude at points of gauge symmetry enhancement, in a chamber-independent fashion. We illustrate our method with concrete examples of interest in heterotic string compactifications.

  13. On expansion of scattering amplitude at large momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edneral, V.F.; Troshin, S.M.; Tyurin, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to construct an iterative approximation for hadronic scattering amplitude and to search for the related small parameters. The expansion of the amplitude is obtained. A series is derived where the role of the small parameter is played by the quantity dependent on the momentum transfer. The appearance of the small parameter is directly related to the growth of total cross section. For the case g 2 not equal to 0 in the framework of the strong interaction theory model, based on the solution of three-domensional dynamical equation an expression is obtained for scattering amplitude in the form of a series over the quantity decreasing with the growth of momentum transfer

  14. arXiv New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Plefka, Jan

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons, massive quarks and scalars minimally coupled to gravity. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary matter and gluon multiplicities involving one graviton are reduced to partial amplitudes in QCD or scalar QCD. The obtained relations are a direct generalization of the recently found Einstein-Yang-Mills relations. The proof of the new relation employs a simple diagrammatic argument trading the graviton-matter couplings to an `upgrade' of a gluon coupling with a color-kinematic replacement rule enforced. The use of the Melia-Johansson-Ochirov color basis is a key element of the reduction. We comment on the generalization to multiple gravitons in the single color trace case.

  15. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  16. Measurement of amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    1961-01-01

    In order to measure amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier, two independent random variables are introduced which determine the shape of the anode pulse. The energy of each pulse, which depends directly on the gain and the variance, is the first variable; amplitude fluctuations, functions of the first variable, depend as well on the pulse width which in turn constitutes the second variable. The results obtained on the variations of the maximum impulse, using a steep-edged pulse broadening circuit, and those obtained on the statistical variations of the gain, are compared to show that the variance relative to the maximum amplitude of the signal is greater than that of the gain. Within the limits of these fluctuations are shown the contribution of the secondary emission coefficient of the first dynode, and that of the mean secondary emission coefficient of the multiplier. (author) [fr

  17. Inversion of Solid Earth's Varying Shape 2: Using Self-Consistency to Infer Static Ocean Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, G.; Clarke, P. J.

    2002-12-01

    We have developed a spectral approach to invert for the redistribution of mass on the Earth's surface given precise global geodetic measurements of the solid Earth's geometrical shape. We used the elastic load Love number formalism to characterize the redistributed mass as a spherical harmonic expansion, truncated at some degree and order n. [Clarke and Blewitt, this meeting]. Here we incorporate the additional physical constraint that the sea surface in hydrostatic equilibrium corresponds to an equipotential surface, to infer the non-steric component of static ocean topography. Our model rigorously accounts for self-gravitation of the ocean, continental surface mass, and the deformed solid Earth, such that the sea surface adopts a new equipotential surface consistent with ocean-land mass exchange, deformation of the geoid, deformation of the sea floor, and the geographical configuration of the oceans and continents. We develop a self-consistent spectral inversion method to solve for the distribution of continental surface mass that would generate geographic variations in relative mean sea level such that the total (ocean plus continental) mass distribution agrees with the original geodetic estimates to degree and order n. We apply this theory to study the contribution of seasonal inter-hemispheric (degree-1) mass transfer to seasonal variation in static ocean topography, using a published empirical seasonal model for degree-1 surface loading derived using GPS coordinate time series from the global IGS network [Blewitt et al., Science 294, 2,342-2,345, 2001]. The resulting predictions of seasonal variations of relative sea level strongly depend on location, with peak variations ranging from 3 mm to 19 mm. The largest peak variations are predicted in mid-August around Antarctica and the southern hemisphere in general; the lowest variations are predicted in the northern hemisphere. Corresponding maximum continental loading occurs in Canada and Siberia at the water

  18. Processes setting the characteristics of sea surface cooling induced by tropical cyclones

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, E.M.; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Madec, G.; Vialard, Jérôme; Samson, G.; Jourdain, N.C.; Menkès, Christophe; Jullien, S.

    2012-01-01

    A 1/2 degrees resolution global ocean general circulation model is used to investigate the processes controlling sea surface cooling in the wake of tropical cyclones (TCs). Wind forcing related to more than 3000 TCs occurring during the 1978-2007 period is blended with the CORE II interannual forcing, using an idealized TC wind pattern with observed magnitude and track. The amplitude and spatial characteristics of the TC-induced cooling are consistent with satellite observations, with an aver...

  19. Numerical construction of 'optimal' nonoscillating amplitude and phase functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzkin, A.; Lombardi, M.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical recipe for the construction of nonoscillating amplitude and phase functions for potentials with a single minimum is given. We give different examples illustrating the recipe, showing the usefulness of the procedure for the construction of basis functions in bound-state scattering processes, such as those described by quantum defect theory. The resulting amplitude and accumulated phase functions are coined as 'optimal' nonoscillating (as a function of the space and energy variables) because they are the counterpart for the quantum problem of the classical action for the analog semiclassical problem

  20. From magnetized iron bars to amplitude imaging of hadronic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1989-01-01

    Instruments shape research and determine which discoveries are made. Considering spin observables as carriers of information on nonperturbative QCD dynamics in hadronic reactions, we examine the relevance of amplitude analysis for the design goals of high intensity hadron facilities. New instrumental goals emerge: Hadron facility dedicated to continous measurements of spin observables and to cumulative production of computer images of scattering amplitudes over broad kinematic regions. The facility is viewed as a single instrument and termed spinoscope. We stress its connections to frontier developments in computer industries and to studies of nonperturbative states in condensed matter