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Sample records for surface components recognizing

  1. Recognizing genes and other components of genomic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Myers, E. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Stormo, G.D. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (USA). Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology)

    1991-01-01

    The Aspen Center for Physics (ACP) sponsored a three-week workshop, with 26 scientists participating, from 28 May to 15 June, 1990. The workshop, entitled Recognizing Genes and Other Components of Genomic Structure, focussed on discussion of current needs and future strategies for developing the ability to identify and predict the presence of complex functional units on sequenced, but otherwise uncharacterized, genomic DNA. We addressed the need for computationally-based, automatic tools for synthesizing available data about individual consensus sequences and local compositional patterns into the composite objects (e.g., genes) that are -- as composite entities -- the true object of interest when scanning DNA sequences. The workshop was structured to promote sustained informal contact and exchange of expertise between molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians. No participant stayed for less than one week, and most attended for two or three weeks. Computers, software, and databases were available for use as electronic blackboards'' and as the basis for collaborative exploration of ideas being discussed and developed at the workshop. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. FRAN and RBF-PSO as two components of a hyper framework to recognize protein folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Elham; Ghatee, Mehdi; Shiri, M E

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an intelligent hyper framework is proposed to recognize protein folds from its amino acid sequence which is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. This framework includes some statistical and intelligent algorithms for proteins classification. The main components of the proposed framework are the Fuzzy Resource-Allocating Network (FRAN) and the Radial Bases Function based on Particle Swarm Optimization (RBF-PSO). FRAN applies a dynamic method to tune up the RBF network parameters. Due to the patterns complexity captured in protein dataset, FRAN classifies the proteins under fuzzy conditions. Also, RBF-PSO applies PSO to tune up the RBF classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that FRAN improves prediction accuracy up to 51% and achieves acceptable multi-class results for protein fold prediction. Although RBF-PSO provides reasonable results for protein fold recognition up to 48%, it is weaker than FRAN in some cases. However the proposed hyper framework provides an opportunity to use a great range of intelligent methods and can learn from previous experiences. Thus it can avoid the weakness of some intelligent methods in terms of memory, computational time and static structure. Furthermore, the performance of this system can be enhanced throughout the system life-cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The ability of IgY to recognize surface proteins of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans are gram positive bacteria classified into viridians group, and have a role in pathogenesis of dental caries. It’s adhesion to the tooth surface is mediated by cell surface proteins, which interact with specific receptor located in tooth pellicle. Glucan binding protein, Glukosyltransferase, and antigen I/II are basic proteins of S. mutans, which have a role in initiating the interaction. A previous study showed that chicken’s IgY can interfere the interaction. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of IgY in recognizing the surface molecule of Streptococcus mutans expressed by various serotypes (c, d, e, f and a strain derived from IPB, Bogor. Method: Western blot was used as a method to determine such capability. Result: The result showed that IgY has a potency to recognize antigen I/II, but not the other proteins on the cell surface of all bacteria tested. Conclusion: The ability of IgY to bind the surface protein, antigen I/II, indicates that this avian antibody could be used as a candidate for anti-adhesion in preventing dental caries.

  4. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases

  5. [A method of recognizing biology surface spectrum using cascade-connection artificial neural nets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Jie; Yao, Yong; Zhang, Tie-Qiang; Meng, Xian-Jiang

    2008-05-01

    A method of recognizing the visible spectrum of micro-areas on the biological surface with cascade-connection artificial neural nets is presented in the present paper. The visible spectra of spots on apples' pericarp, ranging from 500 to 730 nm, were obtained with a fiber-probe spectrometer, and a new spectrum recognition system consisting of three-level cascade-connection neural nets was set up. The experiments show that the spectra of rotten, scar and bumped spot on an apple's pericarp can be recognized by the spectrum recognition system, and the recognition accuracy is higher than 85% even when noise level is 15%. The new recognition system overcomes the disadvantages of poor accuracy and poor anti-noise with the traditional system based on single cascade neural nets. Finally, a new method of expression of recognition results was proved. The method is based on the conception of degree of membership in fuzzing mathematics, and through it the recognition results can be expressed exactly and objectively.

  6. A new method for recognizing quadric surfaces from range data and its application to telerobotics and automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvertos, Nicolas; Dcunha, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    desired coordinate system. Experiments were conducted on raw range images of spheres, cylinders, and cones. Experiments were also performed on simulated data for surfaces such as hyperboloids of one and two sheets, elliptical and hyperbolic paraboloids, elliptical and hyperbolic cylinders, ellipsoids and the quadric cones. Both the real and simulated data yielded excellent results. Our approach is found to be more accurate and computationally inexpensive as compared to traditional approaches, such as the three-dimensional discriminant approach which involves evaluation of the rank of a matrix. Finally, we have proposed one other new approach, which involves the formulation of a mapping between the explicit and implicit forms of representing quadric surfaces. This approach, when fully realized, will yield a three-dimensional discriminant, which will recognize quadric surfaces based upon their component surfaces patches. This approach is faster than prior approaches and at the same time is invariant to pose and orientation of the surfaces in three-dimensional space.

  7. Surface modification method for reactor incore structural component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Minoru; Sudo, Akira.

    1996-01-01

    A large number of metal or ceramic small spheres accelerated by pressurized air are collided against a surface of a reactor incore structures or a welded surface of the structural components, and then finishing is applied by polishing to form compression stresses on the surface. This can change residual stresses into compressive stress without increasing the strength of the surface. Accordingly, stress corrosion crackings of the incore structural components or welded portions thereof can be prevented thereby enabling to extend the working life of equipments. (T.M.)

  8. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and 125 I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000

  9. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-01-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in λgt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein

  10. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  11. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  12. Early micromovement of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, J O; Ding, M; Varmarken, J E

    2012-01-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovement...

  13. Cytochrome P450IID6 recognized by LKM1 antibody is not exposed on the surface of hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A M; Mura, C; De Lemos-Chiarandini, C; Krishnamoorthy, R; Alvarez, F

    1993-06-01

    LKM1 autoantibody, directed against P450IID6, is accepted as a marker of a particular type of autoimmune hepatitis, but its role in the pathogenesis of the disease is controversial. Localization of P450IID6 on the cell surface of rat hepatocytes was previously reported, suggesting that membrane-bound P450IID6 could be the target of LKM1 antibodies, thus allowing immune lysis of hepatocytes. The objective of the present study was to determine, using various methods, the cell localization of P450IID6 in human and rat hepatocytes. Incubation of rat and human hepatocytes with LKM1-positive serum showed slight, if any, cell membrane staining using immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase and immunoelectron microscopic studies. No staining of the plasma membrane of human hepatocytes was observed when incubations were carried out with immunoaffinity-purified antibody directed against peptide 254-271, the main epitope of P450IID6 recognized by all LKM1 sera tested. Chinese hamster ovary cells, transfected with the complete P450IID6 cDNA and incubated with the supernatant from a B cell lymphoblastoid cell line prepared with the lymphocytes of a LKM1-positive patient, did not show any staining of the cell surface by immunofluorescence. Incubation of rat microsomal fraction vesicles with LKM1-positive serum, followed by protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, displayed a staining of almost all vesicles, confirming that P450IID6 is present on the cytoplasmic side of the microsomal membrane, which makes it unable to be expressed on the cell surface even if it were transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sulpho NHS Biotin labelling of rat hepatocyte cell membranes did not show the presence of a 50-kD molecule that could have reacted with LKM1 antibody. DNA sequencing of exon 1 of the CYP2D6 gene of a patient positive for LKM1 antibody did not show any difference from that of the normal published sequence of the gene. This does not favour an alteration of the NH2 terminal

  14. Surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    During this PhD, the challenges on the non-intrusive surface temperature measurements of metallic plasma facing components in tokamaks are reported. Indeed, a precise material emissivity value is needed for classical infrared methods and the environment contribution has to be known particularly for low emissivities materials. Although methods have been developed to overcome these issues, they have been implemented solely for dedicated experiments. In any case, none of these methods are suitable for surface temperature measurement in tokamaks.The active pyrometry introduced in this study allows surface temperature measurements independently of reflected flux and emissivities using pulsed and modulated photothermal effect. This method has been validated in laboratory on metallic materials with reflected fluxes for pulsed and modulated modes. This experimental validation is coupled with a surface temperature variation induced by photothermal effect and temporal signal evolvement modelling in order to optimize both the heating source characteristics and the data acquisition and treatment. The experimental results have been used to determine the application range in temperature and detection wavelengths. In this context, the design of an active pyrometry system on tokamak has been completed, based on a bicolor camera for a thermography application in metallic (or low emissivity) environment.The active pyrometry method introduced in this study is a complementary technique of classical infrared methods used for thermography in tokamak environment which allows performing local and 2D surface temperature measurements independently of reflected fluxes and emissivities. (author) [fr

  15. Surface composition of biomedical components by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Baxter, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Materials used for replacement body parts must satisfy a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and mechanical ability to handle the task with regard to strength, wear and durability. When using a CVD coated carbon fibre reinforced carbon ball, the surface must be ion implanted with uniform dose of nitrogen ions in order to make it wear resistant. The mechanism by which the wear resistance is improved is one of radiation damage and the required dose of about 10 16 cm -2 can have a tolerance of about 20%. To implant a spherical surface requires manipulation of the sample within the beam and control system (either computer or manually operated) to enable uniform dose all the way from polar to equatorial regions on the surface. A manipulator has been designed and built for this purpose. In order to establish whether the dose is uniform, nuclear reaction analysis using the reaction 14 N(d,α) 12 C is an ideal method of profiling. By taking measurements at a number of points on the surface, the uniformity of nitrogen dose can be ascertained. It is concluded that both Rutherford Backscattering and Nuclear Reaction Analysis can be used for rapid analysis of surface composition of carbon based materials used for replacement body components. 2 refs., 2 figs

  16. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  17. Surfaces: processing, coating, decontamination, pollution, etc. Surface mastering to prevent component corrosion; Surfaces: traitement, revetements, decontamination, pollution, etc. Maitrise de la surface pour prevenir la corrosion des composants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucault, M. [Departement Corrosion Chimie, AREVA Centre Technique, BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2012-07-01

    In the primary and secondary circuits of nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors, AREVA uses several nickel-based alloys or austenitic stainless steels for the manufacture of safety components. The experience feedback of the last twenty years allows us to point out the major role hold by the component surface state in their life duration. In this paper, we present four examples of problem encountered and solved by a surface study and the definition and implementation of processes for the surface control of the repaired components. Then, we propose some ideas about the present needs in term of analysis means to improve the surface knowledge and control of the manufactured components. (author)

  18. Generation of human scFvs antibodies recognizing a prion protein epitope expressed on the surface of human lymphoblastoid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imperiale Valentina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A hallmark of prion disease is the transformation of normal cellular prion protein (PrPc into an infectious disease-associated isoform, (PrPsc. Anti-prion protein monoclonal antibodies are invaluable for structure-function studies of PrP molecules. Furthermore recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies can prevent the incorporation of PrPc into propagating prions. In the present article, we show two new human phage antibodies, isolated on recombinant hamster prion protein (rHaPrP. Results We adopted an antibody phage display strategy to isolate specific human antibodies directed towards rHaPrP which has been used as a bait for panning the synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Two phage antibodies clones named MA3.B4 and MA3.G3 were isolated and characterized under genetic biochemical and immunocytochemical aspects. The clones were found to recognize the prion protein in ELISA studies. In flow-cytometry studies, these human single chain Fragment variable (scFv phage-antibodies show a well defined pattern of reactivity on human lymphoblastoid and myeloid cells. Conclusion Sequence analysis of the gene encoding for the antibody fragments and antigen recognition patterns determined by flow-cytometry analysis indicate that the isolated scFvs recognize novel epitopes in the PrPc molecule. These new anti PrPc human antibodies are unique reagents for prion protein detection and may represent a biologic platform to develop new reagents to treat PrPsc associated disease.

  19. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löfling, Jonas [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R. [Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Varki, Ajit, E-mail: a1varki@ucsd.edu [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH.

  20. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Löfling, Jonas; Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R.; Varki, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH

  1. A new method for recognizing quadric surfaces from range data and its application to telerobotics and automation, final phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Roland; Dcunha, Ivan; Alvertos, Nicolas

    1994-01-01

    In the final phase of the proposed research a complete top to down three dimensional object recognition scheme has been proposed. The various three dimensional objects included spheres, cones, cylinders, ellipsoids, paraboloids, and hyperboloids. Utilizing a newly developed blob determination technique, a given range scene with several non-cluttered quadric surfaces is segmented. Next, using the earlier (phase 1) developed alignment scheme, each of the segmented objects are then aligned in a desired coordinate system. For each of the quadric surfaces based upon their intersections with certain pre-determined planes, a set of distinct features (curves) are obtained. A database with entities such as the equations of the planes and angular bounds of these planes has been created for each of the quadric surfaces. Real range data of spheres, cones, cylinders, and parallelpipeds have been utilized for the recognition process. The developed algorithm gave excellent results for the real data as well as for several sets of simulated range data.

  2. Corrugated metal surface with pillars for terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguide components

    KAUST Repository

    Yuehong, Xu

    2018-01-12

    In the terahertz regime, due to perfect conductivity of most metals, it is hard to realize a strong confinement of Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) although a propagation loss could be sufficiently low. We experimentally demonstrated a structure with periodic pillars arranged on a thin metal surface that supports bound modes of spoof SPPs at terahertz (THz) frequencies. By using scanning near-field THz microscopy, the electric field distribution above the metal surface within a distance of 130 μm was mapped. The results proved that this structure could guide spoof SPPs propagating along subwavelength waveguides, and at the same time reduce field expansion into free space. Further, for the development of integrated optical circuits, several components including straight waveguide, S-bend, Y-splitter and directional couplers were designed and characterized by the same method. We believe that the waveguide components proposed here will pave a new way for the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at THz frequencies.

  3. Corrugated metal surface with pillars for terahertz surface plasmon polariton waveguide components

    KAUST Repository

    Yuehong, Xu; Yanfeng, Li; Chunxiu, Tian; Jiaguang, Han; Quan, Xu; Xueqian, Zhang; Xixiang, Zhang; Ying, Zhang; Weili, Zhang

    2018-01-01

    In the terahertz regime, due to perfect conductivity of most metals, it is hard to realize a strong confinement of Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) although a propagation loss could be sufficiently low. We experimentally demonstrated a structure with periodic pillars arranged on a thin metal surface that supports bound modes of spoof SPPs at terahertz (THz) frequencies. By using scanning near-field THz microscopy, the electric field distribution above the metal surface within a distance of 130 μm was mapped. The results proved that this structure could guide spoof SPPs propagating along subwavelength waveguides, and at the same time reduce field expansion into free space. Further, for the development of integrated optical circuits, several components including straight waveguide, S-bend, Y-splitter and directional couplers were designed and characterized by the same method. We believe that the waveguide components proposed here will pave a new way for the development of flexible, wideband and compact photonic circuits operating at THz frequencies.

  4. Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, R.M.M.; Moustafa, S.S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, AUG (2015), s. 128-138 ISSN 0926-9851 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface waves * surface wave dispersion * seismic data acquisition * seismic data inversion * velocity spectrum Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2015

  5. Surface erosion of fusion reactor components due to radiation blistering and neutron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation blistering and neutron sputtering can lead to the surface erosion of fusion reactor components exposed to plasma radiations. Recent studies of methods to reduce the surface erosion caused by these processes are discussed

  6. Soil Structure - A Neglected Component of Land-Surface Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Or, D.; Walko, R. L.; Vereecken, H.; Kollet, S. J.; Young, M.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Hengl, T.; Agam, N.; Avissar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Soil structure is largely absent in most standard sampling and measurements and in the subsequent parameterization of soil hydraulic properties deduced from soil maps and used in Earth System Models. The apparent omission propagates into the pedotransfer functions that deduce parameters of soil hydraulic properties primarily from soil textural information. Such simple parameterization is an essential ingredient in the practical application of any land surface model. Despite the critical role of soil structure (biopores formed by decaying roots, aggregates, etc.) in defining soil hydraulic functions, only a few studies have attempted to incorporate soil structure into models. They mostly looked at the effects on preferential flow and solute transport pathways at the soil profile scale; yet, the role of soil structure in mediating large-scale fluxes remains understudied. Here, we focus on rectifying this gap and demonstrating potential impacts on surface and subsurface fluxes and system wide eco-hydrologic responses. The study proposes a systematic way for correcting the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions—accounting for soil-structure—with major implications for near saturated hydraulic conductivity. Modification to the basic soil hydraulic parameterization is assumed as a function of biological activity summarized by Gross Primary Production. A land-surface model with dynamic vegetation is used to carry out numerical simulations with and without the role of soil-structure for 20 locations characterized by different climates and biomes across the globe. Including soil structure affects considerably the partition between infiltration and runoff and consequently leakage at the base of the soil profile (recharge). In several locations characterized by wet climates, a few hundreds of mm per year of surface runoff become deep-recharge accounting for soil-structure. Changes in energy fluxes, total evapotranspiration and vegetation productivity

  7. Variant surface glycoproteins from Venezuelan trypanosome isolates are recognized by sera from animals infected with either Trypanosoma evansi or Trypanosoma vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Uzcanga, Graciela L; Perrone, Trina; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Carrasquel, Liomary; Arias, Laura P; Escalona, José L; Cardozo, Vanessa; Bubis, José

    2015-01-15

    Salivarian trypanosomes sequentially express only one variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) on their cell surface from a large repertoire of VSG genes. Seven cryopreserved animal trypanosome isolates known as TeAp-ElFrio01, TEVA1 (or TeAp-N/D1), TeGu-N/D1, TeAp-Mantecal01, TeGu-TerecayTrino, TeGu-Terecay03 and TeGu-Terecay323, which had been isolated from different hosts identified in several geographical areas of Venezuela were expanded using adult albino rats. Soluble forms of predominant VSGs expressed during the early infection stages were purified and corresponded to concanavalin A-binding proteins with molecular masses of 48-67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropohoresis, and pI values between 6.1 and 7.5. The biochemical characterization of all purified soluble VSGs revealed that they were dimers in their native form and represented different gene products. Sequencing of some of these proteins yielded peptides homologous to VSGs from Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi and established that they most likely are mosaics generated by homologous recombination. Western blot analysis showed that all purified VSGs were cross-reacting antigens that were recognized by sera from animals infected with either T. evansi or Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax. The VSG glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol cross-reacting determinant epitope was only partially responsible for the cross-reactivity of the purified proteins, and antibodies appeared to recognize cross-reacting conformational epitopes from the various soluble VSGs. ELISA experiments were performed using infected bovine sera collected from cattle in a Venezuelan trypanosome-endemic area. In particular, soluble VSGs from two trypanosome isolates, TeGu-N/D1 and TeGu-TeracayTrino, were recognized by 93.38% and 73.55% of naturally T. vivax-infected bovine sera, respectively. However, approximately 70% of the sera samples did not recognize all seven purified proteins. Hence, the

  8. Reliability of surface inspection techniques for pressurized components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauppinen, P.; Sillanpaeae, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the Nordtest NDT-programme (1984 - 1988) the detection of flaws by surface inspection methods has been studied. In the round-robin exercise, 133 test pieces have been inspected by 32 inspectors in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. From the results, the detectability of defects by magnetic particle and liquid-penetrant testing and the influence of materials and techniques used are evaluated. (author)

  9. Integrated Optical Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nikolajsen, Thomas; Leosson, Kristjan

    2005-01-01

    New optical waveguide technology for integrated optics, based on propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in dielectric, is presented. Guiding and routing of electromagnetic radiation along nanometer-thin and micrometer-wide gold stripes embedded......), and a bend loss of ~5 dB for a bend radius of 15 mm are evaluated for 15-nm-thick and 8-mm-wide stripes at the wavelength of 1550 nm. LR-SPP-based 3-dB power Y-splitters, multimode interference waveguides, and directional couplers are demonstrated and investigated. At 1570 nm, coupling lengths of 1.9 and 0...

  10. Vertical components of surface vibrations induced by mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciag, E.; Kowalski, W.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of vertical components of surface vibration is epicentral zones due to mining tremors in the Upper Silesian Coalfield (USC) are analysed. Both maximum acceleration amplitudes and dominant frequencies of vertical (Z) and horizontal (N-S and E-W) components of vibrations are compared. The role played by the vertical components of vibrations in estimates of hazard for surface structures excited by mining tremors is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs

  11. Turbine component having surface cooling channels and method of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Trimmer, Andrew Lee; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu

    2017-09-05

    A component for a turbine engine includes a substrate that includes a first surface, and an insert coupled to the substrate proximate the substrate first surface. The component also includes a channel. The channel is defined by a first channel wall formed in the substrate and a second channel wall formed by at least one coating disposed on the substrate first surface. The component further includes an inlet opening defined in flow communication with the channel. The inlet opening is defined by a first inlet wall formed in the substrate and a second inlet wall defined by the insert.

  12. Nuclear electronic components of surface contamination monitor based on multi-electrode proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Zhang Yong; Han Shuping; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear electronic components applying in Portal Monitor and Hands and Feet Surface Contamination Monitor were based on modern integrated circuit are introduced. The detailed points in circuit design and manufacturing technique are analyzed

  13. Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature state-space components

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — State-Space Decomposition of Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C....

  14. Different types of configurations of equipotential surfaces of binary systems with very luminous components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorec, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75 - Paris (France). Inst. d' Astrophysique; Niemela, V [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1980-02-04

    If the luminosities and the masses of the components of a binary system are known, it is possible to determine from the diagrams presented here, the type of configuration of equipotential surfaces that correspond to it.

  15. Different types of configurations of equipotential surfaces of binary systems with very luminous components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorec, Juan

    1980-01-01

    If the luminosities and the masses of the components of a binary system are known, it is possible to determine from the diagrams presented here, the type of configuration of equipotential surfaces that correspond to it [fr

  16. Adsorption-Driven Surface Segregation of the Less Reactive Alloy Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Jerker; Calle Vallejo, Federico; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Counterintuitive to expectations and all prior observations of adsorbate-induced surface segregation of the more reactive alloy component (the one forming the stronger bond with the adsorbate), we show that CO adsorption at elevated pressures and temperatures pulls the less reactive Cu to the sur......Counterintuitive to expectations and all prior observations of adsorbate-induced surface segregation of the more reactive alloy component (the one forming the stronger bond with the adsorbate), we show that CO adsorption at elevated pressures and temperatures pulls the less reactive Cu...... to the surface of a CuPt near-surface alloy. The Cu surface segregation is driven by the formation of a stable self-organized CO/CuPt surface alloy structure and is rationalized in terms of the radically stronger Pt−CO bond when Cu is present in the first surface layer of Pt. The results, which are expected...

  17. Recognizing Facial Slivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan

    2018-07-01

    We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.

  18. Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths (740 nm and 950 nm). I...

  19. Construction of a hepatitis B virus neutralizing chimeric monoclonal antibody recognizing escape mutants of the viral surface antigen (HBsAg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsaz-Shirazi, Forough; Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Farid, Samira; Bahadori, Motahareh; Bohne, Felix; Altstetter, Sebastian; Wolff, Lisa; Kazemi, Tohid; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Chudy, Michael; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Protzer, Ulrike; Shokri, Fazel

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global burden on the health-care system and is considered as the tenth leading cause of death in the world. Over 248 million patients are currently suffering from chronic HBV infection worldwide and annual mortality rate of this infection is 686000. The "a" determinant is a hydrophilic region present in all antigenic subtypes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies against this region can neutralize the virus and are protective against all subtypes. We have recently generated a murine anti-HBs monoclonal antibody (4G4), which can neutralize HBV infection in HepaRG cells and recognize most of the escape mutant forms of HBsAg. Here, we describe the production and characterization of the chimeric human-murine antibody 4G4 (c-4G4). Variable region genes of heavy and light chains of the m-4G4 were cloned and fused to constant regions of human kappa and IgG1 by splice overlap extension (SOE) PCR. The chimeric antibody was expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cells and purified from culture supernatant. Competition ELISA proved that both antibodies bind the same epitope within HBsAg. Antigen-binding studies using ELISA and Western blot showed that c-4G4 has retained the affinity and specificity of the parental murine antibody, and displayed a similar pattern of reactivity to 13 escape mutant forms of HBsAg. Both, the parental and c-4G4 showed a comparably high HBV neutralization capacity in cell culture even at the lowest concentration (0.6μg/ml). Due to the ability of c-4G4 to recognize most of the sub-genotypes and escape mutants of HBsAg, this antibody either alone or in combination with other anti-HBs antibodies could be considered as a potent alternative for Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) as an HBV infection prophylactic or for passive immunotherapy against HBV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface roughness characterization of cast components using 3D optical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    scanning probe image processor (SPIP) software and the results of the surface roughness parameters obtained were subjected to statistical analyses. The bearing area ratio was introduced and applied to the surface roughness analysis. From the results, the surface quality of the standard comparators...... is successfully characterised and it was established that the areal parameters are more informative for sand cast components. The roughness values of the standard visual comparators can serve as a control for the cast components and for order specifications in the foundry industry. A series of iron castings were...... made in green sand moulds and the surface roughness parameter (Sa) values were compared with those of the standards. Sa parameter suffices for the evaluation of casting surface texture. The S series comparators showed a better description of the surface of castings after shot blasting than the A series...

  1. Detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Laboratoire de Mecanique des Contacts et des Structures (LaMCoS), INSA Lyon, 20 Avenue des Sciences, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Li, H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, M.Q., E-mail: zc9997242256@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in diffusion bonding of steel hollow structural component. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to observe the extent of surface asperity deformation under different applied bonding pressures. Fracture surface characteristic combined with surface roughness profiles distinctly revealed the enhanced surface asperity deformation as the applied pressure increases. The influence of surface asperity deformation mechanism on joint formation was analyzed: (a) surface asperity deformation not only directly expanded the interfacial contact areas, but also released deformation heat and caused defects, indirectly accelerating atomic diffusion, then benefits to void shrinkage; (b) surface asperity deformation readily introduced stored energy difference between two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, resulting in strain induced interface grain boundary migration. In addition, the influence of void on interface grain boundary migration was analyzed in detail. - Highlights: • A high quality hollow structural component has been fabricated by diffusion bonding. • Surface asperity deformation not only expands the interfacial contact areas, but also causes deformation heat and defects to improve the atomic diffusion. • Surface asperity deformation introduces the stored energy difference between the two opposite sides of interface grain boundary, leading to strain induced interface grain boundary migration. • The void exerts a dragging force on the interface grain boundary to retard or stop interface grain boundary migration. - Abstract: This study focused on the detailed analysis of surface asperity deformation mechanism in similar diffusion bonding as well as on the fabrication of high quality martensitic stainless steel hollow structural components. A special surface with regular patterns was processed to be joined so as to

  2. Dependence of partial molecules surface area on the third component in lyotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, H.G.; Ghazaryan, Kh.M.; Yayloyan, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Free surface of one amphiphilic molecule head of a lyotropic liquid crystal has been investigated by X-Ray diffraction method, at small and large angles, in the presence of the third component. The pentadecilsulphonat-water system in the presence of cholesterol as well as the lecithin-water system in the presence of decanol were investigated. It is shown that the above mentioned free surface decreases if the cholesterol concentration increases, while this surface increases in the case of water concentration increase. However, it increases slower than in the case of the two-component system. The same is observed for the lecithin-water-decanol system

  3. Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component micro injection moulding (μIM) processes such as two-component (2k) μIM are the key technologies for the mass fabrication of multi-material micro products. 2k-μIM experiments involving a miniaturized test component with micro features in the sub-mm dimensional range and moulding...... a pair of thermoplastic materials (ABS and POM) were conducted. Three dimensional process simulations based on the finite element method have been performed to explore the capability of predicting filling pattern shape at component-level and surface micro feature-level in a polymer/polymer overmoulding...

  4. Adherence of extracellular matrix components to modified surfaces of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzer, C; Uhlmann, E; Meinke, M; Lademann, J; Hansen, U

    2009-01-01

    The adherence of biological materials on metal surfaces is of special importance in biology and medicine. The underlying interactions between surface and biological materials (e.g. extracellular matrix components or cells) are responsible for the application as a medical device. Numerous products are made of pure titanium and titanium alloys. This paper shows the influence of a laser production technology on machined surfaces of TiAl 6 V 4 and the resulting adherence of biological material on the basis of the surface characterisation. In this study, different machined TiAl 6 V 4 surfaces were used for coatings with extracellular matrix components. For this process, different coating with collagen I monomers and a complex mixture of extracellular matrix proteins derived from the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone were analysed. The efficiency of the coating was analysed by different methods and the results are presented in this paper

  5. Surface layer scintillometry for estimating the sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recently developed scintillometry method, with a focus on the dual-beam surface layer scintillometer (SLS, allows boundary layer atmospheric turbulence, surface sensible heat and momentum flux to be estimated in real-time. Much of the previous research using the scintillometer method has involved the large aperture scintillometer method, with only a few studies using the SLS method. The SLS method has been mainly used by agrometeorologists, hydrologists and micrometeorologists for atmospheric stability and surface energy balance studies to obtain estimates of sensible heat from which evaporation estimates representing areas of one hectare or larger are possible. Other applications include the use of the SLS method in obtaining crucial input parameters for atmospheric dispersion and turbulence models. The SLS method relies upon optical scintillation of a horizontal laser beam between transmitter and receiver for a separation distance typically between 50 and 250 m caused by refractive index inhomogeneities in the atmosphere that arise from turbulence fluctuations in air temperature and to a much lesser extent the fluctuations in water vapour pressure. Measurements of SLS beam transmission allow turbulence of the atmosphere to be determined, from which sub-hourly, real-time and in situ path-weighted fluxes of sensible heat and momentum may be calculated by application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Unlike the eddy covariance (EC method for which corrections for flow distortion and coordinate rotation are applied, no corrections to the SLS measurements, apart from a correction for water vapour pressure, are applied. Also, path-weighted SLS estimates over the propagation path are obtained. The SLS method also offers high temporal measurement resolution and usually greater spatial coverage compared to EC, Bowen ratio energy balance, surface renewal and other sensible heat measurement methods. Applying the shortened surface

  6. Microclimatic models. Estimation of components of the energy balance over land surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, M.; Venaelaeinen, A.; Tourula, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Climates at regional scale are strongly dependent on the interaction between atmosphere and its lower boundary, the oceans and the land surface mosaic. Land surfaces influence climate through their albedo, and the aerodynamic roughness, the processes of the biosphere and many soil hydrological properties; all these factors vary considerably geographically. Land surfaces receive a certain portion of the solar irradiance depending on the cloudiness, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo. Short-wave solar irradiance is the source of the heat energy exchange at the earth`s surface and also regulates many biological processes, e.g. photosynthesis. Methods for estimating solar irradiance, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo were reviewed during the course of this project. The solar energy at earth`s surface is consumed for heating the soil and the lower atmosphere. Where moisture is available, evaporation is one of the key components of the surface energy balance, because the conversion of liquid water into water vapour consumes heat. The evaporation process was studied by carrying out field experiments and testing parameterisation for a cultivated agricultural surface and for lakes. The micrometeorological study over lakes was carried out as part of the international `Northern Hemisphere Climatic Processes Experiment` (NOPEX/BAHC) in Sweden. These studies have been aimed at a better understanding of the energy exchange processes of the earth`s surface-atmosphere boundary for a more accurate and realistic parameterisation of the land surface in atmospheric models

  7. Microclimatic models. Estimation of components of the energy balance over land surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikinheimo, M; Venaelaeinen, A; Tourula, T [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Climates at regional scale are strongly dependent on the interaction between atmosphere and its lower boundary, the oceans and the land surface mosaic. Land surfaces influence climate through their albedo, and the aerodynamic roughness, the processes of the biosphere and many soil hydrological properties; all these factors vary considerably geographically. Land surfaces receive a certain portion of the solar irradiance depending on the cloudiness, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo. Short-wave solar irradiance is the source of the heat energy exchange at the earth`s surface and also regulates many biological processes, e.g. photosynthesis. Methods for estimating solar irradiance, atmospheric transparency and surface albedo were reviewed during the course of this project. The solar energy at earth`s surface is consumed for heating the soil and the lower atmosphere. Where moisture is available, evaporation is one of the key components of the surface energy balance, because the conversion of liquid water into water vapour consumes heat. The evaporation process was studied by carrying out field experiments and testing parameterisation for a cultivated agricultural surface and for lakes. The micrometeorological study over lakes was carried out as part of the international `Northern Hemisphere Climatic Processes Experiment` (NOPEX/BAHC) in Sweden. These studies have been aimed at a better understanding of the energy exchange processes of the earth`s surface-atmosphere boundary for a more accurate and realistic parameterisation of the land surface in atmospheric models

  8. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  9. [Studies on the interaction of blood components with ultra-smooth polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, T.H. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). School of Medicine

    1989-04-17

    This report is in three parts, though each is briefly described data is provided. The three parts address (1) radioiodination of human thrombin and fibrinogen; (2) interaction of blood components with ultra- smooth polymer surfaces; and (3) initial studies of Tecoflex and treated Tecoflex cups with normal serum samples.

  10. Principal Component Surface (2011) for St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER) in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)....

  11. Ultrasonic detection technology based on joint robot on composite component with complex surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Juan; Xu, Chunguang; Zhang, Lan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2014-02-18

    Some components have complex surface, such as the airplane wing and the shell of a pressure vessel etc. The quality of these components determines the reliability and safety of related equipment. Ultrasonic nondestructive detection is one of the main methods used for testing material defects at present. In order to improve the testing precision, the acoustic axis of the ultrasonic transducer should be consistent with the normal direction of the measured points. When we use joint robots, automatic ultrasonic scan along the component surface normal direction can be realized by motion trajectory planning and coordinate transformation etc. In order to express the defects accurately and truly, the robot position and the signal of the ultrasonic transducer should be synchronized.

  12. NEXAFS characterization of DNA components and molecular-orientation of surface-bound DNA oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Newton T.; Lee, C.-Y.; Gamble, Lara J.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Castner, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Single stranded DNA oligomers (ssDNA) immobilized onto solid surfaces forms the basis for several biotechnological applications such as DNA microarrays, affinity separations, and biosensors. Surface structure of Surface-bound oligomers is expected to significantly influence their biological activity and interactions with the environment. In this study near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is used to characterize the components of DNA (nucleobases, nucleotides and nucleosides) and the orientation information of surface-bound ssDNA. The K-edges of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have spectra with features that are characteristic of the different chemical species present in the nucleobases of DNA. The effect of addition of the DNA sugar and phosphate components on the NEXAFS K-edge spectra was also investigated. The polarization-dependent nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS data show significant changes for different orientations of surface bound ssDNA. These results establish NEXAFS as a powerful technique for chemical and structural characterization of surface-bound DNA oligomers

  13. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  14. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamic Dissolution Theory for Multi-Component Solid/Liquid Surfaces Involving Surface Adsorption and Radiolysis Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R B

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical expression is developed for the dissolution rate response for multi-component radioactive materials that have surface adsorption kinetics and radiolysis kinetics when wetted by a multi-component aqueous solution. An application for this type of dissolution response is the performance evaluation of multi-component spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) for long term interim storage and for geological disposition. Typically, SNF compositions depend on initial composition, uranium oxide and metal alloys being most common, and on reactor burnup which results in a wide range of fission product and actinide concentrations that decay by alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. These compositional/burnup ranges of SNFs, whether placed in interim storage or emplaced in a geologic repository, will potentially be wetted by multi-component aqueous solutions, and these solutions may be further altered by radiolytic aqueous species due to three radiation fields. The solid states of the SNFs are not thermodynamically stable when wetted and will dissolve, with or without radiolysis. The following development of a dissolution theory is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of energy reactions and energy transport across a solid-liquid phase change discontinuity that propagates at a quasi-steady, dissolution velocity. The integral form of the energy balance equation is used for this spatial surface discontinuity analysis. The integral formulation contains internal energy functional of classical thermodynamics for both the SNFs' solid state and surface adsorption species, and the adjacent liquid state, which includes radiolytic chemical species. The steady-state concentrations of radiolytic chemical species are expressed by an approximate analysis of the decay radiation transport equation. For purposes of illustration a modified Temkin adsorption isotherm was assumed for the surface adsorption kinetics on an arbitrary, finite area of the solid-liquid dissolution interface. For

  15. A Novel Method for Surface Defect Detection of Photovoltaic Module Based on Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a new method for surface defect detection of photovoltaic module based on independent component analysis (ICA reconstruction algorithm. Firstly, a faultless image is used as the training image. The demixing matrix and corresponding ICs are obtained by applying the ICA in the training image. Then we reorder the ICs according to the range values and reform the de-mixing matrix. Then the reformed de-mixing matrix is used to reconstruct the defect image. The resulting image can remove the background structures and enhance the local anomalies. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method can effectively detect the presence of defects in periodically patterned surfaces.

  16. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  17. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  18. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  19. Accelerator system for producing two-component beams for studies of interactive surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.; Ekern, R.; Hess, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    For studies of interactive surface effects caused by the simultaneous bombardment of targets by both chemically active and inactive ion species (e.g., D + and He + , respectively) a two beam component accelerator facility was placed in operation. One component, consisting of light ions (e.g., H, D, He) is accelerated by a 2-MV Van de Graaff accelerator which provides a mass analyzed and focussed beam for the energy range from approximately 100-keV to 2-MeV (for singly charged ions). The other component is a beam of light ions in the energy range from approximately 10-keV to 100-keV. This is furnished by a 100-kV dc accelerator system which provides a mass analyzed focussed beam. This beam is guided into the beam line of the Van de Graaff accelerator electrostatically, and with the aid of beam steerers it is made to be co-axial with the Van de Graaff generated beam. The angle of incidence becomes hereby a free parameter for the interaction of the mixed beams with a surface. For each beam component, current densities of 650 μA cm -2 on target can readily be obtained. In order to reduce carbon contamination of the irradiated targets significantly, stainless steel beam lines have been used together with a combination of turbomolecular pumps and ion-sublimation pumps.A total pressure of 2 to 3 x 10 -8 torr in the beam lines and of 2 x 10 -9 torr in the target chamber can be obtained readily. Experimental results on the surface damage of Ni bombarded simultaneously with He + and D + ions are presented. The importance of such studies of interactive surface effects for the controlled thermonuclear fusion program are discussed

  20. Quantitative determination of the intensities of known components in spectra obtained from surface analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    Linear least-squares methods have been used to quantitatively decompose experimental data obtained from surface analytical techniques into its separate components. The mathematical procedure for accomplishing this is described and examples are given of the use of this method with data obtained from Auger electron spectroscopy [both N(E) and derivative], x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The requirements on the quality of the data are discussed

  1. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor

  2. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  3. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 1. distribution of fine and coarse components in surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Eagle, R.J.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations over the floor of Bikini lagoon. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long- lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show what modifications occurred since the sediment composition was first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. In this report a comparison is made of the amount and distribution of fine material associated with the lagoon surface sediment before and after the testing of nuclear devices. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material in-the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. Five cratering events at Bikini Atoll generated sufficient material to account for the inventory of new fine material found over the bottom surface of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to alter the geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  4. Near-surface thermal characterization of plasma facing components using the 3-omega method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechaumphai, Edward; Barton, Joseph L.; Tesmer, Joseph R.; Moon, Jaeyun; Wang, Yongqiang; Tynan, George R.; Doerner, Russell P.; Chen, Renkun

    2014-01-01

    Near-surface regime plays an important role in thermal management of plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Here, we applied a technique referred to as the ‘3ω’ method to measure the thermal conductivity of near-surface regimes damaged by ion irradiation. By modulating the frequency of the heating current in a micro-fabricated heater strip, the technique enables the probing of near-surface thermal properties. The technique was applied to measure the thermal conductivity of a thin ion-irradiated layer on a tungsten substrate, which was found to decrease by nearly 60% relative to pristine tungsten for a Cu ion dosage of 0.2 dpa

  5. Surface engineering glass-metal coatings designed for induction heating of ceramic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    The term Surface Engineering is of relatively recent origin and use, however, the use of coatings and treatments to render surfaces of materials more suitable for certain application or environment is not new. With the advent of Vacuum Technology, Surface Engineering has gained a whole new impetus, whereby expensive materials with adequate mechanical, chemical and thermal properties are being coated or treated on their surfaces in order to achieve what is called as Surface Engineered materials. The present paper presents an overview of recent achievements in Surface Engineering and gives a detailed view of a specific application where glass-metal composite coatings were deposited on ceramic components in order to render them sensitive to induction heating. Sintered glaze coatings containing silver particles in appropriate concentration can be used for the induction heating of porcelain. Mixtures of glass ceramic powders with silver are used to prepare self-transfer patterns, which are deposited over porcelain. Several configurations of these coatings, which are aesthetic to start with, are employed and heating patterns are recorded. The microstructure of these coatings is discussed in relation to the heating ability by a classical household induction system. The results show that this technique is practical and commercially viable

  6. The effect of cell surface components on adhesion ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak-Berecka, Magdalena; Waśko, Adam; Paduch, Roman; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cell envelope components and surface properties of two phenotypes of Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. The ability of the bacteria to adhere to human intestinal cells and to aggregate with other bacteria was determined. L. rhamnosus strains E/N and PEN differed with regard to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and specific surface proteins. Transmission electron microscopy showed differences in the structure of the outer cell surface of the strains tested. Bacterial surface properties were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fatty acid methyl esters and hydrophobicity assays. Aggregation capacity and adhesion of the tested strains to the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 was determined. The results indicated a high adhesion and aggregation ability of L. rhamnosus PEN, which possessed specific surface proteins, had a unique fatty acid content, and did not synthesize EPS. Adherence of L. rhamnosus was dependent on specific interactions and was promoted by surface proteins (42-114 kDa) and specific fatty acids. Polysaccharides likely hindered bacterial adhesion and aggregation by masking protein receptors. This study provides information on the cell envelope constituents of lactobacilli that influence bacterial aggregation and adhesion to intestinal cells. This knowledge will help to understand better their specific contribution in commensal-host interactions and adaptation to this ecological niche.

  7. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan; Hummelgård, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  8. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Hummelgård, Magnus; Sidén, Johan; Hummelgård, Christine; Olin, Håkan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik

    2014-03-07

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed.

  9. Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Henrik A; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy; Haller, Stefan; Sidén, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik [Department of Electronics Design, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall (Sweden); Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan [Department of Natural Science, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall (Sweden); Hummelgård, Christine [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Håstaholmen 4, SE-824 42 Hudiksvall (Sweden)

    2014-03-07

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with ink-jet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed. (paper)

  10. Lactic acid bacteria in dairy food: surface characterization and interactions with food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, J; Scher, J; Francius, G; Borges, F; Corgneau, M; Revol-Junelles, A M; Cailliez-Grimal, C; Gaiani, C

    2014-11-01

    This review gives an overview of the importance of interactions occurring in dairy matrices between Lactic Acid Bacteria and milk components. Dairy products are important sources of biological active compounds of particular relevance to human health. These compounds include immunoglobulins, whey proteins and peptides, polar lipids, and lactic acid bacteria including probiotics. A better understanding of interactions between bioactive components and their delivery matrix may successfully improve their transport to their target site of action. Pioneering research on probiotic lactic acid bacteria has mainly focused on their host effects. However, very little is known about their interaction with dairy ingredients. Such knowledge could contribute to designing new and more efficient dairy food, and to better understand relationships between milk constituents. The purpose of this review is first to provide an overview of the current knowledge about the biomolecules produced on bacterial surface and the composition of the dairy matter. In order to understand how bacteria interact with dairy molecules, adhesion mechanisms are subsequently reviewed with a special focus on the environmental conditions affecting bacterial adhesion. Methods dedicated to investigate the bacterial surface and to decipher interactions between bacteria and abiotic dairy components are also detailed. Finally, relevant industrial implications of these interactions are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermographic analysis of plasma facing components covered by carbon surface layer in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Tokamaks are reactors based on the thermonuclear fusion energy with magnetic confinement of the plasma. In theses machines, several MW are coupled to the plasma for about 10 s. A large part of this power is directed towards plasma facing components (PFC). For better understanding and control the heat flux transfer from the plasma to the surrounding wall, it is very important to measure the surface temperature of the PFC and to estimate the imposed heat flux. In most of tokamaks using carbon PFC, the eroded carbon is circulating in the plasma and redeposited elsewhere. During the plasma operations, this leads at some locations to the formation of thin or thick carbon layers usually poorly attached to the PFC. These surface layers with unknown thermal properties complicate the calculation of the heat flux from IR surface temperature measurements. To solve this problem, we develop first, inverse method to estimate the heat flux using thermocouple (not sensitive to the carbon surface layers) temperature measurements. Then, we propose a front face pulsed photothermal method allowing an estimation of layers thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity and the thermal contact resistance between the layer and the tile. The principle is to study with an infrared sensor, the cooling of the layer surface after heating by a short laser pulse, this cooling depending on the thermal properties of the successive layers. (author) [fr

  12. Surface conditioning with Escherichia coli cell wall components can reduce biofilm formation by decreasing initial adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Gomes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on food processing surfaces pose major risks to human health. Non-efficient cleaning of equipment surfaces and piping can act as a conditioning layer that affects the development of a new biofilm post-disinfection. We have previously shown that surface conditioning with cell extracts could reduce biofilm formation. In the present work, we hypothesized that E. coli cell wall components could be implicated in this phenomena and therefore mannose, myristic acid and palmitic acid were tested as conditioning agents. To evaluate the effect of surface conditioning and flow topology on biofilm formation, assays were performed in agitated 96-well microtiter plates and in a parallel plate flow chamber (PPFC, both operated at the same average wall shear stress (0.07 Pa as determined by computational fluid dynamics (CFD. It was observed that when the 96-well microtiter plate and the PPFC were used to form biofilms at the same shear stress, similar results were obtained. This shows that the referred hydrodynamic feature may be a good scale-up parameter from high-throughput platforms to larger scale flow cell systems as the PPFC used in this study. Mannose did not have any effect on E. coli biofilm formation, but myristic and palmitic acid inhibited biofilm development by decreasing cell adhesion (in about 50%. These results support the idea that in food processing equipment where biofilm formation is not critical below a certain threshold, bacterial lysis and adsorption of cell components to the surface may reduce biofilm buildup and extend the operational time.

  13. Antibodies from malaria-exposed pregnant women recognize trypsin resistant epitopes on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes selected for adhesion to chondroitin sulphate A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharling, Lisa; Enevold, Anders; Sowa, Kordai M P

    2004-01-01

    of CSA binding and surface recognition of CSA selected parasites by serum IgG from malaria exposed pregnant women. Thus, the complete molecular definition of an antigenic P. falciparum erythrocyte surface protein that can be used as a malaria in pregnancy vaccine has not yet been achieved.......-specific antibodies induced as a result of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). METHODS: Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to measure the levels of adult Scottish and Ghanaian male, and Ghanaian pregnant female plasma immunoglobulin G (IgG) that bind to the surface of infected erythrocytes. P....... falciparum infected erythrocytes selected for adhesion to CSA were found to express trypsin-resistant VSA that are the target of naturally acquired antibodies from pregnant women living in a malaria endemic region of Ghana. However in vitro adhesion to CSA and HA was relatively trypsin sensitive. An improved...

  14. Surface inspection system for industrial components based on shape from shading minimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotan, Muhammed; Öz, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    An inspection system using estimated three-dimensional (3-D) surface characteristics information to detect and classify the faults to increase the quality control on the frequently used industrial components is proposed. Shape from shading (SFS) is one of the basic and classic 3-D shape recovery problems in computer vision. In our application, we developed a system using Frankot and Chellappa SFS method based on the minimization of the selected basis function. First, the specialized image acquisition system captured the images of the component. To eliminate noise, wavelet transform is applied to the taken images. Then, estimated gradients were used to obtain depth and surface profiles. Depth information was used to determine and classify the surface defects. Also, a comparison made with some linearization-based SFS algorithms was discussed. The developed system was applied to real products and the results indicated that using SFS approaches is useful and various types of defects can easily be detected in a short period of time.

  15. Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus Surface Components That Mediate Interaction of Conidia and Hyphae With Human Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambach, Günter; Blum, Gerhard; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Hagleitner, Magdalena; Jeckström, Hanna; Weigel, Günter; Würtinger, Philipp; Pfaller, Kristian; Krappmann, Sven; Löffler, Jürgen; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Speth, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Platelets were recently identified as a part of innate immunity. They are activated by contact with Aspergillus fumigatus; putative consequences include antifungal defense but also thrombosis, excessive inflammation, and thrombocytopenia. We aimed to identify those fungal surface structures that mediate interaction with platelets. Human platelets were incubated with Aspergillus conidia and hyphae, isolated wall components, or fungal surface mutants. Interaction was visualized microscopically; activation was quantified by flow cytometry of specific markers. The capacity of A. fumigatus conidia to activate platelets is at least partly due to melanin, because this effect can be mimicked with "melanin ghosts"; a mutant lacking melanin showed reduced platelet stimulating potency. In contrast, conidial hydrophobin masks relevant structures, because an A. fumigatus mutant lacking the hydrophobin protein induced stronger platelet activation than wild-type conidia. A. fumigatus hyphae also contain surface structures that interact with platelets. Wall proteins, galactomannan, chitin, and β-glucan are not the relevant hyphal components; instead, the recently identified fungal polysaccharide galactosaminogalactan potently triggered platelet activation. Conidial melanin and hydrophobin as well as hyphal galactosaminogalactan represent important pathogenicity factors that modulate platelet activity and thus might influence immune responses, inflammation, and thrombosis in infected patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Integrated-Optics Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a new class of components for integrated optics, based on the propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in a dielectric. These novel components can provide guiding of light as well as coupling and splitting from/into a number...... with experimental results is obtained. The interaction of LR-SPPs with photonic crystals (PCs) is also studied. The PC structures are formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film. The LR-SPP transmission through...... of channels with good performance. Guiding of LR-SPPs along nm-thin and µm-wide gold stripes embedded in polymer is investigated in the wavelength range of 1250 – 1650 nm. LR-SPP guiding properties, such as the propagation loss and mode field diameter, are studied for different stripe widths and thicknesses...

  17. Protection of surface assets on Mars from wind blown jettisoned spacecraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Jettisoned Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) hardware from landing spacecraft have been observed by orbiting spacecraft, strewn over the Martian surface. Future Mars missions that land spacecraft close to prelanded assets will have to use a landing architecture that somehow minimises the possibility of impacts from these jettisoned EDLS components. Computer modelling is used here to investigate the influence of wind speed and direction on the distribution of EDLS components on the surface. Typical wind speeds encountered in the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) were found to be of sufficient strength to blow items having a low ballistic coefficient, i.e. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs) or parachutes, onto prelanded assets even when the lander itself touches down several kilometres away. Employing meteorological measurements and careful characterisation of the Martian PBL, e.g. appropriate wind speed probability density functions, may then benefit future spacecraft landings, increase safety and possibly help reduce the delta v budget for Mars landers that rely on aerodynamic decelerators.

  18. Mathematical modelling of ultrasonic testing of components with defects close to a non-planar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlund, Jonathan; Bostroem, Anders

    2011-05-01

    Nondestructive testing with ultrasound is a standard procedure in the nuclear power industry. To develop and qualify the methods extensive experimental work with test blocks is usually required. This can be very time-consuming and costly and it also requires a good physical intuition of the situation. A reliable mathematical model of the testing situation can, therefore, be very valuable and cost-effective as it can reduce experimental work significantly. A good mathematical model enhances the physical intuition and is very useful for parametric studies, as a pedagogical tool, and for the qualification of procedures and personnel. The aim of the present report is to describe work that has been performed to model ultrasonic testing of components that contain a defect close to a nonplanar surface. For nuclear power applications this may be a crack or other defect on the inside of a pipe with a diameter change or connection. This is an extension of the computer program UTDefect, which previously only admits a planar back surface (which is often applicable also to pipes if the pipe diameter is large enough). The problems are investigated in both 2D and 3D, and in 2D both the simpler anti-plane (SH) and the in-plane (P-SV) problem are studied. The 2D investigations are primarily solved to get a 'feeling' for the solution procedure, the discretizations, etc. In all cases an integral equation approach with a Green's function in the kernel is taken. The nonplanar surface is treated by the boundary element method (BEM) where a division of the surface is made in small elements. The defects are mainly cracks, strip-like (in 2D) or rectangular (in 3D), and these are treated with more analytical methods. In 2D also more general defects are treated with the help of their transition (T) matrix. As in other parts of UTDefect the ultrasonic probes in transmission and reception are included in the model. In 3D normalization by a side drilled hole is possible. Some numerical results

  19. Burnout: Recognize and Reverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Samantha

    2014-07-01

    Physician burnout may be underrecognized and can cause significant detrimental effects on personal health and job satisfaction. Burnout has been associated with medical errors, alcohol and drug abuse, and neglect and abandonment of career goals. With self-awareness, development of coping mechanisms, and the adoption of a strong social and professional support network, burnout can be combated. This article focuses on recognizing characteristics of burnout and providing strategies to cope to avoid reaching a high degree of burnout. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  20. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Ng, Kim Choon; Koyama, Shigeru; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2009-01-01

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations

  1. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nonwoven fabric wound dressing surfaces containing passive and active components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Zhirong, E-mail: xinzhirong2012@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Du, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Hao; Sun, Miao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Yan, Shunjie [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PNVP and PHMG components were covalently immobilized on PP{sub NWF} surface. • PP{sub NWF}-g-PNVP-PHMG possessed bacterial adhesion-resistant and bactericidal capabilities. • PP{sub NWF}-g-PNVP-PHMG obviously suppressed platelet and red blood cell adhesion. - Abstract: A growing number of wound dressing-related nosocomial infections necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies. Herein, polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP{sub NWF}) was facilely modified with passive and active antibacterial components, namely photografting polymerization both N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers, and the introduction of guanidine polymer through the reaction between active amino groups and epoxy groups. The modified samples were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Water contact angle measurement, antibacterial test, platelet and red blood cell adhesion were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity, antibacterial properties and hemocompatibility of the samples. It was found that the antibacterial properties were obviously enhanced, meanwhile significantly suppressing platelet and red blood cell adhesion after the above modification. This PP{sub NWF} samples that possess antifouling and antimicrobial properties, have great potential in wound dressing applications.

  2. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nonwoven fabric wound dressing surfaces containing passive and active components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Zhirong; Du, Shanshan; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Hao; Sun, Miao; Yan, Shunjie; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PNVP and PHMG components were covalently immobilized on PP_N_W_F surface. • PP_N_W_F-g-PNVP-PHMG possessed bacterial adhesion-resistant and bactericidal capabilities. • PP_N_W_F-g-PNVP-PHMG obviously suppressed platelet and red blood cell adhesion. - Abstract: A growing number of wound dressing-related nosocomial infections necessitate the development of novel antibacterial strategies. Herein, polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP_N_W_F) was facilely modified with passive and active antibacterial components, namely photografting polymerization both N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers, and the introduction of guanidine polymer through the reaction between active amino groups and epoxy groups. The modified samples were confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Water contact angle measurement, antibacterial test, platelet and red blood cell adhesion were used to evaluate the hydrophilicity, antibacterial properties and hemocompatibility of the samples. It was found that the antibacterial properties were obviously enhanced, meanwhile significantly suppressing platelet and red blood cell adhesion after the above modification. This PP_N_W_F samples that possess antifouling and antimicrobial properties, have great potential in wound dressing applications.

  3. Detection of explosives on the surface of banknotes by Raman hyperspectral imaging and independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana R; Correa, Deleon N; Zacca, Jorge J; Logrado, Lucio Paulo Lima; Poppi, Ronei J

    2015-02-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology using Raman hyperspectral imaging and chemometric methods for identification of pre- and post-blast explosive residues on banknote surfaces. The explosives studied were of military, commercial and propellant uses. After the acquisition of the hyperspectral imaging, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to extract the pure spectra and the distribution of the corresponding image constituents. The performance of the methodology was evaluated by the explained variance and the lack of fit of the models, by comparing the ICA recovered spectra with the reference spectra using correlation coefficients and by the presence of rotational ambiguity in the ICA solutions. The methodology was applied to forensic samples to solve an automated teller machine explosion case. Independent component analysis proved to be a suitable method of resolving curves, achieving equivalent performance with the multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method. At low concentrations, MCR-ALS presents some limitations, as it did not provide the correct solution. The detection limit of the methodology presented in this study was 50 μg cm(-2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Eddy current technique for detecting and sizing surface cracks in steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecco, V.S.; Carter, J.R.; Sullivan, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Cracking has occurred in pressure vessel nozzles and girth welds due to thermal fatigue. Pipe welds, welds in support structures, and welds in reactor vault liner panels in nuclear facilities have failed because of cracks. Cracking can also occur in turbine rotor bore surfaces due to high cycle fatigue. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and other surface NDT methods are used to detect cracks but cannot be used for depth sizing. Crack depth can be measured with various NDT methods such as ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), potential drop, and eddy current. The TOFD technique can be difficult to implement on nozzle welds and is best suited for sizing deep cracks (>5 mm). The conventional eddy current method is easy to implement, but crack sizing is normally limited to shallow cracks ( 2 mm) cracks. Eddy current testing (ET) techniques are readily amenable to remote/automatic inspections. These new probes could augment present magnetic particle (MT) and dye penetrant (PT) testing through provision of reliable defect depth information. Reliable crack sizing permits identification of critical cracks for plant life extension and licensing purposes. In addition, performing PT and MT generates low level radioactive waste in some inspection applications in nuclear facilities. Replacing these techniques with ET for some components will eliminate some of this radioactive waste. (author)

  5. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, M.; Vaughan, R. G.; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F. D.

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of

  6. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, M.; Vaughan, R. G.; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F. D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of

  7. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  8. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [de

  9. Ceramic Surface Treatment with a Single-component Primer: Resin Adhesion to Glass Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Mayara; Prochnow, Catina; Marchionatti, Ana Maria Estivalete; Baldissara, Paolo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of composite cement bonded to two machined glass ceramics and its durability, comparing conventional surface conditioning (hydrofluoric acid + silane) to a one-step primer (Monobond Etch & Prime). Machined slices of lithium disilicate ceramic (LDC) (IPS e.max CAD) and feldspathic ceramic (FC) (VITA Mark II) glass ceramics were divided into two groups (n = 10) according to two factors: 1. surface treatment: HF+S (ca 5% hydrofluoric acid [IPS Ceramic Etching GEL] + silane coupling agent [SIL; Monobond Plus]) or MEP (single-component ceramic conditioner; Monobond Etch & Prime); 2. storage condition: baseline (without aging; tested 24 h after cementing) or aged (70 days of water storage + 12,000 thermal cycles). Composite cement (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to starch matrices on the treated ceramic surfaces and photoactivated. A μSBS test was performed (0.5 mm/min) and the failure pattern was determined. Contact angle and micromorphological analyses were also performed. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test (α = 5%). For both ceramic materials, HF+S resulted in higher mean μSBS (MPa) at baseline (LDC: HF+S 21.2 ± 2.2 > MEP 10.4 ± 2.4; FC: HF+S 19.6 ± 4.3 > MEP 13.5 ± 5.4) and after aging (LDC: HF+S 14.64 ± 2.31 > MEP 9 ± 3.4; FC HF+S: 14.73 ± 3.33 > MEP 11.1 ± 3.3). HF+S resulted in a statistically significant decrease in mean μSBS after aging (p = 0.0001), while MEP yielded no significant reduction. The main failure type was adhesive between composite cement and ceramic. HF+S resuted in the lowest contact angle. Hydrofluoric acid + silane resulted in higher mean μSBS than Monobond Etch & Prime for both ceramics; however, Monobond Etch & Prime had stable bonding after aging.

  10. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAP) for ginseng components by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M R; Paré, J R Jocelyn

    2003-03-26

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict optimum conditions for microwave-assisted extraction-a MAP technology-of saponin components from ginseng roots. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of ethanol concentration (30-90%, X(1)) and extraction time (30-270 s, X(2)) on dependent variables, such as total extract yield (Y(1)), crude saponin content (Y(2)), and saponin ratio (Y(3)), under atmospheric pressure conditions when focused microwaves were applied at an emission frequency of 2450 MHz. In MAP under pre-established conditions, correlation coefficients (R (2)) of the models for total extract yield and crude saponin were 0.9841 (p extraction conditions were predicted for each variable as 52.6% ethanol and 224.7 s in extract yield and as 77.3% ethanol and 295.1 s in crude saponins, respectively. Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  11. Effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting of molten multi-component oxides ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin, E-mail: wangjinustb@gmail.com [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 808-0196 (Japan); Matsuda, Nozomu [Bar and Wire Product Unit, Nippon steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, Fukuoka, 802-8686 (Japan); Shinozaki, Nobuya [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 808-0196 (Japan); Miyoshi, Noriko [The Center for Instrumental Analysis, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, 804-8550 (Japan); Shiraishi, Takanobu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, 852-8588 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Multi-component oxides had a good wetting on stainless substrates with pretreatments. • Various substrates surface roughness caused the difference of final contact angles. • The wetting rate was slow on polished substrate due to the slow surface oxidation. - Abstract: A study on the effect of SUS316L stainless steel surface conditions on the wetting behavior of molten multi-component oxides ceramic was performed and aimed to contribute to the further understanding of the application of oxides ceramic in penetration treatment of stainless steel coatings and the deposition of stainless steel cermet coatings. The results show that at 1273 K, different surface pre-treatments (polishing and heating) had an important effect on the wetting behavior. The molten multi-component oxides showed good wettability on both stainless steel substrates, however, the wetting process on the polished substrate was significantly slower than that on the heated substrates. The mechanism of the interfacial reactions was discussed based on the microscopic and thermodynamic analysis, the substrates reacted with oxygen generated from the decomposition of the molten multi-component oxides and oxygen contained in the argon atmosphere, and the oxide film caused the molten multi-component oxides ceramic to spread on the substrates surfaces. For the polished substrate, more time was required for the surface oxidation to reach the surface composition of Heated-S, which resulted in relatively slow spreading and wetting rates. Moreover, the variance of the surface roughness drove the final contact angles to slightly different values following the sequence Polished-S > Heated-S.

  12. The Influence of the Tool Surface Texture on Friction and the Surface Layers Properties of Formed Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šugárová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological texturing of forming tool surfaces has high potential to reduce friction and tool wear and also has impact on the surface layers properties of formed material. In order to understand the effect of different types of tool textures, produced by nanosecond fibre laser, on the tribological conditions at the interface tool-formed material and on the integrity of formed part surface layers, the series of experimental investigations have been carried out. The coefficient of friction for different texture parameters (individual feature shape, including the depth profile of the cavities and orientation of the features relative to the material flow was evaluated via a Ring Test and the surface layers integrity of formed material (surface roughness and subsurface micro hardness was also experimentally analysed. The results showed a positive effect of surface texturing on the friction coefficients and the strain hardening of test samples material. Application of surface texture consisting of dimple-like depressions arranged in radial layout contributed to the most significant friction reduction of about 40%. On the other hand, this surface texture contributed to the increase of surface roughness parameters, Ra parameter increased from 0.49 μm to 2.19 μm and the Rz parameter increased from 0.99 μm to 16.79 μm.

  13. The Duty to Recognize Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these......On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these...

  14. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afiqah Arham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and

  15. Fatigue test results of flat plate specimens with surface cracks and evaluation of crack growth in structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Katsuyuki; Yokoyama, Norio; Ohba, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Takaichi; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-12-01

    Part-through surface cracks are most frequently observed in the inspection of structural components, and it is one of the important subjects in the assessment of safety to evaluate appropriately the growth of such cracks during the service life of structural components. Due to the complexity of the stress at the front free surface, the crack growth at the surface shows a different behavior from the other part. Besides, an effect of interaction is caused in the growth of multiple surface cracks. These effects should be included in the growth analysis of surface part-through cracks. Authors have carried out a series of fatigue tests on some kinds of pipes with multiple cracks in the inner surface, and subsequently the fatigue test of flat plate specimens, made of Type 304L stainless steel, with a single or double surface cracks was carried out to study the basic characteristics in the growth of multiple surface cracks. Based on the results of the flat plate test. the correction factors for the front free surface (Cs) and interaction (Ci) of surface cracks were derived quantitatively by the following empirical expressions; Cs = 0.824. Ci = (0.227(a/b) 2 (sec(PI X/2) - 1) + 1)sup(1/m). Using these two correction factors, a procedure to predict the growth of surface cracks was developed by applying the crack growth formula to both the thickness and surface directions. Besides, the crack growth predictions based on the procedure of ASME Code Sex. XI, and the above procedure without the correction of the free surface and interactions on the crack growth behaviors were compared with the test results of flat plate specimens. The crack growth behavior predicted by the procedure described in this report showed the best agreement with the test results in respects of the crack growth life and the change in the crack shape. The criteria of the ASME Code did not agree with the test results. (author)

  16. Process for surface treatment of zirconium-containing cladding materials for fuel element or other components for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videm, K.G.; Lunde, L.R.; Kooyman, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    A process for the surface treatment of zirconium-base cladding materials for fuel elements or other components for nuclear reactors is described. The treatment includes pickling the cladding material in a fluoride-containing bath, and then applying a protective coating through oxidation to the pickled cladding material. The fluoride-containing contaminants which remain on the surface of the cladding material during pickling are removed or rendered harmless by anodic oxidation

  17. Application of Box-Behnken Design and Response Surface Methodology for Surface Roughness Prediction Model of CP-Ti Powder Metallurgy Components Through WEDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arunangsu; Sarkar, Susenjit; Karanjai, Malobika; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2018-04-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate and characterize the machining parameters (such as surface roughness, etc.) of uni-axially pressed commercially pure titanium sintered powder metallurgy components. Powder was uni-axially pressed at designated pressure of 840 MPa to form cylindrical samples and the green compacts were sintered at 0.001 mbar for about 4 h with sintering temperature varying from 1350 to 1450 °C. The influence of the sintering temperature, pulse-on and pulse-off time at wire-EDM on the surface roughness of the preforms has been investigated thoroughly. Experiments were conducted under different machining parameters in a CNC operated wire-cut EDM. The surface roughness of the machined surface was measured and critically analysed. The optimum surface roughness was achieved under the conditions of 6 μs pulse-on time, 9 μs pulse-off time and at sintering temperature of 1450 °C.

  18. Application of Box-Behnken Design and Response Surface Methodology for Surface Roughness Prediction Model of CP-Ti Powder Metallurgy Components Through WEDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arunangsu; Sarkar, Susenjit; Karanjai, Malobika; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2017-06-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate and characterize the machining parameters (such as surface roughness, etc.) of uni-axially pressed commercially pure titanium sintered powder metallurgy components. Powder was uni-axially pressed at designated pressure of 840 MPa to form cylindrical samples and the green compacts were sintered at 0.001 mbar for about 4 h with sintering temperature varying from 1350 to 1450 °C. The influence of the sintering temperature, pulse-on and pulse-off time at wire-EDM on the surface roughness of the preforms has been investigated thoroughly. Experiments were conducted under different machining parameters in a CNC operated wire-cut EDM. The surface roughness of the machined surface was measured and critically analysed. The optimum surface roughness was achieved under the conditions of 6 μs pulse-on time, 9 μs pulse-off time and at sintering temperature of 1450 °C.

  19. The modification of equipotential surfaces in the binary systems due to the pressure of the radiation of its components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorec, Juan; Niemela, Virpi

    1980-01-01

    The modification of the equipotential surfaces of a binary system is studied when the radiation pressure of both components must be taken into account. For suitable values of the radiation parameters, new forms of mass transfer or mass loss may arise [fr

  20. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  1. Probabilistic fracture mechanics of nuclear structural components. Consideration of transition from embedded crack to surface crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, Genki; Yoshimura, Shinobu; Kanto, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis of aged nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material. New interpolation formulas are first derived for both embedded elliptical surface cracks and semi-elliptical surface cracks. To investigate effects of transition from embedded crack to surface crack in PFM analyses, one of PFM round-robin problems set by JSME-RC111 committee, i.e. 'aged RPV under normal and upset operating conditions' is solved, employing the interpolation formulas. (author)

  2. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, Svenja K; Hauf, Katharina; Heinrich, Stefan; Vieira, Josélio; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations. (paper)

  3. Changes in contact angle providing evidence for surface alteration in multi-component solid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Svenja K.; Hauf, Katharina; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    Chocolate blooming, one of the major problems in the confectionery industry, is the formation of visible white spots or a greyish haze on the surface of chocolate products due to large sugar or fat crystals on the surface. This leads to aesthetic changes and deterioration of taste and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry due to consumer complaints. Chocolate blooming is often related to migration of lipids or sugar molecules to the chocolate surface, where they recrystallize with an associated polymorphic change of crystal structure on the surface. The wetting behaviour from contact angle measurements gives further insight into surface properties and is needed to determine surface energies and to evaluate possible migration mechanisms and preferred pathways. Therefore, an equilibrium contact angle is needed which is not directly accessible and is influenced by surface texture and interaction between solid and test liquid. In this study, the surface of cocoa butter and conventional chocolates was characterized by measuring the contact angle with the sessile drop protocol. The influence of roughness, test liquid and pre-crystallization of the samples as well as the storage temperature were investigated. In case of no pre-crystallization, a change in surface properties due to storage at 20 °C was detected, whereas samples stored at 30 °C showed the same wetting behaviour as fresh samples. This is associated with polymorphic transformation from thermodynamically less stable crystals to more stable configurations.

  4. An Instrument for Inspecting Aspheric Optical Surfaces and Components, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Phase II SBIR proposal to develop an extremely versatile optical inspection tool for aspheric optical components and optics that are not easily inspected...

  5. An Instrument for Inspecting Aspheric Optical Surfaces and Components, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Phase I proposal to develop an extremely versatile optical inspection tool for determining the optical figure of aspheric optical components, such as test...

  6. Adding a Performance-Based Component to Surface Warfare Officer Bonuses: Will it Affect Retention?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carman, Aron S; Mudd, Ryan M

    2008-01-01

    ... Authorization and the current officer inventory beginning at 9 years of commissioned service. The objective of this study was to analyze the 13-year retention effect of adding a performance-based component to the SWO Critical Skills Bonus (CSB...

  7. Fabrication of highly hydrophobic two-component thermosetting polyurethane surfaces with silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Song, Jialu; Hou, Xianghui

    2018-05-01

    Highly hydrophobic thermosetting polyurethane (TSU) surfaces with micro-nano hierarchical structures were developed by a simple process combined with sandpaper templates and nano-silica embellishment. Sandpapers with grit sizes varying from 240 to 7000 grit were used to obtain micro-scale roughness on an intrinsic hydrophilic TSU surface. The surface wettability was investigated by contact angle measurement. It was found that the largest contact angle of the TSU surface without nanoparticles at 102 ± 3° was obtained when the template was 240-grit sandpaper and the molding progress started after 45 min curing of TSU. Silica nanoparticles modified with polydimethylsiloxane were scattered onto the surfaces of both the polymer and the template to construct the desirable nanostructures. The influences of the morphology, surface composition and the silica content on the TSU surface wettability were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The surface of the TSU/SiO2 nanocomposites containing 4 wt% silica nanoparticles exhibited a distinctive dual-scale structure and excellent hydrophobicity with the contact angle above 150°. The mechanism of wettability was also discussed by Wenzel model and Cassie-Baxter model.

  8. The surface tension of pure liquids. Thermodynamic components and corresponding states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    1999-01-01

    From the temperature dependency of surface and interfacial tensions the surface excess energy and entropy per unit area can be obtained. The excess energy is a liquid-specific property; it varies over about three decades between liquid helium and molten metals. On the other hand, the excess entropy

  9. Influence of the hydrostatic stress component on critical surface expansion in forging compound products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, T; Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras

    1974-01-01

    of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the critical surface expansion during a forging process. The critical surface expansion appears to decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure. This may be due to the fact that the close contact between the materials necessary to obtain bonding is created by a micro...

  10. Probabilistic fracture mechanics of nuclear structural components: consideration of transition from embedded crack to surface crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis of aged nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material. New interpolation formulas of three-dimensional stress intensity factors are presented for both embedded elliptical surface cracks and semi-elliptical surface cracks. To investigate effects of transition from embedded crack to surface crack in PFM analyses, one of the PFM round-robin problems set by JSME-RC111 committee (i.e. aged RPV under normal and upset operating conditions) is solved, employing the interpolation formulas. (orig.)

  11. Double Lap Shear Testing of Coating-Modified Ice Adhesion to Specific Shuttle Component Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrick, M. G; Mulherin, Nathan D; Coutermarsh, Barry A; Durell, Glenn D; Curtis, Leslie A; St. Clair, Terry L; Weiser, Erik S; Cano, Roberto J; Smith, Trent M; Stevenson, Charles G; Martinez, Eloy C

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this experimental program were to optimize the effectiveness of an icephobic coating for use on several Space Shuttle surfaces, to evaluate the effects of adding an ultraviolet light absorber (UVA...

  12. Effect of metal surface composition on deposition behavior of stainless steel component dissolved in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro

    1988-01-01

    Deposition behavior of corrosion products has been investigated to clarify the effect of metal surface composition on the deposition process in liquid sodium. For the study a sodium loop made of Type 304 stainless steel was employed. Deposition test pieces, which were Type 304 stainless steel, iron, nickel or Inconel 718, were immersed in the sodium pool of the test pot. Corrosion test pieces, which were Type 304 stainless steel, 50 at% Fe-50 at%Mn and Inconel 718, were set in a heater pin assembly along the axial direction of the heater pin surface. Sodium temperatures at the outlet and inlet of the heater pin assembly were controlled at 943 and 833 K, respectively. Sodium was purified at a cold trap temperature of 393 K and the deposition test was carried out for 4.3 x 10 2 - 2.9 x 10 4 ks. Several crystallized particles were observed on the surface of the deposition test pieces. The particles had compositions and crystal structures which depended on both the composition of deposition test pieces and the concentration of iron and manganese in sodium. Only iron-rich particles having a polyhedral shape deposited on the iron surface. Two types of particles, iron-rich α-phase and γ-phase with nearly the same composition as stainless steel, were deposited on Type 304 stainless steel. A Ni-Mn alloy was deposited on the nickel surface in the case of a higher concentration of manganese in sodium. On the other hand, for a lower manganese concentration, a Fe-Ni alloy was precipitated on the nickel surface. Particles deposited on nickel had a γ-phase crystal structure similar to the deposition test piece of nickel. Hence, the deposition process can be explained as follows: Corrosion products in liquid sodium were deposited on the metal surface by forming a metal alloy selectively with elements of the metal surface. (author)

  13. Surface Quality Improvement of AA6060 Aluminum Extruded Components through Liquid Nitrogen Mold Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Francesco Ciuffini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 6xxx aluminum alloys are suitable for the realization of both structural applications and architectural decorative elements, thanks to the combination of high corrosion resistance and good surface finish. In areas where the aesthetic aspects are fundamental, further improvements in surface quality are significant. The cooling of the extrusion mold via internal liquid nitrogen fluxes is emerging as an important innovation in aluminum extrusion. Nowadays, this innovation is providing a large-scale solution to obtain high quality surface finishes in extruded aluminum semi-finished products. These results are also coupled to a significant increase in productivity. The aim of the work is to compare the surface quality of both cooled liquid nitrogen molds and classically extruded products. In this work, adhesion phenomena, occurring during the extrusion between the mold and the flowing material, have been detected as the main causes of the presence of surface defects. The analysis also highlighted a strong increase in the surface quality whenever the extrusion mold was cooled with liquid nitrogen fluxes. This improvement has further been confirmed by an analysis performed on the finished products, after painting and chromium plating. This work on the AA6060 alloy has moreover proceeded to roughness measurements and metallographic analyses, to investigate the eventual occurrence of other possible benefits stemming from this new extrusion mold cooling technology.

  14. Influences of surface and solvent on retention of HEMA/mixture components after evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Fernanda C P; Wang, Linda; Pereira, Lúcia C G; de Andrade e Silva, Safira M; Júnior, Luiz M; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the retention of solvents within experimental HEMA/solvent primers after two conditions for solvent evaporation: from a free surface or from dentine surface. Experimental primers were prepared by mixing 35% HEMA with 65% water, methanol, ethanol or acetone (v/v). Aliquots of each primer (50 microl) were placed on glass wells or they were applied to the surface of acid-etched dentine cubes (2mm x 2mm x 2mm) (n=5). For both conditions (i.e. from free surface or dentine cubes), change in primers mass due to solvent evaporation was gravimetrically measured for 10min at 51% RH and 21 degrees C. The rate of solvent evaporation was calculated as a function of loss of primers mass (%) over time. Data were analysed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls (pevaporation rate (%/min) depending on the solvent present in the primer and the condition for evaporation (from free surface or dentine cubes) (pevaporation for HEMA/acetone primer was almost 2- to 10-times higher than for HEMA/water primer depending whether evaporation occurred, respectively, from a free surface or dentine cubes. The rate of solvent evaporation varied with time, being in general highest at the earliest periods. The rate of solvent evaporation and its retention into HEMA/solvent primers was influenced by the type of the solvent and condition allowed for their evaporation.

  15. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  16. Modulation of expression of HLA components at the cell surface induced by anti-β2m reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceppellini, R.; Malavasi, F.; Garotta, G.; Trucco, M.

    1981-01-01

    Antibodies against lymphocyte surface components are able to rearrange profoundly the topography of the cell membrane with a different modulation of surface antigens. Of particular interest is the effect of anti-β2m reagents, which are able to suppress completely the reactivity of epitopes carried by the two chains of the ABC dimers, while the expressivity of other antigens, such as DR, is significantly increased. These results have been obtained with immunoradiobinding under a varity of conditions, thus confirming the validity of the ''bb'' (β2m blanketing) test. (author)

  17. The surface distribution of chemical anomalies of Ap components in detached close binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.

    1980-01-01

    By estimating the orbital inclinations of non-eclipsing detached close binaries with Ap spectra, a marked statistical preference is obtained on the frequency distribution of the inclination which suggests that the abundance anomalies of Ap components tend to concentrate towards the stellar polar region. (Auth.)

  18. Experimental investigation of surface determination process on multi-material components for dimensional computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges de Oliveira, Fabrício; Stolfi, Alessandro; Bartscher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of measuring multi-material components, while assessing inner and outer features simultaneously makes X-ray computed tomography (CT) the latest evolution in the field of coordinate measurement systems (CMSs). However, the difficulty in selecting suitable scanning parameters and su...

  19. A probability index for surface zonda wind occurrence at Mendoza city through vertical sounding principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Federico; Norte, Federico; Araneo, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain an index for predicting the probability of occurrence of zonda event at surface level from sounding data at Mendoza city, Argentine. To accomplish this goal, surface zonda wind events were previously found with an objective classification method (OCM) only considering the surface station values. Once obtained the dates and the onset time of each event, the prior closest sounding for each event was taken to realize a principal component analysis (PCA) that is used to identify the leading patterns of the vertical structure of the atmosphere previously to a zonda wind event. These components were used to construct the index model. For the PCA an entry matrix of temperature ( T) and dew point temperature (Td) anomalies for the standard levels between 850 and 300 hPa was build. The analysis yielded six significant components with a 94 % of the variance explained and the leading patterns of favorable weather conditions for the development of the phenomenon were obtained. A zonda/non-zonda indicator c can be estimated by a logistic multiple regressions depending on the PCA component loadings, determining a zonda probability index \\widehat{c} calculable from T and Td profiles and it depends on the climatological features of the region. The index showed 74.7 % efficiency. The same analysis was performed by adding surface values of T and Td from Mendoza Aero station increasing the index efficiency to 87.8 %. The results revealed four significantly correlated PCs with a major improvement in differentiating zonda cases and a reducing of the uncertainty interval.

  20. A dynamic monitoring approach for the surface morphology evolution measurement of plasma facing components by means of speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbei; Cui, Xiaoqian; Feng, Chunlei; Li, Yuanbo; Zhao, Mengge; Luo, Guangnan; Ding, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in a magnetically confined fusion plasma device will be exposed to high heat load and particle fluxes, and it would cause PFCs' surface morphology to change due to material erosion and redeposition from plasma wall interactions. The state of PFCs' surface condition will seriously affect the performance of long-pulse or steady state plasma discharge in a tokamak; it will even constitute an enormous threat to the operation and the safety of fusion plasma devices. The PFCs' surface morphology evolution measurement could provide important information about PFCs' real-time status or damage situation and it would help to a better understanding of the plasma wall interaction process and mechanism. Meanwhile through monitoring the distribution of dust deposition in a tokamak and providing an upper limit on the amount of loose dust, the PFCs' surface morphology measurement could indirectly contribute to keep fusion operational limits and fusion device safety. Aiming at in situ dynamic monitoring PFCs' surface morphology evolution, a laboratory experimental platform DUT-SIEP (Dalian University of Technology-speckle interferometry experimental platform) based on the speckle interferometry technique has been constructed at Dalian University of Technology (DUT) in China. With directional specific designing and focusing on the real detection condition of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), the DUT-SIEP could realize a variable measurement range, widely increased from 0.1 μm to 300 μm, with high spatial resolution (<1 mm) and ultra-high time resolution (<2 s for EAST measuring conditions). Three main components of the DUT-SIEP are all integrated and synchronized by a time schedule control and data acquisition terminal and coupled with a three-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithm, the surface morphology information of target samples can be obtained and reconstructed in real-time. A local surface morphology of the real divertor

  1. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  2. Response surface optimization of the medium components for the production of biosurfactants by probiotic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J; Oliveira, R; van der Mei, HC

    Optimization of the medium for biosurfactants production by probiotic bacteria (Lactococcus lactis 53 and Streptococcus thermophilus A) was carried out using response surface methodology. Both biosurfactants were proved to be growth-associated, thus the desired response selected for the optimization

  3. Process chain for fabrication of anisotropic optical functional surfaces on polymer components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Zhang, Yang; Regi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    . In order to implement the traceability ofthe manufacturing process, the geometry and dimension of the micro structure on the tool and the replica were assessed viametrological methods. The functionality of the anisotropic surfaces on the polymer replicas were evaluated by a gonioreflectometerand image...

  4. Atmospheric components of the surface energy budget over young sea ice: Results from the N-ICE2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Von P.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Cohen, Lana; Murphy, Sarah Y.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-08-01

    The Norwegian young sea ice campaign obtained the first measurements of the surface energy budget over young, thin Arctic sea ice through the seasonal transition from winter to summer. This campaign was the first of its kind in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This study describes the atmospheric and surface conditions and the radiative and turbulent heat fluxes over young, thin sea ice. The shortwave albedo of the snow surface ranged from about 0.85 in winter to 0.72-0.80 in early summer. The near-surface atmosphere was typically stable in winter, unstable in spring, and near neutral in summer once the surface skin temperature reached 0°C. The daily average radiative and turbulent heat fluxes typically sum to negative values (-40 to 0 W m-2) in winter but then transition toward positive values of up to nearly +60 W m-2 as solar radiation contributes significantly to the surface energy budget. The sensible heat flux typically ranges from +20-30 W m-2 in winter (into the surface) to negative values between 0 and -20 W m-2 in spring and summer. A winter case study highlights the significant effect of synoptic storms and demonstrates the complex interplay of wind, clouds, and heat and moisture advection on the surface energy components over sea ice in winter. A spring case study contrasts a rare period of 24 h of clear-sky conditions with typical overcast conditions and highlights the impact of clouds on the surface radiation and energy budgets over young, thin sea ice.

  5. SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay l

    2014-02-07

    Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

  6. Study of the pyritized surfaces of the carbon steel components in heavy water production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, Maria; Parvan, Ioana; Lucan, Dumitra; Fulger, Manuela; Dinu, Alice; Blanatui, A.

    1998-01-01

    The components used in the Girldler Sulfide (GS) process of heavy water production are made of carbon steel covered by iron sulfide layers of different compositions (mackinawite, troilite, pyrrhotite or pyrite) of variable thicknesses. The most protective layers which provide an acceptable corrosion resistance of the subjacent metal are the mixtures of pyrrhotite and pyrite. In the present work, the corrosion resistance of carbon steel samples covered by different types of sulfides was investigated by the following methods: X ray diffraction, metallography and electrochemical methods (potential-dynamical and electrochemical impedance). In order to carry out the electrochemical measurements in the same conditions as those of the operation of carbon steel components in D 2 O production facilities, the experiments were performed with Na 2 S solutions, at pH=4 - 13 and S 2- concentration value between 1 and 1000 mg/l. The dependence of corrosion rate kinetics on pH and S 2- concentration of the testing solution was investigated for sulfide covered samples comparatively with the uncovered ones. Corrosion rates determined gravimetrically were compared with those determined by electrochemical measurements. The uniformity and thickness of the sulfide layers were checked by metallographic methods. The composition of the sulfides formed in various environment conditions was established by X-ray diffraction. Reaction mechanisms specific for sulfide formation environments have been proposed. (authors)

  7. Plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of extracellular component of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the quantitative optical non-invasive diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation therapies, the instrumental technique to extract extracellular spectra from whole blood was developed. In the circuit, the continuous blood flow was generated by a centrifugal blood pump. The oxygen saturation was maintained 100% by an oxygenator. The developed glass optical flow cell was attached to the outlet tubing of the oxygenator. The halogen lamp including the light from 400 to 900 nm wavelength was used for the light source. The light was guided into an optical fiber. The light emitted by the fiber was collimated and emitted to the flow cell flat surface at the incident angle of 45 degrees. The light just reflected on the boundary between inner surface of the flow cell and plasma at 45 degrees was detected by the detection fiber. The detected light was analyzed by a spectral photometer. The obtained spectrum from 400 to 600nm wavelength was not changed with respect to the hematocrit. In contrast, the signal in the spectral range was changed when the plasma free hemoglobin increased. By using two spectral range, 505+/-5 nm and 542.5+/-2.5 nm, the differential spectrum was correlated with the free hemoglobin at R2=0.99. On the other hand, as for the hematocrit, the differential spectrum was not correlated at R2=0.01. Finally, the plasma free hemoglobin was quantified with the accuracy of 22+/-19mg/dL. The result shows that the developed plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy (PSRS) can extract the plasma spectrum from flowing whole blood.

  8. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

  9. Wear surface damage of a Stainless Steel EN 3358 aeronautical component subjected to sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Felli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the failure analysis of an aircraft component subjected to several episodes of in service failure, resulted in loss of the aircraft safety. Modern aircrafts are provided with mechanical systems which have the task to open not pressurized hatches during landing. The components of such systems are subject to considerable mechanical stresses in harsh environment (presence of moisture and pollutants, significant and sudden temperature variations. The system is constituted by a sliding piston, a related nipple and by a locking system consisting of 4 steel spheres which are forced into a countersink machined on the piston when the hatches is open. The whole system is activated by a preloaded spring. The machined parts, nipple and piston, are made of EN3358 steel (X3CrNiMo13-8-2, a precipitation hardening stainless steel with very low content of carbon often used in the aerospace. The samples provided by the manufacturer present different types of damage all referable to phenomena relative to the sliding of the piston inside the nipple. The present paper describes the different damage observed and the microstructure of the material, then are reported the results obtained from the characterization of the material of the samples by means of optical and electronic microscopy, carried out to define the mechanisms involved in the system seizure. In order to define the primary cause of failure and to propose solutions to be adopted, also analyzing the criticality of using this PH stainless steel for this application, the results of different tests were compared with system design and working data.

  10. GEOEPIDERM – AN ECOLOGICAL CONCEPT THAT INTEGRATES SOIL COVER WITH ASSOCIATED LAND SURFACE COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Munteanu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the new concept of the “Epiderm of the Earth” introduced by the 2006 edition of the WRB-SR, the idea of “geoepiderm” has been developed. Besides its holistic meaning, by including both soil and non-soil materials found in the first 2 meters of the land surface, the term “geoepiderm” has a strong ecological sense, by suggesting similarity with the skin of the living organisms, as such, this concept is fully concordant with that of “Gaia” (Living Earth developed by James Lovelock. According to the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the soil and not soil coverings from the earth surface, ten kinds (classes of ‘geoepiderms” have been identified:1 – Protoderma (Entiderma– the primitive (emerging geoepiderm (mainly non-soil materials; five main subtypes: a Regoderma, b Leptoderma, c Areniderma, d Fluviderma and e Gleyoderma, were identified;2 – Cryoderma (Geliderma – geoepiderm of cold, mainly artic and subartic, regions with mean annual soil temperature <00C (often with perennial frozen subsoil - permafrost:3 – Arididerma – geoepiderm of arid regions and salt affected lands with limited or scarce available moisture; two subtypes: a Desertiderma, b Saliderma4 – Inceptiderma (or Juvenilederma – with 2 subtypes: a Cambiderma – a young (incipiently developed geoepiderm and b Andiderma, geoepiderm developed in volcanic materials;5 – Euderma – nutrient rich geoepiderm with two main subtypes: a Cherniderma (or Molliderma and b Luviderma (or Alfiderma;6 – Oligoderma – geoepiderm with low macro-nutrient and weatherable minerals content with 2 subtypes: a Podziderma (or Spodiderma and b Acriderma (or Ultiderma;7 – Ferriderma (Oxiderma or Senilederma – geoepiderm strongly weathered and with iron and aluminium hydroxides enrichment and low weatherable minerals reserve;8 – Vertiderma (Contractilederma – Contractile geoepiderm, developed from swelling clays;9 – Histoderma (Organiderma

  11. Effects of non-uniform temperature gradients on surface tension driven two component magneto convection in a porous- fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, N.; Sumithra, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of surface tension driven two component magnetoconvection is investigated in a Porous-Fluid system, consisting of anincompressible two component electrically conducting fluid saturatedporous layer above which lies a layer of the same fluid in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field. The lower boundary of the porous layeris rigid and the upper boundary of the fluid layer is free with surfacetension effects depending on both temperature and concentration, boththese boundaries are insulating to heat and mass. At the interface thevelocity, shear and normal stress, heat and heat flux, mass and mass fluxare assumed to be continuous suitable for Darcy-Brinkman model. Theeigenvalue problem is solved in linear, parabolic and inverted parabolictemperature profiles and the corresponding Thermal Marangoni Numberis obtained for different important physical parameters.

  12. On the Application of Replica Molding Technology for the Indirect Measurement of Surface and Geometry of Micromilled Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Parenti, Paolo; Cacciatore, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    the replica molding technology. The method consists of obtaining a replica of the feature that is inaccessible for standard measurement devices and performing its indirect measurement. This paper examines the performance of a commercial replication media applied to the indirect measurement of micromilled...... components. Two specifically designed micromilled benchmark samples were used to assess the accuracy in replicating both surface texture and geometry. A 3D confocal microscope and a focus variation instrument were employed and the associated uncertainties were evaluated. The replication method proved...... to be suitable for characterizing micromilled surface texture even though an average overestimation in the nano-metric level of the Sa parameter was observed. On the other hand, the replicated geometry generally underestimated that of the master, often leading to a different measurement output considering...

  13. Binding of a cementum attachment protein to extracellular matrix components and to dental surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitaru, S; Hekmati, H [Department of Oral Biology, Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Savion, N [Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Olsen, S; Narayanan, S A [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Cementum proteins (CP) have been shown to mediate cell attachment. Among these, a 55 kDa protein was isolated. The purpose of the present study was to assess the capacity of CP to bind to non-demineralized and demineralized root surfaces and to support cell attachment to dentin. CP were prepared by sequential extraction of bovine cementum with 25 mM EDTA, 0.5 M acetic acid followed by 4 M guanidine HCl. The latter was subjected to ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-3SW column and eluted stepwise with a 0-0.5 M NaCl gradient. CP were labelled with [sup 125]I and the capacity of [sup 125]I-CP to bind to mineralized and partially demineralized dentin, synthetic hydroxyapatite, collagen, fibronectin and fibrillar collagen-fibronectin cimplex was assessed. It was found that CP bind specifically to mineralized dentin and synthetic hydroxyapatite but not to demineralized dentin. The specific binding was 60% of the total binding. SDS-PAGE analysis of the proteins bound to dentin indicated that the main bound protein had a molecular weight of 55 kDa. CP exhibited high affinity for fibronectin (k[sub D] = 1.56 x 10[sup -10] M) and fibronectincollagen complex, but their binding to either molecular or fibrillar collagen was negligible. It is suggested that CP may play an important role in the attachment of cells of the periodontium to cementum extracellular matrix during homeostasis and regeneration. (au).

  14. Physicochemical characterization of engineered nanoparticles under physiological conditions: effect of culture media components and particle surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatisson, Julien; Quevedo, Ivan R; Wilkinson, Kevin J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2012-03-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in commercial products has increased substantially over the last few years. Some research has been conducted in order to determine whether or not such materials are cytotoxic, but questions remain regarding the role that physiological media and sera constituents play in ENP aggregation or stabilization. In this study, several characterization methods were used to evaluate the particle size and surface potential of 6 ENPs suspended in a number of culture media and in the presence of different culture media constituents. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were employed for size determinations. Results were interpreted on the basis of ENP surface potentials evaluated from particle electrophoretic mobilities (EPM). Measurements made after 24h of incubation at 37°C showed that the cell culture medium constituents had only moderate impact on the physicochemical properties of the ENP, although incubation in bovine serum albumin destabilized the colloidal system. In contrast, most of the serum proteins increased colloidal stabilization. Moreover, the type of ENP surface modification played a significant role in ENP behavior whereby the complexity of interactions between the ENPs and the medium components generally decreased with increasing complexity of the particle surface. This investigation emphasizes the importance of ENP characterization under conditions that are representative of cell culture media or physiological conditions for improved assessments of nanoparticle cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar; Grunwald, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  16. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Grunwald, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.grunwald@ifam.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  17. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  18. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  19. Effect of the ODS-4 surfactant and its components on the efficiency of decontamination of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J.; Duris, P.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency was examined of the desorption of carrier-free traces of 147 Pm adsorbed from an acid aqueous solution at pH 2.6 in static conditions on a paint routinely applied to military facilities. The desorption was performed by using the ODS-4 decontamination and deactivation mixture and its components at various concentrations. It is concluded that the surfactant is not very well suited to the decontamination of solid surfaces contaminated with radionuclides which form the water-soluble component of radioactive contamination (in dependence on pH). This is due to the composition and the associated high alkalinity of the ODS-4 agent, which, however, is necessary if detoxication of toxic agents is required. In practice, however, the efficiency of decontamination will be appreciably higher because the military decontamination procedures involve dynamic (mechanical) treatment of the surfaces using brushes with flowing liquid, pressure application of the surfactant and water, moving baths, etc. (P.A.). 7 tabs., 2 figs., 10 refs

  20. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  1. Efficient numerical methods for simulating surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-08-01

    Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of heat treatment in air on surface composition of iron-phosphate based soft magnetic composite components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, C., E-mail: christos.oikonomou@chalmers.se; Oro, R.; Hryha, E.; Nyborg, L.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Surface morphological and chemical depth profiling analyses of SMC parts. • Effect of annealing at exterior/interior areas for different temperature regimes. • Difference in degree of oxidation/nature of bulk/coating with area and temperature. • Thermodynamic calculations/considerations on the thermal stability of the coating. • Incomplete delubrication and strong bulk oxidation of the samples under 500 °C. - Abstract: Soft magnetic composite materials (SMC) manufactured by conventional powder metallurgical techniques for electromagnetic applications constitute individually encapsulated ferromagnetic powder particles with an insulating surface layer, bonded together into 3D finished structures. The production procedure includes compaction of the SMC base powder mixed with a lubricant substance and a post-annealing treatment that aims to relieve the stresses induced in the component during pressing. In the present study, the effect of the heat treatment process to the nature of the insulating layer was investigated under different temperature regimes using analytical techniques. Its surface chemistry was determined based on the XPS depth profiling technique, and its morphology and structure were evaluated using HR-SEM and XRD. Differences between interior and exterior areas of the samples suggested the development of an oxide scale in the outer regions that prevents its further bulk oxidation at temperatures above 500 °C, while below that temperature incomplete de-lubrication takes place.

  3. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun

    2016-12-01

    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Smart Nanocontainers as Key Components for Construction of Self-Healing Coating with Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Wang, MingDong; Wang, Cheng; Feng, Jing; Li, JianSheng; Wang, LianJun; Fu, JiaJun

    2016-04-01

    SiO2-imidazoline nanocomposites (SiO2-IMI) owning high loading capacity of corrosion inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMID), and a special acid/alkali dual-stimuli-accelerated release property have been synthesized via a one-step modified Stöber method. SiO2-IMI were uniformly distributed into the hydrophobic SiO2 sol to construct "host"-"guest" feedback active coating with a superhydrophobic surface (SiO2-IMI@SHSC) on aluminium alloy, AA2024, by dip-coating technique. SiO2-IMI as "guest" components have good compatibility with "host" sol-gel coating, and more importantly, once localized corrosion occurs on the surface of AA2024, SiO2-IMI can simultaneously respond to the increase in environmental pH around corrosive micro-cathodic regions and decrease in pH near micro-anodic regions, promptly releasing HMID to form a compact molecular film on the damaged surface, inhibiting corrosion spread and executing a self-healing function. The scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) was applied to illustrate the suppression process of cathodic/anodic corrosion activities. Furthermore, benefiting from the superhydrophobic surface, SiO2-IMI@SHSC remained its protective ability after immersion in 0.5 M NaCl solution for 35 days, which is far superior to the conventional sol-gel coating with the same coating thickness. The facile fabrication method of SiO2-IMI simplifies the construction procedure of SiO2-IMI@SHSC, which have great potential to replace non-environmental chromate conversion coatings for practical use.

  5. A countermeasure for external stress corrosion cracking in piping components by means of residual stress improvement on the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Umemoto, Tadahiro

    1988-01-01

    Many techniques have been proposed as countermeasures for the External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) on austenitic stainless steel piping caused by sea salt particles. However, not one seems perfect. The method proposed here is an expansion of IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) which has been successfully implemented in many nuclear power plants as a remedy for Intergranular Stress Corrossion Cracking. The proposed method named EIHSI (External IHSI) can make the residual stress compressive on the outer surface of the piping components. In order to confirm the effectiveness of EIHSI, one series of tests were conducted on a weld joint between the pipe flange and the straight pipe. The measured residual stresses and also the results of the cracking test revealed that EIHSI is a superior method to suppress the ESCC. The outline of EIHSI and the verification tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Theoretical Insight of Physical Adsorption for a Single-Component Adsorbent + Adsorbate System: I. Thermodynamic Property Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2009-02-17

    Thermodynamic property surfaces for a single-component adsorbent + adsorbate system are derived and developed from the viewpoint of classical thermodynamics, thermodynamic requirements of chemical equilibrium, Gibbs law, and Maxwell relations. They enable us to compute the entropy and enthalpy of the adsorbed phase, the isosteric heat of adsorption, specific heat capacity, and the adsorbed phase volume thoroughly. These equations are very simple and easy to handle for calculating the energetic performances of any adsorption system. We have shown here that the derived thermodynamic formulations fill up the information gap with respect to the state of adsorbed phase to dispel the confusion as to what is the actual state of the adsorbed phase. We have also discussed and established the temperature-entropy diagrams of (i) CaCl 2-in-silica gel + water system for cooling applications, and (ii) activated carbon (Maxsorb III) + methane system for gas storage. © Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  8. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

  9. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage

  10. Quality assurance in ceramic materials and components. High-resolution non-destructive testing especially of ceramic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, H.; Hoffmann, B.; Morsch, A.; Arnold, W.; Schneider, E.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the influence of defects on the failure behavior of ceramic materials under four-point bending stress. In this connection various Si 3 N 4 and SiC materials with and without artificially introduced defect particles (Fe, WC, Si, pores) were examined by the following non-destructive test methods: photoacoustic microscopy, scanning laser acoustic microscopy, microfocus roentgenoscopy and ultrasound transit-time measurements. Finally, a four-point bending test and a fracture-mechanical evaluation of the fracture-incuding defects were carried out at the Institute for reliability and failure studies in mechanical engineering of the University of Karlsruhe. According to the type of stress the samples predominantly failed in the case of defects in the surface zone of the side in tension. Among the ndt methods applied the photoacoustic microscopy as a typical surface testing method could predict most of the fracture-inducing defects (30-50 %) without causing destruction. In this connection a different detection sensitivity which corresponds to the thermal reflection factors became apparent according to the type of defect. Furthermore the reports describes the results of some preliminary tests on ndt of green ceramics. In these investigations both the microfocus roentgenoscopy test and the roentgen computed tomography showed a high potential of detecting inhomogeneities and defects in green Si 3 N 4 and SiC components. (orig.) [de

  11. Monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using guided waves and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingyu; Qu, Yongwei; Lu, Ye; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Limin; Su, Zhongqing

    2012-04-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer (PZT) network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor. The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform (HHT), indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld, multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.

  12. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  13. Anode biofilm transcriptomics reveals outer surface components essential for high density current production in Geobacter sulfurreducens fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Nevin

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 microm biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes.

  14. Detecting geothermal anomalies and evaluating LST geothermal component by combining thermal remote sensing time series and land surface model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Mireia; Vaughan, R. Greg; Ettema, J.; Izquierdo-Verdiguier, E.; Hecker, C. A.; van der Meer, F.D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores for the first time the possibilities to use two land surface temperature (LST) time series of different origins (geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellite data and Noah land surface modelling, LSM), to detect geothermal anomalies and extract the geothermal component of LST, the LSTgt. We hypothesize that in geothermal areas the LSM time series will underestimate the LST as compared to the remote sensing data, since the former does not account for the geothermal component in its model.In order to extract LSTgt, two approaches of different nature (physical based and data mining) were developed and tested in an area of about 560 × 560 km2 centered at the Kenyan Rift. Pre-dawn data in the study area during the first 45 days of 2012 were analyzed.The results show consistent spatial and temporal LSTgt patterns between the two approaches, and systematic differences of about 2 K. A geothermal area map from surface studies was used to assess LSTgt inside and outside the geothermal boundaries. Spatial means were found to be higher inside the geothermal limits, as well as the relative frequency of occurrence of high LSTgt. Results further show that areas with strong topography can result in anomalously high LSTgt values (false positives), which suggests the need for a slope and aspect correction in the inputs to achieve realistic results in those areas. The uncertainty analysis indicates that large uncertainties of the input parameters may limit detection of LSTgt anomalies. To validate the approaches, higher spatial resolution images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data over the Olkaria geothermal field were used. An established method to estimate radiant geothermal flux was applied providing values between 9 and 24 W/m2 in the geothermal area, which coincides with the LSTgt flux rates obtained with the proposed approaches.The proposed approaches are a first step in estimating LSTgt

  15. Parsimonious classification of binary lacunarity data computed from food surface images using kernel principal component analysis and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Lacunarity is about quantifying the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the visual texture of imagery through the identification of the relationships between patterns and their spatial configurations in a two-dimensional setting. The computed lacunarity data can designate a mathematical index of spatial heterogeneity, therefore the corresponding feature vectors should possess the necessary inter-class statistical properties that would enable them to be used for pattern recognition purposes. The objectives of this study is to construct a supervised parsimonious classification model of binary lacunarity data-computed by Valous et al. (2009)-from pork ham slice surface images, with the aid of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), using a portion of informative salient features. At first, the dimension of the initial space (510 features) was reduced by 90% in order to avoid any noise effects in the subsequent classification. Then, using KPCA, the first nineteen kernel principal components (99.04% of total variance) were extracted from the reduced feature space, and were used as input in the ANN. An adaptive feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier was employed to obtain a suitable mapping from the input dataset. The correct classification percentages for the training, test and validation sets were 86.7%, 86.7%, and 85.0%, respectively. The results confirm that the classification performance was satisfactory. The binary lacunarity spatial metric captured relevant information that provided a good level of differentiation among pork ham slice images. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tracing the stellar component of low surface brightness Milky Way dwarf galaxies to their outskirts. I. Sextans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuéndez, L.; Battaglia, G.; Irwin, M.; Bermejo-Climent, J. R.; McMonigal, B.; Bate, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.; Conn, A. R.; de Boer, T. J. L.; Gallart, C.; Guglielmo, M.; Ibata, R.; McConnachie, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Fernando, N.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: We present results from deep and very spatially extended CTIO/DECam g and r photometry (reaching out to 2 mag below the oldest main-sequence turn-off and covering 20 deg2) around the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We aim to use this dataset to study the structural properties of Sextans overall stellar population and its member stars in different evolutionary phases, as well as to search for possible signs of tidal disturbance from the Milky Way, which would indicate departure from dynamical equilibrium. Methods: We performed the most accurate and quantitative structural analysis to-date of Sextans' stellar components by applying Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov chain methods to the individual stars' positions. Surface density maps are built by statistically decontaminating the sample through a matched filter analysis of the colour-magnitude diagram, and then analysed for departures from axisymmetry. Results: Sextans is found to be significantly less spatially extended and more centrally concentrated than early studies suggested. No statistically significant distortions or signs of tidal disturbances were found down to a surface brightness limit of 31.8 mag/arcsec2 in V-band. We identify an overdensity in the central regions that may correspond to previously reported kinematic substructure(s). In agreement with previous findings, old and metal-poor stars such as Blue Horizontal Branch stars cover a much larger area than stars in other evolutionary phases, and bright Blue Stragglers (BSs) are less spatially extended than faint ones. However, the different spatial distribution of bright and faint BSs appears consistent with the general age and metallicity gradients found in Sextans' stellar component. This is compatible with Sextans BSs having formed by evolution of binaries and not necessarily due to the presence of a central disrupted globular cluster, as suggested in the literature. We provide structural parameters for the various populations analysed and make

  17. Simulation of Time-Varying Spatially Uniform Pressure and Near-Surface Wind Flows on Building Components and Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seraphy Y. Shen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new full-scale (FS testing apparatus for conducting performance evaluations of FS building envelope systems. The simulator can generate spatially uniform, time-varying pressure conditions associated with Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale Category 5 winds while compensating for large air leakage through the specimen and also operate a high-speed wind tunnel, both with dynamic control. This paper presents system details, operating characteristics, and an early case study on the performance of large sectional door systems under wind pressure loading. Failure mechanisms are discussed, and finite element modeling is validated for two specimens. It demonstrates successful dynamic load control for large component and cladding systems, as well as simulation of flows near the building surface. These capabilities serve to complement other FS wind tunnel facilities by offering tools to generate ultimate load conditions on portions of the building. Further, the paper successfully demonstrates the utility of combining physical testing and computational analysis as a matter of routine, which underscores the potential of evolving FS testing to encompass cyber–physical approaches.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) binds complement component C4b and confers bloodstream survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jennifer A; Lin, Yi-Pin; Kessler, Julie R; Sato, Hiromi; Leong, John M; Coburn, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. We have found a novel role for outer surface protein C (OspC) from B. burgdorferi and B. garinii in interactions with the complement component C4b and bloodstream survival in vivo. Our data show that OspC inhibits the classical and lectin complement pathways and competes with complement protein C2 for C4b binding. Resistance to complement is important for maintenance of the lifecycle of Bb, enabling survival of the pathogen within the host as well as in the midgut of a feeding tick when ospC expression is induced. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Relationship between oxygen uptake slow component and surface EMG during heavy exercise in humans: influence of pedal rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Missenard, Olivier; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extreme pedal rates contributed to the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO(2) SC) in association with changes in surface electromyographic (sEMG) during heavy-cycle exercise. Eight male trained cyclists performed two square-wave transitions at 50 and 110 rpm at a work rate that would elicit a VO(2) corresponding to 50% of the difference between peak VO(2) and the ventilatory threshold. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and sEMG was obtained from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Integrated EMG flow (QiEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) were computed. The relative amplitude of the VO(2) SC was significantly higher during the 110-rpm bout (556+/-186 ml min(-1), Pexercise only during the 110-rpm bout and were associated with the greater amplitude of the VO(2) SC observed for this condition (Pmotor units recruitment pattern, muscle energy turnover and muscle temperature have been suggested to explain the different VO(2) SC to heavy pedal rate bouts.

  20. Recognizing limitations in eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, G.; Cecco, V.S.

    1981-11-01

    This paper addresses known limitations and constraints in eddy current nondestructive testing. Incomplete appreciation for eddy current limitations is believed to have contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. Neither situation need arise if known limitations are recognized. Some, such as the skin depth effect, are inherent to electromagnetic test methods and define the role of eddy current testing. Others can be overcome with available technology such as surface probes to find circumferential cracks in tubes and magnetic saturation of ferromagnetic alloys to eliminate permeability effects. The variables responsible for limitations in eddy current testing are discussed and where alternative approaches exist, these are presented. Areas with potential for further research and development are also identified

  1. US-Japan workshop Q-181 on high heat flux components and plasma-surface interactions for next devices: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, R.T. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yamashina, T. [ed.] [Hokkadio Univ. (Japan)

    1994-04-01

    This report contain viewgraphs of papers from the following sessions: plasma facing components issues for future machines; recent PMI results from several tokamaks; high heat flux technology; plasma facing components design and applications; plasma facing component materials and irradiation damage; boundary layer plasma; plasma disruptions; conditioning and tritium; and erosion/redeposition.

  2. US-Japan workshop Q-181 on high heat flux components and plasma-surface interactions for next devices: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.; Yamashina, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contain viewgraphs of papers from the following sessions: plasma facing components issues for future machines; recent PMI results from several tokamaks; high heat flux technology; plasma facing components design and applications; plasma facing component materials and irradiation damage; boundary layer plasma; plasma disruptions; conditioning and tritium; and erosion/redeposition

  3. Using the Vertical Component of the Surface Velocity Field to Map the Locked Zone at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulas, E.; Brandon, M. T.; Podladchikov, Y.; Bennett, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    At present, our understanding of the locked zone at Cascadia subduction zone is based on thermal modeling and elastic modeling of horizontal GPS velocities. The thermal model by Hyndman and Wang (1995) provided a first-order assessment of where the subduction thrust might be cold enough for stick-slip behavior. The alternative approach by McCaffrey et al. (2007) is to use a Green's function that relates horizontal surface velocities, as recorded by GPS, to interseismic elastic deformation. The thermal modeling approach is limited by a lack of information about the amount of frictional heating occurring on the thrust (Molnar and England, 1990). The GPS approach is limited in that the horizontal velocity component is fairly insensitive to the structure of the locked zone. The vertical velocity component is much more useful for this purpose. We are fortunate in that vertical velocities can now be measured by GPS to a precision of about 0.2 mm/a. The dislocation model predicts that vertical velocities should range up to about 20 percent of the subduction velocity, which means maximum values of ~7 mm/a. The locked zone is generally entirely offshore at Cascadia, except for the Olympic Peninsula region, where the underlying Juan De Fuca plate has an anomalously low dip. Previous thermal and GPS modeling, as well as tide gauge data and episodic tremors indicate the locked zone there extends about 50 to 75 km onland. This situation provides an opportunity to directly study the locked zone. With that objective in mind, we have constructed a full 3D geodynamic model of the Cascadia subduction zone. At present, the model provides a full representation of the interseismic elastic deformation due to variations of slip on the subduction thrust. The model has been benchmarked against the Savage (2D) and Okada (3D) analytical solutions. This model has an important advantage over traditional dislocation modeling in that we include temperature-sensitive viscosity for the upper and

  4. An analytical solution to calculate bulk mole fractions for any number of components in aerosol droplets after considering partitioning to a surface layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Topping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Calculating the equilibrium composition of atmospheric aerosol particles, using all variations of Köhler theory, has largely assumed that the total solute concentrations define both the water activity and surface tension. Recently however, bulk to surface phase partitioning has been postulated as a process which significantly alters the predicted point of activation. In this paper, an analytical solution to calculate the removal of material from a bulk to a surface layer in aerosol particles has been derived using a well established and validated surface tension framework. The applicability to an unlimited number of components is possible via reliance on data from each binary system. Whilst assumptions regarding behaviour at the surface layer have been made to facilitate derivation, it is proposed that the framework presented can capture the overall impact of bulk-surface partitioning. Demonstrations of the equations for two and five component mixtures are given while comparisons are made with more detailed frameworks capable at modelling ternary systems at higher levels of complexity. Predictions made by the model across a range of surface active properties should be tested against measurements. Indeed, reccomendations are given for experimental validation and to assess sensitivities to accuracy and required level of complexity within large scale frameworks. Importantly, the computational efficiency of using the solution presented in this paper is roughly a factor of 20 less than a similar iterative approach, a comparison with highly coupled approaches not available beyond a 3 component system.

  5. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan, E-mail: Jayasheelan.Vaithilingam@nottingham.ac.uk [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Prina, Elisabetta [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Goodridge, Ruth D.; Hague, Richard J.M. [Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Research Group, EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Additive Manufacturing, School of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Steve [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Rose, Felicity R.A.J. [School of Pharmacy, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Christie, Steven D.R. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM–AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6 ± 3.7 μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour. - Highlights: • Surface chemistry of selective laser melted (SLM) Ti6Al4V parts was compared with conventionally forged Ti6Al4V parts. • The surface elemental compositions of the SLM as-fabricated surfaces were significantly different to the forged surface. • Surface oxide-layer of the SLM as-fabricated was thicker than the polished SLM surfaces and the forged Ti6Al4V surfaces.

  6. Biosorption of diethyl phthalate ester by living and nonliving Burkholderia cepacia and the role of its cell surface components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Si; Li, Langlang; Chen, Anwei; Zeng, Qingru; Xia, Hao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the dibutyl phthalate (DBP) binding properties of a DBP-tolerant bacterium (B. cepacia) were characterized in terms of adsorption kinetics and isotherm. Living and nonliving cells both exhibited rapid removal of DBP, achieving more than 80% of maximum sorption within 30 min of contact and reached the equilibrium after 3 h. The adsorption isotherms were well fitted with the Sips model and the nonliving cells have greater biosorption capacity and affinity for DBP than the living cells. Furthermore, the absence of an active mechanism dependent on metabolism implied that the DBP bioaccumulation by living cells was mainly attribute to passive surface binding. The optimum pH for DBP adsorption by living and nonliving cells were both observed to be 6.0. The biosorptive mechanism of DBP binding by B. cepacia was further confirmed by FTIR analysis and various chemical treatments. FTIR results indicated that the phosphate and CH 2 groups on B. cepacia were the main bounding sites for DBP. Furthermore, 2.28, 2.15, 1.93 and 0.87 g of pretreated cells were obtained from 2.40 g of native cells via extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), superficial layer-capsule, lipids components and cell membrane removal treatments, respectively. Total binding amount of DBP on the native cells, EPS-removed cells, capsule-removed cells, lipids-extracted cells and membrane-removed cells were 26.69, 24.84, 24.93, 16.11 and 10.80 mg, respectively, suggesting that the cell wall lipids, proteins or peptidoglycan might play important roles in the sorption of DBP by B. cepacia. The information could be applied in understanding on the mobility, transport and ultimate fate of PAEs in soil and related environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface chemistry of Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Prina, Elisabetta; Goodridge, Ruth D; Hague, Richard J M; Edmondson, Steve; Rose, Felicity R A J; Christie, Steven D R

    2016-10-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) has previously been shown to be a viable method for fabricating biomedical implants; however, the surface chemistry of SLM fabricated parts is poorly understood. In this study, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface chemistries of (a) SLM as-fabricated (SLM-AF) Ti6Al4V and (b) SLM fabricated and mechanically polished (SLM-MP) Ti6Al4V samples and compared with (c) traditionally manufactured (forged) and mechanically polished Ti6Al4V samples. The SLM-AF surface was observed to be porous with an average surface roughness (Ra) of 17.6±3.7μm. The surface chemistry of the SLM-AF was significantly different to the FGD-MP surface with respect to elemental distribution and their existence on the outermost surface. Sintered particles on the SLM-AF surface were observed to affect depth profiling of the sample due to a shadowing effect during argon ion sputtering. Surface heterogeneity was observed for all three surfaces; however, vanadium was witnessed only on the mechanically polished (SLM-MP and FGD-MP) surfaces. The direct and indirect 3T3 cell cytotoxicity studies revealed that the cells were viable on the SLM fabricated Ti6Al4V parts. The varied surface chemistry of the SLM-AF and SLM-MP did not influence the cell behaviour. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NYGREN,RICHARD E.; STAVROS,DIANA T.

    2000-06-01

    The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed.

  9. Proceedings of 1999 U.S./Japan Workshop (99FT-05) On High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NYGREN, RICHARD E.; STAVROS, DIANA T.

    2000-01-01

    The 1999 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions in Next Step Fusion Devices was held at the St. Francis Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 1-4, 1999. There were 42 presentations as well as discussion on technical issues and planning for future collaborations. The participants included 22 researchers from Japan and the United States as well as seven researchers from Europe and Russia. There have been important changes in the programs in both the US and Japan in the areas of plasma surface interactions and plasma facing components. The US has moved away from a strong focus on the ITER Project and has introduced new programs on use of liquid surfaces for plasma facing components, and operation of NSTX has begun. In Japan, the Large Helical Device began operation. This is the first large world-class confinement device operating in a magnetic configuration different than a tokamak. In selecting the presentations for this workshop, the organizers sought a balance between research in laboratory facilities or confinement devices related to plasma surface interactions and experimental research in the development of plasma facing components. In discussions about the workshop itself, the participants affirmed their preference for a setting where ''work-in-progress'' could be informally presented and discussed

  10. Micro- and nano-scale damage on the surface of W divertor component during exposure to high heat flux loads with He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Greuner, H.; Zhao, S.X.; Böswirth, B.; Luo, G.N.; Zhou, X.; Jia, Y.Z.; Liu, X.; Liu, W.

    2015-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale surface damage on a W divertor component sample exposed to high heat flux loads generated with He atoms has been investigated through SEM, EBSD, AFM and FIB-SEM. The component sample was supplied by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) and AT&M company, China, and the loading experiment was performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP Garching, Germany. Two typical damage structures were observed on the surface: the first one is characterized by obvious blisters and some grooves formed from ruptured blisters, and the other one is a kind of porous structure accompanying with at least ∼25 nm surface material loss. As the grain orientation is further away from , the damage morphology gradually changes from the former structure to the latter. The possible damage mechanism is discussed. - Highlights: • Two damage structures were observed on W component surface under He beam heating. • Blistering was more obvious in near grains. • Porous structure appeared in the grains away from . • A loose layer caused by He aggregation was formed in near-surface region.

  11. Effects and interactions of medium components on laccase from a marine-derived fungus using response surface methodology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Garg, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    The effects of various synthetic medium components and their interactions with each other ultimately impact laccase production in fungi. This was studied using a laccase-hyper-producing marine-derived basidiomycete, Cerrena unicolor MTCC 5159...

  12. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  13. The effect of cultureware surfaces on functional and structural components of differentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíková, N.; Weiszenstein, M.; Pala, J.; Halada, Petr; Šeda, O.; Elkalaf, M.; Trnka, J.; Kovář, J.; Polak, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2015), s. 919-936 ISSN 1425-8153 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cell culture * Proteomics * Cultureware surface Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2015

  14. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  15. Calculation of the surface water pollution index in the evaluation of environmental component of product life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Аскольдович Проскурнин

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment feasibility of the combined effect of the product life cycle on the environment is grounded. As an example, the pollution of surface waters at the production stage is considered in the article. A mechanism of ranking indicators of surface water pollution according to their importance is proposed. An algorithm for checking the consistency of the statistical expert judgment in determining weight coefficient for the indicators of pollution, based on the use of the concordance coefficient, is given

  16. Comparative acid-base properties of the surface of components of the CdTe-ZnS system in series of substitutional solid solutions and their analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirovskaya, I. A.; Kasatova, I. Yu.

    2011-07-01

    The acid-base properties of the surface of solid solutions and binary components of the CdTe-ZnS system are studied by hydrolytic adsorption, nonaqueous conductometric titration, mechanochemistry, IR spectroscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The strength, nature, and concentration of acid centers on the original surface and that exposed to CO are determined. The changes in acid-base properties in dependence on the composition of the system under investigation in the series of CdB6, ZnB6 analogs are studied.

  17. Proceedings of US/Japan Workshop (97FT5-06) on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Richard; Kureczko, Diana

    1998-10-01

    The 1997 US-Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices was held at the Warwick Regis Hotel in San Francisco, California, on December 8-11, 1997. There were 53 presentations as well as discussions on technical issues and on planning for future collaborations, and 35 researchers from japan and the US participated in the workshop. Over the last few years, with the strong emphasis in the US on technology for ITER, there has been less work done in the US fusion program on basic plasma materials interaction and this change in emphasis workshops. The program this year emphasized activities that were not carried out under the ITER program and a new element this year in the US program was planning and some analysis on liquid surface concepts for advanced plasma facing components. The program included a ceremony to honor Professor Yamashina, who was retiring this year and a special presentation on his career

  18. An algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of aerosols: 2. Information content analysis for aerosol parameters and principal components of surface spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weizhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Reid, Jeffrey S.

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the second part of a series of investigation to develop algorithms for simultaneous retrieval of aerosol parameters and surface reflectance from the future hyperspectral and geostationary satellite sensors such as Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of POllution (TEMPO). The information content in these hyperspectral measurements is analyzed for 6 principal components (PCs) of surface spectra and a total of 14 aerosol parameters that describe the columnar aerosol volume Vtotal, fine-mode aerosol volume fraction, and the size distribution and wavelength-dependent index of refraction in both coarse and fine mode aerosols. Forward simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer are conducted for 5 surface types (green vegetation, bare soil, rangeland, concrete and mixed surface case) and a wide range of aerosol mixtures. It is shown that the PCs of surface spectra in the atmospheric window channel could be derived from the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance in the conditions of low aerosol optical depth (AOD ≤ 0.2 at 550 nm), with a relative error of 1%. With degree freedom for signal analysis and the sequential forward selection method, the common bands for different aerosol mixture types and surface types can be selected for aerosol retrieval. The first 20% of our selected bands accounts for more than 90% of information content for aerosols, and only 4 PCs are needed to reconstruct surface reflectance. However, the information content in these common bands from each TEMPO individual observation is insufficient for the simultaneous retrieval of surface's PC weight coefficients and multiple aerosol parameters (other than Vtotal). In contrast, with multiple observations for the same location from TEMPO in multiple consecutive days, 1-3 additional aerosol parameters could be retrieved. Consequently, a self-adjustable aerosol retrieval algorithm to account for surface types, AOD conditions, and multiple-consecutive observations is recommended to derive

  19. Analysis of factors controlling soil phosphorus loss with surface runoff in Huihe National Nature Reserve by principal component and path analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Bu, He; Wo, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss with surface runoff accounts for the P input to and acceleration of eutrophication of the freshwater. Many studies have focused on factors affecting P loss with surface runoff from soils, but rarely on the relationship among these factors. In the present study, rainfall simulation on P loss with surface runoff was conducted in Huihe National Nature Reserve, in Hulunbeier grassland, China, and the relationships between P loss with surface runoff, soil properties, and rainfall conditions were examined. Principal component analysis and path analysis were used to analyze the direct and indirect effects on P loss with surface runoff. The results showed that P loss with surface runoff was closely correlated with soil electrical conductivity, soil pH, soil Olsen P, soil total nitrogen (TN), soil total phosphorus (TP), and soil organic carbon (SOC). The main driving factors which influenced P loss with surface runoff were soil TN, soil pH, soil Olsen P, and soil water content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated that the standard multiple regression equation for P loss with surface runoff and each main factor was Y = 7.429 - 0.439 soil TN - 6.834 soil pH + 1.721 soil Olsen-P + 0.183 soil water content (r = 0.487, p runoff. The effect of physical and chemical properties of undisturbed soils on P loss with surface runoff was discussed, and the soil water content and soil Olsen P were strongly positive influences on the P loss with surface runoff.

  20. Effect of geometry on the surface characteristics of steel components AISI 4140 nitrited by DC-pulsed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahonra, C; De Las Heras, E; De La Serena, F; Corengia, P; Ybarra, G; Svoboda, H

    2004-01-01

    Steel AISI 4140 pieces containing cylindrical pinholes with different diameters and depths were nitrited by plasma, in an atmosphere of 25% N 2 + 75% H 2 under a DC-pulsed glow discharge for 15 h. The samples were nitrited to study the influence of the sizes of the pinholes on the uniformity of the compound layer, on the depth of the zone of diffusion and on the surface and subsurface micro-hardness. The results showed that nitriding pieces with pinholes introduces variations in the electric parameters and modifies the uniformity of the coat of compounds formed, altering the mechanical properties of the surface and subsurface (CW)

  1. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional abrasive techniques such as grinding and lapping have long been used in the surface conditioning of engineering materials. However, in the processing of hard and brittle materials like silicon nitride (Si(sub3)N(sub4)), machining...

  2. Investigation of Surface Treatments to Improve the Friction and Wear of Titanium Alloys for Diesel Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Melanie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bansal, Dinesh G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    2012-09-20

    This final report summarizes experimental and analytical work performed under an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, and UT-Battelle LLC. The project was directed by Jerry Gibbs, of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Propulsion Materials Program, with management by D. P. Stinton and J. A. Haynes of ORNL. Participants included Peter J. Blau (Principal Investigator), Kevin M. Cooley (senior technician), Melanie J. Kirkham (materials scientist) of the Materials Science and Technology Division or ORNL, and Dinesh G. Bansal, a post doctoral fellow employed by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and who, at the time of this writing, is an engineer with Cummins, Inc. This report covers a three-year effort that involved two stages. In the first stage, and after a review of the literature and discussions with surface treatment experts, a series of candidate alloys and surface treatments for titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) was selected for initial screening. After pre-screening using an ASTM standard test method, the more promising surface treatments were tested in Phase 2 using a variable loading apparatus that was designed and built to simulate the changing load patterns in a typical connecting rod bearing. Information on load profiles from the literature was supplemented with the help of T.C. Chen and Howard Savage of Cummins, Inc. Considering the dynamic and evolving nature of materials technology, this report presents a snapshot of commercial and experimental bearing surface technologies for titanium alloys that were available during the period of this work. Undoubtedly, further improvements in surface engineering methods for titanium will evolve.

  3. [Concentrations and Component Profiles PAHs in Surface Soils and Wheat Grains from the Cornfields Close to the Steel Smelting Industry in Handan, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Yi-long; Liu, Wei-jian; Chen, Yuan-chen; Fu, Xiao-fang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, paired surface soil and mature wheat grain samples were collected in the cornfields near the large Handan Steel Manufacturer; and the total concentrations and compositional profiles of the parent PAHs were measured, then the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation with total organic carbon fractions in soil were determined. Accordingly, a preliminary source identification was performed, and the association between PAHs in surface soil and wheat grain was briefly discussed. The median concentration of total PAHs in surface soils from the cornfields of Handan was 398.9 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 123.4 ng x g(-1) to 1626.4 ng x g(-1), where around 18% and 10% of all the studied soil samples were over the corresponding quality criteria for total PAHs and B [a] P in soils, respectively. The MMW and HMW species were the main components in the compositional profiles of surface soils. Based on the specific isomeric ratios of PAHs species, coal/biomass combustion and transportation fuel (tail gas) were the dominant mixed sources for the local PAHs emission. The fractions of surface soil TOC had significant positive correlations with the total PAHs and also with the individual components with different rings. In addition, the median concentration of total PAHs in wheat grains collected in the cornfields near the Handan Steel Manufacture was 27.0 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 19.0-34.0 ng x g(-1)). The levels in wheat grains were not high, and lower than the related hygienic standards of food proposed by EU and China. The LMW and MMW PAHs with 2 to 4 rings occupied a larger proportion, more than 84% of the total PAHs, which was largely different from the component profiles in surface soils. This situation suggested that the local sources of PAHs in wheat grains may originate not only from surface soil via root absorption and internal transportation, but also from ambient air through dry and wet deposition on the leaf surface (stoma).

  4. The radiation environment on the surface of Mars - Numerical calculations of the galactic component with GEANT4/PLANETOCOSMICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiä, Daniel; Berger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Galactic cosmic radiation and secondary particles produced in the interaction with the atmosphere lead to a complex radiation field on the Martian surface. A workshop ("1st Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop") organized by the MSL-RAD science team was held in June 2016 in Boulder with the goal to compare models capable to predict this radiation field with each other and measurements from the RAD instrument onboard the curiosity rover taken between November 15, 2015 and January 15, 2016. In this work the results of PLANETOCOSMICS/GEANT4 contributed to the workshop are presented. Calculated secondary particle spectra on the Martian surface are investigated and the radiation field's directionality of the different particles in dependence on the energy is discussed. Omnidirectional particle fluxes are used in combination with fluence to dose conversion factors to calculate absorbed dose rates and dose equivalent rates in a slab of tissue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Estimating the maritime component of aerosol optical depth and its dependency on surface wind speed using satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lehahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Six years (2003–2008 of satellite measurements of aerosol parameters from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and surface wind speeds from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E, and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, are used to provide a comprehensive perspective on the link between surface wind speed and marine aerosol optical depth over tropical and subtropical oceanic regions. A systematic comparison between the satellite derived fields in these regions allows to: (i separate the relative contribution of wind-induced marine aerosol to the aerosol optical depth; (ii extract an empirical linear equation linking coarse marine aerosol optical depth and wind intensity; and (iii identify a time scale for correlating marine aerosol optical depth and surface wind speed. The contribution of wind induced marine aerosol to aerosol optical depth is found to be dominated by the coarse mode elements. When wind intensity exceeds 4 m/s, coarse marine aerosol optical depth is linearly correlated with the surface wind speed, with a remarkably consistent slope of 0.009±0.002 s/m. A detailed time scale analysis shows that the linear correlation between the fields is well kept within a 12 h time frame, while sharply decreasing when the time lag between measurements is longer. The background aerosol optical depth, associated with aerosols that are not produced in-situ through wind driven processes, can be used for estimating the contributions of terrestrial and biogenic marine aerosol to over-ocean satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth.

  6. Specific capture and detection of Staphylococcus aureus with high-affinity modified aptamers to cell surface components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstummler, A; Lehmann, D; Janjic, N; Ochsner, U A

    2014-10-01

    Slow off-rate modified aptamer (SOMAmer) reagents were generated to several Staphylococcus aureus cell surface-associated proteins via SELEX with multiple modified DNA libraries using purified recombinant or native proteins. High-affinity binding agents with sub-nanomolar Kd 's were obtained for staphylococcal protein A (SpA), clumping factors (ClfA, ClfB), fibronectin-binding proteins (FnbA, FnbB) and iron-regulated surface determinants (Isd). Further screening revealed several SOMAmers that specifically bound to Staph. aureus cells from all strains that were tested, but not to other staphylococci or other bacteria. SpA and ClfA SOMAmers proved useful for the selective capture and enrichment of Staph. aureus cells, as shown by culture and PCR, leading to improved limits of detection and efficient removal of PCR inhibitors. Detection of Staph. aureus cells was enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the bacterial cell surface was coated with SOMAmers followed by qPCR of the SOMAmers. Furthermore, fluorescence-labelled SpA SOMAmers demonstrated their utility as direct detection agents in flow cytometry. Significance and impact of the study: Monitoring for microbial contamination of food, water, nonsterile products or the environment is typically based on culture, PCR or antibodies. Aptamers that bind with high specificity and affinity to well-conserved cell surface epitopes represent a promising novel type of reagents to detect bacterial cells without the need for culture or cell lysis, including for the capture and enrichment of bacteria present at low cell densities and for the direct detection via qPCR or fluorescent staining. © 2014 Soma Logic, Inc. published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd On behalf of the society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Novel processing of Barkhausen noise signal for assessment of residual stress in surface ground components exhibiting poor magnetic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashista, M.; Paul, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilised to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal and two newly proposed parameters, namely 'count' and 'event', have been shown to correlate linearly with the residual stress upon grinding, with judicious choice of user defined 'threshold', even when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, residual stress induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with unhardened bearing steel for benchmarking. Moreover, similar correlation has been established, when primarily compressive stress is induced upon high speed grinding using cBN wheel with moderately deep cut suppressing the micro-magnetic response from the ground medium carbon steel as the work material. - Highlights: → The problem of work materials exhibiting poor BN response and poor Barkhausen Noise response is identified. → A novel signal processing strategy is introduced to address the issue of poor micro-magnetic response of some ferromagnetic material. → Potential of newly introduced BN parameters has been studied. → These two BN parameters exhibited linear correlation with residual stress for work material with poor micro-magnetic response.

  8. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  9. Long-term changes in net radiation and its components above a pine forest and a grass surface in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, A.; Jaeger, L.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term measurements (1974–1993 and 1996, respectively) of the net radiation (Q), global radiation (G), reflected global radiation (R), long-wave atmospheric radiation (A) and thermal radiation (E) of a pine forest in Southern Germany (index p) and of a grass surface in Northern Germany (index g) are compared. The influence of changes in surface properties is discussed. There are, in the case of the pine stand, forest growth and forest management and in the case of the grass surface, the shifting of the site from a climatic garden to a horizontal roof. Both series of radiant fluxes are analyzed with respect to the influences of the weather (cloudiness, heat advection). To eliminate the different influence of the solar radiation of the two sites, it is necessary to normalize by means of the global radiation G, yielding the radiation efficiency Q/G, the albedo R/G=α and the normalized long-wave net radiation (A+E)/G. Furthermore, the long-term mean values and the long-term trend of yearly mean values are discussed and, moreover, a comparison is made of individual monthly values. Q p is twice as large as Q g . The reason for this is the higher values of G and A above the pine forest and half values of α p compared to α g . E p is only a little greater than E g . The time series of the radiation fluxes show the following trends: Q p declines continuously despite a slight increase of G p . This is mainly due to the long-wave radiation fluxes. The net radiation of the grass surface Q g shows noticeably lower values after the merging of the site. This phenomenon is also dominated by the long-wave radiation processes. Although the properties of both site surfaces alter, E p and E g remain relatively stable. A p and A g show a remarkable decrease however. The reason for this is to be found in a modification of the heat advection, showing a more pronounced impact on the more continentally exposed site (pine forest). Compared to α g , α p shows only a small

  10. Human platelet glycoprotein Ia. One component is only expressed on the surface of activated platelets and may be a granule constituent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienz, D.; Clemetson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glycoprotein Ia (GP Ia) is a relatively minor component of human blood platelets thought to be a receptor involved in collagen-induced platelet activation. However, some difficulties exist with the definition of this glycoprotein. The expression of GP Ia on resting (prostacyclin analogue-treated) and thrombin-activated platelets was compared by surface labeling with 125 I-lactoperoxidase. Intact platelets or platelets solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate were labeled with periodate/[ 3 H]NaBH 4 . Analysis on two-dimensional isoelectric focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels showed that GP Ia is very poorly labeled in resting platelets. After activation a new spot (GP Ia*) appears with the same relative molecular mass as GP Ia under reducing conditions. GP Ia and Ia* can be clearly separated by two-dimensional nonreduced/reduced gel electrophoresis. Therefore, two glycoproteins which have been termed GP Ia exist in platelets with similar molecular weight and pI under reducing conditions. One of these (GP Ia*) is only surface-labeled when platelets are activated, indicating that it is only exposed on the surface of activated platelets. Supernatant from activated platelets contains this glycoprotein as well as other granule components. This glycoprotein is missing in platelets from two patients with collagen-response defects

  11. Near-Surface Profiles of Water Stable Isotope Components and Indicated Transitional History of Ice-Wedge Polygons Near Barrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahana, G.; Wilson, C.; Newman, B. D.; Heikoop, J. M.; Busey, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands associated with ice-wedge polygons are commonly distributed across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, a region underlain by continuous permafrost. Micro-topography of the ice-wedge polygons controls local hydrology, and the micro-topography could be altered due to factors such like surface vegetation, wetness, freeze-thaw cycles, and permafrost degradation/aggradation under climate change. Understanding status of the wetlands in the near future is important because it determines biogeochemical cycle, which drives release of greenhouse gases from the ground. However, transitional regime of the ice-wedge polygons under the changing climate is not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed geochemistry of water extracted from frozen soil cores sampled down to about 1m depth in 2014 March at NGEE-Arctic sites in the Barrow Environmental Observatory. The cores were sampled from troughs/rims/centers of five different low-centered or flat-centered polygons. The frozen cores are divided into 5-10cm cores for each location, thawed in sealed plastic bags, and then extracted water was stored in vials. Comparison between the profiles of geochemistry indicated connection of soil water in the active layer at different location in a polygon, while it revealed that distinctly different water has been stored in permafrost layer at troughs/rims/centers of some polygons. Profiles of volumetric water content (VWC) showed clear signals of freeze-up desiccation in the middle of saturated active layers as low VWC anomalies at most sampling points. Water in the active layer and near-surface permafrost was classified into four categories: ice wedge / fresh meteoric / transitional / highly fractionated water. The overall results suggested prolonged separation of water in the active layer at the center of low-centered polygons without lateral connection in water path in the past.

  12. Optimization of Extraction Process for Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Kursi Wufarikun Ziyabit Using Response Surface Methodology and Quantitative Analysis of Main Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirs, Salamet; Turak, Ablajan; Numonov, Sodik; Xin, Xuelei; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-01-01

    By using extraction yield, total polyphenolic content, antidiabetic activities (PTP-1B and α -glycosidase), and antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH) as indicated markers, the extraction conditions of the prescription Kursi Wufarikun Ziyabit (KWZ) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Independent variables were ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, solid-to-solvent ratio, and extraction time. The result of RSM analysis showed that the four variables investigated have a significant effect ( p analysis of effective part of KWZ was characterized via UPLC method, 12 main components were identified by standard compounds, and all of them have shown good regression within the test ranges and the total content of them was 11.18%.

  13. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Yohji, E-mail: seki.yohji@jaea.go.jp; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m{sup 2}, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  14. Degradation of the starch components amylopectin and amylose by barley α-amylase 1: Role of surface binding site 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Willum; Kramhøft, Birte; Bozonnet, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Barley α-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1, EC 3.2.1.1) contains two surface binding sites, SBS1 and SBS2, involved in the degradation of starch granules. The distinct role of SBS1 and SBS2 remains to be fully understood. Mutational analysis of Tyr-380 situated at SBS2 previously revealed that Tyr-380...... is required for binding of the amylose helix mimic, β-cyclodextrin. Also, mutant enzymes altered at position 380 displayed reduced binding to starch granules. Similarly, binding of wild type AMY1 to starch granules was suppressed in the presence of β-cyclodextrin. We investigated the role of SBS2 by comparing...... kinetic properties of the wild type AMY1 and the Y380A mutant enzyme in hydrolysis of amylopectin, amylose and β-limit dextrin, and the inhibition by β-cyclodextrin. Progress curves of the release of reducing ends revealed a bi-exponential hydrolysis of amylopectin and β-limit dextrin, whereas hydrolysis...

  15. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yohji; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m"2, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  16. Internal variability of fine-scale components of meteorological fields in extended-range limited-area model simulations with atmospheric and surface nudging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Leo; Husain, Syed Zahid; Yu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Internal variability (IV) in dynamical downscaling with limited-area models (LAMs) represents a source of error inherent to the downscaled fields, which originates from the sensitive dependence of the models to arbitrarily small modifications. If IV is large it may impose the need for probabilistic verification of the downscaled information. Atmospheric spectral nudging (ASN) can reduce IV in LAMs as it constrains the large-scale components of LAM fields in the interior of the computational domain and thus prevents any considerable penetration of sensitively dependent deviations into the range of large scales. Using initial condition ensembles, the present study quantifies the impact of ASN on IV in LAM simulations in the range of fine scales that are not controlled by spectral nudging. Four simulation configurations that all include strong ASN but differ in the nudging settings are considered. In the fifth configuration, grid nudging of land surface variables toward high-resolution surface analyses is applied. The results show that the IV at scales larger than 300 km can be suppressed by selecting an appropriate ASN setup. At scales between 300 and 30 km, however, in all configurations, the hourly near-surface temperature, humidity, and winds are only partly reproducible. Nudging the land surface variables is found to have the potential to significantly reduce IV, particularly for fine-scale temperature and humidity. On the other hand, hourly precipitation accumulations at these scales are generally irreproducible in all configurations, and probabilistic approach to downscaling is therefore recommended.

  17. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  19. Residues essential for Panton-Valentine leukocidin S component binding to its cell receptor suggest both plasticity and adaptability in its interaction surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit-Joseph Laventie

    Full Text Available Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a bicomponent staphylococcal leukotoxin, is involved in the poor prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia. The present study aimed to elucidate the binding mechanism of PVL and in particular its cell-binding domain. The class S component of PVL, LukS-PV, is known to ensure cell targeting and exhibits the highest affinity for the neutrophil membrane (Kd∼10(-10 M compared to the class F component of PVL, LukF-PV (Kd∼10(-9 M. Alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to identify the residues involved in LukS-PV binding to the neutrophil surface. Nineteen single alanine mutations were performed in the rim domain previously described as implicated in cell membrane interactions. Positions were chosen in order to replace polar or exposed charged residues and according to conservation between leukotoxin class S components. Characterization studies enabled to identify a cluster of residues essential for LukS-PV binding, localized on two loops of the rim domain. The mutations R73A, Y184A, T244A, H245A and Y250A led to dramatically reduced binding affinities for both human leukocytes and undifferentiated U937 cells expressing the C5a receptor. The three-dimensional structure of five of the mutants was determined using X-ray crystallography. Structure analysis identified residues Y184 and Y250 as crucial in providing structural flexibility in the receptor-binding domain of LukS-PV.

  20. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  1. Bifidobacterium breve C50 secretes lipoprotein with CHAP domain recognized in aggregated form by TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuotto, Angelo; Djorie, Serge; Colavizza, Michel; Romond, Pierre-Charles; Romond, Marie-Bénédicte

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular components secreted by Bifidobacterium breve C50 can induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of dendritic cells via a TLR2 pathway. In this study, the components were isolated from the supernatant by gel filtration chromatography. Antibodies raised against the major compounds with molecular weight above 600 kDa (Bb C50BC) also recognized compounds of lower molecular weight (200–600 kDa). TLR2 and TLR6 bound to the components already recognized by the antibodies. Trypsin digestion of Bb C50BC released three major peptides whose sequences displayed close similarities to a putative secreted protein with a CHAP amidase domain from B. breve. The 1300-bp genomic region corresponding to the hypothetical protein was amplified by PCR. The deduced polypeptide started with an N-terminal signal sequence of 45 amino acids, containing the lipobox motif (LAAC) with the cysteine in position 25, and 2 positively charged residues within the first 14 residues of the signal sequence. Lipid detection in Bb C50BC by GC/MS further supported the implication of a lipoprotein. Sugars were also detected in Bb C50BC. Close similarity with the glucan-binding protein B from Bifidobacterium animalis of two released peptides from Bb C50BC protein suggested that glucose moieties, possibly in glucan form, could be bound to the lipoprotein. Finally, heating at 100 °C for 5 min led to the breakdown of Bb C50BC in compounds of molecular weight below 67 kDa, which suggested that Bb C50BC was an aggregate. One might assume that a basic unit was formed by the lipoprotein bound putatively to glucan. Besides the other sugars and hexosamines recognized by galectin 1 were localized at the surface of the Bb C50BC aggregate. In conclusion, the extracellular components secreted by B. breve C50 were constituted of a lipoprotein putatively associated with glucose moieties and acting in an aggregating form as an agonist of TLR2/TLR6.

  2. Surface mu heavy chain signals down-regulation of the V(D)J-recombinase machinery in the absence of surrogate light chain components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Gunther R; Mundt, Cornelia; Parker, Mathew; Pelanda, Roberta; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill; Winkler, Thomas H

    2004-06-07

    Early B cell development is characterized by stepwise, ordered rearrangement of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (HC) and light (LC) chain genes. Only one of the two alleles of these genes is used to produce a receptor, a phenomenon referred to as allelic exclusion. It has been suggested that pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signals are responsible for down-regulation of the VDJH-recombinase machinery (Rag1, Rag2, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT]), thereby preventing further rearrangement on the second HC allele. Using a mouse model, we show that expression of an inducible muHC transgene in Rag2-/- pro-B cells induces down-regulation of the following: (a) TdT protein, (b) a transgenic green fluorescent protein reporter reflecting endogenous Rag2 expression, and (c) Rag1 primary transcripts. Similar effects were also observed in the absence of surrogate LC (SLC) components, but not in the absence of the signaling subunit Ig-alpha. Furthermore, in wild-type mice and in mice lacking either lambda5, VpreB1/2, or the entire SLC, the TdT protein is down-regulated in muHC+LC- pre-B cells. Surprisingly, muHC without LC is expressed on the surface of pro-/pre-B cells from lambda5-/-, VpreB1-/-VpreB2-/-, and SLC-/- mice. Thus, SLC or LC is not required for muHC cell surface expression and signaling in these cells. Therefore, these findings offer an explanation for the occurrence of HC allelic exclusion in mice lacking SLC components.

  3. Study of laser-induced damage on the exit surface of silica components in the nanosecond regime in a multiple wavelengths configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambonneau, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, laser-induced damage phenomenon on the surface of fused silica components is investigated in the nanosecond regime. This phenomenon consists in an irreversible modification of the material. In the nanosecond regime, laser damage is tightly correlated to the presence of non-detectable precursor defects which are a consequence of the synthesis and the polishing of the components. In this thesis, we investigate laser damage in a multiple wavelengths configuration. In order to better understand this phenomenon in these conditions of irradiation, three studies are conducted. The first one focuses on damage initiation. The results obtained in the single wavelength configurations highlight a coupling in the multiple wavelengths one. A comparison between the experiments and a model developed during this thesis enables us to improve the knowledge of the fundamental processes involved during this damage phase. Then, we show that post mortem characterizations of damage morphology coupled to an accurate metrology allow us to understand both the nature and also the chronology of the physical mechanisms involved during damage formation. The proposed theoretical scenario is confirmed through various experiments. Finally, we study damage growth in both the single and the multiple wavelengths cases. Once again, this last configuration highlights a coupling between the wavelengths. We show the necessity to account for the spatial characteristics of the laser beams during a growth session. (author) [fr

  4. A first principle simulation of competitive adsorption of SF6 decomposition components on nitrogen-doped anatase TiO2 (101) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xingchen; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Gas insulated switchgear has been widely used in modern electric systems due to its significantly excellent performances such as compact structure and low land occupation as well as the security stability. However, inside defects caused during manufacture process can lead to partial discharge which might develop into serious insulation failure. Online monitoring method on basis of gas sensors is considered a promising way of detecting partial discharge for alarm ahead of time. Research has found that TiO2 nanotubes sensors show good response to SO2, SOF2, SO2F2, the decomposition components as a result of partial discharge. In order to investigate the gas-sensing mechanism of nitrogen-doped TiO2 prepared via plasma treatment methods to SO2, SOF2, and SO2F2, the adsorption structures of both three gas molecules and anatase TiO2 (101) surface were built, and DFT calculations were then carried out for calculation and analysis of adsorption parameters. Adsorption property comparison of anatase TiO2 (101) surface after nitrogen doping with Au doping and without doping shows that nitrogen doping can obviously enhance the adsorption energy for SO2 and SOF2 adsorption and no charge transfer for SO2F2 adsorption, further explaining the adsorption mechanism and doping influence of different doping elements.

  5. Interface doping of conjugated organic films by means of diffusion of atomic components from the surfaces of semiconductors and of metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolov, A S; Akhremtchik, S N; Lazneva, E F

    2011-08-15

    The paper reports the results on the interface formation of 5-10 nm thick conjugated layers of Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) with a number of solid surfaces: polycrystalline Au, (SiO(2))n-Si, ZnO(0 0 0 1), Si(1 0 0), Ge(1 1 1), CdS(0 0 0 1) and GaAs(1 0 0). The results were obtained using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy target current electron spectroscopy (TCS). The organic overlayers were thermally deposited in situ in UHV onto substrate surfaces. The island-like organic deposits were excluded from the analysis so that only uniform organic deposits were considered. In the cases of polycrystalline Au, Si(1 0 0) and Ge(1 1 1) substrates the AES peaks of the substrate material attenuated down to the zero noise level upon the increase of the CuPc film thickness of 8-10 nm. The peaks corresponding to oxygen atoms in the case of SiO(2) substrate, and to atoms from the ZnO, GaAs and CdS substrates were clearly registered in the AES spectra of the 8-10 nm thick CuPc deposits. The relative concentration of the substrate atomic components diffused into the film was different from their relative concentration at the pure substrate surface. The concentration of the substrate dopant atoms in the CuPc film was estimated as one atom per one CuPc molecule. Using the target current electron spectroscopy, it was shown that the substrate atoms admixed in the CuPc film account for the appearance of a new peak in the density of unoccupied electronic states. Formation of intermediate TCS spectra until the CuPc deposit reaches 2-3 nm was observed in the cases of GaAs(1 0 0), ZnO(0 0 0 1), Ge(1 1 1) surfaces. The intermediate spectra show a less pronounced peak structure different from the one typical for the CuPc films. It was suggested that the intermediate layer was formed by the CuPc molecules fully or partially decomposed due to the interaction with the relatively reactive semiconductor surfaces. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proctalgia fugax: would you recognize it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, R R

    1996-04-01

    Proctalgia fugax is characterized by sudden and sometimes severe rectal pain that occurs by day or night at irregular intervals. The pain results from dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter. Proctalgia fugax has a uniform clinical picture, and it can be easily diagnosed when recognized. The patient can be assured that nothing serious is wrong. Expensive tests, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, are not required. Treatment may be difficult, but if the attacks of pain are numerous and severe,, a calcium channel blocker such as nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia) should be tried.

  7. Ants recognize foes and not friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J.; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C. Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating ‘friends’ (nest-mates) from ‘foes’ (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

  8. Character of intermolecular interaction in pyridine-argon complex: Ab initio potential energy surface, internal dynamics, and interrelations between SAPT energy components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarewicz, Jan, E-mail: jama@amu.edu.pl; Shirkov, Leonid [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89b, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-05-28

    The pyridine-Ar (PAr) van der Waals (vdW) complex is studied using a high level ab initio method. Its structure, binding energy, and intermolecular vibrational states are determined from the analytical potential energy surface constructed from interaction energy (IE) values computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbatively included triple excitations with the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence double-ζ (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set complemented by midbond functions. The structure of the complex at its global minimum with Ar at a distance of 3.509 Å from the pyridine plane and shifted by 0.218 Å from the center of mass towards nitrogen agrees well with the corresponding equilibrium structure derived previously from the rotational spectrum of PAr. The PAr binding energy D{sub e} of 392 cm{sup −1} is close to that of 387 cm{sup −1} calculated earlier at the same ab initio level for the prototypical benzene-Ar (BAr) complex. However, under an extension of the basis set, D{sub e} for PAr becomes slightly lower than D{sub e} for BAr. The ab initio vdW vibrational energy levels allow us to estimate the reliability of the methods for the determination of the vdW fundamentals from the rotational spectra. To disclose the character of the intermolecular interaction in PAr, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is employed for the analysis of different physical contributions to IE. It is found that SAPT components of IE can be approximately expressed in the binding region by only two of them: the exchange repulsion and dispersion energy. The total induction effect is negligible. The interrelations between various SAPT components found for PAr are fulfilled for a few other complexes involving aromatic molecules and Ar or Ne, which indicates that they are valid for all rare gas (Rg) atoms and aromatics.

  9. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Primarily United States and Canada. 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. /st> Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features 'systematic data guided activities,' 'designing with local conditions in mind' and 'iterative development and testing' met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as 'CQI.' All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods.

  10. Simulation of erosion and deposition processes of many-component surface layers in fusion devices; Simulation von Erosion- und Depositionsprozessen mehrkomponentiger Oberflaechenschichten in Fusionsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, S.

    2007-02-15

    The present choice of first wall materials in ITER will unavoidably lead to the formation of mixed carbon, tungsten and beryllium layers. Predictive modelling of erosion processes, impurity transport and deposition processes is important. For this the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO can be used. In this thesis ERO has been coupled to the existing Monte-Carlo code SDTrimSP to describe material mixing processes in wall components correctly. SDTrimSP describes the surface by calculating the transport of ions in solids. It keeps track of the depth dependent material concentration caused by the implantation of projectiles in the solid. The calculation of movements of the recoil atoms within the solid gives reflection coefficients and sputtering yields. Since SDTrimSP does not consider chemical processes a new method has been developed to implement chemical erosion of carbon by the impact of hydrogen projectiles. The new code ERO-SDTrimSP was compared to TEXTOR experiments which were carried out to study the formation of mixed surface layers. In these experiments methane CH4 was injected through drillings in graphite and tungsten spherical limiters into the plasma. A pronounced substrate dependence was observed. The deposition efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the locally deposited to the injected amount of carbon, was 4% for graphite and 0.3% for tungsten. The deposition-dominated area on the graphite limiter covers a five times larger area than on the tungsten limiter. Modelling of this experiment with ERO-SDTrimSP also showed a clear substrate dependence with 2% deposition efficiency for graphite and less than 0.5% for tungsten. An important result of the comparison between experiment and simulation was that the effective sticking of hydrocarbon radicals hitting the surface must be negligible. Furthermore, it was shown that local re-deposited carbon layers are 10 times more effectively eroded than ordinary graphite. Simulation of the impurity transport in the plasma was checked

  11. A study on the impact of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the viscosity of PEG melt suspensions using surface plots and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ching Mien; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of the rheological behaviour of polymer melt suspensions is crucial in pharmaceutical manufacturing, especially when processed by spray congealing or melt extruding. However, a detailed comparison of the viscosities at each and every temperature and concentration between the various grades of adjuvants in the formulation will be tedious and time-consuming. Therefore, the statistical method, principal component analysis (PCA), was explored in this study. The composite formulations comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of ten different grades (K100 LV, K4M, K15M, K100M, E15 LV, E50 LV, E4M, F50 LV, F4M and Methocel VLV) at various concentrations were prepared and their viscosities at different temperatures determined. Surface plots showed that concentration of HPMC had a greater effect on the viscosity compared to temperature. Particle size and size distribution of HPMC played an important role in the viscosity of melt suspensions. Smaller particles led to a greater viscosity than larger particles. PCA was used to evaluate formulations of different viscosities. The complex viscosity profiles of the various formulations containing HPMC were successfully classified into three clusters of low, moderate and high viscosity. Formulations within each group showed similar viscosities despite differences in grade or concentration of HPMC. Formulations in the low viscosity cluster were found to be sprayable. PCA was able to differentiate the complex viscosity profiles of different formulations containing HPMC in an efficient and time-saving manner and provided an excellent visualisation of the data.

  12. Robust optimization of the billet for isothermal local loading transitional region of a Ti-alloy rib-web component based on dual-response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ke; Fan, Xiaoguang; Zhan, Mei; Meng, Miao

    2018-03-01

    Billet optimization can greatly improve the forming quality of the transitional region in the isothermal local loading forming (ILLF) of large-scale Ti-alloy ribweb components. However, the final quality of the transitional region may be deteriorated by uncontrollable factors, such as the manufacturing tolerance of the preforming billet, fluctuation of the stroke length, and friction factor. Thus, a dual-response surface method (RSM)-based robust optimization of the billet was proposed to address the uncontrollable factors in transitional region of the ILLF. Given that the die underfilling and folding defect are two key factors that influence the forming quality of the transitional region, minimizing the mean and standard deviation of the die underfilling rate and avoiding folding defect were defined as the objective function and constraint condition in robust optimization. Then, the cross array design was constructed, a dual-RSM model was established for the mean and standard deviation of the die underfilling rate by considering the size parameters of the billet and uncontrollable factors. Subsequently, an optimum solution was derived to achieve the robust optimization of the billet. A case study on robust optimization was conducted. Good results were attained for improving the die filling and avoiding folding defect, suggesting that the robust optimization of the billet in the transitional region of the ILLF was efficient and reliable.

  13. Utilization of satellite remote sensing data on land surface characteristics in water and heat balance component modeling for vegetation covered territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    The model of vertical water and heat transfer in the "soil-vegetation-atmosphere" system (SVAT) for vegetation covered territory has been developed, allowing assimilating satellite remote sensing data on land surface condition as well as accounting for heterogeneities of vegetation and meteorological characteristics. The model provides the calculation of water and heat balance components (such as evapotranspiration Ev, soil water content W, sensible and latent heat fluxes and others ) as well as vertical soil moisture and temperature distributions, temperatures of soil surface and foliage, land surface brightness temperature for any time interval within vegetation season. To describe the landscape diversity soil constants and leaf area index LAI, vegetation cover fraction B, and other vegetation characteristics are used. All these values are considered to be the model parameters. Territory of Kursk region with square about 15 thousands km2 situated in the Black Earth zone of Central Russia was chosen for investigation. Satellite-derived estimates of land surface characteristics have been constructed under cloud-free condition basing AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and EOS Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-8, -9 data. The developed technologies of AVHRR data thematic processing have been refined providing the retrieval of surface skin brightness temperature Tsg, air foliage temperature Ta, efficient surface temperature Ts.eff and emissivity E, as well as derivation of vegetation index NDVI, B, and LAI. The linear regression estimators for Tsg, Ta and LAI have been built using representative training samples for 2003-2009 vegetation seasons. The updated software package has been applied for AVHRR data thematic processing to generate named remote sensing products for various dates of the above vegetation seasons. The error statistics of Ta, Ts.eff and Тsg derivation has been investigated for various samples using comparison with in-situ measurements that has given RMS errors in the

  14. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  15. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its correlation with basal membrane components laminin-5 and collagen type IV in paediatric burn patients measured with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremijewicz, Artur; Matuszczak, Ewa; Sankiewicz, Anna; Tylicka, Marzena; Komarowska, Marta; Tokarzewicz, Anna; Debek, Wojciech; Gorodkiewicz, Ewa; Hermanowicz, Adam

    2018-01-30

    The purpose of this study was the determination of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its correlation with basal membrane components laminin-5 and collagen type IV in the blood plasma of burn patients measured with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging (SPRI) biosensors. 31 children scalded by hot water who were managed at the Department of Paediatric Surgery between 2014-2015, after primarily presenting with burns in 4-20% TBSA were included into the study (age 9 months up to 14 years, mean age 2,5+1 years). There were 10 girls and 21 boys. Venous blood samples were drawn 2-6h, and 12-16h after the thermal injury, and on the subsequent days 3, 5 and 7. The matrix metalloproteinase-2, collagen type IV and laminin-5 concentrations were assessed using Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging by the investigators blinded to the other data. The MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV concentrations in the blood plasma of patients with burns, were highest 12-16h after thermal injury, the difference was statistically significant. The MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV concentrations measured 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after the thermal injury, slowly decreased over time, and on the 7th day reached the normal range, when compared with the concentration measured in controls. Current work is the first follow-up study regarding MMP-2 in burns. MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV levels were elevated early after burn injury in the plasma of studied patients, and were highest 12-16h after the injury. MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV levels were not proportional to the severity of the burn. We believe in the possibility that the gradual decrease of MMP-2, collagen type IV and laminin-5 concentrations could be connected with the process of healing, but to prove it, more investigation is needed in this area. The SPR imaging biosensor is a good diagnostic tool for determination of MMP-2, laminin-5 and collagen type IV in blood plasma of patients with burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  17. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for estimation stress intensity factor. Surface crack on ICM housing for penetration in reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  18. Unequal-thickness billet optimization in transitional region during isothermal local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component using response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke WEI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Avoiding the folding defect and improving the die filling capability in the transitional region are desired in isothermal local loading forming of a large-scale Ti-alloy rib-web component (LTRC. To achieve a high-precision LTRC, the folding evolution and die filling process in the transitional region were investigated by 3D finite element simulation and experiment using an equal-thickness billet (ETB. It is found that the initial volume distribution in the second-loading region can greatly affect the amount of material transferred into the first-loading region during the second-loading step, and thus lead to the folding defect. Besides, an improper initial volume distribution results in non-concurrent die filling in the cavities of ribs after the second-loading step, and then causes die underfilling. To this end, an unequal-thickness billet (UTB was employed with the initial volume distribution optimized by the response surface method (RSM. For a certain eigenstructure, the critical value of the percentage of transferred material determined by the ETB was taken as a constraint condition for avoiding the folding defect in the UTB optimization process, and the die underfilling rate was considered as the optimization objective. Then, based on the RSM models of the percentage of transferred material and the die underfilling rate, non-folding parameter combinations and optimum die filling were achieved. Lastly, an optimized UTB was obtained and verified by the simulation and experiment. Keywords: Die filling, Folding defect, Isothermal local loading forming, Transitional region, Unequal-thickness billet optimization

  19. Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Tuan Hue; Wang, Li; Ye, Ning; Zhang, Jian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-12

    Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well as numerous similar background actions such as scratching head, cell phone use, eating, drinking and so on. In this paper, we make a first attempt at the challenging problem of recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos. Since there was no related dataset available, we created a new public health dataset for action recognition that includes two major flu-like symptom related actions (sneeze and cough) and a number of background actions. We also developed a suitable novel algorithm by introducing two types of Action Matching Kernels, where both types aim to integrate two aspects of local features, namely the space-time layout and the Bag-of-Words representations. In particular, we show that the Pyramid Match Kernel and Spatial Pyramid Matching are both special cases of our proposed kernels. Besides experimenting on standard testbed, the proposed algorithm is evaluated also on the new sneeze and cough set. Empirically, we observe that our approach achieves competitive performance compared to the state-of-the-arts, while recognition on the new public health dataset is shown to be a non-trivial task even with simple single person unobstructed view. Our sneeze and cough video dataset and newly developed action recognition algorithm is the first of its kind and aims to kick-start the field of action recognition of flu-like symptoms from videos. It will be challenging but necessary in future developments to consider more complex real-life scenario of detecting these actions simultaneously from

  20. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  1. Earth as an Exoplanet: Lessons in Recognizing Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler; Misra, Amit; Ennico, Kimberly; Sparks, William B.; Claire, Mark; Crisp, David; Schwieterman, Edward; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Earth will always be our best-studied example of a habitable world. While extrasolar planets are unlikely to look exactly like Earth, they may share key characteristics, such as oceans, clouds and surface inhomogeneity. Earth's globally-averaged characteristics can therefore help us to recognize planetary habitability in data-limited exoplanet observations. One of the most straightforward ways to detect habitability will be via detection of 'glint', specular reflectance from an ocean (Robinson et al., 2010). Other methods include undertaking a census of atmospheric greenhouse gases, or attempting to measure planetary surface temperature and pressure, to determine if liquid water would be feasible on the planetary surface. Here we present recent research on detecting planetary habitability, led by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team. This work includes a collaboration with the NASA Lunar Science Institute on the detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Earth observations (Robinson et al., 2014). This data/model comparison provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. We find that the VPL spectral Earth model is in excellent agreement with the LCROSS Earth data, and can be used to reliably predict Earth's appearance at a range of phases relevant to exoplanet observations. Determining atmospheric surface pressure and temperature directly for a potentially habitable planet will be challenging due to the lack of spatial-resolution, presence of clouds, and difficulty in spectrally detecting many bulk constituents of terrestrial atmospheres. Additionally, Rayleigh scattering can be masked by absorbing gases and absorption from the underlying surface. However, new techniques using molecular dimers of oxygen (Misra et al., 2014) and nitrogen

  2. CONTEMPORARY SLOVENIAN TIMBER ARCHITECTURE INTERNATIONAL RECOGNIZED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Kitek Kuzman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The book presents Slovenia' s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of high-quality wood. In the past, wood was used primarily in the construction of farm buildings, but now timber architecture is used for everything from residences and office buildings to public buildings such as community centres and schools. Timber construction is becoming increasingly popular. Apart from larger companies taking this approach, a great number of wooden houses have sprung up, built either on personal initiative or with the support of carpenter workshops. Slovenian timber architecture has taken a new approach to environmental and energy-efficiency problems and received great international recognition. The book discusses over fifty projects built over a ten-year period, and includes descriptions, photographs, and plans. The projects include residential areas, administration, and office, as well as tourist, educational, and industrial buildings. Timber architecture is presented as an integral part of the Slovenian landscape. The monograph will be useful to designers and future experts in their planning of optimal timber buildings and will highlight the main benefits of using timber construction.

  3. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  4. Contributions of ocular surface components to matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in feline tears following corneal epithelial wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petznick, Andrea; Madigan, Michele C; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F; Evans, Margaret D M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated ocular surface components that contribute to matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 found in tears following corneal epithelial wounding. Laboratory short-haired cats underwent corneal epithelial debridement in one randomly chosen eye (n = 18). Eye-flush tears were collected at baseline and during various healing stages. Procedural control eyes (identical experimental protocol as wounded eyes except for wounding, n = 5) served as controls for tear analysis. MMP activity was analyzed in tears using gelatin zymography. MMP staining patterns were evaluated in ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry and used to determine MMP expression sites responsible for tear-derived MMPs. The proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in tears was highest in wounded and procedural control eyes during epithelial migration (8 to 36 hours post-wounding). Wounded eyes showed significantly higher proMMP-9 in tears only during and after epithelial restratification (day 3 to 4 and day 7 to 28 post-wounding, respectively) as compared to procedural controls (pTears from wounded and procedural control eyes showed no statistical differences for pro-MMP-2 and MMP-9 (p>0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the cornea during epithelial migration and wound closure. The conjunctival epithelium exhibited highest levels of both MMPs during wound closure, while MMP-9 expression was reduced in conjunctival goblet cells during corneal epithelial migration followed by complete absence of the cells during wound closure. The immunostaining for both MMPs was elevated in the lacrimal gland during corneal healing, with little/no change in the meibomian glands. Conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) showed weak MMP-2 and intense MMP-9 staining. Following wounding, migrating corneal epithelium contributed little to the observed MMP levels in tears. The major sources assessed in the present study for tear-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 following

  5. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-60 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  6. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-35 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  7. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film with a fine magnetic tip sensitive to a well-defined magnetization component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, H., E-mail: matsu@phys.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Nara, D.; Kageyama, R.; Honda, K.; Sato, T.; Kusanagi, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Srinivasan, E. [Creative Research Institution (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Koike, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Creative Research Institution (CRIS), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We developed a micrometer-sized magnetic tip integrated onto the write head of a hard disk drive for spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) in the modulated tip magnetization mode. Using SP-STM, we measured a well-defined in-plane spin-component of the tunneling current of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film. The spin asymmetry of the NiFe film was about 1.3% within the bias voltage range of -3 to 1 V. We obtained the local spin component image of the sample surface, switching the magnetic field of the sample to reverse the sample magnetization during scanning. We also obtained a spin image of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film evaporated on the recording medium of a hard disk drive.

  8. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film with a fine magnetic tip sensitive to a well-defined magnetization component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsuyama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a micrometer-sized magnetic tip integrated onto the write head of a hard disk drive for spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM in the modulated tip magnetization mode. Using SP-STM, we measured a well-defined in-plane spin-component of the tunneling current of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film. The spin asymmetry of the NiFe film was about 1.3% within the bias voltage range of -3 to 1 V. We obtained the local spin component image of the sample surface, switching the magnetic field of the sample to reverse the sample magnetization during scanning. We also obtained a spin image of the rough surface of a polycrystalline NiFe film evaporated on the recording medium of a hard disk drive.

  9. Processing Electromyographic Signals to Recognize Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Lee, D. D.

    2009-01-01

    A recently invented speech-recognition method applies to words that are articulated by means of the tongue and throat muscles but are otherwise not voiced or, at most, are spoken sotto voce. This method could satisfy a need for speech recognition under circumstances in which normal audible speech is difficult, poses a hazard, is disturbing to listeners, or compromises privacy. The method could also be used to augment traditional speech recognition by providing an additional source of information about articulator activity. The method can be characterized as intermediate between (1) conventional speech recognition through processing of voice sounds and (2) a method, not yet developed, of processing electroencephalographic signals to extract unspoken words directly from thoughts. This method involves computational processing of digitized electromyographic (EMG) signals from muscle innervation acquired by surface electrodes under a subject's chin near the tongue and on the side of the subject s throat near the larynx. After preprocessing, digitization, and feature extraction, EMG signals are processed by a neural-network pattern classifier, implemented in software, that performs the bulk of the recognition task as described.

  10. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  11. Proposal of reference stress for a surface flaw on a cylindrical component from a review-with-comparison of the local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kenji; Konosu, Shinji; Ohno, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The Remaining Strength Factor (RSF) approach in Part 5 of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 is an assessment method for a cylindrical component with a local metal loss based on surface correction factors. Also, reference stress solutions that are applied in the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) method for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw are provided in Annex D using surface correction factors. In the recently-developed p-M diagram method, the reference stress solution for local metal loss evaluation in a cylindrical component is derived using bulging factors, which are similar but not identical to the surface correction factors used in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. This paper describes the results of a comparative study among the RSF approach, reference stress solutions for the FAD method, and the p-M diagram method, in terms of plastic collapse evaluation of a cylindrical component. These results were compared with the FEA and experimental results to confirm how these estimated stresses could be validated. This study also involves recommended reference stress solutions for a cylindrical component with a crack-like flaw or a local metal loss, which should be adopted as fitness-for-service rules, and a discussion on the influence of the design margin of the construction code on allowable flaw depth. - Highlights: → We compared local metal loss assessment rule between API 579-1 and the p-M method. → Experiments and FEA verified the p-M estimate stress state around a flaw accurate. → API 579-1 for local metal loss may underestimate stress state for certain conditions. → Existing reference stresses for crack-like flaws may underestimate stress state too. → We propose the reference stress for a surface flaw subjected to pressure and moment.

  12. Model studies on heterogeneous reactions of organic components within aerosols and their influence on the condensation of water: Surface-analytical investigations on the water up-take of fly-ashes before and after exposition to fluoranthene and toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faude, F.; Goschnick, J.

    1993-01-01

    The condensation of water onto four different fly ashes was investigated without any treatment, after annealing and subsequent to exposure with toluene and fluoranthene. It was intented to reveal the influence of organic aerosol components on atmospheric scavenging from particulate pollutants. Because the interaction with the ambient atmosphere is restricted to a very thin surface layer, surface analysis methods were applied to examine directly the adsorption of water or organic compounds at the surface of the fly ashes. Already some of the fly ashes as received contained organic components, which could be desorbed thermally. After their thermal removal the take-up of water improved considerably. Fluoranthene as well as the far more volatile toluene adsorbed at the particle surfaces and both caused strong impediment of the water take-up of originally hydrophilic fly ashes. The results suggest, that for any type of fly ashes the formation of a hydrophobic organic coating can be expected. This may be a result of organic flue gas components such as fluoranthene which condense downstream onto combustion aerosol particles. Or during transport of fly ash particles through organically polluted areas - e.g. with toluene in the air of busy traffic locations - organic coatings may built up. In all cases the hydrophobic coating interferes with the water take-up resulting at least in a considerable delay of the removal of pollutant particulates from the atmosphere. (orig.) [de

  13. Proceedings of Japan-U.S. workshop P-196 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.N.; Yamashina, T.

    1993-03-01

    The Japan-US Workshop P-196 was successfully carried out in Kyushu University, Chikushi Campus, from November 17 to 19. The major concern was on the research and development required both for international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Large Helical Device (LHD). Most of the discussion items was similar to that of the last workshop, e.g. PFC and PSI in Large Device, High Heat Flux Component, Laboratory Studies and Neutron Damage. The presentation number concerning High Heat Flux Component was largest. (J.P.N.)

  14. The use of a quartz crystal microbalance as an analytical tool to monitor particle/surface and particle/particle interactions under dry ambient and pressurized conditions: a study using common inhaler components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, N W; Bloxham, M; Piletsky, S A; Whitcombe, M J; Chianella, I

    2016-12-19

    Metered dose inhalers (MDI) and multidose powder inhalers (MPDI) are commonly used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Currently, analytical tools to monitor particle/particle and particle/surface interaction within MDI and MPDI at the macro-scale do not exist. A simple tool capable of measuring such interactions would ultimately enable quality control of MDI and MDPI, producing remarkable benefits for the pharmaceutical industry and the users of inhalers. In this paper, we have investigated whether a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) could become such a tool. A QCM was used to measure particle/particle and particle/surface interactions on the macroscale, by additions of small amounts of MDPI components, in the powder form into a gas stream. The subsequent interactions with materials on the surface of the QCM sensor were analyzed. Following this, the sensor was used to measure fluticasone propionate, a typical MDI active ingredient, in a pressurized gas system to assess its interactions with different surfaces under conditions mimicking the manufacturing process. In both types of experiments the QCM was capable of discriminating interactions of different components and surfaces. The results have demonstrated that the QCM is a suitable platform for monitoring macro-scale interactions and could possibly become a tool for quality control of inhalers.

  15. An automatic chip structure optical inspection system for electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhichao; Xue, Bindang; Liang, Jiyuan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Junzhang; Liu, Yunhe

    2018-01-01

    An automatic chip structure inspection system based on machine vision is presented to ensure the reliability of electronic components. It consists of four major modules, including a metallographic microscope, a Gigabit Ethernet high-resolution camera, a control system and a high performance computer. An auto-focusing technique is presented to solve the problem that the chip surface is not on the same focusing surface under the high magnification of the microscope. A panoramic high-resolution image stitching algorithm is adopted to deal with the contradiction between resolution and field of view, caused by different sizes of electronic components. In addition, we establish a database to storage and callback appropriate parameters to ensure the consistency of chip images of electronic components with the same model. We use image change detection technology to realize the detection of chip images of electronic components. The system can achieve high-resolution imaging for chips of electronic components with various sizes, and clearly imaging for the surface of chip with different horizontal and standardized imaging for ones with the same model, and can recognize chip defects.

  16. Environmental Forces - Some Esthetic Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, D. Alexander

    Although our system of mass culture has raised our civilization to an extremely high level of material success and affluence, the fact remains that this system has the inherent flaw of not fully recognizing the esthetic needs of man. To overcome this weakness we need to re-introduce into the system a sizable component of first-hand experience…

  17. Recognizing Bedside Events Using Thermal and Ultrasonic Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsen Asbjørn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Falls in homes of the elderly, in residential care facilities and in hospitals commonly occur in close proximity to the bed. Most approaches for recognizing falls use cameras, which challenge privacy, or sensor devices attached to the bed or the body to recognize bedside events and bedside falls. We use data collected from a ceiling mounted 80 × 60 thermal array combined with an ultrasonic sensor device. This approach makes it possible to monitor activity while preserving privacy in a non-intrusive manner. We evaluate three different approaches towards recognizing location and posture of an individual. Bedside events are recognized using a 10-second floating image rule/filter-based approach, recognizing bedside falls with 98.62% accuracy. Bed-entry and exit events are recognized with 98.66% and 96.73% accuracy, respectively.

  18. Increasing surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy effect of RNA and DNA components by changing the pH of silver colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M; Rodríguez, Gabriela Del Mar; Castellanos, Jorge; Felix-Rivera, Hilsamar; Resto, Oscar; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P

    2012-02-15

    This work focused on establishing the parameters for enhancing the Raman signals of DNA and RNA constituents: nitrogenous bases, nucleosides and nucleotides, using metallic nanoparticles as surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates. Silver nanospheres were synthesized using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent and sodium citrate as a capping agent. The prepared nanoparticles had a surface plasmon band at ∼384nm and an average size of 12±3nm. The nanoparticles' surface charge was manipulated by changing the pH of the Ag colloidal suspensions in the range of 1-13. Low concentrations as 0.7μM were detected under the experimental conditions. The optimum pH values were: 7 for adenine, 9 for AMP, 5 for adenosine, 7 for dAMP and 11 for deoxyadenosine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I - The Rayleigh-scattering component. II - Error in the retrieved water-leaving radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Howard R.; Wang, Menghua

    1992-01-01

    The first step in the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric-correction algorithm is the computation of the Rayleigh-scattering (RS) contribution, L sub r, to the radiance leaving the top of the atmosphere over the ocean. In the present algorithm, L sub r is computed by assuming that the ocean surface is flat. Calculations of the radiance leaving an RS atmosphere overlying a rough Fresnel-reflecting ocean are presented to evaluate the radiance error caused by the flat-ocean assumption. Simulations are carried out to evaluate the error incurred when the CZCS-type algorithm is applied to a realistic ocean in which the surface is roughened by the wind. In situations where there is no direct sun glitter, it is concluded that the error induced by ignoring the Rayleigh-aerosol interaction is usually larger than that caused by ignoring the surface roughness. This suggests that, in refining algorithms for future sensors, more effort should be focused on dealing with the Rayleigh-aerosol interaction than on the roughness of the sea surface.

  20. 76 FR 33419 - Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... 232, 240, 249, et al. Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-11] RIN 3235-AL15 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations AGENCY: Securities and... rating organizations (``NRSROs''). In addition, in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, the Commission is...

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-59 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 188.10-59 Section 188... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-59 Recognized classification society. This term means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society...

  2. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  3. Microbial food web components, bulk metabolism, and single-cell physiology of piconeuston in surface microlayers of high-altitude lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo eSarmento

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sharp boundaries in the physical environment are usually associated with abrupt shifts in organism’s abundance, activity and diversity. Aquatic surface microlayers (SML form a steep gradient between two contrasted environments, the atmosphere and surface waters, where they regulate the gas exchange between both environments. They usually harbor an abundant and active microbial life: the neuston. Few ecosystems are subjected to such a high UVR regime as high altitude lakes during summer. Here, we measured bulk estimates of heterotrophic activity, community structure and single-cell physiological properties by flow cytometry in 19 high-altitude remote Pyrenean lakes and compared the biological processes in the SML with those in the underlying surface waters. Phototrophic picoplankton (PPP populations, were generally present in high abundances and in those lakes containing PPP populations with phycoerythrin (PE, total PPP abundance was higher at the SML. Heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF were also more abundant in the SML. Bacteria in the SµL had lower leucine incorporation rates, lower percentages of live cells, and higher numbers of highly-respiring cells, likely resulting in a lower growth efficiency. No simple and direct linear relationships could be found between microbial abundances or activities and environmental variables, but factor analysis revealed that, despite their physical proximity, microbial life in SML and underlying waters was governed by different and independent processes. Overall, we demonstrate that piconeuston in high altitude lakes has specific features different from those of the picoplankton, and that they are highly affected by potential stressful environmental factors, such as high UVR radiation.

  4. Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures Including Polar Components Modeled by the Density Gradient Theory Combined with the PC-SAFT Equation of State

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, Václav; Planková, Barbora; Hrubý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2013), s. 792-812 ISSN 0195-928X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/11/P046; GA ČR GA101/09/1633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : chemical polarity * gradient theory * surface tension Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.623, year: 2013 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s10765-012-1207-z

  5. Micro/nano structured coatings of light alloys by cold spray for surface protection and repair of high value-added components: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya, J.; Cinca, N.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Cold Gas Spray - CGS technique has greatly attracted the attention of the researchers in the last decade due to advantages compared to other conventional thermal spray processes. It presents outstanding characteristics such as high density coatings and absence of thermal degradation (oxidation or phase transformation). In addition, CGS is an efficient and green technology. This paper presents a bibliographic review related to micro/nano structured aluminium-based coatings of by CGS on light alloy substrates. It provides an overview of the feasibility of using the Cold Gas Spray as a technique for the protection, recovery and repair of high value-added components, especially those made of light alloys (aluminium and magnesium base) which, by their low density and mechanical properties, are widely used in several industrial sectors such as transport, aerospace and power generation. (Author)

  6. THE PAR (PEER ASSESSMENT RATING CALCULATION ON 2 DIMENSIONAL TEETH MODEL IMAGE FOR THE CENTERLINE COMPONENT AND TEETH SEGMENTATION ON THE OCCLUSAL SURFACE TEETH MODEL IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Arief Wisesa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The PAR (Peer Assessment Rating Index is used by orthodontists around the world to calculate the severeness of a malocclusion. A malocclusion is a dental disease where the teeth are not properly aligned. In Indonesia, the number of malocclusion is relatively high. The occurrence of orthodontics who can treat malocclusion is also low in Indonesia. In 2013, a research is done to create the telehealth monitoring system to provide better treatment of malocclusion in Indonesia. The research is further improved by using different Adaptive Multiple Thresholding methods to segmentate the image. The result will be used to calculate the Centerline component of the PAR Index. The result is a system that could calculate the PAR Index automatically and is compared to the results using manual method.

  7. Evaluation for activities of component of Cyclotron-Based Epithermal Neutron Source (C-BENS) and the surface of concrete wall in irradiation room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imoto, M., E-mail: masayuki.imoto@gmail.com [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, H. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Fujita, K.; Mitsumoto, T. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Ono, K.; Maruhashi, A.; Sakurai, Y. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The workers employed in BNCT must enter the irradiation room just after an irradiation under the condition of remaining activities. To reduce the radiation exposure for the workers, it is important to identify the origins of the activities. In this research, the activities induced on the concrete wall surface were evaluated using MCNP-5 and the measurement results of thermal neutron distribution. Furthermore, the radioisotopes produced in the moderator were identified with a High Purity Germanium detector. It was found that the activities of the wall were mainly caused by {sup 46}Sc, {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu, and that {sup 24}Na and {sup 56}Mn were mainly produced in the moderator.

  8. Shared fine specificity between T-cell receptors and an antibody recognizing a peptide/major histocompatibility class I complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stryhn, A; Andersen, P S; Pedersen, L O

    1996-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells recognize mosaic structures consisting of target peptides embedded within self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This structure has been described in great detail for several peptide-MHC complexes. In contrast, how T-cell receptors recognize peptide...... each other showing that peptide residues 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were exposed on the MHC surface and recognized by the T cells. Thus, the majority, and perhaps all, of the side chains of the non-primary anchor residues may be available for T-cell recognition, and contribute to the stringent specificity of T...... cells. A striking similarity between the specificity of the T cells and that of the pSAN antibody was found and most of the peptide residues, which could be recognized by the T cells, could also be recognized by the antibody....

  9. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Sultana, Mahbuba Q.; Useinov, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    . This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation

  10. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self...... structures of the type-scene in order to show how Jesus’ true identity can be recognized behind the half-mask of his human appearance....

  11. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2011-04-01

    In this article a cost-effective and simple system (circuit and algorithm) which allows recognizing different kinds of films by their magneto-field conductive properties is demonstrated. The studied signals are generated by a proposed circuit. This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation and experimental results. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. 2-component heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  13. Structure-function analysis of the self-recognizing Antigen 43 autotransporter protein from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hjerrild, L.; Gjermansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein and consi......Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein......-clumping variants, we have pinpointed the region of the protein responsible for autoaggregation to be located within the N-terminal one-third of the passenger domain. Our data suggest that ionic interactions between charged residues residing in interacting pairs of Ag43(alpha) domains may be important for the self...

  14. Adsorption of proteins at the solution/air interface influenced by added nonionic surfactants at very low concentrations for both components. 3. Dilational surface rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainerman, V B; Aksenenko, E V; Lylyk, S V; Lotfi, M; Miller, R

    2015-03-05

    The influence of the addition of the nonionic surfactants C12DMPO, C14DMPO, C10OH, and C10EO5 at concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-1) mmol/L to solutions of β-casein (BCS) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) at a fixed concentration of 10(-5) mmol/L on the dilational surface rheology is studied. A maximum in the viscoelasticity modulus |E| occurs at very low surfactant concentrations (10(-4) to 10(-3) mmol/L) for mixtures of BCS with C12DMPO and C14DMPO and for mixtures of BLG with C10EO5, while for mixture of BCS with C10EO5 the value of |E| only slightly increased. The |E| values calculated with a recently developed model, which assumes changes in the interfacial molar area of the protein molecules due to the interaction with the surfactants, are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. A linear dependence exists between the ratio of the maximum modulus for the mixture to the modulus of the single protein solution and the coefficient reflecting the influence of the surfactants on the adsorption activity of the protein.

  15. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals.

  16. Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns in Newark Bay surface sediment using principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tarek; Su, Steave

    2013-09-15

    PCB congener data for Newark Bay surface sediments were analyzed using PCA and PMF, and relationships between the outcomes from these two techniques were explored. The PCA scores plot separated the Lower Passaic River Mouth samples from North Newark Bay, thus indicating dissimilarity. Although PCA was able to identify subareas in the Bay system with specific PCB congener patterns (e.g., higher chlorinated congeners in Elizabeth River), further conclusions reading potential PCB source profiles or potential upland source areas were not clear for the PCA scores plot. PMF identified five source factors, and explained the Bay sample congener profiles as a mix of these Factors. This PMF solution was equivalent to (1) defining an envelope that encompasses all samples on the PCA scores plot, (2) defining source factors that plot on that envelope, and (3) explaining the congener profile for each Bay sediment sample (inside the scores plot envelope) as a mix of factors. PMF analysis allowed identifying characteristic features in the source factor congener distributions that allowed tracking of source factors to shoreline areas where PCB inputs to the Bay may have originated. The combined analysis from PCA and PMF showed that direct discharges to the Bay are likely the dominant sources of PCBs to the sediment. Review of historical upland activities and regulatory files will be needed, in addition to the PCA and PMF analysis, to fully reconstruct the history of operations and PCB releases around the Newark Bay area that impacted the Bay sediment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  18. Chemotaxis and adherence to fungal surfaces are key components of the behavioral response of Burkholderia terrae BS001 to two selected soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Irshad Ul; Calixto, Renata Oliveira da Rocha; Yang, Pu; Dos Santos, Giulia Maria Pires; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-11-01

    Burkholderia terrae BS001 has previously been proposed to be a 'generalist' associate of soil fungi, but its strategies of interaction have been largely ignored. Here, we studied the chemotactic behavior of B. terrae BS001 towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302 and the role of fungal surface molecules in their physical interaction with the bacteria. To assess the involvement of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS), wild-type strain BS001 and T3SS mutant strain BS001-ΔsctD were used in the experiments. First, the two fungi showed divergent behavior when confronted with B. terrae BS001 on soil extract agar medium. Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten revealed slow growth towards the bacterium, whereas T. asperellum 302 grew avidly over it. Both on soil extract and M9 agar, B. terrae BS001 and BS001-ΔsctD moved chemotactically towards the hyphae of both fungi, with a stronger response to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten than to T. asperellum 302. The presence of a progressively increasing glycerol level in the M9 agar enhanced the level of movement. Different oxalic acid concentrations exerted varied effects, with a significantly raised chemotactic response at lower, and a subdued response at higher concentrations. Testing of the adherence of B. terrae BS001 and BS001-ΔsctD to Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and to cell envelope-extracted ceramide monohexosides (CMHs) revealed that CMHs in both conidia and hyphae could bind strain BS001 cells. As BS001-ΔsctD adhered significantly less to the CMHs than BS001, the T3SS was presumed to have a role in the interaction. In contrast, such avid adherence was not detected with T. asperellum 302. Thus, B. terrae BS001 shows a behavior characterized by swimming towards Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and T. asperellum 302 and attachment to the CMH moiety in the cell envelope, in particular of the former. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  20. Relational and item-specific influences on generate-recognize processes in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Melissa J; McDaniel, Mark A; Strosser, Garrett L; Ramirez, Juan M; Castleberry, Erica H; Arnett, Kristen H

    2014-02-01

    The generate-recognize model and the relational-item-specific distinction are two approaches to explaining recall. In this study, we consider the two approaches in concert. Following Jacoby and Hollingshead (Journal of Memory and Language 29:433-454, 1990), we implemented a production task and a recognition task following production (1) to evaluate whether generation and recognition components were evident in cued recall and (2) to gauge the effects of relational and item-specific processing on these components. An encoding task designed to augment item-specific processing (anagram-transposition) produced a benefit on the recognition component (Experiments 1-3) but no significant benefit on the generation component (Experiments 1-3), in the context of a significant benefit to cued recall. By contrast, an encoding task designed to augment relational processing (category-sorting) did produce a benefit on the generation component (Experiment 3). These results converge on the idea that in recall, item-specific processing impacts a recognition component, whereas relational processing impacts a generation component.

  1. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  2. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2011-01-01

    The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem...... activity classes of data—for building activity models and design a scalable, noise-resistant, Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single- and multi-user activities. We develop a multi-modal, wireless body sensor network for collecting real-world traces in a smart...... home environment, and conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate our system. Results show that epMAR outperforms existing schemes in terms of accuracy, scalability and robustness....

  3. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  4. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  5. Components of laboratory accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, P D

    1995-12-01

    Accreditation or certification is a recognition given to an operation or product that has been evaluated against a standard; be it regulatory or voluntary. The purpose of accreditation is to provide the consumer with a level of confidence in the quality of operation (process) and the product of an organization. Environmental Protection Agency/OCM has proposed the development of an accreditation program under National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program for Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratories as a supplement to the current program. This proposal was the result of the Inspector General Office reports that identified weaknesses in the current operation. Several accreditation programs can be evaluated and common components identified when proposing a structure for accrediting a GLP system. An understanding of these components is useful in building that structure. Internationally accepted accreditation programs provide a template for building a U.S. GLP accreditation program. This presentation will discuss the traditional structure of accreditation as presented in the Organization of Economic Cooperative Development/GLP program, ISO-9000 Accreditation and ISO/IEC Guide 25 Standard, and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories, which has a biological component. Most accreditation programs are managed by a recognized third party, either privately or with government oversight. Common components often include a formal review of required credentials to evaluate organizational structure, a site visit to evaluate the facility, and a performance evaluation to assess technical competence. Laboratory performance is measured against written standards and scored. A formal report is then sent to the laboratory indicating accreditation status. Usually, there is a scheduled reevaluation built into the program. Fee structures vary considerably and will need to be examined closely when building a GLP program.

  6. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  7. Lessons from Tiananmen Square: Recognizing Bias in News Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends teaching students to recognize bias in news reports and how personal preferences infringe on objective judgment. Provides two class activities designed to help students understand this concept. Uses the Cinderella story from three cultures and group discussion to illustrate this technique. (NL)

  8. Framework for benchmarking FA-based string recognizers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of suggested algorithms by domain-specific FA-implementers requires prior knowledge of the behaviour (performance-wise) of each algorithm in order to make an informed choice. The authors propose a based string recognizers such that FA-implementers could capture...

  9. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  10. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.

  11. Recognizing Risk-of-Failure in Communication Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joyce; Lievesley, Matthew; Taylor, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pace of commercial graphic design practice presents very few opportunities to conduct user research after a project's launch. This makes the design team's ability to anticipate and address risks during the design development phase even more important, recognized in the astute observation from Tim Brown, CEO of leading international design…

  12. Recognizing and managing sapstreak disease of sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston; David R. Houston

    1993-01-01

    Sapstreak disease, a potentially serious problem of sugarbushes and forest stands, occurs when the causal fungus, Ceratocystis virescens, invades the sapwood of roots and bases of stems through wounds inflicted during logging, saphauling, or other activities. Describes how to recognize the disease, the factors that affect its occurrence and development, and management...

  13. NREL: News - Students Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education Event Golden, Colo., May 13, 2002 Tapping the power of the sun was the theme of the May 11 Solarbrate Education event at the U.S. Department Assistance Foundation, Oakwood Homes, Home Depot, E-Star Colorado, Governor's Office of Energy Management

  14. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships,

  15. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  16. Shady strategic behavior : Recognizing strategic behavior of Dark Triad followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower

  17. Professional Development Recognizing Technology Integration Modeled after the TPACK Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Public school teachers within a Pennsylvania intermediate unit are receiving inadequate job-embedded professional development that recognizes knowledge of content, pedagogy, and technology integration, as outlined by Mishra and Koehler's Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework (2006). A school environment where teachers are…

  18. Structural elements recognized by abacavir-induced T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yerly, Daniel; Pompeu, Yuri Andreiw; Schutte, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    of autoimmune destruction. The structural elements recognized by drug-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in vivo are poorly defined. Drug-stimulated T cells express TCRs specific for peptide/HLA complexes, but the characteristics of peptides (sequence, or endogenous or exogenous origin) presented in the context...

  19. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  20. QMODULE: CAMAC modules recognized by the QAL compiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Minor, M.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.; Thomas, R.F. Jr.; van der Beken, H.

    1977-10-01

    The compiler for the Q Analyzer Language, QAL, recognizes a certain set of CAMAC modules as having known characteristics. The conventions and procedures used to describe these modules are discussed as well as the tools available to the user for extending this set as required

  1. Recognizing Textual Entailment: Challenges in the Portuguese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing textual entailment comprises the task of determining semantic entailment relations between text fragments. A text fragment entails another text fragment if, from the meaning of the former, one can infer the meaning of the latter. If such relation is bidirectional, then we are in the presence of a paraphrase. Automatically recognizing textual entailment relations captures major semantic inference needs in several natural language processing (NLP applications. As in many NLP tasks, textual entailment corpora for English abound, while the same is not true for more resource-scarce languages such as Portuguese. Exploiting what seems to be the only Portuguese corpus for textual entailment and paraphrases (the ASSIN corpus, in this paper, we address the task of automatically recognizing textual entailment (RTE and paraphrases from text written in the Portuguese language, by employing supervised machine learning techniques. We employ lexical, syntactic and semantic features, and analyze the impact of using semantic-based approaches in the performance of the system. We then try to take advantage of the bi-dialect nature of ASSIN to compensate its limited size. With the same aim, we explore modeling the task of recognizing textual entailment and paraphrases as a binary classification problem by considering the bidirectional nature of paraphrases as entailment relationships. Addressing the task as a multi-class classification problem, we achieve results in line with the winner of the ASSIN Challenge. In addition, we conclude that semantic-based approaches are promising in this task, and that combining data from European and Brazilian Portuguese is less straightforward than it may initially seem. The binary classification modeling of the problem does not seem to bring advantages to the original multi-class model, despite the outstanding results obtained by the binary classifier for recognizing textual entailments.

  2. Use of total internal reflection Raman (TIR) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to analyze component separation in thin offset ink films after setting on coated paper surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivioja, Antti; Hartus, Timo; Vuorinen, Tapani; Gane, Patrick; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina

    2013-06-01

    The interactive behavior of ink constituents with porous substrates during and after the offset print process has an important effect on the quality of printed products. To help elucidate the distribution of ink components between the retained ink layer and the substrate, a variety of spectroscopic and microscopic analysis techniques have been developed. This paper describes for the first time the use of total internal reflection (TIR) Raman spectroscopy to analyze the penetration behavior of separated offset ink components (linseed oil, solid color pigment) in coated papers providing chemically intrinsic information rapidly, nondestructively, and with minimal sample preparation. In addition, the already widely applied technique of attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was evaluated in parallel and compared. The results of the ATR-IR Raman clearly revealed an improvement in uppermost depth resolution compared with values previously published from other nondestructive techniques, and the method is shown to be capable of providing new knowledge of the setting of thin (0.25-2 μm) offset ink films, allowing the spreading and the penetration behavior on physically different paper coating surfaces to be studied.

  3. Surface weathering and changes in components of microplastics from estuarine beaches%滨海河口潮滩中微塑料的表面风化和成分变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩; 章海波; 周阳; 代振飞; 李远; 付传城; 涂晨; 王文海; 骆永明

    2018-01-01

    .Here,we examine typical estuarine sediments from Shandong Province,east China,that are influenced by intensive human activity.The microplastics are separated from the sediments using an apparatus of continuous flow and floating separation.The microplastics samples are processed to determine the types,morphology and changing composition of microplastics present using a range of advanced microscopic and microanalytical methods.The aim is to understand the weathering and subsequent surface changes in the microplastics under the environmental conditions of estuarine sediments.Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope-energy spectrum (SEM-EDS) analysis shows that foams and pellets,together with fragments,fibers and films,are present in the estuarine sediments.The five shape types of microplastics had different weathering surface morphologies compared to the corresponding large plastic debris from the same sampling sites and to the corresponding commercial plastic products.The surfaces of the commercial products are smooth.The surfaces of plastic debris appear to be slightly broken and aged while the surface of microplastics from the same sites show many more microholes,cracks or protuberances.This indicates that the surfaces of microplastics on the estuarine beaches have been strongly weathered.Scratches,creases,microholes,cracks,either concave or convex and of various shapes and sizes were found on the surfaces of microplastics from the coastal environment,possibly due to mechanical friction,chemical oxidation and/or biological attack.Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) was used to find oxygen-containing functional groups such as carboxylic acids,aldehydes and esters or ketones on the microplastic surfaces from the tidal flats on the basis of polymer component analysis.The two selected shape types,namely foams and fragments from soft plastic woven bags,had different infrared spectra than their corresponding large plastic debris

  4. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  5. T cells recognizing a peptide contaminant undetectable by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brezar, Vedran; Culina, Slobodan; Østerbye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are widely used in immunological research as epitopes to stimulate their cognate T cells. These preparations are never completely pure, but trace contaminants are commonly revealed by mass spectrometry quality controls. In an effort to characterize novel major histocompatibility...... complex (MHC) Class I-restricted ß-cell epitopes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we identified islet-infiltrating CD8+ T cells recognizing a contaminating peptide. The amount of this contaminant was so small to be undetectable by direct mass spectrometry. Only after concentration by liquid...... chromatography, we observed a mass peak corresponding to an immunodominant islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)(206-214) epitope described in the literature. Generation of CD8+ T-cell clones recognizing IGRP(206-214) using a novel method confirmed the identity...

  6. Discovering Activities to Recognize and Track in a Smart Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J; Holder, Lawrence B; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The machine learning and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. Although approaches do exist for recognizing activities, the approaches are applied to activities that have been pre-selected and for which labeled training data is available. In contrast, we introduce an automated approach to activity tracking that identifies frequent activities that naturally occur in an individual's routine. With this capability we can then track the occurrence of regular activities to monitor functional health and to detect changes in an individual's patterns and lifestyle. In this paper we describe our activity mining and tracking approach and validate our algorithms on data collected in physical smart environments.

  7. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  8. Action of the city of Schweinfurt against Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld recognized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    In the appeal proceedings, the Bavarian Administrative Court with its interim decision of April 9, 1979 - No. 167 VI 74 - has recognized the action of the city of Schweinfurt against the state of Bavaria to set aside the 1st part license for the construction of Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld, although the right for action was limited to the city's legal position concerning planning authority, drinking water supply, and a city-owned lake used for swimming. Appeal was allowed. The city has lodged an appeal. The decision of the Administrative Court of Wuerzburg of March 25, 1977, which was contested by the appeal, had also recognized the city's rights but dismissed the action as being unfounded. Guidelines and reasons for the decision of the Bavarian Administrative Court are given in full wording. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 HIS [de

  9. Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: evidence for universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A; Barrett, H Clark

    2007-08-01

    In all languages studied to date, distinct prosodic contours characterize different intention categories of infant-directed (ID) speech. This vocal behavior likely exists universally as a species-typical trait, but little research has examined whether listeners can accurately recognize intentions in ID speech using only vocal cues, without access to semantic information. We recorded native-English-speaking mothers producing four intention categories of utterances (prohibition, approval, comfort, and attention) as both ID and adult-directed (AD) speech, and we then presented the utterances to Shuar adults (South American hunter-horticulturalists). Shuar subjects were able to reliably distinguish ID from AD speech and were able to reliably recognize the intention categories in both types of speech, although performance was significantly better with ID speech. This is the first demonstration that adult listeners in an indigenous, nonindustrialized, and nonliterate culture can accurately infer intentions from both ID speech and AD speech in a language they do not speak.

  10. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  11. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    represents a video in terms of low-level audiovisual features [16,38,50,35,15,19,37]. In general, these methods first extract from the video various types of...interpretable, but is also reported to outperform the state-of-the-art low-level audiovisual features in recognizing events [31,33]. Rather than training...concept detector accuracy. As a consequence, the vocabulary concepts do not necessarily have a semantic interpreta- tion needed to explain the video content

  12. Craig Reynolds: Recognized for Excellence in Medicine | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Distinguished Alumni Award is one of the most prestigious awards at the University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine. This award recognizes influential alumni who have achieved excellence in the art and science of medicine. One of this year’s recipients is Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., associate director, NCI. When asked how he felt about receiving this

  13. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perce...

  14. Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human’s body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%.

  15. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High thermal load component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1996-01-01

    A cooling tube made of a pure copper is connected to the inner portion of an armour (heat resistant member) made of an anisotropic carbon/carbon composite (CFC) material. The CFC material has a high heat conductivity in longitudinal direction of fibers and has low conductivity in perpendicular thereto. Fibers extending in the armour from a heat receiving surface just above the cooling tube are directly connected to the cooling tube. A portion of the fibers extending from a heat receiving surface other than portions not just above the cooling tube is directly bonded to the cooling tube. Remaining fibers are disposed so as to surround the cooling tube. The armour and the cooling tube are soldered using an active metal flux. With such procedures, high thermal load components for use in a thermonuclear reactor are formed, which are excellent in a heat removing characteristic and hardly causes defects such as crackings and peeling. (I.N.)

  17. 26 CFR 1.1374-2 - Net recognized built-in gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net recognized built-in gain. 1.1374-2 Section 1...-in gain. (a) In general. An S corporation's net recognized built-in gain for any taxable year is the... considering only its recognized built-in gain, recognized built-in loss, and recognized built-in gain...

  18. Estimativas das componentes da radiação solar incidente em superfícies inclinadas baseadas na radiação global horizontal Estimates of solar radiation components on a tilted surface based on global horizontal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson P. Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas equações estatísticas de estimativas com agrupamentos de dados anuais e mensais e suas respectivas validações, para as componentes global, direta e difusa da radiação solar incidente em superfícies inclinadas a 12,85, 22,85 e 32,85º, com face para o Norte, nas condições climáticas e geográficas de Botucatu, SP. Empregou-se as frações das três componentes da radiação a do topo da atmosfera em correlação com o coeficiente de transmissividade atmosférica do plano horizontal, em uma base de dados de abril/1998 a dezembro/2007, cujas medidas nas três inclinações ocorreram em diferentes períodos, todavia concomitantes ao plano horizontal. O aumento do ângulo de inclinação da superfície propiciou aumento do espalhamento dos valores diários do índice de claridade para superfícies inclinada e horizontal. Nos agrupamentos anuais os piores desempenhos foram verificados na estimativa da radiação difusa diária para superfície inclinada, com valores máximos de espalhamentos iguais a 3,89 MJ m-2 d-1 (43,65% e ajustamento em torno de 62%. Na estimativa das componentes global e direta da radiação solar nos planos inclinados, podem ser aplicadas, tanto as equações anuais como as mensais, com desempenhos dependentes das condições climáticas.Statistics equations and validations with groups of annual and monthly data were evaluated for global, direct and diffuse solar radiation components incident on the tilted surface to 12.85, 22.85 and 32.85° with the face North, in climate and geographical conditions of Botucatu, SP. It was employed the fractions of three components of extraterrestrial radiation in correlation with the coefficient clearness index horizontal plane, in a database of April/1998 to December/2007, whose measures at different periods in three inclinations, however concomitant to the horizontal plane. Increasing the angle of the surface led to increased scattering of the daily values of

  19. Passive wireless sensor systems can recognize activites of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Prabitha; Stucki, Reto; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The ability to determine what activity of daily living a person performs is of interest in many application domains. It is possible to determine the physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly by inferring what activities they perform in their houses. Our primary aim was to establish a proof of concept that a wireless sensor system can monitor and record physical activity and these data can be modeled to predict activities of daily living. The secondary aim was to determine the optimal placement of the sensor boxes for detecting activities in a room. A wireless sensor system was set up in a laboratory kitchen. The ten healthy participants were requested to make tea following a defined sequence of tasks. Data were collected from the eight wireless sensor boxes placed in specific places in the test kitchen and analyzed to detect the sequences of tasks performed by the participants. These sequence of tasks were trained and tested using the Markov Model. Data analysis focused on the reliability of the system and the integrity of the collected data. The sequence of tasks were successfully recognized for all subjects and the averaged data pattern of tasks sequences between the subjects had a high correlation. Analysis of the data collected indicates that sensors placed in different locations are capable of recognizing activities, with the movement detection sensor contributing the most to detection of tasks. The central top of the room with no obstruction of view was considered to be the best location to record data for activity detection. Wireless sensor systems show much promise as easily deployable to monitor and recognize activities of daily living.

  20. Hot gas path component cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  1. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  2. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.  Created: 6/9/2010 by Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Emergency Communication System (ECS)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/15/2010.

  3. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  4. Effects of Facial Expressions on Recognizing Emotions in Dance Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Shikanai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of facial expressions on recognizing emotions expressed in dance movements were investigated. Dancers expressed three emotions: joy, sadness, and anger through dance movements. We used digital video cameras and a 3D motion capturing system to record and capture the movements. We then created full-video displays with an expressive face, full-video displays with an unexpressive face, stick figure displays (no face, or point-light displays (no face from these data using 3D animation software. To make point-light displays, 13 markers were attached to the body of each dancer. We examined how accurately observers were able to identify the expression that the dancers intended to create through their dance movements. Dance experienced and inexperienced observers participated in the experiment. They watched the movements and rated the compatibility of each emotion with each movement on a 5-point Likert scale. The results indicated that both experienced and inexperienced observers could identify all the emotions that dancers intended to express. Identification scores for dance movements with an expressive face were higher than for other expressions. This finding indicates that facial expressions affect the identification of emotions in dance movements, whereas only bodily expressions provide sufficient information to recognize emotions.

  5. Comparison of concept recognizers for building the Open Biomedical Annotator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO is developing a system for automated, ontology-based access to online biomedical resources (Shah NH, et al.: Ontology-driven indexing of public datasets for translational bioinformatics. BMC Bioinformatics 2009, 10(Suppl 2:S1. The system's indexing workflow processes the text metadata of diverse resources such as datasets from GEO and ArrayExpress to annotate and index them with concepts from appropriate ontologies. This indexing requires the use of a concept-recognition tool to identify ontology concepts in the resource's textual metadata. In this paper, we present a comparison of two concept recognizers – NLM's MetaMap and the University of Michigan's Mgrep. We utilize a number of data sources and dictionaries to evaluate the concept recognizers in terms of precision, recall, speed of execution, scalability and customizability. Our evaluations demonstrate that Mgrep has a clear edge over MetaMap for large-scale service oriented applications. Based on our analysis we also suggest areas of potential improvements for Mgrep. We have subsequently used Mgrep to build the Open Biomedical Annotator service. The Annotator service has access to a large dictionary of biomedical terms derived from the United Medical Language System (UMLS and NCBO ontologies. The Annotator also leverages the hierarchical structure of the ontologies and their mappings to expand annotations. The Annotator service is available to the community as a REST Web service for creating ontology-based annotations of their data.

  6. Recognizing Induced Emotions of Happiness and Sadness from Dance Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement. PMID:24587026

  7. Discriminative latent models for recognizing contextual group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mori, Greg

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities.

  8. Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that provides significant improvements to the people with positive changes. But first of all, this branch has a characteristic which requires analysing patients' psychological situation very carefully. Plastic surgeons are often confronted by patients with mental disorders seeking aesthetic surgery. It is imperative for surgeons to recognize possible underlying psychiatric illnesses. Common psychiatric conditions seen in cosmetic surgery patients include body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, narcissistic personality disorder and histrionic personality disorders. BDD is of particular importance to plastic surgeons. Because outrageous dissatisfaction with one's appearance may conceal psychopathologic traits that are not always easily recognizable, and which, if neglected, may result in serious iatrogenic and medicolegal consequences, we hope that this paper will help plastic surgeons in ultimately preventing patient and surgeon dissatisfaction within the population of patients with psychiatric disorders, and should recognize the diagnostic features of body dysmorphic disorder and screen psychologically unstable patients who may never be satisfied with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 109-115

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi. Surface antigens of blood and culture forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, N.; Chaplan, S.; Tydings, J.D.; Unkeless, J.; Cohn, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The surface polypeptides of both cultured and blood forms of Trypanosoma cruzi were iodinated by the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase technique. Blood-form trypomastigotes (BFT) isolated form infected mice displayed a major 90,000-Mr component. In contrast, both epimastigotes and trypomastigotes obtained form acellular cultures expressed a smaller 75,000-Mr peptide. Both major surface components were presumably glycoproteins in terms of their binding to concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B. Within a 3-h period, both blood and culture forms synthesized their respective surface glycoproteins (90,000 Mr and 75,000 Mr, respectively in vitro. [/sub 35/S]methionine-labeled surface peptides were immunoprecipitated with immune sera of both human and murine origin. A panel of sera form patients with chronic Chagas' disease and hyperimmunized mice recognized similar surface peptides. These immunogens were the same components as the major iodinated species. The major BFT surface peptide was readily removed by trypsin treatment of the parasites, although the procedure did not affect the 75,000-Mr peptide from the culture forms. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the 90,000-Mr peptide found on BFT was an acidic protein of isoelectric point (pI) 5.0, whereas, the 75,000-Mr peptide form culture-form trypomastigotes has a pI of 7.2. The 90,000-Mr component is thought to be responsible for the anti-phagocytic properties of the BFT

  10. The inositol-1,2-cyclic phosphate moiety of the cross-reacting determinant, carbohydrate chains, and proteinaceous components are all responsible for the cross-reactivity of trypanosome variant surface glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, José L; Uzcanga, Graciela L; Carrasquel, Liomary M; Bubis, José

    2018-01-24

    Salivarian trypanosomes evade the host immune system by continually swapping their protective variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. Given that VSGs from various trypanosome stocks exhibited cross-reactivity (Camargo et al., Vet. Parasitol. 207, 17-33, 2015), we analyzed here which components are the antigenic determinants for this cross-reaction. Soluble forms of VSGs were purified from four Venezuelan animal trypanosome isolates: TeAp-N/D1, TeAp-ElFrio01, TeAp-Mantecal01, and TeGu-Terecay323. By using the VSG soluble form from TeAp-N/D1, we found that neither the inositol-1,2-cyclic phosphate moiety of the cross-reacting determinant nor the carbohydrate chains were exclusively responsible for its cross-reactivity. Then, all four purified glycoproteins were digested with papain and the resulting peptides were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Dot blot evaluation of the fractions using sera from trypanosome-infected animals yielded peptides that possessed cross-reaction activity, demonstrating for the first time that proteinaceous epitopes are also responsible for the cross-reactivity of trypanosome VSGs.

  11. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....

  12. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guihua; Li, Huihui; Huang, Jubing; Li, Danyang; Xun, Eryang

    2017-01-01

    Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN) can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN) method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  14. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  15. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Meira Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for CPFE. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CPFE. Given that most of the published data on CPFE are based on retrospective analysis, more studies are needed in order to address the role of emphysema and its subtypes; the progression of fibrosis/emphysema and its correlation with inflammation; treatment options; and prognosis.

  16. Blue petrels recognize the odor of their egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Bourret, Vincent; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on avian olfactory communication have focused on mate choice, and the importance of olfaction in subsequent nesting stages has been poorly explored. In particular, the role of olfactory cues in egg recognition has received little attention, despite eggs potentially being spread with parental odorous secretions known to elicit individual discrimination. Here, we used behavioral choice tests to determine whether female blue petrels ( Halobaena caerulea ) can discriminate the odor of their own egg from the odor of a conspecific egg. Females preferentially approached the odor of their own egg, suggesting that blue petrels can recognize their own egg using odor cues. This finding raises the question of the adaptive value of this mechanism, and may inspire further research on odor-based egg discrimination in species suffering brood parasitism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. PMab-38 Recognizes Canine Podoplanin of Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Honma, Ryusuke; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Nakamura, Takuro; Saidoh, Noriko; Takagi, Michiaki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-10-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane protein, is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although we previously developed an anticanine podoplanin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that it did not react with canine lymphatic endothelial cells. Here, we determined whether PMab-38 recognizes canine podoplanin of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and clarified its epitope. In IHC, PMab-38 reacted with 83% of SCCs (15/18 cases). Flow cytometry showed that the epitope of PMab-38 was different from that of the platelet aggregation-stimulating domain of the N-terminus, which was detected by almost all antipodoplanin mAbs such as D2-40 or NZ-1. PMab-38 is expected to be useful for investigating the function of podoplanin in canine tumors.

  18. Perceptron Genetic to Recognize Openning Strategy Ruy Lopez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Zulfian; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    The application of Perceptron method is not effective for coding on hardware based systems because it is not real time learning. With Genetic algorithm approach in calculating and searching the best weight (fitness value) system will do learning only one iteration. And the results of this analysis were tested in the case of the introduction of the opening pattern of chess Ruy Lopez. The Analysis with Perceptron Model with Algorithm Approach Genetics from group Artificial Neural Network for open Ruy Lopez. The data is processed with base open chess, with step eight a position white Pion from end open chess. Using perceptron method have many input and one output process many weight and refraction until output equal goal. Data trained and test with software Matlab and system can recognize the chess opening Ruy Lopez or Not open Ruy Lopez with Real time.

  19. Parvovirus B19 VLP recognizes globoside in supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Waqas; Nilsson, Jonas; Olofsson, Sigvard; Bally, Marta; Rydell, Gustaf E

    2014-05-01

    Studies have suggested that the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4Cer) is a receptor for human parvovirus B19. Virus-like particles bind to Gb4Cer on thin-layer chromatograms, but a direct interaction between the virus and lipid membrane-associated Gb4Cer has been debated. Here, we characterized the binding of parvovirus B19 VP1/VP2 virus-like particles to glycosphingolipids (i) on thin-layer chromatograms (TLCs) and (ii) incorporated into supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) acting as cell-membrane mimics. The binding specificities of parvovirus B19 determined in the two systems were in good agreement; the VLP recognized both Gb4Cer and the Forssman glycosphingolipid on TLCs and in SLBs compatible with the role of Gb4Cer as a receptor for this virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (1. series of experiments); La pollution surfacique de la LIL et son evolution sur un composant optique soumis a une irradiation laser (1. serie d'experiences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmier, St.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Manac' h, P.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I

    2006-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Megajoule project, a study has been carried out to observe the correlation between particle contamination at the surface of the optical components and laser irradiation. The experiments consist in placing silica samples in the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) environment more precisely around the frequency conversion crystals and beam focusing area. Particle contamination at the surface samples is characterized and quantified. Then its behaviour under 1064 nm laser irradiation is observed. From the results of this first series of experiments, it appears that on irradiated silica samples treated with anti reflection coatings, surface particles or contamination can induce a surface defect. (author)

  1. Recognizing Student Fear: The Elephant in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, T. Scott; Baskin, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding fear, its causes, and its impact on students can be important for educators who seek ways to help students manage their fears. This paper explores common types of student fears such as performance-based anxiety, fear of failure, fear of being laughed at, and cultural components of fear that impact learning. The cognitive, emotional,…

  2. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVR a gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVR a genes and identified AVR a1 and AVR a13 , encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVR a1 and AVR a13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVR A1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVR A1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVR A1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  3. Macrophages recognize size and shape of their targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishit Doshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognition by macrophages is a key process in generating immune response against invading pathogens. Previous studies have focused on recognition of pathogens through surface receptors present on the macrophage's surface. Here, using polymeric particles of different geometries that represent the size and shape range of a variety of bacteria, the importance of target geometry in recognition was investigated. The studies reported here reveal that attachment of particles of different geometries to macrophages exhibits a strong dependence on size and shape. For all sizes and shapes studied, particles possessing the longest dimension in the range of 2-3 microm exhibited highest attachment. This also happens to be the size range of most commonly found bacteria in nature. The surface features of macrophages, in particular the membrane ruffles, might play an important role in this geometry-based target recognition by macrophages. These findings have significant implications in understanding the pathogenicity of bacteria and in designing drug delivery carriers.

  4. A newly-recognized galactic supernova remnant with shell-type and filled-center features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.J.; Turtle, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    While the number of galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) now known is fairly large (>150), the subset among these that are known to resemble the Crab Nebula is still distressingly small, about 15 or so. Thus any object that can be unambiguously included in this exclusive club forms a valuable addition to knowledge of this class. The authors report observations of a newly recognized nonthermal galactic object, G18.94-1.06, having all the hallmarks of the classical shell-type SNRs, while also appearing to have a filled-centre component located inside the shell. Among the known Crab-like remnants, about one third show this dual nature. This diagnosis of G18.94-1.06 is supported mainly by the variations in spectral index across the source, as seen between the two observation frequencies, 408 MHz and 5.0 GHz

  5. Cutis laxa and fatal pulmonary hypertension: a newly recognized syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti-Pierri, N; Piccolo, P; Morava, Eva; Wevers, RA; McGuirk, M; Johnson, YR; Urban, Z; Dishop, MK; Potocki, L

    2011-01-01

    Cutis laxa is a connective tissue disorder with distinctive lax, redundant, and inelastic skin. It is a genetically heterogenous disorder with autosomal dominant and recessive patterns of inheritance. We report a patient with cutis laxa supported by clinical, microscopic, and ultrastructural findings. Molecular analysis of fibulin-4 and -5, of the α2 subunit of the V-type H+ ATPase, and of the component of the oligomeric Golgi complex 7 (COG7) genes excluded the type I and type II autosomal r...

  6. Topographic antigenic determinants recognized by monoclonal antibodies on human choriogonadotropin beta-subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidart, J.M.; Troalen, F.; Salesse, R.; Bousfield, G.R.; Bohuon, C.J.; Bellet, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a first attempt to study the antibody-combining sites recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against the beta-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (hCG). Two groups of antibodies were first defined by their ability to recognize only the free beta-subunit or the free and combined subunit. Antibodies FBT-11 and FBT-11-L bind only to hCG beta-subunit but not to hCG, whereas antibodies FBT-10 and D1E8 bind to both the beta-subunit and the hormone. In both cases, the antigenic determinants were localized to the core of the protein (residues 1-112), indicating the weak immunogenicity of the specific carboxyl-terminal extension of hCG-beta. Nine synthetic peptides spanning different regions of hCG-beta and lutropin-beta were assessed for their capacity to inhibit antibody binding. A synthetic peptide inclusive of the NH2-terminal region (residues 1-7) of the hCG beta-subunit was found to inhibit binding to the radiolabeled subunit of a monoclonal antibody specific for free hCG-beta (FBT-11). Further delineation of the antigenic site recognized by this antibody provided evidence for the involvement of fragment 82-92. Moreover, monoclonal antibody FBT-11 inhibited the recombination of hCG-beta to hCG-alpha, indicating that its antigenic determinant might be located nearby or in the hCG-beta portion interacting with the alpha-subunit. Binding of monoclonal antibody FBT-10, corresponding to the second antigenic determinant, was weakly inhibited by fragment 82-105 and did not impair the recombination of the hCG beta-subunit to the hCG alpha-subunit. Its combining site appeared to be located in a region of the intact native choriogonadotropin present at the surface of the hormone-receptor complex

  7. Recognizing nitrogen dopant atoms in graphene using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Smith, Daniel; Calogero, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Doping graphene by heteroatoms such as nitrogen presents an attractive route to control the position of the Fermi level in the material. We prepared N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111) surfaces via chemical vapor deposition of two different molecules. Using scanning tunneling microscopy image...

  8. Surface/subsurface observation and removal mechanisms of ground reaction bonded silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Zhang, Yu-Min; Han, Jie-cai; Zhang, Yun-long; Zhang, Jian-han; Zhou, Yu-feng; Han, Yuan-yuan

    2006-01-01

    Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide (RBSiC) has long been recognized as a promising material for optical applications because of its unique combination of favorable properties and low-cost fabrication. Grinding of silicon carbide is difficult because of its high hardness and brittleness. Grinding often induces surface and subsurface damage, residual stress and other types of damage, which have great influence on the ceramic components for optical application. In this paper, surface integrity, subsurface damage and material removal mechanisms of RBSiC ground using diamond grinding wheel on creep-feed surface grinding machine are investigated. The surface and subsurface are studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. The effects of grinding conditions on surface and subsurface damage are discussed. This research links the surface roughness, surface and subsurface cracks to grinding parameters and provides valuable insights into the material removal mechanism and the dependence of grind induced damage on grinding conditions.

  9. Pediatric rheumatology: An under-recognized subspecialty in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Kavirayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatrics in India at the levels of both undergraduate and postgraduate training is often viewed upon as an acute disease specialty with little emphasis on chronic medical musculoskeletal diseases. Pediatric rheumatology is an under-recognized subspecialty of pediatrics which deals specifically with childhood arthritis, noninflammatory joint pains, connective tissue diseases, autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, and other rare inflammatory disorders. This article aims to give a bird's eye view of the repertoire of commonly encountered problems seen by a pediatric rheumatologist, via a classical case vignette for each topic followed by discussion. There is also mention of some rare diseases managed within pediatric rheumatology to give a flavor of the spectrum of diseases encountered. This is to raise awareness of the importance of pediatric rheumatology as a subspecialty within India and to prompt readers to seek specialist advice when encountering challenging cases. Pediatric rheumatologists network and work collaboratively with many other specialties such as ophthalmology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedics, nephrology, infectious diseases, immunology, and gastroenterology for combined care of diverse conditions. There is an unmet need in India to develop a training program for pediatric rheumatology so that shared care pathways with sensitized pediatricians and other specialists can be developed nationwide, to serve these children better to achieve optimal outcomes.

  10. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  11. Recognizing emotions from EEG subbands using wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candra, Henry; Yuwono, Mitchell; Handojoseno, Ardi; Chai, Rifai; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-01-01

    Objectively recognizing emotions is a particularly important task to ensure that patients with emotional symptoms are given the appropriate treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an emotion recognition system using Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to identify four emotions including happy, sad, angry, and relaxed. We approached this objective by firstly investigating the relevant EEG frequency band followed by deciding the appropriate feature extraction method. Two features were considered namely: 1. Wavelet Energy, and 2. Wavelet Entropy. EEG Channels reduction was then implemented to reduce the complexity of the features. The ground truth emotional states of each subject were inferred using Russel's circumplex model of emotion, that is, by mapping the subjectively reported degrees of valence (pleasure) and arousal to the appropriate emotions - for example, an emotion with high valence and high arousal is equivalent to a `happy' emotional state, while low valence and low arousal is equivalent to a `sad' emotional state. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was then used for mapping each feature vector into corresponding discrete emotions. The results presented in this study indicated thatWavelet features extracted from alpha, beta and gamma bands seem to provide the necessary information for describing the aforementioned emotions. Using the DEAP (Dataset for Emotion Analysis using electroencephalogram, Physiological and Video Signals), our proposed method achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 77.4% ± 14.1% and 69.1% ± 12.8%, respectively.

  12. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  13. A deep convolutional neural network for recognizing foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani Heravi, Elnaz; Habibi Aghdam, Hamed; Puig, Domenec

    2015-12-01

    Controlling the food intake is an efficient way that each person can undertake to tackle the obesity problem in countries worldwide. This is achievable by developing a smartphone application that is able to recognize foods and compute their calories. State-of-art methods are chiefly based on hand-crafted feature extraction methods such as HOG and Gabor. Recent advances in large-scale object recognition datasets such as ImageNet have revealed that deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) possess more representation power than the hand-crafted features. The main challenge with CNNs is to find the appropriate architecture for each problem. In this paper, we propose a deep CNN which consists of 769; 988 parameters. Our experiments show that the proposed CNN outperforms the state-of-art methods and improves the best result of traditional methods 17%. Moreover, using an ensemble of two CNNs that have been trained two different times, we are able to improve the classification performance 21:5%.

  14. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    Full Text Available Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  15. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  16. Structural basis of Zika virus helicase in recognizing its substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn2+ and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn2+. The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication.

  17. Antibody against Microbial Neuraminidases Recognizes Human Sialidase 3 (NEU3: the Neuraminidase/Sialidase Superfamily Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiguang Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuraminidases (NAs are critical virulence factors for several microbial pathogens. With a highly conserved catalytic domain, a microbial NA “superfamily” has been proposed. We previously reported that murine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN sialidase activity was important in leukocyte trafficking to inflamed sites and that antibodies to Clostridium perfringens NA recognized a cell surface molecule(s, presumed to be a sialidase of eukaryotic origin on interleukin-8-stimulated human and murine PMNs. These antibodies also inhibited cell sialidase activity both in vitro and, in the latter instance, in vivo. We therefore hypothesized that mammalian sialidases share structural homology and epitopes with microbial NAs. We now report that antibodies to one of the isoforms of C. perfringens NA, as well as anti-influenza virus NA serum, recognize human NEU3 but not NEU1 and that antibodies to C. perfringens NA inhibit NEU3 enzymatic activity. We conclude that the previously described microbial NA superfamily extends to human sialidases. Strategies designed to therapeutically inhibit microbial NA may need to consider potential compromising effects on human sialidases, particularly those expressed in cells of the immune system.

  18. Evolution of Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domain to Recognize Sulfotyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Tong; Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao

    2016-09-16

    Protein tyrosine O-sulfation is considered as the most common type of post-translational tyrosine modification in nature and plays important roles in extracellular biomolecular interactions. To facilitate the mapping, biological study, and medicinal application of this type of post-translational modification, we seek to evolve a small protein scaffold that recognizes sulfotyrosine with high affinity. We focused our efforts on the engineering of the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain, which represents the largest class of known phosphotyrosine-recognition domain in nature and has a highly evolvable binding pocket. By using phage display, we successfully engineered the SH2 domain to recognize sulfotyrosine with high affinity. The best mutant, SH2-60.1, displayed more than 1700 fold higher sulfotyrosine-binding affinity than that of the wild-type SH2 domain. We also demonstrated that the evolved SH2 domain mutants could be used to detect sulfoprotein levels on the cell surface. These evolved SH2 domain mutants can be potentially applied to the study of protein tyrosine O-sulfation with proper experimental designs.

  19. Esophageal lichen planus: A rare and under-recognized disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nadeem Parvez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus (LP is a chronic idiopathic disorder involving the skin and mucosal surfaces. Although oral mucosal involvement is common, esophageal LP (ELP is uncommon and also under-reported. Here, we present a case of ELP who was symptomatic with dysphagia for a year, but was untreated. Increasing awareness of this condition can help identify more cases and increase our understanding of this uncommon but interesting condition.

  20. Celiac crisis: a rare or rarely recognized disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, N.; Cheema, H.A.; Suleman, H.; Fayyaz, Z.; Mushtaq, I.

    2017-01-01

    Celiac crisis is a serious life threatening complication of celiac disease characterized by profuse diarrhoea, severe dehydration and metabolic disturbances leading to neuromuscular weakness, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. It has been described as rare condition and not well documented in the literature. To improve awareness and facilitate diagnosis of this condition, we studied risk factors, pattern of presentation and management plans of celiac crisis. Methods: It was a descriptive cross sectional study. Patients presenting in emergency room(ER) with profuse diarrhoea leading to severe dehydration, neuromuscular weakness, and metabolic acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities enrolled in the studies after positive serology and small bowel biopsy suggestive of celiac disease. Results: Total 126 patients out of 350 fulfilled the criteria including 54 (42.8 percent) male and 71 (56.3 percent) female. The mean age at presentation was 5.25+-1.18 years. Risk factors were poor social status (97.60 percent), consanguinity (96.77 percent), early weaning with gluten contained diet (93.54 percent), and Presenting complaints were loose motion (100 percent), loss of neck holding (96.77 percent), dehydration (96.77 percent), polyuria (95.96 percent), inability to walk (67.74 percent), abdominal distension (85.86 percent). Electrolytes imbalances were hypokalaemia (2.4+-0.55), hypocalcaemia (7.29+-0.66), hypomagnesaemia (1.89+-0.50), hypophosphatemia (2.8+-0.68), hypoalbuminemia (3.05+-0.48) and metabolic acidosis (96 percent). One hundred and twenty patients were stabilized with GFD and correction of dehydration, acidosis and electrolyte imbalance. Six patients needed parenteral steroids ant total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Recovery time from crisis was mean 5.4+-2.73 days (range 3-20 days). Conclusion: Celiac crisis is a common but under recognized problem in developing countries. Commonest presenting feature is neuromuscular paralysis and biochemical abnormality is

  1. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  2. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, Catherine A; Copeland, Benjamin T; Morath, Volker; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, Arne; Pomper, Martin G; Barinka, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was used to compare the suitability of the mAbs for in vivo applications. All mAbs demonstrate high specificity for PSMA as documented by the lack of cross-reactivity to unrelated human proteins. The 3F11 and 1A11 mAbs bind linear epitopes spanning residues 226-243 and 271-288 of human PSMA, respectively. 3F11 is also suitable for the detection of PSMA orthologs from mouse, pig, dog, and rat in experimental setups where the denatured form of PSMA is used. 5D3 and 5B1 mAbs recognize distinct surface-exposed conformational epitopes and are useful for targeting PSMA in its native conformation. Most importantly, using a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer we show that both the intact 5D3 and its Fab fragment are suitable for in vivo imaging. With apparent affinities of 0.14 and 1.2 nM as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, 5D3 has approximately 10-fold higher affinity for PSMA than the clinically validated mAb J591 and, therefore, is a prime candidate for the development of next-generation theranostics to target PSMA. Prostate 77:749-764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Atrey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the help of a normative framework of ‘intersectional integrity’. The framework insists on considering claimants as a whole by tracing unique and shared patterns of gender violence when it is also based on other identities such as race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, and sexual orientation. I argue that applying the framework allows us to diagnose and address the nature of violence suffered on multiple identities, in a clear and comprehensive way. Este artículo cuestiona el sentido de levantar a todas las mujeres a medida que se asciende la escalera de la igualdad de género y la justicia, reconociendo que la violencia de género afecta a las mujeres de manera diferente. Esto se debe a que la violencia contra las mujeres se comete no sólo sobre la base de su género o sexo, sino también por su raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual, etc. Se pretende explicar esta afirmación con la ayuda de un marco normativo de “integridad interseccional”, a través de referencias a la jurisprudencia del CEDAW y ejemplos de la India. El marco insiste en considerar a las demandantes en su conjunto, trazando patrones únicos y compartidos de violencia de género cuando se basa también en otras identidades como raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual. Se sostiene que la aplicación del marco permite diagnosticar y abordar la naturaleza de la violencia

  4. Cutis laxa and fatal pulmonary hypertension: a newly recognized syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Piccolo, Pasquale; Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A.; McGuirk, Megan; Johnson, Yvette R.; Urban, Zsolt; Dishop, Megan K.; Potocki, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Cutis laxa is a connective tissue disorder with distinctive lax, redundant, and inelastic skin. It is a genetically heterogenous disorder with autosomal dominant and recessive patterns of inheritance. We report a patient with cutis laxa supported by clinical, microscopic, and ultrastructural findings. Molecular analysis of fibulin-4 and -5, of the α2 subunit of the V-type H+ ATPase, and of the component of the oligomeric Golgi complex 7 (COG7) genes excluded the type I and type II autosomal recessive forms of cutis laxa, and congenital disorders of glycosylation associated with cutis laxa. Remarkably, our patient also presented severe and lethal pulmonary hypertension as a newborn. This case with cutis laxa, severe pulmonary hypertension, and no detectable mutations in fibulin-4 and -5 genes may represent a previously unrecognized syndrome. PMID:21285876

  5. Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm associated components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Kari A.

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative aerobic coccobaccillus that is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Infected individuals may develop pneumonia, urinary tract, wound, and other infections that are associated with the use of indwelling medical devices such as catheters and mechanical ventilation. Treatment is difficult because many A. baumannii isolates have developed multi-drug resistance and the bacterium can persist on abiotic surfaces. Persistence and resistance may be due to formation of biofilms, which leads to long-term colonization, evasion of the host immune system and resistance to treatment with antibiotics and disinfectants. While biofilms are complex multifaceted structures, two bacterial components that have been shown to be important in formation and stability are exopolysaccharides (EPS) and the biofilm-associated protein (Bap). An EPS, poly-beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine, PNAG, has been described for E. coli and S. epidermidis. PNAG acts as an intercellular adhesin. Production of this adhesin is dependent on the pga/icaABCD locus. We have identified a homologous locus in A. baumannii 307-0294 that is involved in production of an exopolysaccharide, recognized by an anti-PNAG antibody. We hypothesized that the A. baumannii pgaABCD locus plays a role in biofilm formation, and protection against host innate defenses and disinfectants suggesting that PNAG is a possible virulence factor for the organism. The first aim of this thesis will define the pgaABCD locus. We have previously identified Bap, a protein with similarity to those described for S. aureus and we have demonstrated that this protein is involved in maintaining the stability of biofilms on glass. We hypothesized that A. baumannii Bap plays a role in persistence and pathogenesis and is regulated by quorum sensing. In our second aim we will examine the role of Bap in attachment and biofilm formation on medically relevant surfaces and also determine if Bap is involved in

  6. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  7. 75 FR 9953 - Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...] Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... its Regulation on the Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (29...

  8. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States AGENCY: National Marine... international conservation and management measures recognized by the United States. To fulfill this requirement, a list of agreements resulting in international conservation and management measures was first...

  9. 78 FR 7460 - Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...] Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meeting. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to attend an informal stakeholder meeting concerning Nationally Recognized Testing...

  10. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis; Pneumokoniosen erkennen und klassifizieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K. [Klinikum Westfalen, Knappschaftskrankenhaus, Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2012 waren 6 der 10 am haeufigsten anerkannten Berufskrankheiten Pneumokoniosen. Gesundheitspolitisch und oekonomisch stehen dabei die Silikose und asbestassoziierte Erkrankungen im Vordergrund. Insbesondere Letztere treten ubiquitaer auf und sind nicht an grosse Industriestandorte gebunden

  11. Chimeric FimH adhesin of type 1 fimbriae: a bacterial surface display system for heterologous sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, L; Poulsen, LK; Christiansen, Gunna

    1995-01-01

    of heterologous DNA segments encoding two reporter sequences. In the selected positions such insertions did not significantly alter the function of the FimH protein with regard to surface location and adhesive ability. The system seemed to be quite flexible, since chimeric versions of the FimH adhesin containing...... as many as 56 foreign amino acids were transported to the bacterial surface as components of the fimbrial organelles. Furthermore, the foreign protein segments were recognized by insert-specific antibodies when expressed within chimeric proteins on the surface of the bacteria. The results from...

  12. How biological soil crusts became recognized as a functional unit: a selective history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    It is surprising that despite the world-wide distribution and general importance of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), scientific recognition and functional analysis of these communities is a relatively young field of science. In this chapter, we sketch the historical lines that led to the recognition of biocrusts as a community with important ecosystem functions. The idea of biocrusts as a functional ecological community has come from two main scientific branches: botany and soil science. For centuries, botanists have long recognized that multiple organisms colonize the soil surface in the open and often dry areas occurring between vascular plants. Much later, after the initial taxonomic and phyto-sociological descriptions were made, soil scientists and agronomists observed that these surface organisms interacted with soils in ways that changed the soil structure. In the 1970’s, research on these communities as ecological units that played an important functional role in drylands began in earnest, and these studies have continued to this day. Here, we trace the history of these studies from the distant past until 1990, when biocrusts became well-known to scientists and the public.

  13. Radiation damage in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Tomehachi

    1977-01-01

    The performance change of typical capacitors and resistors in electronic components by Co-60 γ-irradiation from the 1320 Ci source was examined in the range of 10 5 to 10 8 R. Specifically, the characteristic change during irradiation and the recovery after irradiation were continuously observed. The capacity change is +2.4% at maximum in ceramic and metallized paper capacitors, and -2.4% at maximum in mylar and paper capacitors. It is also +-0.4% at maximum in mica and polystyrene capacitors. Some of these capacitors showed the recovery of the capacity change, but the others did not. Dielectric loss varied by 15% at larger dose in some capacitors, and the recovery was not observed. While, the insulation resistance of the resistors of 10 15 Ω or more lowered to 10 13 Ω or less after 10 to 30 sec. irradiation, but recovered soon nearly to the initial values after irradiation was interrupted. The resistance change of carbon film resistors is about 0.2 to 2%, and recovered to the initial values in 100 hours after irradiation. The resistance change of composition resistors is large over the range of -13 to +35%, besides, no sign of recovery was seen. In carbon film resistors, the surface insulated type indicated far better results which are assumed to be caused by the selection of element materials and the forming of coating materials. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  15. Th1-like human T-cell clones recognizing Leishmania gp63 inhibit Leishmania major in human macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Hey, A S; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    The major surface protease of Leishmania major, gp63, has been suggested as a vaccine candidate for cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study gp63 was purified from L. major promastigotes. A panel of human T-cell clones recognizing this protein were generated from individuals who had previously had...... resembling Th1 cells. Autologous mononuclear cells and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell lines were equally efficient in presenting the antigen to the T cells. The gp63 reactive T cells induced resistance to infection in cultured human macrophages by L. major. The data confirm that human CD4+ T cells...... recognizing gp63 can take part in the host defence against L. major infections....

  16. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, Avery T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  17. Detecting surface events at the COBRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebruegge, Jan [Exp. Physik IV, TU Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: COBRA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the COBRA experiment is to prove the existence of neutrinoless double-beta-decay and to measure its half-life. For this purpose the COBRA demonstrator, a prototype for a large-scale experiment, is operated at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. The demonstrator is a detector array made of 64 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe) semiconductor detectors in the coplanar grid anode configuration. Each detector is 1**1 ccm in size. This setup is used to investigate the experimental issues of operating CdZnTe detectors in low background mode and identify potential background components. As the ''detector=source'' principle is used, the neutrinoless double beta decay COBRA searches for happens within the whole detector volume. Consequently, events on the surface of the detectors are considered as background. These surface events are a main background component, stemming mainly from the natural radioactivity, especially radon. This talk explains to what extent surface events occur and shows how these are recognized and vetoed in the analysis using pulse shape discrimination algorithms.

  18. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  19. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  20. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  1. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  2. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  3. Using supramolecular binding motifs to provide precise control over the ratio and distribution of species in multiple component films grafted on surfaces: demonstration using electrochemical assembly from aryl diazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Alicia L; Yau, Hon Man; Thomas, Donald S; Chockalingam, Muthukumar; Harper, Jason B; Gooding, J Justin

    2013-04-16

    Supramolecular interactions between two surface modification species are explored to control the ratio and distribution of these species on the resultant surface. A binary mixture of aryl diazonium salts bearing oppositely charged para-substituents (either -SO3(-) or -N(+)(Me)3), which also reduce at different potentials, has been examined on glassy carbon surfaces using cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Striking features were observed: (1) the two aryl diazonium salts in the mixed solution undergo reductive adsorption at the same potential which is distinctively less negative than the potential required for the reduction of either of the two aryl diazonium salts alone; (2) the surface ratio of the two phenyl derivatives is consistently 1:1 regardless of the ratio of the two aryl diazonium salts in the modification solutions. Homogeneous distribution of the two oppositely charged phenyl species on the modified surface has also been suggested by XPS survey spectra. Diffusion coefficient measurements by DOSY NMR and DFT based computation have indicated the association of the two aryl diazonium species in the solution, which has led to changes in the molecular orbital energies of the two species. This study highlights the potential of using intermolecular interactions to control the assembly of multicomponent thin layers.

  4. Study of recognizing multiple persons' complicated hand gestures from the video sequence acquired by a moving camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Luo; Ohya, Jun

    2010-02-01

    Recognizing hand gestures from the video sequence acquired by a dynamic camera could be a useful interface between humans and mobile robots. We develop a state based approach to extract and recognize hand gestures from moving camera images. We improved Human-Following Local Coordinate (HFLC) System, a very simple and stable method for extracting hand motion trajectories, which is obtained from the located human face, body part and hand blob changing factor. Condensation algorithm and PCA-based algorithm was performed to recognize extracted hand trajectories. In last research, this Condensation Algorithm based method only applied for one person's hand gestures. In this paper, we propose a principal component analysis (PCA) based approach to improve the recognition accuracy. For further improvement, temporal changes in the observed hand area changing factor are utilized as new image features to be stored in the database after being analyzed by PCA. Every hand gesture trajectory in the database is classified into either one hand gesture categories, two hand gesture categories, or temporal changes in hand blob changes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by conducting experiments on 45 kinds of sign language based Japanese and American Sign Language gestures obtained from 5 people. Our experimental recognition results show better performance is obtained by PCA based approach than the Condensation algorithm based method.

  5. Can We Recognize an Innovation? Perspective from an Evolving Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjay; Krishna, Sandeep

    "Innovations" are central to the evolution of societies and the evolution of life. But what constitutes an innovation? We can often agree after the event, when its consequences and impact over a long term are known, whether something was an innovation, and whether it was a "big" innovation or a "minor" one. But can we recognize an innovation "on the fly" as it appears? Successful entrepreneurs often can. Is it possible to formalize that intuition? We discuss this question in the setting of a mathematical model of evolving networks. The model exhibits self-organization , growth, stasis, and collapse of a complex system with many interacting components, reminiscent of real-world phenomena. A notion of "innovation" is formulated in terms of graph-theoretic constructs and other dynamical variables of the model. A new node in the graph gives rise to an innovation, provided it links up "appropriately" with existing nodes; in this view innovation necessarily depends upon the existing context. We show that innovations, as defined by us, play a major role in the birth, growth, and destruction of organizational structures. Furthermore, innovations can be categorized in terms of their graph-theoretic structure as they appear. Different structural classes of innovation have potentially different qualitative consequences for the future evolution of the system, some minor and some major. Possible general lessons from this specific model are briefly discussed.

  6. The natural antibody repertoire of sharks and humans recognizes the potential universe of antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Miranda K; Schluter, Samuel F; Marchalonis, John J

    2004-02-01

    In ancestral sharks, a rapid emergence in the evolution of the immune system occurred, giving jawed-vertebrates the necessary components for the combinatorial immune response (CIR). To compare the natural antibody (NAb) repertoires of the most divergent vertebrates with the capacity to produce antibodies, we isolated NAbs to the same set of antigens by affinity chromatography from two species of Carcharhine sharks and from human polyclonal IgG and IgM antibody preparations. The activities of the affinity-purified anti-T-cell receptor (anti-TCR) NAbs were compared with those of monoclonal anti-TCR NAbs that were generated from a systemic lupus erythematosus patient. We report that sharks and humans, representing the evolutionary extremes of vertebrate species sharing the CIR, have NAbs to human TCRs, Igs, the human senescent cell antigen, and to numerous retroviral antigens, indicating that essential features of the combinatorial repertoire and the capacity to recognize the potential universe of antigens is shared among all jawed-vertebrates.

  7. Identification of B cell recognized linear epitopes in a snake venom serine proteinase from the central American bushmaster Lachesis stenophrys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, M; Alape-Girón, A; Barboza-Arguedas, E; Aguilar-Ulloa, W; Flores-Díaz, M

    2017-12-15

    Snake venom serine proteinases are toxins that perturb hemostasis acting on proteins from the blood coagulation cascade, the fibrinolytic or the kallikrein-kinin system. Despite the relevance of these enzymes in envenomations by viper bites, the characterization of the antibody response to these toxins at the molecular level has not been previously addressed. In this work surface-located B cell recognized linear epitopes from a Lachesis stenophrys venom serine proteinase (UniProt accession number Q072L7) were predicted using an artificial neuronal network at the ABCpred server, the corresponding peptides were synthesized and their immunoreactivity was analyzed against a panel of experimental and therapeutic antivenoms. A molecular model of the L. stenophrys enzyme was built using as a template the structure of the D. acutus Dav-PA serine proteinase (Q9I8X1), which displays the highest degree of sequence similarity to the L. stenophrys enzyme among proteins of known 3D structure, and the surface-located epitopes were identified in the protein model using iCn3D. A total of 13 peptides corresponding to the surface exposed predicted epitopes from L. stenophrys serine proteinase were synthesized and, their reactivity with a rabbit antiserum against the recombinant enzyme and a panel of antivenoms was evaluated by a capture ELISA. Some of the epitopes recognized by monospecific and polyspecific antivenoms comprise sequences overlapping motifs conserved in viper venom serine proteinases. The identification and characterization of relevant epitopes recognized by B cells in snake venom toxins may provide valuable information for the preparation of immunogens that help in the production of improved therapeutic antivenoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Questioning the "big assumptions". Part II: recognizing organizational contradictions that impede institutional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Constance M; Lahey, Lisa; Kegan, Robert; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    Well-designed medical curriculum reforms can fall short of their primary objectives during implementation when unanticipated or unaddressed organizational resistance surfaces. This typically occurs if the agents for change ignore faculty concerns during the planning stage or when the provision of essential institutional safeguards to support new behaviors are neglected. Disappointing outcomes in curriculum reforms then result in the perpetuation of or reversion to the status quo despite the loftiest of goals. Institutional resistance to change, much like that observed during personal development, does not necessarily indicate a communal lack of commitment to the organization's newly stated goals. It may reflect the existence of competing organizational objectives that must be addressed before substantive advances in a new direction can be accomplished. The authors describe how the Big Assumptions process (see previous article) was adapted and applied at the institutional level during a school of medicine's curriculum reform. Reform leaders encouraged faculty participants to articulate their reservations about considered changes to provided insights into the organization's competing commitments. The line of discussion provided an opportunity for faculty to appreciate the gridlock that existed until appropriate test of the school's long held Big Assumptions could be conducted. The Big Assumptions process proved useful in moving faculty groups to recognize and questions the validity of unchallenged institutional beliefs that were likely to undermine efforts toward change. The process also allowed the organization to put essential institutional safeguards in place that ultimately insured that substantive reforms could be sustained.

  9. Chemical stabilization of graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistrika, Alexander A.; Lerner, Michael M.

    2018-04-03

    Embodiments of a device, or a component of a device, including a stabilized graphite surface, methods of stabilizing graphite surfaces, and uses for the devices or components are disclosed. The device or component includes a surface comprising graphite, and a plurality of haloaryl ions and/or haloalkyl ions bound to at least a portion of the graphite. The ions may be perhaloaryl ions and/or perhaloalkyl ions. In certain embodiments, the ions are perfluorobenzenesulfonate anions. Embodiments of the device or component including stabilized graphite surfaces may maintain a steady-state oxidation or reduction surface current density after being exposed to continuous oxidation conditions for a period of at least 1-100 hours. The device or component is prepared by exposing a graphite-containing surface to an acidic aqueous solution of the ions under oxidizing conditions. The device or component can be exposed in situ to the solution.

  10. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  11. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  12. Control component retainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described for retaining an undriven control component assembly disposed in a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor of the type having a core grid plate. The first part of the mechanism involves a housing for the control component and the second part is a brace with a number of arms that reach under the grid plate. The brace and the housing are coupled together to firmly hold the control components in place even under strong flows of th coolant

  13. Component design for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillnow, R.H.; France, L.L.; Zerinvary, M.C.; Fox, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Just as FFTF has prototype components to confirm their design, FFTF is serving as a prototype for the design of the commercial LMFBR's. Design and manufacture of critical components for the FFTF system have been accomplished primarily using vendors with little or no previous experience in supplying components for high temperature sodium systems. The exposure of these suppliers, and through them a multitude of subcontractors, to the requirements of this program has been a necessary and significant step in preparing American industry for the task of supplying the large mechanical components required for commercial LMFBR's

  14. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  15. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  16. Advanced Surface Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Nielsen, Lars Pleht

    of the components. It covers everything from biocompatible surfaces of IR absorbent or reflective surfaces to surfaces with specific properties within low friction, hardness, corrosion, colors, etc. The book includes more than 400 pages detailing virtually all analysis methods for examining at surfaces.......This new significant book on advanced modern surface technology in all its variations, is aimed at both teaching at engineering schools and practical application in industry. The work covers all the significant aspects of modern surface technology and also describes how new advanced techniques make...

  17. Recognizing Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Iben Mundbjerg; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2018-01-01

    narratives; yet during memory testing, patients are not allowed any substitution to clearly expose cognitive shortcomings. In combining works of theorists Ian Hacking and Paul Ricoeur, we argue that the clinical identification of dementia unmakes the knowing subject, a deconstruction that threatens...

  18. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  19. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Signs and Symptoms Overview ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  20. Recognizing Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age-related cataract. They recommend eating plenty of green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and other healthy foods. Also, don’t smoke, because smoking may speed cataract development. To screen for early signs of eye disease, Bishop recommends ...

  1. Recognizing Hypothermia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Hypothermia is a serious medical condition that strikes during very cold weather or when people are chilled from rain, sweat, or cold water.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 12/13/2007.

  2. 17 CFR 240.17g-3 - Annual financial reports to be furnished by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial statements of the nationally recognized statistical rating organization or audited consolidated financial statements of its parent if the nationally recognized statistical rating organization is a...) of this section are consolidated financial statements of the parent of the nationally recognized...

  3. Lubrication of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.; Mack, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Safe operation of liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors requires a knowledge of the tribological behaviour of contacting components at high temperatures with slow relative movement at high frictional loads in a chemically aggressive environment. Experiments have been performed on various material combinations in liquid sodium and argon. Because of the small sliding movements, hydrodynamic lubrication is not expected and thus surface finish is an important factor. Tests have been performed on brushed, ground and lapped surfaces. Among the material combinations tested a CrC-coating on a 1.4961 stainless steel substrate performed well. Friction coefficients of 0.35-0.5 in argon and 0.1-1.2 in liquid sodium were recorded. (author)

  4. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  5. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  6. Generation of components for software renovation factories from context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den M.G.J.; Sellink, M.P.A.; Verhoef, C.

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach for the generation of components for a software renovation factory. These components are generated from a contex-free grammar definition that recognizes the code that has to be renovated. We generate analysis and transformation components that can be instantiated with a

  7. Efficient point cloud data processing in shipbuilding: Reformative component extraction method and registration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the current shipbuilding industry, it is of vital importance for shipyards to have the ship components’ accuracy evaluated efficiently during most of the manufacturing steps. Evaluating components’ accuracy by comparing each component’s point cloud data scanned by laser scanners and the ship’s design data formatted in CAD cannot be processed efficiently when (1 extract components from point cloud data include irregular obstacles endogenously, or when (2 registration of the two data sets have no clear direction setting. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point. Region growing method performed on the neighbor points of the seed point extracts the continuous part of the component, while curved surface fitting and B-spline curved line fitting at the edge of the continuous part recognize the neighbor domains of the same component divided by obstacles’ shadows. The ICP (Iterative Closest Point algorithm conducts a registration of the two sets of data after the proper registration’s direction is decided by principal component analysis. By experiments conducted at the shipyard, 200 curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation. Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice.

  8. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Wearable Sensors in a Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    The advances of wearable sensors and wireless networks oer many opportunities to recognize human activities from sensor readings in pervasive computing. Existing work so far focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user in a home environment. However, there are typically multiple inha...

  9. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, FMRP, Recognizes G-Quartets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…

  10. Can Independent Judges Recognize Different Psychotherapies? An Experience with Manual-Guided Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luborsky, Lester; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested whether independent judges could recognize three different manual-guided psychotherapies, drug counseling, supportive-expressive psychotherapy, and cognitive-behavioral using a special rating form containing scales for the characteristic aspects of each type. Results indicated that manual-guided therapies can be reliably recognized.…

  11. A Safe Education for All: Recognizing and Stemming Harassment in Music Classes and Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bruce Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the pervasiveness of harassment in schools in the United States and presents ways to recognize and stem bullying in music classrooms. Music educators are in a unique position to recognize atypical behaviors in their students. Music educators who teach middle and high school ensembles often retain the same students in their…

  12. Molecular Components of Catalytic Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-07-02

    Selectivity, that is, to produce one molecule out of many other thermodynamically feasible product molecules, is the key concept to develop 'clean manufacturing' processes that do not produce byproducts (green chemistry). Small differences in potential energy barriers for elementary reaction steps control which reaction channel is more likely to yield the desired product molecule (selectivity), instead of the overall activation energy for the reaction that controls turnover rates (activity). Recent studies have demonstrated the atomic- or molecular-level tailoring of parameters such as the surface structures of active sites that give rise to nanoparticle size and shape dependence of turnover rates and reaction selectivities. Here, we highlight seven molecular components that influence reaction selectivities. These include: surface structure, adsorbate-induced restructuring, adsorbate mobility, reaction intermediates, surface composition, charge transport, and oxidation states for model metal single crystal and colloid nanoparticle catalysts. We show examples of their functioning and describe in-situ instruments that permit us to investigate their roles in surface reactions.

  13. Evaluation of speech recognizers for use in advanced combat helicopter crew station research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army Crew Station Research and Development Facility uses vintage 1984 speech recognizers. An evaluation was performed of newer off-the-shelf speech recognition devices to determine whether newer technology performance and capabilities are substantially better than that of the Army's current speech recognizers. The Phonetic Discrimination (PD-100) Test was used to compare recognizer performance in two ambient noise conditions: quiet office and helicopter noise. Test tokens were spoken by males and females and in isolated-word and connected-work mode. Better overall recognition accuracy was obtained from the newer recognizers. Recognizer capabilities needed to support the development of human factors design requirements for speech command systems in advanced combat helicopters are listed.

  14. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... activity models, and propose an Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single-user and multiuser activities. We conduct our empirical studies by collecting real-world activity traces done by two volunteers over a period of two weeks in a smart home environment...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...

  15. Robust speech perception: Recognize the familiar, generalize to the similar, and adapt to the novel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Dave F.; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2016-01-01

    Successful speech perception requires that listeners map the acoustic signal to linguistic categories. These mappings are not only probabilistic, but change depending on the situation. For example, one talker’s /p/ might be physically indistinguishable from another talker’s /b/ (cf. lack of invariance). We characterize the computational problem posed by such a subjectively non-stationary world and propose that the speech perception system overcomes this challenge by (1) recognizing previously encountered situations, (2) generalizing to other situations based on previous similar experience, and (3) adapting to novel situations. We formalize this proposal in the ideal adapter framework: (1) to (3) can be understood as inference under uncertainty about the appropriate generative model for the current talker, thereby facilitating robust speech perception despite the lack of invariance. We focus on two critical aspects of the ideal adapter. First, in situations that clearly deviate from previous experience, listeners need to adapt. We develop a distributional (belief-updating) learning model of incremental adaptation. The model provides a good fit against known and novel phonetic adaptation data, including perceptual recalibration and selective adaptation. Second, robust speech recognition requires listeners learn to represent the structured component of cross-situation variability in the speech signal. We discuss how these two aspects of the ideal adapter provide a unifying explanation for adaptation, talker-specificity, and generalization across talkers and groups of talkers (e.g., accents and dialects). The ideal adapter provides a guiding framework for future investigations into speech perception and adaptation, and more broadly language comprehension. PMID:25844873

  16. A conjoint analysis to consumer choice in Brazil: Defining device attributes for recognizing customized foods characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, L P; Barbosa, J; Marodin, G A; Fettermann, D C

    2018-07-01

    the availability of information about food products may be an essential factor in the consumer's value perception in their purchasing decision. As the food product becomes personalized, the customization of this information becomes complex due to the possible combinations of product components. The use of smart technology in devices is one way to provide customers with customized food information. In the following research five attributes were identified in the composition of these devices: (A) portability; (B) precision; (C) diet customization; (D) food quality analysis; and (E) price. This study aims to identify the appropriate combination of possible functionalities or attributes that must be present in a device in order to detect the food composition of customized foods and their relation to market characteristics. One experiment used fractional factorial project to present the attributes in the form of scenarios following the Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis (CBCA) method. The data collection was done using survey methodology, through online questionnaire, with some 303 Brazilian respondents. So, the Logistic Regression was applied to data analysis. The moderating variables-gender, age, gluten restriction, lactose restriction and other restrictions-were also added to verify potential interactions with the primary attributes. From the results obtained, it was possible to observe higher significance for the primary attributes of diet personalization and quality food analyzes function. Our study contributes to the literature by enhancing the understanding about what the attributes should be in a technological device that has the purpose of recognizing food characteristics and is capable of generating information about customized food products. Furthermore, this device can enabler the production of mass customized food with the nutritional labels for each possible combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GCS component development cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  18. All-Fiber Components for Micro-Structured Fibers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose new concepts for developing components for high performance space based Lidar systems. While it is generally recognized that photonic crystal fiber...

  19. A group of facial normal descriptors for recognizing 3D identical twins

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, to characterize and distinguish identical twins, three popular texture descriptors: i.e. local binary patterns (LBPs), gabor filters (GFs) and local gabor binary patterns (LGBPs) are employed to encode the normal components (x, y and z) of the 3D facial surfaces of identical twins respectively. A group of facial normal descriptors are thus achieved, including Normal Local Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LBPs), Normal Gabor Filters descriptor (N-GFs) and Normal Local Gabor Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LGBPs). All these normal encoding based descriptors are further fed into sparse representation classifier (SRC) for identification. Experimental results on the 3D TEC database demonstrate that these proposed normal encoding based descriptors are very discriminative and efficient, achieving comparable performance to the best of state-of-the-art algorithms. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  1. Explosive Components Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  2. Gold nanoparticles-decorated electrospun poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) nanofibers with tunable size and coverage density for nanomolar detection of single and binary component dyes by surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Alfin; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2017-09-01

    The application of the electrospun nanomaterials to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a rapidly evolving field which holds potential for future developments in the generation of portable plasmonic-based detection platforms. In this study, a simple approach to fabricate electrospun poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) mats decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by combining electrospinning and calcination was presented. AuNPs were decorated on the fiber mat surface through electrostatic interactions between positively charged aminosilane groups and negatively charged AuNPs. The size and coverage density of AuNPs on the fiber mats could be tuned by varying the calcination temperature. Calcination of AuNPs-decorated PVP fibers at 500 °C-700 °C resulted in the uniform decoration of high density AuNPs with very narrow gaps on every single fiber, which in turn contribute to strong electromagnetic SERS enhancement. The robust free-standing AuNPs-decorated mat which calcined at 500 °C (500/AuNPs-F) exhibited high SERS activity toward cationic (methylene blue, MB) and anionic (methyl orange, MO) dyes in single and binary systems with a detection range from tens of nM to a few hundred μM. The fabricated SERS substrate demonstrated high reproducibility with the spot-to-spot variation in SERS signal intensities was ±10% and ±12% for single and binary dye systems, respectively. The determination of MB and MO in spiked river water and tap water with 500/AuNPs-F substrate gave satisfactory results in terms of the percent spike recoveries (ranging from 92.6%-96.6%) and reproducibility (%RSD values less than 15 for all samples).

  3. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  5. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  6. The beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 recognizes specific morphologies of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar macrophages represent a first-line innate host defense mechanism for clearing inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus from the lungs, yet contradictory data exist as to which alveolar macrophage recognition receptor is critical for innate immunity to A. fumigatus. Acknowledging that the A. fumigatus cell wall contains a high beta-1,3-glucan content, we questioned whether the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 played a role in this recognition process. Monoclonal antibody, soluble receptor, and competitive carbohydrate blockage indicated that the alveolar macrophage inflammatory response, specifically the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, CXCL2/macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, and granulocyte monocyte-CSF (GM-CSF, to live A. fumigatus was dependent on recognition via the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1. The inflammatory response was triggered at the highest level by A. fumigatus swollen conidia and early germlings and correlated to the levels of surface-exposed beta glucans, indicating that dectin-1 preferentially recognizes specific morphological forms of A. fumigatus. Intratracheal administration of A. fumigatus conidia to mice in the presence of a soluble dectin-Fc fusion protein reduced both lung proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels and cellular recruitment while modestly increasing the A. fumigatus fungal burden, illustrating the importance of beta-glucan-initiated dectin-1 signaling in defense against this pathogen. Collectively, these data show that dectin-1 is centrally required for the generation of alveolar macrophage proinflammatory responses to A. fumigatus and to our knowledge provides the first in vivo evidence for the role of dectin-1 in fungal innate defense.

  7. Comparative study of in vitro ocular surface cytotoxicity of a fixed combination of 0.5% timolol/1% dorzolamide eyedrop and its components with 0.005% benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the cytotoxicity of antiglaucoma ophthalmic solutions preserved with the same concentration of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in four cultured corneal and conjunctival cell lines. The viability of cell cultures was determined following the exposure of cells to timolol maleate, dorzolamide, and their fixed combination, Kosoputo(®) (MSD, a Japanese formulation of Cosopt(®) (Merck)), and two commercially available eyedrop solutions, 0.5% Timpotol(®) (containing 0.5% timolol maleate, MSD) and 1% Trusopt(®) (containing 1% dorzolamide, MSD) for varying exposure times and at various dilutions using the MTT and neutral red assays. All the three commercially available eyedrop solutions tested in this study were preserved with 0.005% BAK. The toxicity of each solution was compared using the % cell viability score (CVS) . Cell viability was also subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA, Dunnett's multiple comparison tests and a chi-square test. %CVS50/%CVS40/80s for the tested solutions were 53/-13 for 0.5% Timoptol(®), 100/88 for preservative-free 0.5% timolol maleate, 50/ -10 for 1% Trusopt(®), 72/100 for preservative-free 1% dorzolamide, and 44/-17 for Kosoputo(®). The results of statistical analysis were consistent to them. In conclusion, Kosoputo(®) had greater cytotoxicity than each component; however, in actual use it may have the advantages of reduced toxicity (side effect) due to reduced instillation frequency, and better patient adherence to the treatment regimen as well as a comparable pressure reduction effect.

  8. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  9. Hot gas path component having near wall cooling features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2017-11-28

    A method for providing micro-channels in a hot gas path component includes forming a first micro-channel in an exterior surface of a substrate of the hot gas path component. A second micro-channel is formed in the exterior surface of the hot gas path component such that it is separated from the first micro-channel by a surface gap having a first width. The method also includes disposing a braze sheet onto the exterior surface of the hot gas path component such that the braze sheet covers at least of portion of the first and second micro-channels, and heating the braze sheet to bond it to at least a portion of the exterior surface of the hot gas path component.

  10. Two-component, ab initio potential energy surface for CO2—H2O, extension to the hydrate clathrate, CO2@(H2O)20, and VSCF/VCI vibrational analyses of both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingfeng Kee; Bowman, Joel M.

    2017-10-01

    We report an ab initio, full-dimensional, potential energy surface (PES) for CO2—H2O, in which two-body interaction energies are fit using a basis of permutationally invariant polynomials and combined with accurate potentials for the non-interacting monomers. This approach which we have termed "plug and play" is extended here to improve the precision of the 2-body fit in the long range. This is done by combining two separate fits. One is a fit to 47 593 2-body energies in the region of strong interaction and approaching the long range, and the second one is a fit to 6244 2-body energies in the long range. The two fits have a region of overlap which permits a smooth switch from one to the other. All energies are obtained at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Properties of the full PES, i.e., stationary points, harmonic frequencies of the global minimum, etc., are shown to be in excellent agreement with direct CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ results. Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the dimer zero-point energy (ZPE) are performed, and a dissociation energy, D0, of 787 cm-1 is obtained using that ZPE, De, and the rigorous ZPEs of the monomers. Using a benchmark De, D0 is 758 cm-1. Vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF)/virtual state configuration interaction (VCI) MULTIMODE calculations of intramolecular fundamentals are reported and are in good agreement with available experimental results. Finally, the full dimer PES is combined with an existing ab initio water potential to develop a potential for the CO2 hydrate clathrate CO2(H2O)20(512 water cage). A full normal-mode analysis of this hydrate clathrate is reported as are local-monomer VSCF/VCI calculations of the fundamentals of CO2.

  11. Two-component, ab initio potential energy surface for CO2-H2O, extension to the hydrate clathrate, CO2@(H2O)20, and VSCF/VCI vibrational analyses of both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingfeng Kee; Bowman, Joel M

    2017-10-28

    We report an ab initio, full-dimensional, potential energy surface (PES) for CO 2 -H 2 O, in which two-body interaction energies are fit using a basis of permutationally invariant polynomials and combined with accurate potentials for the non-interacting monomers. This approach which we have termed "plug and play" is extended here to improve the precision of the 2-body fit in the long range. This is done by combining two separate fits. One is a fit to 47 593 2-body energies in the region of strong interaction and approaching the long range, and the second one is a fit to 6244 2-body energies in the long range. The two fits have a region of overlap which permits a smooth switch from one to the other. All energies are obtained at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Properties of the full PES, i.e., stationary points, harmonic frequencies of the global minimum, etc., are shown to be in excellent agreement with direct CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ results. Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the dimer zero-point energy (ZPE) are performed, and a dissociation energy, D 0 , of 787 cm -1 is obtained using that ZPE, D e , and the rigorous ZPEs of the monomers. Using a benchmark D e , D 0 is 758 cm -1 . Vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF)/virtual state configuration interaction (VCI) MULTIMODE calculations of intramolecular fundamentals are reported and are in good agreement with available experimental results. Finally, the full dimer PES is combined with an existing ab initio water potential to develop a potential for the CO 2 hydrate clathrate CO 2 (H 2 O) 20 (5 12 water cage). A full normal-mode analysis of this hydrate clathrate is reported as are local-monomer VSCF/VCI calculations of the fundamentals of CO 2 .

  12. Automated Facial Coding Software Outperforms People in Recognizing Neutral Faces as Neutral from Standardized Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eLewinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about people’s accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge – automated facial coding (AFC software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90% was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%. I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e. smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings.

  13. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What To Do When Every Moment Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What ... could prevent many of these deaths. Fast action can also limit permanent damage to the body. Heart ...

  14. Measurement of the ability of science students to recognize business opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827614; Oost, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11394229X; Pilot, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068350880; van Keulen, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138693587

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instrument measuring students’ ability to recognize business opportunities. Recognition of business opportunities where others do not is one of the basic qualities of entrepreneurs, and therefore needs attention in entrepreneurship education. However, only

  15. INO Project components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Construction of an underground laboratory and surface facilities near Pottipuram village in Theni district of Tamil Nadu. Construction of the massive 50 kton magnetised Iron calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study properties of neutrinos.

  16. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  17. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor

    2017-10-17

    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  18. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  19. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...... as the process of unsupervised grouping of generic data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. Its hypothesis runs ecologically: features which are essentially independent in a context defined ensemble, can be efficiently coded as sparse...

  20. Literature Review: Is the Emotional Expression of Contempt Recognized Universally or Culturally?

    OpenAIRE

    Phoukhao, Julianna

    2017-01-01

    The universal facial expression of contempt is often described as one lip corner raised and tightened. This literature reviews whether or not this expression is recognized universally. After examining theories and methods, low agreement of this expression recognized as contempt was found across cultures. Evidence so far is not sufficient enough to support the unilateral lip corner as an universal expression for contempt. The expression and recognition of contempt is highly dependent on cultur...

  1. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  2. Evaluation of two novel leptospiral proteins for their interaction with human host components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas P; Fernandes, Luis G V; Vieira, Monica L; de Souza, Gisele O; Heinemann, Marcos B; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Romero, Eliete C; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira are the etiological agents of leptospirosis, the most widespread zoonosis. Mechanisms involved in leptospiral pathogenesis are not well understood. By data mining the genome sequences of Leptospira interrogans we have identified two proteins predicted to be surface exposed, LIC10821 and LIC10064. Immunofluorescence and proteinase K assays confirmed that the proteins are exposed. Reactivity of the recombinant proteins with human sera has shown that rLIC10821, but not rLIC10064, is recognized by antibodies in confirmed leptospirosis serum samples, suggesting its expression during infection. The rLIC10821 was able to bind laminin, in a dose-dependent fashion, and was called Lsa37 (leptospiral surface adhesin of 37 kDa). Studies with human plasma components demonstrated that rLIC10821 interacts with plasminogen (PLG) and fibrinogen (Fg). The binding of Lsa37 with PLG generates plasmin when PLG activator was added. Fibrin clotting reduction was observed in a thrombin-catalyzed reaction, when Fg was incubated with Lsa37, suggesting that this protein may interfere in the coagulation cascade during the disease. Although LIC10064 protein is more abundant than the corresponding Lsa37, binding activity with all the components tested was not detected. Thus, Lsa37 is a novel versatile adhesin that may mediate Leptospira-host interactions. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A practical approach for writer-dependent symbol recognition using a writer-independent symbol recognizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J; Zeleznik, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer. Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison. Each classifier consists of a set of weak learners, one of which is based on a writer-independent handwriting recognizer. During online recognition, we also use the n-best list of the writer-independent recognizer to prune the set of possible symbols and thus reduce the number of required binary classifications. In this paper, we describe the geometric and statistical features used in our recognizer and our all-pairs classification algorithm. We also present the results of experiments that quantify the effect incorporating a writer-independent recognition engine into a writer-dependent recognizer has on accuracy, speed, and user training time.

  4. Decontamination of CAGR gas circulator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.N.; Hooper, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the development and full-scale trial of two methods for removal of radioactive contamination on the surfaces of CAGR gas circulator components. The two methods described are a particle impact cleaning (PIC) decontamination technique and an electrochemical technique, 'electro-swabbing', which is based on the principle of decontamination by electro-polishing. In developing these techniques it was necessary to take account of the physical and chemical nature of the surface deposits on the gas circulator components; these were shown to consist of magnetite-type oxide and carbonaceous material. In order to follow the progress of the decontamination it was also necessary to develop a surface sampling technique which was effective and precise under these conditions; an electrochemical technique, employing similar principles to the electro-swabbing process, was developed for this purpose. The full-scale trial of the PIC decontamination technique was carried out on an inlet guide vane (IGV) assembly, this having been identified as the component from the gas circulator which contributes most to the radiation dose accumulated during routine circulator maintenance. The technique was shown to be practically viable and some 99% of the radioactive contamination was readily removed from the treated surfaces with only negligible surface damage being caused. The full-scale trial of the electro-swabbing decontamination technique was carried out on a gas circulator impeller. High decontamination factors were again achieved with ≥ 99% of the radioactive contamination being removed from the treated surfaces. The technique has practical limitations in terms of handling and treatment of waste-arisings. However, the use of specially-designed swabbing electrodes may allow the treatment of constricted geometries inaccessible to techniques such as PIC. The technique is also highly suitable for the treatment of soft-finish materials and of components fabricated from a

  5. Virtual enterprise model for the electronic components business in the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, T.J.; Long, K.S.; Sayre, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hull, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Carey, D.A.; Sim, J.R.; Smith, M.G. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.

    1994-08-01

    The electronic components business within the Nuclear Weapons Complex spans organizational and Department of Energy contractor boundaries. An assessment of the current processes indicates a need for fundamentally changing the way electronic components are developed, procured, and manufactured. A model is provided based on a virtual enterprise that recognizes distinctive competencies within the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at the vendors. The model incorporates changes that reduce component delivery cycle time and improve cost effectiveness while delivering components of the appropriate quality.

  6. conformational complexity of complement component C3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the immune system and critical for the elimination of pathogens. In mammals the complement system consists of an intricate set of about 35 soluble and cell-surface plasma proteins. Central to complement is component C3, a large protein of 1,641 residues.

  7. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  8. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  9. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  10. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Spain's nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spanish industrial participation in supply of components for nuclear power plants has grown steadily over the last fifteen years. The share of Spanish companies in work for the five second generation nuclear power plants increased to 50% of total capital investments. The necessity to maintain Spanish technology and production in the nuclear field is emphasized

  12. The market for components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Stoelzl, D.

    1986-01-01

    The offers of the German nuclear components industry are shown at the examples of some masterpieces of engineering and their delivery capacities. Then, the success achieved with exports up to now are referred to. The forecast includes the demand, the side conditions of the technical competition, and the pricing and financing situation. (UA) [de

  13. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  14. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  15. AERODYNAMIC STUDIES IN THE STATIC COMPONENTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasa Reddy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic studies in the static components of a centrifugal compressor stage were conducted using the computational fluid dynamics solver FLUENT. For the simulation study, a typical centrifugal compressor stage geometry with a flow coefficient of 0.053 was chosen, The study is confined to the static components of the centrifugal compressor stage, i.e., the crossover bend (180° U-bend, a radial cascade of return channel vanes, and the exit ducting (90° L-turn. The aerodynamic performance is reported in terms of total pressure loss coefficient, static pressure recovery coefficient, return channel vane surface static pressure distribution, and stage exit swirl angle distribution. The simulated flow through the static components covered five different operating conditions of the actual centrifugal compressor stage: the design point with 100% flow rate, and the off-design operating conditions with 70%, 80%, 110%, and 120% flow rates. The standard k-ε model was used with standard wall functions to predict the turbulence. A minimum total pressure loss coefficient was observed near 80% flow rate when the average flow angle at the U-bend inlet was 24°. Better static pressure recovery was observed with 70%, 80%, and 100% flow rates. The swirl angle distribution at the stage exit was recognized as satisfactory.

  16. Developing a Model Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  17. Radiative heat exchange between surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yener, Y.; Yuncu, H.

    1987-01-01

    The geometrical features of radiative heat exchange between surfaces are discussed first by developing various radiation shape factor relations. The governing equations for enclosures with diffusely emitting and diffusely reflecting surfaces, as well as the equations for enclosures with gray surfaces having specular component of reflectivity are introduced next. Finally, a simplified model for enclosures with isothermal surfaces under the assumption of uniform radiosity over the surfaces is discussed, and various working relations for different conditions are presented

  18. Surface contamination of the LIL optical components and their evolution after laser irradiation (2.series of experiments); La pollution surfacique de la LIL et son evolution sur un composant optique soumis a une irradiation laser (2.serie d'experiences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmier, S.; Garcia, S.; Lamaignere, L.; Manac' h, P.; Rullier, J.L.; Tovena, I. [Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, Dept. des Lasers de Puissance, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Megajoule project (LMJ), a study has been carried out to understand the effect of particle contamination at the surface of optical components. With the object to achieve this purpose, samples were placed as particles collectors in the LMJ prototype, i.e. the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL). We report more specifically particle contamination in the LIL amplifiers section. Particles densities that we measured show that contamination is independent of the sample location in the amplifiers section and also independent of their surface quality. Chemical analyses of collected particles show a majority of organic compounds. Laser irradiations of the silica samples at various fluence levels between 2 and 15 J/cm{sup 2} at a wavelength o64 nm and a pulse duration of 6.5 ns reveal a weak laser cleaning effect. An irreversible surface modification was sometimes observed on silica samples with antireflection coating. However, this effect does not grow after several laser irradiations at 15 J/cm{sup 2}. (authors)

  19. Adaptable component frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The CPH STL is a special edition of the STL, the containers and algorithms part of the C++ standard library. The specification of the generic components of the STL is given in the C++ standard. Any implementation of the STL, e.g. the one that ships with your standard-compliant C++ compiler, should...... for vector, which is undoubtedly the most used container of the C++ standard library. In particular, we specify the details of a vector implementation that is safe with respect to referential integrity and strong exception safety. Additionally, we report the experiences and lessons learnt from...... the development of component frameworks which we hope to be of benefit to persons engaged in the design and implementation of generic software libraries....

  20. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  1. Ionitriding of Weapon Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    and documented tho production sequences required for the case- hardening of AISI 4140 and Nitralloy 13514 steels. Determination of processina...depths were established experimentally for Nitralloy 135M and for AISI 4140 steels. These steels are commonly used for the manufacture of nitrlded...weapons components. A temperature of 050F, upper limit for lonitrlding, was selected for the Nitralloy 135M to keep treatment times short. Since AISI 4140

  2. Components of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivers, D.

    1979-10-01

    Some aspects of a simple strategy for testing the validity of QCD perturbation theory are examined. The importance of explicit evaluation of higher-order contributions is illustrated by considering Z 0 decays. The recent progress toward understanding exclusive processes in QCD is discussed and some simple examples are given of how to isolate and test the separate components of the perturbation expansion in a hypothetical series of jet experiments

  3. The roles of categorical and coordinate spatial relations in recognizing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Categorical spatial information is considered more useful for recognizing objects, and coordinate spatial information for guiding actions--for example, during navigation or grasping. In contrast with this assumption, we hypothesized that buildings, unlike other categories of objects, require both categorical and coordinate spatial information in order to be recognized. This hypothesis arose from evidence that right-brain-damaged patients have deficits in both coordinate judgments and recognition of buildings and from the fact that buildings are very useful for guiding navigation in urban environments. To test this hypothesis, we assessed 210 healthy college students while they performed four different tasks that required categorical and coordinate judgments and the recognition of common objects and buildings. Our results showed that both categorical and coordinate spatial representations are necessary to recognize a building, whereas only categorical representations are necessary to recognize an object. We discuss our data in view of a recent neural framework for visuospatial processing, suggesting that recognizing buildings may specifically activate the parieto-medial-temporal pathway.

  4. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2017-06-01

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  5. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program sp...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model.......As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...

  6. Recognizing the needs – Student teachers´ learning to teach from teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Nilsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an exploration of the ways in which primary science student teachers recognize and learn about issues that shape their own professional learning. The paper discusses different perspectives of “knowledgebase needed for teaching” and Shulman’s concept of pedagogical content knowledge, and explores how elements of knowledge are to be recognized and further developed within primary teacher education. Primary science student teacher participants (n = 25 were stimulated to use portfolios as a tool to reflect upon situations within their six weeks teaching practice in pre- and primary schools in order to facilitate recognizing their knowledge needs. The results give an insight into what situations within the teaching practice that student teachers consider as important for their own learning to teach primary maths and science.

  7. Recognizing Risk and Vulnerability in Research Ethics: Imagining the "What Ifs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth; Friedland, Judith

    2017-04-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) may misunderstand the vulnerability of participants, given their distance from the field. What RECs identify as the vulnerabilities that were not adequately recognized in protocols and how they attempt to protect the perceived vulnerability of participants and mitigate risks were examined using the response letters sent to researchers by three university-based RECs. Using a critical qualitative method informed by feminist ethics, we identified an overarching theme of recognizing and responding to cascading vulnerabilities and four subthemes: identifying vulnerable groups, recognizing potentially risky research, imagining the "what ifs," and mitigating perceived risks. An ethics approach that is up-close, as opposed to distant, is needed to foster closer relationships among participants, researchers, and RECs and to understand participant vulnerability and strength better.

  8. Surface Improvement of Shafts by Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that mechanical surface enhancement methods can significantly improve the characteristics of highly-stressed metallic components. Deep cold rolling is one of such technique which is particularly attractive since it is possible to generate, near the surface, deep compressive residual stresses and work hardened layers while retaining a relatively smooth surface finish. In this paper, the effect of turn-assisted deep cold rolling on AISI 4140 steel is examined, with emphasis on the residual stress state. Based on the X-ray diffraction measurements, it is found that turn-assisted deep cold rolling can be quite effective in retarding the initiation and initial propagation of fatigue cracks in AISI 4140 steel.

  9. Bridges to Excellence--recognizing high-quality care: analysis of physician quality and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; de Brantes, Francois S; Sinaiko, Anna D; Frankel, Matthew; Robbins, Russell D; Young, Sara

    2008-10-01

    To examine whether physicians who sought and received Bridges to Excellence (BTE) recognition performed better than similar physicians on a standardized set of population-based performance measures. Cross-sectional comparison of performance data. Using a claims dataset of all commercially insured members from 6 health plans in Massachusetts, we examined population-based measures of quality and resource use for physicians recognized by the BTE programs Physician Office Link and Diabetes Care Link, compared with nonrecognized physicians in the same specialties. Differences in performance were tested using generalized linear models. Physician Office Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better than their nonrecognized peers on measures of cervical cancer screening, mammography, and glycosylated hemoglobin testing. Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better on all 4 diabetes process measures of quality, with the largest differences observed in microalbumin screening (17.7%). Patients of Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had a significantly greater percentage of their resource use accounted for by evaluation and management services (3.4%), and a smaller percentage accounted for by facility (-1.6%), inpatient ancillary (-0.1%), and nonmanagement outpatient services (-1.0%). After adjustment for patient age and sex, and case mix, Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had significantly fewer episodes per patient (0.13) and lower resource use per episode (dollars 130), but findings were mixed for Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians. Our findings suggest that the BTE approach to ascertaining physician quality identifies physicians who perform better on claims-based quality measures and primary care physicians who use a less resource-intensive practice style.

  10. The assessment of the nutritional value of meals consumed by patients with recognized schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Lech, Magdalena; Wilczyńska, Karolina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zapolska, Joanna; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2018-01-01

    As studies show, changes in diet - so important in the therapy of psychiatric disorders and related to changes in appetite and nutritional preferences, including avoiding of the consumption of specific groups of products and dishes - are much more frequent among patients affected by schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to assess the chosen nutritional habits, including the number and type of meals usually consumed during a day, snacking between meals and the energy value and content of the chosen nutrients in the diets of persons with recognized schizophrenia. The study was carried out in a group of 85 patients with recognized schizophrenia, and 70 healthy volunteers ranging in age from 18-65 years without mental or nutritional disorders. For the purpose of the study, we used a questionnaire containing questions on nutritional habits. A 24-hour diet recall was used in the quantitative nutritional assessment with the use of the computer program Dieta 5.0. Female patients with recognized schizophrenia were having 3 meals a day significantly more frequently as compared to healthy women. They were also having an afternoon snack much more frequently as compared to the control group. The food rations of female patients were characterized by a significantly higher energy value and the content of most of the assessed nutrients as compared to the food rations of healthy women. The food rations of men with recognized schizophrenia were characterized by a much lower energy intake and the content of the majority of assessed nutrients as compared to the food rations of healthy men. In all compared groups, we observed an energetic structure of food rations with the breakdown by specific meals that was inconsistent with the applicable recommendations. Despite of differences between the nutritional value of the meals of patients with recognized schizophrenia and those of healthy subjects, it seems advisable to involve patients with recognized schizophrenia in the education of

  11. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model....

  12. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  13. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  14. Electronic components and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sangwine, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook.Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use

  15. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    management and efficient system operation. Due to the expected large number of user-deployed cells, centralized network planning becomes unpractical and new scalable alternatives must be sought. In this article, we propose a fully distributed and scalable solution to the interference management problem...... in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...... the experience of all users and not just the few best ones; while overall cell capacity is not compromised....

  16. Impedance of accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    As demands for high luminosity and low emittance particle beams increase, an understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of these beams with their vacuum chamber environment becomes more important in order to maintain the quality of the beam. This interaction is described in terms of the wake field in time domain, and the beam impedance in frequency domain. These concepts are introduced, and related quantities such as the loss factor are presented. The broadband Q = 1 resonator impedance model is discussed. Perturbation and coaxial wire methods of measurement of real components are reviewed

  17. Laser-assisted surface cleaning of metallic components

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI: 10.1007/s12043-013-0665-6; ePublication: 9 February 2014. Abstract. Removal of a thin .... During the experiment the laser was operated in .... on an optical-grade LiF slab with no absorption over the entire range of wavelengths used.

  18. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in older German men using recognized definitions: high accordance but low overlap!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Teschler, M; Weißenfels, A; Sieber, C; Freiberger, E; von Stengel, S

    2017-06-01

    The relevance of sarcopenia and sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is rising in our aging societies. Applying recognized definitions to 965 community-dwelling Bavarian men 70 years+ resulted in a prevalence for sarcopenia between 3.7 and 4.9 and between 2.1 and 4.1% for SO. Despite this high consistency, the overlap between the definitions/approaches was sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) is rising steadily in the aging societies of most developed nations. However, different definitions, components, and cutoff points hinder the evaluation of the prevalence of sarcopenia and SO. The purpose of this contribution was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and SO in a cohort of community-dwelling German men 70+ applying established sarcopenia (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, Foundation National Institute of Health, International Working Group on Sarcopenia) and obesity definitions. Further, we addressed the overlap between the definitions. Altogether, 965 community-dwelling men 70 years and older living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the screening phase of the Franconian Sarcopenic Obesity project. Segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis (BIA) was applied to determine weight and body composition. Applying the definitions of EWGSOP, IWGS, and FNIH, 4.9, 3.8, and 3.7% of the total cohort were classified as sarcopenic, respectively. When further applying body fat to diagnose obesity, SO prevalence in the total cohort ranged from 4.1% (EWGSOP + body fat >25%) to 2.1% (IWGS + body fat >30%). Despite the apparently high consistency of the approaches with respect to prevalence, the overlap in individual sarcopenia diagnosis between the sarcopenia definitions was rather low (sarcopenia and SO in community-dwelling German men 70 years+ is relatively low (sarcopenia diagnosis varies considerably between the three definitions. Since sarcopenia is now recognized as an independent condition by the International Classification of

  19. Prognostics for Microgrid Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  20. Do pediatricians recognize cognitive developmental problems in preterm children at age 5 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondaar, M.; Kessel, B.J.M. van; Kleine, M.J.K. de; Briët, J.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Baar, A. van

    2008-01-01

    Often developmental psychologists see children only after referral from physicians. Do pediatricians recognize which children in a known risk group are in need of a cognitive evaluation? A judgment by pediatricians, based on an assessment using a parent questionnaire, the Denver Developmental

  1. Recognition and Diagnosis. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Fahey, Patrick J.

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The goals of this unit of study are to provide an overview of the problem of of teenage alcoholism and substance abuse and to facilitate the diagnosis of adolescent alcoholism. The…

  2. Modular Bayesian Networks with Low-Power Wearable Sensors for Recognizing Eating Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2017-12-11

    Recently, recognizing a user's daily activity using a smartphone and wearable sensors has become a popular issue. However, in contrast with the ideal definition of an experiment, there could be numerous complex activities in real life with respect to its various background and contexts: time, space, age, culture, and so on. Recognizing these complex activities with limited low-power sensors, considering the power and memory constraints of the wearable environment and the user's obtrusiveness at once is not an easy problem, although it is very crucial for the activity recognizer to be practically useful. In this paper, we recognize activity of eating, which is one of the most typical examples of a complex activity, using only daily low-power mobile and wearable sensors. To organize the related contexts systemically, we have constructed the context model based on activity theory and the "Five W's", and propose a Bayesian network with 88 nodes to predict uncertain contexts probabilistically. The structure of the proposed Bayesian network is designed by a modular and tree-structured approach to reduce the time complexity and increase the scalability. To evaluate the proposed method, we collected the data with 10 different activities from 25 volunteers of various ages, occupations, and jobs, and have obtained 79.71% accuracy, which outperforms other conventional classifiers by 7.54-14.4%. Analyses of the results showed that our probabilistic approach could also give approximate results even when one of contexts or sensor values has a very heterogeneous pattern or is missing.

  3. 46 CFR 159.010-7 - Recognized independent laboratory: Memorandum of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... independent laboratory and the Coast Guard; (7) An agreement to conduct comparison testing with other... for conducting comparison tests with other recognized laboratories. (d) Copies of MOUs signed by the... Understanding. 159.010-7 Section 159.010-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...

  4. Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

  5. Level of Awareness of Biology and Geography Students Related to Recognizing Some Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Caner; Kaya, Bastürk; Dinç, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness of the geography and biology students about recognizing some plants which they see frequently around them in accordance with the information they gained during their education process. The sample of the study consists of 37 biology and 40 geography students studying at the Ahmet Kelesoglu…

  6. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  7. Recognizing Stewardship Practices as Indicators of Social Resilience: In Living Memorials and in a Community Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather McMillen; Lindsay Campbell; Erika Svendsen; Renae Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Resilience theory has received increased attention from researchers across a range of disciplines who have developed frameworks and articulated categories of indicators; however, there has been less discussion of how to recognize, and therefore support, social resilience at the community level, especially in urban areas. The value of urban environmental stewardship for...

  8. Pisotriquetral joint disorders: an under-recognized cause of ulnar side wrist pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraux, A. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France); Lefebvre, G.; Pansini, V.; Aucourt, J.; Vandenbussche, L.; Cotten, A. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Demondion, X. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Pole Recherche Faculte de Medecine de Lille, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Lille (France)

    2014-06-15

    Pisotriquetral joint disorders are often under-recognized in routine clinical practice. They nevertheless represent a significant cause of ulnar side wrist pain. The aim of this article is to present the main disorders of this joint and discuss the different imaging modalities that can be useful for its assessment. (orig.)

  9. Recognizing mid-career productivity: the 2008 Retrovirology Prize, call for nomination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent analysis suggested a narrow age range for productivity of innovative work by researchers. The Retrovirology Prize seeks to recognize the research of a mid-career retrovirologist between the ages of 45 and 60. The 2007 Retrovirology Prize was awarded to Dr. Karen Beemon. Nominations are being solicited for the 2008 prize.

  10. 78 FR 60898 - Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory; Revision of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements... collection requirements specified by its Regulation at 29 CFR 1910.7, ``definition and requirements for a...

  11. 78 FR 68819 - Final NOAA Procedures for Government-to-Government Consultation With Federally Recognized Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... implications'' are defined in section 1 of E.O. 13175. This Handbook provides guidance to Regional Offices and... has defined the term ``policies with tribal implications.'' It is not within the [[Page 68821... Native Corporation and Federally recognized Indian tribe may conflict or coincide. The essence of the...

  12. 48 CFR 1642.1204 - Agreement to recognize a successor in interest (novation agreement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the corporate name of (insert old corporate name) was changed to (insert new corporate name) on... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 1642.1204 Agreement to recognize a... corporate name) (Transferor), a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of (insert State...

  13. Assistant director of intramural sports and technology recognized for innovative contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Kropff, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Rezac, assistant director of intramural sports and technology at Virginia Tech, was recognized at the National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (NIRSA) Annual Conference in Charlotte, N.C., in April for her contributions to the Virginia Tech Recreational Sports department.

  14. Human L-ficolin recognizes phosphocholine moieties of pneumococcal teichoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassal-Stermann, Emilie; Lacroix, Monique; Gout, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    Human L-ficolin is a soluble protein of the innate immune system able to sense pathogens through its fibrinogen (FBG) recognition domains and to trigger activation of the lectin complement pathway through associated serine proteases. L-Ficolin has been previously shown to recognize pneumococcal c...

  15. Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological…

  16. How do GPs recognize needs for palliative care in their patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.; Francke, A.L.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore how GPs in the Netherlands recognize patients’ needs for palliative care. Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with about 25 GPs. These GPs were interviewed about recognition of the needs for palliative care in their patients and how

  17. 21 CFR 570.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), it may be used in food only within such limitation(s) (including the category of food(s), the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 570.30 Section 570.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Do Preschoolers Recognize The Emotional Expressiveness of Colors in Realistic and Abstract Art Paintings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliou, Dimitra; Bonoti, Fotini; Nikonanou, Niki

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine preschoolers' ability to recognize the emotional expressiveness of an art painting, through its colors. To attain this aim 78 children, 3-5 years old were presented with realistic and abstract paintings conveying either happiness or sadness and were asked to choose those which matched the appropriate emotion. In total 16 paintings were used, which varied in color, while their subject matter was held as constant as possible after they had been previously rated by a group of adults to ensure that they conveyed the two emotions under investigation. Results showed that children's ability to recognize the emotional expressiveness of a painting through its colors appears at 3 years old and increases significantly at 4 and 5 years old. It was also found that the mood of happiness was more easily recognized than that of sadness, while the style of art paintings (realistic vs. abstract) did not affect children's ability to recognize emotions.

  19. The SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein is selectively recognized by lung surfactant protein D and activates macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Zhong, Fei; Chow, Vincent T K

    2007-01-01

    Da glycosylated protein. It was not secreted in the presence of tunicamycin and was detected as a 130 kDa protein in the cell lysate. The purified S-protein bound to Vero but not 293T cells and was itself recognized by lung surfactant protein D (SP-D), a collectin found in the lung alveoli. The binding required...

  20. The Physician's Role in Prevention. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph V.; Krol, Ronald A.

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study offer guidelines to help physicians make responsible and informed decisions about their roles with adolescent patients. Materials are presented which…

  1. Computer-aided identification of recognized drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm

    2009-01-01

    R, and a quorum-sensing receptor agonist. Six top-ranking compounds, all recognized drugs, were identified and tested for quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity. Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related...

  2. Multi-UAV joint target recognizing based on binocular vision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognizing of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based on image processing take the advantage of 2D information containing in the image for identifying the target. Compare to single UAV with electrical optical tracking system (EOTS, multi-UAV with EOTS is able to take a group of image focused on the suspected target from multiple view point. Benefit from matching each couple of image in this group, points set constituted by matched feature points implicates the depth of each point. Coordinate of target feature points could be computing from depth of feature points. This depth information makes up a cloud of points and reconstructed an exclusive 3D model to recognizing system. Considering the target recognizing do not require precise target model, the cloud of feature points was regrouped into n subsets and reconstructed to a semi-3D model. Casting these subsets in a Cartesian coordinate and applying these projections in convolutional neural networks (CNN respectively, the integrated output of networks is the improved result of recognizing.

  3. A Woman with a Plan: Recognizing Competencies for Ascent to Administration in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paaige K.; Norwood, Kristen; Noe, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress, women are still disproportionally underrepresented in leadership positions in higher education. Women must contend with a glass ceiling, which we argue is constituted by discourses of impossibility and femininity. These discourses discourage women from recognizing their qualifications, continuing to develop skills, and making a…

  4. T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, Surgery Branch, Tumor Immunology Section, is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize T Cells Attacking Cancer: T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen

  5. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  6. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  7. 46 CFR 8.230 - Minimum standards for a recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the United States that provides a continuous management and administrative presence; (15) Maintain an... required end-results; (19) Maintain and ensure compliance with a Code of Ethics that recognizes the...) Not have any business interest in, or share of ownership of, any vessel in its classed fleet; and (23...

  8. Disseminating treatment for anxiety disorders: step 1: recognizing the problem as a precursor to seeking help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schubert, Jessica R; Heimberg, Richard G; Weiss, Barry D

    2014-12-01

    Untreated mental illness is a substantial public health issue in the United States, with only approximately 1/3 of the estimated 46 million adults in the US with mental illness receiving treatment. Many of the individuals with mental illness suffer from excessive anxiety, as over 25% of Americans experience an anxiety disorder during their lifetime and most of these individuals remain untreated. Building from the premise that recognizing one's symptoms precedes requests for help, the current paper presents data from 577 adults (50% Caucasian, 50% African American) in the US regarding their ability to recognize anxiety disorders. Findings from a national survey showed that when presented with detailed vignettes portraying symptoms and their impact, 50% of respondents correctly recognized depression, whereas less than 20% correctly recognized the anxiety disorders. Recognition that the symptoms were a cause for concern was much more common, with 75% or more of the sample noting concern. Responses were surprisingly similar across the two races, and few consistent moderators were found. In conclusion, increasing recognition of anxiety disorders may be a useful first step toward increasing service utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The "Finding Physics" Project: Recognizing and Exploring Physics outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judith; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    Students in introductory physics classes often have difficulty recognizing the relevance of physics concepts outside the confines of the physics classroom, lab, and textbook. Even though textbooks and instructors often provide examples of physics applications from a wide array of areas, students have difficulty relating physics to their own lives.…

  10. A finger-shaped tactile sensor for fabric surfaces evaluation by 2-dimensional active sliding touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haihua; Han, Yezhen; Song, Aiguo; Chen, Shanguang; Wang, Chunhui; Wang, Zheng

    2014-03-11

    Sliding tactile perception is a basic function for human beings to determine the mechanical properties of object surfaces and recognize materials. Imitating this process, this paper proposes a novel finger-shaped tactile sensor based on a thin piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film for surface texture measurement. A parallelogram mechanism is designed to ensure that the sensor applies a constant contact force perpendicular to the object surface, and a 2-dimensional movable mechanical structure is utilized to generate the relative motion at a certain speed between the sensor and the object surface. By controlling the 2-dimensional motion of the finger-shaped sensor along the object surface, small height/depth variation of surface texture changes the output charge of PVDF film then surface texture can be measured. In this paper, the finger-shaped tactile sensor is used to evaluate and classify five different kinds of linen. Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is utilized to get original attribute data of surface in the frequency domain, and principal component analysis (PCA) is used to compress the attribute data and extract feature information. Finally, low dimensional features are classified by Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experimental results show that this finger-shaped tactile sensor is effective and high accurate for discriminating the five textures.

  11. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  12. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  13. Component failure data handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data

  14. Impedance and component heating

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B

    2015-01-01

    The impedance is a complex function of frequency, which represents, for the plane under consideration (longitudinal, horizontal or vertical), the force integrated over the length of an element, from a “source” to a “test” wave, normalized by their charges. In general, the impedance in a given plane is a nonlinear function of the test and source transverse coordinates, but it is most of the time sufficient to consider only the first few linear terms. Impedances can influence the motion of trailing particles, in the longitudinal and in one or both transverse directions, leading to energy loss, beam instabilities, or producing undesirable secondary effects such as excessive heating of sensitive components at or near the chamber wall, called beam-induced RF heating. The LHC performance limitations linked to impedances encountered during the 2010-2012 run are reviewed and the currently expected situation during the HL-LHC era is discussed.

  15. Effect of blow-holes on reliability of cast component

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface approximation of the original multivariate implicit limit state/performance function in ... failure mechanism, the combination of finite element method with the theory of statistics and .... the cast component obtained using PATRAN, 2005.

  16. A Weighing Algorithm for Checking Missing Components in a Pharmaceutical Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2014-11-01

    image. The goal of the present work is the development of an algorithm able to optimize the production line of a pharmaceutical firm. In particular, the proposed weighing procedure allows both checking missing components in packaging and minimizing false rejects of packages by dynamic scales. The main problem is the presence at the same time, in the same package, of different components with different variable weights. The consequence is uncertainty in recognizing the absence of one or more components.

  17. Spherical zonal components of cosmic ray between Forbush decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hachiro; Yahagi, Naohiro; Nagashima, Kazuo.

    1974-01-01

    Two examples are added to the previous report on the zonal harmonic components of cosmic ray in the space between planets by the three dimensional analysis of anisotropy of cosmic ray. Remarkable Forbush decreases occurred in region I during the period from March 20th to April 11th, 1966 and in region II during the period from August 29th to September 11th, 1966. The data used for analysis are the neutron components that have been informed from cosmic ray observation stations in the world. Power type and power exponential type differential rigidity spectra G(P) were used to find isotropic components. The change of the isotropic component a 0 0 was similar to the change of the neutron intensity in Deep River. The southnorth anisotropic phenomenon of cosmic ray intensity was recognized. The anisotropy in the opposite direction to the southnorth anisotropic phenomenon reported by Nagashima et al. was recognized markedly during the period from March 26th to 30th. These tendencies were checked by comparing with the data from the cosmic ray observation stations located near both poles of the earth. McMurdo and Mawson near the south pole, and Thule and Alert near the north pole were selected. The results of analysis were confirmed with these data. Further, the results of the previous report were checked by using the data from the stations near both poles, namely Thule, Resolute Bay, and Mawson. The good coincidence was confirmed on the anisotropic components. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. Calumenin interacts with serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Jacobsen, Christian; Honoré, Bent

    2000-01-01

    with calumenin in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Furthermore, we verified and characterized the calumenin-SAP interaction by the surface plasmon resonance technique. The findings indicate that calumenin may participate...... in the immunological defense system and could be involved in the pathological process of amyloidosis that leads to formation of amyloid deposits seen in different types of tissues. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-14...

  19. Energy deposition in STARFIRE reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Brooks, J.N.

    1985-04-01

    The energy deposition in the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor was calculated based on detailed models for the different reactor components. The heat deposition and the 14 MeV neutron flux poloidal distributions in the first wall were obtained. The poloidal surface heat load distribution in the first wall was calculated from the plasma radiation. The Monte Carlo method was used for the calculation to allow an accurate modeling for the reactor geometry

  20. Fault Localization for Synchrophasor Data using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN, R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU data, a nonlinear method is proposed for fault location in complex power systems. Resorting to the scaling factor, the derivative for a polynomial kernel is obtained. Then, the contribution of each variable to the T2 statistic is derived to determine whether a bus is the fault component. Compared to the previous Principal Component Analysis (PCA based methods, the novel version can combat the characteristic of strong nonlinearity, and provide the precise identification of fault location. Computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the improved performance in recognizing the fault component and evaluating its propagation across the system based on the proposed method.