WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface complex x-ray

  1. Transmission X-ray scattering as a probe for complex liquid-surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    2016-01-28

    The need for functional materials calls for increasing complexity in self-assembly systems. As a result, the ability to probe both local structure and heterogeneities, such as phase-coexistence and domain morphologies, has become increasingly important to controlling self-assembly processes, including those at liquid surfaces. The traditional X-ray scattering methods for liquid surfaces, such as specular reflectivity and grazing-incidence diffraction, are not well suited to spatially resolving lateral heterogeneities due to large illuminated footprint. A possible alternative approach is to use scanning transmission X-ray scattering to simultaneously probe local intermolecular structures and heterogeneous domain morphologies on liquid surfaces. To test the feasibility of this approach, transmission small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (TSAXS/TWAXS) studies of Langmuir films formed on water meniscus against a vertically immersed hydrophilic Si substrate were recently carried out. First-order diffraction rings were observed in TSAXS patterns from a monolayer of hexagonally packed gold nanoparticles and in TWAXS patterns from a monolayer of fluorinated fatty acids, both as a Langmuir monolayer on water meniscus and as a Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on the substrate. The patterns taken at multiple spots have been analyzed to extract the shape of the meniscus surface and the ordered-monolayer coverage as a function of spot position. These results, together with continual improvement in the brightness and spot size of X-ray beams available at synchrotron facilities, support the possibility of using scanning-probe TSAXS/TWAXS to characterize heterogeneous structures at liquid surfaces.

  2. X-ray fluorescence investigation of heavy-metal contamination on metal surfaces in the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Draugelis, A.K.; Schneider, J.F.; Billmark, K.A.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-07-01

    A field program using a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument was carried out to obtain data on loadings of RCRA-regulated heavy metals in paint on metal surfaces within the Pilot Plant Complex at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Measured loadings of heavy metals were sufficiently small that they do not present problems for either human exposure or the disposition of building demolition rubble. An attempt to develop an external calibration of the XRF instrument for cadmium, chromium, and lead was unsuccessful. Significant substrate effects were observed for cadmium and chromium; for accurate results for these elements, it appears necessary to calibrate by using a sample of the actual metal substrate on which the paint is located. No substrate effects were observed for lead, but the use of lead L-shell x-ray emission lines in the instrument mode utilized in this study appears to result in a significant underestimate of the lead loading due to self-absorption of these emissions.

  3. Study of solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces in Cu–isoleucine complex by surface X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Pilar, E-mail: ferreres@esrf.fr [SpLine Spanish CRG Beamline at the ESRF, 38000 Grenoble (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R. [SpLine Spanish CRG Beamline at the ESRF, 38000 Grenoble (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    The enzymes could be understood like structures formed by amino acids bonded with metals, which act as active sites. The research on the coordination of metal–amino acid complexes will bring light on the behavior of metal enzymes, due to the close relation existing between the atomic structure and the functionality. The Cu–isoleucine bond is considered as a good model system to attain a better insight into the characteristics of naturally occurring copper metalloproteins. The surface structure of metal–amino acid complex could be considered as a more realistic model for real systems under biologic working conditions, since the molecular packing is decreased. In the surface, the structural constrains are reduced, keeping the structural capability of surface complex to change as a function of the surrounding environment. In this work, we present a surface X-ray diffraction study on Cu–isoleucine complex under different ambient conditions. Cu(Ile){sub 2} crystals of about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm have been growth, by seeding method in a supersaturated solution, presenting a surface of high quality. The sample for the surface diffraction study was mounted on a cell specially designed for solid/liquid or solid/gas interface analysis. The Cu–isoleucine crystal was measured under a protective dry N{sub 2} gas flow and in contact with a saturated metal amino acid solution. The bulk and the surface signals were compared, showing different atomic structures. In both cases, from surface diffraction data, it is observed that the atomic structure of the top layer undergoes a clear structural deformation. A non-uniform surface relaxation is observed producing an inhomogeneous displacement of the surface atoms towards the surface normal.

  4. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangxing; Martz, Harry; Glenn, Steven; Divin, Charles; Birrer, Nat

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  5. X-Ray Studies of Phase Transitions on Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1984-01-01

    The density variation across the surface from vapor to liquid in liquid crystal materials has been measured in the isotropic, nematic and smectic A phases by specular reflection of X rays with grazing angles from θc to θB (total reflection angle and Bragg angle for smectic A layering, respectively......) using synchroton X-rays in HASYLAB, Hamburg. Crystalline surface structures may be deduced from X-ray diffraction, utilizing the evanescent beam occuring for grazing angles less than θc to obtain surface sensitivity. Results from the reconstruction of Au(110) surface are reviewed....

  6. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of liquid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Pershan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    A spectrometer for X-ray diffraction and refraction studies of horizontal, free surfaces of liquids is described. As an illustration smetic-A layering at the surface of a liquid crystal is presented.......A spectrometer for X-ray diffraction and refraction studies of horizontal, free surfaces of liquids is described. As an illustration smetic-A layering at the surface of a liquid crystal is presented....

  7. Stimulated X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy in Transition Metal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Thomas; Weninger, Clemens; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Mercadier, Laurent; Majety, Vinay P.; Marinelli, Agostino; Lutman, Alberto; Guetg, Marc W.; Decker, Franz-Josef; Boutet, Sébastien; Aquila, Andy; Koglin, Jason; Koralek, Jake; DePonte, Daniel P.; Kern, Jan; Fuller, Franklin D.; Pastor, Ernest; Fransson, Thomas; Zhang, Yu; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Rohringer, Nina; Bergmann, Uwe

    2018-03-01

    We report the observation and analysis of the gain curve of amplified K α x-ray emission from solutions of Mn(II) and Mn(VII) complexes using an x-ray free electron laser to create the 1 s core-hole population inversion. We find spectra at amplification levels extending over 4 orders of magnitude until saturation. We observe bandwidths below the Mn 1 s core-hole lifetime broadening in the onset of the stimulated emission. In the exponential amplification regime the resolution corrected spectral width of ˜1.7 eV FWHM is constant over 3 orders of magnitude, pointing to the buildup of transform limited pulses of ˜1 fs duration. Driving the amplification into saturation leads to broadening and a shift of the line. Importantly, the chemical sensitivity of the stimulated x-ray emission to the Mn oxidation state is preserved at power densities of ˜1020 W /cm2 for the incoming x-ray pulses. Differences in signal sensitivity and spectral information compared to conventional (spontaneous) x-ray emission spectroscopy are discussed. Our findings build a baseline for nonlinear x-ray spectroscopy for a wide range of transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry, catalysis, and materials science.

  8. X-ray scattering studies of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Here we shall briefly review the basics and some applications of x-ray specular reflectivity and diffuse scattering techniques. These x-ray scattering techniques are uniquely suited to study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces at atomic resolutions as they are nondestructive and can probe even interfaces which are buried. The study of structure of surfaces and interfaces is not only required in understanding physics in reduced dimensions but is also essential in developing technologically important materials

  9. Synthesis, spectra and X-ray crystallography of dipyridin-2-ylmethanone oxime and its CuX2(oxime)2 complexes: Thermal, Hirshfeld surface and DFT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warad, Ismail; Abdoh, Muneer; Al Ali, Anas; Shivalingegowda, Naveen; Kumara, Karthik; Zarrouk, Abdelkader; Lokanath, Neartur Krishnappagowda

    2018-02-01

    Dipyridin-2-ylmethanone oxime (C11H9N3O), was prepared using di-2-pyridyl ketone. The oxime ligand and its neutral CuX2 (oxime)2 (X = Cl or Br) complexes have been identified with the aid of several spectroscopic techniques such as: IR, EI-MS, EA, UV-visible, TG, 1H-NMR and finally the structure of the free oxime ligand was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The oxime crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with cell parameters a = 8.8811 (8) Å, b = 10.6362 (8) Å, c = 11.2050 (8) Å, β = 109.085 (4) º, V = 1000.26 (14) Å3 and Z = 4. The molecular conformation is stabilized by a strong intramolecular Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl group of the oxime moiety and the nitrogen of the pyridine ring. Since the oxime structure was solved by XRD, the ligand structure parameters like bond length and angles were compared to the DFT computed one, the UV-visible to TD-SCF and Hirshfeld surface to MEP analysis.

  10. Surface analysis of dental amalgams by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uo, Motohiro; Berglund, Anders; Cardenas, Juan; Pohl, Lars; Watari, Fumio; Bergman, Maud; Sjöberg, Staffan

    2003-11-01

    It is important to characterize the surface of dental amalgam in order to understand the process of mercury release from amalgam restorations in the oral cavity. The mercury evaporation occurs not only from the newly made restoration but also from the set material. The surfaces of four different types of amalgams, which had been well set, were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the relationship between surface compositions and mercury release was studied. Fresh amalgam surfaces as well as aged surfaces, which were stored for 30 days in air, were investigated using XPS and the chemical states of amalgam components and oxygen were studied. The aged surfaces were also characterized with XRD and grazing angle XRD. With increased oxidation, the surface contents of tin and oxygen were increased in all amalgams. In contrast, the surface contents of copper and mercury were decreased. An increase of zinc or indium content were observed in zinc or indium containing amalgams, respectively. A surface layer enriched with indium and oxygen was clearly detected by XPS but not with grazing angle XRD. The thickness of the enriched surface layer is estimated to be in the order of few nanometer, which is approximately equal to the analysis depth of XPS. In addition, the presence of metallic elements, like tin and zinc, that readily form a stable oxide layer at the surface suppress the release of mercury.

  11. X-ray and neutron scattering from surface and interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metoki, Naoto

    1995-01-01

    Recent X-ray and neutron surface scattering studies of magnetic metal thin films and superlattices are reviewed. The Fresnel and Master formula for the specular reflectivity of ideal and real surfaces, respectively, are explained. We show some experimental results of X-ray specular reflectivity of Si, Co thin film, and Co/Cr superlattices as well as spin-polarized neutron reflectivity of a non-colinearly coupled Fe/Cr superlattice. A recent surface scattering study of hcp-bcc structural change of Co layers in Co/Cr (001) superlattices is reviewed as an example of this method. (author)

  12. Phase stabilization in cinnarizine complexes using X-ray profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Characterization of cobalt(II), cadmium(II), copper(II) and tin(II) cinnarizine complexes have been carried out using conductivity, electronic spectra, infrared, nmr, thermogravimetric and X- ray analyses to establish the nature of phase stabilization in these materials. Also, the intrinsic strain components present in ...

  13. X-ray scattering from surfaces of organic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidalevitz, D.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Smilgies, D.-M.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray scattering experiments have been performed on the surfaces of organic crystals. The (010) cleavage planes of beta-alanine and alpha-glycine were investigated, and both specular and off-specular crystal truncation rods were measured. This allowed a determination of the molecular layering...

  14. Overview of surface/interface X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haydn H.D.; Aburano, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and nomenclature of 2-D diffraction experiments is described. Some topics deemed essential to understanding the experimental investigations were presented in detail, while others were explained qualitatively. A number of sources available for more detailed and quantitative explanations and examples of surface/interface X-ray scattering are given

  15. Scattering of x-ray from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, S.R.; Cowley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray measurements performed on a variety of materials demonstrate that it is possible to observe diffuse scattering that originates in the abrupt change of density at a crystal surface. Such a discontinuity gives rise, in general, to rods of scattering in reciprocal space which are most intense close to the Bragg peaks tau and are well defined for sufficiently smooth surfaces. For wave-vector transfer Q=tau+q the q-dependence of the intensity of scattering gives information on the topographic structure of the crystal surface. Experimental results on crystals of GaAs and KTaO 3 , with surfaces prepared in various ways, were obtained using conventional x-ray techniques with a rotating anode source and can be described by a continuum model of the surface. There are discrepancies between the predictions of the models and the experimental results and the suggest that further experiments are needed to achieve a more complete understanding. (author)

  16. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  17. In-situ Evaluation of Soil Organic Molecules: Functional Group Chemistry Aggregate Structures, Metal and Surface Complexation Using Soft X-Ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, Satish C.

    2008-01-01

    Organic molecules are common in all Earth surface environments, and their composition and chemistry play an important role in a variety of biogeochemical reactions, such as mineral weathering, nutrient cycling and the solubility and transport of contaminants. However, most of what we know about the chemistry of these molecules comes from spectroscopy and microscopy studies of organic molecules extracted from different natural systems using either inorganic or organic solvents. Although all these methods gave us clues about the composition of these molecules, their composition and structure change with the extraction and the type of ex-situ analysis, their true behavior is less well understood. The goal of this project is to develop synchrotron instrumentation for studying natural organics, and to apply these recently developed synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy and microscopy techniques for understanding the: (1) functional group composition of naturally occurring organic molecules; (2) macromolecular structures of organic molecules; and (3) the nature of interactions of organic molecules with mineral surfaces in different environmental conditions.

  18. Surface X-ray studies of catalytic clean technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adam F; Prabhakaran, Vinod; Wilson, Karen

    2010-06-14

    The rational design of new heterogeneous catalysts for clean chemical technologies can be accelerated by molecular level insight into surface chemical processes. In situ methodologies, able to provide time-resolved and/or pressure dependent information on the evolution of reacting adsorbed layers over catalytically relevant surfaces, are therefore of especial interest. Here we discuss recent applications of surface X-ray techniques to surface-catalysed oxidations, (de)hydrogenations, C-C coupling, dehalogenation and associated catalyst restructuring, and explore how these may help to shape future sustainable chemistry.

  19. Application of X-rays and Synchrotron X Rays to Residual Stress Evaluation Near Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, Anke

    1999-01-01

    A nondestructive residual stress analysis can be performed using diffraction methods. The easiest accessible radiation is characteristic X radiation that has a penetration depth of ∼10 microm suitable for the determination of the residual stresses in near-surface layers. Special techniques have been developed, e.g., with respect to in situ analyses of the stress state in oxide layers and the residual stress analysis in coarse grained zones of steel welds or annealed Ni-base alloys. Depending on the size of the gauge volume, neutron diffraction can provide information at depths of tens of millimetres of steel and many tens of millimetres of Al. An alternative to the use of the characteristic synchrotron radiation is the use of a high-energy polychromatic beam in an energy dispersive arrangement, which gives access to higher penetration depths at still gauge volumes as small as 100 microm x 100 microm x 1 mm in steel rods of 15-mm diameter. The combination of neutrons with conventional X rays and monochromatic and polychromatic synchrotron radiation allows for a comprehensive investigation of the phase composition, the texture, and the residual stresses

  20. X-ray and neutron scattering studies of complex confined fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent X-ray and neutron scattering studies of the structure and dynamics of confined complex fluids. This includes the study of polymer conformations and binary fluid phase transitions in porous media using Small Angle Neutron scattering, and the use of synchrotrons radiation to study ordering and fluctuation phenomena at solid/liquid and liquid/air interfaces. Ordering of liquids near a solid surface or in confinement will be discussed, and the study, via specular and off-specular X-ray reflectivity, of capillary wave fluctuations on liquid polymer films. Finally, we shall discuss the use of high-brilliance beams from X-ray synchrotrons to study via photon correlation spectroscopy the slow dynamics of soft condensed matter systems

  1. X-ray and neutron scattering studies of complex confined fluids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-08-04

    We review recent X-ray and neutron scattering studies of the structure and dynamics of confined complex fluids. This includes the study of polymer conformations and binary fluid phase transitions in porous media using Small Angle Neutron scattering, and the use of synchrotrons radiation to study ordering and fluctuation phenomena at solid/liquid and liquid/air interfaces. Ordering of liquids near a solid surface or in confinement will be discussed, and the study, via specular and off-specular X-ray reflectivity, of capillary wave fluctuations on liquid polymer films. Finally, we shall discuss the use of high-brilliance beams from X-ray synchrotrons to study via photon correlation spectroscopy the slow dynamics of soft condensed matter systems.

  2. Direct surface magnetometry with photoemission magnetic x-ray dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Schumann, F.O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Element specific surface magnetometry remains a central goal of synchrotron radiation based studies of nanomagnetic structures. One appealing possibility is the combination of x-ray absorption dichroism measurements and the theoretical framework provided by the {open_quotes}sum rules.{close_quotes} Unfortunately, sum rule analysis are hampered by several limitations including delocalization of the final state, multi-electronic phenomena and the presence of surface dipoles. An alternative experiment, Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism in Photoelectron Spectroscopy, holds out promise based upon its elemental specificity, surface sensitivity and high resolution. Computational simulations by Tamura et al. demonstrated the relationship between exchange and spin orbit splittings and experimental data of linear and circular dichroisms. Now the authors have developed an analytical framework which allows for the direct extraction of core level exchange splittings from circular and linear dichroic photoemission data. By extending a model initially proposed by Venus, it is possible to show a linear relation between normalized dichroism peaks in the experimental data and the underlying exchange splitting. Since it is reasonable to expect that exchange splittings and magnetic moments track together, this measurement thus becomes a powerful new tool for direct surface magnetometry, without recourse to time consuming and difficult spectral simulations. The theoretical derivation will be supported by high resolution linear and circular dichroism data collected at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the Advanced Light Source.

  3. Direct surface magnetometry with photoemission magnetic x-ray dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W.; Schumann, F.O.

    1997-01-01

    Element specific surface magnetometry remains a central goal of synchrotron radiation based studies of nanomagnetic structures. One appealing possibility is the combination of x-ray absorption dichroism measurements and the theoretical framework provided by the open-quotes sum rules.close quotes Unfortunately, sum rule analysis are hampered by several limitations including delocalization of the final state, multi-electronic phenomena and the presence of surface dipoles. An alternative experiment, Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism in Photoelectron Spectroscopy, holds out promise based upon its elemental specificity, surface sensitivity and high resolution. Computational simulations by Tamura et al. demonstrated the relationship between exchange and spin orbit splittings and experimental data of linear and circular dichroisms. Now the authors have developed an analytical framework which allows for the direct extraction of core level exchange splittings from circular and linear dichroic photoemission data. By extending a model initially proposed by Venus, it is possible to show a linear relation between normalized dichroism peaks in the experimental data and the underlying exchange splitting. Since it is reasonable to expect that exchange splittings and magnetic moments track together, this measurement thus becomes a powerful new tool for direct surface magnetometry, without recourse to time consuming and difficult spectral simulations. The theoretical derivation will be supported by high resolution linear and circular dichroism data collected at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the Advanced Light Source

  4. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  5. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  6. GPU-accelerated depth map generation for X-ray simulations of complex CAD geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Robert J.; Young, Gavin; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2018-04-01

    Interactive x-ray simulations of complex computer-aided design (CAD) models can provide valuable insights for better interpretation of the defect signatures such as porosity from x-ray CT images. Generating the depth map along a particular direction for the given CAD geometry is the most compute-intensive step in x-ray simulations. We have developed a GPU-accelerated method for real-time generation of depth maps of complex CAD geometries. We preprocess complex components designed using commercial CAD systems using a custom CAD module and convert them into a fine user-defined surface tessellation. Our CAD module can be used by different simulators as well as handle complex geometries, including those that arise from complex castings and composite structures. We then make use of a parallel algorithm that runs on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to convert the finely-tessellated CAD model to a voxelized representation. The voxelized representation can enable heterogeneous modeling of the volume enclosed by the CAD model by assigning heterogeneous material properties in specific regions. The depth maps are generated from this voxelized representation with the help of a GPU-accelerated ray-casting algorithm. The GPU-accelerated ray-casting method enables interactive (> 60 frames-per-second) generation of the depth maps of complex CAD geometries. This enables arbitrarily rotation and slicing of the CAD model, leading to better interpretation of the x-ray images by the user. In addition, the depth maps can be used to aid directly in CT reconstruction algorithms.

  7. X-ray tomography using the full complex index of refraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Lauridsen, Torsten; Thomsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on x-ray tomography using the full complex index of refraction recorded with a grating-based x-ray phase-contrast setup. Combining simultaneous absorption and phase-contrast information, the distribution of the full complex index of refraction is determined and depicted in a bivariate...

  8. X-ray measurements from the cathode surface of glow discharge tube used as a compact X-ray fluorescence instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Wagatsuma, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagata, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    As previously reported, when a high-voltage is applied to a Grimm glow discharge tube, high-energy electrons emitted from the cathode surface bombard the glass window, leading to X-ray emissions from the window. In this study, we have applied an energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to detect X-rays from the cathode which are excited by X-rays emitted from the glass window. Thus, we have proposed to utilize this glow discharge tube as a compact X-ray fluorescence instrument, to which both the X-ray emission source and the sample are directly attached. This compact X-ray fluorescence instrument has the same advantages of easy maintenance, exchangeable target and sample, and simple construction. The quantitative determination of Si, Ti, and Mn in Fe-Si, Fe-Ti, and Fe-Mn alloys was demonstrated with the detection limits of 21, 150 and 420 ppm, respectively. The X-ray measurement form the cathode is a useful method to directly monitor the cathode surface during the glow discharge process. This would be applied to understand and control the glow discharge processes. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction peaks as well as the fluorescent X-ray peaks were observed, indicating that the structure analysis of the cathode material would also be possible. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Study of complex waveguide structure using soft X-ray reflectivity technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amol; Modi, Mohammed H.; Dhawan, R.; Jonnard, P.; Le Guen, K.; André, J.-M.

    2017-05-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity (GIXRR) technique is commonly used for structural investigation of layered structures. In case of complex x-ray waveguide structure it is difficult to obtain structural parameters using GIXRR technique owing to narrowly spaced Kiessig fringes. We used GIXRR and soft x-ray reflectivity (SXR) technique to study the x-ray waveguide structure composed of 4 layers Al/ZrC/Al/W on a Si substrate. Structural parameters of the stacks, density, thickness and roughness of the layers, are determined through fitting of SXR data. Advantages of SXR over GIXRR for such layered structure are shown.

  10. Stochastic analysis of 1D and 2D surface topography of x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurina, Anastasia Y.; Tyurin, Yury N.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-08-01

    The design and evaluation of the expected performance of new optical systems requires sophisticated and reliable information about the surface topography for planned optical elements before they are fabricated. The problem is especially complex in the case of x-ray optics, particularly for the X-ray Surveyor under development and other missions. Modern x-ray source facilities are reliant upon the availability of optics with unprecedented quality (surface slope accuracy quality optics. The uniqueness of the optics and limited number of proficient vendors makes the fabrication extremely time consuming and expensive, mostly due to the limitations in accuracy and measurement rate of metrology used in fabrication. We discuss improvements in metrology efficiency via comprehensive statistical analysis of a compact volume of metrology data. The data is considered stochastic and a new statistical model called Invertible Time Invariant Linear Filter (InTILF) is developed now for 2D surface profiles to provide compact description of the 2D data additionally to 1D data treated so far. The model captures faint patterns in the data and serves as a quality metric and feedback to polishing processes, avoiding high resolution metrology measurements over the entire optical surface. The modeling, implemented in our Beatmark software, allows simulating metrology data for optics made by the same vendor and technology. The forecast data is vital for reliable specification for optical fabrication, to be exactly adequate for the required system performance.

  11. Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, E. F.; de Jeu, W. H.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray reflectivity form the surface of a liquid crystal with terminally polar (cyano substituted) molecules has been studied using a high-resolution triple-axis X-ray spectrometer in combination with a synchrotron source. It is demonstrated that at the surface of the smectic Al phase a few...

  12. Resonant soft x-ray scattering from stepped surfaces of SrTiO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlappa, J.; Chang, C.F.; Hu, Z.; Schierle, E.; Ott, H.; Weschke, E.; Kaindl, G.; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Tjeng, L.H.; Schüssler-Langeheine, C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the resonant diffraction signal from stepped surfaces of SrTiO3 at the Ti 2p ¿ 3d (L2,3) resonance in comparison with x-ray absorption (XAS) and specular reflectivity data. The steps on the surface form an artificial superstructure suitable as a model system for resonant soft x-ray

  13. X-ray diffraction and X-ray K absorption near edge studies of copper (II) complexes with amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P. K.; Mishra, Ashutosh; Malviya, Varsha; Kame, Rashmi; Malviya, P. K.

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of copper (II) complexes [CuL1L2X].nH2O, where n=1, 2,3 (X=Cl,Br,NO3) (L1is 2,2’-bipyridine and L2 is L-tyrosine) by the chemical root method. The XRD data for the samples have been recorded. EXAFS spectra have also been recorded at the K-edge of Cu using the dispersive beam line BL-8 at 2.5 Gev Indus-2 Synchrotron radiation source at RRCAT, Indore, India. XRD and EXAFS data have been analysed using the computer software. X-ray diffraction studies of all complexes indicate their crystalline nature. Lattice parameter, bond length, particle size have been determined from XRD data.

  14. Characterization of metal additive manufacturing surfaces using synchrotron X-ray CT and micromechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzos, C. A.; Cunningham, R. W.; Tari, V.; Rollett, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing complex surface topologies is necessary to understand stress concentrations created by rough surfaces, particularly those made via laser power-bed additive manufacturing (AM). Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (μ XCT ) of AM surfaces was shown to provide high resolution detail of surface features and near-surface porosity. Using the CT reconstructions to instantiate a micromechanical model indicated that surface notches and near-surface porosity both act as stress concentrators, while adhered powder carried little to no load. Differences in powder size distribution had no direct effect on the relevant surface features, nor on stress concentrations. Conventional measurements of surface roughness, which are highly influenced by adhered powder, are therefore unlikely to contain the information relevant to damage accumulation and crack initiation.

  15. Surface roughness-aided hard X-ray emission from carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A clear enhancement in the low to moderately high-energy. X-rays has been noticed. In this report, we present a highly efficient, low-debris hard X-ray source based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) irradiated by intense, femtosecond laser. In the process we also demonstrate the critical role of surface roughness ...

  16. Probing Ultrafast Electron Dynamics at Surfaces Using Soft X-Ray Transient Reflectivity Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. Robert; Husek, Jakub; Biswas, Somnath; Cirri, Anthony

    The ability to probe electron dynamics with surface sensitivity on the ultrafast time scale is critical for understanding processes such as charge separation, injection, and surface trapping that mediate efficiency in catalytic and energy conversion materials. Toward this goal, we have developed a high harmonic generation (HHG) light source for femtosecond soft x-ray reflectivity. Using this light source we investigated the ultrafast carrier dynamics at the surface of single crystalline α-Fe2O3, polycrystalline α-Fe2O3, and the mixed metal oxide, CuFeO2. We have recently demonstrated that CuFeO2 in particular is a selective catalyst for photo-electrochemical CO2 reduction to acetate; however, the role of electronic structure and charge carrier dynamics in mediating catalytic selectivity has not been well understood. Soft x-ray reflectivity measurements probe the M2,3, edges of the 3d transition metals, which provide oxidation and spin state resolution with element specificity. In addition to chemical state specificity, these measurements are also surface sensitive, and by independently simulating the contributions of the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index, we can differentiate between surface and sub-surface contributions to the excited state spectrum. Accordingly, this work demonstrates the ability to probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in catalytic materials with element and chemical state specificity and with surface sensitivity.

  17. The application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics in surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangcui; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yude; Liu, Hehe; Zhao, Weigang; Zhang, Ruixia; Min, Qin; Peng, Song

    2013-01-01

    A confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics was proposed for determining surface topography. This confocal topography method involves elemental sensitivity and can be used to classify the objects according to their elemental composition while obtaining their surface topography. To improve the spatial resolution of this confocal topography technology, the center of the confocal micro-volume was overlapped with the output focal spot of the polycapillary X-ray, focusing the lens in the excitation channel. The input focal spot of the X-ray lens parallel to the detection channel was used to determine the surface position of the sample. The corresponding surface adaptive algorithm was designed to obtain the surface topography. The surface topography of a ceramic chip was obtained. This confocal MXRF surface topography method could find application in the materials sciences

  18. Surface applicator of a miniature X-ray tube for superficial electronic brachytherapy of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Nam; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Park, Han Beom; Kim, Hyun Jin; Cho, Sung Oh

    2018-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a surface applicator of a novel carbon nanotube (CNT)-based miniature X-ray tube for the use in superficial electronic brachytherapy of skin cancer. To investigate the effectiveness of the surface applicator, the performance of the applicator was numerically and experimentally analyzed. The surface applicator consists of a graphite flattening filter and an X-ray shield. A Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP6, was used to optimize the geometries of both the flattening filter and the shield so that X-rays are generated uniformly over the desired region. The performance of the graphite filter was compared with that of conventional aluminum (Al) filters of different geometries using the numerical simulations. After fabricating a surface applicator, the X-ray spatial distribution was measured to evaluate the performance of the applicator. The graphite filter shows better spatial dose uniformity and less dose distortion than Al filters. Moreover, graphite allows easy fabrication of the flattening filter due to its low X-ray attenuation property, which is particularly important for low-energy electronic brachytherapy. The applicator also shows that no further X-ray shielding is required for the application because unwanted X-rays are completely protected. As a result, highly uniform X-ray dose distribution was achieved from the miniature X-ray tube mounted with the surface applicators. The measured values of both flatness and symmetry were less than 5% and the measured penumbra values were less than 1 mm. All these values satisfy the currently accepted tolerance criteria for radiation therapy. The surface applicator exhibits sufficient performance capability for their application in electronic brachytherapy of skin cancers. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Complexing membrane for uranium detection by total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistavros, Vasilios; Koulouridakis, Pavlos; Kallithrakas-Kontost, Nikolaos

    2005-07-01

    Selective membranes containing a few micrograms of various complexing reagents in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix were produced in order to determine low uranium concentrations in water. The membranes were produced on the surfaces of quartz glasses, and immersed in water solutions containing uranium salts (5 - 50 ng/mL). By the end of the equilibration time, the membranes were left to dry and analyzed based on the total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The effects of the complexing agents and their mass proportions added in the membranes were studied. The combination of the complexing reagents dithizone and thiourea gave the best result. The minimum detection limit was measured to be equal to 0.8 ng/mL.

  20. Selective mercury determination after membrane complexation and total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouridakis, Pavlos E; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G

    2004-08-01

    A new method for low mercury concentration analysis in drinking waters is presented. Membranes containing a few micrograms of various complexing reagents were produced on the surface of quartz glasses (reflectors). The reflectors were immersed in water solutions containing various concentrations of inorganic mercury salts at low concentrations (1-40 ng/mL). The membranes were left to equilibrate in 5-500 mL of solution for many hours; when the equilibration stage was finished they were cleaned with ultrapure water and left to dry. Analyses were performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The effects of various experimental parameters (complexing agent, equilibrium time, sample volume, etc.) as well as the selectivity of the membranes were studied. The complexing reagent dithizone with a PVC-based membrane gave the best results. The limit of quantitation was 0.8 ng/mL.

  1. High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Abdali, S.; Hornstrup, Allan

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in the possible use of Ir as the reflecting surface in X-ray telescope programs. An X-ray study of such surfaces produced by sputtering of Ir on highly polished Zerodur flats is presented here. The study was performed using Fe K(alpha) 1 (6...... result shows that an Ir coating can be produced with nominal bulk density....

  2. X-ray surface brightness of Kepler's supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Long, K.S.

    1983-01-01

    We have observed Kepler's supernova remnant (SNR) with the imaging instruments on board the Einstein Observatory. The 0.15-4.5 keV flux incident on the Earth is 1.2 x 10 - 10 ergs cm - 2 s - 1 ; the flux corrected for interstellar absorption is 3.4 x 10 - 10 ergs cm - 2 s - 1 (L/sub x/ = 1.0 x 10 36 ergs s - 1 at D = 5 kpc) if the absorbing column density is N/sub H/ = 2.8 x 10 21 cm - 2 . The remnant is circular and shows a strong shell which is at least 5 times brighter in the north than in the south. The X-ray observations do not unambiguously determine whether the remnant is in the adiabatic or the free expansion phase. If the remnant is in the adiabatic phase, the density of the interstellar medium (ISM) ( 2 /sub e/>/sup 1/2/) surrounding Kepler's SNR must be about 5 cm - 3 . If the remnant is in the free expansion phase, where most of the emission arises from shock-heated ejecta, the ISM density must still be relatively high, n/sub i/> or approx. =0.1 cm - 3 . Even if the ISM is very inhomogeneous, with very many small, dense clouds, we show that the mean density of the ISM must be greater than approx.0.1 cm - 3 . In any case, the density of the x-ray emitting gas must be high ( 2 /sub e/>/sup 1/2/ > or approx. =10 cm - 3 ), and the temperature must be fairly low (T/sub e/ 7 K). The relatively high ISM density which is required is surprising in view of Kepler's distance above the galactic plane, approx.600 pc. Possibly the ISM around Kepler's SNR and around other type i SNRs is dominated by the mass lost from the presupernova star

  3. Bromate determination in water after membrane complexation and total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzistavros, Vasilios S; Koulouridakis, Pavlos E; Aretaki, Ioanna I; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G

    2007-04-01

    A new method for the determination of trace levels of bromates by selective membrane collection is presented. Various membranes containing a few micrograms of different complexing reagents in a poly(vinyl chloride) matrix were tested. These membranes were produced on the surface of quartz glass (reflectors), and they were immersed in solutions containing bromate and bromide ions. At the first stage the prepared membranes collected both bromate and bromide ions, so different bromide masking agents were put in the analyzed solutions to avoid bromide collection. By the end of the equilibration time, the reflectors were left to dry, and they were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The poly(vinyl chloride) with aliquat-336 membrane and o-dianisidin complexing agent gave the best results. The minimum detection limit was equal to 0.9 ng/mL for ultrapure water and 1.0 ng/mL for drinking water.

  4. Two strategies of lowering surface deformations of internally cooled X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberta, P.; Áč, V.; Hrdý, J.

    2013-01-01

    Internally cooled X-ray optics, like X-ray monochromators and reflecting X-ray mirrors, play a crucial role in defining a beamlines resolution, degree of coherence and flux. A great effort is invested in the development of these optical components. An important aspect of the functionality of high heat load optics is its cooling and its influence on surface deformation. The authors present a study of two different geometrical cooling approaches. Its influence on beam inhomogeneity due to the strain from the manufacturing process is presented. X-ray topographic images and FWHM measurements are presented. FEA simulations of cooling efficiency and surface deformations were performed. The best achieved results are under an enlargement of 0.4μrad of the measured rocking curve

  5. High-resolution spectroscopy of X-rays emitted from electron bombarded surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabłoński, Ł. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Banaś, D., E-mail: d.banas@ujk.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Jagodziński, P. [Department of Physics, Kielce University of Technology, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Sobota, D.; Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    The investigations of a compact 6-crystal Johann/Johansson diffraction X-ray spectrometer, covering a wide range (70 eV–15 keV) of photon energies, applied to observe the X-rays emitted from electron bombarded surfaces are discussed in terms of its focusing properties and achievable energy resolution. In the present study the X-ray spectra of Si-Kα{sub 1,2} and Al-Kα{sub 1,2} X-ray lines excited by 5 keV electron beam were measured using PET and TAP crystal, respectively, in the “out-of-focus” geometry which will be used to study the electron/ion surface interactions at the electron beam ion source (EBIS) facility. The measured X-ray spectra were interpreted in terms of the performed ray-tracing simulations which demonstrate the key features of the “out-of-focus” geometry. It was demonstrated that in this case the energy resolution in the range 1–3 eV for photon energy 1–2 keV can be achieved with an increased acceptance for the extension of X-ray source, of about 1 mm, which is important feature for practical applications. Additionally, a dependence of the X-ray intensity and energy resolution on slit opening was studied in details. The results are important for investigations of surfaces with electron and ion impact, in particular, for the future high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy experiments at the EBIS facility.

  6. From single-site tantalum complexes to nanoparticles of TaxNy and TaOxNy supported on silica: elucidation of synthesis chemistry by dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Mohandas, Janet Chakkamadathil

    2017-06-08

    Air-stable catalysts consisting of tantalum nitride nanoparticles represented as a mixture of TaxNy and TaOxNy with diameters in the range of 0.5 to 3 nm supported on highly dehydroxylated silica were synthesized from TaMe5 (Me = methyl) and dimeric Ta-2(OMe)(10) with guidance by the principles of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). Characterization of the supported precursors and the supported nanoparticles formed from them was carried out by IR, NMR, UV-Vis, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies complemented with XRD and high-resolution TEM, with dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy being especially helpful by providing enhanced intensities of the signals of H-1, C-13, Si-29, and N-15 at their natural abundances. The characterization data provide details of the synthesis chemistry, including evidence of (a) O-2 insertion into Ta-CH3 species on the support and (b) a binuclear to mononuclear transformation of species formed from Ta-2(OMe)(10) on the support. A catalytic test reaction, cyclooctene epoxidation, was used to probe the supported nanoparticles, with 30% H2O2 serving as the oxidant. The catalysts gave selectivities up to 98% for the epoxide at conversions as high as 99% with a 3.4 wt% loading of Ta present as TaxNy/TaOxNy.

  7. Confirmation of molecular formulas of metallic complexes through X-ray fluorescence quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Marques, E.V.; Machado, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry was employed to determined the metal content in a series of five transition element complexes (Mn, Ti, Zn, V). The results confirmed the molecular formulas of these complexes, already proposed on the basis of elemental microanalysis, solution condutimetry and other analytical methods. (C.L.B.) [pt

  8. Synthesis of new nano Schiff base complexes: X-ray crystallography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents synthesis and characterization of new nano uranyl Schiff base complexes. Electrochemistry of these complexes showed a quasireversible redox reaction without any successive reactions. Furthermore, X-ray crystallography exhibited that beside the coordination of tetradentate Schiff base, one solvent ...

  9. Synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis of the calibration samples used in surface sensitive total reflection and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Jagodziński, P.; Susini, J.; Salomé, M.

    2013-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) are surface sensitive techniques and can be used for detailed surface studies of different materials, including ultra-low concentration contamination or the lateral and depth distributions of elements. The calibration procedure typically used involves placing a micro-droplet (˜μl) of the standard solution onto a silicon wafer (or quartz backing). After evaporation of the solvent, the residual amount of elements is used as a reference standard. Knowledge of the distribution of residue material on the substrate surface is crucial for precise quantification. In the present work the investigation of the lateral distribution of elements in the multielemental calibrating samples, containing the 23 most commonly studied elements, by using the synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence is presented. The goal of this project was the study of a uniformity of the elemental distributions and determination of the residual elements morphology depending on the temperature of the drying process. The X-ray images were compared with optical and SEM images. Paper presents in details the experimental setup, sample preparation procedures, measurements and results. In the analysis of the X-ray images of the sample dried in high temperature the censoring approach was applied improving the quality of statistical analysis. The information on the elements distribution in the calibrating samples can be useful for developing more accurate calibration procedures applied in quantitative analysis of surface sensitive TXRF and GEXRF techniques.

  10. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhili, E-mail: wangnsrl@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications.

  11. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhili; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications

  12. X-ray tube output based calculation of patient entrance surface dose: validation of the method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harju, O.; Toivonen, M.; Tapiovaara, M.; Parviainen, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    X-ray departments need methods to monitor the doses delivered to the patients in order to be able to compare their dose level to established reference levels. For this purpose, patient dose per radiograph is described in terms of the entrance surface dose (ESD) or dose-area product (DAP). The actual measurement is often made by using a DAP-meter or thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The third possibility, the calculation of ESD from the examination technique factors, is likely to be a common method for x-ray departments that do not have the other methods at their disposal or for examinations where the dose may be too low to be measured by the other means (e.g. chest radiography). We have developed a program for the determination of ESD by the calculation method and analysed the accuracy that can be achieved by this indirect method. The program calculates the ESD from the current time product, x-ray tube voltage, beam filtration and focus- to-skin distance (FSD). Additionally, for calibrating the dose calculation method and thereby improving the accuracy of the calculation, the x-ray tube output should be measured for at least one x-ray tube voltage value in each x-ray unit. The aim of the present work is to point out the restrictions of the method and details of its practical application. The first experiences from the use of the method will be summarised. (orig.)

  13. Surface x-ray scattering and scanning tunneling microscopy studies at the Au(111) electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocko, B.M.; Magnussen, O.M.; Wang, J.X.; Adzic, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter reviews Surface X-ray Scattering and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy results carried out at the Au(111) surface under electrochemical conditions. Results are presented for the reconstructed surface, and for bromide and thallium monolayers. These examples are used to illustrate the complementary nature of the techniques

  14. X-ray free electron laser as a real-time probe of chemistry on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogasawara, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    X-ray free electron laser has opened up new possibilities for the study of surface chemical reactions on ultrafast time scale. This article reviews the recent work on the desorption of a molecule from a surface, which is one of the most fundamental surface chemical process. (author)

  15. X-ray emission in slow highly charged ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H; Abe, T; Fujita, Y; Sun, J; Takahashi, S; Tona, M; Yoshiyasu, N; Nakamura, N; Sakurai, M; Yamada, C; Ohtani, S

    2007-01-01

    X-rays emitted in the collisions of highly charged ions with a surface have been measured to investigate dissipation schemes of their potential energies. While 8.1% of the potential energy was dissipated in the collisions of He-like I ions with a W surface, 29.1% has been dissipated in the case of He-like Bi ions. The x-ray emissions play significant roles in the dissipation of the potential energies in the interaction of highly charged heavy ions with the surface

  16. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Lin X; Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(ii) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were measur...

  17. Surface slope metrology of highly curved x-ray optics with an interferometric microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Centers, Gary; Polonska, Kateryna S.; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Lacey, Ian; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-09-01

    The development of deterministic polishing techniques has given rise to vendors that manufacture high quality threedimensional x-ray optics. The surface metrology on these optics remains a difficult task. For the fabrication, vendors usually use unique surface metrology tools, generally developed on site, that are not available in the optical metrology labs at x-ray facilities. At the Advanced Light Source X-Ray Optics Laboratory, we have developed a rather straightforward interferometric-microscopy-based procedure capable of sub microradian characterization of sagittal slope variation of x-ray optics for two-dimensionally focusing and collimating (such as ellipsoids, paraboloids, etc.). In the paper, we provide the mathematical foundation of the procedure and describe the related instrument calibration. We also present analytical expression describing the ideal surface shape in the sagittal direction of a spheroid specified by the conjugate parameters of the optic's beamline application. The expression is useful when analyzing data obtained with such optics. The high efficiency of the developed measurement and data analysis procedures is demonstrated in results of measurements with a number of x-ray optics with sagittal radius of curvature between 56 mm and 480 mm. We also discuss potential areas of further improvement.

  18. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  19. Hard X-ray bursts and DD microfusion neutrons from complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Email: ykur@online.ru; msk@ccr.jussieu.fr. MS received 1 April 2003; accepted 31 July 2003. Abstract. We create the random complex media of high-power density in low-energy nanosecond vacuum discharges. Hard X-ray emission efficiency, generation of energetic ions ( 1 MeV) and neutrons, trapping and releasing of ...

  20. Coordination symmetry determination of some lanthanide complexes by x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Paiva Santos, C. de.

    1983-01-01

    The x-ray determination of the crystal and molecular structures of three lanthanide complexes is described. The work is a contribution to the study of the coordination chemistry of lanthanide ions with organic ligands and in particular, it aims to compare the observed point symmetry of the ion environment with spectroscopic predictions. (author)

  1. Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, E. F.; de Jeu, W. H.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray reflectivity form the surface of a liquid crystal with terminally polar (cyano substituted) molecules has been studied using a high-resolution triple-axis X-ray spectrometer in combination with a synchrotron source. It is demonstrated that at the surface of the smectic Al phase a few...... antiferroelectric double layers develop that can be distinguished from the bulk single layer structure. A model is developed that separates the electron density in a contribution from the molecular form factor, and from the structure factor of the mono- and the bilayers, respectively. It shows that (i) the first...

  2. Modification of the x-ray diffraction efficiency of lithium fluoride crystals by surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellick, B.O.

    1976-01-01

    Convex-curved crystals of lithium fluoride demonstrate good dispersion and efficiency when used in reflection for x-ray spectral analysis. The crystals are stable and reasonably unaffected by harsh environments. In addition, they are mechanically strong, easily cleavable or machinable, and plastically deformable with heat. In the present study, flat crystal wafers were left either clear as cleaved or were subjected to surface treatment by sandblasting or lapping. Some wafers were then bent in a press mold to obtain convex-curved crystals of differing radii. The diffraction efficiency data presented show how surface treatment affects the efficiency of these various crystals when used as x-ray diffracting agents

  3. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; McCluskey, G.E. Jr.; Gulden, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the x-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling x-ray binaries are discussed

  4. X-ray emission in collisions of highly charged I, Pr, Ho, and Bi ions with a W surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Tona, M.; Ohtani, S.; Sun, J.; Nakamura, N.; Yamada, C.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Sakurai, M.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray emission yields, which are defined as the total number of emitted x-ray photons per incident ion, and dissipated fractions of potential energies through x-ray emission have been measured for slow highly charged ions of I, Pr, Ho, and Bi colliding with a W surface. A larger amount of potential energy was consumed for the x-ray emission with increasing the atomic number and the charge state. The present measurements show that x-ray emission is one of the main decay channels of hollow atoms produced in collisions of very highly charged ions of heavy elements

  5. Structure of the Si(1 1 3) surface studied by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Yoshihito; Akimoto, Koichi; Aoyama, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Nakahara, Hitoshi; Ichimiya, Ayahiko; Sumitani, Kazushi; Takahashi, Toshio; Zhang Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Kawata, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis of the Si(1 1 3) 3 x 1 surface using synchrotron radiation. We compared the experimental structure factors obtained from the integrated intensities of the fractional-order reflections with the calculated structure factors of the dimerized structure model of Ranke. By minimizing the R-factor, we determined the position and the size of the pentagon in the 3 x 1 dimerized structure model of Ranke. In addition, we found that a model with randomly distributed interstitial atoms at the center of the pentagon gives a smaller R-factor value

  6. Full Field X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging Using Micro Pore Optics for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Gailhanou, M.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Marchis, F.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2016-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave evidence as small features in the sub-millimetre scale. Current planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometers lack the spatial resolution to analyse such small features as they only provide global analyses of areas greater than 100 mm(exp 2). A micro-XRF spectrometer will be deployed on the NASA Mars 2020 rover to analyse spots as small as 120m. When using its line-scanning capacity combined to perpendicular scanning by the rover arm, elemental maps can be generated. We present a new instrument that provides full-field XRF imaging, alleviating the need for precise positioning and scanning mechanisms. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - "Map-X" - will allow elemental imaging with approximately 100µm spatial resolution and simultaneously provide elemental chemistry at the scale where many relict physical, chemical and biological features can be imaged in ancient rocks. The arm-mounted Map-X instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during measurements. A 25x25 mm(exp 2) surface area is uniformly illuminated with X-rays or alpha-particles and gamma-rays. A novel Micro Pore Optic focusses a fraction of the emitted X-ray fluorescence onto a CCD operated at a few frames per second. On board processing allows measuring the energy and coordinates of each X-ray photon collected. Large sets of frames are reduced into 2d histograms used to compute higher level data products such as elemental maps and XRF spectra from selected regions of interest. XRF spectra are processed on the ground to further determine quantitative elemental compositions. The instrument development will be presented with an emphasis on the characterization and modelling of the X-ray focussing Micro Pore Optic. An outlook on possible alternative XRF imaging applications will be discussed.

  7. Mechanical characterisation of surface layers by x-ray diffraction -application to tribology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The results presented in this paper show that X-ray diffraction can be employed for the characterisation of surface layer damage through residual stresses and work hardening by some tribological actions such as fretting and dry sliding. X-ray diffraction technique can also be employed for a rapid and non-destructive measurement of hardness of hardened steel. The diffraction profile analysis can offer a good indication about the materials characteristics and the microstructural evolution caused by heat treatment or by mechanical loading

  8. X-ray Multilayers and Thin-Shell Substrate Surface-Figure Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, David

    We propose a comprehensive experimental research program whose two main goals are (a) to improve the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings and (b) to develop a high-throughput method to correct mid-frequency surface errors in thin-shell mirror substrates. Achieving these goals will enable the cost-effective construction of light- weight, highly-nested X-ray telescopes having greater observational sensitivity, wider energy coverage, and higher angular resolution than can be achieved at present. The realization of this technology will thus benefit the development of a variety of Explorer- class NASA X-ray astronomy missions now being formulated for both the soft and hard X-ray bands, and will enable the construction of future facility-class X-ray missions that will require both high sensitivity and high resolution. Building on the success of our previous APRA-funded research, we plan to investigate new thin-film growth techniques, new materials, and new aperiodic coating designs in order to develop new hard X-ray multilayers that have higher X-ray reflectance, wider energy response, lower film stress, and good stability, and that can be produced more quickly, at reduced cost. Additionally, we propose to build upon our extensive experience in sub-nm film-thickness control using velocity modulation and masked deposition techniques, and in the recent development of low-roughness, low-stress films grown by reactive sputtering, in order to develop new methods for correcting mid-frequency surface errors in thin-shell mirror substrates using both differential deposition and ion-beam figuring, either alone or in combination. These two surface-correction techniques already being used for sub-nm figuring of precision optics in a variety of disciplines, including diffraction-limited EUV lithography and synchrotron applications requiring sub-micron focusing are ideally suited for controlling mm-scale surface errors in the thin-shell substrates used for astronomical X-ray

  9. Surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure of low-Z absorbates using fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehr, J.; Kollin, E.B.; Fischer, D.A.; Hastings, J.B.; Zaera, F.; Sette, F.

    1985-05-01

    Comparison of x-ray fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra above the S K-edge for c(2 x 2) S on Ni(100) reveals an order of magnitude higher sensitivity of the FY technique. Using FY detection, thiophene (C 4 H 4 S) chemisorption on Ni(100) is studied with S coverages down to 0.08 monolayer. The molecule dissociates at temperatures as low as 100K by interaction with fourfold hollow Ni sites. Blocking of these sites by oxygen leaves the molecule intact

  10. In situ X-ray probing reveals fingerprints of surface platinum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebel, Daniel; Miller, Daniel J; O'Grady, Christopher P; Anniyev, Toyli; Bargar, John; Bergmann, Uwe; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Pettersson, Lars G M; Nilsson, Anders

    2011-01-07

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L(3) edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard X-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF code and complementary extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  11. In Situ X-Ray Probing Reveals Fingerprints of Surface Platinum Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friebel, Daniel

    2011-08-24

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L{sub 3} edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard x-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code and complementary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  12. Automated x-ray television complex for inspecting standard-size dynamic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Luk'yanenko, E.A.; Chelnokov, V.B.; Kuleshov, V.K.; Alkhimov, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    An automated x-ray television complex based on a matrix gas-discharge converter having a large area (2.1 x 1.0 m) for inspecting standard-size freight and containers and for diagnosing industrial articles is presented. The pulsed operating mode of the complex with a 512K digital television storage makes it possible to inspect dynamic objects with a minimum dose load (20--100 μR). 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Automated X-ray television complex for testing large dynamic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Luk'yanenko, Eh.A.; Chelnokov, V.B.; Kuleshov, V.K.; Alkhimov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    An automated X-ray television complex on the base of matrix gas-dischage large-area (2.1x1.0 m) converter for testing large cargoes and containers, as well as for inductrial article diagnostics is described. The complex pulsed operation with the 512 kbytes television digital memory unit provides for testing dynamic objects under minimal doses (20-100 μR)

  14. X-Ray Reflectivity from the Surface of a Liquid Crystal:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pershan, P.S.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1984-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity from the surface of a nematic liquid crystal is interpreted as the coherent superposition of Fresnel reflection from the surface and Bragg reflection from smectic order induced by the surface. Angular dependence of the Fresnel effect yields information on surface structure....... Measurement of the intensity of diffuse critical scattering relative to the Fresnel reflection yields the absolute value of the critical part of the density-density correlation function....

  15. Reference-free total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of semiconductor surfaces with synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fliegauf, Rolf; Kolbe, Michael; Müller, Matthias; Weser, Jan; Ulm, Gerhard

    2007-10-15

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a well-established method to monitor lowest level contamination on semiconductor surfaces. Even light elements on a wafer surface can be excited effectively when using high-flux synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray range. To meet current industrial requirements in nondestructive semiconductor analysis, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) operates dedicated instrumentation for analyzing light element contamination on wafer pieces as well as on 200- and 300-mm silicon wafer surfaces. This instrumentation is also suited for grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis and conventional energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of buried and surface nanolayered structures, respectively. The most prominent features are a high-vacuum load-lock combined with an equipment front end module and a UHV irradiation chamber with an electrostatic chuck mounted on an eight-axis manipulator. Here, the entire surface of a 200- or a 300-mm wafer can be scanned by monochromatized radiation provided by the plane grating monochromator beamline for undulator radiation in the PTB laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This beamline provides high spectral purity and high photon flux in the range of 0.078-1.86 keV. In addition, absolutely calibrated photodiodes and Si(Li) detectors are used to monitor the exciting radiant power respectively the fluorescence radiation. Furthermore, the footprint of the excitation radiation at the wafer surface is well-known due to beam profile recordings by a CCD during special operation conditions at BESSY II that allow for drastically reduced electron beam currents. Thus, all the requirements of completely reference-free quantitation of TXRF analysis are fulfilled and are to be presented in the present work. The perspectives to arrange for reference-free quantitation using X-ray tube-based, table-top TXRF analysis are also addressed.

  16. Real-Time Observation of Surface Bond Breaking with an X-ray Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface Molecules Not Quite Desorbing The dynamics of molecules desorbing from or adsorbing on surfaces requires that molecules rapidly gain or lose a large amount or translational and rotational energy to enter or leave the gas phase. An intermediate precursor state has long been invoked in which...... molecules interact weakly with the surface but translate along it and exchange energy without forming localized surface bonds. Dell'Angela et al. (p. 1302) found evidence for such a state in changes in x-ray absorption and emission spectra of CO molecules adsorbed on a ruthenium surface after optical...... excitation rapidly heated the surface. The use of a free electron laser provided high time resolution for x-ray spectroscopy studies. Density function theory and modeling of high temperature states revealed a state that forms from molecules that have not overcome the desorption barrier during heating...

  17. The survey of the surface doses of the dental x-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variability of doses with same exposure parameters and evaluate radiographic density according to the variability of doses. Twenty-eight MAX-GLS (Shinhung Co, Seoul, Korea), twenty-one D-60-S (DongSeo Med, Seoul, Korea), and eleven REX-601 (Yoshida Dental MFG, Tokyo, Japan) dental x-ray machines were selected for this study. Surface doses were measured under selected combinations of tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, and constant distance 42 cm from the focal spot to the surface of the Multi-O-meter (Unfors Instrument, Billdal, Sweden). Radiographic densities were measured on the films at maximum, minimum and mean surface doses of each brand of x-ray units. With MAX-GLS, the maximum surface doses were thirteen to fourteen times as much as the minimum surfaces doses. With D-60-S, the maximum surface doses were three to eight times as much as the minimum surface doses. With REX-601, the maximum surface doses were six to ten times as much as the minimum surface doses. The differences in radiographic densities among maximum, mean, and minimum doses were significant (p<0.01). The surface exposure doses of each x-ray machine at the same exposure parameters were different within the same manufacturer's machines.

  18. Atomic structure of the SbCu surface alloy: A surface X-ray diffraction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, I.; Gay, J.M.; Lapena, L.

    1999-01-01

    The dissolution at 400 degrees C of an antimony layer deposited at room temperature on a Cu(111) substrate leads to a surface alloy with a p(root 3x root 3)R 30 degrees x 30 degrees superstructure and a Sb composition of 1/3.We present here a structural study of this Sb-Cu compound by surface X......-ray diffraction (SXRD). The best agreement is obtained for a Cu,Sb surface layer with Sb atoms substituting 1/3 of the Cu atoms, over an essentially unperturbed Cu(111) plane. The largest relaxation is undergone by the Sb atoms which rise by 0.32+0.02 Angstrom over the mean plane of its Cu neighbours....... No substantial in-plane relaxations were observed. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. X-ray-enhanced cancer cell migration requires the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hiromasa; Sato, Katsutoshi; Nishihara, Asuka; Minami, Kazumasa; Koizumi, Masahiko; Matsuura, Nariaki; Hieda, Miki

    2018-04-01

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, including nuclear migration, mechanotransduction, chromatin tethering and DNA damage response. We recently showed that a nuclear envelope protein, Sad1 and UNC84 domain protein 1 (SUN1), a component of the LINC complex, has a critical function in cell migration. Although ionizing radiation activates cell migration and invasion in vivo and in vitro, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we examined the involvement of the LINC complex in radiation-enhanced cell migration and invasion. A sublethal dose of X-ray radiation promoted human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion, whereas carbon ion beam radiation suppressed these processes in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of SUN1 and SUN2 significantly suppressed X-ray-enhanced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, depletion or overexpression of each SUN1 splicing variant revealed that SUN1_888 containing 888 amino acids of SUN1 but not SUN1_916 was required for X-ray-enhanced migration and invasion. In addition, the results suggested that X-ray irradiation affected the expression level of SUN1 splicing variants and a SUN protein binding partner, nesprins. Taken together, our findings supported that the LINC complex contributed to photon-enhanced cell migration and invasion. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study of some hydroxamic mixed ligand copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A; Parsai, N; Shrivastava, B D; Soni, N

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of modern bright synchrotron radiation sources, X-ray absorption spectra has emerged as a powerful technique for local structure determination, which can be applied to any type of material. The X-ray absorption measurements of four hydroxamic mixed ligand copper complexes have been performed at the recently developed BL-8 Dispersive EXAFS beamline at 2.5 GeV Indus-2 synchrotron at RRCAT, Indore, India. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data obtained has been processed using data analysis program Athena. The energies of the K absorption edge, chemical shifts, edge-widths, shifts of the principal absorption maximum in the complexes have been determined. The values of the chemical shift suggest that copper is in oxidation state +2 in all of the complexes. The chemical shift data has been utilized to estimate effective nuclear charge on copper atom. The order of the chemical shifts has been correlated to the relative ionic character of the bonding in these complexes.

  1. X-ray spectroscopy of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Ken; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K

    2007-04-05

    Water oxidation to dioxygen in photosynthesis is catalyzed by a Mn4Ca cluster with O bridging in Photosystem II (PS II) of plants, algae and cyanobacteria. A variety of spectroscopic methods have been applied to analyzing the participation of the complex. X-ray spectroscopy is particularly useful because it is element-specific, and because it can reveal important structural features of the complex with high accuracy and identify the participation of Mn in the redox chemistry. Following a brief history of the application of X-ray spectroscopy to PS II, an overview of newer results will be presented and a description of the present state of our knowledge based on this approach.

  2. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, M.; Hasebe, N.; Kusano, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y.; Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kim, K.J.; Lopes, J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation

  3. Synthesis, X-ray crystallography, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, thermal and kinetic study of uranyl Schiff base complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asadi, Z.; Golzard, F.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 20 (2013), s. 3629-3646 ISSN 0095-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0809 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray crystallography * uranyl Schiff base complex * kinetics of thermal decomposition * cyclic voltammetry * kinetics and mechanism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.224, year: 2013

  4. Quantitative strain analysis of surfaces and interfaces using extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Koichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Emoto, Takashi, E-mail: akimoto@nagoya-u.j [Toyota National College of Technology, Toyota, Aichi 471-8525 (Japan)

    2010-12-01

    Strain can reduce carrier mobility and the reliability of electronic devices and affect the growth mode of thin films and the stability of nanometer-scale crystals. To control lattice strain, a technique for measuring the minute lattice strain at surfaces and interfaces is needed. Recently, an extremely asymmetric x-ray diffraction method has been developed for this purpose. By employing Darwin's dynamical x-ray diffraction theory, quantitative evaluation of strain at surfaces and interfaces becomes possible. In this paper, we review our quantitative strain analysis studies on native SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces, reconstructed Si surfaces, Ni/Si(111)-H interfaces, sputtered III-V compound semiconductor surfaces, high-k/Si interfaces, and Au ion-implanted Si. (topical review)

  5. Study of the grazing-incidence X-ray scattering of strongly disturbed fractal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchin, B. S., E-mail: ross@crys.ras.ru; Chukhovsky, F. N.; Pavlyuk, M. D.; Opolchentsev, A. M.; Asadchikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The applicability of different approaches to the description of hard X-ray scattering from rough surfaces is generally limited by a maximum surface roughness height of no more than 1 nm. Meanwhile, this value is several times larger for the surfaces of different materials subjected to treatment, especially in the initial treatment stages. To control the roughness parameters in all stages of surface treatment, a new approach has been developed, which is based on a series expansion of wavefield over the plane eigenstate-function waves describing the small-angle scattering of incident X-rays in terms of plane q-waves propagating through the interface between two media with a random function of relief heights. To determine the amplitudes of reflected and transmitted plane q-waves, a system of two linked integral equations was derived. The solutions to these equations correspond (in zero order) to the well-known Fresnel expressions for a smooth plane interface. Based on these solutions, a statistical fractal model of an isotropic rough interface is built in terms of root-mean-square roughness σ, two-point correlation length l, and fractal surface index h. The model is used to interpret X-ray scattering data for polished surfaces of single-crystal cadmium telluride samples.

  6. X-ray diffraction study of Penicillium Vitale catalase in the complex with aminotriazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovik, A. A.; Grebenko, A. I.; Melik-Adamyan, V. R., E-mail: mawr@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme catalase from Penicillium vitale in a complex with the inhibitor aminotriazole was solved and refined by protein X-ray crystallography methods. An analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the complex showed that the inhibition of the enzyme occurs as a result of the covalent binding of aminotriazole to the amino-acid residue His64 in the active site of the enzyme. An investigation of the three-dimensional structure of the complex resulted in the amino-acid residues being more precisely identified. The binding sites of saccharide residues and calcium ions in the protein molecule were found.

  7. Surface modification of tooth root canal after application of an X-ray opaque waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, T.; Jelínková, H.; Šulc, J.; Němec, M.; Koranda, P.; Bartoňová, M.; Radina, P.; Miyagi, M.; Shi, Y.-W.; Matsuura, Y.

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems has been increasing. With the development of thin and flexible delivery systems for various wavelengths, laser applications in endodontics may become even more desirable. The aim of this study is to check the X-ray opacity of a hollow waveguide and to observe the results after laser root canal treatment. The root canal systems of 10 molars were treated endodontically by laser. For the laser radiation source, an Er:YAG laser system generating a wavelength of 2940 nm and an Alexandrite laser system generating a wavelength of 375 nm were used. The hollow waveguide used was checked under X-ray . A root canal surface treated by laser radiation was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The special hollow glass waveguide used was visible in the root canal system under X-ray imaging. Surface modification of the root canal after laser treatment was not found. After conventional treatment the root canal was enlarged. The surface was covered with a smear layer. After application of both laser systems, the smear layer was removed. The resulting canal surface was found to be clean and smooth. Under SEM observation open dentinal tubules were visible. No cracks were present, nor were surface modifications observed.

  8. Studies of float glass surfaces by neutron and x-ray reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgliesh, R.

    2001-09-01

    The surface of glass and glass coatings have been studied using x-ray and neutron scattering techniques. In particular, the effect of aqueous solutions and humid atmospheres on both the fire polished and the tin rich side of float glass have been investigated using neutron and x-ray reflection. Isotopic substitution has enabled the number density of water molecules within the float glass surface to be monitored with respect to immersion time, temperature and impurity content. A thin gel-like water-rich layer of thickness ∼30A is observed at the surface accompanied by a more deeply penetrating layer which increases in depth with time reaching ∼500A after 6 months. The rate of water ingression is higher than predicted from previous work carried out at elevated temperatures. Small decreases in the depth of penetration have been observed for glass containing alumina and tin. Water penetration into thin films made by a sol-gel process have also been studied. The hydrophobicity of these films had been varied by the addition of fluoroalkylsilane. Neutron and X-ray reflection revealed that water entered the highly hydrophobic films readily from the vapour phase. This suggests a method of film destabilisation by which water enters the film and freezes, causing the film to crack. Changes in fluoroalkylsilane content and annealing have little effect on the penetration of water into the coatings. Etched float glass surfaces have been used as a system for testing the applicability of current off-specular scattering models. A rich surface structure has been found which results in reflection effects that cannot be explained by these models. Model systems have also been developed in an attempt to combine x-ray fluorescence techniques with reflectivity. (author)

  9. Transference of surface markers in X-ray, CT- and MR-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevelhoerster, T.; Poetter, R.; Prott, F.J.; Dittrich, M.

    1995-01-01

    By using pharmacological capsules and plastic tubes filled with oily contrast medium contraining iodine (Lipiodol; Byk Gulden), marking aids were developed which can be seen in similar definite limits within the framework of MRI-, CT- and conventional X-ray-Imaging. A method to view these new, artificial markers in combination with individual, anatomical landmarks is introduced. The marking aid/surface marker, fixed on anatomical reference structures on the skin, does not result in an additional burden for the patient. The new, artificial markers are also useful for making other structures recognizable, such as anatomical relation lines, center of the portal and edges in planning imaging for radiotherapy treatments and are used as leading and reference structures to compare localisation and extent of lesions in X-ray-, CT- and MRI. Marking aids/surface markers do not have to be changed in different imaging methods. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Determination of metal-ligand stoichiometries for inorganic complexes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, E D; Bennun, L; Gomez, J; Nemeth, P; Sajo-Bohus, L

    The methods usually used to determine the ratio metal-ligand in inorganic complexes require a set of solutions with different concentrations for both the ligand and metal. We propose a new method using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique, in which the ratio between metal and ligand is determined precisely, easily, and quickly. Experimental results provide evidence that for different chemical complexes, the ligand-metal ratio determined by this technique deviates at most from stoichiometric values by 6%. The technique is restricted usually to elements with Z above 14, and its detection limit is on the order of 10(-8) g/g.

  11. Bulk and surface effects in x-ray magnetic circular dichroism of iron clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipr, Ondřej; Ebert, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2003), s. 55-62 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Surface Physics /9./. Třešt', 02.09.2002-06.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0841 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray magnetic circular dichroism * clusters * spin-polarized relativistic KKR Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2003

  12. X-ray beam penetration in TXRF measurement of polycrystalline and amorphous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak-Roy, A.R.; Hossain, T.Z.

    2000-01-01

    For TXRF measurement on single crystal silicon surface, it is generally agreed that the x-ray beam penetration is of the order of a few hundred Angstroms from the surface. However, for polycrystalline and amorphous surfaces - frequently used in semiconductor manufacturing there are evidences that x-rays penetrate much deeper revealing underlying layers. The evidences come from various measurements done with films such as silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and metal films such as aluminum, titanium and cobalt. A systematic study was carried out to help understand the issue further. Four sets of samples (on 8 inch wafers) were prepared to create layers buried under various deposited metal and non-metal layers. The metal layers created were aluminum, titanium and cobalt and the non-metal layers were silicon dioxide and silicon nitride. These samples were analyzed by TXRF under various angles and energies and the data were analyzed for signals from various buried layers along with their angular dependence. The results indicated deep penetration of x-ray beams. The samples were further analyzed by SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and some of them by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) to obtain information about their depth profiles. This was done in order to rule out the possibility of intermixing of layers during deposition. (author)

  13. Characterisation of engineered surfaces and molecular sensing by neutron and X-ray reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will give a theoretical and experimental background to the techniques of X-ray and neutron reflectometry for the study of nanoscale thin-films and processes occurring at surfaces. It will discuss the design of optimum samples; as well as the limits of X-ray and neutron reflectometry for such studies. Investigations of thin-films and surfaces in Australia has entered a 'golden age', with the combination of the Platypus time-of-flight neutron reflectometer and a modern laboratory-based X-ray reflectometer at the OPAL research reactor in Sydney. The presentation will then concentrate on studies of engineered thin-film nanostructures. These studies represent a cross-section of results from the first 18 months of operation of the Platypus neutron reflectometer in 2009 and 2010. Molecular systems that will be reported include self-assembled monolayers, diblock copolymer thin-films, bioimetic membranes and light-emitting surfaces created by polymers or fluorescent dendrimers. (author)

  14. Reflection of X-rays from a rough surface at extremely small grazing angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mingwu; Kozhevnikov, Igor V; Wang, Zhanshan

    2015-09-21

    Peculiarities of X-ray diffraction from a rough surface at an extremely small grazing angle of an incident beam are theoretically studied. The interrelation of four diffraction channels (coherent reflectance, coherent transmittance, diffuse scattering in vacuum, and scattering into the matter depth) is analyzed for different limiting cases (large and small correlation length of roughness and large and extremely small grazing angle of incident radiation). Both the Debye-Waller and the Nevot-Croce factors are demonstrated to describe improperly the features of X-ray diffraction at extremely small grazing angles. More appropriate simple analytic expressions for the specular reflectivity and total integrated scattering in vacuum are obtained instead. Transformation of one limiting diffraction regime into another one with variation in the correlation length of roughness is discussed.

  15. Surface arsenic speciation of a drinking-water treatment residual using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Parsons, Jason G; Datta, Rupali; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2007-07-15

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine the stability of As sorbed by an Fe-based WTR. Arsenic(V) and As(III) sorption kinetics were biphasic in nature, sorbing >90% of the initial added As (15,000 mg kg(-1)) after 48 h of reaction. Subsequent desorption experiments with a high P load (7500 mg kg(-1)) showed negligible As desorption for both As species, approximately <3.5% of sorbed As; the small amount of desorbed As was attributed to the abundance of sorption sites. XANES data showed that sorption kinetics for either As(III) or As(V) initially added to solution had no effect on the sorbed As oxidation state. EXAFS spectroscopy suggested that As added either as As(III) or as As(V) formed inner-sphere mononuclear, bidentate complexes, suggesting the stability of the sorbed As, which was further corroborated by the minimum As desorption from the Fe-WTR.

  16. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of copper(II) complexes at the air-water interface by a polarized total-reflection X-ray absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Hirohisa; Tanida, Hajime; Watanabe, Iwao; Sagara, Takamasa

    2009-04-01

    Copper(II) complexes spread on an aqueous solution surface were studied by a polarized total-reflection X-ray absorption fine structure (TR-XAFS) technique. The polarized TR-XAFS spectra at the Cu-K edge for copper(II) porphyrins and copper(II) chlorophyllin in a monolayer were measured in situ at the air-water interface. The polarization dependences of X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) involving a 1s-->4p(z) transition allowed us to estimate the molecular orientation and the local coordination structure around the copper(II) atom in the polarization plane selectively. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) region of the polarized TR-XAFS spectra for the metal complexes present at the air-water interface was successfully analyzed for the first time. The relative coordination number for the copper center evaluated from the EXAFS analysis indicated larger values in the vertical polarization than in the horizontal one, in agreement with the standing-up molecular orientation at the air-water interface estimated from the XANES region.

  17. Scattering of X-rays on the surface acoustic wave in the case of grazing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Petrosian, A

    2000-01-01

    The scattering of X-rays on a crystal is considered in grazing geometry when a surface acoustic wave is excited normal to the diffraction vector. The intensity of wave field at finite distance from crystal to detector is obtained. It is shown that in the presence of surface acoustic wave the magnitude of the main peak of specular reflected diffracted wave intensity decreases and intensity of satellites increases. The main peak of specular reflected diffracted wave intensity is split up as the grazing observation angle increases.

  18. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism discloses surface spins correlation in maghemite hollow nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Valentina; Basini, Martina; Peddis, Davide; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Rossi, Giorgio; Torelli, Piero

    2018-01-01

    The spin-spin correlations in hollow (H) and full (F) maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). An unexpected XMCD signal was detected and analyzed under the application of a small field (μ0H = 160 Oe) and at remanence for both F and H NPs. Clear differences in the magnitude and in the lineshape of the XMCD spectra between F and H NPs emerged. By comparing XMCD measurements performed with a variable degree of surface sensitivity, we were able to address the specific role played by the surface spins in the magnetism of the NPs.

  19. Surface functional group characterization using chemical derivatization X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagst, Eda

    2011-03-18

    Chemical derivatization - X-ray photolectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS) was applied successfully in order to determine different functional groups on thin film surfaces. Different amino group carrying surfaces, prepared by spin coating, self-assembly and plasma polymerization, were successfully investigated by (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Amino groups were derivatized with the widely used primary amino group tags, pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFB) and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzaldehyde (TFBA), prior to analysis. Primary amino group quantification was then carried out according to the spectroscopical data. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of different terminal groups were prepared and investigated with XPS and spectra were compared with reference surfaces. An angle resolved NEXAFS measurement was applied to determine the orientation of SAMs. Plasma polymerized allylamine samples with different duty cycle, power and pressure values were prepared in order to study the effects of external plasma parameters on the primary amino group retention. CD-XPS was used to quantify the amino groups and experiments show, that the milder plasma conditions promote the retention of amino groups originating from the allylamine monomer. An interlaboratory comparison of OH group determination on plasma surfaces of polypropylene treated with oxygen plasma, was studied. The surfaces were investigated with XPS and the [OH] amount on the surfaces was calculated. (orig.)

  20. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-29

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials' functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  1. Detection of concealed cars in complex cargo X-ray imagery using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Rogers, Thomas W; Morton, Edward J; Griffin, Lewis D

    2017-01-01

    Non-intrusive inspection systems based on X-ray radiography techniques are routinely used at transport hubs to ensure the conformity of cargo content with the supplied shipping manifest. As trade volumes increase and regulations become more stringent, manual inspection by trained operators is less and less viable due to low throughput. Machine vision techniques can assist operators in their task by automating parts of the inspection workflow. Since cars are routinely involved in trafficking, export fraud, and tax evasion schemes, they represent an attractive target for automated detection and flagging for subsequent inspection by operators. Development and evaluation of a novel method for the automated detection of cars in complex X-ray cargo imagery. X-ray cargo images from a stream-of-commerce dataset were classified using a window-based scheme. The limited number of car images was addressed by using an oversampling scheme. Different Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures were compared with well-established bag of words approaches. In addition, robustness to concealment was evaluated by projection of objects into car images. CNN approaches outperformed all other methods evaluated, achieving 100% car image classification rate for a false positive rate of 1-in-454. Cars that were partially or completely obscured by other goods, a modus operandi frequently adopted by criminals, were correctly detected. We believe that this level of performance suggests that the method is suitable for deployment in the field. It is expected that the generic object detection workflow described can be extended to other object classes given the availability of suitable training data.

  2. Observation on Surface Change of Fragile Glass: Temperature - Time Dependence Studied by X-Ray Reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Hiroyuki; Kitahara, Amane; Takahashi, Isao

    2004-01-01

    The structural change of a fragile glass surface close to the glass transition temperature Tg is studied by using X-ray reflectivity. Measurements were performed on surfaces of maltitol, which is a typical polyalcohol fragile glass with Tg = 320K. Upon both heating and cooling, we find the following features which are also noticed in silicate glass surfaces: (i) On heating, the surface morphology indicates a variation at temperatures below Tg; (ii) A drastic increase in surface roughness occurs at a temperature about 333K on heating, which is 13K higher than Tg; (iii) During the cooling of the sample, formation of a low-density surface layer (3nm at 293K) is observed. Prior to the crystallization, nm - μm sized domains were grown at the surface, which might not be reported for other glasses

  3. X-Ray structure and cytotoxic activity of a picolinate ruthenium(II–arene complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA IVANOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A ruthenium(II–arene complex with picolinic acid, [(η6-p-cymeneRuCl(pico]∙H2O, was prepared by the reaction of [(η6-p-cymeneRuCl2]2 with picolinic acid in a 1:2 molar ratio in 2-propanol. The compound was characterized by elemental analysis, and IR and NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the molecule adopts a “three-leg piano-stool” geometry, which is common for this type of complexes. The cytotoxic activity of the complex was tested in two human cancer cell lines HeLa (cervix and FemX (melanoma by MTT assay. The IC50 values were at 82.0 and 36.2 µmol dm-3 for HeLa and FemX cells, respectively.

  4. Determining surface coverage of ultra-thin gold films from X-ray reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossoy, A.; Simakov, D.; Olafsson, S.; Leosson, K.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes usage of X-ray reflectivity for characterization of surface coverage (i.e. film continuity) of ultra-thin gold films which are widely studied for optical, plasmonic and electronic applications. The demonstrated method is very sensitive and can be applied for layers below 1 nm. It has several advantages over other techniques which are often employed in characterization of ultra-thin metal films, such as optical absorption, Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy or Scanning Electron Microscopy. In contrast to those techniques our method does not require specialized sample preparation and measurement process is insensitive to electrostatic charge and/or presence of surface absorbed water. We validate our results with image processing of Scanning Electron Microscopy images. To ensure precise quantitative analysis of the images we developed a generic local thresholding algorithm which allowed us to treat series of images with various values of surface coverage with similar image processing parameters. - Highlights: • Surface coverage/continuity of ultra-thin Au films (up to 7 nm) was determined. • Results from X-ray reflectivity were verified by scanning electron microscopy. • We developed local thresholding algorithm to treat non-homogeneous image contrast

  5. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  6. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  7. Surface dose of X rays to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qingqi; Weng Zhigeng; Feng Ming; Wang Guomin.

    1990-01-01

    During extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), the fluoroscopy must be made to show the location and size of the stone thus the patient has to be exposed to X rays. The surface dose to patients during ESWL was measured in an investigation on 134 cases of renal lithiasis admitted in a certain hospital of Shanghai. The results show that the average skin dose equivalent for these patients was 162 mSv and the magnitude of doses was depended upon some factors such as the size and location of the stone

  8. Surface analysis of Al alloys with X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakairi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Keita; Sasaki, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were applied to investigate passive films formed on aluminum alloy in 0.5 kmol m -3 H 3 BO 3 /0.05 kmol m -3 Na 2 B 4 O 7 with different metal cations. The metal cation is classified by metal cation hardness, X, which are calculated based on the concept of hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) of the acid and base in Lewis's rule. From XPS analysis, the metal cations with X > 4 were incorporated in passive films. The area-selected surface analysis of AES was also introduced. (author)

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of synchrotron radiation irradiation of a polytetrafluoroethylene surface

    CERN Document Server

    Haruyama, Y; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The effect of synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After the SR irradiation, the relative intensity of the F ls peak to the C ls peak decreased markedly. The chemical composition ratio to the F atoms to C atoms was estimated to be 0.29. From the curve fitting analysis of C ls and F ls XPS spectra, the chemical components and their intensity ratio were determined. The reason for the chemical composition change by the SR irradiation was discussed. (author)

  10. The surface preparation of beryl crystals for X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, R.W.; Kent, B.J.

    1980-08-01

    One of the few crystals available for X-ray spectroscopy in the 10 to 15 A band is natural beryl. Surface preparation of beryl crystals by etching in hydrofluric acid followed by polishing in X-30 syton is shown to bring the rocking curve widths (FWHM) as measured on a two-crystal spectrometer to the near perfect values of 5 arc sec at Cu Kα (1.54 A) and 3.3 arc min at Cu Lα (13.31 A). In addition the crystals peak reflectivity can be enhanced by a factor eight times that of flat and ground but otherwise untreated crystals. (author)

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of a Melan-A pMHC–TCR complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Fang [Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Georgiou, Theonie; Hillon, Theresa [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Gostick, Emma; Price, David A. [Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Sewell, Andrew K. [Medical Biochemistry and Immunology, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff CF14 4XN,Wales (United Kingdom); Moysey, Ruth; Gavarret, Jessie; Vuidepot, Annelise; Sami, Malkit [Medigene, 57c Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxdfordshire OX14 4RX (United Kingdom); Bell, John I. [Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Gao, George F. [Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 13 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100080 (China); Rizkallah, Pierre J., E-mail: p.j.rizkallah@dl.ac.uk [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Jakobsen, Bent K., E-mail: p.j.rizkallah@dl.ac.uk [Medigene, 57c Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxdfordshire OX14 4RX (United Kingdom); Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-01

    A preliminary X-ray crystal structural study of a soluble cognate T-cell receptor (TCR) in complex with a pMHC presenting the Melan-A peptide (ELAGIGILTV) is reported. The TCR and pMHC were refolded, purified and mixed together to form complexes, which were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single TCR–pMHC complex crystals were cryocooled and used for data collection. Melanocytes are specialized pigmented cells that are found in all healthy skin tissue. In certain individuals, diseased melanocytes can form malignant tumours, melanomas, which cause the majority of skin-cancer-related deaths. The melanoma-associated antigenic peptides are presented on cell surfaces via the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among the melanoma-associated antigens, the melanoma self-antigen A/melanoma antigen recognized by T cells (Melan-A/MART-1) has attracted attention because of its wide expression in primary and metastatic melanomas. Here, a preliminary X-ray crystal structural study of a soluble cognate T-cell receptor (TCR) in complex with a pMHC presenting the Melan-A peptide (ELAGIGILTV) is reported. The TCR and pMHC were refolded, purified and mixed together to form complexes, which were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single TCR–pMHC complex crystals were cryocooled and used for data collection. Diffraction data showed that these crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}/P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 120.4, c = 81.6 Å. A complete data set was collected to 3.1 Å and the structure is currently being analysed.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of a Melan-A pMHC–TCR complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fang; Georgiou, Theonie; Hillon, Theresa; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Sewell, Andrew K.; Moysey, Ruth; Gavarret, Jessie; Vuidepot, Annelise; Sami, Malkit; Bell, John I.; Gao, George F.; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Jakobsen, Bent K.

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary X-ray crystal structural study of a soluble cognate T-cell receptor (TCR) in complex with a pMHC presenting the Melan-A peptide (ELAGIGILTV) is reported. The TCR and pMHC were refolded, purified and mixed together to form complexes, which were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single TCR–pMHC complex crystals were cryocooled and used for data collection. Melanocytes are specialized pigmented cells that are found in all healthy skin tissue. In certain individuals, diseased melanocytes can form malignant tumours, melanomas, which cause the majority of skin-cancer-related deaths. The melanoma-associated antigenic peptides are presented on cell surfaces via the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among the melanoma-associated antigens, the melanoma self-antigen A/melanoma antigen recognized by T cells (Melan-A/MART-1) has attracted attention because of its wide expression in primary and metastatic melanomas. Here, a preliminary X-ray crystal structural study of a soluble cognate T-cell receptor (TCR) in complex with a pMHC presenting the Melan-A peptide (ELAGIGILTV) is reported. The TCR and pMHC were refolded, purified and mixed together to form complexes, which were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Single TCR–pMHC complex crystals were cryocooled and used for data collection. Diffraction data showed that these crystals belonged to space group P4 1 /P4 3 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 120.4, c = 81.6 Å. A complete data set was collected to 3.1 Å and the structure is currently being analysed

  13. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM studies on chromium (III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Dwivedi, Jagrati; Shukla, Kritika

    2015-01-01

    Five Chromium (III) complexes have been prepared using Schiff base ligands which derived from benzoin and five different amino acids (H 2 N-R). Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS and SEM method. X-Ray diffraction pattern analyzed that all chromium (III) complexes have hexagonal structure and crystalline, in nature, using Bruker D8 Advance instrument. Using VERTAX 70, FTIR spectroscopy reveals that Samples have (C=N), (C-O), (M-N) and (M-O) bonds in the range of 4000-400cm −1 . UV-VIS spectroscopy give information that samples absorb the visible light which is in the range of 380-780nm. For this, Lambda 960 spectrometer used. SEM is designed for studying of the solid objects, using JEOL JSM 5600 instrument

  14. On the nature of citrate-derived surface species on Ag nanoparticles: Insights from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri L.; Vorobyev, Sergey A.; Saikova, Svetlana V.; Vishnyakova, Elena A.; Romanchenko, Alexander S.; Zharkov, Sergey M.; Larichev, Yurii V.

    2018-01-01

    Citrate is an important stabilizing, reducing, and complexing reagent in the wet chemical synthesis of nanoparticles of silver and other metals, however, the exact nature of adsorbates, and its mechanism of action are still uncertain. Here, we applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, and other techniques in order to determine the surface composition and to specify the citrate-related species at Ag nanoparticles immobilized from the dense hydrosol prepared using room-temperature reduction of aqueous Ag+ ions with ferrous ions and citrate as stabilizer (Carey Lea method). It was found that, contrary to the common view, the species adsorbed on the Ag nanoparticles are, in large part, products of citrate decomposition comprising an alcohol group and one or two carboxylate bound to the surface Ag, and minor unbound carboxylate group; these may also be mixtures of citrate with lower molecular weight anions. No ketone groups were specified, and very minor surface Ag(I) and Fe (mainly, ferric oxyhydroxides) species were detected. Moreover, the adsorbates were different at AgNPs having various size and shape. The relation between the capping and the particle growth, colloidal stability of the high-concentration sol and properties of AgNPs is briefly considered.

  15. Root canal surface after application of an x-ray opaque waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Bartonova, Marie; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-05-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the methods used for shaping, cleaning, disinfecting, and sealing of a root canal. In the last few decades, big progress has been achieved in the application of the following methods: manual instrumentation, sonic and ultrasonic devices, and rotary instruments. The procedures used in the root canal system preparation result in a smear layer creation. The aim of this study was to give more precision to the smear layer removal using laser radiation. The root canal systems of 20 human teeth were treated endodontically. As laser radiation sources, Er:YAG laser system generating a wavelength of 2940 nm (rep. rate 1.5 Hz, spot size diameter 320 um, number of pulses 55, energy 100 mJ) and Alexandrite laser system generating a wavelength of 375 nm (rep. rate 1 Hz, spot size diameter 320 um, number of pulses 200, energy 1 mJ) were used. As a delivery system, a hollow glass waveguide with the special X-ray contrast cover was used. The flexible waveguide was moved via root canal and the laser radiation cleaned the wall surface. After application of Er:YAG laser radiation, the smear layer was fully removed, the surface was clean and smooth, and in the SEM investigation the open dentinal tubules were visible. No cracks were determined. The surface modifications were also not observed after endodontic preparation as well as Alexandrite laser radiation therapy. The whole treatment can be checked by X-ray machine.

  16. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  17. Creating flat-top X-ray beams by applying surface profiles of alternating curvature to deformable piezo bimorph mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P; Alcock, Simon G; Kashyap, Yogesh; Nistea, Ioana; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-11-01

    Beam shaping is becoming increasingly important for synchrotron X-ray applications. Although routine for visible light lasers, this is challenging for X-rays due to the limited source coherence and extreme optical tolerances required for the shaping mirrors. In deliberate defocusing, even surface errors mirrors of fixed curvature. Such optics are useful for providing a fixed size of X-ray beam, but do not provide the adaptability required by many experiments. In contrast, deformable piezo bimorph mirrors permit a continuous range of X-ray beam sizes and shapes. A new theory is developed for applying non-periodic modifications of alternating curvature to optical surfaces. The position and length of the segments may be freely chosen. For the first time, surface modifications of alternating curvature are applied to bimorph mirrors to generate non-Gaussian X-ray beam profiles of specified width. The new theory's freedom is exploited to choose the segments to match the polishing errors of medium wavelength (>10 mm) and the piezos' influence on the mirror's figure. Five- and seven-segment modifications of alternating curvature are calculated and verified by visible light and X-ray metrology. The latter yields beam profiles with less striation than those made by defocusing. Remaining beam striations are explained by applying geometrical optics to the deviations from the ideal surface modifications of alternating curvature.

  18. SSD effects on high energy x-ray surface and build up dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Dose in the build up region for high energy x-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator is affected by the x-ray source to patient surface distance (SSD). The use of isocentric treatments whereby the tumour is positions 100cm from the source means that depending of the depth of the tumour and the size of the patient, the SSD can vary from distances of 80cm to 100cm. To achieve larger field sizes, the SSD can also be extended out to 120cm at times. Results have shown that open fields are not significantly affected by SSD changes with deviations in percentage dose being less than 4% of maximum dose for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm SSD. With the introduction of beam modifying devices such as Perspex blocking trays, the effects are significant with a deviation of up to 22% measured at 6MV energy with a 6mm Perspex tray for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm. These variations are largest at the skin surface and reduce with depth. The use of a multi leaf collimator for blocking removes extra skin dose caused by the Perspex block trays with decreasing SSD. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  19. Impact of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose calculated with Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanqun; Li Jie; Wu Liping; Wang Pei; Lang Jinyi; Wu Dake; Xiao Mingyong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To calculate the effects of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose. Methods: The BEAMnrc Monte Carlo Code system, designed especially for computer simulation of radioactive sources, was performed to evaluate the effects of thermoplastic mask on X-ray surface dose.Thermoplastic mask came from our center with a material density of 1.12 g/cm 2 . The masks without holes, with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.1 cm, and with holes size of 0. 1 cm x 0.2 cm, and masks with different depth (0.12 cm and 0.24 cm) were evaluated separately. For those with holes, the material width between adjacent holes was 0.1 cm. Virtual masks with a material density of 1.38 g/cm 3 without holes with two different depths were also evaluated. Results: Thermoplastic mask affected X-rays surface dose. When using a thermoplastic mask with the depth of 0.24 cm without holes, the surface dose was 74. 9% and 57.0% for those with the density of 1.38 g/cm 3 and 1.12 g/cm 3 respectively. When focusing on the masks with the density of 1.12 g/cm 3 , the surface dose was 41.2% for those with 0.12 cm depth without holes; 57.0% for those with 0. 24 cm depth without holes; 44.5% for those with 0.24 cm depth with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.2 cm;and 54.1% for those with 0.24 cm depths with holes size of 0.1 cm x 0.1 cm.Conclusions: Using thermoplastic mask during the radiation increases patient surface dose. The severity is relative to the hole size and the depth of thermoplastic mask. The surface dose change should be considered in radiation planning to avoid severe skin reaction. (authors)

  20. Negligible water surface charge determined using Kelvin probe and total reflection X-ray fluorescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, Vladimir L; Möhwald, Helmuth; Konovalov, Oleg V; Knecht, Volker

    2013-09-07

    The water surface charge has been extensively debated in recent decades. Electrophoretic mobilities of air bubbles in water and disjoining pressures between the surfaces of aqueous films suggest that the surface of water exhibits a significant negative charge. This is commonly attributed to a strong adsorption of hydroxide ions at the interface, though spectroscopic measurements and simulation studies suggest surface depletion of hydroxide ions. Alternatively, the negative surface charge could arise from surface contamination with trace charged surfactants. We have probed the variation in the surface charge of water with pH by measuring surface potentials using the Kelvin probe technique. Independently, the abundance in the interfacial layer of "reporter ions" (Rb(+) and Br(-)), which must be affected by a charged surface, has been monitored using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXF) technique. Special care was taken to prove the high sensitivity of this technique as well as to avoid surface contaminants. The magnitude of the surface charge was found to be below 1 e per 500 nm(2) (TRXF). No evidence of variations in the surface potential between pH 2-3 and pH 9-12 was detected within the accuracies of the methods (5 mV for Kelvin probe and 2 mV for TRXF). Hence, our findings suggest that the clean water surface exhibits negligible charge in a wide pH range.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of CO2 reaction with polycrystalline uranium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kezhao; Yu Yong; Zhou Juesheng; Wu Sheng; Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei

    1999-10-01

    The adsorption of CO 2 on 'clean' depleted polycrystalline uranium metal surface has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at 300 K. The 'clean' surface were prepared by Ar + ion sputtering under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) condition with a base pressure 6.7 x 10 -8 Pa. The result s shows that adsorption of CO 2 on 'clean' uranium metal took place in total dissociation, and leads to the formation of uranium dioxide, uranium carbides and free carbon. The total dissociation of CO 2 produced carbon, oxygen species, CO 2 2- and CO 3 2- species. The diffusion tendency of carbon was much stronger than that of oxygen, and led to form a carbide in oxide-metal interface while the oxygen remained on their surface as an oxide

  2. The major-element composition of Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R; Starr, Richard D; Weider, Shoshana Z; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Ebel, Denton S; Ernst, Carolyn M; Evans, Larry G; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Schlemm, Charles E; Solomon, Sean C; Sprague, Ann L

    2011-09-30

    X-ray fluorescence spectra obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury indicate that the planet's surface differs in composition from those of other terrestrial planets. Relatively high Mg/Si and low Al/Si and Ca/Si ratios rule out a lunarlike feldspar-rich crust. The sulfur abundance is at least 10 times higher than that of the silicate portion of Earth or the Moon, and this observation, together with a low surface Fe abundance, supports the view that Mercury formed from highly reduced precursor materials, perhaps akin to enstatite chondrite meteorites or anhydrous cometary dust particles. Low Fe and Ti abundances do not support the proposal that opaque oxides of these elements contribute substantially to Mercury's low and variable surface reflectance.

  3. Spatially resolved quantification of agrochemicals on plant surfaces using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsche, Mauricio; Noga, Georg

    2009-12-01

    In the present study the principle of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), i.e. the detection of elements based on their characteristic X-rays, was used to localise and quantify organic and inorganic pesticides on enzymatically isolated fruit cuticles. Pesticides could be discriminated from the plant surface because of their distinctive elemental composition. Findings confirm the close relation between net intensity (NI) and area covered by the active ingredient (AI area). Using wide and narrow concentration ranges of glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, results showed that quantification of AI requires the selection of appropriate regression equations while considering NI, peak-to-background (P/B) ratio, and AI area. The use of selected internal standards (ISs) such as Ca(NO(3))(2) improved the accuracy of the quantification slightly but led to the formation of particular, non-typical microstructured deposits. The suitability of SEM-EDX as a general technique to quantify pesticides was evaluated additionally on 14 agrochemicals applied at diluted or regular concentration. Among the pesticides tested, spatial localisation and quantification of AI amount could be done for inorganic copper and sulfur as well for the organic agrochemicals glyphosate, glufosinate, bromoxynil and mancozeb. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Anisotropy enhanced X-ray scattering from solvated transition metal complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biasin, Elisa; van Driel, Tim B.; Levi, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray scattering patterns from photoexcited molecules in solution are in many cases anisotropic at the ultrafast time scales accessible at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). This anisotropy arises from the interaction of a linearly polarized UV-Vis pump laser pulse with the sample...

  5. X-ray interferometric Fourier holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balyan, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray interferometric Fourier holography is proposed and theoretically investigated. Fourier The X-ray interferometric Young fringes and object image reconstruction are investigated. It is shown that the interference pattern of two slits formed on the exit surface of the crystal-analyzer (the third plate of the interferometer) is the X-ray interferometric Young fringes. An expression for X-ray interferometric Young fringes period is obtained. The subsequent reconstruction of the slit image as an object is performed by means of Fourier transform of the intensity distribution on the hologram. Three methods of reconstruction of the amplitude transmission complex function of the object are presented: analytical - approximate method, method of iteration and step by step method. As an example the X-ray Fourier interferometric hologram recording and the complex amplitude transmission function reconstruction for a beryllium circular wire are considered

  6. PREFACE: Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques Exploring surfaces and buried interfaces of functional materials by advanced x-ray and neutron techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    This special issue is devoted to describing recent applications of x-ray and neutron scattering techniques to the exploration of surfaces and buried interfaces of various functional materials. Unlike many other surface-sensitive methods, these techniques do not require ultra high vacuum, and therefore, a variety of real and complicated surfaces fall within the scope of analysis. It must be particularly emphasized that the techniques are capable of seeing even buried function interfaces as well as the surface. Furthermore, the information, which ranges from the atomic to mesoscopic scale, is highly quantitative and reproducible. The non-destructive nature of the techniques is another important advantage of using x-rays and neutrons, when compared with other atomic-scale analyses. This ensures that the same specimen can be measured by other techniques. Such features are fairly attractive when exploring multilayered materials with nanostructures (dots, tubes, wires, etc), which are finding applications in electronic, magnetic, optical and other devices. The Japan Applied Physics Society has established a group to develop the research field of studying buried function interfaces with x-rays and neutrons. As the methods can be applied to almost all types of materials, from semiconductor and electronic devices to soft materials, participants have fairly different backgrounds but share a common interest in state-of-the-art x-ray and neutron techniques and sophisticated applications. A series of workshops has been organized almost every year since 2001. Some international interactions have been continued intensively, although the community is part of a Japanese society. This special issue does not report the proceedings of the recent workshop, although all the authors are in some way involved in the activities of the above society. Initially, we intended to collect quite long overview papers, including the authors' latest and most important original results, as well as

  7. Fine surface structure of unfixed and hydrated macrophages observed by laser-plasma x-ray contact microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Friedman, Herman; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Shioda, Seiji; Debari, Kazuhiro; Shinohara, Kunio; Rajyaguru, Jayshree; Richardson, Martin

    2000-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution, laser-plasma, x-ray contact microscope using a table-top Nd:glass laser system has been developed and utilized for the analysis of the surface structure of live macrophages. Fine fluffy surface structures of murine peritoneal macrophages, which were live, hydrolyzed and not sliced and stained, were observed by the x-ray microscope followed by analysis using an atomic force microscopy. In order to compare with other techniques, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the surface structure of the macrophages. The SEM offered a fine whole cell image of the same macrophages, which were fixed and dehydrated, but the surfaces were ruffled and different from that of x-ray images. A standard light microscope was also utilized to observe the shape of live whole macrophages. Light microscopy showed some fluffy surface structures of the macrophages, but the resolution was too low to observe the fine structures. Thus, the findings of fine fluffy surface structures of macrophages by x-ray microscopy provide valuable information for studies of phagocytosis, cell spreading and adherence, which are dependent on the surface structure of macrophages. Furthermore, the present study also demonstrates the usefulness of x-ray microscopy for analysis of structures of living cells

  8. Grazing angle X-ray fluorescence from periodic structures on silicon and silica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.H., E-mail: nowak@ifg-adlershof.de [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Banaś, D. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Błchucki, W.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Hönicke, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Hoszowska, J. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Jabłoński, Ł. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Kayser, Y. [Physics Department, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Reinhardt, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), D-10587 Berlin (Germany); Savu, A.V. [Microsystems Laboratory (LMIS1), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Szlachetko, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-08-01

    Various 3-dimensional nano-scaled periodic structures with different configurations and periods deposited on the surface of silicon and silica substrates were investigated by means of the grazing incidence and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques. Apart from the characteristics which are typical for particle- and layer-like samples, the measured angular intensity profiles show additional periodicity-related features. The latter could be explained by a novel theoretical approach based on simple geometrical optics (GO) considerations. The new GO-based calculations were found to yield results in good agreement with experiment, also in cases where other theoretical approaches are not valid, e.g., periodic particle distributions with an increased surface coverage.

  9. Grazing angle X-ray fluorescence from periodic structures on silicon and silica surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.H.; Banaś, D.; Błchucki, W.; Cao, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hönicke, P.; Hoszowska, J.; Jabłoński, Ł.; Kayser, Y.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Pajek, M.; Reinhardt, F.; Savu, A.V.; Szlachetko, J.

    2014-01-01

    Various 3-dimensional nano-scaled periodic structures with different configurations and periods deposited on the surface of silicon and silica substrates were investigated by means of the grazing incidence and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques. Apart from the characteristics which are typical for particle- and layer-like samples, the measured angular intensity profiles show additional periodicity-related features. The latter could be explained by a novel theoretical approach based on simple geometrical optics (GO) considerations. The new GO-based calculations were found to yield results in good agreement with experiment, also in cases where other theoretical approaches are not valid, e.g., periodic particle distributions with an increased surface coverage

  10. X-ray Emission Spectroscopy to Study Ligand Valence Orbitals in Mn Coordination Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Soldatov, Alexander V; Messinger, Johannes; Merz, Kathrin; Weyhermuller, Thomas; Bergmann, Uwe; Pushkar, Yulia; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Glatzel, Pieter

    2009-03-02

    We discuss a spectroscopic method to determine the character of chemical bonding and for the identification of metal ligands in coordination and bioinorganic chemistry. It is based on the analysis of satellite lines in X-ray emission spectra that arise from transitions between valence orbitals and the metal ion 1s level (valence-to-core XES). The spectra, in connection with calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), provide information that is complementary to other spectroscopic techniques, in particular X-ray absorption (XANES and EXAFS). The spectral shape is sensitive to protonation of ligands and allows ligands, which differ only slightly in atomic number (e.g., C, N, O...), to be distinguished. A theoretical discussion of the main spectral features is presented in terms of molecular orbitals for a series of Mn model systems: [Mn(H2O)6]2+, [Mn(H2O)5OH]+, [Mn(H2O)5NH2]+, and [Mn(H2O)5NH3]2+. An application of the method, with comparison between theory and experiment, is presented for the solvated Mn2+ ion in water and three Mn coordination complexes, namely [LMn(acac)N3]BPh4, [LMn(B2O3Ph2)(ClO4)], and [LMn(acac)N]BPh4, where L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, acac stands for the 2,4-pentanedionate anion, and B2O3Ph2 represents the 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-dibora-2-oxapropane-1,3-diolato dianion.

  11. The surface of 1-euro coins studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, F.; Gleeson, M.A.; Villette, J.; Kleyn, S.E.F.; Kleyn, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    The two alloy surfaces (pill and ring) that are present on 1-euro coins have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Comparison is made between coins from general circulation and coin surfaces that have been subjected to a variety of cleaning and oxidation treatments. The concentrations and possible oxidation states of the metals (nickel, copper and zinc) at the surface were derived from analysis of the 2p 3/2 core levels. The surface atomic ratios measured for the pill and the ring parts of the euro coins were compared to the official bulk ratios. This study shows a clear nickel enrichment of both pill and ring surfaces. Nickel at surface seems to be present mainly in hydroxide form although the chloride form cannot be excluded. A small concentration of zinc was present on the surface of the pill, even though it is not present in the bulk alloy. Evidence of both nickel and zinc surface enrichment is observed for the ring. No surface enrichment is observed for the atomically clean or oxidized alloy surfaces over a 60-h time scale

  12. X-ray studies of interfacial strontium-extractant complexes in a model solvent extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Mihaylov, Miroslav; Amoanu, Daniel; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Soderholm, L; Schlossman, Mark L

    2014-10-30

    The interfacial behavior of a model solvent extraction liquid-liquid system, consisting of solutions of dihexadecyl phosphate (DHDP) in dodecane and SrCl2 in water, was studied to determine the structure of the interfacial ion-extractant complex and its variation with pH. Previous experiments on a similar extraction system with ErCl3 demonstrated that the kinetics of the extraction process could be greatly retarded by cooling through an adsorption transition, thus providing a method to immobilize ion-extractant complexes at the interface and further characterize them with X-ray interface-sensitive techniques. Here, we use this same method to study the SrCl2 system. X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence near total reflection measured the molecular-scale interfacial structure above and below the adsorption transition for a range of pH. Below the transition, DHDP molecules form a homogeneous monolayer at the interface with Sr(2+) coverage increasing from zero to saturation (one Sr(2+) per two DHDP) within a narrow range of pH. Experimental values of Sr(2+) interfacial density determined from fluorescence measurements are larger than those from reflectivity measurements. Although both techniques probe Sr(2+) bound to DHDP, only the fluorescence provides adequate sensitivity to Sr(2+) in the diffuse double layer. A Stern equation determines the Sr(2+) binding constant from the reflectivity measurements and the additional Sr(2+) measured in the diffuse double layer is accounted for by Gouy-Chapman theory. Above the transition temperature, a dilute concentration of DHDP-Sr complexes resides at the interface, even for temperatures far above the transition. A comparison is made of the structure of the interfacial ion-extractant complex for this divalent metal ion to recent results on trivalent Er(3+) metal ions, which provides insight into the role of metal ion charge on the structure of interfacial ion-extractant complexes, as well as implications for extraction of these two

  13. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELDS AND AGE OF A COOL HYPERGIANT: XMM-NEWTON X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF VY CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montez, Rodolfo Jr.; Kastner, Joel H.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Turok, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    The complex circumstellar ejecta of highly evolved, cool hypergiants are indicative of multiple, asymmetric mass-loss events. To explore whether such episodic, non-isotropic mass loss may be driven by surface magnetic activity, we have observed the archetypical cool hypergiant VY CMa with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite observatory. The hypergiant itself is not detected in these observations. From the upper limit on the X-ray flux from VY CMa at the time of our observations (F X, UL ≈ 8 × 10 –14 erg cm –2 s –1 , corresponding to log L X /L bol ≤ –8), we estimate an average surface magnetic field strength fB ≤ 2 × 10 –3 G (where f is the filling factor of magnetically active surface regions). These X-ray results for VY CMa represent the most stringent constraints to date on the magnetic field strength near the surface of a hypergiant. VY CMa's mass loss is episodic, however, and the hypergiant may have been in a state of low surface magnetic activity during the XMM observations. The XMM observations also yield detections of more than 100 X-ray sources within ∼15' of VY CMa, roughly 50 of which have near-infrared counterparts. Analysis of X-ray hardness ratios and IR colors indicates that some of these field sources may be young, late-type stars associated with VY CMa, its adjacent molecular cloud complex, and the young cluster NGC 2362. Further study of the VY CMa field is warranted, given the potential to ascertain the evolutionary timescale of this enigmatic, massive star

  14. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Identifies Calcium-Uranyl-Carbonate Complexes at Environmental Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO2-CO3 complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO2-CO3 complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 lM uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO2-CO3 complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO2-CO3 complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations

  15. Probing Complex Structural Behaviour in Dynamically Compressed Matter Using Ultrafast X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Malcolm

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 25 years, the static compression community has found that structural complexity is almost ubiquitous in high-density matter, even in the elemental metals. And modern structure prediction methods have reported that this complexity continues to ultra-high pressures. The prediction that aluminum will adopt an incommensurate host--guest structure at multi-TPa pressures is particularly noteworthy. As such compressions can only be achieved dynamically, two fundamental questions arise. Firstly, are such complex structural forms able to form on the nanosecond timescales of dynamic compression experiments, and, secondly, if they do, how can we determine their structures? We are currently conducting campaigns at both NIF and LCLS to address and answer these questions, using nanosecond and femtosecond x-ray diffraction to detect phase changes, including melting, and determine the detailed structural response to dynamic compression. A particular aim is to obtain structural data on a par with that long available in static compression research. An overview of recent results from these campaigns, and comparisons to previous studies, will be given. This work is supported by EPSRC under Grant No. EP/J017051/1. Use of the LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  16. Development of glancing-incidence and glancing-take-off X-ray fluorescence apparatus for surface and thin-film analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Yamada, Takashi; Utaka, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    We have studied X-ray fluorescence analysis under glancing incidence and glancing take-off conditions. Recently, we have developed a third apparatus for detecting glancing-incidence and take-off X-ray fluorescence, which makes it possible to measure the incident-angle dependence, the take-off-angle dependence. X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray diffraction. Primarily, we have measured the take-off angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence using this apparatus. Glancing take-off X-ray fluorescence has some advantages in comparison with glancing-incidence X-ray fluorescence. The surface density and the absolute angles were determined by analysing the take-off angle dependence of the fluorescent X-rays emitted from identical atoms with the aid of the reciprocity theorem. (Author)

  17. The atomic surface structure of SrTiO3 (001) studied with synchrotron X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, V.; Konings, S.; van Hummel, G.J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Graafsma, H

    2005-01-01

    The atomic surface structure of single terminated SrTiO3(0 0 1) (1 × 1) is investigated employing surface X-ray diffraction. In order to obtain these surfaces a special treatment is needed consisting of chemical etching and annealing. Since this is done in an aqueous and subsequently oxygen

  18. Complex UV/X-ray variability of 1H 0707-495

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, P. K.; Dewangan, G. C.; Papadakis, I. E.; Patil, M. K.; Pal, Main; Kembhavi, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    We study the relationship between the UV and X-ray variability of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0707-495. Using a year-long Swift monitoring and four long XMM-Newton observations, we perform cross-correlation analyses of the UV and X-ray light curves, on both long and short time-scales. We also perform time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy on 1-2 ks scale, and study the relationship between the UV emission and the X-ray spectral components - soft X-ray excess and a power law. We find that the UV and X-ray variations anticorrelate on short, and possibly on long time-scales as well. Our results rule out reprocessing as the dominant mechanism for the UV variability, as well as the inward propagating fluctuations in the accretion rate. Absence of a positive correlation between the photon index and the UV flux suggests that the observed UV emission is unlikely to be the seed photons for the thermal Comptonization. We find a strong correlation between the continuum flux and the soft-excess temperature which implies that the soft excess is most likely the reprocessed X-ray emission in the inner accretion disc. Strong X-ray heating of the innermost regions in the disc, due to gravitational light bending, appears to be an important effect in 1H 0707-495, giving rise to a significant fraction of the soft excess as reprocessed thermal emission. We also find indications for a non-static, dynamic X-ray corona, where either the size or height (or both) vary with time.

  19. Analysis of Bacterial Cell Surface Chemical Composition Using Cryogenic X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, Madeleine; Shchukarev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a method for measuring the average surface chemical composition with respect to lipids, polysaccharides, and peptides (protein + peptidoglycan) for the outer part of the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cultures grown over night are washed with a buffer or saline at controlled pH. The analysis is done on fast-frozen bacterial cell pellets obtained after centrifugation, and the analysis requires access to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy instrumentation that can perform analyses at cryogenic temperatures (for example using liquid nitrogen). The method can be used to monitor changes in the cell wall composition following environmental stimuli or genetic mutations. The data obtained originate from the outermost part of the cell wall. Thus, it is expected that for gram-negative bacteria only the outer membrane and part of the periplasmic peptidoglycan layer is probed during analysis, and for gram-positive bacteria only the top nanometers of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall is monitored.

  20. Adsorbate induced surface alloy formation investigated by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev; Conradsen, Christian Nagstrup; McCarthy, David Norman

    2014-01-01

    Formation of meta-stable surface-alloys can be used as a way to tune the binding strength of reaction intermediates and could therefore be used as improved catalyst materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding the role of adsorbates on such alloy surfaces can provide new insights for engi...... and bulk Pt contributions. The study provides direct evidence on how it is possible to monitor the surface structure under near operation conditions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Formation of meta-stable surface-alloys can be used as a way to tune the binding strength of reaction intermediates and could therefore be used as improved catalyst materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Understanding the role of adsorbates on such alloy surfaces can provide new insights...... for engineering of more active or selective catalyst materials. Dynamical surface changes on alloy surfaces due to the adsorption of reactants in high gas pressures are challenging to investigate using standard characterization tools. Here we apply synchrotron illuminated near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron...

  1. Stability of underpotentially deposited Ag layers on a Au(111) surface studied by surface X-ray scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Toshihiro; Takakusagi, Satoru; Uosaki, Kohei

    2009-01-01

    Stability of underpotentially deposited (upd) Ag layers on Au(111) surface was investigated by surface X-ray scattering (SXS). While the complete pseudomorphic Ag bilayer on Au(111) surface obtained by upd at 10 mV (vs. Ag/Ag+) was maintained its structure even after the circuit was disconnected and the surface was exposed to ambient atmosphere, the pseudomorphic Ag monolayer obtained by upd at 50 mV was converted to a partial bilayer with the coverage of 0.66 ML and 0.46 ML for the 1st and 2...

  2. Recent Developments in the X-Ray Reflectivity Analysis for Rough Surfaces and Interfaces of Multilayered Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Fujii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray reflectometry is a powerful tool for investigations on rough surface and interface structures of multilayered thin film materials. The X-ray reflectivity has been calculated based on the Parratt formalism, accounting for the effect of roughness by the theory of Nevot-Croce conventionally. However, in previous studies, the calculations of the X-ray reflectivity often show a strange effect where interference effects would increase at a rough surface. And estimated surface and interface roughnesses from the X-ray reflectivity measurements did not correspond to the TEM image observation results. The strange result had its origin in a used equation due to a serious mistake in which the Fresnel transmission coefficient in the reflectivity equation is increased at a rough interface because of a lack of consideration of diffuse scattering. In this review, a new accurate formalism that corrects this mistake is presented. The new accurate formalism derives an accurate analysis of the X-ray reflectivity from a multilayer surface of thin film materials, taking into account the effect of roughness-induced diffuse scattering. The calculated reflectivity by this accurate reflectivity equation should enable the structure of buried interfaces to be analyzed more accurately.

  3. Initial stages of Pt(111) electrooxidation: dynamic and structural studies by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drnec, Jakub; Ruge, Martin; Reikowski, Finn; Rahn, Björn; Carlà, Francesco; Felici, Roberto; Stettner, Jochim; Magnussen, Olaf M.; Harrington, David A.

    2017-01-01

    In-situ surface X-ray diffraction is used to characterize the surface oxides on a Pt(111) surface in 0.1 M HClO 4 . Detailed analysis at two potentials confirms that the surface restructuring in the initial oxidation stages is consistent with a place exchange process between Pt and O atoms, and the exchanged Pt atoms are located above their original positions in the Pt(111) lattice. The (1,1,1.5) reflection is used to dynamically study the surface during cyclic voltammetry. The restructuring associated with the place exchange initiates with the CV peak at 1.05 V, even though multiple cycles to 1.17 V lead to no changes in the CV. The restructuring is reversible below a critical coverage of place exchanged Pt atoms, which we estimate to be between 0.07 and 0.15 ML. Extensive cycling to potentials higher or equal to 1.17 V leads to progressive disordering of the surface.

  4. X-ray crystal structure of a xanthine oxidase complex with the flavonoid inhibitor quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongnan; Pauff, James M; Hille, Russ

    2014-07-25

    Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the sequential hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to uric acid via xanthine as intermediate. Deposition of crystals of the catalytic product uric acid or its monosodium salt in human joints with accompanying joint inflammation is the major cause of gout. Natural flavonoids are attractive leads for rational design of preventive and therapeutic xanthine oxidase inhibitors due to their beneficial antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities in addition to their micromolar inhibitory activities toward xanthine oxidase. We determined the first complex X-ray structure of mammalian xanthine oxidase with the natural flavonoid inhibitor quercetin at 2.0 Å resolution. The inhibitor adopts a single orientation with its benzopyran moiety sandwiched between Phe 914 and Phe 1009 and ring B pointing toward the solvent channel leading to the molybdenum active center. The favorable steric complementarity of the conjugated three-ring structure of quercetin with the active site and specific hydrogen-bonding interactions of exocyclic hydroxy groups with catalytically relevant residues Arg 880 and Glu 802 correlate well with a previously reported structure-activity relationship of flavonoid inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. The current complex provides a structural basis for the rational design of flavonoid-type inhibitors against xanthine oxidase useful for the treatment of hyperuricemia, gout, and inflammatory disease states.

  5. Synthesis and X-Ray Crystal Structures of Mononuclear Complexes of 1,3-Bis(8-quinolyloxy)propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mandhary, M.R.; Steel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The preparations and X-ray crystal structures of the first transition metal complexes of 1,3-bis(8-quinolyloxy)propane are described. The ligand acts as a trans-chelating N,N'-bidentate ligand in the three-coordinate silver nitrate complex and four-coordinate copper chloride complex, but as an N,O,O',N'-tetradentate ligand in the octahedral nickel chloride complex. Copyright (2002) CSIRO Australia

  6. Surface roughness-aided hard X-ray emission from carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Efficient low debris hard X-ray source based on multiwalled carbon nan- otubes (MWNT) irradiated by intense, femtosecond laser over an intensity range of 1015–. 1017 W cm−2 µm2 is reported. The MWNT targets yield two orders of magnitude higher. X-rays (indicating significant enhancement of laser coupling) ...

  7. Utilization of x-ray diffraction and fluorescence in complex minerals study from Araxa, Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murta, C.C.; Mendes, M.J.C.; Ferreira, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    Some 60 to 120 samples from Araxa are being daily analyzed by X ray spectrography for Nb, Ce, La, U, Th, Ba, Fe, Pb, Y and Sr. The correspondence between the number of pulses and the content of each element in the sample is done by calibration curves, got from standards. The results of the analysis are weekly sent to Araxa and are promptly used as orientation of the new works. The study of the mineralogical composition of these ores has mainly been done with the help of X ray diffraction, an almost indispensable tool due to the complexity and fineness of this material. At last, the study by X ray, either by spectrography or diffraction, has been useful in directing ore chessing and chemical experiments, having the advantage of prompt responses. (author)

  8. CHARACTERIZING SURFACE LAYERS IN NITINOL USING X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopfel, R.; Mehta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitinol is a shape memory alloy whose properties allow for large reversible deformations and a return to its original geometry. This nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy has become a material used widely in the biomedical fi eld as a stent to open up collapsed arteries. Both ambient and biological conditions cause surface oxidation in these devices which in turn change its biocompatibility. The thickness of oxidized layers can cause fractures in the material if too large and can allow for penetration if too thin. Depending on the type and abundance of the chemical species on or near the surface, highly toxic metal ions can leak into the body causing cell damage or even cell death. Thus, biocompatibility of such devices is crucial. By using highly surface sensitive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe the surface of these structures, it is possible to decipher both layer composition and layer thickness. Two samples, both of which were mechanically polished, were investigated. Of the two samples, one was then exposed to a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution to mimic the chemical properties of blood, while the other remained unexposed. Although both samples were found to have oxide layers of appropriate thickness (on the order of a few nm), it was found that the sample exposed to the saline solution had a slightly thicker oxide layer and more signifi cantly, a phosphate layer very near the surface suggesting toxic metal components are well contained within the sample. These are considerable indications of a biocompatible device.

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the surface composition of highly luminescent CdTe nanoparticles in multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Yang Bai

    2002-01-01

    3-Mercaptopropionic acid-stabilized CdTe nanoparticles were prepared and assembled layer-by-layer with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC) to form a polymer-supported ultrathin film by virtue of the Coulombic interaction between negatively charged CdTe and positively charged PDAC. The composition of the CdTe nanoparticle multilayer films was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with optical absorbance and luminescence measurements. It was experimentally observed that Cd-thiol complexes on the surface of the CdTe nanoparticles provide the crucial chemical passivation responsible for the high photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of the CdTe particles. The high PL efficiency and high stability of CdTe particles corresponded to the particles with the high surface coverage with Cd-thiol complexes. Moreover, XPS data indicated the surface coverage with Cd-thiol complexes could be increased around the CdTe particle by either reflux or adjusting the pH of resulted CdTe colloidal suspension, which was consistent with the results from optical absorbance and luminescence spectra. It appeared that the popular method of constructing multilayer films could be used as a tool to characterize the surface composition of nanometer-sized particles

  10. Determination of crystal structures by x-ray diffraction: applications to a lanthanide complex and a natural organic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.M. de.

    1986-01-01

    The study fir determining crystal structures of the Ho (ReO sub(4)) sub(3) 4 TDTD 3 H sub(2) O complex and the natural organic compound C sub(14) H sub(16) O sub(6) by X-ray diffraction are presented. The experimental equipments are described in details. (M.C.K.)

  11. Complex of structural roentgenometric and optical parameters of chest X-ray picture for automated fluorograms processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodzaevskij, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The formalized description necessary for the development of algorithms for determination of main object boundaries by the roentgenologic picture during computerized photoroentgenograms processing is drawn up on the basis of the complex of structural roentgenometric parameters of the chest X-ray picture

  12. X-ray structure of a blue complex pigment from the blue flowers of Centaurea cyanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiono, M.; Matsugaki, N.; Takeda, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The blue pigment of the cornflower, named protocyanin, has long been investigated, but its precise structure has remained unclear. Our recent research demonstrated the components of protocyanin to be anthocyanin (AN), flavone glycoside (FL), Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions and we succeeded in the reconstruction of protocyanin. In this study, we revealed the X-ray structure of protocyanin. The crystal structure of the reconstructed protocyanin was determined at a resolution of 1.05 A. The refined molecule has pseudo threefold symmetry and four metal ions, Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ and two Ca 2+ , align along the pseudo three-fold axis. The four metals are coordinated to six AN molecules and six FL molecules. The inner Fe 3+ and Mg 2+ ions are each coordinated to three AN molecules respectively, while the outer two Ca 2+ ions are each coordinated to three FL molecules . Both AN and FL molecules are self-associated with each other as AN-AN and FL-FL in pair and this hydrophobic association also exists between AN and FL molecules. Protocyanin is a tetra-metal (Fe 3+ , Mg 2+ , 2Ca 2+ ) nuclear complex of twelve molecules of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, a new type of supramolecular pigment. (author)

  13. High-durability surface-discharge flash X-ray tube driven by a two-stage Marx pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikoda, Arimitsu; Sato, Eiichi; Kimura, Shingo; Oizumi, Teiji; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1993-01-01

    The authors developed a high-durability flash X-ray tube with a plate-shaped ferrite cathode for the use in the field of biomedical engineering and technology. The surface-discharge cathode was very useful for generating stable flash X rays. This flash X-ray generator consisted of the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, an energy-storage condenser of 97 nF, a two-stage Marx type pulser, an oil diffusion pump, and a flash X-ray tube. This X-ray tube was of a diode which was connected to the turbo molecular pump and had plate-shaped anode and cathode electrodes. The cathode electrode was made of ferrite, and its edge was covered with a thin gold film by means of the spattering in order to decrease contact resistance. The space between the anode and cathode electrodes could be regulated from the outside of the X-ray tube. The two condensers in Marx circuit were charged from 50 to 70 kV by a power supply, and the condensers were connected in series after closing a gap switch. Thus the maximum output voltages from the pulser were about two times the charged voltages. In this experiment, the maximum tube voltage and the current were about 110 kV and 0.8 kA, respectively. The pulse widths were less than 140 ns, and the maximum X-ray intensity was 1.27 μC/kg at 0.5 m per pulse. The size of the focal spot and the maximum repetition rate were about 2 x 2.5 mm and 50 Hz (fps), respectively

  14. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  15. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, Vallerie Ann A.

    2006-01-01

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  16. Expression of LY6D is induced at the surface of MCF10A cells by X-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Maiko; Jeyasekharan, Anand D; Surmann, Eva-Maria; Hashimoto, Noboru; Venkatraman, Vignesh; Kurosawa, Gene; Furukawa, Koichi; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu

    2012-12-01

    In order to identify membrane proteins whose expression is induced by X-ray irradiation, we developed an antibody (Ab)-directed strategy using a phage Ab library. X-Ray-irradiated cells were screened with a phage Ab library in the presence of a large excess of polyclonal Abs prepared against membrane proteins that are commonly present at the surface of both X-ray-irradiated and nonirradiated cells. After isolation of Ab that bound only to X-ray-irradiated cells, the antigen was identified using MS. Using this approach, we found that expression of LY6D is induced in MCF10A cells by X-ray irradiation. The induction of LY6D expression is triggered through a pathway regulated by ATM, CHK2 and p53. This method is a new Ab-directed proteomic strategy for analysis of membrane proteins, and is applicable to various biological phenomena in situations in which both target molecule-expressing cells and nonexpressing cells are available. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  17. Ion distributions at charged aqueous surfaces: Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface at room temperature. To control surface charge density, lipids, dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate (DHDP) and dimysteroyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA), were spread as monolayer materials at the air/water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Five decades in bulk concentrations (CsI) are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. The experimental ion distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions without fitting parameters or additional assumptions. Energy Scans at four fixed momentum transfers under specular reflectivity conditions near the Cs+ L3 resonance were conducted on 10-3 M CsI with DHDP monolayer materials on the surface. The energy scans exhibit a periodic dependence on photon momentum transfer. The ion distributions obtained from the analysis are in excellent agreement with those obtained from anomalous reflectivity measurements, providing further confirmation to the validity of the renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions. Moreover, the dispersion corrections f0 and f00 for Cs+ around L3 resonance, revealing the local environment of a Cs+ ion in the solution at the interface, were extracted simultaneously with output of ion distributions.

  18. Surface characterization of IM7/5260 composites by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Satomi; Lee, Moon-Hwan; Lin, Kuen Y.; Ohuchi, Fumio S.

    2001-01-01

    Surfaces of high-performance carbon fiber/bismeleimide (BMI) composites (IM7/5260) have been characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An experimental technique to separately examine the chemical natures of the carbon fibers and BMI resin in the composite form was developed. This technique uses a flood gun to establish differential charging conditions on the BMI resin. The binding energies from the BMI resin were shifted by an amount of voltage applied to the flood gun, whereas those from the carbon fibers were uniquely determined due to their electrically conducting nature. By adding external bias voltage to the sample, the binding energies for conducting fibers were further shifted from those of the BMI resin, thereby separating the IM7 phase completely from the BMI phase in the binding energy scale, allowing independent measurement of the chemical changes associated with those peaks. Using this technique, the effects of thermal aging and surface plasma treatment on the IM7/5260 composite were studied

  19. APOLLO 16 XRFS LUNAR SURFACE X-RAY COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains two tables of time-ordered, raw event count rates acquired by the Apollo 16 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer from 20 April to 24 April 1972...

  20. APOLLO 15 XRFS LUNAR SURFACE X-RAY COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains two tables of time-ordered, raw event count rates acquired by the Apollo 15 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer from 30 July to 4 August 1971...

  1. Differential Deposition for Surface Figure Corrections in Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Broadway, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Differential deposition corrects the low- and mid- spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure of Wolter-type grazing incidence X-ray optics. Figure deviations is one of the major contributors to the achievable angular resolution. Minimizing figure errors can significantly improve the imaging quality of X-ray optics. Material of varying thickness is selectively deposited, using DC magnetron sputtering, along the length of optic to minimize figure deviations. Custom vacuum chambers are built that can incorporate full-shell and segmented Xray optics. Metrology data of preliminary corrections on a single meridian of full-shell x-ray optics show an improvement of mid-spatial frequencies from 6.7 to 1.8 arc secs HPD. Efforts are in progress to correct a full-shell and segmented optics and to verify angular-resolution improvement with X-ray testing.

  2. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Microcontamination Analysis on Silicon Wafer Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaura, Norikatsu

    1997-10-01

    As dimensions in state-of-the-art CMOS devices shrink to less than 0.1 pm, even low levels of impurities on wafer surfaces can cause device degradation. Conventionally, metal contamination on wafer surfaces is measured using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF). However, commercially available TXRF systems do not have the necessary sensitivity for measuring the lower levels of contamination required to develop new CMOS technologies. In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of TXRF, this research investigates Synchrotron Radiation TXRF (SR TXRF). The advantages of SR TXRF over conventional TXRF are higher incident photon flux, energy tunability, and linear polarization. We made use of these advantages to develop an optimized SR TXRF system at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). The results of measurements show that the Minimum Detection Limits (MDLs) of SR TXRF for 3-d transition metals are typically at a level-of 3x10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2}, which is better than conventional TXRF by about a factor of 20. However, to use our SR TXRF system for practical applications, it was necessary to modify a commercially available Si (Li) detector which generates parasitic fluorescence signals. With the modified detector, we could achieve true MDLs of 3x10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} for 3-d transition metals. In addition, the analysis of Al on Si wafers is described. Al analysis is difficult because strong Si signals overlap the Al signals. In this work, the Si signals are greatly reduced by tuning the incident beam energy below the Si K edge. The results of our measurements show that the sensitivity for Al is limited by x-ray Raman scattering. Furthermore, we show the results of theoretical modeling of SR TXRF backgrounds consisting of the bremsstrahlung generated by photoelectrons, Compton scattering, and Raman scattering. To model these backgrounds, we extended conventional theoretical models by taking into account several aspects particular

  3. Superhydrophobic surfaces allow probing of exosome self organization using X-ray scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Accardo, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Drops of exosome dispersions from healthy epithelial colon cell line and colorectal cancer cells were dried on a superhydrophobic PMMA substrate. The residues were studied by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering using both a synchrotron radiation micrometric beam and a high-flux table-top X-ray source. Structural differences between healthy and cancerous cells were detected in the lamellar lattices of the exosome macro-aggregates. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Determination of uranium in complex matrices using radioisotope induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    Uranium is the principal fuel for nuclear reactors and the main raw material for nuclear weapons. Uranium is a very heavy metal which can be used as an abundant source of concentrated energy. Uranium occurs in most rocks with concentrations ranging from 2 to 4 parts per million and is as common in the Earth’s crust as tin, tungsten and molybdenum. Uranium occurs in seawater, and can be recovered from the oceans. Uranium also occurs in rock phosphate used as fertilizers. Uranium can be determined in all these sources by Radioisotope Induced Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (RIEDXRF). In the light of the above facts I want to bring out the potential of RIEDXRF in determining U in many of the applications. In my talk application of RIEDXRF for the determination of U in sea water, in rock phosphates, in resins, and how EXAFS has been used in studying UL3 chemical shifts of U in elemental form and compounds will be presented. The experimental set up consists of an annular radioisotope source whose photon output falls on the sample kept directly opposite the source. X-rays in reflection geometry falls on the Be window of the Liq N 2 cooled X-ray Semiconductor Si(Li) detector of a resolution of 170 eV at 5.9 keV X-ray and U L-X-rays are detected, determined and stored in a PCA for off-line analysis. The methodology developed, the results obtained and the conclusions will be detailed in the presentation and will review all the work carried out by me in NPD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for determination of uranium by Radioisotope Induced Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence and related techniques. (author)

  5. Surface composition analysis of HF vapour cleaned silicon by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolieff, A.; Martin, F.; Amouroux, A.; Marthon, S.; Westendorp, J. F. M.

    1991-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on silicon surfaces treated by HF gaseous cleaning are described. Various cleaning recipes, which essentially differ by the amount of water present during the reaction were studied; the composition of the silicon surface was measured in terms of monolayer coverage of oxygen, fluorine and carbon. These gaseous cleaned surfaces are compared with those of commonly deglazed silicon samples by using an aqueous HF bath. The F(1s), O(1s), Si(2p), C(1s) photoelectron lines were monitored, and concentrations determined as usual by integration of the lines after removal of the non-linear backgroune. The F(1s), C(1s) and Si(2p) lines were decomposed into several components corresponding to different chemical bonds. The results show that the amount of fluorine is directly correlated with the amount of oxygen: the higher the oxygen level on the sample, the more important is the fluorine content till 0.7 ML, essentially in a O sbnd Si sbnd F bonding state. For more aggresive etching leaving less than one monolayer of oxygen, the Si sbnd F bond becomes predominant. The ratio of the SiF to OSiF concentrations is a significant signature of the deoxidation state of the surface. Hydrophobicity of the water appears in the range of 25% Si sbnd F bonds. With very aggresive etching processes, 67% Si sbnd F bonds and 33% O sbnd Si sbnd F bonds are reached and the total amount of fluoride drops below 0.3 ML. For comparison, only Si sbnd F bonds are observed after a wet etching in a dilute HF bath without a rinse with a much lower fluorine concentration. The balance between Si sbnd F and O sbnd Si sbnd F remains stable and seems to be representative of the surface states provided by the etching process.

  6. Extreme UV and X-ray scattering measurements from a rough LiF crystal surface characterized by electron micrography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehyane; Arbaoui; Barchewitz

    1989-01-01

    XUV and X-ray scattering by a LiF crystal is measured. The angular distribution of the scattered radiation (ADSR) reveals characteristic features, side peaks or asymmetry. The surface of the sample is statistically characterized by a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs resolving...

  7. Discrepancies between soft x-ray emissivity contours and magnetic flux surfaces in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, M.C.; Granetz, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The soft x-ray diagnostic system of Alcator C-Mod, equipped with 152 detectors distributed in four arrays, is used to obtain iso-emissivity surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by giving their elongation and relative shift from the centre of the tokamak as functions of plasma radius. Flux surfaces, provided by magnetic diagnostics, have also been described with elongation and shift. Results from the comparison of the two sets of geometric parameters obtained from magnetic and x-ray diagnostics are presented. We find that, whereas the shifts obtained from these two diagnostic methods are always in good agreement, the corresponding elongation curves show different patterns. An agreement between elongations better than 2% is only found in a range of about 2 cm in minor radius. On the other hand, the elongations can differ by 10% towards the plasma edge and the plasma centre. Error bars for the x-ray diagnostic are obtained by propagating the effect of ± 1% random errors at the detector signals, and can amount to ± 1-2% of the estimated values near the edge and the centre of the plasma. The estimated uncertainties in the determination of elongation from magnetic flux surfaces are of the order of 4%. A series of tests and simulations performed to verify the accuracy of the X-ray diagnostic system is presented. The discrepancies found could imply the existence of asymmetries in impurity concentration. (Author)

  8. X-ray measurement of residual stresses in laser surface melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, J.M.; van Brussel, B.A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Reed, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the residual stresses in laser surface melted Ti-6Al-4V, determined using X-ray diffraction methods. The principal result is that there is an increase in the transverse residual stress with each successive, overlapping laser track. The result can be used to explain the

  9. Atom-specific look at the surface chemical bond using x-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N.; Weinelt, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    CO and N{sub 2} adsorbed on the late transition metals have become prototype systems regarding the general understanding of molecular adsorption. It is in general assumed that the bonding of molecules to transition metals can be explained in terms of the interaction of the frontier HOMO and LUMO molecular orbitals with the d-orbitals. In such a picture the other molecular orbitals should remain essentially the same as in the free molecule. For the adsorption of the isoelectronic molecules CO and N{sub 2} this has led to the so called Blyholder model i.e., a synergetic {sigma} (HOMO) donor and {pi} (LUMO) backdonation bond. The authors results at the ALS show that such a picture is oversimplified. The direct observation and identification of the states related to the surface chemical bond is an experimental challenge. For noble and transition metal surfaces, the adsorption induced states overlap with the metal d valence band. Their signature is therefore often obscured by bulk substrate states. This complication has made it difficult for techniques such as photoemission and inverse photoemission to provide reliable information on the energy of chemisorption induced states and has left questions unanswered regarding the validity of the frontier orbitals concept. Here the authors show how x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), in spite of its inherent bulk sensitivity, can be used to investigate adsorbed molecules. Due to the localization of the core-excited intermediate state, XE spectroscopy allows an atomic specific separation of the valence electronic states. Thus the molecular contributions to the surface measurements make it possible to determine the symmetry of the molecular states, i.e., the separation of {pi} and {sigma} type states. In all the authors can obtain an atomic view of the electronic states involved in the formation of the chemical bond to the surface.

  10. Investigation of the surface composition of electrodeposited black chromium by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survilienė, S.; Češūnienė, A.; Jasulaitienė, V.; Jurevičiūtė, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Black chromium electrodeposited from a Cr(III) bath is composed of oxide, hydroxide and metallic chromium. • Metallic phase is absent in black chromium electrodeposited from a Cr(III) + ZnO bath. • The near-surface layer is rich in hydroxides, whereas oxides of both metals predominate in the depth of the coatings. - Abstract: The paper reviews black chromium electrodeposited from a trivalent chromium bath containing ZnO as a second main component. The chemical compositions of the top layers of the black chromium coatings were studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The surface of black chromium was found to be almost entirely covered with organic substances. To gain information on the state of each element in the deposit bulk, the layer-by-layer etching of the black chromium surface with argon gas was used. Analysis of XPS spectra has shown that the top layers of black chromium without zinc are composed of various Cr(III) components, organic substances and metallic Cr, whereas metallic Cr is almost absent in black chromium containing some amount of Zn(II) compounds. The ratios of metal/oxide phases were found to be 10/27 and 2/28 for black chromium without and with zinc, respectively. It has been determined that owing to the presence of ZnO in the Cr(III) bath, the percentage of metallic chromium is substantially reduced in black chromium which is quite important for good solar selective characteristics of the coating. The results confirm some of earlier observations and provide new information on the composition of the near-surface layers

  11. Element sensitive reconstruction of nanostructured surfaces with finite elements and grazing incidence soft X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwisch, Victor; Hönicke, Philipp; Kayser, Yves; Eilbracht, Janis; Probst, Jürgen; Scholze, Frank; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2018-03-29

    The geometry of a Si3N4 lamellar grating was investigated experimentally with reference-free grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. While simple layered systems are usually treated with the matrix formalism to determine the X-ray standing-wave field, this approach fails for laterally structured surfaces. Maxwell solvers based on finite elements are often used to model electrical field strengths for any 2D or 3D structures in the optical spectral range. We show that this approach can also be applied in the field of X-rays. The electrical field distribution obtained with the Maxwell solver can subsequently be used to calculate the fluorescence intensities in full analogy to the X-ray standing-wave field obtained by the matrix formalism. Only the effective 1D integration for the layer system has to be replaced by a 2D integration of the finite elements, taking into account the local excitation conditions. We will show that this approach is capable of reconstructing the geometric line shape of a structured surface with high elemental sensitivity. This combination of GIXRF and finite-element simulations paves the way for a versatile characterization of nanoscale-structured surfaces.

  12. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human Rod–Zwilch–ZW10 (RZZ) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenfeld, Anika; Wohlgemuth, Sabine; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Vetter, Ingrid R.; Musacchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The 800 kDa complex of the human Rod, Zwilch and ZW10 proteins (the RZZ complex) was reconstituted in insect cells, purified, crystallized and subjected to preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. The spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors kinetochore–microtubule attachment during mitosis. In metazoans, the three-subunit Rod–Zwilch–ZW10 (RZZ) complex is a crucial SAC component that interacts with additional SAC-activating and SAC-silencing components, including the Mad1–Mad2 complex and cytoplasmic dynein. The RZZ complex contains two copies of each subunit and has a predicted molecular mass of ∼800 kDa. Given the low abundance of the RZZ complex in natural sources, its recombinant reconstitution was attempted by co-expression of its subunits in insect cells. The RZZ complex was purified to homogeneity and subjected to systematic crystallization attempts. Initial crystals containing the entire RZZ complex were obtained using the sitting-drop method and were subjected to optimization to improve the diffraction resolution limit. The crystals belonged to space group P3 1 (No. 144) or P3 2 (No. 145), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 215.45, c = 458.7 Å, α = β = 90.0, γ = 120.0°

  13. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human Rod–Zwilch–ZW10 (RZZ) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenfeld, Anika; Wohlgemuth, Sabine [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto Hahn Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Wehenkel, Annemarie [Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 3348/INSERM U1005, Bâtiment 110, Centre Universitaire, 91405 Orsay CEDEX (France); Vetter, Ingrid R. [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto Hahn Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Musacchio, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.musacchio@mpi-dortmund.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto Hahn Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätstrasse 1, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2015-03-20

    The 800 kDa complex of the human Rod, Zwilch and ZW10 proteins (the RZZ complex) was reconstituted in insect cells, purified, crystallized and subjected to preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. The spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors kinetochore–microtubule attachment during mitosis. In metazoans, the three-subunit Rod–Zwilch–ZW10 (RZZ) complex is a crucial SAC component that interacts with additional SAC-activating and SAC-silencing components, including the Mad1–Mad2 complex and cytoplasmic dynein. The RZZ complex contains two copies of each subunit and has a predicted molecular mass of ∼800 kDa. Given the low abundance of the RZZ complex in natural sources, its recombinant reconstitution was attempted by co-expression of its subunits in insect cells. The RZZ complex was purified to homogeneity and subjected to systematic crystallization attempts. Initial crystals containing the entire RZZ complex were obtained using the sitting-drop method and were subjected to optimization to improve the diffraction resolution limit. The crystals belonged to space group P3{sub 1} (No. 144) or P3{sub 2} (No. 145), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 215.45, c = 458.7 Å, α = β = 90.0, γ = 120.0°.

  14. X-ray evaluation of residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yuu; Okano, Shigetaka; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    The excessive tensile residual stress generated by welding after surface machining may be an important factor to cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nuclear power plants. Therefore we need to understand and control the residual stress distribution appropriately. In this study, residual stress distributions within surface machined layer generated by surface machining and sequential welding were evaluated by X-ray diffraction method. Depth directional distributions were also investigated by electrolytic polishing. In addition, to consider the effect of work hardened layer on the residual stress distributions, we also measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) obtained from X-ray diffraction. Testing material was a low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type SUS316L. Test specimens were prepared by surface machining with different cutting conditions. Then, bead-on-plate welding under the same welding condition was carried out on the test specimens with different surface machined layer. As a result, the tensile residual stress generated by surface machining increased with increasing cutting speed and showed nearly uniform distributions on the surface. Furthermore, the tensile residual stress drastically decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Then, the residual stress approached 0 MPa after the compressive value showed. FWHM also decreased drastically with increasing measurement depth and almost constant value from a certain depth, which was almost equal regardless of the machining condition, within surface machined layer in all specimens. After welding, the transverse distribution of the longitudinal residual stress varied in the area apart from the weld center according to machining conditions and had a maximum value in heat affected zone. The magnitude of the maximum residual stress was almost equal regardless of the machining condition and decreased with increasing measurement depth within surface machined layer. Finally, the

  15. Hard X-ray bursts and DD microfusion neutrons from complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explosive centres, or 'ectons' [4]). These ensembles emitting X-rays are created by an in- tense energy deposition into the cold solid density, very low volume dusty 'target' specially nucleated and collected at interelectrode space (clusters, grains, microparticles of differ- ent size from anode material). The main anomalous ...

  16. An X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Study of Activated Carbons Impregnated with Some Organocopper Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    organocuivre ont dte imprdgn~s & la surface du charbon activd, et la composition de la surface du charbon imprdgn6 a dt examinee par spectroscopie...F/Cu et du C/Cu a pu fitre calcule. Ii a dtd trouvd que trois de ces * complexes dtaient soit instables ou ddcomposds & la surface du charbon . Cette

  17. In situ surface X-ray diffraction studies of the copper-electrolyte interface. Atomic structure and homoepitaxial grwoth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golks, Frederik

    2011-05-19

    Copper electrodeposition is the predominantly used technique for on-chip wiring in the fabrication of ultra-large scale integrated (ULSI) microchips. In this 'damascene copper electroplating' process, multicomponent electrolytes containing organic additives realize void-free filling of trenches with high aspect ratio ('superconformal deposition'). Despite manifold studies, motivated by the continuous trend to shrink wiring dimensions and thus the demand of optimized plating baths, detailed knowledge on the growth mechanism - in presence and absence of additives - is still lacking. Using a recently developed hanging meniscus X-ray transmission cell, brilliant synchrotron x-rays and a fast, one-dimensional detector system, unique real-time in situ surface X-ray diffraction studies of copper electrodeposition were performed under realistic reaction conditions, approaching rates of technological relevance. Preparatory measurements of the electrochemical dissolution of Au(001) in chloride-containing electrolyte demonstrated the capability of this powerful technique, specifically the possibility to follow atomic-scale deposition or dissolution processes with a time resolution down to five milliseconds. The electrochemical as well as structural characterization of the Cu(001)- and Cu(111)-electrolyte interfaces provided detailed insight into the complex atomic-scale structures in presence of specifically adsorbed chloride on these surfaces. The interface of Cu(001) in chloride-containing electrolyte exhibits a continuous surface phase transition of a disordered Cl adlayer to a c(2 x 2) Cl adlayer with increasing potential. The latter was found to induce a small vertical corrugation of substrate atoms, which can be ascribed to lattice relaxations induced by the presence of coadsorbed water molecules and cations in the outer part of the electrochemical double layer. The study of the specific adsorption of chloride on Cu(111) from acidic aqueous

  18. Tracking the picosecond deactivation dynamics of a photoexcited iron carbene complex by time-resolved X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leshchev, Denis; Harlang, Tobias C. B.; Fredin, Lisa A.

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen the development of new iron-centered N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes for solar energy applications. Compared to typical ligand systems, the NHC ligands provide Fe complexes with longer-lived metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states. This increased lifetime......)pyridine) is a unique complex as it exhibits a short-lived MC state with a lifetime on the scale of a few hundreds of picoseconds. Hence, this complex allows for a detailed investigation, using 100 ps X-ray pulses from a synchrotron, of strong ligand field effects on the intermediate MC state in an NHC complex. Here...

  19. X-ray Reflectivity Study of Ionic Liquids at Electrified Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Miaoqi

    X-ray reflectivity (XRR) versatile technique that characterize the surface structures. However, due to the lack of phase information of X-ray data, the reconstruction of electron density profile (EDP) from XRR data is an ill-posed inverse problem that requires extra attention. In Chapter 1, several key concepts in XRR data analysis are reviewed. The typical XRR data acquisition procedure and methods of modeling electron density are introduced. The widely used logarithm form of merit function is justified with mathematical deduction and numerical experiment. A scheme that generates artificial reflectivity data with theoretical statistical error but not systematical error is proposed. With the methods and schemes described in Chapter 1, simulated reflectivity data of a simple one-slab model is generated and fitted to test the efficient of EDP reconstruction. By isolating the parameters, the effects of slab width, electron density contrast and maximal wave transfer are studied individually. It?s demonstrated that best-fit/global minima, result reported by most XRR studies, don?t necessary reflect the real EDP. By contrast, mapping the merit function in the parametric space can capture much more details. Additionally, the widely accepted concept about the XRR theoretical spatial resolution (pi/q_{max}) as well the using Patterson function are brought to test. In the perspective of XRR data analysis, this chapter puts forward general rules to design and optimize XRR experiments. It also demonstrates how susceptible the fitting result will be if it?s not done carefully. In Chapter 3, the interface between hydrophobic OTS film and several solvents is studied with XRR in a transmission-cell setup. The solvents, from water, acetone, to alcohol (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol), to alkane (pentane, hexane and heptane), vary significantly in terms of polarity and hydrogen bonding. However, the XRR data from different solvents are subtle. The methods and principles elicited in

  20. X-ray and vibrational spectroscopy of manganese complexes relevant to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Hendrik [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Manganese model complexes, relevant to the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in photosynthesis, were studied with Mn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), Mn Kb X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and vibrational spectroscopy. A more detailed understanding was obtained of the influence of nuclearity, overall structure, oxidation state, and ligand environment of the Mn atoms on the spectra from these methods. This refined understanding is necessary for improving the interpretation of spectra of the OEC. Mn XANES and Kb XES were used to study a di-(mu)-oxo and a mono-(mu)-oxo di-nuclear Mn compound in the (III,III), (III,IV), and (IV,IV) oxidation states. XANES spectra show energy shifts of 0.8 - 2.2 eV for 1-electron oxidation-state changes and 0.4 - 1.8 eV for ligand-environment changes. The shifts observed for Mn XES spectra were approximately 0.21 eV for oxidation state-changes and only approximately 0.04 eV for ligand-environment changes. This indicates that Mn Kb XES i s more sensitive to the oxidation state and less sensitive to the ligand environment of the Mn atoms than XANES. These complimentary methods provide information about the oxidation state and the ligand environment of Mn atoms in model compounds and biological systems. A versatile spectroelectrochemical apparatus was designed to aid the interpretation of IR spectra of Mn compounds in different oxidation states. The design, based on an attenuated total reflection device, permits the study of a wide spectral range: 16,700 (600 nm) - 225

  1. Evaluation of an X-ray-excited optical microscope for chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Pieter-Jan; Dowsett, Mark; Hand, Matthew; Grayburn, Rosie; Thompson, Paul; Bras, Wim; Adriaens, Annemie

    2014-12-02

    The application of a modular system for the nondestructive chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces is described using heritage metals as an example. The custom-built X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) microscope, XEOM 1, images the chemical state and short-range atomic order of the top 200 nm of both amorphous and crystalline surfaces. A broad X-ray beam is used to illuminate large areas (up to 4 mm(2)) of the sample, and the resulting XEOL emission is collected simultaneously for each pixel by a charge-coupled device sensor to form an image. The input X-ray energy is incremented across a range typical for the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and an image collected for each increment. The use of large-footprint beams combined with parallel detection allows the power density to be kept low and facilitates complete nondestructive XANES mapping on a reasonable time scale. In this study the microscope was evaluated by imaging copper surfaces with well-defined patterns of different corrosion products (cuprite Cu2O and nantokite CuCl). The images obtained show chemical contrast, and filtering the XEOL light allowed different corrosion products to be imaged separately. Absorption spectra extracted from software-selected regions of interest exhibit characteristic XANES fingerprints for the compounds present. Moreover, when the X-ray absorption edge positions were extracted from each spectrum, an oxidation state map of the sample could be compiled. The results show that this method allows one to obtain nondestructive and noninvasive information at the micrometer scale while using full-field imaging.

  2. X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry, spectral and thermal analysis of some tetradentate schiff base complexes and formation constant measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Asadi, Z.; Savarypour, N.; Dušek, Michal; Eigner, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2017), s. 1501-1508 ISSN 2470-1556 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12653S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray crystallography * transition metal Schiff base complexes * thermogravimetry * electrochemistry * formation constant measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  3. X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy Study on Dynamics of the Free Surface in Entangled Polystyrene Melt Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Tadanori; Li Chunhua; Endoh, Maya K; Narayanan, Suresh; Lurio, Laurence; Sinha, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of polymer chains near the surface of a melt and within thin films remains a subject of inquiry along with the nature of the glass transition in these systems. Recent studies show that the properties of the free surface region are crucial in determining the anomalous glass transition temperature (T g ) reduction of polymer thin films. In this study, by embedding 'dilute' gold nanoparticles in polystyrene (PS) thin films as 'markers', we could successfully probe the diffusive Brownian motion which tracks the local viscosity both at the free surface and within the rest of the single PS thin film far above bulk T g . The technique used was X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy with resonance-enhanced X-rays that allows us to independently measure the motion in the regions of interest at the nanometer scale. We found the presence of the surface reduced viscosity layer in entangled PS thin films at T>>T g .

  4. X-ray standing wave simulations based on Fourier vector analysis as a method to retrieve complex molecular adsorption geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eMercurio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis method of normal incidence x-ray standing wave (NIXSW data that allows detailed adsorption geometries of complex molecules to be retrieved. This method (Fourier vector analysis is based on the comparison of both the coherence and phase of NIXSW data to NIXSW simulations of different molecular geometries as the relevant internal degrees of freedom are tuned. We introduce this analysis method using the prototypical molecular switch azobenzene (AB adsorbed on the Ag(111 surface as a model system. The application of the Fourier vector analysis to AB/Ag(111 provides, on the one hand, detailed adsorption geometries including dihedral angles, and on the other hand, insights into the dynamics of molecules and their bonding to the metal substrate. This analysis scheme is generally applicable to any adsorbate, it is necessary for molecules with potentially large distortions, and will be particularly valuable for molecules whose distortion on adsorption can be mapped on a limited number of internal degrees of freedom.

  5. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a novel surface-adhesin protein: protein E from Haemophilus influenzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Birendra; Al Jubair, Tamim; Förnvik, Karolina; Thunnissen, Marjolein M.; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Protein E of the respiratory pathogen H. influenzae is a multifunctional adhesin that is involved in bacterial attachment to host epithelium and direct interactions with vitronectin, laminin and plasminogen. The method of crystallization and X-ray data collection for protein E at 1.8 Å is presented. Protein E (PE) is a ubiquitous multifunctional surface protein of Haemophilus spp. and other bacterial pathogens of the Pasteurellaceae family. H. influenzae utilizes PE for attachment to respiratory epithelial cells. In addition, PE interacts directly with plasminogen and the extracellular matrix (ECM) components vitronectin and laminin. Vitronectin is a complement regulator that inhibits the formation of the membrane-attack complex (MAC). PE-mediated vitronectin recruitment at the H. influenzae surface thus inhibits MAC and protects against serum bactericidal activity. Laminin is an abundant ECM protein and is present in the basement membrane that helps in adherence of H. influenzae during colonization. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of and the collection of high-resolution data for this important H. influenzae adhesin are reported. To solve the phase problem for PE, Met residues were introduced and an SeMet variant was expressed and crystallized. Both native and SeMet-containing PE gave plate-like crystals in space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 44, b = 57, c = 61 Å, β = 96°. Diffraction data collected from native and SeMet-derivative crystals extended to resolutions of 1.8 and 2.6 Å, respectively

  6. Structure determination of the indium-induced Ge(103)-(1x1) reconstruction by surface X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, O.; Falkenberg, G.; Zeysing, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed structural model of the indium-induced Ge(103)-(1 X 1) surface reconstruction has been established by analyzing an extensive set of X-ray data recorded with synchrotron radiation. Our results show that models with one indium and one germanium adatom per unit cell are incompatible with ...... with the data. A model with two indium adatoms per unit cell saturates all the dangling bonds on the Ge(103) surface, preserves the symmetry and is compatible with all of the experimental results. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A detailed structural model of the indium-induced Ge(103)-(1 X 1) surface reconstruction has been established by analyzing an extensive set of X-ray data recorded with synchrotron radiation. Our results show that models with one indium and one germanium adatom per unit cell are incompatible...

  7. Specular and non-specular X-ray reflection from a single-crystal molybdenum mirror surface

    CERN Document Server

    Mizusawa, M

    2003-01-01

    The surface morphology of a super-polished mirror of single-crystal molybdenum has been studied by grazing-incidence X-ray reflection. It yields a rather high specular reflectivity (82.0%) for 16.0 keV X-rays below the critical angle. The data suggest that the mirror has a small roughness (0.7 nm rms) unlike other metal mirrors, but, on the other hand, strongly damaged layers (6.35 nm in total) exist at the near surface. It has been also found that the surface has a large correlation length (>3 mu m) and a small Hurst parameter (0.2-0.3) from the non-specular reflection.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protease from Southampton norovirus complexed with a Michael acceptor inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussey, R. J.; Coates, L.; Gill, R. S.; Wright, J. N.; Sarwar, M.; Coker, S.; Erskine, P. T.; Cooper, J. B.; Wood, S.; Clarke, I. N.; Lambden, P. R.; Broadbridge, R.; Shoolingin-Jordan, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    The crystallization of the recombinant protease from Southampton norovirus is described. Whilst the native crystals were found to diffract only to medium resolution (2.9 Å), cocrystals with a designed covalently bound inhibitor diffracted X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution. Noroviruses are the predominant cause of human epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a cysteine protease that cleaves a 200 kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional parts. Here, the crystallization of the recombinant protease from the Southampton norovirus is described. Whilst the native crystals were found to diffract only to medium resolution (2.9 Å), cocrystals of an inhibitor complex diffracted X-rays to 1.7 Å resolution. The polypeptide inhibitor (Ac-EFQLQ-propenyl ethyl ester) possesses an amino-acid sequence designed to match the substrate specificity of the enzyme, but was synthesized with a reactive Michael acceptor group at the C-terminal end

  9. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Tung, I. C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Chang, S. -H. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Bhattacharya, A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Freeland, J. W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Hong, Hawoong [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  10. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong, E-mail: hhong@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tung, I. C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  11. Near surface composition of some alloys by X-ray photoelectron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    0.70Ni0.30) and BiSb (Bi0.80Sb0.20, Bi0.64Sb0.34, Bi0.55Sb0.45) are determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The stoichiometries are determined and are compared with the bulk compositions. Possible sources of systematic errors ...

  12. Two strategies of lowering surface deformations of internally cooled X-ray optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 302-306 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : internal cooling * X-ray optics * monochromator Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  13. Surface roughness-aided hard X-ray emission from carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MWNT) irradiated by intense, femtosecond laser over an intensity range of 1015 –1017 W cm−2 2 is reported. The MWNT targets yield two orders of magnitude higher X-rays (indicating significant enhancement of laser coupling) and three ...

  14. Investigation of surface and sub-surface damage in high quality synthetic diamonds by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence in-plane diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussone, Genziana; Lafford, Tamzin A.; Masiello, Fabio; Carbone, Gerardina; Schuelli, Tobias U.; Rommeveaux, Amparo Vivo; Haertwig, Juergen [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gibaud, Alain [Laboratoire PEC, Universite du Maine le Mans, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72 085 Le Mans (France); Connell, Simon H. [University of Johannesburg, cnr Kingsway Ave and University Rd, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Wormington, Matthew [Jordan Valley Semiconductors Inc., 8601 Cross Park Drive, Suite 200, Austin, TX 78754-4578 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    High quality single-crystal synthetic diamond is the most suitable material for selected X-ray optical applications in the latest generation X-ray light sources. Excellent heat handling properties, as well as low absorption, coupled with high perfection in the crystal bulk and very good surface quality, are crucial for such applications. In recent years, some progress has been made in the fields of surface treatments and growth techniques. Conventional scaife polishing is largely ineffective on the diamond (111) surface. To overcome this disadvantage, one possibility is to use the Hot Metal polishing technique. An investigation of surface and sub-surface damage of Hot Metal polished and cleaved surfaces, has been carried out using depth-sensitive non-destructive X-ray techniques. The near surface crystalline quality was studied as a function of depth using in-plane grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Additionally, X-ray reflectivity was used to investigate the density, thickness and roughness of near-surface layers. The measurements enable us to estimate the thickness of the affected sub-surface layer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. New Cu (II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of chalcone derivatives: Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, electrochemical properties and DFT computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabti, Salima; Djedouani, Amel; Aggoun, Djouhra; Warad, Ismail; Rahmouni, Samra; Romdhane, Samir; Fouzi, Hosni

    2018-03-01

    The reaction of nickel(II), copper(II) and cobalt(II) with 4-hydroxy-3-[(2E)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)prop-2-enoyl]-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (HL) leads to a series of new complexes: Ni(L)2(NH3), Cu(L)2(DMF)2 and Co(L)2(H2O). The crystal structure of the Cu(L)2(DMF)2 complex have been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The Cu(II) lying on an inversion centre is coordinated to six oxygen atoms forming an octahedral elongated. Additionally, the electrochemical behavior of the metal complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode (GC) in CH3CN solutions, showing the quasi-reversible redox process ascribed to the reduction of the MII/MI couples. The X-ray single crystal structure data of the complex was matched excellently with the optimized monomer structure of the desired compound; Hirschfeld surface analysis supported the packed crystal lattice 3D network intermolecular forces. HOMO/LUMO energy level and the global reactivity descriptors quantum parameters are also calculated. The electrophilic and nucleophilic potions in the complex surface are theoretically evaluated by molecular electrostatic potential and Mulliken atomic charges analysis.

  16. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  17. Application of X-ray single crystal diffractometry to investigation of Np(5) complexes with n-donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. We present here some results of application of conventional X-ray single crystal diffractometry to the research on the interaction of Np(V) with N-donor ligands. Compounds that can coordinate to actinides through one or several nitrogen atoms are of a great variety and occur widely in the biosphere. For example, imidazole, pyridine and their derivatives are the building blocks of many biologically important molecules; triazines are known to occur in some aquatic plants. The presence of anthropogenic organic agents like amine-N-carboxylic acids in surface waters has the potential to re-mobilize metals from sediments and aquifers and to influence their bioavailability. The interaction of radionuclides with such ligands needs to be studied in detail to give fundamental understanding the conditions of the incorporation of long lived a-emitters (Np and Pu primarily) into the food chain. Another aspect of the same problem is the design of new chelating ligands for selective co-ordination of actinide ions as an alternative to the traditional sequestering agents. The problem of the separation of long-lived minor actinides and their transmutation also calls for design of new highly selective ligands for solvent extraction. Polydentate N-donor ligands are now considered to be very promising. A detailed study of structural chemistry is crucial for understanding the relationship between the architecture of the ligands and their binding affinity for actinides. The X-ray single crystal diffractometry became conventional technique as applied to the investigation of actinides in spite of difficulties regarding safe handling of radionuclides. This technique provides unambiguous information about modes of the ligand co-ordination to the metal ion and geometrical parameters of complexes. Moreover, the employment of a synchrotron radiation shows considerable promise for determination of solid state structures as well as obtaining structural

  18. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  19. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  20. Existence of quasi-stationary neutron and x-ray states near the surface of a deformed single crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Iolin, E

    1999-01-01

    The problem of x-ray or neutron multiply internally reflected inside a bent single crystal plate (Bragg geometry) is considered. It is found that such multiple reflections lead to the existence of quasi-stationary (QS) states. QS states are discrete and correspond to the resonance of motion of the tie point between the front surface and a 'turning place' inside a single crystal. (author)

  1. Two step formation of metal aggregates by surface X-ray radiolysis under Langmuir monolayers: 2D followed by 3D growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Mukherjee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to form a nanostructured metallic layer below a Langmuir monolayer, radiolysis synthesis was carried out in an adapted geometry that we call surface X-ray radiolysis. In this procedure, an X-ray beam produced by a synchrotron beamline intercepts the surface of an aqueous metal-ion solution covered by a Langmuir monolayer at an angle of incidence below the critical angle for total internal reflection. Underneath the organic layer, the X-ray beam induces the radiolytic synthesis of a nanostructured metal–organic layer whose ultrathin thickness is defined by the vertical X-ray penetration depth. We have shown that increasing the X-ray flux on the surface, which considerably enhances the kinetics of the silver layer formation, results in a second growth regime of silver nanocrystals. Here the formation of the oriented thin layer is followed by the appearance of a 3D powder of silver clusters.

  2. Two step formation of metal aggregates by surface X-ray radiolysis under Langmuir monolayers: 2D followed by 3D growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Smita; Fauré, Marie-Claude; Goldmann, Michel; Fontaine, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In order to form a nanostructured metallic layer below a Langmuir monolayer, radiolysis synthesis was carried out in an adapted geometry that we call surface X-ray radiolysis. In this procedure, an X-ray beam produced by a synchrotron beamline intercepts the surface of an aqueous metal-ion solution covered by a Langmuir monolayer at an angle of incidence below the critical angle for total internal reflection. Underneath the organic layer, the X-ray beam induces the radiolytic synthesis of a nanostructured metal-organic layer whose ultrathin thickness is defined by the vertical X-ray penetration depth. We have shown that increasing the X-ray flux on the surface, which considerably enhances the kinetics of the silver layer formation, results in a second growth regime of silver nanocrystals. Here the formation of the oriented thin layer is followed by the appearance of a 3D powder of silver clusters.

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of a complex concaved cuboctahedron copper sulfide crystal by x-ray nanotomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Li Wenjie; Tian Yangchao; Wu Chunyan; Yu Shuhong

    2008-01-01

    By combining Fresnel zone-plate based transmission x-ray microscopy with computed tomography, the nanoscale features in materials with complex shapes can be imaged using synchrotron radiation. The tomographic data sets of a complex copper sulfide crystal were acquired in the angle range ±70 deg. at photon energy of 8.0 keV and then were reconstructed by a standard filtered-back-projection algorithm. This experiment shows the quantifiable three-dimensional information of the copper sulfide crystal, which offers a complete understanding of the concaved cuboctahedron structure with 14 faces comprising of six squares and eight triangles

  4. Ultrafast dynamics of two copper bis-phenanthroline complexes measured by x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelley, Matthew S.; Shelby, Megan L.; Mara, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast structural dynamics of the metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states of two copper bis-phenanthroline complexes were captured by using x-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source and further described by theoretical calculations. These complexes......(I)(dpps)2]+ possesses two bulky phenyl-sulfonate groups attached to each phen ligand that force the molecule to adopt a flattened tetrahedral geometry in the ground state. Previously, optical transient absorption (OTA) and synchrotron based XTA experiments with 100 ps time resolution have been employed...

  5. Development of an X-ray surface analyzer for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    An ultraminiature X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was developed which can obtain data on element composition not provided by present spacecraft instrumentation. The apparatus employs two radioisotope sources (Fe-55 and Cd-109) which irradiate adjacent areas on a soil sample. Fluorescent X-rays emitted by the sample are detected by four thin-window proportional counters. Using pulse-height discrimination, the energy spectra are determined. Virtually all elements above sodium in the periodic table are detected if present at sufficient levels. Minimum detection limits range from 30 ppm to several percent, depending upon the element and the matrix. For most elements, they are below 0.5 percent. Accuracies likewise depend upon the matrix, but are generally better than plus or minus 0.5 percent for all elements of atomic number greater than 14. Elements below sodium are also detected, but as a single group.

  6. Multielemental analysis of surface sediments in Havana bay (Cuba) using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelen, A.; Corrales, Y.; Lopez, N.; Manso Guevara, M. V.; Casanova, A. O.; Alessandro, K. D'; Diaz, O.; Espen, P. Van; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2006-01-01

    Multielemental Analysis was performed in Superficial Sediments in Havana Bay. Twenty one samples were analysed by Dispersive Energy X- Ray Fluorescence using an spectrometer based on Si (Li) semiconductor detector an a 109 Cd source. The results showed a similar behaviour in the levels of contamination related with neutron activation analysis. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Full text)

  7. Complexity of depth-dependent soil macroporosity from X-ray CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M. A.; San José Martínez, F.; Caniego, J.; Tuller, M.; Guber, A.; Pachepsky, Y.; García-Gutierrez, C.

    2009-04-01

    It has been reported that the spatial records of soil properties exhibit a behaviour close to the so-called multifractal structures. Advanced visualisation techniques such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) are required to assess and characterise the multifractal behaviour of soil pore space. In this work we develop the multifractal description of soil porosity values as a function of depth with data from binary 2-D images from X-ray CT scans of 20 cm-long soil columns with diameters of 7.5 cm. The series of depth-dependent macroporosity values exhibited a well defined multifractal structure that was represented by the singularity and the Rényi spectra. The long range dependencies of these series was characterised using the Hurst exponent and the multifractal model. We obtained multifractal spectra that were consistent with multinomial multifractal measures where larger concentrations were less diverse but more common than the smaller ones. Models of pore space connectivity should incorporate a multifractal random structure compatible with this multinomial structure and the long range dependences that have being observed.

  8. Development of a hybrid molecular beam epitaxy deposition system for in situ surface x-ray studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tassie K.; Cook, Seyoung; Benda, Erika; Hong, Hawoong; Marks, Laurence D.; Fong, Dillon D.

    2018-03-01

    A portable metalorganic gas delivery system designed and constructed to interface with an existing molecular beam epitaxy chamber at beamline 33-ID-E of the Advanced Photon Source is described. This system offers the ability to perform in situ X-ray measurements of complex oxide growth via hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. The performance of the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy system while delivering metalorganic source materials is described. The high-energy X-ray scattering capabilities of the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy system are demonstrated both on oxide films grown solely from the metalorganic source and ABO3 oxide perovskites containing elements from both the metalorganic source and a traditional effusion cell.

  9. The effect of surface texture on total reflection of neutrons and X-rays from modified interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldar, A.; Roser, S.J.; Hughes, A.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray and neutron scattering from macroscopically rough surfaces and interfaces is considered and a new method of analysis based on the variation of the shape of the total reflection edge in the reflectivity profile is proposed. It was shown that in the limit that the correlation length...... and the height of the surface roughness are larger than the wavelength (at least 100 times bigger) of the incoming beam, the total reflection edge in the reflection profile becomes rounded. This technique allows direct analysis of the variation of the reflectivity pro le in terms of the structure of the surface...

  10. The application of trend surface analysis to a portion of the Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Weidner, J. R.; Andre, C. G.; Bickel, A. L.; Lum, R. S.; Adler, I.; Trombka, J. I.

    1974-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence data for 8 and 16 second time integrals gathered by Apollo 15 in circum lunar orbit were analyzed to determine the capability for chemical mapping of relatively small lunar features in a portion of Tranquillitatis and Serenitatis basins. Spatial mapping using trend surface analysis demonstrated that a useable signal could be extracted from Al/Si intensity ratios calculated for 8 second time spans. Reliability of the Al/Si ratio was enhanced when 16 second data were compiled using a sliding average technique. Residual anomalies from the trend surface mapping were identified and correlated with relatively small lunar surface features.

  11. Intracellular distribution and stability of a luminescent rhenium(I) tricarbonyl tetrazolato complex using epifluorescence microscopy in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedding, Jason L.; Harris, Hugh H.; Bader, Christie A.; Plush, Sally E.; Mak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Optical fluorescence microscopy was used in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence microscopy to monitor the stability and intracellular distribution of the luminescent rhenium(I) complex fac-[Re(CO) 3 (phen)L], where phen = 1,10-phenathroline and L = 5-(4-iodophenyl)tetrazolato, in 22Rv1 cells. The rhenium complex showed no signs of ancillary ligand dissociation, a conclusion based on data obtained via X-ray fluorescence imaging aligning iodine and rhenium distributions. A diffuse reticular localisation was detected for the complex, in the nuclear/perinuclear region of cells, by either optical or X-ray fluorescence techniques. Furthermore, X-ray fluorescence also showed that the Re-I complex disrupted the homeostasis of some biologically relevant elements, such as chlorine, potassium and zinc.

  12. Intracellular distribution and stability of a luminescent rhenium(i) tricarbonyl tetrazolato complex using epifluorescence microscopy in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, J L; Harris, H H; Bader, C A; Plush, S E; Mak, R; Massi, M; Brooks, D A; Lai, B; Vogt, S; Werrett, M V; Simpson, P V; Skelton, B W; Stagni, S

    2017-04-19

    Optical epifluorescence microscopy was used in conjunction with X-ray fluorescence imaging to monitor the stability and intracellular distribution of the luminescent rhenium(i) complex fac-[Re(CO) 3 (phen)L], where phen = 1,10-phenathroline and L = 5-(4-iodophenyl)tetrazolato, in 22Rv1 cells. The rhenium complex showed no signs of ancillary ligand dissociation, a conclusion based on data obtained via X-ray fluorescence imaging aligning iodine and rhenium distributions. A diffuse reticular localisation was detected for the complex in the nuclear/perinuclear region of cells, by either optical or X-ray fluorescence imaging techniques. X-ray fluorescence also showed that the rhenium complex disrupted the homeostasis of some biologically relevant elements, such as chlorine, potassium and zinc.

  13. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  14. Electrodynamics of the EUV/x-ray bright point and filamentary flux loop complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    The electrodynamic model of generation of electric currents in the solar atmosphere, by means of twisting of emerging magnetic flux loops, is investigated with emphasis on the small-scaled EUV/X-ray bright points. It is found that the corresponding power input from such conversion of kinetic energy of the turbulent photospheric plasma into magnetic energy could amount to about 25% of the total energy flux of the solar wind and solar radiation. However, if similar filamentary structures containing colder material are formed in abundance, the total energy budget would be correspondingly larger and the resulting mass injection phenomena may be related to the so-called coronal bullets observed in UV. These energetic features suggest that the coronal dynamics and heating could be dictated by plasma structures with angular sizes <0.1 -1. The authors argue that the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission will be essential in addressing these issues basic to solar corona and solar wind acceleration

  15. Lattice distortion due to surface treatment of bias sputtering revealed by extremely asymmetric X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Akimoto, K.; Emoto, T.; Kikuchi, S.; Itagaki, K.; Namita, H

    2004-07-15

    Strain fields near InGaP or GaAs surfaces due to bias sputtering (Ar plasma-ion irradiation) for surface cleaning were measured by using a strain-sensitive X-ray diffraction technique. An extremely asymmetric InGaP or GaAs 1 1 3 reflection of the sample was measured to observe strain fields. We found that strain fields near InGaP or GaAs surfaces due to bias sputtering are affected by the bias voltage (Ar plasma-ion irradiation energy) used in this surface-cleaning treatment. By comparing measured 1 1 3 rocking curves and calculated ones based on the dynamical theory of X-rays, we estimated the thickness of a strained layer and a maximum strain at the surface. Resulting estimated parameters clearly show the bias sputtering to have two effects. One should be corresponding to the surface cleaning process of removing oxides on surfaces. The other is the lattice expansion, which is thought to be caused by compositional fluctuation near the surface or peening process of Ar ion.

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical analysis of passivated electrolytic tin plate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzerri, N.; Splendorini, L.; Battistoni, C.; Paparazzo, E.

    1982-01-01

    The passive layer of cathodic dichromate (CDC) and dichromate dipped (DCD) passivated tin plate was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical analysis. Electrochemical results were compared with atomic absorption spectroscopy and glow discharge spectroscopy data and are discussed in relation to the solid state properties of the passive layer compounds. XPS depth profiles were obtained by using a ''first-principles model'' for quantitative purposes and the results are evaluated on the basis of the analytical approach employed. (Auth.)

  17. Surface characterization of uranium metal and uranium dioxide using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Trickle, I.R.; Tucker, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectra of pure uranium metal and stoichiometric uranium dioxide have been obtained using an AEI ES300 spectrometer. Binding energy values for core and valence electrons have been determined using an internally calibrated energy scale and monochromatic Al Kα radiation. Satellite peaks observed accompanying certain principal core ionizations are discussed in relation to the mechanisms by which they arise. Confirmation is obtained that for stoichiometric UOsub(2.00) a single shake-up satellite is observed accompanying the U 4fsub(7/2,5/2) principal core lines, separated by 6.8 eV to higher binding energy. (author)

  18. Generation of X-rays by 850 MeV electrons in a novel periodic multicrystal structure on a GaAs plate surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplin, V.V.; Uglov, S.R.; Zabaev, V.N.; Kanaev, V.G.; Litvin, S.V.; Timchenko, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    A novel type of a periodical crystalline target for the generation of coherent X-rays by relativistic electrons is described. The target has been done on the surface of a GaAs crystal plate by means of microlitography. The etched microstructure is a system of about 300 stripes 14 μm thick, 100 μm high and the gaps between the stripes are 29 μm. The measured spectra and orientational dependences of the X-rays emitted at an angle of 19 deg. to the 850 MeV electron beam of the Tomsk synchrotron are discussed. The generated 63 keV radiation consists of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) and diffracted X-ray transition radiation (DTR). It has been shown that the intensity of the DTR component of the generated X-rays is much more great than that of the PXR

  19. Generation of X-rays by 850 MeV electrons in a novel periodic multicrystal structure on a GaAs plate surface

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplin, V V; Zabaev, V N; Kanaev, V G; Litvin, S V; Timchenko, N A

    2000-01-01

    A novel type of a periodical crystalline target for the generation of coherent X-rays by relativistic electrons is described. The target has been done on the surface of a GaAs crystal plate by means of microlitography. The etched microstructure is a system of about 300 stripes 14 mu m thick, 100 mu m high and the gaps between the stripes are 29 mu m. The measured spectra and orientational dependences of the X-rays emitted at an angle of 19 deg. to the 850 MeV electron beam of the Tomsk synchrotron are discussed. The generated 63 keV radiation consists of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) and diffracted X-ray transition radiation (DTR). It has been shown that the intensity of the DTR component of the generated X-rays is much more great than that of the PXR.

  20. Surface structure of Bi2Se3(111) determined by low-energy electron diffraction and surface x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Reis, Diogo Duarte; Barreto, Lucas; Bianchi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The surface structure of the prototypical topological insulator Bi2Se3 is determined by low-energy electron diffraction and surface x-ray diffraction at room temperature. Both approaches show that the crystal is terminated by an intact quintuple layer. Specifically, an alternative termination by ...

  1. In situ X-ray scattering studies of protein solution droplets drying on micro- and nanopatterned superhydrophobic PMMA surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Angelo; Gentile, Francesco; Mecarini, Federico; De Angelis, Francesco; Burghammer, Manfred; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian

    2010-09-21

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces with contact angles of ∼170° and high optical and X-ray transparencies have been fabricated through the use of optical lithography and plasma etching. The surfaces contain either a microscale pattern of micropillars or a random nanofibrillar pattern. Nanoscale asperities on top of the micropillars closely resemble Nelumbo nucifera lotus leaves. The evolution of the contact angle of water and lysozyme solution droplets during evaporation was studied on the micro- and nanopatterned surfaces, showing in particular contact-line pinning for the protein solution droplet on the nanopatterned surface. The microstructural evolution of lysozyme solution droplets was studied on both types of surfaces in situ under nearly contact-free conditions by synchrotron radiation microbeam wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering revealing the increasing protein concentration and the onset of precipitation. The solid residuals show hollow sphere morphologies. Rastermicrodiffraction of the detached residuals suggests about a 1/3 volume fraction of ≥17 nm lysozyme nanocrystalline domains and about a 2/3 short-range-order volume fraction. About 5-fold larger nanocrystalline domains were observed at the attachment points of the sphere to the substrates, which is attributed to particle growth in a shear flow. Such surfaces represent nearly contact-free sample supports for studies of inorganic and organic solution droplets, which find applications in biochips.

  2. From single-site tantalum complexes to nanoparticles of Ta x N y and TaO x N y supported on silica: elucidation of synthesis chemistry by dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Janet C; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Callens, Emmanuel; Samantaray, Manoja K; Gajan, David; Gurinov, Andrei; Ma, Tao; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Hoffman, Adam S; Gates, Bruce C; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-01

    Air-stable catalysts consisting of tantalum nitride nanoparticles represented as a mixture of Ta x N y and TaO x N y with diameters in the range of 0.5 to 3 nm supported on highly dehydroxylated silica were synthesized from TaMe 5 (Me = methyl) and dimeric Ta 2 (OMe) 10 with guidance by the principles of surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC). Characterization of the supported precursors and the supported nanoparticles formed from them was carried out by IR, NMR, UV-Vis, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies complemented with XRD and high-resolution TEM, with dynamic nuclear polarization surface enhanced NMR spectroscopy being especially helpful by providing enhanced intensities of the signals of 1 H, 13 C, 29 Si, and 15 N at their natural abundances. The characterization data provide details of the synthesis chemistry, including evidence of (a) O 2 insertion into Ta-CH 3 species on the support and (b) a binuclear to mononuclear transformation of species formed from Ta 2 (OMe) 10 on the support. A catalytic test reaction, cyclooctene epoxidation, was used to probe the supported nanoparticles, with 30% H 2 O 2 serving as the oxidant. The catalysts gave selectivities up to 98% for the epoxide at conversions as high as 99% with a 3.4 wt% loading of Ta present as Ta x N y /TaO x N y .

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray study and in vitro cytotoxicity of 5-hydroxycoumarin derivatives and their copper complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowska, Kinga; Maciejewska, Dorota; Drzewiecka-Antonik, Aleksandra; Klepka, Marcin T.; Wolska, Anna; Dobrzycki, Łukasz; Sztokfisz, Alicja; Czajkowska, Agnieszka; Młynarczuk-Biały, Izabela

    2017-10-01

    We have synthesized a series of bromo derivatives of 5-hydroxycoumarin and two new Cu(II) complexes with 6-acetyl-8-bromo-5-hydroxy-4,7-dimethylcoumarin (L2) and 6-acetyl-3,8-dibromo-5-hydroxy-4,7-dimethylcoumarin (L3) ligands, designed as potential active compounds against human cancer cell lines. The elemental analysis, mass spectroscopy, NMR and infrared spectroscopy have been used for basic characterization of analyzed compounds. The X-ray crystal structure analysis for one representative organic compound, 3,6,8-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4,7-dimethylcoumarin (c) has been performed. It has shown that coumarin system is nearly planar and the Br⋯Br interaction is a very characteristic feature of the molecular association for organic ligands. The complexes, Cu(L2)2·3H2O and Cu(L3)(ClO4)·2.5H2O, have been found as four-coordinated and contain copper in the +2 oxidation state according to X-ray absorption spectroscopy. All the compounds have been screened in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against mouse fibroblast and human prostate cancer cells. The coordination products of brominated ligands have shown to be more active than the free ligands and demonstrate significant in-vitro cytotoxicity against human prostate cancer cells (DU145).

  4. Local electronic and geometrical structures of hydrogen-bonded complexes studied by soft X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The hydrogen bond is one of the most important forms of intermolecular interactions. It occurs in all-important components of life. However, the electronic structures of hydrogen-bonded complexes in liquid phases have long been difficult to determine due to the lack of proper experimental techniques. In this talk, a recent joint theoretical and experimental effort to understand hydrogen bonding in liquid water and alcohol/water mixtures using synchrotron radiation based soft-X-ray spectroscopy will be presented. The complexity of the liquid systems has made it impossible to interpret the spectra with physical intuition alone. Theoretical simulations have thus played an essential role in understanding the spectra and providing valuable insights on the local geometrical and electronic structures of these liquids. Our study sheds light on a 40-year controversy over what kinds of molecular structures are formed in pure liquid methanol. It also suggests an explanation for the well-known puzzle of why alcohol and water do not mix completely: the system must balance nature's tendency toward greater disorder (entropy) with the molecules' tendency to form hydrogen bonds. The observation of electron sharing and broken hydrogen bonding local structures in liquid water will be presented. The possible use of X-ray spectroscopy to determinate the local arrangements of hydrogen-bonded nanostructures will also been discussed

  5. Quantitative determination of the lateral density and intermolecular correlation between proteins anchored on the membrane surfaces using grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuillan, Wasim; Vorobiev, Alexei; Hartel, Andreas; Jones, Nicola G; Engstler, Markus; Tanaka, Motomu

    2012-11-28

    As a physical model of the surface of cells coated with densely packed, non-crystalline proteins coupled to lipid anchors, we functionalized the surface of phospholipid membranes by coupling of neutravidin to biotinylated lipid anchors. After the characterization of fine structures perpendicular to the plane of membrane using specular X-ray reflectivity, the same membrane was characterized by grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Within the framework of distorted wave Born approximation and two-dimensional Percus-Yevick function, we can analyze the form and structure factors of the non-crystalline, membrane-anchored proteins for the first time. As a new experimental technique to quantify the surface density of proteins on the membrane surface, we utilized grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXF). Here, the mean intermolecular distance between proteins from the sulfur peak intensities can be calculated by applying Abelé's matrix formalism. The characteristic correlation distance between non-crystalline neutravidin obtained by the GISAXS analysis agrees well with the intermolecular distance calculated by GIXF, suggesting a large potential of the combination of GISAXS and GIXF in probing the lateral density and correlation of non-crystalline proteins displayed on the membrane surface.

  6. Cluster analysis in soft X-ray spectromicroscopy: finding the patterns in complex specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerotic, M.; Jacobsen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy provides spectral data on the chemical speciation of light elements at sub-100 nanometer spatial resolution. When all chemical species in a specimen are known and separately characterized, existing approaches can be used to measure the concentration of each component at each pixel. In other situations such as in biology or environmental science, this approach may not be possible. A method to find natural groupings of data without prior knowledge of the spectra of all components will be presented. Principal component analysis is used to orthogonalize spectromicroscopy data, and discard much of the noise present in data set. Then cluster analysis is used to find a hierarchical classification of pixels with similar spectra, to extract representative, cluster-averaged spectra with good signal-to-noise ratio, and to obtain gradations of concentration of these representative spectra at each pixel. The method is illustrated with a simulated data set of organic compounds, and a mixture of lutetium in hematite used to understand colloidal transport properties of radionuclides. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Institutes for Health under contract R01 EB00479-01A1, and from the National Science Foundation under contracts OCE-0221029 and CHE-0221934

  7. Induced alignment of a solution-cast discotic hexabenzocoronene derivative for electronic devices investigated by surface X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, Oliver; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2003-01-01

    A surface X-ray diffraction study is presented showing that highly ordered and uniaxially aligned hexa(3,7-dimethyl-octanyl)hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC-C8,2) films can be fabricated by crystallization from solution onto friction-transferred poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) layers. Three...... crystalline HBC-C8,2 majority phases result. In all three phases, the HBC-C8,2 molecules self-organize into columns which are uniaxially aligned along the direction defined by the PTFE macromolecules of the substrate. The three phases are quite similar, the major difference being their orientation...

  8. In situ structural study on underpotential deposition of Ag on Au(111) electrode using surface X-ray scattering technique

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Toshihiro; Morita, Jun; Okamura, Masayuki; Saito, Toshiya; Uosaki, Kohei

    2002-01-01

    In situ surface X-ray scattering (SXS) measurements were carried out to study the structure of a Ag layer on a Au(111) electrode formed by underpotential deposition (upd) in sulfuric acid solution. Specular rod profiles showed that a monolayer of Ag was formed at a potential between the second and third upd peaks, and a bilayer of Ag was formed at a potential between the third upd peak and bulk deposition. Non-specular rod profiles demonstrated that electrochemically deposited Ag atoms both i...

  9. Time Resolved Operando X-ray Techniques in Catalysis, a Case Study: CO Oxidation by O2 over Pt Surfaces and Alumina Supported Pt Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Newton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic oxidation of CO by O2 to form CO2 over Pt surfaces and supported catalysts is one of the most studied catalytic reactions from both fundamental and applied points of view. This review aims to show how the application of a range of time resolved, X-ray based techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD, total X-ray scattering/pair distribution function (PDF, X-ray absorption (XAFS, X-ray emission (XES, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, applied under operando conditions and often coupled to adjunct techniques (for instance mass spectrometry (MS and infrared spectroscopy (IR have shed new light on the structures and mechanisms at work in this most studied of systems. The aim of this review is therefore to demonstrate how a fusion of the operando philosophy with the ever augmenting capacities of modern synchrotron sources can lead to new insight and catalytic possibilities, even in the case of a process that has been intensely studied for almost 100 years.

  10. Synchrotron x-ray imaging visualization study of capillary-induced flow and critical heat flux on surfaces with engineered micropillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong In; Kwak, Ho Jae; Noh, Hyunwoo; Park, Hyun Sun; Fezzaa, Kamel; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Over the last several decades, phenomena related to critical heat flux (CHF) on structured surfaces have received a large amount of attention from the research community. The purpose of such research has been to enhance the safety and efficiency of a variety of thermal systems. A number of theories have been put forward to explain the key CHF enhancement mechanisms on structured surfaces. However, these theories have not been confirmed experimentally because of limitations in the available visualization techniques and the complexity of the phenomena. To overcome these limitations and elucidate the CHF enhancement mechanism on the structured surfaces, we introduce synchrotron x-ray imaging with high spatial (~2 μm) and temporal (~20,000 Hz) resolutions. This technique has enabled us to confirm that capillary-induced flow is the key CHF enhancement mechanism on structured surfaces. PMID:29492453

  11. X-ray computed tomography library of shark anatomy and lower jaw surface models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Pepijn; De Bruin, Paul W; Geleijns, Jacob; Brazeau, Martin D

    2017-04-11

    The cranial diversity of sharks reflects disparate biomechanical adaptations to feeding. In order to be able to investigate and better understand the ecomorphology of extant shark feeding systems, we created a x-ray computed tomography (CT) library of shark cranial anatomy with three-dimensional (3D) lower jaw reconstructions. This is used to examine and quantify lower jaw disparity in extant shark species in a separate study. The library is divided in a dataset comprised of medical CT scans of 122 sharks (Selachimorpha, Chondrichthyes) representing 73 extant species, including digitized morphology of entire shark specimens. This CT dataset and additional data provided by other researchers was used to reconstruct a second dataset containing 3D models of the left lower jaw for 153 individuals representing 94 extant shark species. These datasets form an extensive anatomical record of shark skeletal anatomy, necessary for comparative morphological, biomechanical, ecological and phylogenetic studies.

  12. Combined use of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry for cell surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, Etienne; Delcorte, Arnaud; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the surface properties of microbial cells is a major challenge of current microbiological research and a key to efficiently exploit them in biotechnology. Here, we used three advanced surface analysis techniques with different sensitivity, probing depth, and lateral resolution, that is, in situ atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to gain insight into the surface properties of the conidia of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the native ultrastructure, surface protein and polysaccharide concentrations, and amino acid composition of three mutants affected in hydrophobin production are markedly different from those of the wild-type, thereby providing novel insight into the cell wall architecture of A. fumigatus. The results demonstrate the power of using multiple complementary techniques for probing microbial cell surfaces.

  13. Residual stress evaluation of austenitic stainless steel with a finished surface by polychromatic X-ray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibano, Jun-ichi; Ukai, Takayoshi; Tadano, Shigeru [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Todoh, Masahiro

    1995-11-01

    The residual stress in a subsurface layer of austenitic stainless steel with a finished surface was evaluated by the polychromatic X-ray method. A surface of austenitic stainless steel SUS316 plate was ground and lapped as the specimen. In this method, the relation between strain and depth was approximated with a linear function or an exponential function, and it was assumed that the plane stress state existed in each subsurface layer in the depth direction of the specimen. As a result, the residual strain which was estimated under the assumption of the exponential function showed more reasonable distribution than that of the linear function. In addition, the residual stress which was calculated from the strain distribution was maximum tension at the surface of the specimen, and maximum compression at a position 3 {mu}m below the surface. Therefore, the steep gradient of residual stress could be confirmed in a subsurface layer of the SUS316 with a finished surface. (author).

  14. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Yueping [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China) and Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China)], E-mail: yuepinghan@163.com; Han Yan [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Li Ruihong [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Wang Liming [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2009-06-11

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  15. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yueping; Han Yan; Li Ruihong; Wang Liming

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  16. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueping; Han, Yan; Li, Ruihong; Wang, Liming

    2009-06-01

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  17. Compact x-ray source and panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayon, Stephen E [Manteca, CA

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  18. Structure investigation, spectral, thermal, X-ray and mass characterization of piroxicam and its metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, M. A.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2004-10-01

    [M(H 2L) 2](A) 2. yH 2O (where H 2L: neutral piroxicam (Pir), A: Cl - in case of Ni(II) or acetate anion in case of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions and y=0-2.5) and [M(H 2L) 3](A) z. yH 2O (A: SO 42- in case of Fe(II) ion ( z=1) or Cl - in case of Fe(III) ( z=3) and Co(II) ions ( z=2) and y=1-4) chelates are prepared and characterized using elemental analyses, IR, magnetic and electronic reflectance measurements, mass spectra and thermal analyses. IR spectra reveal that Pir behaves a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions through the pyridyl-N and carbonyl-O of the amide moiety. The reflectance and magnetic moment measurements reveal that these chelates have tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral geometrical structures. Mass spectra and thermal analyses are also used to confirm the proposed formulae and the possible fragments resulted from fragmentation of Pir and its chelates. The thermal behaviour of the chelates (TGA and DTA) are discussed in detail and the thermal stability of the anhydrous chelates follow the order Ni(II)≅Cu(II)X-ray powder diffraction was also used as a confirmatory tool to elucidate the crystallinity of the chelates.

  19. Cosmic x ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  20. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  1. Chest x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  2. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  3. Introduction to crystal structure determination methods using x-ray diffraction: application to some rare earth complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.A. de.

    1986-01-01

    This work is composed by a theoretical introduction studying crystal concept, interaction between X-ray and crystal medium, and methods for determining small molecular structures applied in solution of crystal structures of praseodymium, neodymium and europium complexes with perrhenate and trans - 1,4 - dithiane - 1,4 - dioxide, (TDTD), which general formula is [ Ln (H sub(2) O) sub(4) (η-TDTD) (η'Re O sub(4)) (μ-η sup(2)-TDTD)] sub(n) (Re O sub(4)) sub(2n). nTDTD, where, Ln = Eu, Pr, Nd and methyl-2,6-anhydrous-3-azido-4-0-benzoyl-3-deoxy-α-D-iodo pyranoside. The structure of C sub(14) H sub(15) N sub(3) O sub(5) organic complex was determined using direct methods. (M.C.K.)

  4. The NMR and X-ray study of L-arginine derived Schiff bases and its cadmium complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, B.; Grech, E.; Schilf, W.; Kamieński, B.; Pazio, A.; Woźniak, K.

    2014-04-01

    The structure study of five Schiff bases derived from L-arginine (L-Arg) and 2-hydroxy carbonyl compounds were performed in both solution and solid state using NMR and X-ray methods. Both analytical methods applied to the solid state sample of two Schiff bases showed a significant difference in molecular structures of unsubstituted and 7-CH3 substituted compounds. This effect was explained as a steric interaction of methyl group. Additionally the structure of two Cd2+ complexes with some Schiff bases were determined by NMR methods in DMSO solution and in the solid state. On the base of heteronuclear NMR measurement (13C, 15N and 113Cd) it was possible to define the complexation site on nitrogen atom. The large set of spectral parameters: chemical shifts, homo- and heteronuclear coupling constants, were used in structure study.

  5. X-ray diffraction analysis of rust layer on a weathering steel bridge with surface treatment using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masato; Hara, Shuichi; Kamimura, Takayuki; Miyuki, Hideaki; Sato, Masugu

    2007-01-01

    We have examined the structure of rust layer formed on a weathering steel bridge, to which the surface treatment, employing the effect of Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 sophisticatedly designed to form the protective goethite (α-FeOOH) rust layer which contains a certain amount of Cr, Cr-goethite, was applied in 1996, using X-ray diffraction at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. It was shown that the formation of α-FeOOH was promoted and/or crystal growth of γ-FeOOH was suppressed by the surface treatment. The increase in the protective ability index (PAI) of the rust layer indicates that the protective goethite was predominantly formed under the effect of the surface treatment. In conclusion, it can be said that the surface treatment worked well to promote the formation of the protective goethite rust layer on the weathering steel bridge during the 10-year exposure. (author)

  6. Three-dimensional welding residual stresses evaluation based on the eigenstrain methodology via X-ray measurements at the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaru

    2014-12-01

    In order to assure structural integrity for operating welded structures, it is necessary to evaluate crack growth rate and crack propagation direction for each observed crack non-destructively. Here, three dimensional (3D) welding residual stresses must be evaluated to predict crack propagation. Today, X-ray diffraction is used and the ultrasonic method has been proposed as non-destructive method to measure residual stresses. However, it is impossible to determine residual stress distributions in the thickness direction. Although residual stresses through a depth of several tens of millimeters can be evaluated non-destructively by neutron diffraction, it cannot be used as an on-site measurement technique. This is because neutron diffraction is only available in special irradiation facilities. Author pays attention to the bead flush method based on the eigenstrain methodology. In this method, 3D welding residual stresses are calculated by an elastic Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis from eigenstrains which are evaluated by an inverse analysis from released strains by strain gauges in the removal of the reinforcement of the weld. Here, the removal of the excess metal can be regarded as non-destructive treatment because toe of weld which may become crack starters can be eliminated. The effectiveness of the method has been proven for welded plates and pipes even with relatively lower bead height. In actual measurements, stress evaluation accuracy becomes poorer because measured values of strain gauges are affected by processing strains on the machined surface. In the previous studies, the author has developed the bead flush method that is free from the influence of the affecting strains by using residual strains on surface by X-ray diffraction. However, stress evaluation accuracy is not good enough because of relatively poor measurement accuracy of X-ray diffraction. In this study, a method to improve the estimation accuracy of residual stresses in this method is

  7. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  8. Sulfur amino acids and alanine on pyrite (100) by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Surface or molecular role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Galvez-Martinez, S.; Mateo-Marti, E., E-mail: mateome@cab.inta-csic.es

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Surface annealing pretreatment on pyrite surfaces can select molecular adsorption. • Enriched monosulfide species on pyrite (100) surface favors NH{sub 2} adsorption form. • Enriching disulfide species on pyrite (100) surface promotes NH{sub 3}{sup +} adsorption form. • Unique structure of each aminoacid provides a particular fingerprint in the process. • Spectroscopy evidence, pretreatment surface processes drives molecular adsorption. - Abstract: This paper describes the first successful adsorption of the cysteine, cystine, methionine and alanine amino acids on the pyrite (100) surface under ultra-high vacuum conditions with crucial chemical adsorption parameters driving the process. We have demonstrated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) that the surface pretreatment annealing process on pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter driving surface reactivity. The presence of enriched monosulfide species on the pyrite (100) surface favours the amino acid NH{sub 2} chemical form, whereas a longer annealing surface pretreatment of over 3 h repairs the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, enriching disulfide species on the pyrite surface, which promotes NH{sub 3}{sup +} adsorption due to the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite being replaced by sulfur atom dimers (S{sub 2}{sup 2−}) on the surface. Furthermore, even if the surface chemistry (monosulfide or disulfide species enrichment) is the main factor promoting a partial conversion from NH{sub 2} to NH{sub 3}{sup +} species, the unique chemical structure of each amino acid provides a particular fingerprint in the process.

  9. In situ X-ray diffraction of surface oxide on type 430 stainless steel in breakaway condition using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Isao, E-mail: isaos@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Sugiyama, Yusuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Hayashi, Shigenari; Yamauchi, Akira [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 006-8628 (Japan); Doi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka [Corporate R and D Laboratories, Sumitomo Metals Industries Ltd., 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Kyo, Shoji [Power Engineering R and D Centre, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., 3-11-20 Wakaoji, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0794 (Japan); Suzuki, Shigeru [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Sato, Masugu [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fujimoto, Shinji [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Breakaway studied with Synchrotron radiation X-ray. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local equilibria between phases established during high-temperature oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical failure model well describes the breakaway. - Abstract: Changes in the crystal structure of type 430 stainless steel and the oxides on its surface were studied in situ at 1373 K using a high-intensity synchrotron X-ray source provided by SPring-8 in Japan. The surface of the steel was initially covered with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which was then converted to FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and finally Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on it. These results indicated that the reason for the breakaway oxidation in type 430 stainless steel is Cr depletion beneath Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and the subsequent ionisation of Fe, not the simple mechanical failure of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  10. Entrance surface dose and image quality: Comparison of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in general practitioner clinics, public and private hospitals in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambali, A. S.; Ng, K. H.; Abdullah, B. J. J.; Wang, H. B.; Jamal, N.; Spelic, D. C.; Suleiman, O. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the entrance surface dose (ESD) and image quality of adult chest and abdominal X-ray examinations conducted at general practitioner (GP) clinics, and public and private hospitals in Malaysia. The surveyed facilities were randomly selected within a given category (28 GP clinics, 20 public hospitals and 15 private hospitals). Only departmental X-ray units were involved in the survey. Chest examinations were done at all facilities, while only hospitals performed abdominal examinations. This study used the x-ray attenuation phantoms and protocols developed for the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey program in the United States. The ESD was calculated from measurements of exposure and clinical geometry. An image quality test tool was used to evaluate the low-contrast detectability and high-contrast detail performance under typical clinical conditions. The median ESD value for the adult chest X-ray examination was the highest (0.25 mGy) at GP clinics, followed by private hospitals (0.22 mGy) and public hospitals (0.17 mGy). The median ESD for the adult abdominal X-ray examination at public hospitals (3.35 mGy) was higher than that for private hospitals (2.81 mGy). Results of image quality assessment for the chest X-ray examination show that all facility types have a similar median spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability. For the abdominal X-ray examination, public hospitals have a similar median spatial resolution but larger low-contrast detectability compared with private hospitals. The results of this survey clearly show that there is room for further improvement in performing chest and abdominal X-ray examinations in Malaysia. (authors)

  11. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  12. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  13. Laser-induced surface recrystallization of polycrystalline PbI2 thick films for X-ray detector application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Xinghua; Zhu, Shifu; Yang, Dingyu; Wangyang, Peihua; Gao, Xiuyin

    2018-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced surface recrystallization process was developed to improve the surface properties and device performance of the polycrystalline PbI2 thick films prepared by using close space vapor deposition method. A continuous polycrystalline PbI2 recrystallized layer with a better mechanical strength and reflectivity improved from 2% to 4%-6% was obtained by this recrystallization process for the films with mechanical pretreatment. Other polytypes is absent in the recrystallized layer with the 2H-polytype remaining before and after treatment and obtaining improved electrical and X-ray photoelectric response performance. The pretreatment such as mechanical cutting/polishing and hydrogenation is necessary to lower the non-wetting crystallization behavior during the recrystallization process due to the rough surface state and oxygen contamination.

  14. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  15. Fast in situ phase and stress analysis during laser surface treatment: A synchrotron x-ray diffraction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, V.; Gibmeier, J.; Wilde, F.; Staron, P.; Rössler, R.; Wanner, A.

    2012-11-01

    An in situ stress analysis by means of synchrotron x-ray diffraction was carried out during laser surface hardening of steel. A single exposure set-up that based on a special arrangement of two fast silicon strip line detectors was established, allowing for fast stress analysis according to the sin2ψ x-ray analysis method. For the in situ experiments a process chamber was designed and manufactured, which is described in detail. First measurements were carried out at the HZG undulator imaging beamline (IBL, beamline P05) at the synchrotron storage ring PETRA III, DESY, Hamburg (Germany). The laser processing was carried out using a 6 kW high power diode laser system. Two different laser optics were compared, a Gaussian optic with a focus spot of ø 3 mm and a homogenizing optic with a rectangular spot dimension of 8 × 8 mm2. The laser processing was carried out using spot hardening at a heating-/cooling rate of 1000 K/s and was controlled via pyrometric temperature measurement using a control temperature of 1150 °C. The set-up being established during the measuring campaign allowed for this first realization data collection rates of 10Hz. The data evaluation procedure applied enables the separation of thermal from elastic strains and gains unprecedented insight into the laser hardening process.

  16. Study of dinuclear Rh(II) complexes of phenylalanine derivatives as potential anticancer agents by using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majer, Zsuzsa; Bosze, Szilvia; Szabo, Ildiko; Mihucz, Victor G.; Gaal, Aniko; Szilvagyi, Gabor; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Meirer, Florian; Wobrauschek, Peter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Ingerle, Dieter; Streli, Christina

    In vitro antitumor efficacy of several dinuclear bridgings and one chelate structure dirhodium(II) complex of N-protected phenylalanine derivatives were tested on HT-29 cells. The following synthesized and previously characterized complexes were applied in the present work: Rh-2(OAc)(4)(O-Phe-Z)(n)

  17. X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering analysis of the complex formed by the Met receptor and the Listeria monocytogenes invasion protein InlB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Hartmut H; Petoukhov, Maxim V; Härtlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; Gherardi, Ermanno; Timmins, Peter; Heinz, Dirk W; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2008-03-21

    The Listeria monocytogenes surface protein InlB binds to the extracellular domain of the human receptor tyrosine kinase Met, the product of the c-met proto-oncogene. InlB binding activates the Met receptor, leading to uptake of Listeria into normally nonphagocytic host cells. The N-terminal half of InlB (InlB(321)) is sufficient for Met binding and activation. The complex between this Met-binding domain of InlB and various constructs of the Met ectodomain was characterized by size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering, and structural models were built using small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Although most receptor tyrosine kinase ligands induce receptor dimerization, InlB(321) consistently binds the Met ectodomain with a 1:1 stoichiometry. A construct comprising the Sema and PSI domains of Met, although sufficient to bind the physiological Met ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, does not form a complex with InlB(321) in solution, highlighting the importance of Met Ig domains for InlB binding. Small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering measurements of ligand and receptor, both free and in complex, reveal an elongated shape for the receptor. The four Ig domains form a bent, rather than a fully extended, conformation, and InlB(321) binds to Sema and the first Ig domain of Met, in agreement with the recent crystal structure of a smaller Met fragment in complex with InlB(321). These results call into question whether receptor dimerization is the basic underlying event in InlB(321)-mediated Met activation and demonstrate differences in the mechanisms by which the physiological ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and InlB(321) bind and activate the Met receptor.

  18. Development of a silicon drift detector array: an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for remote surface mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Carini, Gabriella A.; Chen, Wei; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Elsner, Ronald F.; Keister, Jeffrey W.; Kramer, Georgiana; Li, Zheng; Ramsey, Brian D.; Rehak, Pavel; Siddons, D. Peter

    2009-08-01

    Over the past three years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory to develop a modular Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) intended for fine surface mapping of the light elements of the moon. The value of fluorescence spectrometry for surface element mapping is underlined by the fact that the technique has recently been employed by three lunar orbiter missions; Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, and Chang'e. The SDD-XRS instrument we have been developing can operate at a low energy threshold (i.e. is capable of detecting Carbon), comparable energy resolution to Kaguya (<150 eV at 5.9 keV) and an order of magnitude lower power requirement, making much higher sensitivities possible. Furthermore, the intrinsic radiation resistance of the SDD makes it useful even in radiation-harsh environments such as that of Jupiter and its surrounding moons.

  19. Development of a Silicon Drift Detector Array: An X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Remote Surface Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskin, J.A.; De Geronimo, G.; Carini, G.A.; Chen, W.; Elsner, R.F.; Kramer, G.; Keister, J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2009-09-11

    Over the past three years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory to develop a modular Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) intended for fine surface mapping of the light elements of the moon. The value of fluorescence spectrometry for surface element mapping is underlined by the fact that the technique has recently been employed by three lunar orbiter missions; Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, and Chang'e. The SDD-XRS instrument we have been developing can operate at a low energy threshold (i.e. is capable of detecting Carbon), comparable energy resolution to Kaguya (<150 eV at 5.9 keV) and an order of magnitude lower power requirement, making much higher sensitivities possible. Furthermore, the intrinsic radiation resistance of the SDD makes it useful even in radiation-harsh environments such as that of Jupiter and its surrounding moons.

  20. Adsorption of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on noble metal surfaces: A photoemission and X-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquali, L.; Terzi, F.; Montecchi, M.; Doyle, B.P.; Lukkari, J.; Zanfrognini, B.; Seeber, R.; Nannarone, S.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) on Au and Pt surfaces is studied by core level and valence band photoemission using synchrotron radiation and by near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. To closer simulate real applications, the films are grown from aqueous solution at room temperature and are compared to an 'ideal' film prepared by dosing the molecules from the vapour phase on a clean Au(1 1 1) single crystal. The S 2p, C 1s and O 1s levels show multiple components which are associated to molecular fragmentation. NEXAFS confirms that fragmentation takes place at the surface. Thiophene species as well as alkyl chains and S n species are identified as the most probable fragmentation products.

  1. Development of a Silicon Drift Detector Array: An X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Remote Surface Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskin, J.A.; De Geronimo, G.; Carini, G.A.; Chen, W.; Elsner, R.F.; Kramer, G.; Keister, J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three years NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been collaborating with Brookhaven National Laboratory to develop a modular Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) intended for fine surface mapping of the light elements of the moon. The value of fluorescence spectrometry for surface element mapping is underlined by the fact that the technique has recently been employed by three lunar orbiter missions; Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, and Chang'e. The SDD-XRS instrument we have been developing can operate at a low energy threshold (i.e. is capable of detecting Carbon), comparable energy resolution to Kaguya (<150 eV at 5.9 keV) and an order of magnitude lower power requirement, making much higher sensitivities possible. Furthermore, the intrinsic radiation resistance of the SDD makes it useful even in radiation-harsh environments such as that of Jupiter and its surrounding moons.

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  3. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  4. An X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Study of Activated Carbons Impregnated with some Organocopper Complexes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    transition metal complexes containing metals such as copper, chromium and silver, and a ligand such as triethylenediamine were studied. The premise...Cu(hfac).(1,5-COD) 1,5-COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene (v) Cu(dmg)2 dmg = dimethylglyoxime The synthetic routes to these complexes have been described (1...ORGANOCOPPER COMPLEXES (U) DTIC I ELECTE by JUL 9 1q94 S.H.C. Liang TWOs documofli has bespondtor public 1812CS cu sale i e 94 -23405 ... m-NUE RESEARCH

  5. A Review of the Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer as a Tool for Field Geologic Investigations on Earth and in Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Hodges, Kip V.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Graff, Trevor G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is a well-established and commonly used technique in obtaining diagnostic compositional data on geological samples. Recently, developments in X-ray tube and detector technologies have resulted in miniaturized, field-portable instruments that enable new applications both in and out of standard laboratory settings. These applications, however, have not been extensively applied to geologic field campaigns. This study investigates the feasibility of using developing handheld XRF (hXRF) technology to enhance terrestrial field geology, with potential applications in planetary surface exploration missions. We demonstrate that the hXRF is quite stable, providing reliable and accurate data continuously over a several year period. Additionally, sample preparation is proved to have a marked effect on the strategy for collecting and assimilating hXRF data. While the hXRF is capable of obtaining data that are comparable to laboratory XRF analysis for several geologically-important elements (such as Si, Ca, Ti, and K), the instrument is unable to detect other elements (such as Mg and Na) reliably. While this limits the use of the hXRF, especially when compared to laboratory XRF techniques, the hXRF is still capable of providing the field user with significantly improved contextual awareness of a field site, and more work is needed to fully evaluate the potential of this instrument in more complex geologic environments.

  6. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffractometry of MnOx catalysts: surface to bulk composition relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, M.I.; Kappenstein, C.

    1992-01-01

    Surface and bulk analyses of variously-composed, synthetic MnO x catalysts were carried out by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffractometry (XRD), respectively. The data obtained were processed for a comprehensive assessment of bulk and surface compositions, surface oxidation state, and crystalline size. The XPS data processing revealed that a credible assessment of the surface composition (MnO x (OH) y (OH 2 ) z necessitates: (i) the implementation of experimental sensitivity factors determined on a local reference surface maintaining a close chemical similarity to the test materials, and (ii) the fine evaluation of contributions of various oxygen-containing surface species to the O 1s electron emission. The most prominent result of the present investigation is that the exposure of the bulk composition at the surface is quite proportioned. Such a surface to bulk intimacy is thought to enable genesizing the surface composition appropriate for certain catalytic and selectivity, via a possible control over the bulk formation events. (orig.)

  7. Sulfur amino acids and alanine on pyrite (100) by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy: Surface or molecular role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Arenillas, M.; Galvez-Martinez, S.; Mateo-Marti, E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the first successful adsorption of the cysteine, cystine, methionine and alanine amino acids on the pyrite (100) surface under ultra-high vacuum conditions with crucial chemical adsorption parameters driving the process. We have demonstrated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) that the surface pretreatment annealing process on pyrite surfaces is a critical parameter driving surface reactivity. The presence of enriched monosulfide species on the pyrite (100) surface favours the amino acid NH2 chemical form, whereas a longer annealing surface pretreatment of over 3 h repairs the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite, enriching disulfide species on the pyrite surface, which promotes NH3+ adsorption due to the sulfur vacancies in the pyrite being replaced by sulfur atom dimers (S22-) on the surface. Furthermore, even if the surface chemistry (monosulfide or disulfide species enrichment) is the main factor promoting a partial conversion from NH2 to NH3+ species, the unique chemical structure of each amino acid provides a particular fingerprint in the process.

  8. A pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene belt and its TCNQ complex: Syntheses and X-ray crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kent; Jeppesen, Jan O.; Thorup, Niels

    2002-01-01

    A general and efficient four-step synthesis of a tetrathiafulvalene-belt 6, starting from the monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene building block 1, is described, together with its 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane charge transfer complex. The complexation of the electron acceptor 7,7,8,8-tetracyano......-p-quinodimethane by the tetrathlafulvalene-belt 6 was investigated both in solution and in the solid state....

  9. Synthesis, X-ray structure, spectroscopic properties and DFT studies of some dithiocarbazate complexes of nickel(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takjoo, Reza; Centore, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Two nickel(II) complexes with formulae NiL2 (1) and NiL'Im (2) (HL = allyl 2-benzylidene-hydrazinecarbodithioate, H2L' = allyl 2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazinecarbodithioate, Im = Imidazole) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivities, FT-IR, 1H NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the complexes has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffractometry. Both L and L' ligands are coordinated to the metal in the thiolate form. In 1, the square planar coordination of the metal is achieved by coordination of two bidentate ligand units acting through azomethine nitrogen and the thiolato sulfur donor atoms. The complex 2 has a square-planar geometry with the tridentate ligand coordinated to the metal through salicylate oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and the thiolato sulfur atoms, while the fourth coordination position is occupied by one N atom of imidazole. Also natural bond orbitals (NBOs), frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and Mulliken charge computational studies on complexes carried out in the ground state with the DFT and theory at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory.

  10. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of duck MHC class I molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Chen, Yong; Gao, Feng; Chen, Weihong; Qi, Jianxun; Xia, Chun

    2009-01-01

    Using a peptide derived from H5N1, a complex of duck MHC class I molecule (DuMHC I) with duck β 2 -microglobulin (Duβ 2 m) was assembled and crystallized. Initial structure analysis indicated that the crystals did not contain the complete DuMHC I complex but instead contained DuMHC I α3-domain and Duβ 2 m subunits. In order to understand the biological properties of the immune systems of waterfowl and to establish a system for structural studies of duck class I major histocompatibility complex (DuMHC I), a complex of DuMHC I with duck β 2 -microglobulin (Duβ 2 m) and the peptide AEIEDLIF (AF8) derived from H5N1 NP residues 251–258 was assembled. The complex was crystallized; the crystals belonged to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 54.7, b = 72.4, c = 102.2 Å, and diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution. Matthews coefficient calculation and initial structure determination by molecular replacement showed that the crystals did not contain the whole DuMHC I complex, but instead contained the DuMHC I α3 domain and a Duβ2m molecule (DuMHC I α3+β2m). Another complex of DuMHC I with the peptide IDWFDGKE derived from a chicken fusion protein also generated the same results. The stable structure of DuMHC I α3+β2m may reflect some unique characteristics of DuMHC I and pave the way for novel MHC structure-related studies in the future

  11. The O2-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II: Recent Insights from Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), and Femtosecond X-ray Crystallography Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askerka, Mikhail; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S

    2017-01-17

    Efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation may open a way to produce energy from renewable solar power. In biology, generation of fuel due to water oxidation happens efficiently on an immense scale during the light reactions of photosynthesis. To oxidize water, photosynthetic organisms have evolved a highly conserved protein complex, Photosystem II. Within that complex, water oxidation happens at the CaMn 4 O 5 inorganic catalytic cluster, the so-called oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), which cycles through storage "S" states as it accumulates oxidizing equivalents and produces molecular oxygen. In recent years, there has been significant progress in understanding the OEC as it evolves through the catalytic cycle. Studies have combined conventional and femtosecond X-ray crystallography with extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods and have addressed changes in protonation states of μ-oxo bridges and the coordination of substrate water through the analysis of ammonia binding as a chemical analog of water. These advances are thought to be critical to understanding the catalytic cycle since protonation states regulate the relative stability of different redox states and the geometry of the OEC. Therefore, establishing the mechanism for substrate water binding and the nature of protonation/redox state transitions in the OEC is essential for understanding the catalytic cycle of O 2 evolution. The structure of the dark-stable S 1 state has been a target for X-ray crystallography for the past 15 years. However, traditional X-ray crystallography has been hampered by radiation-induced reduction of the OEC. Very recently, a revolutionary X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) technique was applied to PSII to reveal atomic positions at 1.95 Å without radiation damage, which brought us closer than ever to establishing the ultimate structure of the OEC in the S 1 state. However, the atom positions in this crystal

  12. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockett, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a glancing x-ray analytical technique which is used primarily to measure surface metal contamination on semiconductor substrates. This is a review of Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) applications for silicon semiconductor processing. In addition, some comments are made about the future of TXRF, and in particular, synchrotron radiation TXRF (SR-TXRF)

  13. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins and high-valent metal-complexes at room temperature using free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kubin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edge of 3d transition metals provides unique information on the local metal charge and spin states by directly probing 3d-derived molecular orbitals through 2p-3d transitions. However, this soft x-ray technique has been rarely used at synchrotron facilities for mechanistic studies of metalloenzymes due to the difficulties of x-ray-induced sample damage and strong background signals from light elements that can dominate the low metal signal. Here, we combine femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser with a novel x-ray fluorescence-yield spectrometer to overcome these difficulties. We present L-edge absorption spectra of inorganic high-valent Mn complexes (Mn ∼ 6–15 mmol/l with no visible effects of radiation damage. We also present the first L-edge absorption spectra of the oxygen evolving complex (Mn4CaO5 in Photosystem II (Mn < 1 mmol/l at room temperature, measured under similar conditions. Our approach opens new ways to study metalloenzymes under functional conditions.

  14. High-resolution X-ray structure of the trimeric Scar/WAVE-complex precursor Brk1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Linkner

    Full Text Available The Scar/WAVE-complex links upstream Rho-GTPase signaling to the activation of the conserved Arp2/3-complex. Scar/WAVE-induced and Arp2/3-complex-mediated actin nucleation is crucial for actin assembly in protruding lamellipodia to drive cell migration. The heteropentameric Scar/WAVE-complex is composed of Scar/WAVE, Abi, Nap, Pir and a small polypeptide Brk1/HSPC300, and recent work suggested that free Brk1 serves as a homooligomeric precursor in the assembly of this complex. Here we characterized the Brk1 trimer from Dictyostelium by analytical ultracentrifugation and gelfiltration. We show for the first time its dissociation at concentrations in the nanomolar range as well as an exchange of subunits within different DdBrk1 containing complexes. Moreover, we determined the three-dimensional structure of DdBrk1 at 1.5 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. Three chains of DdBrk1 are associated with each other forming a parallel triple coiled-coil bundle. Notably, this structure is highly similar to the heterotrimeric α-helical bundle of HSPC300/WAVE1/Abi2 within the human Scar/WAVE-complex. This finding, together with the fact that Brk1 is collectively sandwiched by the remaining subunits and also constitutes the main subunit connecting the triple-coil domain of the HSPC300/WAVE1/Abi2/ heterotrimer to Sra1(Pir1, implies a critical function of this subunit in the assembly process of the entire Scar/WAVE-complex.

  15. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  16. Extrapolated surface dose measurements using a NdFeB magnetic deflector for 6 MV x-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongkijudom, N; Butson, M; Rosenfeld, A

    2007-03-01

    Extrapolated surface dose measurements have been performed using radiographic film to measure 2-Dimensional maps of skin and surface dose with and without a magnetic deflector device aimed at reducing surface dose. Experiments are also performed using an Attix parallel plate ionisation chamber for comparison to radiographic film extrapolation surface dose analysis. Extrapolated percentage surface dose assessments from radiographic film at the central axis of a 6 MV x-ray beam with magnetic deflector for field size 10 x 10 cm2, 15 x 15 cm2 and 20 x 20 cm2 are 9 +/- 3%, 13 +/- 3% and 16 +/- 3%, these compared to 14 +/- 3%, 19 +/- 3%, and 27 +/- 3% for open fields, respectively. Results from Attix chamber for the same field size are 12 +/- 1%, 15 +/- 1% and 18 +/- 1%, these compared to 16 +/- 1%, 21 +/- 1% and 27 +/- 1% for open fields, respectively. Results are also shown for profiles measured in-plane and cross-plane to the magnetic deflector and compared to open field data. Results have shown that the surface dose is reduced at all sites within the treatment field with larger reductions seen on one side of the field due to the sweeping nature of the designed magnetic field. Radiographic film extrapolation provides an advanced surface dose assessment and has matched well with Attix chamber results. Film measurement allows for easy 2 dimensional dose assessments.

  17. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bublitz, Maike; Nass, Karol; Drachmann, Nikolaj D.; Markvardsen, Anders J.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Mattle, Daniel; Shoeman, Robert L.; Doak, R. Bruce; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin M.; Williams, Garth J.; Foucar, Lutz; Reinhard, Linda; Sitsel, Oleg; Gregersen, Jonas L.; Clausen, Johannes D.; Boesen, Thomas; Gotfryd, Kamil; Wang, Kai-Tuo; Olesen, Claus; Møller, Jesper V.; Nissen, Poul; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-06-11

    Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport ofe.g.ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  18. Structural studies of P-type ATPase–ligand complexes using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Bublitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins are key players in biological systems, mediating signalling events and the specific transport of e.g. ions and metabolites. Consequently, membrane proteins are targeted by a large number of currently approved drugs. Understanding their functions and molecular mechanisms is greatly dependent on structural information, not least on complexes with functionally or medically important ligands. Structure determination, however, is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining well diffracting, macroscopic crystals. Here, the feasibility of X-ray free-electron-laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX for the structure determination of membrane protein–ligand complexes using microcrystals of various native-source and recombinant P-type ATPase complexes is demonstrated. The data reveal the binding sites of a variety of ligands, including lipids and inhibitors such as the hallmark P-type ATPase inhibitor orthovanadate. By analyzing the resolution dependence of ligand densities and overall model qualities, SFX data quality metrics as well as suitable refinement procedures are discussed. Even at relatively low resolution and multiplicity, the identification of ligands can be demonstrated. This makes SFX a useful tool for ligand screening and thus for unravelling the molecular mechanisms of biologically active proteins.

  19. Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering for Imaging of Surface Layers on Intact Bacteria in the Native Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekot, Gerhard; Schuster, David; Messner, Paul; Pum, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline cell surface layers (S-layers) represent a natural two-dimensional (2D) protein self-assembly system with nanometer-scale periodicity that decorate many prokaryotic cells. Here, we analyze the S-layer on intact bacterial cells of the Gram-positive organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 and the Gram-negative organism Aquaspirillum serpens MW5 by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and relate it to the structure obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after platinum/carbon shadowing. By measuring the scattering pattern of X rays obtained from a suspension of bacterial cells, integral information on structural elements such as the thickness and lattice parameters of the S-layers on intact, hydrated cells can be obtained nondestructively. In contrast, TEM of whole mounts is used to analyze the S-layer lattice type and parameters as well as the physical structure in a nonaqueous environment and local information on the structure is delivered. Application of SAXS to S-layer research on intact bacteria is a challenging task, as the scattering volume of the generally thin (3- to 30-nm) bacterial S-layers is low in comparison to the scattering volume of the bacterium itself. For enhancement of the scattering contrast of the S-layer in SAXS measurement, either silicification (treatment with tetraethyl orthosilicate) is used, or the difference between SAXS signals from an S-layer-deficient mutant and the corresponding S-layer-carrying bacterium is used for determination of the scattering signal. The good agreement of the SAXS and TEM data shows that S-layers on the bacterial cell surface are remarkably stable. PMID:23504021

  20. The interaction of platinum complexes with low doses of X-rays in hypoxic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skov, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is not clear why electron affinic compounds (O2, nitroimidazoles) should be more effective sensitizers at high doses (modify double events, 6, 16) while platinum complexes interact to a greater extent at low doses (modification of single-events). The possibility that crosslinks are involved requires further consideration. While DNA intrastrand crosslinks do not appear essential, future low dose experiments are planned to determine the role of interstrand and DNA-protein crosslinks in modifying response at clinical doses. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Determination of the element-specific complex permittivity using a soft x-ray phase modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Hirata, Y.; Miyawaki, J.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, H.; Hobara, R.; Yamamoto, Sh.; Yamamoto, K.; Someya, T.; Takubo, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Araki, M.; Taguchi, M.; Harada, Y.; Wadati, H.; Tsunoda, M.; Kinjo, R.; Kagamihata, A.; Seike, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Tanaka, T.; Shin, S.; Matsuda, I.

    2017-12-01

    We report on directly determining the complex permittivity tensor using a method combining a developed light source from a segmented cross undulator of synchrotron radiation and the magneto-optical Kerr effect. The empirical permittivity, which carries the electronic and magnetic information of a material, has element specificity and has perfect confirmation using the quantum-mechanical calculation for itinerant electrons systems. These results help in understanding the interaction of light and matter, and they provide an interesting approach to seek the best materials as optical elements, for example, in extended-ultraviolet lithographic technologies or in state-of-the-art laser technologies.

  2. Ion-induced pattern formation on Co surfaces: An x-ray scattering and kinetic Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malis, O.; Brock, J.D.; Headrick, R.L.; Yi, M.-S.; Pomeroy, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We report time-resolved grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscope studies of the evolution of the surface morphology of the Co(0001) surface during low-energy Ar + ion sputtering. At temperatures greater than 573 K, the surface is smooth, erosion proceeding in either a layer-by-layer mode or a step retraction mode. In contrast, at temperatures below 573 K, the surface develops a correlated pattern of mounds and/or pits with a characteristic length scale, λ. At room temperature, the surface morphology is dominated by mounds, and coarsens as time progresses. The characteristic length scale obeys the apparent power law, λ=Axt n with n=0.20±0.02. The rms roughness of the surface increases in time according to a similar power law with a slightly larger exponent β=0.28±0.02. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of a simple model of Cu(111) were also performed. These simulations suggest that mound formation and coarsening at low temperatures is due to the slow diffusion of sputter-created adatoms on step edges. The morphological transition from mounds to pits is associated with activation of kink diffusion. These simple simulations produce values for the scaling exponents that agree with the experimental measurements

  3. X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-βγ G-protein complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whorton, Matthew R.; MacKinnon, Roderick [Rockefeller

    2013-07-30

    G-protein-gated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels allow neurotransmitters, through G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation, to control cellular electrical excitability. In cardiac and neuronal cells this control regulates heart rate and neural circuit activity, respectively. Here we present the 3.5Å resolution crystal structure of the mammalian GIRK2 channel in complex with βγ G-protein subunits, the central signalling complex that links G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation to K+ channel activity. Short-range atomic and long-range electrostatic interactions stabilize four βγ G-protein subunits at the interfaces between four K+ channel subunits, inducing a pre-open state of the channel. The pre-open state exhibits a conformation that is intermediate between the closed conformation and the open conformation of the constitutively active mutant. The resultant structural picture is compatible with ‘membrane delimited’ activation of GIRK channels by G proteins and the characteristic burst kinetics of channel gating. The structures also permit a conceptual understanding of how the signalling lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and intracellular Na+ ions participate in multi-ligand regulation of GIRK channels.

  4. Structural insights into the mycobacteria transcription initiation complex from analysis of X-ray crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubin, Elizabeth A.; Lilic, Mirjana; Darst, Seth A.; Campbell, Elizabeth A.

    2017-07-13

    The mycobacteria RNA polymerase (RNAP) is a target for antimicrobials against tuberculosis, motivating structure/function studies. Here we report a 3.2 Å-resolution crystal structure of a Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) open promoter complex (RPo), along with structural analysis of the Msm RPo and a previously reported 2.76 Å-resolution crystal structure of an Msm transcription initiation complex with a promoter DNA fragment. We observe the interaction of the Msm RNAP α-subunit C-terminal domain (αCTD) with DNA, and we provide evidence that the αCTD may play a role in Mtb transcription regulation. Our results reveal the structure of an Actinobacteria-unique insert of the RNAP β' subunit. Finally, our analysis reveals the disposition of the N-terminal segment of Msm σA, which may comprise an intrinsically disordered protein domain unique to mycobacteria. The clade-specific features of the mycobacteria RNAP provide clues to the profound instability of mycobacteria RPo compared with E. coli.

  5. Estimation of doses to patients from ''complex'' conventional X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzado, A.; Vano, E.; Moran, P.; Ruiz, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Castellote, C.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed to estimate organ doses and effective dose-equivalent for patients undergoing three 'complex' examinations (barium meal, barium enema and intravenous urography). The separation of radiological procedures into a set of standard numerical views is based on the use of Monte Carlo conversion factors and measurements within a Remab phantom. Radiation doses measured in a phantom for such examinations were compared with predictions of the ''numerical'' method. Dosimetric measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters attached to the patient's skin along with measurements of the dose-area product during the examination have enabled the derivation of organ doses and to estimate effective dose-equivalent. Mean frequency weighted values of dose-area product, energy imparted to the patient, doses to a set of organs and effective dose-equivalent in the area of Madrid are reported. Comparisons of results with those from similar surveys in other countries were made. (author)

  6. EFFECT OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPLEX FROM WINE ON RATS ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY AT X-RAY IRRADIATION LOW DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. V. Datsyuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the consumption of natural polyphenolic complex from grape wine in drinking water in the daily dose 2.5 ± 1.1 mg polyphenols/kg body mass of rats during the 10 day before exposure to radiation leads to increased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione reductase activities in peripheral blood on 24 and 48 hours after full body X-ray irradiation (30 cGy. The of catalase, gluthathione peroxidase activities and the of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances content in total lysates of peripheral blood within 72 hours after exposure are comparable to those in control rats. Marked decreased of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at 24, 48 and 24 hours, respectively, was observed after exposure to ionizing radiation and increased content of lipid peroxidation products in all above mentioned time points. The decreased of superoxide dismutase and gluthathione peroxidase activities in lysates of rats aorta at 48 hour and increased content of the reactive thiobarbituric acid substances during 72 hours after radiation exposure were observed. The consumption of polyphenolic complex from wine did not change the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in lysates of aorta rats treated with ionizing radiation, whereas gluthathione reductase and gluthathione peroxidase activities was increased during 72 hours after radiation influence. The content of TBA reactive substances was significantly decreased in lysates of aorta rats that were exposed to radiation and polyphenols of grape wine, compared with those of animals that were exposed to radiation alone.

  7. Water adsorption on TiO2 surfaces probed by soft X-ray spectroscopies: bulk materials vs. isolated nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoula, Safia; Sublemontier, Olivier; Patanen, Minna; Nicolas, Christophe; Sirotti, Fausto; Naitabdi, Ahmed; Gaie-Levrel, François; Antonsson, Egill; Aureau, Damien; Ouf, François-Xavier; Wada, Shin-Ichi; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Miron, Catalin

    2015-01-01

    We describe an experimental method to probe the adsorption of water at the surface of isolated, substrate-free TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on soft X-ray spectroscopy in the gas phase using synchrotron radiation. To understand the interfacial properties between water and TiO2 surface, a water shell was adsorbed at the surface of TiO2 NPs. We used two different ways to control the hydration level of the NPs: in the first scheme, initially solvated NPs were dried and in the second one, dry NPs generated thanks to a commercial aerosol generator were exposed to water vapor. XPS was used to identify the signature of the water layer shell on the surface of the free TiO2 NPs and made it possible to follow the evolution of their hydration state. The results obtained allow the establishment of a qualitative determination of isolated NPs’ surface states, as well as to unravel water adsorption mechanisms. This method appears to be a unique approach to investigate the interface between an isolated nano-object and a solvent over-layer, paving the way towards new investigation methods in heterogeneous catalysis on nanomaterials. PMID:26462615

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic depth profilometry of nitrogen implanted in materials for modification of their surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, A.H.; Paynter, R.; Stansfield, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    The modification of the surface properties of materials has a wide range of industrial applications. For example, the authors change the electrical characteristics of semiconductors, improve surface hardness, decrease friction, increase resistance to corrosion, improve adhesion, etc. Nitriding is one of the most common processes used in industry for surface treatment. Nitrogen ion implantation is one technique often used to achieve this goal. Ion implantation offers the power to control the deposition profile, and can be achieved by either conventional ion beam implantation or plasma assisted ion implantation. They have used the technique of plasma assisted ion implantation to implant nitrogen in several materials, including titanium, silicon and stainless steel. The plasma source is a surface ECR source developed at INRS-Energie et Materiaux. The depth profile of the implanted ions has been measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They have also conducted simulations using the TRIM-95 code to predict the depth profile of the implanted ions. Comparisons of the measured results with those from simulations are used to deduce information regarding the plasma composition and the collisional effects in the plasma. A fast responding, current and voltage measuring circuit with fiber optic links is being developed, which allows more accurate quantitative measurements. Further experiments to study the characteristics of the plasma, and their effects on the characteristics of the implanted surfaces are in progress, and the results are presented at this meeting

  9. Investigation on surface layer characteristics of shot peened graphene reinforced Al composite by X-ray diffraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ke; Wu, Yihao; Li, Jiongli; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Ya; Xie, Lechun; Wang, Lianbo; Ji, V.

    2018-03-01

    Graphene reinforced Al composite with high mechanical property was successfully reported. However, there are quite limited studies about shot peening effect on this new type material. Here, 1.0 wt% graphene reinforced Al composite was produced by powder metallurgy and treated by shot peening. The surface layer characteristics of shot peened composite was investigated by X-ray diffraction line profile analysis. The microstructure including domain size, micro-strain, dislocation density and crystalline texture were analyzed. The results showed that after surface shot-peening, the domain size were refined, the dislocation density of the composite was increased sharply to 9.0 × 1011/cm2 at the top surface. The original strong texture was diminished after shot peening. Based on the calculated results, the microstructure variation of composite was more severe than that of Al without graphene reinforcement after shot peening. Besides, the micro-hardness of composite at the top surface increased up to 75HV one time higher than that of matrix. It is concluded that shot peening can be considered as an essential process of improving the surface properties of graphene reinforced Al composite.

  10. Surface modification of PTFE sheet by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Kanda, K.; Haruyama, Y.; Matsui, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The surface properties of poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) are changed by the exposure to synchrotron radiation (SR). We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the PTFE surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by varying the substrate temperature during the SR irradiation and found that the wettability was ascribable to microstructure and chemical composition of surface.In these previous works, oxygen atoms were found to inhabit on the hydrophobic surface of PTFE. In this study, we investigated the surface modification of PTFE from the SR exposure experiment under the O 2 gas atmosphere. The SR exposure to the PTFE sheet was carried out at beamline 6 (BL6) of the New- SUBARU. The PTFE sheet was irradiated to the white beam, ranging 50-1000 eV at BL6 at room temperature. The gas cell was mounted at the irradiation chamber. The O 2 gas pressure in the gas cell can be maintained at about 0.20 Pa during the SR exposure using 5mm φ hole window. The wettability of PTFE surface was evaluated by the contact angle of a small water drop. Contact angle was measured with the water drop of 1 μl using the contact angle meter. Fig.1 shows the SR dose dependence of contact angle of PTFE surface under the O 2 gas atmosphere and under the vacuum. Contact angle decreased monotonically with SR dose. The decrease rate of contact angle of the PTFE surface irradiated under the O 2 gas atmosphere was larger than that of the PTFE surface irradiated without O 2 gas. Therefore, the combination of O atom to the PTFE surface was enhanced by the O 2 gas in the reaction region. These results suggested that the bonding of O atom on the hydrophobic PTFE surface is dominantly produced in the sample chamber during SR irradiation, but not in the air atmosphere after the SR irradiation

  11. Can AGN and galaxy clusters explain the surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Gilfanov, Marat; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2017-04-01

    Fluctuations of the surface brightness of cosmic X-ray background (CXB) carry unique information about faint and low-luminosity source populations, which is inaccessible for conventional large-scale structure (LSS) studies based on resolved sources. We used XBOOTES (5ks deep Chandra X-ray Observatory ACIS-I maps of the ˜ 9 deg2 Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey) to conduct the most accurate measurement to date of the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB on the angular scales of 3 arcsec-17 arcmin. We find that at sub-arcmin angular scales, the power spectrum is consistent with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) shot noise, without much need for any significant contribution from their one-halo term. This is consistent with the theoretical expectation that low-luminosity AGN reside alone in their dark matter haloes. However, at larger angular scales, we detect a significant LSS signal above the AGN shot noise. Its power spectrum, obtained after subtracting the AGN shot noise, follows a power law with the slope of -0.8 ± 0.1 and its amplitude is much larger than what can be plausibly explained by the two-halo term of AGN. We demonstrate that the detected LSS signal is produced by unresolved clusters and groups of galaxies. For the flux limit of the XBOOTES survey, their flux-weighted mean redshift equals ˜ 0.3, and the mean temperature of their intracluster medium (ICM), ≈ 1.4 keV, corresponds to the mass of M500 ˜ 1013.5 M⊙. The power spectrum of CXB fluctuations carries information about the redshift distribution of these objects and the spatial structure of their ICM on the linear scales of up to ˜Mpc, I.e. of the order of the virial radius.

  12. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of uracil N-glycosylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complex with a proteinaceous inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Prem [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Talawar, Ramappa K.; Krishna, P. D. V.; Varshney, Umesh [Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Vijayan, M., E-mail: mv@mbu.iisc.ernet.in [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2006-12-01

    Uracil N-glycosylase from M. tuberculosis has been crystallized in complex with a proteinaceous inhibitor (Ugi) and X-ray diffraction data have been collected. Uracil N-glycosylase is an enzyme which initiates the pathway of uracil-excision repair of DNA. The enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was co-expressed with a proteinaceous inhibitor from Bacillus subtilis phage and was crystallized in monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 201.14, b = 64.27, c = 203.68 Å, β = 109.7°. X-ray data from the crystal have been collected for structure analysis.

  13. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of uracil N-glycosylase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complex with a proteinaceous inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Prem; Talawar, Ramappa K.; Krishna, P. D. V.; Varshney, Umesh; Vijayan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Uracil N-glycosylase from M. tuberculosis has been crystallized in complex with a proteinaceous inhibitor (Ugi) and X-ray diffraction data have been collected. Uracil N-glycosylase is an enzyme which initiates the pathway of uracil-excision repair of DNA. The enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was co-expressed with a proteinaceous inhibitor from Bacillus subtilis phage and was crystallized in monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 201.14, b = 64.27, c = 203.68 Å, β = 109.7°. X-ray data from the crystal have been collected for structure analysis

  14. Rietveld texture analysis of complex oxides: examples of polyphased Bi2223 superconducting and Co349 thermoelectric textured ceramics characterization using neutron and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmeau, E.; Chateigner, D.; Noudem, J.; Funahashi, R.; Horii, S.

    2005-01-01

    Orientation distributions of cobaltite thermoelectric and polyphased bismuth-based cuprate superconducting textured materials are determined from neutron and X-ray diffraction analysis. Curved position-sensitive detectors coupled to a tilt-angle (χ) scan enable the treatment of the whole diffraction pattern using the combined Rietveld-WIMV-Popa algorithm. The textures of three phases of superconducting compounds are determined. The critical current densities, measured for four samples, are strongly dependent on the calculated texture strengths, crystallite sizes and phase ratios. For the cobaltite compounds, a comparison between X-ray and neutron analysis shows the advantages of the latter technique for avoiding the limitations of the X-ray analysis with respect to the defocusing effect. The results highlight the necessity and efficiency of the combined approach for a quantitative texture analysis of complex materials and exemplify the texture-anisotropic physical properties relationship for a better understanding and design of improved bulk superconducting and thermoelectric materials

  15. Combinatorial near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure: Simultaneous determination of molecular orientation and bond concentration on chemically heterogeneous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzer, Jan; Fischer, Daniel A.; Efimenko, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    We show that simultaneous molecular orientation and bond chemistry of planar chemically heterogeneous surfaces can be obtained by combining near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and rastering the incident x-ray beam on the specimen. This rastering produces serially two-dimensional NEXAFS images in space and energy, revealing information about the chemistry (including bond concentration) and orientation of the surface-bound molecules with submillimeter planar spatial resolution and submonolayer molecular sensitivity. We illustrate the power of the combinatorial NEXAFS method by simultaneously probing the concentration and molecular orientation of semifluorinated (SF) molecules in double-SF molecular gradients on flat silica substrates

  16. An investigation of the chromium oxidation state of a monoanionic chromium tris(catecholate) complex by X-ray absorption and EPR spectroscopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, D I; Levina, A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    The well-known monoanionic Cr tris(3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholato) complex, [Cr(DTBC)3]-, has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The multiple-scattering fit to the XAFS gave good correlation (R = 19.8%) and good values for all of the bond lengths, angles, and Debye-Waller factors. The p...

  17. Zinc(II) complexes with potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors derived from 6-benzylaminopurine: synthesis, characterization, X-ray structures and biological activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Kryštof, Vladimír; Šipl, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 2 (2006), s. 214-225 ISSN 0162-0134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/1168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Zinc(II) complexes * 6-Benzylaminopurine derivatives * Bohemine * Olomoucine * X-ray structures Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2006

  18. Measurement of UO2 surface oxidation using grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction: Implications for nuclear forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Park, Sulgiye; Davisson, M. Lee; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear forensics involves determination of the origin and history of interdicted nuclear materials based on the detection of signatures associated with their production and trafficking. The surface oxidation undergone by UO2 when exposed to air is a potential signature of its atmospheric exposure during handling and transport. To assess the sensitivity of this oxidation to atmospheric parameters, surface sensitive grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) measurements were performed on UO2 samples exposed to air of varying relative humidity (34%, 56%, and 95% RH) and temperature (room temperature, 50 °C, and 100 °C). Near-surface unit cell contraction was observed following exposure, indicating oxidation of the surface and accompanying reduction of the uranium cation ionic radii. The extent of unit cell contraction provides a measure of the extent of oxidation, allowing for comparison of the effects of various exposure conditions. No clear influence of relative humidity on the extent of oxidation was observed, with samples exhibiting similar degrees of unit cell contraction at all relative humidities investigated. In contrast, the thickness of the oxidized layers increased substantially with increasing temperature, such that differences on the order of 10 °C yielded readily observable crystallographic signatures of the exposure conditions.

  19. Study of non stoichiometric pure and Zr-Doped yttria surfaces by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, M.; Duraud, J.P.; Jollet, F.; Thromat, N.; Maire, P.; Le Gressus, C.

    1988-01-01

    Surfaces of oxygen-deficient yttrium oxide, pure or Zr-doped, have been studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The bulk local geometric structure of these non-stoichiometric compounds was previously determined around the Y atom by an EXAFS (Extended X-ray absorption fine structure) study. The local electronic structure around both Y and O, at the surface, was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The partial transfer of the electronic distribution between the anion and the cation was probed using the Auger parameter. Coupling of these experiments with microscopic observations show that: - In the pure oxygen-deficient sample, the concentration of oxygen vacancies appears to be increased at the grain boundaries. - The Auger parameter shows upon reduction an evolution of the Y-O bond towards a more covalent one, this evolution being modulated with the presence of Zr0 2

  20. On the distinction between instrumented indentation technique and x-ray diffraction method in nondestructive or semi-nondestructive surface stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigetaka; Kanamaru, Daisuke; Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of machined surface layer on stress measurement by means of instrumented indentation technique and X-ray diffraction method was comparatively investigated through the use of three weld specimens of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with different machined surface layers; as-cutout, mechanically-polished and electrolytically-polished specimens. Tensile and compressive stresses exist respectively in the machined surface layer of as-cutout and mechanically-polished specimens. Meanwhile, no stress and no machined surface layer exist in electrolytically-polished specimen. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) bead-on-plate welding was performed under the same welding heat input condition to introduce the residual stress into these three specimens. Against these three specimens, firstly the X-ray diffraction method was applied, then the instrumented indentation technique was applied and finally the stress relief technique was applied to measure the distributions of residual stress after welding. Based on a comparison between these stress measurement results, the instrumented indentation technique was in good agreement with the stress relief technique rather than the X-ray diffraction method, even though both machined surface layer and penetration of indenter had almost the same depths. That is why it can be considered that the instrumented indentation technique measures the residual stress in deeper areas of material surface than penetration depth of indenter. A distinction between the instrumented indentation technique and X-ray diffraction method in surface stress measurement was thus clarified from a viewpoint of measurement depth. (author)

  1. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  2. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  3. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  5. X-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  6. Effects of X-Ray Radiation on Complex Visual Discrimination Learning and Social Recognition Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Catherine M.; Roma, Peter G.; Armour, Elwood; Gooden, Virginia L.; Brady, Joseph V.; Weed, Michael R.; Hienz, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal). One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min), while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation. PMID:25099152

  7. The Structure of Urease Activation Complexes Examined by Flexibility Analysis, Mutagenesis, and Small-angle X-ray Scattering Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Soledad; Sukuru, Sai Chetan K.; Hausinger, Robert P.; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Heller, William T

    2008-01-01

    Conformational changes of Klebsiella aerogenes urease apoprotein (UreABC) 3 induced upon binding of the UreD and UreF accessory proteins were examined by a combination of flexibility analysis, mutagenesis, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). ProFlex analysis of urease provided evidence that the major domain of UreB can move in a hinge-like motion to account for prior chemical cross-linking results. Rigidification of the UreB hinge region, accomplished through a G11P mutation, reduced the extent of urease activation, in part by decreasing the nickel content of the mutant enzyme, and by sequestering a portion of the urease apoprotein in a novel activation complex that includes all of the accessory proteins. SAXS analyses of urease, (UreABC-UreD) 3 , and (UreABC-UreDF) 3 confirm that UreD and UreF bind near UreB at the periphery of the (UreAC) 3 structure. This study supports an activation model in which a domain-shifted UreB conformation in (UreABC-UreDF) 3 allows CO 2 and nickel ions to gain access to the nascent active site

  8. Effects of X-ray radiation on complex visual discrimination learning and social recognition memory in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Davis

    Full Text Available The present report describes an animal model for examining the effects of radiation on a range of neurocognitive functions in rodents that are similar to a number of basic human cognitive functions. Fourteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform an automated intra-dimensional set shifting task that consisted of their learning a basic discrimination between two stimulus shapes followed by more complex discrimination stages (e.g., a discrimination reversal, a compound discrimination, a compound reversal, a new shape discrimination, and an intra-dimensional stimulus discrimination reversal. One group of rats was exposed to head-only X-ray radiation (2.3 Gy at a dose rate of 1.9 Gy/min, while a second group received a sham-radiation exposure using the same anesthesia protocol. The irradiated group responded less, had elevated numbers of omitted trials, increased errors, and greater response latencies compared to the sham-irradiated control group. Additionally, social odor recognition memory was tested after radiation exposure by assessing the degree to which rats explored wooden beads impregnated with either their own odors or with the odors of novel, unfamiliar rats; however, no significant effects of radiation on social odor recognition memory were observed. These data suggest that rodent tasks assessing higher-level human cognitive domains are useful in examining the effects of radiation on the CNS, and may be applicable in approximating CNS risks from radiation exposure in clinical populations receiving whole brain irradiation.

  9. Near surface composition of some alloys by X-ray photoelectron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been attributed to surface segregation, preferential sputtering, atomic mixing and radiation- enhanced .... To determine the relative atomic concentrations from relation (1), tabulated values ofσ(hv). [12], L(θ) [13] and ... core-hole conduction electron interactions etc., peak fitting technique described elsewhere. [8] have been ...

  10. Interaction of niobium with polycrystalline palladium surface. X-ray photoemission study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirka, Ivan; Bastl, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 10 (2008), s. 1314-1326 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : interaction * niobium * surfaces Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  11. Neutron and X-ray reflection from surface monolayers of a lipopolyoxazoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurlitzer, A.; Politsch, E.; Cevc, G.

    2000-01-01

    were investigated as a function of surface pressure. The data are consistent with a fraction of the polyoxazoline moieties in brush-like conformations coexisting with a smaller fraction that is closely associated with the interface. Across the phase transition that is detected in the isotherm...

  12. Near surface composition of some alloys by X-ray photoelectron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 57, No. 4. — journal of. October 2001 physics pp. 809–820. Near surface composition of some alloys by .... pass energy was maintained at 20 eV for all the narrow scans. Prior to XPS measurements, specimens were cleaned by Ar· sputtering to remove the hydrocarbon contamination. Ion.

  13. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cobalt Perovskite Surfaces under Cathodic Polarization at High Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2013-08-08

    Heterostructured oxide interfaces have demonstrated enhanced oxygen reduction reaction rates at elevated temperatures (∼500-800 C); however, the physical origin underlying this enhancement is not well understood. By using synchrotron-based in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we focus on understanding the surface electronic structure, elemental composition, and chemical nature of epitaxial La0.8Sr 0.2CoO3-δ (LSC113), (La 0.5Sr0.5)2CoO4±δ (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 (LSC 113/214) thin films as a function of applied electrical potentials (0 to -800 mV) at 520 C and p(O2) of 1 × 10-3 atm. Shifts in the top of the valence band binding energy and changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s spectral components under applied bias reveal key differences among the film chemistries, most notably in the degree of Sr segregation to the surface and quantity of active oxygen sites in the perovskite termination layer. These differences help to identify important factors governing the enhanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysis observed for the LSC113/214 heterostructured surface. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Correlations for predicting the surface wettability for organic light-emitting-diode patterns by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Svarnas, P.; Shard, A. G.; Bradley, J. W.; Seah, M. P.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements have been made to characterize patterned organic light-emitting-diode (OLED) substrates comprising indium-tin-oxide and a photoresist, both of which are modified by treatment with oxygen and tetrafluoromethane in a radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) low-power (˜1 W) capacitively coupled plasma as a function of time. Correlations between the surface chemical compositions from XPS and the contact angle, θ, are evaluated in order that the wettability of very small areas may be predicted. Very clear correlations for both the indium-tin-oxide and the photoresist surfaces are obtained enabling the prediction of the contact angles for these plasma-treated OLED materials from XPS data to a standard uncertainty of 9% in cos θ. These correlations need to be extended to a wider range of compositions in order to establish the physicochemical properties of particular surface functional groups that control water contact angles by this method.

  15. Characteristic Ligand-Induced Crystal Forms of HIV-1 Protease Complexes: A Novel Discovery of X-Ray Crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olajuyigbe, Folasade M.; Geremia, Silvano

    2009-10-01

    Mixtures of saquinavir (SQV) and ritonavir (RTV) were cocrystallized with HIV-1 protease (PR) in an attempt to compare their relative potencies using a crystallographic approach and factors responsible for the respective crystal forms obtained were examined. The mixture ratio of the SQV/RTV was in the range of 1:1 to 1:50 with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) used. Two crystal forms of PR complexes were obtained. At concentrations of 0.8 and 1.2 % DMSO using 1:1 and 1:15 ratios of SQV/RTV, the crystal form was monoclinic while increasing the concentration of DMSO to 3.2 and 5.0% using 1:15 and 1:50 ratios of SQV/RTV, the orthorhombic crystal form was obtained. The high resolution X-ray crystal structures of the PR/ inhibitor complexes reveal that crystal forms with respective space groups are dependent on the occupancy of either SQV or RTV in the active site of the PR. The occupancy of either of the PR inhibitors in the active site of PR has interestingly demonstrated unique cooperativity effects in crystallization of protein-ligand complexes. The crystal forms obtained were also related to the concentration of DMSO and ammonium sulphate in crystallization, and storage conditions of purified PR. Surprisingly, the relative occupancies of these inhibitors in the active site suggested a competition between the two inhibitors which were not inhibition constants related. Analysis of the structures in both crystal forms show no difference in DMSO content but at higher concentration of DMSO (3.2 - 5.0%) in the orthorhombic crystal forms, there were protein-sulphate interactions which were absent in the monoclinic forms with lower concentration (0.8 - 1.2%) of DMSO. This work has clearly demonstrated that there is cooperativity in crystallization and the conditions of crystallization influence specific intermolecular contacts in crystal packing (crystal form). (author)

  16. Complex optical/UV and X-ray variability of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Main; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Kembhavi, Ajit K.; Misra, Ranjeev; Naik, Sachindra

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed broad-band UV/optical to X-ray spectral variability of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 using six XMM-Newton observations performed during 2002-2003. These observations covered a large amplitude variability event in which the soft X-ray (0.3-2 keV) count rate increased by a factor of ∼4 in six months. The X-ray spectra during the variability are well described by a model consisting of a primary power law, blurred and distant reflection. The 2-10 keV power-law flux varied by a factor of ∼7 while the 0.3-2 keV soft X-ray excess flux derived from the blurred reflection component varied only by a factor of ∼2. The variability event was also observed in the optical and UV bands but the variability amplitudes were only at the 6-10 per cent level. The variations in the optical and UV bands appear to follow the variations in the X-ray band. During the rising phase, the optical bands appear to lag behind the UV band but during the declining phase, the optical bands appear to lead the UV band. Such behaviour is not expected in the reprocessing models where the optical/UV emission is the result of reprocessing of X-ray emission in the accretion disc. The delayed contribution of the broad emission lines in the UV band or the changes in the accretion disc/corona geometry combined with X-ray reprocessing may give rise to the observed behaviour of the variations.

  17. X-ray detection capabilities of plastic scintillators incorporated with hafnium oxide nanoparticles surface-modified with phenyl propionic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Fumiyuki; Noguchi, Takio; Koshimizu, Masanori; Kishimoto, Shunji; Haruki, Rie; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Aida, Tsutomu; Takami, Seiichi; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Asai, Keisuke

    2018-01-01

    We synthesized plastic scintillators incorporated with HfO2 nanoparticles as detectors for X-ray synchrotron radiation. Nanoparticles with sizes of less than 10 nm were synthesized with the subcritical hydrothermal method. The detection efficiency of high-energy X-ray photons improved by up to 3.3 times because of the addition of the nanoparticles. Nanosecond time resolution was successfully achieved for all the scintillators. These results indicate that this method is applicable for the preparation of plastic scintillators to detect X-ray synchrotron radiation.

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  19. Probing the Impact of Solvation on Photoexcited Spin Crossover Complexes with High-Precision X-ray Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cunming; Zhang, Jianxin [State; Lawson Daku, Latévi M. [Département; Gosztola, David; Canton, Sophie E. [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics ter 13, Szeged 6720, Hungary; Attosecond; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    2017-11-17

    Investigating the photoinduced electronic and structural response of bistable molecular building blocks incorporating transition metals in solution phase constitutes a necessary stepping stone for steering their properties towards applications and perfomance optimizations. This work presents a detailed X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy study of a prototypical spin crossover (SCO) complex [FeII(mbpy)3]2+ (where mbpy=4,4’-dimethyl-2,2’-bipyridine) with a [FeIIN6] first coordination shell in water (H2O) and acetonitrile (CH3CN). The unprecedented data quality of the XTA spectra together with the direct fitting of the difference spectra in k space using a large number of scattering paths enables resolving the subtle difference in the photoexcited structures of an FeII complex in two solvents for the first time. Compared to the low spin (LS) 1A1 state, the average Fe-N bond elongations for the photoinduced high spin (HS) 5T2 state are found to be 0.181 . 0.003 Å in H2O and 0.199 . 0.003 Å in CH3CN. This difference in structural response is attributed to ligand-solvent interactions that are stronger in H2O than in CH3CN for the HS excited state. Our studies demonstrate that, although the metal center of [FeII(mbpy)3]2+ could have been expected to be rather shielded by the three bidentate ligands with quasi-octahedral-coordination, the ligand field strength in the HS excited state is nevertheless indirectly affected by solvation that modifies the charge distribution within the Fe-N covalent bonds. More generally, this work highlights the importance of including solvation effects in order to develop a generalized understanding of the spin-state switching at the atomic level.

  20. Some recent developments in the surface-analytical application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Standard depth profiles of an analyte deposited into (diffusion or ion implantation) or on (thin-film deposition) a plane surface can be analyzed for profile type and centroid depth or film thickness by means of a standardless method in which the matrix-attenuated signals of the fluorescing analyte measured at two different take-off angles are related to the mathematical distribution moments of the profile. For a binary thin film the element ratio can also be established. Results obtained on phosphorus profiles in silicon and on zinc sulphide optical coatings are referred to. The quantity or concentration level can be determined by use of a reference standard which may contain the analyte in an entirely different distribution. This simplifies the calibration of secondary reference standards. A good lateral resolution in the sub-millimeter range can be achieved with synchrotron radiation. A further improvement of lateral resolution is possible by direct excitation with electron microbeams, though at significantly inferior detection limits. (orig.)

  1. Quantitative Surface Analysis by Xps (X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Application to Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beccat P.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available XPS is an ideal technique to provide the chemical composition of the extreme surface of solid materials, vastly applied to the study of catalysts. In this article, we will show that a quantitative approach, based upon fundamental expression of the XPS signal, has enabled us to obtain a consistent set of response factors for the elements of the periodic table. In-depth spadework has been necessary to know precisely the transmission function of the spectrometer used at IFP. The set of response factors obtained enables to perform, on a routine basis, a quantitative analysis with approximately 20% relative accuracy, which is quite acceptable for an analysis of such a nature. While using this quantitative approach, we have developed an analytical method specific to hydrotreating catalysts that allows obtaining the sulphiding degree of molybdenum quite reliably and reproducibly. The usage of this method is illustrated by two examples for which XPS spectroscopy has provided with information sufficiently accurate and quantitative to help understand the reactivity differences between certain MoS2/Al2O3 or NiMoS/Al2O3-type hydrotreating catalysts.

  2. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  3. A Novel Volume CT With X-Ray on a Trough-Like Surface and Point Detectors on Circle-Plus-Arc Curve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel imaging mode of cone-beam volume CT is proposed in this paper. It adopts a raster scanning x-ray source on a trough-like surface, and a group of point detectors distributing on a large circle plus an orthogonal arc...

  4. Bismuth on copper (110): analysis of the c(2x2) and p(4x1) structures by surface x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottermoser, L.; Buslaps, T.; Johnson, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Surface X-ray diffraction has been used to analyze the atomic structures of the Cu(110)-c(2 x 2)-Bi and Cu(110)-p(4 x 1)-Bi reconstructions with submonolayer coverages. A quasi-hexagonal c(2 x 2) adlayer structure is formed when half a monolayer of bismuth is deposited; the coverage corresponds...

  5. The complex radio and X-ray structure in the nuclear regions of the active galaxy NGC 1365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Norris, Ray P.

    1999-06-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of the prominent active galaxy NGC 1365, in particular looking at the radio and X-ray properties of the central regions of the galaxy. We analyse ROSAT (PSPC and HRI) observations of NGC 1365, and discuss recent ASCA results. In addition to a number of point sources in the vicinity of NGC 1365, we find a region of extended X-ray emission extending along the central bar of the galaxy, combined with an emission peak near the centre of the galaxy. This central X-ray emission is centred on the optical/radio nucleus, but is spatially extended. The X-ray spectrum can be well fitted by a thermal plasma model, with a temperature of kT=0.6-0.8 keV and a very low local absorbing column. The thermal spectrum is suggestive of starburst emission rather than emission from a central black hole. The ATCA radio observations show a number of hotspots, located in a ring around a weak radio nucleus. Synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated by supernovae and supernova remnants (SNRs) is the likely origin of these hotspots. The radio nucleus has a steep spectrum, indicative perhaps of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or SNRs. The evidence for a jet emanating from the nucleus (as has been previously claimed) is at best marginal. The extent of the radio ring is comparable to that of the extended central X-ray source. We discuss the nature of the central activity in NGC 1365 in the light of these observations. The extended X-ray emission and the thermal spectra strongly suggest that at soft X-ray energies we are not seeing emission predominantly from a central black hole, although the presence of Fe K line emission at higher energies does suggest the presence of an AGN. Consequently, a black hole is probably not the dominant contributor to the energetics of the central regions of NGC 1365 at radio, optical or soft X-ray wavelengths. Activity associated with a starburst is likely the dominant explanation for the observed properties of NGC 1365.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the ATPase domain of human TAP in nucleotide-free and ADP-, vanadate- and azide-complexed forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, Sita R.; Gangwar, Shanti P.; Saxena, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    The ATPase domain of human TAP in nucleotide free, ADP, vanadate and azide complexed forms were purified and crystallized. The X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for all crystals in the resolution range of 2.8–3.0 Å. The human transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) protein belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily and is formed by the heterodimerization of TAP1 and TAP2 subunits. TAP selectively pumps cytosolic peptides into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum in an ATP-dependent manner. The catalytic cycle of the ATPase domain of TAP is not understood at the molecular level. The structures of catalytic intermediates of the ATPase domain of TAP will contribute to the understanding of the chemical mechanism of ATP hydrolysis. In order to understand this mechanism, the ATPase domain of human TAP1 (NBD1) was expressed and purified, crystallized in nucleotide-free and transition-state complex forms and X-ray crystallographic studies were performed. The NBD1 protein was crystallized (i) in the nucleotide-free apo form; (ii) in complex with ADP–Mg 2+ , mimicking the product-bound state; (iii) in complex with vanadate–ADP–Mg 2+ , mimicking the ATP-bound state; and (iv) in complex with azide–ADP–Mg 2+ , also mimicking the ATP-bound state. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for apo and complexed NBD1 using an in-house X-ray diffraction facility at a wavelength of 1.5418 Å. The apo and complexed NBD1 crystals belonged to the primitive hexagonal space group P6 2 , with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. Here, the crystallization, data collection and preliminary crystallographic analysis of apo and complexed NBD1 are reported

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome in a competitive athlete and regional osteoporosis assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Johnson, Mark I

    2014-05-27

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is rarely utilized in the clinical care of patients with complex regional pain syndrome, but may be useful for the non-invasive determination of regional bone fragility and fracture risk, as well as muscular atrophy and regional body composition. This is the first report in the literature of complex regional pain syndrome and musculoskeletal co-morbidities in an athlete, and is the first to focus on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the clinical assessment of complex regional pain syndrome. In this report, we describe the case of a 29-year-old Caucasian man with type 1 complex regional pain syndrome. His body mass index was 29.4kg/m2 at the time of presentation. Despite severe complex regional pain syndrome in the left limb and long term use of a wheelchair, the patient participated in high-performance powerlifting. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed marked unilateral differences in bone strength and lean mass between the affected regions and the contralateral regions. Low bone mineral density for age was found in the left hip, with Z-scores ranging from -2.2 to -3.0, and the patient had previously suffered two fractures. Bone density Z-scores in the right hip and legs were normal. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a valuable tool for the clinical investigation of musculoskeletal health in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Regional osteoporosis in complex regional pain syndrome patients is complicated and should be investigated and monitored. Physical activity is possible for some complex regional pain syndrome patients, depending on the type of exercise and the region affected, and it may protect bone density and strength at non affected skeletal sites.

  8. Studying the ICM in clusters of galaxies via surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzig, Alexander; Gilfanov, Marat; Hütsi, Gert; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2018-02-01

    We study surface brightness fluctuations of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) using Chandra data of XBOOTES. After masking out resolved sources we compute the power spectrum of fluctuations of the unresolved CXB for angular scales from {≈ } 2 arcsec to ≈3°. The non-trivial large-scale structure (LSS) signal dominates over the shot noise of unresolved point sources on angular scales above {˜ } 1 arcmin and is produced mainly by the intracluster medium (ICM) of unresolved clusters and groups of galaxies, as shown in our previous publication. The shot-noise-subtracted power spectrum of CXB fluctuations has a power-law shape with the slope of Γ = 0.96 ± 0.06. Their energy spectrum is well described by the redshifted emission spectrum of optically thin plasma with the best-fitting temperature of T ≈ 1.3 keV and the best-fitting redshift of z ≈ 0.40. These numbers are in good agreement with theoretical expectations based on the X-ray luminosity function and scaling relations of clusters. From these values we estimate the typical mass and luminosity of the objects responsible for CXB fluctuations, M500 ∼ 1013.6 M⊙ h-1 and L0.5-2.0 keV ∼ 1042.5 erg s-1. On the other hand, the flux-weighted mean temperature and redshift of resolved clusters are T ≈ 2.4 keV and z ≈ 0.23 confirming that fluctuations of unresolved CXB are caused by cooler (i.e. less massive) and more distant clusters, as expected. We show that the power spectrum shape is sensitive to the ICM structure all the way to the outskirts, out to ∼few × R500. We also searched for possible contribution of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) to the observed CXB fluctuations. Our results underline the significant diagnostic potential of the CXB fluctuation analysis in studying the ICM structure in clusters.

  9. Surface study of stainless steel electrode deposition from soil electrokinetic (EK) treatment using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embong, Zaidi, E-mail: zaidi@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia (UTHM) 86400, Parit Raja, Batu, Johor (Malaysia); Research Centre for Soft Soils (RECESS), Office for Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management (ORICC), Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia UTHM 86400, Parit Raja, Batu, Johor (Malaysia); Johar, Saffuwan [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia (UTHM) 86400, Parit Raja, Batu, Johor (Malaysia); Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad [Research Centre for Soft Soils (RECESS), Office for Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management (ORICC), Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia UTHM 86400, Parit Raja, Batu, Johor (Malaysia); Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan [Microelectronics and Nanotechnology Centre (MiNT-SRC), Office for Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management (ORICC), Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia UTHM 86400, Parit Raja, Batu, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation relies upon application of a low-intensity direct current through the soil between stainless steel electrodes that are divided into a cathode array and an anode array. This mobilizes charged species, causing ions and water to move toward the electrodes. Metal ions and positively charged organic compounds move toward the cathode. Anions such as chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and negatively charged organic compounds move toward the anode. Here, this remediation techniques lead to a formation of a deposition at the both cathode and anode surface that mainly contributed byanion and cation from the remediated soil. In this research, Renggam-Jerangau soil species (HaplicAcrisol + RhodicFerralsol) with a surveymeter reading of 38.0 ± 3.9 μR/hr has been investigation in order to study the mobility of the anion and cation under the influence electric field. Prior to the EK treatment, the elemental composition of the soil and the stainless steel electrode are measured using XRF analyses. Next, the soil sample is remediated at a constant electric potential of 30 V within an hour of treatment period. A surface study for the deposition layer of the cathode and anode using X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a narrow photoelectron signal from oxygen O 1s, carbon, C 1s silica, Si 2p, aluminium, Al 2p and chromium, Cr 2p exhibited on the electrode surface and indicate that a different in photoelectron intensity for each element on both electrode surface. In this paper, the mechanism of Si{sup 2+} and Al{sup 2+} cation mobility under the influence of voltage potential between the cathode and anode will be discussed in detail.

  10. Surface study of stainless steel electrode deposition from soil electrokinetic (EK) treatment using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embong, Zaidi; Johar, Saffuwan; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan

    2015-01-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation relies upon application of a low-intensity direct current through the soil between stainless steel electrodes that are divided into a cathode array and an anode array. This mobilizes charged species, causing ions and water to move toward the electrodes. Metal ions and positively charged organic compounds move toward the cathode. Anions such as chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and negatively charged organic compounds move toward the anode. Here, this remediation techniques lead to a formation of a deposition at the both cathode and anode surface that mainly contributed byanion and cation from the remediated soil. In this research, Renggam-Jerangau soil species (HaplicAcrisol + RhodicFerralsol) with a surveymeter reading of 38.0 ± 3.9 μR/hr has been investigation in order to study the mobility of the anion and cation under the influence electric field. Prior to the EK treatment, the elemental composition of the soil and the stainless steel electrode are measured using XRF analyses. Next, the soil sample is remediated at a constant electric potential of 30 V within an hour of treatment period. A surface study for the deposition layer of the cathode and anode using X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a narrow photoelectron signal from oxygen O 1s, carbon, C 1s silica, Si 2p, aluminium, Al 2p and chromium, Cr 2p exhibited on the electrode surface and indicate that a different in photoelectron intensity for each element on both electrode surface. In this paper, the mechanism of Si 2+ and Al 2+ cation mobility under the influence of voltage potential between the cathode and anode will be discussed in detail

  11. Iron L2,3-Edge X-ray Absorption and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Studies of Molecular Iron Complexes with Relevance to the FeMoco and FeVco Active Sites of Nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna K; Nayyar, Brahamjot; Rees, Julian A; Schiewer, Christine E; Lee, Sonny C; Kovacs, Julie A; Meyer, Franc; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Otero, Edwige; DeBeer, Serena

    2017-07-17

    Herein, a systematic study of a series of molecular iron model complexes has been carried out using Fe L 2,3 -edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopies. This series spans iron complexes of increasing complexity, starting from ferric and ferrous tetrachlorides ([FeCl 4 ] -/2- ), to ferric and ferrous tetrathiolates ([Fe(SR) 4 ] -/2- ), to diferric and mixed-valent iron-sulfur complexes [Fe 2 S 2 R 4 ] 2-/3- . This test set of compounds is used to evaluate the sensitivity of both Fe L 2,3 -edge XAS and XMCD spectroscopy to oxidation state and ligation changes. It is demonstrated that the energy shift and intensity of the L 2,3 -edge XAS spectra depends on both the oxidation state and covalency of the system; however, the quantitative information that can be extracted from these data is limited. On the other hand, analysis of the Fe XMCD shows distinct changes in the intensity at both L 3 and L 2 edges, depending on the oxidation state of the system. It is also demonstrated that the XMCD intensity is modulated by the covalency of the system. For mononuclear systems, the experimental data are correlated with atomic multiplet calculations in order to provide insights into the experimental observations. Finally, XMCD is applied to the tetranuclear heterometal-iron-sulfur clusters [MFe 3 S 4 ] 3+/2+ (M = Mo, V), which serve as structural analogues of the FeMoco and FeVco active sites of nitrogenase. It is demonstrated that the XMCD data can be utilized to obtain information on the oxidation state distribution in complex clusters that is not readily accessible for the Fe L 2,3 -edge XAS data alone. The advantages of XMCD relative to standard K-edge and L 2,3 -edge XAS are highlighted. This study provides an important foundation for future XMCD studies on complex (bio)inorganic systems.

  12. Iron L2,3-Edge X-ray Absorption and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Studies of Molecular Iron Complexes with Relevance to the FeMoco and FeVco Active Sites of Nitrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Herein, a systematic study of a series of molecular iron model complexes has been carried out using Fe L2,3-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopies. This series spans iron complexes of increasing complexity, starting from ferric and ferrous tetrachlorides ([FeCl4]−/2–), to ferric and ferrous tetrathiolates ([Fe(SR)4]−/2–), to diferric and mixed-valent iron–sulfur complexes [Fe2S2R4]2–/3–. This test set of compounds is used to evaluate the sensitivity of both Fe L2,3-edge XAS and XMCD spectroscopy to oxidation state and ligation changes. It is demonstrated that the energy shift and intensity of the L2,3-edge XAS spectra depends on both the oxidation state and covalency of the system; however, the quantitative information that can be extracted from these data is limited. On the other hand, analysis of the Fe XMCD shows distinct changes in the intensity at both L3 and L2 edges, depending on the oxidation state of the system. It is also demonstrated that the XMCD intensity is modulated by the covalency of the system. For mononuclear systems, the experimental data are correlated with atomic multiplet calculations in order to provide insights into the experimental observations. Finally, XMCD is applied to the tetranuclear heterometal–iron–sulfur clusters [MFe3S4]3+/2+ (M = Mo, V), which serve as structural analogues of the FeMoco and FeVco active sites of nitrogenase. It is demonstrated that the XMCD data can be utilized to obtain information on the oxidation state distribution in complex clusters that is not readily accessible for the Fe L2,3-edge XAS data alone. The advantages of XMCD relative to standard K-edge and L2,3-edge XAS are highlighted. This study provides an important foundation for future XMCD studies on complex (bio)inorganic systems. PMID:28653855

  13. Analysis of Dental Enamel Surface Submitted to Fruit Juice Plus Soymilk by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Salmos Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper aimed to analyze the in vitro industrialized fruit juices effect plus soy to establish the erosive potential of these solutions. Materials and Methods. Seventy bovine incisors were selected after being evaluated under stereomicroscope. Their crowns were prepared and randomly divided into 7 groups, using microhardness with allocation criteria. The crowns were submitted to the fruit juice plus soy during 15 days, twice a day. The pH values, acid titration, and Knoop microhardness were recorded and the specimens were evaluated using X-ray microfluorescence (µXRF. Results. The pH average for all juices and after 3 days was significantly below the critical value for dental erosion. In average, the pH value decreases 14% comparing initial time and pH after 3 days. Comparing before and after, there was a 49% microhardness decrease measured in groups (p<0.05. Groups G1, G2, G5, and G6 are above this average. The analysis by μXRF showed a decrease of approximately 7% Ca and 4% P on bovine crowns surface. Florida (FL statistical analysis showed a statistically significant 1 difference between groups. Thus, a tooth chance to suffer demineralization due to industrialized fruit juices plus soy is real.

  14. Evaluation of pediatrics entrance surface air kerma during chest X-ray examinations in some Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Hassan Ishag Yahya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the amount of entrance surface air kerma dose in air that can reflect the amount of the risk that the children, are subjected to. The parameters that are involved in this project are x-ray tube current (mA), exposure time (sec.), and focal skin distance (FSD) in cm. ESAK is calculated using the equation: ESAK=(Output (mGy/mAs) x (100/FSD) 2 X mAs) for different examination of different patients. 65 cases were involved in this study, the results show that the ESAK mean value (0.18±0.07) mGy, (0.06±0.07) mGy, (0.045±0.017) mGy and (0.049±0.013) mGy at the hospitals (IBNIOF Omdurman, police, clinic doctor) respectively. IBNIOF presented the highest ESAK (0.18±0.07) mGy, while it was lowest in police (0.045±0.017) mGy. The estimated ESAK value were within the established international reference dose values and also the values obtained in pervious studies however, variations were observed in ESAK values among hospitals under study which could be due to the differences in exposure parameters used. Also tube output has some effect on obtained ESAK. (author)

  15. Photoinduced charge transfer in a transition metal complex investigated by time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Setup and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeries, Dennis

    2015-02-01

    In the framework of this thesis the development of a time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment and its application to fac-Ir(ppy) 3 is described. Such experiments require a very stable setup in terms of spatial and temporal accuracy. Therefore, the stability properties of the present installation were investigated in detail and continuously improved, in particular the synchronization of the ultrashort pulse laser system to the storage ring as well as the spatial stability of both X-ray and laser beam. Experiments utilizing the laser pump and X-ray probe configuration were applied on the green phosphorescence emitter complex fac-Ir(ppy) 3 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Structural and electronic changes were triggered by photoexcitation of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer band with ultrashort laser pulses at a wavelength of 343 nm. The excited triplet state spectrum was extracted from the measured pump-probe X-ray absorption spectrum using an ionic approximation. The results con rm the anticipated metal-to-ligand charge transfer as shown by an ionization potential shift of the iridium atom. The symmetry of the complex was found to be pseudo-octahedral. This allowed the first experimental determination of the bond length of fac-Ir(ppy) 3 in an octahedral approximation and revealed a decrease of bond length of the first coordination shell in the triplet state. The first and second-order decay kinetics of the triplet state were investigated in a combination of X-ray and laser based experiments and revealed self-quenching as well as triplet-triplet annihilation rate constants.

  16. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, D.R.; Cahn, R.; Cederstrom, B.; Danielsson, M.; Vestlund, J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R. (Cornell); (UAB)

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  18. Rhenium complexes of chromophore-appended dipicolylamine ligands: syntheses, spectroscopic properties, DNA binding and X-ray crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullice, L.A.; Buurma, N.J.; Pope, S.J.A.; Laye, R.H.; Harding, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    The syntheses of two chromophore-appended dipicolylamine-derived ligands and their reactivity with penta-carbonyl-chloro-rhenium have been studied. The resultant complexes each possess the fac-Re(CO) 3 core. The ligands L 1 1-[bis(pyridine-2-yl-methyl)amino]methyl-pyrene and L 2 2-[bis(pyridine-2-yl-methyl)amino]methyl-quinoxaline were isolated via a one-pot reductive amination in moderate yield. The corresponding rhenium complexes were isolated in good yields and characterised by 1 H NMR, MS, IR and UV-Vis studies. X-Ray crystallographic data were obtained for fac-{Re(CO) 3 (L 1 )}(BF 4 ), C 34 H 26 BF 4 N 4 O 3 Re: monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a 18.327(2) Angstroms, α = 90.00 degrees, b 14.1537(14) Angstroms, β96.263(6) degrees, c = 23.511(3) Angstroms, γ 90.00 Angstroms, 6062.4(11) (Angstroms) 3 , Z=8. The luminescence properties of the ligands and complexes were also investigated, with the emission attributed to the appended chromophore in each case. Isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that fac-{Re(CO) 3 (L 1 )}(BF 4 ) self-aggregates cooperatively in aqueous solution, probably forming micelle-like aggregates with a cmc of 0.18 mM. Investigations into the DNA-binding properties of fac-{Re(CO) 3 (L 1 )}(BF 4 ) were undertaken and revealed that fac-{Re(CO) 3 (L 1 )}(BF 4 ) binding to fish sperm DNA (binding constant 1.5 ± 0.2 * 10 5 M -1 , binding site size 3.2 ± 0.3 base pairs) is accompanied by changes in the UV-Vis spectrum as typically observed for pyrene-based intercalators while the calorimetrically determined binding enthalpy (-14 ± 2 kcal mol -1 ) also agrees favourably with values as typically found for intercalators. (authors)

  19. X-ray in-situ study of copper electrodeposition on UHV prepared GaAs(001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruender, Yvonne

    2008-06-02

    For this work a unique setup for in-situ electrochemical studies was employed and improved. This setup permits UHV preparation of the GaAs(001) surface with a defined surface termination (arsenic-rich or gallium-rich) and its characterization by SXRD in UHV, under ambient pressure in inert gas and in electrolyte under potential control without passing through air. The GaAs(001) surfaces were capped by amorphous arsenic. This permitted to ship them through ambient air. Afterwards smooth well defined GaAs(001) surfaces could be recovered by thermal annealing in UHV. A first investigation of the arsenic capped sample was done by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Surface X-Ray Diffraction (SXRD). The non bulk like termination of the arsenic buried GaAs(001) surface was revealed. For the electrochemical metal deposition, arsenic terminated (2 x 4) reconstructed and gallium terminated (4 x 2) reconstructed GaAs(001) surfaces were employed. These surfaces were characterized by STM, LEED and a first time by SXRD. The surfaces are smooth, however, a higher degree of disorder than for MBE prepared reconstructed GaAs(001) is found. After exposure of the sample to nitrogen, the surfaces were then again studied by SXRD. These two steps characterizing the bare GaAs(001) surfaces permitted us to get a better knowledge of the starting surface and its influence on the later electrodeposited copper. At ambient pressure both reconstructions are lifted, but the surface is not bulk-like terminated as can be deduced from the crystal truncation rods. Epitaxial copper clusters grow upon electrodeposition on the UHV prepared GaAs(001) surface. The copper lattice is rotated and inclined with respect to the GaAs substrate lattice, leading to eight symmetry equivalent domains. The influence of the surface termination as well as the nucleation potential on the structure of the electrodeposited copper were investigated. The tilt and rotation angles do not depend on the deposition potential but

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Drosophila melanogaster Gαo-subunit of heterotrimeric G protein in complex with the RGS domain of CG5036

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishchenko, Svetlana; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Tin, Uliana; Kostareva, Olga; Lin, Chen; Katanaev, Vladimir L.

    2012-01-01

    D. melanogaster Gαo-subunit and the RGS domain of its interacting partner CG5036 have been overproduced and purified; the crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complex of the two proteins are reported. Regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS) proteins negatively regulate heterotrimeric G-protein signalling through their conserved RGS domains. RGS domains act as GTPase-activating proteins, accelerating the GTP hydrolysis rate of the activated form of Gα-subunits. Although omnipresent in eukaryotes, RGS proteins have not been adequately analysed in non-mammalian organisms. The Drosophila melanogaster Gαo-subunit and the RGS domain of its interacting partner CG5036 have been overproduced and purified; the crystallization of the complex of the two proteins using PEG 4000 as a crystallizing agent and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis are reported. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source

  1. X-ray holography

    CERN Document Server

    Faigel, G; Belakhovsky, M; Marchesini, S; Bortel, G

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples.

  2. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  3. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  4. Development of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging Method for the Measurement of Complex 3D Ice Shapes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — When ice accretes on a wing or other aerodynamic surface, it can produce extremely complex shapes. These are comprised of well-known shapes such as horns and...

  5. Chemical synthesis and X-ray structure of a heterochiral {D-protein antagonist plus vascular endothelial growth factor} protein complex by racemic crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Uppalapati, Maruti; Ault-Riché, Dana; Kenney, John; Lowitz, Joshua; Sidhu, Sachdev S.; Kent, Stephen B.H. (Antibody Solutions); (Toronto); (Reflexion); (UC)

    2012-10-23

    Total chemical synthesis was used to prepare the mirror image (D-protein) form of the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A). Phage display against D-VEGF-A was used to screen designed libraries based on a unique small protein scaffold in order to identify a high affinity ligand. Chemically synthesized D- and L- forms of the protein ligand showed reciprocal chiral specificity in surface plasmon resonance binding experiments: The L-protein ligand bound only to D-VEGF-A, whereas the D-protein ligand bound only to L-VEGF-A. The D-protein ligand, but not the L-protein ligand, inhibited the binding of natural VEGF{sub 165} to the VEGFR1 receptor. Racemic protein crystallography was used to determine the high resolution X-ray structure of the heterochiral complex consisting of {l_brace}D-protein antagonist + L-protein form of VEGF-A{r_brace}. Crystallization of a racemic mixture of these synthetic proteins in appropriate stoichiometry gave a racemic protein complex of more than 73 kDa containing six synthetic protein molecules. The structure of the complex was determined to a resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}. Detailed analysis of the interaction between the D-protein antagonist and the VEGF-A protein molecule showed that the binding interface comprised a contact surface area of approximately 800 {angstrom}{sup 2} in accord with our design objectives, and that the D-protein antagonist binds to the same region of VEGF-A that interacts with VEGFR1-domain 2.

  6. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of a nitric acid/argon ion cleaned uranium metal surface at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.J.; Sherwood, P.M.A.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to study the surface of uranium metal cleaned by nitric acid treatment and argon ion etching, followed by heating in a high vacuum. The surface is shown to contain UOsub(2-x) species over the entire temperature range studied. Heating to temperatures in the range 400-600 0 C generates a mixture of this oxide, the metal and a carbide and/or oxycarbide species. (author)

  7. Analysis of structure and vibrational dynamics of the BeTe(001) surface using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumpf, C.; Müller, A.; Weigand, W.

    2003-01-01

    The atomic structure and lattice dynamics of epitaxial BeTe(001) thin films are derived from surface x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. On the Te-rich BeTe(001) surface [1 (1) over bar0]-oriented Te dimers are identified. They cause a (2 X 1) superstructure and induce a pronounced buckling...... geometry and the vibration modes are in very good agreement with the results of density functional theory calculations....

  8. Vapor phase treatment–total reflection X-ray fluorescence for trace elemental analysis of silicon wafer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Hikari, E-mail: hikari@rigaku.co.jp [Rigaku Corp., 14-8 Akaoji-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1146 (Japan); Mori, Yoshihiro [Horiba Ltd., 2 Miyanohigashi, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8510 (Japan); Shibata, Harumi [SUMCO Corporation, Seavance North, 1-2-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8634 (Japan); Shimazaki, Ayako [Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Shabani, Mohammad B. [Mitsubishi Material Corporation, 1-297, Kitabukuro-cho, Omiya-ku, Saitama 330-8508 (Japan); Yamagami, Motoyuki [Rigaku Corp., 14-8 Akaoji-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1146 (Japan); Yabumoto, Norikuni [Analysis Atelier Co., 4-36-4, Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-0053 (Japan); Nishihagi, Kazuo [Horiba Ltd., 2 Miyanohigashi, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8510 (Japan); Gohshi, Yohichi [Tsukuba University, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Vapor phase treatment (VPT) was under investigation by the International Organization for Standardization/Technical Committee 201/Working Group 2 (ISO/TC201/WG2) to improve the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) for trace metal analysis of silicon wafers. Round robin test results have confirmed that TXRF intensity increased by VPT for intentional contamination with 5 × 10{sup 9} and 5 × 10{sup 10} atoms/cm{sup 2} Fe and Ni. The magnification of intensity enhancement varied greatly (1.2–4.7 in VPT factor) among the participating laboratories, though reproducible results could be obtained for average of mapping measurement. SEM observation results showed that various features, sizes, and surface densities of particles formed on the wafer after VPT. The particle morphology seems to have some impact on the VPT efficiency. High resolution SEM observation revealed that a certain number of dots with SiO{sub 2}, silicate and/or carbon gathered to form a particle and heavy metals, Ni and Fe in this study were segregated on it. The amount and shape of the residue should be important to control VPT factor. - Highlights: • This paper presents a summary of study results of VPT–TXRF using ISO/TC201/WG2. • Our goal is to analyze the trace metallic contamination on silicon wafer with concentrations below 1 × 10{sup 10} atoms/cm{sup 2}. • The efficiency and mechanism of VPT are discussed under several round robin tests and systematic studies.

  9. The MarsOrganiX experiment: Understanding the influence of the secondary X-Rays on the organic matter at Mars' near-surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Freissinet, C.; Stalport, F.; Coscia, D.; Pavlov, A.; Gilbert, P.; Bonnet, J. Y.; Guerrini, V.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.

    2017-12-01

    Mars may have harbored a prebiotic chemistry that could have led to the emergence of life. If such, traces of these could be preserved in the oldest (3.5 billion years and more) rocks at the surface of the planet. Because of the thin atmosphere of Mars and the absence of an active magnetic field, the harsh radiative environment at the near-surface consists of UV and X-ray radiation, galactic and solar cosmic rays (GCRs and SCRs), as well as secondary particles produced by the interaction of GCRs and SCRs with the atmosphere and soil (secondary X-rays). The majority of the X-rays at the martian surface are generated in the rocks by the penetrating GCR and SCR particles. The GCRs' secondary X-rays' absorbed dose, at the top centimeters of the surface of Mars, has been estimated at about 0.05 Gy per year. All these radiation (direct and indirect) are prone to induce extended degradation or transformation of organic matter that would be present at Mars' near-surface, down to the 3 m depth of the GCRs/SCRs penetration. The SAM experiment onboard Curiosity rover led to the first in situ detection of organic molecules in martian rocks and soils. Chlorobenzene was detected in Cumberland at a concentration of up to 300 parts per billion in weight. However, chlorobenzene was thought to be formed in the SAM oven, during the pyrolysis of the sample. Nevertheless, Cumberland sample has been exposed to GCRs and SCRs for about 80 million years, and thus, the undergone X-rays radiation may have processed the organic matter and chlorinated the organic molecules in presence of perchlorate. Therefore, this study aims at evaluating the possible precursor(s), that would lead to the formation of chlorobenzene (detected with SAM) when irradiated in presence of perchlorate. Using the PSICHE beam line at SOLEIL, a synchrotron facility in France, we studied the extend of degradation and transformation of two organic molecules of interest, a carboxylic acid (benzoic acid) and an amino acid

  10. Arrangement for X-ray shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    X-ray screen unit consisting of a light transmissive carrier onto which scintillation material is deposited, which is able to generate light under the influence of incident X-ray irradiation, characterised in that the X-ray screen comprises a number of sectors, wherein the surface with respect to the incident X-radiation is maintained at an acute angle. (G.C.)

  11. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  12. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the human Rod-Zwilch-ZW10 (RZZ) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenfeld, Anika; Wohlgemuth, Sabine; Wehenkel, Annemarie; Vetter, Ingrid R; Musacchio, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors kinetochore-microtubule attachment during mitosis. In metazoans, the three-subunit Rod-Zwilch-ZW10 (RZZ) complex is a crucial SAC component that interacts with additional SAC-activating and SAC-silencing components, including the Mad1-Mad2 complex and cytoplasmic dynein. The RZZ complex contains two copies of each subunit and has a predicted molecular mass of ∼800 kDa. Given the low abundance of the RZZ complex in natural sources, its recombinant reconstitution was attempted by co-expression of its subunits in insect cells. The RZZ complex was purified to homogeneity and subjected to systematic crystallization attempts. Initial crystals containing the entire RZZ complex were obtained using the sitting-drop method and were subjected to optimization to improve the diffraction resolution limit. The crystals belonged to space group P3₁ (No. 144) or P3₂ (No. 145), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 215.45, c = 458.7 Å, α = β = 90.0, γ = 120.0°.

  13. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  16. INVESTIGATING THE COMPLEX X-RAY SPECTRUM OF A BROAD-LINE 2MASS RED QUASAR: XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATION OF FTM 0830+3759

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piconcelli, Enrico; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Fiore, Fabrizio; Vignali, Cristian; Bianchi, Stefano; Miniutti, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    We report results from a 50 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dust-reddened broad-line quasar FTM 0830+3759 (z = 0.413) selected from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm/Two Micron All Sky Survey red quasar survey. For this active galactic nucleus (AGN), a very short 9 ks Chandra exposure had suggested a feature-rich X-ray spectrum and Hubble Space Telescope images revealed a very disturbed host galaxy morphology. Contrary to classical, optically selected quasars, the X-ray properties of red (i.e., with J - K s > 1.7 and R - K s > 4.0) broad-line quasars are still quite unexplored, although there is a growing consensus that, due to moderate obscuration, these objects can offer a unique view of spectral components typically swamped by the AGN light in normal, blue quasars. The XMM-Newton observation discussed here has definitely confirmed the complexity of the X-ray spectrum revealing the presence of a cold (or mildly ionized) absorber with N H ∼ 10 22 cm -2 along the line of sight to the nucleus and a Compton reflection component accompanied by an intense Fe Kα emission line in this quasar with a L 2-10 k eV ∼ 5 x 10 44 erg s -1 . A soft-excess component is also required by the data. The match between the column density derived by our spectral analysis and that expected on the basis of reddening due to the dust suggests the possibility that both absorptions occur in the same medium. FTM 0830+3759 is characterized by an extinction/absorption-corrected X-ray-to-optical flux ratio α ox = -2.3, which is steeper than expected on the basis of its UV luminosity. These findings indicate that the X-ray properties of FTM 0830+3759 differ from those typically observed for optically selected broad-line quasars with comparable hard X-ray luminosity.

  17. X-ray speckle correlation interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, Rachel; Materlik, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry (SPCI) is a well-established technique in the visible-light regime for observing surface disturbances. Although not a direct imaging technique, SPCI gives full-field, high-resolution information about an object's motion. Since x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines with high coherent flux have allowed the observation of x-ray speckle, x-ray SPCI could provide a means to measure strains and other quasi-static motions in disordered systems. This paper therefore examines the feasibility of an x-ray speckle correlation interferometer

  18. Complex assembly, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of rhesus macaque MHC Mamu-A*01 complexed with an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Fuliang; Lou, Zhiyong; Gao, Bin; Bell, John I.; Rao, Zihe; Gao, George F.

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of the first rhesus macaque MHC class I complex. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques has been used as the best model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans, especially in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. However, the structure of rhesus macaque (or any other monkey model) major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) presenting a specific peptide (the ligand for CTL) has not yet been elucidated. Here, using in vitro refolding, the preparation of the complex of the rhesus macaque MHC I allele (Mamu-A*01) with human β 2 m and an immunodominant peptide, CTPYDINQM (Gag-CM9), derived from SIV Gag protein is reported. The complex (45 kDa) was crystallized; the crystal belongs to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 183.8, c = 155.2 Å. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit and diffracts X-rays to 2.8 Å resolution. The structure is being solved by molecular replacement and this is the first attempt to determined the crystal structure of a peptide–nonhuman primate MHC complex

  19. A Fast, Versatile Nanoprobe for Complex Materials: The Sub-micron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Beamline at NSLS-II (491st Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Juergen [BNL Photon Sciences Directorate

    2014-02-06

    Time is money and for scientists who need to collect data at research facilities like Brookhaven Lab’s National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), “beamtime” can be a precious commodity. While scanning a complex material with a specific technique and standard equipment today would take days to complete, researchers preparing to use brighter x-rays and the new sub-micron-resolution x-ray spectroscopy (SRX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) could scan the same sample in greater detail with just a few hours of beamtime. Talk about savings and new opportunities for researchers! Users will rely on these tools for locating trace elements in contaminated soils, developing processes for nanoparticles to deliver medical treatments, and much more. Dr. Thieme explains benefits for next-generation research with spectroscopy and more intense x-rays at NSLS-II. He discusses the instrumentation, features, and uses for the new SRX beamline, highlighting its speed, adjustability, and versatility for probing samples ranging in size from millimeters down to the nanoscale. He will talk about complementary beamlines being developed for additional capabilities at NSLS-II as well.

  20. Non-destructive failure analysis and measurement for molded devices and complex assemblies with X-ray CT and 3D image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Liew, Seaw Jia; Jiang, Ting Ying; Xu, Jian; Kakarala, Ramakrishna

    2013-01-01

    In both automotive and healthcare sectors, reliable failure analysis and accurate measurement of molded devices and complex assemblies are important. Current methods of failure analysis and measurement require these molded parts to be cross-sectioned so that internal features or dimensions can be accessible. As a result, the parts are deemed unusable and additional failure introduced by sectioning may cause misinterpretation of the results. X-ray CT and 3D image processing techniques provide a new nondestructive solution for failure analysis and measurement of molded devices and complex assemblies. These techniques simplify failure analysis and measurement of molded devices and assemblies, and improve the productivity of molding manufacturing significantly.

  1. X-ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are described for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly stripped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays

  2. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  3. Mechanical properties of phases in austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel-Surface stresses studied by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhlaoui, Rim; Braham, Chedly; Baczmanski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In this work the parameters characterizing the individual elastoplastic mechanical behaviour of each phase in austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steels are determined by using X-ray diffraction during a uniaxial tensile test. The interpretation of the experimental data is based on the diffraction elastic constants calculated by the self-consistent model taking the anisotropy of the studied materials into account. The elastoplastic model is used to predict the evolution of the internal stresses during loading, and to identify the critical resolved shear stresses and strain hardening parameters of the material. The effect of the chemical composition on the individual elastoplastic behaviour of the studied phases is established by comparing results from three different samples. Finally, the X-ray diffraction results are compared with those previously obtained by using neutron radiation

  4. The 300 Kpc Long X-Ray Jet in PKS 1127-145, Z=1.18 Quasar: Constraining X-Ray Emission Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Stawarz, Lukasz; /Heidelberg Observ. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Cheung, C.C.; /KIPAC,; Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Sikora, Marek; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bechtold,; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.

    2006-11-20

    We present a {approx} 100 ksec Chandra X-ray observation and new VLA radio data of the large scale, 300 kpc long X-ray jet in PKS 1127-145, a radio loud quasar at redshift z=1.18. With this deep X-ray observation we now clearly discern the complex X-ray jet morphology and see substructure within the knots. The X-ray and radio jet intensity profiles are seen to be strikingly different with the radio emission peaking strongly at the two outer knots while the X-ray emission is strongest in the inner jet region. The jet X-ray surface brightness gradually decreases by an order of magnitude going out from the core. The new X-ray data contain sufficient counts to do spectral analysis of the key jet features. The X-ray energy index of the inner jet is relatively flat with {alpha}{sub x} = 0.66 {+-} 0.15 and steep in the outer jet with {alpha}{sub x} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2. We discuss the constraints implied by the new data on the X-ray emission models and conclude that ''one-zone'' models fail and at least a two component model is needed to explain the jet's broad-band emission. We propose that the X-ray emission originates in the jet proper while the bulk of the radio emission comes from a surrounding jet sheath. We also consider intermittent jet activity as a possible cause of the observed jet morphology.

  5. Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

    1971-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, carried in the SIM bay of the command service module was employed principally for compositional mapping of the lunar surface while in lunar orbit, and secondarily, for X-ray astronomical observations during the trans-earth coast. The lunar surface measurements involved observations of the intensity and characteristics energy distribution of the secondary or fluorescent X-rays produced by the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface. The astronomical observations consisted of relatively long periods of measurements of X-rays from pre-selected galactic sources such as Cyg-X-1 and Sco X-1 as well as from the galactic poles.

  6. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  8. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small ... limitations of Panoramic X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... darker. An X-ray technician takes the X-rays. An X-ray technician in the radiology department of a ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  14. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  16. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad.

  17. Direct imaging by atomic force microscopy of surface-localized self-assembled monolayers on a cuprate superconductor and surface X-ray scattering analysis of analogous monolayers on the surface of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen B.; Reitzel, Niels; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer of CF3(CF2)(3)(CH2)(11)NH2 atop the (001) surface of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x was imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images provide direct 2D-structural evidence for the epitaxial 5.5 angstrom square root 2 x root 2R45 degrees unit...... was studied by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity. Structural differences and similarities between the water-supported and superconductor-localized monolayers are discussed....

  18. Isolation and X-ray structures of four Rh(PCP) complexes including a Rh(I) dioxygen complex with a short O-O bond

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashi, Yukiko

    2013-07-01

    The reaction of RhCl3·H2O with tBu2P(CH2)5PtBu 2 afforded several complexes including [RhIII(H)Cl{ tBu2- P(CH2)2CH(CH2) 2PtBu2}] (1), [RhIIIHCl 2{tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2}]2 (2), [RhICl{ tBu2P(CH2)2CH=CHCH2P tBu2}] (3) and [RhICl{tBu 2PCH2C(O)CH=CHCH2PtBu2}] (4). X-ray crystal structures of 3 and 4 showed that the C=C bond on the C 5 unit of tBu2P(CH2) 5PtBu2 is bound to Rh(I) in a η2 configuration. In 4, the Rh atom has a trigonal pyramidal coordination geometry. The X-ray crystal structure of 2 consists of two rhodium( III) centers bridged by two tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2 ligands with two phosphorus atoms, one from each ligand, trans to one another. The crystal structure of the rhodium oxygen adduct with 1,3-bis(di-t-butylphosphinomethyl) benzene [RhO2{ tBu2PCH2(C6H3)CH 2PtBu2}] (5) was also investigated. In this species the O2 is η2 coordinated to the Rh(I) center with asymmetric Rh-O bond lengths (2.087(7) and 1.998(8) Å). The O-O bond distance is short (1.337(11) Å) with νO-O of 990.5 cm -1. DFT calculations on complex 5 yielded two η2- O2 structures that differed in energy by only 0.76 kcal/mol. The lower energy one (5a) had near C2 symmetry, and had nearly equal Rh-O bond lengths, while the higher energy structure (5b) had near Cs symmetry and generally good agreement with the experimental structure. The calculated UV-Vis and IR spectra of complex 5 are in excellent agreement with experiment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diffraction efficiency and relative intensity of various x-ray analyzing crystals at Cu/sub Kα/ and Sn/sub Kα/ wavelengths and with two surface conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellick, B.O. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    Crystals used for x-ray analysis come in many useful planes and 2d spacings with great variation in diffraction efficiency. This report compares the diffraction efficiency of 13 different crystals at two wavelengths, Cu/sub Kα/ and Sn/sub Kα/, and with two surface conditions, first with a cleaved or polished surface and second with a ground or sandblasted surface for enhanced diffraction. It is not obvious from published information how to select a crystal for best detection efficiency for a given plane or 2d spacing. The information in this report should help users select a crystal for a specific application

  20. In Vitro assessment of dentin erosion after immersion in acidic beverages: surface profile analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Jeronymo, Raffaela Di Iorio; Di Nicoló, Rebeca; Araújo, Maria Amélia Máximo de; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of some acidic drinks on dentin erosion, using methods of surface profile (SP) analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF). One hundred standardized dentin slabs obtained from bovine incisor roots were used. Dentin slabs measuring 5x5 mm were ground flat, polished and half of each specimen surface was protected with nail polish. For 60 min, the dentin surfaces were immersed in 50 mL of 5 different drinks (Gatorade...

  1. Bismuth on GaSb(110): Structural determination of the 1x1 and 1x2 phases by surface X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottermoser, L.; Gemmeren, T. Van; Bunk, O.

    1998-01-01

    The surface geometry of the 1 x 1 and 1 x 2 phases of bismuth on GaSb(110) has been determined using surface X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. The bismuth atoms form zigzag chains along the [1(1) over bar 0] direction of the substrate. For the 1 x 1 phase four different registries...... of the bismuth chains with respect to the GaSb(110) substrate are possible. It was found that only the epitaxial continued layer structure was in good agreement with the experimental data. In the 1 x 2 reconstruction every second zigzag chain in the uppermost substrate layer is missing. The reconstructed surface...

  2. Structural study of SiC(0 0 0 1)3x3 surface by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Akimoto, K.; Ichimiya, A.; Hisada, Y.; Mukainakano, S.; Emoto, T.; Tajiri, H.; Takahashi, T.; Sugiyama, H.; Zhang, X.; Kawata, H.

    2003-01-01

    Surface structure of 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1)3x3 reconstruction has been studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. We compared the Patterson map obtained from experimental structure factors with calculated Patterson maps estimated from the models that had been proposed. As the result, the calculated Patterson maps of Kulakov et al.'s [Surf. Sci. 346 (1996) 49] and Starke and coworkers' models [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 758; Phys. Rev. B 58 (1998) 10806; Surf. Rev. Lett. 6 (1999) 1129; Appl. Surf. Sci. 162-163 (2000) 9; Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 10335] are relatively in good agreement with experimental one. Therefore, we conclude that there is high possibility that either Kulakov et al.'s or Starke and coworkers' models are reasonable as the actual 3x3 structure

  3. Structural study of SiC(0 0 0 1)3x3 surface by surface X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, T.; Akimoto, K.; Ichimiya, A.; Hisada, Y.; Mukainakano, S.; Emoto, T.; Tajiri, H.; Takahashi, T.; Sugiyama, H.; Zhang, X.; Kawata, H

    2003-06-30

    Surface structure of 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1)3x3 reconstruction has been studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. We compared the Patterson map obtained from experimental structure factors with calculated Patterson maps estimated from the models that had been proposed. As the result, the calculated Patterson maps of Kulakov et al.'s [Surf. Sci. 346 (1996) 49] and Starke and coworkers' models [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 758; Phys. Rev. B 58 (1998) 10806; Surf. Rev. Lett. 6 (1999) 1129; Appl. Surf. Sci. 162-163 (2000) 9; Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 10335] are relatively in good agreement with experimental one. Therefore, we conclude that there is high possibility that either Kulakov et al.'s or Starke and coworkers' models are reasonable as the actual 3x3 structure.

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  5. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight February is American Heart Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: How to Obtain and ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z Spotlight March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month Recently posted: Video: The Basketball Game: ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  17. X-Ray Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, David C.

    1998-05-01

    We provide an overview of the status of x-ray laser development worldwide with particular attention given to activities at LLNL. Since the demonstration of x-ray lasing 14 years ago there has been major progress in achieving shorter wavelengths, higher energies per pulse, higher efficiency, shorter pulse durations, etc. Original x-ray lasers used large kJ class lasers to achieve lasing in mid-Z materials with electron collisional pumping in the highly stripped ion being the most successful process for populating the upper-laser state. The two most common electron configurations for these collisional x-ray lasers are Ne-like and Ni-like ions. Through the use of prepulses and short picosecond driving pulses, transient collisional x-ray lasing schemes have been demonstrated using lasers with only a few Joules per pulse. An interesting aspect of these lasers is the time lag in reaching ionization equilibrium helps in obtaining high gain coefficients. A different approach to x-ray lasing is also being studied where lasing occurs in a singly ionized ion following innershell photoionization. The major requirement of the driving laser in this case is an ultrashort pulse duration (rise time to achieve lasing prior to collisional ionization of outershell electrons. In the area of applications, most of the work has been for single pulse experiments such as plasma and biological imaging. However, many of the new x-ray lasers achieve high average power by having a reasonable repetition rate of order 10 Hz and we briefly discuss relevant applications for these x-ray lasers. This work performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  18. X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    samples. Another exciting application of microbeam of x-rays is in that of high pressure x-ray diffraction from small samples. Along this line, Yan...will be presented by Jonathan in February at the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces conference and in March at the American Physical...VUV9 conference this summer. Jeff has also worked on developing software that makes use of the scattering factor tables for both microvax and IBM PC

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray is taken with the ... an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of dihydrouridine synthase from Thermus thermophilus and its complex with tRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Futao; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Yamamoto, Shiho; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Kita, Shunsuke; Hirano, Nagisa; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2011-01-01

    Crystals of dihydrouridine synthase from Thermus thermophilus and its complex with tRNA were obtained and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.70 and 3.51 Å resolution, respectively. Dihydrouridine synthase (Dus) is responsible for catalyzing dihydrouridine formation in RNA by the reduction of uridine. To elucidate its RNA-recognition mechanism, Dus from Thermus thermophilus (TthDus) and its complex with tRNA were crystallized. Diffraction data sets were collected from crystals of native and selenomethionine-substituted TthDus to resolutions of 1.70 and 2.30 Å, respectively. These crystals belonged to space group P1. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that two molecules of TthDus were contained in an asymmetric unit. In addition, diffraction data were collected to 3.51 Å resolution from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted TthDus in complex with tRNA, which belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2. Preliminary structural analysis showed that the asymmetric unit contained two TthDus–tRNA complexes

  6. Crystallisation and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protease from Southampton norovirus complexed with a Michael-acceptor inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, Leighton [ORNL; Cooper, Jon [University of Southampton, England; Hussey, Robert [University of Southampton, England

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses are the predominant cause of human epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Viral replication requires a cysteine protease that cleaves a 200 kDa viral polyprotein into its constituent functional parts. Here, the crystallization of the recombinant protease from the Southampton norovirus is described. While the native crystals were found to diffract only to medium resolution (2.9 {angstrom}), cocrystals of an inhibitor complex diffracted X-rays to 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The polypeptide inhibitor (Ac-EFQLQ-propenyl ethyl ester) possesses an amino-acid sequence designed to match the substrate specificity of the enzyme, but was synthesized with a reactive Michael acceptor group at the C-terminal end.

  7. Probing covalency in halogen bonds through donor K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy: polyhalides as coordination complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Chantal L; Gunabalasingam, Mathusan; Yu, Darren; Patrick, Brian O; Kennepohl, Pierre

    2017-10-13

    The properties of halogen bonds (XBs) in solid-state I 2 X - and I 4 X - materials (where X = Cl, Br) are explored using donor K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to experimentally determine the degree of charge transfer in such XB interactions. The degree of covalency in these bonds is substantial, even in cases where significantly weaker secondary interactions are observed. These data, in concert with previous work in this area, suggests that certain halogen bonds have covalent contributions to bonding that are similar to, and even exceed, those observed in transition metal coordinate bonds. For this reason, we suggest that XB interactions of this type be denoted in a similar way to coordination bonds (X → Y) as opposed to using a representation that is the same as for significantly less covalent hydrogen bonds (XY).

  8. Synthesis, characterization, X-ray crystal structure, DFT calculation, DNA binding, and antimicrobial assays of two new mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimipour, S. Yousef; Sheikhshoaie, Iran; Mohamadi, Maryam; Suarez, Sebastian; Baggio, Ricardo; Khaleghi, Moj; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Mostafavi, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Two new Cu(II) complexes, [Cu(L)(phen)] (1), [Cu(L)(bipy)] (2), where L2- = (3-methoxy-2oxidobenzylidene)benzohydrazidato, phen = 1,10 phenanthroline, and bipy = 2,2‧ bipyridine, were prepared and fully characterized using elemental analyses, FT-IR, molar conductivity, and electronic spectra. The structures of both complexes were also determined by X-ray diffraction. It was found that, both complexes possessed square pyramidal coordination environment in which, Cu(II) ions were coordinated by donor atoms of HL and two nitrogens of heterocyclic bases. Computational studies were performed using DFT calculations at B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. DNA binding activities of these complexes were also investigated using electronic absorption, competitive fluorescence titration and cyclic voltammetry studies. The obtained results indicated that binding of the complexes to DNA was of intercalative mode. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of these compounds were screened against microorganisms.

  9. Formation of nanostructures induced by capillary-discharge soft X-ray laser on BaF2 surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongpeng; Cui, Huaiyu; Zhang, Shuqing; Zhang, Wenhong; Li, Wei

    2017-02-01

    BaF2 was ablated by a capillary-discharge pumped soft X-ray laser at 46.9 nm focused by a toroidal mirror at a grazing incidence of 83°. The damaged area, induced by both single and multiple laser pulses, was determined to be covered with fringe-like nanostructures with spacings of approximately 400 nm and mastoid nanostructures with diameters of approximately 600 nm. In this study, we analyze the morphology of the detected damage patterns and discuss the damage mechanism. Results indicate that the depth of the nanostructures varies with different pulse numbers and laser power densities.

  10. X-ray crystallographic characterization of rhesus macaque MHC Mamu-A*02 complexed with an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Youjun; Qi, Jianxun; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Jinzi; Liu, Jinhua; Jiang, Fan; Gao, Feng

    2005-01-01

    X-ray crystallographic characterization of rhesus macaque MHC Mamu-A*02 complexed with an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the rhesus macaque is regarded as a classic animal model, playing a crucial role in HIV vaccine strategies and therapeutics by characterizing various cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in macaque monkeys. However, the availability of well documented structural reports focusing on rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules remains extremely limited. Here, a complex of the rhesus macaque MHC I molecule (Mamu-A*02) with human β 2 m and an immunodominant SIV-Gag nonapeptide, GESNLKSLY (GY9), has been crystallized. The crystal diffracts X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution and belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 124.11, b = 110.45, c = 100.06 Å, and contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The availability of the structure, which is being solved by molecular replacement, will provide new insights into rhesus macaque MHC I (Mamu-A*02) presenting pathogenic SIV peptides

  11. Structure of immune stimulating complex matrices and immune stimulating complexes in suspension determined by small-angle x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jan Skov; Oliveira, Cristiano L P; Hübschmann, Henriette Baun; Arleth, Lise; Manniche, Søren; Kirkby, Nicolai; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2012-05-16

    Immune stimulating complex (ISCOM) particles consisting of a mixture of Quil-A, cholesterol, and phospholipids were structurally characterized by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The ISCOM particles are perforated vesicles of very well-defined structures. We developed and implemented a novel (to our knowledge) modeling method based on Monte Carlo simulation integrations to describe the SAXS data. This approach is similar to the traditional modeling of SAXS data, in which a structure is assumed, the scattering intensity is calculated, and structural parameters are optimized by weighted least-squares methods when the model scattering intensity is fitted to the experimental data. SAXS data from plain ISCOM matrix particles in aqueous suspension, as well as those from complete ISCOMs (i.e., with an antigen (tetanus toxoid) incorporated) can be modeled as a polydisperse distribution of perforated bilayer vesicles with icosahedral, football, or tennis ball structures. The dominating structure is the tennis ball structure, with an outer diameter of 40 nm and with 20 holes 5-6 nm in diameter. The lipid bilayer membrane is 4.6 nm thick, with a low-electron-density, 2.0-nm-thick hydrocarbon core. Surprisingly, in the ISCOMs, the tetanus toxoid is located just below the membrane inside the particles. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of high magnetic field soft X-ray spectroscopy and its application to the study of surface and interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tetsuya; Narumi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic materials are generally synthesized and used as alloys and compounds. They are also stacked as a multilayer film for spintronics device such as a reading-head sensor of a hard disk drive. The evaluation of magnetization is the most fundamental characterization in studies of magnetic materials. Especially, in alloys and compounds involving more than two magnetic elements, a partial magnetization with respect to each element, we call as an element specific magnetization, promises to provide the deeper understanding of their magnetic property. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) in absorption spectroscopy provides an element specific magnetization. As XMCD became increasingly popular, high-magnetic-field environment for XMCD measurements also became very important in order to investigate paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and meta-magnetic materials. Under the circumstance, a high-magnetic-field XMCD measurement technique of the soft-X-ray regime has been developed using a non-destructive pulse magnet having capability of generating 40 T at the twin helical undulators beamline, BL25SU, of SPring-8. In this review, we first introduce the concept and the technical features of high magnetic field XMCD and then show recent examples of the experiments. (author)

  13. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  14. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  15. A soft X-ray image of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Predehl, P.; Truemper, J.; Snowden, S.L.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the Moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the Moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The Moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one per cent that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the Moon's surface. (author)

  16. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Reference 3), inorganic semiconductors (silicon [Si], cadmium zinc telluride [CdZnTe]) (Reference 4) and selenium (References 5 and 6), Ne-Xe...data showing photocurrent generation. Reports on other X-ray photoconductors, such as amorphous selenium , typically show such data (Reference 34). We...that BiI3 content does contribute to surface discharge; however, further work is warranted to measure the photocurrent. Selenium films used for

  17. The Electronic Structure of Mn in Oxides, Coordination Complexes, and the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II Studied by Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Visser, Hendrik; Robblee, John H.; Gu, Weiwei; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Christou, George; Pecoraro, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) was used to collect Mn K pre-edge spectra and to study the electronic structure in oxides, molecular coordination complexes, as well as the S1 and S2 states of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PS II). The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that can be interpreted along the incident (absorption) energy or the energy transfer axis. The second energy dimension separates the pre-edge (predominantly 1s to 3d transitions) from the main K-edge, and a detailed analysis is thus possible. The 1s2p RIXS final-state electron configuration along the energy transfer axis is identical to conventional L-edge absorption spectroscopy, and the RIXS spectra are therefore sensitive to the Mn spin state. This new technique thus yields information on the electronic structure that is not accessible in conventional K-edge absorption spectroscopy. The line splittings can be understood within a ligand field multiplet model, i.e., (3d,3d) and (2p,3d) two-electron interactions are crucial to describe the spectral shapes in all systems. We propose to explain the shift of the K pre-edge absorption energy upon Mn oxidation in terms of the effective number of 3d electrons (fractional 3d orbital population). The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p3/2 RIXS spectra between the PS II S1 and S2 states are small compared to that of the oxides and two of the coordination complexes (MnIII(acac)3 and MnIV(sal)2(bipy)). We conclude that the electron in the step from S1 to S2 is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital. PMID:15303869

  18. Effect of Cl2- and HBr-based inductively coupled plasma etching on InP surface composition analyzed using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchoule, S.; Vallier, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chevolleau, T.; Cardinaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    A Cl 2 -HBr-O 2 /Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process has been adapted for the processing of InP-based heterostructures in a 300-mm diameter CMOS etching tool. Smooth and anisotropic InP etching is obtained at moderate etch rate (∼600 nm/min). Ex situ x-ray energy dispersive analysis of the etched sidewalls shows that the etching anisotropy is obtained through a SiO x passivation mechanism. The stoichiometry of the etched surface is analyzed in situ using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is observed that Cl 2 -based ICP etching results in a significantly P-rich surface. The phosphorous layer identified on the top surface is estimated to be ∼1-1.3-nm thick. On the other hand InP etching in HBr/Ar plasma results in a more stoichiometric surface. In contrast to the etched sidewalls, the etched surface is free from oxides with negligible traces of silicon. Exposure to ambient air of the samples submitted to Cl 2 -based chemistry results in the complete oxidation of the P-rich top layer. It is concluded that a post-etch treatment or a pure HBr plasma step may be necessary after Cl 2 -based ICP etching for the recovery of the InP material.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejčiříková, Veronika; Fábry, Milan; Marková, Vladimíra; Malý, Petr; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Brynda, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate binding domain was overexpressed in E. coli and crystallized in the presence of lactose. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42 1 2 and diffraction data were collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Galectin-4 is thought to play a role in the process of tumour conversion of cells of the alimentary tract and the breast tissue; however, its exact function remains unknown. With the aim of elucidating the structural basis of mouse galectin-4 (mGal-4) binding specificity, we have undertaken X-ray analysis of the N-terminal domain, CRD1, of mGal-4 in complex with lactose (the basic building block of known galectin-4 carbohydrate ligands). Crystals of CRD1 in complex with lactose were obtained using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belong to tetragonal space group P42 1 2 with unit-cell parameters a = 91.1, b = 91.16, c = 57.10 Å and preliminary X-ray diffraction data were collected to 3.2 Å resolution. An optimized crystallization procedure and cryocooling protocol allowed us to extend resolution to 2.1 Å. Structure refinement is currently under way; the initial electron-density maps clearly show non-protein electron density in the vicinity of the carbohydrate binding site, indicating the presence of one lactose molecule. The structure will help to improve understanding of the binding specificity and function of the potential colon cancer marker galectin-4

  20. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical study of copper(II) β-diketonates and Cu(HFA){sub 2} complexes with imidazoline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryuchkova, Natalya A., E-mail: knatali@ngs.ru [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Av., 3, RU-630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Street, 2, RU-630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Stabnikov, Pavel A. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Av., 3, RU-630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kalinkin, Alexander V. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Av., 5, RU-630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Fursova, Elena Yu. [International Tomography Center, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya Street, 3a, RU-630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The charge and spin states of Cu(II) β-diketonates and Cu(hfa){sub 2}(imidazoline) are investigated by the XPS and DFT calculations. • The |2p{sup 5}3d{sup 9}> and | 2p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}L> electronic states are asigned to X-ray photoelectron spectra of copper. - Abstract: An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the charge and spin state of copper(II) β-diketonates and Cu(hfa){sub 2} (hfa–hexafluoroacetylacetonate) complexes with imidazoline ligands is performed with comparison to the data of quantum chemical calculations. It is shown that the structure of the spectra of copper is described by a superposition of the |2p{sup 5}3d{sup 9}> and | 2p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}L> electronic states determined by electron transfer processes between copper and L ligand atoms. It is found that during the coordination of imidazoline ligands to the Cu(hfa){sub 2} complex the spin density is redistributed through the chain of chemical bonds from the ligand nitroxyl group to the copper atom.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the ETS domain of human Ergp55 in complex with the cfos promoter DNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwar, Shanti P.; Meena, Sita R.; Saxena, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    The ETS domain of human Ergp55 was purified and crystallized in native, complexes with E74, and cfos promoter DNA sequences. The X-ray intensity data set was collected on ETS–cfos promoter DNA complex crystal at 3.1 Å resolution to analyze the structure by molecular replacement technique. The Ergp55 protein belongs to the Ets family of transciption factors. The Ets transcription factors are involved in various developmental processes and the regulation of cancer metabolism. They contain a highly similar DNA-binding domain known as the ETS domain and have diverse functions in oncogenesis and physiology. The Ets transcription factors differ in their DNA-binding preference at the ETS site and the mechanisms by which they target genes are not clearly understood. To understand its DNA-binding mechanism, the ETS domain of Ergp55 was expressed and purified. The ETS domain was crystallized in the native form and in complex forms with DNA sequences from the E74 and cfos promoters. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected from an ETS–cfos DNA complex crystal at a wavelength of 0.9725 Å on the BM14 synchrotron beamline at the ESRF, France. The ETS–cfos DNA complex crystal belonged to space group C222 1 , with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. For structure analysis, initial phases for the ETS–cfos DNA complex were obtained by the molecular-replacement technique with Phaser in the CCP4 suite using the coordinates of Fli-1 protein and cfos DNA as search models. Structure analysis of the ETS–cfos DNA complex may possibly explain the DNA-binding specificity and its mechanism of interaction with the ETS domain of Ergp55

  2. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the complex of Kunitz-type tamarind trypsin inhibitor and porcine pancreatic trypsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Sakshi; Patil, Dipak N.; Datta, Manali; Tapas, Satya; Preeti; Chaudhary, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-01-01

    The complex of Tamarindus indica Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and porcine trypsin has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium acetate as precipitant and sodium acetate as buffer. The homogeneity of complex formation was checked by size-exclusion chromatography and further confirmed by reducing SDS–PAGE. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to the tetragonal space group P41, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.1, c = 120.1 Å. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the presence of one unit of inhibitor–trypsin complex per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 45%. PMID:19923745

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a U2AF65 variant in complex with a polypyrimidine-tract analogue by use of protein engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickmier, E. Allen; Frato, Katherine E.; Kielkopf, Clara L.

    2006-01-01

    A complex of the essential splicing factor U2AF 65 and a deoxyuridine oligonucleotide has been crystallized by modification of an interdomain linker. The large subunit of the essential pre-mRNA splicing factor U2 auxiliary factor (U2AF 65 ) binds the polypyrimidine tract near the 3′ splice site of pre-mRNA introns and directs the association of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U2 snRNP) of the spliceosome with the pre-mRNA. Protein engineering, in which the flexible linker region connecting tandem RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs) within the U2AF 65 RNA-binding domain was partially deleted, allowed successful crystallization of the protein–nucleic acid complex. Cocrystals of a U2AF 65 variant with a deoxyuridine dodecamer diffract X-rays to 2.9 Å resolution and contain one complex per asymmetric unit

  5. Assignment of Pre-Edge Features in the Ru K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Organometallic Ruthenium Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getty, K.; Delgado-Jaime, M.U.; Kennepohl, P.

    2009-05-18

    The nature of the lowest energy bound-state transition in the Ru K-edge X-ray absorption spectra for a series of Grubbs-type ruthenium complexes was investigated. The pre-edge feature was unambiguously assigned as resulting from formally electric dipole forbidden Ru 4d {l_arrow} 1s transitions. The intensities of these transitions are extremely sensitive to the ligand environment and the symmetry of the metal centre. In centrosymmetric complexes the pre-edge is very weak since it is limited by the weak electric quadrupole intensity mechanism. By contrast, upon breaking centrosymmetry, Ru 5p-4d mixing allows for introduction of electric dipole allowed character resulting in a dramatic increase in the pre-edge intensity. The information content of this approach is explored as it relates to complexes of importance in olefin metathesis and its relevance as a tool for the study of reactive intermediates.

  6. Use of X-Ray Absorption Spectra as a ``Fingerprint'' of the Local Environment in Complex Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branci, C.; Womes, M.; Lippens, P. E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J. C.

    2000-03-01

    The local environment of tin, titanium, iron, and sulfur in spinel compounds Cu2FeSn3S8 and Cu2FeTi3S8 was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the titanium, iron, sulfur K edges, and the tin LI-edge. As detailed calculations of the electronic structure of these compounds are difficult to carry out due to the large number of atoms contained in the unit cell, the XAS spectra of the spinels are compared to those of relatively simple binary sulfides like SnS2, TiS2, and FeS. Indeed, the metal environments in these binary compounds are very similar to those in the spinels, and they can be considered good model compounds allowing the interpretation of electronic transitions observed in the spectra of quaternary phases. In the latter, the bottom of the conduction band is mainly formed by Sn 5s-S 3p, Sn 5p-S 3p antibonding states for the tin-based compounds and by Ti 3dt2g-S 3p, Ti 3deg-S 3p antibonding states for the titanium-based compounds. It it shown that the local environment of iron atoms remains unchanged when substituting tin with titanium atoms, according to a topotactic substitution.

  7. High resolution X-ray structures of mouse major urinary protein nasal isoform in complex with pheromones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Miller, Samantha; Zou, Qin; Novotny, Milos V.; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med); (Indiana)

    2010-09-07

    In mice, the major urinary proteins (MUP) play a key role in pheromonal communication by binding and transporting semiochemicals. MUP-IV is the only isoform known to be expressed in the vomeronasal mucosa. In comparison with the MUP isoforms that are abundantly excreted in the urine, MUP-IV is highly specific for the male mouse pheromone 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT). To examine the structural basis of this ligand preference, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of MUP-IV bound to three mouse pheromones: SBT, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-heptanone. We also obtained the structure of MUP-IV with 2-ethylhexanol bound in the cavity. These four structures show that relative to the major excreted MUP isoforms, three amino acid substitutions within the binding calyx impact ligand coordination. The F103 for A along with F54 for L result in a smaller cavity, potentially creating a more closely packed environment for the ligand. The E118 for G substitution introduces a charged group into a hydrophobic environment. The sidechain of E118 is observed to hydrogen bond to polar groups on all four ligands with nearly the same geometry as seen for the water-mediated hydrogen bond network in the MUP-I and MUP-II crystal structures. These differences in cavity size and interactions between the protein and ligand are likely to contribute to the observed specificity of MUP-IV.

  8. Triaxial X-Ray Diffraction Method and its Application to Monitor Residual Stress in Surface Layers after High-Feed Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaušková, Lucia; Czán, Andrej; Šajgalík, Michal; Pobijak, Jozef; Mikloš, Matej

    2017-10-01

    High-feed milling is a milling method characteristic with shallow depth of cut and high feed rate to maximize the amount of removed metal from a part, generating residual stresses in the surface and subsurface layers of the machined parts. The residual stress has a large influence on the functional properties of the components. The article is focused on the application of triaxial x-ray diffraction method to monitor residual stresses after high feed milling. Significance of triaxial measuring method is the capability of measuring in different angles so it is possible to acquire stress tensor containing normal and shear stress components.

  9. X-Ray Fluorescence to Estimate the Maximum Temperature Reached at Soil Surface during Experimental Slash-and-Burn Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melquiades, Fábio L; Thomaz, Edivaldo L

    2016-05-01

    An important aspect for the evaluation of fire effects in slash-and-burn agricultural system, as well as in wildfire, is the soil burn severity. The objective of this study is to estimate the maximum temperature reached in real soil burn events using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) as an analytical tool, combined with partial least square (PLS) regression. Muffle-heated soil samples were used for PLS regression model calibration and two real slash-and-burn soils were tested as external samples in the model. It was possible to associate EDXRF spectra alterations to the maximum temperature reached in the heat affected soils with about 17% relative standard deviation. The results are promising since the analysis is fast, nondestructive, and conducted after the burn event, although local calibration for each type of burned soil is necessary. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. X-ray micro-diffraction analysis of reconstructed bone at Zr prosthetic surface with sub-micrometre spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedola, A; Stanic, V; Burghammer, M; Lagomarsino, S; Rustichelli, F; Giardino, R; Aldini, N Nicoli; Fini, M; Komlev, V; Fonzo, S Di

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to demonstrate the power of the x-ray micro-diffraction technique in biological studies. In particular the reported experiment concerns the study of the interface between a Zr prosthetic device implanted in a rat femur and the newly-formed bone, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm. The obtained results give interesting information on the Zr deformation and on the crystallographic phase, the grain size and the orientation of the new bone. Moreover the study reveals a marked difference in the structure of the reconstructed bone with respect to the native bone, which cannot be appreciated with other techniques. (note)

  11. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  15. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  18. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  19. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  20. Surface engineering by thermal spraying nanocrystalline coatings: X-ray and TEM characterisation of As-deposited iron aluminide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, G.; Morniroli, J. P.; Tidu, A.; Coddet, C.; Grosdidier, T.

    2002-07-01

    Iron Aluminide coatings were produced by thermal spraying atomized (microcrystalline) and milled (nanocrystalline) powders using the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) and the Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS) techniques. The as-sprayed coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction. In particular, X-ray line shape broadening analysis was used to determine the size of the coherently diffracting domains and the internal microstrains. Significant peak broadening was observed whatever the thermal spraying technique and the starting feedstock powder. This surprising result is discussed, at the light of SEM and TEM observations, by considering chemical composition heterogeneities and the presence of structural defects in the coatings. Des revêtements d'aluminure de fer ont été projetés à l'aide des techniques HVOF et APS en utilisant comme précurseur de la poudre atomisée à structure microcristalline ou de la poudre à structure nanocristalline obtenue par broyage mécanique. La microstructure des revêtements a été analysée par diffraction des rayons X en utilisant, en particulier, des analyses de profils de raies. Des élargissements importants des raies de diffraction ont été mesurés quelque soit la technique de projection utilisée ou la nature des précurseurs. Ces résultats surprenants sont discutés, à l'aide d'observations effectuées en MEB et MET, en prenant en compte les gradients chimiques et la présence de défauts structuraux observés dans les revêtements.

  1. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  2. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  3. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  4. Measured and Monte Carlo simulated surface dose reduction for superficial X-rays incident on tissue with underlying air or bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, John; Zawlodzka, Sylwia; Markwell, Tim; Chan, Millicent

    2018-02-01

    Measurement of surface dose reduction effects for superficial x-rays incident on tissue with underlying air or bone and comparison with Monte Carlo simulations of such effects. Further to investigate the correlation between surface dose reduction and changes in Compton backscatter spectra with tissue-bone separation. An Advanced Markus chamber with entrance window facing downstream on the surface of a solid water phantom was used to investigate changes in surface dose with an underlying air or bone interface located at various depths below the surface. Chamber readings were obtained for interface depths ranging from 1 to 100 mm using the 50 kV, 100 kV and 150 kV beams of an Xstrahl 150 x-ray unit, with field diameters (ϕ) = 2.5 cm and 5 cm. For each beam quality and field size the dose correction factor, DCF(t), namely the ratio of measured dose (t) to dose (t = 100 mm) was determined. Monte Carlo simulations of DCF(t) for air and bone interfaces in tissue are used to validate corresponding measured data. For a given beam and field size, the difference between simulated spectra with an air or bone interface at t = 3 mm was used to determine the Compton backscatter from bone at the surface. For air, DCF(t tube potentials corresponding factors, ϕ = 2.5 cm, for air(bone) are 0.94(0.96) and 0.92(0.99). Calculated DCF(t) based on Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with experimental observations to within 2%. Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray spectra demonstrate the presence of Compton backscatter from underlying bone in tissue. With bone at 3 mm depth calculated backscatter spectra at the tissue surface suggest that surface dose is influenced by the proximity of bone and that this effect depends on beam quality. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using an Advanced Markus chamber with entrance window facing downstream to investigate surface dose reduction with underlying air or bone in tissue. As the field size decreases and beam quality increases surface

  5. X-ray probes of Jupiter's auroral zones, Galilean moons, and the Io plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; Ramsey, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.; Gaskin, J. A.; Rehak, P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Cooper, J. F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2005-09-01

    Remote observations from the Earth orbiting Chandra X-ray Observatory and the XMM-Newton Observatory have shown the the Jovian system is a rich and complex source of x-ray emission. The planet's auroral zones and its disk are powerful sources of x-ray emission, though with different origins. Chandra observations discovered x-ray emission from the Io plasma torus and from the Galilean moons Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede. The emission from the moons is due to bombardment of their surfaces by highly energetic magnetospheric protons, and oxygen and sulfur ions, producing fluorescent x-ray emission lines from the elements in their surfaces against an intense background continuum. Although very faint when observed from Earth orbit, an imaging x-ray spectrometer in orbit around the icy Galilean moons would provide a detail mapping of the elemental composition in their surfaces. Here we examine the necessary characteristics of such an instrument and the challenges it would face in the extreme radiation environment in which it would have to survive and operate. Such an instrument would have the ultimate goal of providing detailed high-resolution maps of the elemental abundances of the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons and Io, as well as detailed study of the x-ray mission from the Io plasma torus, Jupiter's auroral zones, and the planetary disk.

  6. On the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to elucidate the structure of lutetium adenosine mono- and triphosphate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostapha, S; Berthon, C; Fontaine-Vive, F; Gaysinski, M; Guérin, L; Guillaumont, D; Massi, L; Monfardini, I; Solari, P L; Thomas, O P; Charbonnel, M C; Den Auwer, C

    2014-02-01

    Although the physiological impact of the actinide elements as nuclear toxicants has been widely investigated for half a century, a description of their interactions with biological molecules remains limited. It is however of primary importance to better assess the determinants of actinide speciation in cells and more generally in living organisms to unravel the molecular processes underlying actinide transport and deposition in tissues. The biological pathways of this family of elements in case of accidental contamination or chronic natural exposure (in the case of uranium rich soils for instance) are therefore a crucial issue of public health and of societal impact. Because of the high chemical affinity of those actinide elements for phosphate groups and the ubiquity of such chemical functions in biochemistry, phosphate derivatives are considered as probable targets of these cations. Among them, nucleotides and in particular adenosine mono- (AMP) and triphosphate (ATP) nucleotides occur in more chemical reactions than any other compounds on the earth's surface, except water, and are therefore critical target molecules. In the present study, we are interested in trans-plutonium actinide elements, in particular americium and curium that are more rarely considered in environmental and bioaccumulation studies than early actinides like uranium, neptunium and plutonium. A first step in this strategy is to work with chemical analogues like lanthanides that are not radioactive and therefore allow extended physical chemical characterization to be conducted that are difficult to perform with radioactive materials. We describe herein the interaction of lutetium(III) with adenosine AMP and ATP. With AMP and ATP, insoluble amorphous compounds have been obtained with molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. With an excess of ATP, with 1:2 molar ratio, a soluble complex has been obtained. A combination of spectroscopic techniques (IR, NMR, ESI-MS, EXAFS) together with quantum

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a Lys49-phospholipase A2 homologue from Bothrops pirajai venom complexed with rosmarinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Juliana I. dos; Santos-Filho, Norival A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2010-01-01

    PrTX-I, a noncatalytic and myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A 2 from B. pirajai venom, was cocrystallized with the inhibitor rosmarinic acid from C. verbenacea. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution and the structure was solved, indicating a remarkable electronic density for the ligand at the entrance to the hydrophobic channel. PrTX-I, a noncatalytic and myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A 2 from Bothrops pirajai venom, was crystallized in the presence of the inhibitor rosmarinic acid (RA). This is the active compound in the methanolic extract of Cordia verbenacea, a plant that is largely used in Brazilian folk medicine. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular-replacement techniques, showing electron density that corresponds to RA molecules at the entrance to the hydrophobic channel. The crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , indicating conformational changes in the structure after ligand binding: the crystals of all apo Lys49-phospholipase A 2 structures belong to space group P3 1 21, while the crystals of complexed structures belong to space groups P2 1 or P2 1 2 1 2 1

  8. Effect of bleaching agents having a neutral pH on the surface of mineral trioxide aggregate using electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazia, Nooh; Suvarna, Nithin; Shetty, Harish Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of bleaching agents having a neutral pH on the surface of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) used as a coronal seal material for nonvital bleaching, beneath the bleaching agent, with the help of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Six samples of plastic tubes filled with white MTA (Angelus white) were kept in 100% humidity for 21 days. Each sample was divided into 2 and made into 12 samples. These were then divided into three groups. Group A was exposed to Opalescence Boost 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Ultradent). Group B to Opalescence 10% carbamide peroxide (Ultradent) and Group C (control group) not exposed to any bleaching agent. After recommended period of exposure to bleaching agents according to manufacturers’ instructions, the samples were observed under SEM with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis system (JSM-6380 LA). Results: There were no relevant changes in color and no statistically significant surface structure changes of the MTA in both the experimental groups. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that even high concentration HP containing bleaching agents with neutral pH can be used on the surface of MTA without causing structural changes. The superior sealing ability of MTA and the high alkalinity would prevent cervical resorption postbleaching. PMID:27656061

  9. X-ray diagnostics in non-specialized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil’yev, A Y; Lyubimenko, V A; Potrakhov, Y N; Potrakhov, N N; Bessonov, V B; Klonov, V V; Larionov, I A; Gryaznov, A Y; Zhamova, K K

    2017-01-01

    The results of research in the development of X-ray diagnostic equipment in non-specialized conditions are described. The design of the first domestic digital X-ray diagnostic complex for neonatology in portable design is presented. Examples of X-ray images obtained “at home” from a patient are given. (paper)

  10. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray determination, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of new dinuclear nickel(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes containing double Schiff base ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Ozbakzaei, Zahra; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, S Ahmad

    2015-04-05

    A series of new bimetallic complexes of nickel(II) and vanadium(IV) have been synthesized by the reaction of the new double bidentate Schiff base ligands with nickel acetate and vanadyl acetylacetonate in 1:1 M ratio. In nickel and also vanadyl complexes the ligands were coordinated to the metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The complexes have been found to possess 1:1 metals to ligands stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The nickel and vanadyl complexes exhibited distorted square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries, respectively. The emission spectra of the ligands and their complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligands and their metal complexes were also investigated in DMSO solvent at 150 mV s(-1) scan rate. The ligands and metal complexes showed both quasi-reversible and irreversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff bases and their complexes have been characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and conductometry. The crystal structure of the nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and single crystal x-ray analysis of a complex of iron(II) bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)dithiophosphate with 4-ethylpyridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Andotra, Savit; Kaur, Mandeep [University of Jammu, Department of Chemistry (India); Gupta, Vivek K.; Kant, Rajni [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, X-ray Crystallographic Laboratory (India); Pandey, Sushil K., E-mail: kpsushil@rediffmail.com [University of Jammu, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2016-09-15

    Complex of iron(II) bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)dithiophosphate with 4-ethylpyridine [((2,4- (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}O)2PS2)2Fe(NC{sub 5}H{sub 4}(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})-4){sub 2}] is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moment, IR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray analysis. Complex crystallizes in the monoclinic sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/n, Z = 2. Crystal structure consists of mononuclear units with Fe(II) ion chelated by four S atoms of the two diphenyldithiophosphate ligands in bidentate manner. N atoms from two 4-ethylpyridine ligands are axially coordinated to the Fe(II) atom leading to an octahedral geometry.

  13. Second-sphere coordination complex via hydrogen bonding: Synthesis, characterization, X-ray crystal structure determination and packing of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride di( para-nitrobenzoate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raj Pal; Bala, Ritu; Sharma, Rajni; Perez, Julio; Miguel, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    A reddish orange coloured crystalline solid of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride di( para-nitrobenzoate) was obtained when hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride was reacted with the sodium salt of para-nitrobenzoic acid (1:3 molar ratio) in hot aqueous medium. This cobalt(III) complex salt has been characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic techniques (e.g. UV/visible, IR and NMR). Single-crystal X-ray structure determination of the title complex salt revealed that it contains the cationic cobaltammine ([Co(NH 3) 6] 3+) and mixed anions (Cl -, NO 2C 6H 4COO -), which are held together by electrostatic forces attractions through second-sphere coordination, i.e. N-H⋯O (carboxylate and nitro) and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional network.

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  15. Reconstruction of surface morphology from coherent scattering of ''white'' synchrotron radiation in hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar

    2009-07-01

    Energy Dispersive Reflectometry (EDR) beamline at BESSY II provides ''white'' X-rays in the useful energy range of 5surfaces. Technologically smooth wafers of semiconducting materials of Si and GaAs are used as ''trivial'' samples to determine the so called apparatus function. In addition I measured coherent reflectivity maps from thin film of highly scattering material of Pt with high atom number, Z=78 and patterned semiconducting surface like a GaAs surface grating which provides a certain periodicity in the measured scattering intensity. Finally I measured the surface speckles from a spatially confined Si wafer under the constraint that the size of the sample is smaller than the footprint of the incoming beam at the sample position. To reconstruct surface morphology from coherent reflectivity data is a typical inverse problem. Conventional phase retrieval algorithms like Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm, error reduction (ER) algorithm, hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm are used in earlier work by other authors. I modified the conventional GS algorithm and ER algorithm which takes into account the additional Fresnel propagator term and also the illumination function at the sample position. I tested the modified algorithm successfully for a model surface in the form of a surface grating. I used the modified algorithm to reconstruct surface morphology from various static speckle measurements I performed at EDR beamline. The surface profiles reconstructed for different samples from the data at different energies (below the critical energy for the material at a particular incident angle) show almost the same roughness behavior for surface height with mean roughness of {proportional_to}1 nm. With the static speckle data I measured I could retrieve a one-dimensional picture of the sample surface with spatial

  16. 3D reconstruction of a patient-specific surface model of the proximal femur from calibrated x-ray radiographs: A validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Guoyan; Schumann, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-three femurs (one plastic bone and twenty-two cadaver bones) with both nonpathologic and pathologic cases were considered to validate a statistical shape model based technique for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of a patient-specific surface model from calibrated x-ray radiographs. The 3D reconstruction technique is based on an iterative nonrigid registration of the features extracted from a statistically instantiated 3D surface model to those interactively identified from the radiographs. The surface models reconstructed from the radiographs were compared to the associated ground truths derived either from a 3D CT-scan reconstruction method or from a 3D laser-scan reconstruction method and an average error distance of 0.95 mm were found. Compared to the existing works, our approach has the advantage of seamlessly handling both nonpathologic and pathologic cases even when the statistical shape model that we used was constructed from surface models of nonpathologic bones.

  17. Study on the surface density of surface-active substances through total-reflection X-ray absorption fine structure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimoto, Kaoru; Takata, Youichi; Matsuda, Takashi; Ikeda, Norihiro; Matsubara, Hiroki; Takiue, Takanori; Aratono, Makoto; Tanida, Hajime; Watanabe, Iwao

    2006-09-26

    The total-reflection X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) method previously employed for the adsorption of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) at the air/water interface was applied to that in the presence of NaBr. The surface concentration of the bromide ions Gamma(X)(B) of DTAB and NaBr was evaluated by using the Br K-edge absorption jump values of the total-reflection XAFS spectra and was compared to the corresponding value Gamma(H)(B) estimated from the dependence of surface tension on the bulk concentrations of DTAB m(1) and NaBr m(2). The Gamma(X)(B) values trace almost perfectly the Gamma(X)(B) versus m(1) curve up to a concentration near the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and deviate gradually above the concentration. This behavior is basically similar to that of the single DTAB system and ensures that the XAFS method is also applicable to the DTAB system, even in the presence of NaBr. In addition, this method was extended to the single nonionic amphiphile with covalently bonded bromine, and the surface concentrations of 6-bromo-1-hexanol (BrC6OH), Gamma(X)(1) and Gamma(H)(B), were evaluated and compared with each other. It was found that the Gamma(X)(1) value almost perfectly traces the Gamma(H)(1) versus m(1) curve, even at high surface concentrations. The excellent coincidence confirmed that the total-reflection XAFS method can be applied to the nonionic amphiphile system as well as a cationic surfactant with or without an added salt system. Finally, the difference between the Gamma(X)(B) and Gamma(H)(B) values observed in the DTAB with and without an added salt system is briefly described.

  18. Exploring TAR–RNA aptamer loop–loop interaction by X-ray crystallography, UV spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebars, Isabelle; Legrand, Pierre; Aimé, Ahissan; Pinaud, Noël; Fribourg, Sébastien; Di Primo, Carmelo

    2008-01-01

    In HIV-1, trans-activation of transcription of the viral genome is regulated by an imperfect hairpin, the trans-activating responsive (TAR) RNA element, located at the 5′ untranslated end of all viral transcripts. TAR acts as a binding site for viral and cellular proteins. In an attempt to identify RNA ligands that would interfere with the virus life-cycle by interacting with TAR, an in vitro selection was previously carried out. RNA hairpins that formed kissing-loop dimers with TAR were selected [Ducongé F. and Toulmé JJ (1999) RNA, 5:1605–1614]. We describe here the crystal structure of TAR bound to a high-affinity RNA aptamer. The two hairpins form a kissing complex and interact through six Watson–Crick base pairs. The complex adopts an overall conformation with an inter-helix angle of 28.1°, thus contrasting with previously reported solution and modelling studies. Structural analysis reveals that inter-backbone hydrogen bonds between ribose 2′ hydroxyl and phosphate oxygens at the stem-loop junctions can be formed. Thermal denaturation and surface plasmon resonance experiments with chemically modified 2′-O-methyl incorporated into both hairpins at key positions, clearly demonstrate the involvement of this intermolecular network of hydrogen bonds in complex stability. PMID:18996893

  19. Structure determination of the Si(001)-(2 x 1)-H reconstruction by surface X-ray diffraction: Weakening of the dimer bond by the addition of hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, E.M.; Baker, J.; Nielsen, M.

    2000-01-01

    The atomic structure of the monohydride Si(001)-(2 x 1)-H reconstruction has been investigated by surface X-ray diffraction. Atomic relaxations down to the eighth layer have been determined. The bond length of the hydrogenated silicon dimers was found to be 2.47 +/- 0.02 Angstrom. which is longer...... than the dimer bond of the clean (2 x 1)-reconstructed Si(001) surface and also 5% longer than the bulk bond length of 2.35 Angstrom. The differences to the (2 x 1) structure of the clean surface are discussed in terms of the elimination of the weak pi-bond character of the dimer bond by the addition...

  20. Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces. High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhongwei [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Surface structure, mobility, and composition of transition metal catalysts were studied by high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HP-STM) and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at high gas pressures. HP-STM makes it possible to determine the atomic or molecular rearrangement at catalyst surfaces, particularly at the low-coordinated active surface sites. AP-XPS monitors changes in elemental composition and chemical states of catalysts in response to variations in gas environments. Stepped Pt and Cu single crystals, the hexagonally reconstructed Pt(100) single crystal, and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size, shape and composition, were employed as the model catalysts for experiments in this thesis.

  1. Initial stages of high-temperature CaF2/Si(001) epitaxial growth studied by surface X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suturin, Sergey M; Sokolov, Nikolai S; Banshchikov, Aleksander G; Kyutt, Reginald N; Sakata, Osami; Shimura, Takayoshi; Harada, Jimpei; Tabuchi, Masao; Takeda, Yoshikazu

    2011-04-01

    Surface X-ray diffraction was applied to study structure of the fluorite-silicon interface forming upon epitaxial growth of CaF2 on Si(001) surface kept at 750 degrees C. Samples with CaF2 coverage of 1.5-4 (110)-monolayers were grown and in-situ characterized using synchrotron radiation. The 3 x 1-like surface reconstruction was observed in agreement with the previous studies by electron diffraction. Interestingly, a well pronounced splitting of the fractional x 1/3 reflections was revealed. This splitting was ascribed to the effect of antiphase domain boundaries in the row-like structure of the interface layer. The in-plane integrated intensities were used to reconstruct two-dimensional atomic structure of the high-temperature CaF2/Si(001) interface.

  2. X-ray lenses with large aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, most X-ray imaging setups are based on absorption contrast imaging. There is a demand for focused X-rays in many X-ray analysis applications, either to increase the resolution of an imaging system, or, to reduce the time effort of an experiment through higher photon flux. For photon energies higher than 15 keV refractive X-ray optics are more efficient in comparison to non-refractive X-ray optics. The aim of this work was to develop X-ray lenses with large apertures and high transparency. By increasing the number of refracting surfaces while removing unnecessary lens material such lenses have been developed. Utilizing this approach the overall beam deflection angle is large with respect to the lens material it propagates through and so the transparency of the lens is increased. Within this work, X-ray lenses consisting of several thousands of prisms with an edge length in the range of micrometers have been developed and fabricated by deep X-ray lithography. Deep X-ray lithography enables high precision microstrucures with smooth sidewalls and large aspect ratios. The aperture of high-transparency X-ray lenses made this way is greater than 1 mm. They are suitable for photon energies in the range of 8 keV to 24 keV and offer a focal width of smaller than 10 μm at a transparency of around 40%. Furthermore, rolled X-ray lenses have been developed, that are made out of a microstructured polyimide film, which is cut according to the requirements regarding focal length and photon energy. The microstructured film is fabricated by molding, using an anisotropically etched silicon wafer as molding tool. Its mean roughness is in the range of nanometers. The film features prismatic structures, its surface topology is similar to an asparagus field. The measured diameter of the point focus was 18 μm to 31 μm, the calculated opticla efficiency was 37%. Future work will concentrate on increasing the aspect ratio of Prism Lenses and on increasing the rolling accuracy

  3. A small-angle X-ray scattering study of complexes formed in mixtures of a cationic polyelectrolyte and an anionic surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, M.; Kjellin, U.R.M.; Claesson, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The internal structure of the solid phase formed in mixtures of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a range of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes with different side chains and charge density has been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering. Polyelectrolytes with short....... The hexagonal structure of MAPTAC is retained either when a neutral monomer (acrylamide, AM) is included in the polymer backbone to reduce the charge density or when a nonionic surfactant is admixed to the SDS/polyelctrolyte complex.. The unit cell length of AM-MAPTAC increases with decreasing charge density...... structure and the bilayers in the lamellar structure are based on self-assembled surfactant aggregates with the polyelectrolyte mainly located in the aqueous region adjacent to the charged surfactant headgroups....

  4. The complex between SOS3 and SOS2 regulatory domain from Arabidopsis thaliana: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Barrena, María José; Moreno-Pérez, Sandra; Angulo, Iván; Martínez-Ripoll, Martín; Albert, Armando, E-mail: xalbert@iqfr.csic.es [Grupo de Cristalografía Macromolecular y Biología Estructural, Instituto de Química Física ‘Rocasolano’, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Recombinant SOS3 and SOS2 regulatory domain from A. thaliana have been coexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. An X-ray data set has been collected at 2.0 Å resolution. The salt-tolerance genes SOS3 (salt overly sensitive 3) and SOS2 (salt overly sensitive 2) regulatory domain of Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into a polycistronic plasmid and the protein complex was expressed in Escherichia coli, allowing purification to homogeneity in three chromatographic steps. Crystals were grown using vapour-diffusion techniques. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.14, b = 57.39, c = 141.90 Å.

  5. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  6. Insights into the interactions among Surfactin, betaines, and PAM: surface tension, small-angle neutron scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingwen; Liu, Fang; Garamus, Vasil M; Almásy, László; Handge, Ulrich A; Willumeit, Regine; Mu, Bozhong; Zou, Aihua

    2014-04-01

    The interactions among neutral polymer polyacrylamide (PAM) and the biosurfactant Surfactin and four betaines, N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SDDAB), N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (STDAB), N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SHDAB), and N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-ammonio-acetate (C12BE), in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) have been studied by surface tension measurements, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological experiments. It has been confirmed that the length of alkyl chain is a key parameter of interaction between betaines and PAM. Differences in scattering contrast between X-ray and neutrons for surfactants and PAM molecules provide the opportunity to separately follow the changes of structure of PAM and surfactant aggregates. At concentrations of betaines higher than CMC (critical micelle concentration) and C2 (CMC of surfactant with the presence of polymer), spherical micelles are formed in betaines and betaines/PAM solutions. Transition from spherical to rod-like aggregates (micelles) has been observed in solutions of Surfactin and Surfactin/SDDAB (αSurfactin = 0.67 (molar fraction)) with addition of 0.8 wt % of PAM. The conformation change of PAM molecules only can be observed for Surfactin/SDDAB/PAM system. Viscosity values follow the structural changes suggested from scattering measurements i.e., gradually increases for mixtures PAM → Surfactin/PAM → Surfactin/SDDAB/PAM in PBS.

  7. The influence of biosurfactant adsorption on the physicochemical behaviour of carbon steel surfaces using contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubina, V., E-mail: varvara.shubina2014@gmail.com [LUNAM Université, IFSTTAR, MAST, SMC, F-44340 Bouguenais (France); Gaillet, L. [LUNAM Université, IFSTTAR, MAST, SMC, F-44340 Bouguenais (France); Ababou-Girard, S. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, Département Matériaux et Nanosciences, UMR 6251 CNRS, Université Rennes 1, 35000 Rennes-Cedex (France); Gaudefroy, V. [LUNAM Université, IFSTTAR, MAST, SMC, F-44340 Bouguenais (France); Chaussadent, T.; Farças, F. [Université Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, MAST, CPDM, F-77447 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Meylheuc, T. [INRA, UMR1319 Micalis, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas (France); AgroParisTech, UMR Micalis, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas (France); Dagbert, C. [2 Chemin de la Grand’côte, 36270 Éguzon-Chantôme (France); Creus, J. [LaSIE, UMR7356, Université de La Rochelle, Pôle Sciences et Technologie, Bâtiment Marie Curie, Avenue Michel Crépeau, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Surface modifications to carbon steel surfaces due to the adsorption of a biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria cells were investigated using contact angle measurements (CAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). • CAM allowed to establish an increase of electron-donating properties of steel surface due to the biosurfactant adsorption. • XPS demonstrated that biosurfactant molecules change the stoichiometry of mixted-oxide layer and the new outer layer mostly composed of magnetite. • Thickness and density of adsorbed biosurfactants layers were highlighted using a semiquantitative approach for 3 different concentrations of biomolecules. - Abstract: We investigated modifications to carbon steel surfaces due to the adsorption of a biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria cells using contact angle measurements (CAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After conditioning carbon steel in solutions with three different concentrations of biosurfactant molecules: 0.05, 0.3 and 1 g L{sup −1}, the average thickness of the biosurfactant layer on the carbon steel specimens was 7.9 ± 0.3, 12.1 ± 0.5 and 16.4 ± 0.7 Å, respectively. The biosurfactants changed the composition of both the Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} mixed-oxide layer and the outer layer, mostly composed of Fe{sup 3+} associated with magnetite. Contact angle measurements indicate decreased hydrophobic properties after the carbon steel was modified by biosurfactant. It was shown that the carbon steel surface free energy depends on the biosurfactant concentration, due to an acquisition of strong electron-donating properties.

  8. The influence of biosurfactant adsorption on the physicochemical behaviour of carbon steel surfaces using contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubina, V.; Gaillet, L.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Gaudefroy, V.; Chaussadent, T.; Farças, F.; Meylheuc, T.; Dagbert, C.; Creus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface modifications to carbon steel surfaces due to the adsorption of a biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria cells were investigated using contact angle measurements (CAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). • CAM allowed to establish an increase of electron-donating properties of steel surface due to the biosurfactant adsorption. • XPS demonstrated that biosurfactant molecules change the stoichiometry of mixted-oxide layer and the new outer layer mostly composed of magnetite. • Thickness and density of adsorbed biosurfactants layers were highlighted using a semiquantitative approach for 3 different concentrations of biomolecules. - Abstract: We investigated modifications to carbon steel surfaces due to the adsorption of a biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria cells using contact angle measurements (CAM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After conditioning carbon steel in solutions with three different concentrations of biosurfactant molecules: 0.05, 0.3 and 1 g L −1 , the average thickness of the biosurfactant layer on the carbon steel specimens was 7.9 ± 0.3, 12.1 ± 0.5 and 16.4 ± 0.7 Å, respectively. The biosurfactants changed the composition of both the Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ mixed-oxide layer and the outer layer, mostly composed of Fe 3+ associated with magnetite. Contact angle measurements indicate decreased hydrophobic properties after the carbon steel was modified by biosurfactant. It was shown that the carbon steel surface free energy depends on the biosurfactant concentration, due to an acquisition of strong electron-donating properties

  9. Copper(II) cyanido-bridged bimetallic nitroprusside-based complexes: Syntheses, X-ray structures, magnetic properties, 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and thermal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnicek, Zdenek; Herchel, Radovan; Mikulik, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2010-01-01

    Three heterobimetallic cyanido-bridged copper(II) nitroprusside-based complexes of the compositions [Cu(tet)Fe(CN) 5 NO].H 2 O (1), where tet=N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylenediamine, [Cu(hto)Fe(CN) 5 NO].2H 2 O (2), where hto=1,3,6,9,11,14-hexaazatricyclo[12.2.1.1 6,9 ]octadecane and [Cu(nme) 2 Fe(CN) 5 NO].H 2 O (3), where nme=N-methylethylenediamine, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, 57 Fe Moessbauer and FTIR spectroscopies, thermal analysis, magnetic measurements and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The products of thermal degradation processes of 2 and 3 were studied by XRD, 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, SEM and EDS, and they were identified as mixtures of CuFe 2 O 4 and CuO. - Three heterobimetallic cyano-bridged copper(II) nitroprusside-based complexes of the general compositions of [Cu(L)Fe(CN) 5 NO].xH 2 O, where L=N,N'-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethylenediamine (complex 1), 1,3,6,9,11,14-hexaazatricyclo[12.2.1.1 6,9 ]-octadecane (complex 2) and N-methylethylenediamine (complex 3), were synthesized, and fully structurally and magnetically characterized. SEM, EDS, XRD and 57 Fe Moessbauer experiments were used for characterization of thermal decomposition products of complexes 2 and 3.

  10. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  11. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  12. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  13. Synthesis and X-ray diffraction study of some nickel(II) complexes of urea and thiourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pradeep; Bhale, Jaishree; Mishra, Ashutosh; Malviya, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    XRD of four biologically important nickel(II) complexes having urea and thiourea as primary ligands and sulphate and nitrate as secondary ligands have been studied using Bruker D8 Advance diffractometer at IUC, Indore. The synthesized metal complexes were characterized by XRD measurements in order to elucidate their geometry. The data obtained has been preceded using XRD data analysis program Origin 6.0 Professional. From the experimental measurements, various parameters, e.g., particle size, lattice parameter have been estimated.Particle size for Ni-urea complexes is found in the range of 4.23-9.01 nm while for Ni-thiourea complexes its range is 0.26-9.76 nm.Lattice parameter for all these complexes is found in the range of 7.47-8.06 Å. The XRD analysis revealed the crystalline nature of all the complexes.

  14. X-ray diffraction study of the molecular propolis films deposited from an alcohol solution onto the cleavage surfaces of layered V2VI3 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapak, S. I.; Gavrylyuk, S. V.; Kaminskii, V. M.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.

    2008-09-01

    The structures of the molecular propolis films deposited from an alcohol solution on the (0001) cleavage surface of layered bismuth selenide and telluride are studied by X-ray diffraction. Despite the chemical interaction between the semiconductor substrates and the organic-substance components, the molecular structural ordering of the propolis films is shown to be identical to that in the films of this substance on the surface of amorphous glass substrates. The chemical and deformation interaction between the organic substance and the layered V2VI3 compounds is found to result in the formation of an organic-inorganic sandwich nanostructure at a distance of ˜0.3 μm from the layered crystal-propolis film interface.

  15. In-situ CdCl{sub 2}-treated CdTe film surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamsi Krishna, K.; Dutta, V. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 100 016 (India)

    2004-07-01

    CdTe thin films are deposited using a spray pyrolysis technique without and with in-situ CdCl{sub 2} treatment. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is used to study the Cd, Te, O and Cl chemical environments and the valence-band spectra of the CdTe film surface. A shift in the Fermi-level position of {proportional_to}200 meV towards the valence-band maximum is observed in the CdTe film after the in-situ CdCl{sub 2} treatment, which is attributed to the increment of the Cl concentration and the improvement in the grain growth of the CdTe film. In addition to the increment of the Cl concentration, less surface oxidation is observed compared to that for ex-situ treatment. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Innovative instrumentation for mineralogical and elemental analyses of solid extraterrestrial surfaces: The Backscatter Moessbauer Spectrometer/X Ray Fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelfer, T. D.; Morris, Richard V.; Nguyen, T.; Agresti, D. G.; Wills, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a four-detector research-grade backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer (BaMS) instrument with low resolution x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) capability. A flight-qualified instrument based on this design would be suitable for use on missions to the surfaces of solid solar-system objects (Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.). Target specifications for the flight instrument are as follows: mass less than 500 g; volumes less than 300 cu cm; and power less than 2 W. The BaMS/XRF instrument would provide data on the oxidation state of iron and its distribution among iron-bearing mineralogies and elemental composition information. This data is a primary concern for the characterization of extraterrestrial surface materials.

  17. Isolation and X-ray characterization of palladium–N complexes in the guanylation of aromatic amines. Mechanistic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessamad Grirrane

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of palladium-catalyzed guanylation of anilines herein, we have been able to characterize and isolate bis(anilino and bis(guanidinoPd(II complexes using reaction conditions under which stoichiometric amounts of palladium salts are used. Characterization of these palladium complexes strongly supports a mechanistic proposal for the catalytic guanylation of anilines using PdCl2(NCCH32 as catalyst that involves the intermediacy of these Pd(II complexes.

  18. X-ray structure characterization of palladium(II) ternary complexes of pyridinedicarboxylic and phthalic acid with phenanthroline and bipyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Okabe, Nobuo

    2005-04-01

    The crystal structures of the series of four ternary complexes, [Pd(phen)(2,6-PDCA)].4H(2)O (1) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline; 2,6-PDCA=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid), [Pd(bpy)(2,3-PDCA)].3H(2)O (2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridineand; 2,3-PDCA=2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) and [Pd(phen)(PHT)].2.5H(2)O (3) (PHT=o-phthalic acid ) and [Pd(bpy)(PHT)].1.5H(2)O (4), are determined and the coordination modes of palladium(II) ternary complexes are characterized. All complexes take the mononuclear Pd(II) complexes, in which central Pd(II) atom of each complex has a similar distorted square-planar four coordination geometry. In all complexes, the aromatic heterocyclic compounds, phen and bpy, behave as a bidentate N, N' ligand. In the complex 1 and 2, 2,6-PDCA and 2,3-PDCA behave as a bidentate N, O ligand, and in complex 3 and 4, PHT behaves as a bidentate O, O' ligand.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, microbiological evaluation, genotoxicity and synergism tests of new nano silver complexes with sulfamoxole: X-ray diffraction of [Ag2(SMX)2]·DMSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluti, Francesca; Mosconi, Natalia; Acevedo, Ana; Borthagaray, Graciela; Castiglioni, Jorge; Faccio, Ricardo; Back, Davi Fernando; Moyna, Guillermo; Rizzotto, Marcela; Torre, María H

    2014-12-01

    The synthesis and microbiological evaluation of two new Ag(I) complexes with sulfamoxole (SMX), [Ag2(SMX)2]·H2O and [Ag4(SCN)3(SMX)]·H2O are described. Both were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction, NMR, Raman and experimental and theoretical IR spectroscopies. Their antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated by agar and broth dilution assays, respectively. In addition, synergism tests for Pseudomonas aeruginosa were performed, and genotoxicity studies were carried out employing the Allium cepa test. Both complexes displayed good activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, P. aeruginosa, and 10 fungi strains, with lower minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) than that of free SMX in all cases. The nanometrical crystallite particle size determined from XRPD, DLS and TEM might explain the good microbiological activity in spite of the low solubility of both complexes. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) calculated from the P. aeruginosa test data indicated that the activity of the complexes is not due to synergism of the free components in the concentration ratios studied. Moreover, none of the complexes displayed cytotoxic effects on onions in the concentration range tested, and chromosome aberrations were not observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Probing the surface microstructure of layer-by-layer self-assembly chitosan/poly(L-glutamic acid) multilayers: A grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nie; Yang, Chunming, E-mail: yangchunming@sinap.ac.cn; Wang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Binyu; Bian, Fenggang; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Jie, E-mail: wangjie@sinap.ac.cn

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized the surface structure of layer-by-layer self-assembly chitosan/poly(L-glutamic acid) multilayers through grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A weakly long-period ordered structure along the in-plane direction was firstly observed in the polyelectrolyte multilayer by the GISAXS technique. This structure can be attributed to the specific domains on the film surface. In the domain, nanodroplets that were formed by polyelectrolyte molecules were orderly arranged along the free surface of the films. This ordered structure gradually disappeared with the increasing bilayer number because of the complex merging behavior of nanodroplets into large islands. Furthermore, resonant diffuse scattering became evident in the GISAXS patterns as the number of bilayers in the polyelectrolyte multilayer was increased. Notably, the lateral cutoff length of resonant diffuse scattering for these polyelectrolyte films was comparable with the long-period value of the ordered nanodroplets in the polyelectrolyte multilayer. Therefore, the nanodroplets could be considered as a basic transmission unit for structure propagation from the inner interface to the film surface. It suggests that the surface structure with length scale larger than the size of nanodroplets was partially complicated from the interface structure near the substrate, but surface structure smaller than the cutoff length was mainly depended on the conformation of nanodroplets. - Highlights: • The growth of ordered nanodroplets in PEMs was characterized by the GISAXS technique. • The basic transmission units for structure propagation within PEMs were nanodroplets. • High-performance of wave-guiding devices prepared by PEMs was predicted.

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x- ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film ... assist you in finding the most comfortable position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  9. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays ... process is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require ... is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and ...

  17. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is used to: ... and x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for ...

  20. High Resolution X-ray Diffraction Dataset for Bacillus licheniformis Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase-acivicin complex: SUMO-Tag Renders High Expression and Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Shobha; Pal, Ravi Kant; Gupta, Rani; Goel, Manisha

    2017-02-01

    Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, (GGT) is a ubiquitous protein which plays a central role in glutathione metabolism and has myriad clinical implications. It has been shown to be a virulence factor for pathogenic bacteria, inhibition of which results in reduced colonization potential. However, existing inhibitors are effective but toxic and therefore search is on for novel inhibitors, which makes it imperative to understand the interactions of various inhibitors with the protein in substantial detail. High resolution structures of protein bound to different inhibitors can serve this purpose. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis is one of the model systems that have been used to understand the structure-function correlation of the protein. The structures of the native protein (PDB code 4OTT), of its complex with glutamate (PDB code 4OTU) and that of its precursor mimic (PDB code 4Y23) are available, although at moderate/low resolution. In the present study, we are reporting the preliminary analysis of, high resolution X-ray diffraction data collected for the co-crystals of B. licheniformis, Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, with its inhibitor, Acivicin. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffract X-ray to 1.45 Å resolution. This is the highest resolution data reported for all GGT structures available till now. The use of SUMO fused expression system enhanced yield of the target protein in the soluble fraction, facilitating recovery of protein with high purity. The preliminary analysis of this data set shows clear density for the inhibitor, acivicin, in the protein active site.